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Sample records for cassava storage root

  1. Natural variation in expression of genes associated with biosynthesis and accumulation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several groups have reported on massive accumulation of total carotenoids in cassava storage root (CSR). Naturally occurring color variation associated with carotenoid accumulation was observed in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root of landraces from Amazon. Here carotenoid profiles from...

  2. Melatonin attenuates postharvest physiological deterioration of cassava storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2016-05-01

    Melatonin reportedly increases abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in plants, but information on its in vivo effects during postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) in cassava is limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of melatonin in regulating cassava PPD. Treatment with 500 mg/L melatonin significantly delayed cassava PPD and reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) while increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR), but not ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Transcript analysis further showed that expression of copper/zinc SOD (MeCu/ZnSOD), MeCAT1, glutathione peroxidase (MeGPX), peroxidase 3 (MePX3), and glutathione S-transferases (MeGST) was higher in cassava roots sliced treated with 500 mg/L melatonin than in those not exposed to exogenous melatonin. These data demonstrate that melatonin delays cassava PPD by directly or indirectly maintaining homoeostasis of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that accumulation of endogenous melatonin and the transcript levels of melatonin biosynthesis genes changed dynamically during the PPD process. This finding suggested that endogenous melatonin acts as a signal modulator for maintaining cassava PPD progression and that manipulation of melatonin biosynthesis genes through genetic engineering might prevent cassava root deterioration. PMID:26989849

  3. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed. PMID:26892156

  4. Sugar-mediated semidian oscillation of gene expression in the cassava storage root regulates starch synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Baguma, Yona; Sun, Chuanxin; Borén, Mats; Olsson, Helena; Rosenqvist, Sara; Mutisya, Joel; Patrick R. Rubaihayo; Jansson, Christer

    2008-01-01

    Starch branching enzyme (SBE) activity in the cassava storage root exhibited a diurnal fluctuation, dictated by a transcriptional oscillation of the corresponding SBE genes. The peak of SBE activity coincided with the onset of sucrose accumulation in the storage, and we conclude that the oscillatory mechanism keeps the starch synthetic apparatus in the storage root sink in tune with the flux of sucrose from the photosynthetic source. When storage roots were uncoupled from the source, SBE expr...

  5. Genotype × environment interaction effects on early fresh storage root yield and related traits in cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robooni Tumuhimbise

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is an important root crop worldwide. It exhibits substantial differential genotypic responses to varying environmental conditions, a phenomenon termed genotype × environment interaction (GEI. A significant GEI presents challenges in the selection of superior genotypes. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of genotype, environment and GEI on early fresh storage root yield (FSRY and related traits in cassava. Accordingly, 12 cassava genotypes were evaluated in a randomised complete block design at three contrasting locations (Jinja, Nakasongola and Namulonge in Uganda. Trials were harvested nine months after planting and the data collected were analysed using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI model. The AMMI analysis of variance showed significant variation among genotypes for early FSRY and all other traits assessed. Locations were significantly different for all traits except for cassava brown streak disease root necrosis. The GEI effect was non-significant for early FSRY, but significant for other traits. For early FSRY, 48.5% of the treatment sum of squares was attributable to genotypes, 27.3% to environments, and 24.1% to GEI, indicating a predominance of genotypic variation for this trait. Predominance of genotypic variation was also observed for all the other traits. A majority of the genotypes (67% had low interaction effects with locations for early FSRY, with Akena, CT2, CT4 and NASE14 being the most stable genotypes for the trait. Significant negative correlation was observed between cassava mosaic disease severity and early FSRY and storage root number, indicating significant negative effects of cassava mosaic disease on early FSRY and stability in cassava. The information generated will inform future selection initiatives for superior early-yielding cassava genotypes combining resistance to cassava mosaic and brown streak diseases in Uganda.

  6. Genotype × environment interaction effects on early fresh storage root yield and related traits in cassava

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robooni; Tumuhimbise; Rob; Melis; Paul; Shanahan; Robert; Kawuki

    2014-01-01

    Cassava(Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important root crop worldwide. It exhibits substantial differential genotypic responses to varying environmental conditions, a phenomenon termed genotype × environment interaction(GEI). A significant GEI presents challenges in the selection of superior genotypes. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of genotype,environment and GEI on early fresh storage root yield(FSRY) and related traits in cassava.Accordingly, 12 cassava genotypes were evaluated in a randomised complete block design at three contrasting locations(Jinja, Nakasongola and Namulonge) in Uganda. Trials were harvested nine months after planting and the data collected were analysed using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction(AMMI) model. The AMMI analysis of variance showed significant variation among genotypes for early FSRY and all other traits assessed.Locations were significantly different for all traits except for cassava brown streak disease root necrosis. The GEI effect was non-significant for early FSRY, but significant for other traits. For early FSRY, 48.5% of the treatment sum of squares was attributable to genotypes, 27.3% to environments, and 24.1% to GEI, indicating a predominance of genotypic variation for this trait.Predominance of genotypic variation was also observed for all the other traits. A majority of the genotypes(67%) had low interaction effects with locations for early FSRY, with Akena, CT2, CT4 and NASE14 being the most stable genotypes for the trait. Significant negative correlation was observed between cassava mosaic disease severity and early FSRY and storage root number,indicating significant negative effects of cassava mosaic disease on early FSRY and stability in cassava. The information generated will inform future selection initiatives for superior early-yielding cassava genotypes combining resistance to cassava mosaic and brown streak diseases in Uganda.

  7. Expression Profiling of Cassava Storage Roots Reveals an Active Process of Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Yang; Dong An; Peng Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms related to the development of cassava storage roots and starch accumulation remain largely unknown. To evaluate genome-wide expression patterns during tuberization, a 60 mer oligonucleotide microarray representing 20 840 cassava genes was designed to identify differentially expressed transcripts in fibrous roots, developing storage roots and mature storage roots. Using a random variance model and the traditional twofold change method for statistical analysis, 912 and 3 386 upregulated and downregulated genes related to the three developmental phases were identified. Among 25 significantly changed pathways identified, glycolysislgluconeogenesis was the most evident one. Rate-limiting enzymes were identified from each individual pathway, for example, enolase, L-lactate dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase for glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch branching enzyme and glucan phosphorylase for sucrose and starch metabolism. This study revealed that dynamic changes in at least 16% of the total transcripts, including transcription fac-tors, oxidoreductasesltransferaseslhydrolases, hormone-related genes, and effectors of homeostasis. The reliability of these differentially expressed genes was verified by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. These studies should facilitate our understanding of the storage root formation and cassava improvement.

  8. Sugar-mediated semidian oscillation of gene expression in the cassava storage root regulates starch synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Christer; Baguma, Yona; Sun, Chuanxin; Boren, Mats; Olsson, Helena; Rosenqvist, Sara; Mutisya, Joel; Rubaihayo, Patrick R.; Jansson, Christer

    2008-01-15

    Starch branching enzyme (SBE) activity in the cassava storage root exhibited a diurnal fluctuation, dictated by a transcriptional oscillation of the corresponding SBE genes. The peak of SBE activity coincided with the onset of sucrose accumulation in the storage, and we conclude that the oscillatory mechanism keeps the starch synthetic apparatus in the storage root sink in tune with the flux of sucrose from the photosynthetic source. When storage roots were uncoupled from the source, SBE expression could be effectively induced by exogenous sucrose. Turanose, a sucrose isomer that cannot be metabolized by plants, mimicked the effect of sucrose, demonstrating that downstream metabolism of sucrose was not necessary for signal transmission. Also glucose and glucose-1-P induced SBE expression. Interestingly, induction by sucrose, turanose and glucose but not glucose-1-P sustained an overt semidian (12-h) oscillation in SBE expression and was sensitive to the hexokinase (HXK) inhibitor glucosamine. These results suggest a pivotal regulatory role for HXK during starch synthesis. Abscisic acid (ABA) was another potent inducer of SBE expression. Induction by ABA was similar to that of glucose-1-P in that it bypassed the semidian oscillator. Both the sugar and ABA signaling cascades were disrupted by okadaic acid, a protein phosphatase inhibitor. Based on these findings, we propose a model for sugar signaling in regulation of starch synthesis in the cassava storage root.

  9. Studies on variation of carotenoid-proteins content in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root reveal implications for breeding and the use of induced mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein content in storage roots of cassava is low but variable and characterization of this variability is lacking. Total buffer extractable proteins (TBEP) content in pigmented cassava landraces varied from 0.9-7.5 (mg/gDWt.) and correlated with total carotenoid content (R2=0.4757). More than 3x T...

  10. Characterization of carotenoid-protein complexes and gene expression analysis associated with carotenoid sequestration in pigmented cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoid-protein complex separation by size exclusion chromatography, protein fractionation by SDS-PAGE, and shotgun PROTEOMICS technology were used to identify and characterize carotenoid associated proteins (CAPs) of chromoplast-enriched suspensions from cassava intense yellow storage root. A no...

  11. Effect of Polythene-covering on Above-ground tuberization and storage roots yield in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi N

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of polythene-covering on activation of dormant auxiliary buds on the stem for lateral tuber formation and the resultant effect on total storage roots yield. Three time intervals i.e. 1 day after planting, 30 days after planting and 60 days after planting used as treatment, and uncovered stem used as control. Treatments were tested in randomized complete block design with three replications. Regardless of the variety, stem polythene-covering at day 1 after planting showed the highest effect with respect to storage roots production and yield components tested. However, the effect of stem polythene-covering at day 1 after planting in terms of dry mass partitioning to storage roots was the lowest across all the treatments (25.50 to 27.37% of the biomass compared to that of stem covering at day 60 after planting (33.10 to 37.20%. This study opens new perspectives in cassava yield improvement which hitherto has not been exploited.

  12. Effect of harvest period on the quality of storage roots and protein content of the leaves in five cassava cultivars (Manihot esculenta, Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagrilo Edvaldo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of harvest period on the quality of storage roots and leaves of cassava cultivars was determined in an experiment carried out in a randomized complete block design with four replications in a split plot scheme, with five cultivars in the plots and ten harvest times in the subplots. The IAC 13 cultivar had the highest rate of dry matter accumulation in the storage roots and the Mico cultivar the lowest. The period of least dry matter content in the storage roots occurred later for the Fécula Branca, Mico and IAC 14 cultivars, and the minimum starch content in the storage roots occurred later for the Fécula Branca and Mico cultivars. In general, the IAC 13, IAC 14 and Fécula Branca cultivars had higher dry matter content in the storage roots, while higher starch content in the dry and fresh matter were obtained in the Fécula Branca cultivar. The crude protein content in the leaves decreased as the plant aged.

  13. 木薯块根拔起力的力学模型和数学模型分析%Mechanical and mathematical model analysis of uprooted force on cassava storage root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨望; 蔡敢为; 杨坚; 黄亦其

    2011-01-01

    为了探讨不同块根拔起速度和块根生长状况对块根最大拔起力的影响规律,该文采用物理试验方法、ANSYS/LS-DYNA显式动力学仿真技术及土力学理论分析方法进行物理试验和力学分析,建立了考虑拔起速度影响的木薯块根拔起力的力学模型和数学模型,且对模型进行了式验验证.结果表明,假设木薯块根对土壤的作用为一圆盘和圆盘外延对土壤的共同作用的力学模型合理;圆盘最大拔起力的数学模型精度高,理论值与实测值的相对误差小于16%;木薯块根最大拔起力的数学模型对成圆盘状分布生长的木薯块根拔起力有较高的预测精度,对生长分布较不均匀的木薯块根拔起力的预测精度较低,但理论值与实测值的相对误差也小于27%;木薯块根最大拔起力随拔起速度、块根圆盘直径和圆盘深度的增大而增大;块根圆盘深度对术薯块根的最大拔起力的影响最大,其次是圆盘直径,最后是拔起速度.该文为挖拔式木薯收获机械块根拔起机构系统的设计提供依据.%In order to research on the effects of uprooted speed and distribution status of cassava storage root in soil on the uprooted force on cassava storage root, mechanical and mathematical model of uprooted force on cassava storage root considering the effect of uprooted speed were established by using the physical test method, explicit dynamic simulation software ANSYS/LS-DYNA and soil mechanics theory to have physics experiment and mechanical analysis, and then the models were verified. The results showed that the mechanical model of assumption uprooted force on cassava storage root as interaction of a disc and its extension on the soil was reasonable; mathematical model of maximum uprooted force on disc was highly precision, and the most fractional error between theoretical value and measured value was less than 16%; mathematical model of maximum uprooted force on cassava

  14. Studies on Variation of Carotenoid-Proteins Content in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Storage Root Reveal Implications for Breeding and the Use of Induced Mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carotenoid-Protein content in cassava storage root (CSR) is low but variable, and characterization of this variability is lacking. Accumulation of carotenoids occurs in chromoplast and depends on a broad class of proteins named carotenoid associated proteins (CAP), lipids and the biosynthesis of carotenoids. Twenty-nine landraces and progeny of 200 individuals were accessed for CAP and carotenoid content varied in two ways. First, related to landrace diversity, total buffer extractable proteins (TBEP), buffer insoluble proteins (BIP) and total carotenoid and β-carotene content were assessed. Significant differences were observed in the tested genotypes. Secondly, analyses related to storage root tissue age were assessed by TBEP. This showed protein content decreased and total carotenoid content increased as secondary growth proceeds. Further carotenoid-proteins complex (CPC) identified in carotenoid contrasting landraces showed different proteins profile in SDS-PAGE with proteins size of 18 and 33 kDa in low carotenoid (IAC12.829) and 18-20-30-33 kDa in a high total carotenoid landrace (Cas74.1). Progeny analysis for TBEP and total carotenoid content confirmed the interdependence of carotenoid-proteins association by correlation analysis, estimated heritability of individual traits and grouping clones for carotenoid-proteins content. Results allow us to conclude that: natural carotenoid-protein content varies due to differential genetic background and storage root tissue age; carotenoid-protein complex showed variation in protein and carotenoid types; estimated heritability of proteins and carotenoids traits showed different values. The establishment of a genetic component allows future strategies including traditional breeding and the use of induced mutations to create novel variation for the nutritional improvement of cassava tubers. (author)

  15. Modification of cell wall polysaccharides during retting of cassava roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngolong Ngea, Guillaume Legrand; Guillon, Fabienne; Essia Ngang, Jean Justin; Bonnin, Estelle; Bouchet, Brigitte; Saulnier, Luc

    2016-12-15

    Retting is an important step in traditional cassava processing that involves tissue softening of the roots to transform the cassava into flour and various food products. The tissue softening that occurs during retting was attributed to the degradation of cell wall pectins through the action of pectin-methylesterase and pectate-lyase that possibly originated from a microbial source or the cassava plant itself. Changes in cell wall composition were investigated during retting using chemical analysis, specific glycanase degradation and immuno-labelling of cell wall polysaccharides. Pectic 1,4-β-d-galactan was the main cell wall polysaccharide affected during the retting of cassava roots. This result suggested that better control of pectic galactan degradation and a better understanding of the degradation mechanism by endogenous endo-galactanase and/or exogenous microbial enzymes might contribute to improve the texture properties of cassava products. PMID:27451197

  16. Toward better understanding of postharvest deterioration: biochemical changes in stored cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Coelho, Bianca; Moresco, Rodolfo; Domínguez, Moralba Garcia; Sánchez, Teresa; Meléndez, Jorge Luis Luna; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernan; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Hershey, Clair; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-05-01

    Food losses can occur during production, postharvest, and processing stages in the supply chain. With the onset of worldwide food shortages, interest in reducing postharvest losses in cassava has been increasing. In this research, the main goal was to evaluate biochemical changes and identify the metabolites involved in the deterioration of cassava roots. We found that high levels of ascorbic acid (AsA), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), dry matter, and proteins are correlated with overall lower rates of deterioration. On the other hand, soluble sugars such as glucose and fructose, as well as organic acids, mainly, succinic acid, seem to be upregulated during storage and may play a role in the deterioration of cassava roots. Cultivar Branco (BRA) was most resilient to postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD), while Oriental (ORI) was the most susceptible. Our findings suggest that PPO, AsA, and proteins may play a distinct role in PPD delay. PMID:27247771

  17. Effects of Processing on the Chemical and Anti-nutritional Properties of Cassava Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omosuli SV

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutritive and antinutritive composition of cassava roots (raw and boiled was investigated. The proximate composition of raw and boiled cassava tubers was not significantly different (P> 0.05, except in moisture, fat, carbohydrate and Energy value. High levels of the antinutrients in raw cassava tubers (20.56mg/100g Tannins; 1,16mg/100g oxalate and 3.36mg/100g phytate make them unsafe and unsuitable for human consumption except after processing. Mineral contents of cassava tubers were not affected significantly by boiling except in Iron. Calcium was the most abundant mineral present (0.33% and 0.26% for raw and boiled cassava roots and the low Ca/P ratio of 6.19 in boiled cassava roots will facilitate calcinations of calcium more than the raw cassava roots with a Ca/P ratio of 8.68.

  18. Proteomics Profiling Reveals Carbohydrate Metabolic Enzymes and 14-3-3 Proteins Play Important Roles for Starch Accumulation during Cassava Root Tuberization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuchu; Chang, Lili; Tong, Zheng; Wang, Dongyang; Yin, Qi; Wang, Dan; Jin, Xiang; Yang, Qian; Wang, Liming; Sun, Yong; Huang, Qixing; Guo, Anping; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is one of the most important root crops as a reliable source of food and carbohydrates. Carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation in cassava storage root is a cascade process that includes large amounts of proteins and cofactors. Here, comparative proteomics were conducted in cassava root at nine developmental stages. A total of 154 identified proteins were found to be differentially expressed during starch accumulation and root tuberization. Many enzymes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism were significantly up-regulated, and functional classification of the differentially expressed proteins demonstrated that the majority were binding-related enzymes. Many proteins were took part in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy. Among them, three 14-3-3 isoforms were induced to be clearly phosphorylated during storage root enlargement. Overexpression of a cassava 14-3-3 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed that the older leaves of these transgenic plants contained higher sugar and starch contents than the wild-type leaves. The 14-3-3 proteins and their binding enzymes may play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root tuberization. These results not only deepened our understanding of the tuberous root proteome, but also uncovered new insights into carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root enlargement. PMID:26791570

  19. The retail market for fresh cassava root tubers in the European Union (EU)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind-Hansen, Lotte; Brimer, Leon

    2010-01-01

    A number of retail shops in Copenhagen sell fresh cassava roots. Cassava roots contain the toxic cyanogenic glucoside linamarin. A survey was made of the shop characteristics, origin of the roots, buyers, shop owner's knowledge of toxicity levels, and actual toxicity levels....

  20. Gamma radiation use to avoid enzymatic browning of cassava root (Manihot utilissima Pohl) in natura, peeled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava root was treated with gamma radiation at doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy to avoid enzymatic browning. The irradiated samples were kept for 9 days at room temperature and evaluated for color and sensorial analysis. Two days after harvest, the control sample showed black spots and alterations of organoleptic characteristics. The irradiated sample with 2 to 6 kGy showed good appearance and acceptability. However, after 9 days of storage, the control and the irradiated (2 to 6 kGy) samples were not safe to eat, only the irradiated cassava with doses of 8 and 10 kGy did not show enzymatic browning and kept the good sensorial characteristics. (author)

  1. Cassava root meal as substitute for maize in layers ration

    OpenAIRE

    M Anaeto; LC Adighibe

    2011-01-01

    The effect of replacing maize with graded levels of cassava root meal (CRM) as energy source in the diet of laying hens was evaluated during the eight weeks of feeding experiment on performance and cost benefits on layers. Forty-five Nera black laying hens of 24 weeks of age were allocated to five dietary treatments, with nine birds per treatment in a completely randomized design. CRM was used to formulate the diets at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%. The result showed that the feed intake of birds i...

  2. Cassava root meal as substitute for maize in layers ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Anaeto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing maize with graded levels of cassava root meal (CRM as energy source in the diet of laying hens was evaluated during the eight weeks of feeding experiment on performance and cost benefits on layers. Forty-five Nera black laying hens of 24 weeks of age were allocated to five dietary treatments, with nine birds per treatment in a completely randomized design. CRM was used to formulate the diets at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%. The result showed that the feed intake of birds in the control group was significantly (p<0.05 different from those fed the CRM diets. The average weight gain of layers receiving up to 50% CRM was similar to the control birds, but significantly different from layers fed 75 and 100% CRM. No mortality was recorded. Egg production per hen per day and average egg weight were significantly different (p<0.05 for birds consuming more than 50% CRM in T4 and T5. Layer feed ration was made cheaper by the replacement of maize with cassava root meal in the diets.

  3. Effects of Processing on the Chemical and Anti-nutritional Properties of Cassava Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Omosuli SV

    2014-01-01

    The nutritive and antinutritive composition of cassava roots (raw and boiled) was investigated. The proximate composition of raw and boiled cassava tubers was not significantly different (P> 0.05), except in moisture, fat, carbohydrate and Energy value. High levels of the antinutrients in raw cassava tubers (20.56mg/100g Tannins; 1,16mg/100g oxalate and 3.36mg/100g phytate) make them unsafe and unsuitable for human consumption except after processing. Mineral contents of cassava tubers were n...

  4. Provitamin A Accumulation in Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Roots Driven by a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in a Phytoene Synthase Gene[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Ralf; Arango, Jacobo; Bär, Cornelia; Salazar, Bertha; Al-Babili, Salim; Beltrán, Jesús; Chavarriaga, Paul; Ceballos, Hernan; Tohme, Joe; Beyer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is an important staple crop, especially in the arid tropics. Because roots of commercial cassava cultivars contain a limited amount of provitamin A carotenoids, both conventional breeding and genetic modification are being applied to increase their production and accumulation to fight vitamin A deficiency disorders. We show here that an allelic polymorphism in one of the two expressed phytoene synthase (PSY) genes is capable of enhancing the flux of carbon through carotenogenesis, thus leading to the accumulation of colored provitamin A carotenoids in storage roots. A single nucleotide polymorphism present only in yellow-rooted cultivars cosegregates with colored roots in a breeding pedigree. The resulting amino acid exchange in a highly conserved region of PSY provides increased catalytic activity in vitro and is able to increase carotenoid production in recombinant yeast and Escherichia coli cells. Consequently, cassava plants overexpressing a PSY transgene produce yellow-fleshed, high-carotenoid roots. This newly characterized PSY allele provides means to improve cassava provitamin A content in cassava roots through both breeding and genetic modification. PMID:20889914

  5. Carotenoid analysis of Cassava genotypes roots (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) cultivated in Southern Brazil using chemometric tools

    OpenAIRE

    Moresco, Rodolfo; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Pereira, Aline; Tomazzoli, M. M.; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Costa, Christopher; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Manihot esculenta roots rich in -carotene are an important staple food for populations with risk of vitamin A deficiency. Cassava genotypes with high pro-vitamin A activity have been identified as a strategy to reduce the prevalence of deficiency of this vitamin, In this study, the metabolomics characterization focusing on the carotenoid composition of ten cassava genotypes cultivated in southern Brazil by UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromat...

  6. The role of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and polysaccharides in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots under postharvest physiological deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate the role of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), polysaccharides, and protein contents associated with the early events of postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) in cassava roots. Increases in APX and GPX activity, as well as total protein contents occurred from 3 to 5 days of storage and were correlated with the delay of PPD. Cassava samples stained with Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) highlighted the presence of starch and cellulose. Degradation of starch granules during PPD was also detected. Slight metachromatic reaction with toluidine blue is indicative of increasing of acidic polysaccharides and may play an important role in PPD delay. Principal component analysis (PCA) classified samples according to their levels of enzymatic activity based on the decision tree model which showed GPX and total protein amounts to be correlated with PPD. The Oriental (ORI) cultivar was more susceptible to PPD. PMID:26617011

  7. Optimization of cassava root sieviate medium to an enriched animal feed by Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbah G.O

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available - Optimization of the media components cassava root sieviate with Aspergellus Niger was carried out using Face-Centered Central Composite Design (FCCCD of the Response Surface Methodology (RSM and the responses were measured in terms of protein and crude fiber contents. Statistical Analysis (ANOVA of the result showed that time and substrate concentration had effect on biodegraded cassava root sieviate (p-value was 0.00 ie. 0.00 < 0.05. The optimum value of enriched cassava root sieviate with Aspergellus Niger were found to be on 10 days (time and 6g/10ml concentration resulting to 9.42% from 1.85% enrichment in protein content and degrading crude fiber to 8.38%, from 70.3%, thus indicating the potency of Aspergillus niger for the production of economical livestock feed from renewable source.

  8. Determination of aflatoxin in processed dried cassava root

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnonlonfin, Gbemenou Joselin Benoit; Katerere, David R.; Adjovi, Yann;

    2010-01-01

    A new method that uses HPLC with a photochemical reactor for enhanced detection was developed and validated for the determination of aflatoxins in cassava flour. Samples were spiked with a mixture of four aflatoxins at 5, 10, and 20 microg/kg mixed with either 1 or 5 g NaCI and extracted with...

  9. Effects of Growth Environment and Ulking Rate on Cyanogenic Potential of Cassava Tuerous Roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various abiotic factors affect the pattern of growth and accumulation of cyanogenic glucosides in cassava plants. Five cassava genotypes were planted in a wet and a dry agro-ecological zone and analyzed at 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 months after planting for tuberous root bulking rate and cyanogenic potential. Cassava plants at Ibadan (the wetter zone) had higher tuberous roots bulking rate and lower cynogenic potential than those planted at Minjibir (the drier zone). Root bulking rate at Ibadan increased from 4 to 6 months after planting, fell to 10 months, and then levelled off thereafter. At Majorana, bulking rate increased from 4 to 6 months, levelling off u pto 8 months after planting, and then falling slightly u pto to 10 months, and rising gradually u pto 12 months after planting. At Minijibir, the 6-8 months after planting period coincided with drought and the highest root bulking rate but increasing cyanogenic potential. Similarly, at Ibadan the 6-8 months after planting period coincided with drought and the highest root bulking rate but increasing cyanogenic potential. Despite the onset of drought, bulking continued up to 8 months after planting, falling u pto 10 months and levelling off thereafter at both agro-ecological zones. However, whereas cyanogenic potential rose rapidly after 8 months to peak at 10 months, and levelling off up to 12 months at Minjibir, cyanogenic potential levelled of after 8 u pto 12 months at Ibadan. Correlation and regression analysis suggested that root bulking rate and cyanogenic potential were negatively associated, meaning that an increase in root bulking rate would lead to corresponding decrease in it's cyanogenic potential which is highly desirable. This study has demonstrated that whereas the plant age and genotypic effects are not important factors in determining tuberous roots bulking rate and cyanogenic potential of cassava, the agro-ecological zone effect is an important factor in determining them

  10. Fusarium species from the cassava root rot complex in west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Mwangi, Maina; Aigbe, Sylvester O; Leslie, John F

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium species are a significant component of the set of fungi associated with cassava root rot. Yield losses due to root rot average 0.5 to 1 ton/ha but losses >3 ton/ha, an equivalent of 15 to 20% yield, often occur. This paper reviews previous work on cassava root rot and summarizes a few recent studies on Fusarium species associated with the disease. Our studies in Cameroon showed that 30% of rotted tubers were infected by Fusarium spp. 12 months after planting and represented 25% of all the fungal isolates recovered. Other commonly recovered fungi were Botryodiplodia theobromae and Armillaria spp. Numerous and diverse species of Fusarium were associated with rotted cassava roots in Nigeria and Cameroon. At least 13 distinct amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) groups of Fusarium were distinguishable, each group probably a distinct species, and many of them might represent previously undescribed Fusarium species. The two largest of the AFLP groups correspond to F. oxysporum and F. solani species complex. The distribution of Fusarium spp. varied among countries and among locations within a country, suggesting that germ plasm resistant at one location may not be resistant at another. Fusarium spp. also cause seedling blight of cassava and can be recovered from the stems of infected plants up to 1 m above the ground. Therefore, the pathogen can spread with stems cut as planting material. Fusarium spp. also can colonize Chromolaena odorata, the dominant weed in short fallows, which could further complicate management efforts by serving as an alternative host for strains that colonize cassava. PMID:18943189

  11. Stoking residue from extraction of cassava starch without the use of storage technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleovani Rossi Javorski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to study the storage of the residue from the extraction of cassava starch without the use of storage technologies, through chemical evaluation, pH values, temperature, development of microorganisms and mycotoxins. A randomized block design was used with eight treatments (different storage periods: 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 days and five replications. There was a significant difference for DM content, as a function of days in storage. The chemical composition of the residue from the extraction of cassava starch did not changed throughout the storage period. A negative linear effect was obtained for the pH values, which decreased with days in storage. There was significance of the storage period only for the fungus and yeast population, which increased up to 17 days of storage, with subsequent reduction. Mycotoxins were detected in the residue from the extraction of cassava starch. Despite it did not showed changes in the chemical composition the storage of residue from the extraction of cassava starch for 21 days proved to be an inefficient preservation process, due to the development of molds and mycotoxins

  12. Effect of cropping system and mineral fertilizer on root yield of cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cropping system and fertilizer on the root yield of three introduced high yielding cassava varieties (Afisiafi, Abasafitaa and Tekbankye) and two local varieties (Tuakentenma and Akosuatumtum). Two cropping systems (sole cassava and cassava-maize intercrop and five fertilizer regimes (0-0-0, 30-30-30, 60-60-60, 90-90-90 and 120-120-120 kg ha-I N-P2O5-K2O) were studied in 2000 and 2001. A split-split plot design with four replications was used in the first study and a split-plot design for the second. Cassava-maize intercrop significantly reduced root yield at Mampong (2000) and Asuansi (2001) but not at Wenchi (2001). Afisiafi and Abasafitaa performed better than the local varieties or Tekbankye. At Asuansi and Kpeve, Afisiafi gave significantly greater root yield than Abasafitaa. Root yields of Afisiafi and Abasafita were, however, similar at Mampong and Wenchi in 2000. At Wenchi (2001), Abasafitaa gave significantly greater root yield than Atisiafi. At Mampong (2000) and Wenchi (2001), Afisiafi produced significantly more roots per stand than the local varieties and Abasafitaa gave significantly greater root yield per stand than the local variety. At all the four sites mineral fertilizer resulted in significantly greater root yield over control. At Asuansi (2001), Kpeve (2001) and Mampong (2000), 60-60-60 kg ha-1 N-P2O3-K2O gave significantly greater root yield than the 30-30-30 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1 but similar to the 90-90-90 and 120-120-120 kg ha-1 N-P2O5-K2O. At Wenchi (2001) all the rates gave similar root yield. Across locations, Afisiafi and Abasafitaa produced greater root yield than the local varieties and Tekbankye. Mineral fertilizer at 60-60-60 kg ha-1 N-P2O5-K2O was the optimum level for root yields. (au)

  13. Tissue distribution and deposition pattern of a cellulosic parenchyma-specific protein from cassava roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrônio A.S. Souza

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A protein with a molecular mass of 22kDa was purified from the cellulosic parenchyma of cassava roots. The amino acid composition of the protein was determined and antibodies generated against the purified protein were used to show that the concentration of the protein remains unchanged during root "tuber" formation. By using a tissue printing technique, as well as western blot, it was shown that the cellulosic parenchyma was the only root tissue in which the protein was deposited.

  14. Kinetics of mass transfer during deep fat frying of yellow fleshed cassava root slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedeji, A. B.; Sobukola, O. P.; Henshaw, F. O.; Adegunwa, M. O.; Sanni, L. O.; Tomlins, K. I.

    2016-05-01

    Kinetics of mass transfer [moisture content, oil uptake, total carotenoid (TC) and shrinkage] during frying of yellow fleshed cassava roots (TMS 01/1371) was investigated. Slices were divided into (i) fresh and (ii) pre-dried to 75 % moisture content before atmospheric frying and (iii) vacuum fried. Percentage TC and activation energies of vacuum, fresh and pre-dried fried samples were 76, 63 and 61 %; and 82, 469.7, 213.7 kJ/mol, respectively.

  15. Biological Implications in Cassava for the Production of Amylose-Free Starch: Impact on Root Yield and Related Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlström, Amanda; Calle, Fernando; Salazar, Sandra; Morante, Nelson; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an important food security crop, but it is becoming an important raw material for different industrial applications. Cassava is the second most important source of starch worldwide. Novel starch properties are of interest to the starch industry, and one them is the recently identified amylose-free (waxy) cassava starch. Waxy mutants have been found in different crops and have been often associated with a yield penalty. There are ongoing efforts to develop commercial cassava varieties with amylose-free starch. However, little information is available regarding the biological and agronomic implications of starch mutations in cassava, nor in other root and tuber crops. In this study, siblings from eight full-sib families, segregating for the waxy trait, were used to determine if the mutation has implications for yield, dry matter content (DMC) and harvest index in cassava. A total of 87 waxy and 87 wild-type starch genotypes from the eight families were used in the study. The only significant effect of starch type was on DMC (p cassava varieties will have competitive FRYs but special efforts will be required to attain adequate DMCs. This study contributes to the limited knowledge available of the impact of starch mutations on the agronomic performance of root and tuber crops. PMID:27242813

  16. Back to the roots: molecular characterization of cassava root responses during drought and post-harvest stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Back to the roots: molecular characterization of cassava root responses during drought and post-harvest stresses E.M. Lentz1, E. Nyaboga1,2, C. Orek1,3, W. Gruissem1, H. Vanderschuren1,4 1 ETH Zurich, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Plant Biotechnology Lab, Switzerland 2 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Nairobi, Kenya 3 South Eastern Kenya University, Department of DryLand Agriculture, Kitui, Kenya 4 University of Liège, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Plant Gene...

  17. Comparative Proteome Analysis of the Tuberous Roots of Six Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Varieties Reveals Proteins Related to Phenotypic Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Gabriela Justamante Händel; de Magalhães Andrade, Jonathan; Valle, Teresa Losada; Labate, Carlos Alberto; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

    2016-04-27

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food and an important source of starch, and the attributes of its tuberous root largely depend on the variety. The proteome of cassava has been investigated; however, to date, no study has focused on varieties that reveal the molecular basis of phenotypical characteristics. Therefore, we aimed to compare the proteome of the tuberous roots of six cassava varieties that differed in carbohydrates, carotenoids, and resistance to diseases, among other attributes. Two-dimensional gels showed 146 differential spots between the varieties, and the functional roles of some differential proteins were correlated to phenotypic characteristics of the varieties, such as the amount of carbohydrates or carotenoids and the resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses. The results obtained here highlight elements that might help to direct the improvement of new cultivars of cassava, which is an economically and socially relevant crop worldwide. PMID:26982619

  18. Differentiated Gender Ownership of Cassava Fields and Implications for Root Yield Variations in Small Holder Agriculture of Southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of their relatively limited access to production resources, it has been variously reported that women obtain lower yields from their individual crop fields than men. Cassava root yields obtained from farmers' fields in three villages of southeast Nigeria were compared using separate ownership of fields by gender as a factor. The result of the analysis fails to confirm lower yields from women's fields. Instead, mean fresh root yield was lower for fields owned individually by men than for those owned individually by women, and about the same for fields owned jointly by the whole family and those owned individually by women. This was apparently because of differences in the use of purchased inputs, especially hired labor and improved cassava varieties, and perhaps also due to differences in the age of cassava at harvest and the intercropping of cassava as a minor crop with yam.

  19. Use of botanical extracts, cassava wastewater and nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode on carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of several plant species have shown promising in controlling root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, one of the most limiting agents for carrot cultivation. The current study evaluated the effect of aqueous extracts from seven botanical species applied to 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 days after sowing 'Nantes' carrots in soil infested with root-knot nematode. Three other treatments included cassava wastewater, distilled water (control, which were applied in the same periods of the extracts application, in addition to carbofuran 50G (80Kg/ha, which was applied once at 60 days after carrot sowing. Evaluations were performed at 90 days after inoculation to determine shoot and root fresh weight, as well as the diameter and the length of principal roots and the number of galls on primary and secondary roots. Plants treated with cassava wastewater, extracts of Ricinus communis L. seeds, Crotalaria juncea L. seeds, R. communis leaves + branches + fruits, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves + branches + inflorescences and Azadirachta indica A. Juss. seeds showed the highest rates of total weight (root + shoot and shoot weight. The extract of R. communis leaves + branches + fruits provides the highest total root weight and principal root diameter. Cassava wastewater and extracts of R. communis seeds provided the highest principal root weight. The extract of R. communis seeds and cassava wastewater can be considered promising for the alternative control of M. incognita.

  20. Induction and identification of useful mutations for root quality traits in cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava is an important crop in tropical and subtropical countries. There is little reported variation for root quality traits. Roots spoil 1-2 days after harvest because of a process known as of post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD). These two problems limit the impact of this crop to help farmers out of poverty. Cassava seeds were irradiated with gamma rays or fast neutrons. They were germinated and the M1 plants transplanted to the field and self-pollinated to produce M2 seed. Approximately 1500 M2 plants were harvested, about 800 produced roots, and 38 of them were selected because they showed special characteristics. Best results were obtained with gamma rays (200 Gy from Cobalt 60). Results originally observed in the M2 genotypes were confirmed in the cloned plants. Two of these mutations will be described here. The first mutation produced a starch whose granules were half the size compared with that of wild type cassava. Interestingly, this phenotype was observed in self-pollinated progenies from two different M1 plants. In one case, three M2-genotypes derived from the same M1 plant expressed this mutation, indicating a genetic origin. Starch had higher than normal amylose content, the gels it produces did not show any viscosity and had low clarity. Most likely this mutation affected one of the isoamylase genes. The small granule size could be useful for bio-ethanol production (reduced need of degrading enzymes) but the higher levels of amylose may neutralize this advantage. High-amylose starches have commercial advantages and are known as 'resistant starches'. The second mutation involves reduced PPD. Roots were kept for almost three weeks without PPD. Results need further confirmation based on larger number of roots. Most likely the mutation affected one of the self-defense mechanism genes related to PPD. This mutation could have large impact in poverty alleviation. (author)

  1. Carotenoid stability during storage of yellow gari made from biofortified cassava or with palm oil

    OpenAIRE

    Bechoff, Aurelie; Chijioke, Ugo; Tomlins, Keith I.; Govinden, Pesila; Ilona, Paul; Westby, Andrew; Boy, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The carotenoid composition of gari made from biofortified cassava (BG) was compared to that of existing gari of similar appearance but made from white cassava with added red palm oil (RPG). Storage of both yellow gari products was modelled at ambient temperatures typical of tropical areas (19-40 °C) over a 3 month-period at constant relative humidity. Carotenoid content and hence vitamin A activity of the gari products decreased markedly with time and temperature. Trans-β-carotene degradation...

  2. Isolation of a yeast strain able to produce a polygalacturonase with maceration activity of cassava roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alicia Martos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was the isolation of a yeast strain, from citrus fruit peels, able to produce a polygalacturonase by submerged fermentation with maceration activity of raw cassava roots. Among 160 yeast strains isolated from citrus peels, one strain exhibited the strongest pectinolytic activity. This yeast was identified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus by 5.8S-ITS RFLP analysis and confirmed by amplification of the nucleotide sequence. The yeast produced a polygalacturonase (PG in Erlenmeyer shake flasks containing YNB, glucose, and citrus pectin. PG synthesis occurred during exponential growth phase, reaching 51 UE.mL-1 after 8 hours of fermentation. A growth yield (Yx/s of 0.43 gram of cell dry weight per gram of glucose consumed was obtained, and a maximal specific growth rate (µm of 0.346 h-1 was calculated. The microorganism was unable to assimilate sucrose, galacturonic acid, polygalacturonic acid, or citrus pectin, but it required glucose as carbon and energy source and polygalacturonic acid or citrus pectin as inducers of enzyme synthesis. The crude enzymatic extract of Wickerhamomyces anomalus showed macerating activity of raw cassava. This property is very important in the production of dehydrated mashed cassava, a product of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentina.

  3. Whole scrapings of cassava root in diets for broilers from 1 to 21 days of age

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    Antônio Hosmylton Carvalho Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including whole cassava root scrapings (WCS in diets of broilers on performance and the metabolizability of dry matter, crude protein, and gross energy and on nitrogenous balance. Four hundred female and 100 male broilers from Ross strain were used in the performance and metabolism studies, respectively. In both studies, broilers were allotted in completely randomized block design with five treatments and four replicates. The experimental unit was represented for twenty birds per box for performance study and five birds per metabolic cage for metabolism study. The treatments consisted of diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% WCS inclusion. Up to 5.1% WCS can be included in the diet of broilers from 1 to 21 without compromising feed conversion and productive efficiency index. Dry matter, crude protein, and gross energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of the diets are not influenced by the inclusion of whole cassava root scrapings up to 20% in diets of broilers from 1 to 21 days of age.

  4. Peak root and starch weights of ten early bulking cultivators of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak yields of total fresh root weight (TFRW), total dry root weight (TDRW) and total starch weight (TSW) of ten cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) cultivatar are reported. Planting of the cassava cultivatars was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The cassava roots were harvested first at 5 months after planting (MAP) and every month thereafter. Thr percentage starch content was determined using a UV-spectrophotometer at 690nm wavelength. Four ain periods after planting could be identified for early bulking cultivatars: (7 MAP - cultivatars 115, DMA )30, HO 001 and UCC 096; 9 MAP - cultivatars 126 and HO 015; 11 MAP - cultivatars 90 and MQA98/11; 12 MAP - cultivatars CR001/102 and HO 008). Time to achieve peak yield differed in some cultivatars but was the same for TFRW, TDRW and TSW. Cassava cultivatar HO 008 had the highest peak of TDRW and TSW in roots while cultivatar MQA98/11 had the lowest. On dry weight basis, starch content was higher than 72%. Yield loss estimates due to delayed harvest of the cultiatars are presented. (au)

  5. The effect of chemical treatments on the pH & microbial flora of cassava residues during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaísa Anders Carvalho Souza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch factories produce residues that can be commercialized as food ingredients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological safety of cassava peel and bagasse during storage, with and without chemical treatment. The bagasse was acidified with lactic acid, and the peel was immersed in a sodium hypochlorite solution. The microbiological analyses were carried out for 72 h after harvest. All of the samples showed the absence of pathogenic microorganisms, and the acidification and sanitization were effective in controlling total coliforms. Cassava bagasse and peel samples can be considered safe for consumption by humans as ingredients for other food products.

  6. The effect of chemical treatments on the pH & microbial flora of cassava residues during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Thaísa Anders Carvalho Souza; Manoel Soares Júnior; Maria Raquel Hidalgo Campos; Thaynara Stella Carvalho Souza; Lívia Cunha Bandeira

    2013-01-01

    Cassava starch factories produce residues that can be commercialized as food ingredients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological safety of cassava peel and bagasse during storage, with and without chemical treatment. The bagasse was acidified with lactic acid, and the peel was immersed in a sodium hypochlorite solution. The microbiological analyses were carried out for 72 h after harvest. All of the samples showed the absence of pathogenic microorganisms, and the acid...

  7. Genetic parameters and simultaneous selection for root yield, adaptability and stability of cassava genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tomé de Farias Neto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate genetic parameters and to evaluate simultaneous selection for root yield and for adaptability and stability of cassava genotypes. The effects of genotypes were assumed as fixed and random, and the mixed model methodology (REML/Blup was used to estimate genetic parameters and the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genotypic values (HMRPGV, for simultaneous selection purposes. Ten genotypes were analyzed in a complete randomized block design, with four replicates. The experiment was carried out in the municipalities of Altamira, Santarém, and Santa Luzia do Pará in the state of Pará, Brazil, in the growing seasons of 2009/2010, 2010/2011, and 2011/2012. Roots were harvested 12 months after planting, in all tested locations. Root yield had low coefficients of genotypic variation (4.25% and broad-sense heritability of individual plots (0.0424, which resulted in low genetic gain. Due to the low genotypic correlation (0.15, genotype classification as to root yield varied according to the environment. Genotypes CPATU 060, CPATU 229, and CPATU 404 stood out as to their yield, adaptability, and stability.

  8. Induction and Identification of Useful Mutations for Root Quality Traits in Cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A population of about 1,500 M2 genotypes (from five different cassava families), were screened for relevant traits. Roots could be harvested from 800 of these genotypes and thoroughly screened for starch quality traits. Four distinctive phenotypes were identified: a small granule, high-amylose starch mutation with almost no paste viscosity, a group of genotypes with tolerance to post-harvest physiological deterioration, a 'hollow' starch granule mutation with intermediate viscosity peaks, and a group of genotypes with a starchless (potentially 'sugary') root mutation. The last two mutations need to be further characterized and confirmed. The small granule mutation has been fully characterized and a lesion in the isoamylase one or two loci has been postulated to be the most likely site. The frequency of this mutation (present in two lineages out of the 800 M2 genotypes analyzed) suggests that mutation at the putative locus is easy to attain, or else that the repair mechanisms are less efficient at that site. Several of these unusual phenotypes identified offer important commercial advantages. (author)

  9. Cassava; African perspective on space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Looking on African perspective in space agriculture may contribute to increase diversity, and enforce robustness for advanced life support capability. Cassava, Manihot esculentaand, is one of major crop in Africa, and could be a candidate of space food materials. Since resource is limited for space agriculture in many aspects, crop yield should be high in efficiency, and robust as well. The efficiency is measured by farming space and time. Harvest yield of cassava is about 41 MJ/ m2 (70 ton/ha) after 11 months of farming. Among rice, wheat, potato, and sweet potato, cassava is ranked to the first place (40 m2 ) in terms of farming area required to supply energy of 5 MJ/day, which is recommended for one person. Production of cassava could be made under poor condition, such as acidic soil, shortage of fertilizer, draught. Laterite, similar to Martian regolith. Propagation made by stem cutting is an advantage of cassava in space agriculture avoiding entomophilous or anemophilous process to pollinate. Feature of crop storage capability is additional factor that determines the efficiency in the whole process of agriculture. Cassava root tuber can be left in soil until its consumption. Cassava might be an African contribution to space agriculture.

  10. Effect of shade on photosynthetic pigments in the tropical root crops: yam, taro, tannia, cassava and sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants of yam, taro, tannia, cassava and sweet potato were raised under shade or in full sunlight and the effect of shade on leaf chlorophyll and carotenoids was examined to determine and compare the relative shade tolerance and adaptability of the var ious species. All five species of root crops adapted to shade. The chlorophyll concentration was higher, while the chlorophyll a:b ratio, carotenoids per unit chlorophyll and the weight per unit area of leaf were lower in the shade than in the sun in yam, tannia, taro, cassava and sweet potato. All species had larger leaves and more chlorophyll per leaf in the shade. The extent of the changes, however, differed between species. The aroids (taro and tannia) appeared to be shade-tolerant species as their chlorophyll a:b ratios changed less than those of the other species in the shade, suggesting that their light-harvesting systems may be normally adapted to shade conditions. Taro and tannia also adapted to shade by a greater proportional increase in leaf size, a smaller reduction in leaf weight per unit area and a greater proportional increase in chlorophyll and carotenoids per leaf than the other species. Yam compensated for shade by having a large proportional increase in leaf size and appeared to be moderately tolerant of shade. Sweet potato and cassava appeared to be the least tolerant of shade of the major tropical root crops. (author)

  11. Determination of aflatoxin in processed dried cassava root: validation of a new analytical method for cassava flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnonlonfin, G J Benoit; Katerere, David R; Adjovi, Yann; Brimer, Leon; Shephard, Gordon S; Sanni, Ambaliou

    2010-01-01

    A new method that uses HPLC with a photochemical reactor for enhanced detection was developed and validated for the determination of aflatoxins in cassava flour. Samples were spiked with a mixture of four aflatoxins at 5, 10, and 20 microg/kg mixed with either 1 or 5 g NaCI and extracted with methanol-water (80 + 20, v/v) by shaking for 10 or 30 min. An immunoaffinity column was used for cleanup. HPLC with postcolumn derivatization, for enhancement of aflatoxin fluorescence, and fluorescence determination were used for quantitation of the toxin concentration. The method was validated for recovery, linearity, and precision at the three concentrations tested. Recovery ranges were 52-70, 69-85, and 80-89% for the spiking levels of 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 microg/kg, respectively. It appears that the amount of salt (NaCl) and the shaking time are critical factors in this method; optimal performance was obtained when 1 g salt was used and the shaking time was 10 min. The good linearity and precision of the method allowed baseline separation from interferences, e.g., coumarins. PMID:21313816

  12. Material Storage for Cassava Based Fuel Ethanol Production%木薯燃料乙醇的原料储藏

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅永刚; 张丙龙

    2012-01-01

    Cassava accumulates during harvest period which is unsuitable for the requirement of continuous production of fuel ethanol manufacturing enterprises. Therefore, the storage of cassava material is necessary. The efficient solutions of this problem are safe material water maintenance, suitable storage container, scientific storage method, and proper trouble shooting method which ensure the long storage of cassava.%木薯收获期集中,不适应车用燃料乙醇企业的连续生产要求,因此进行木薯原料的储藏十分必要。安全的原料储藏水分、符合要求的仓储设施、科学合理的储藏方法、及时正确的问题防治保证了木薯燃料乙醇原料的长期储藏,从而有效解决了“原料集中供应”和“企业连续生产”之间的矛盾。

  13. Microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen metabolism in cows bred on tropical pasture and fed on cassava root and corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádler Carvalho da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Current experiment evaluated the effect of replacement of full corn meal by dehydrated ground cassava roots at levels 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% in experimental supplements for lactating cows grazing on irrigated and fertilized tropical pastures. Ten Holstein cows were divided into two 5 x 5 Latin squares, with average initial 150 days of lactation, milk production 22±3.30 kg day-1 at the beginning of experiment and initial body weight of 603±65 kg. Cows were maintained on pasture consisting of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum cultivar Pioneiro, intercropped with Tifton 85 (Cynodon nlemfuensis, fertilized with 600 kg nitrogen per hectare year-1. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 between the substitution levels of corn meal by ground and dehydrated cassava root in the concentrate on the synthesis of microbial protein with an estimated average of 1,288.49 g day-1 and efficiency in the synthesis of microbial protein per kilogram of TDN with estimated average of 91.30 g kg-1 TDN. Nitrogen equilibrium showed an estimated average of 218.79 g day-1 of retained nitrogen. The microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen balance were not affected by treatments.

  14. Nutritional Value and Digestibility of Cassava Root%木薯块根的营养价值及消化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁慧敏; 谢彩锋; 古碧; 丘春平

    2015-01-01

    木薯是世界三大薯类之一,目前主要用于饲料、粮食和工业原料,了解木薯的营养价值及其消化性能有利于木薯产品的开发和利用,本文着重介绍了木薯块根的营养成分、抗营养特性及其消化性能等,为木薯的加工利用提供参考。%Cassava is one of three major potatoes in the world, mainly used for feed, food and industrial raw materials, understanding the nutritional value and digestibility of cassava may be conducive to the development of cassava products, this review focuses on the nutritional content, anti-nutritional characteristics and its digestibility of cassava root. The properties described here may provide a reference for cassava processing and utilization.

  15. An EST resource for cassava and other species of Euphorbiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James V; Delseny, Michel; Fregene, Martin A; Jorge, Veronique; Mba, Chikelu; Lopez, Camilo; Restrepo, Silvia; Soto, Mauricio; Piegu, Benoit; Verdier, Valerie; Cooke, Richard; Tohme, Joe; Horvath, David P

    2004-11-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food staple for nearly 600 million people in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Major losses in yield result from biotic and abiotic stresses that include diseases such as Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) and Cassava Bacterial Blight (CBB), drought, and acid soils. Additional losses also occur from deterioration during the post-harvest storage of roots. To help cassava breeders overcome these obstacles, the scientific community has turned to modern genomics approaches to identify key genetic characteristics associated with resistance to these yield-limiting factors. One approach for developing a genomics program requires the development of ESTs (expressed sequence tags). To date, nearly 23,000 ESTs have been developed from various cassava tissues, and genotypes. Preliminary analysis indicates existing EST resources contain at least 6000-7000 unigenes. Data presented in this report indicate that the cassava ESTs will be a valuable resource for the study of genetic diversity, stress resistance, and growth and development, not only in cassava, but also other members of the Euphorbiaceae family. PMID:15630617

  16. Phenotypic approaches to drought in cassava: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okogbenin, Emmanuel; Setter, Tim L; Ferguson, Morag; Mutegi, Rose; Ceballos, Hernan; Olasanmi, Bunmi; Fregene, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative trait and its multigenic nature makes it very challenging to effectively manipulate and combine genes in breeding for rapid genetic gain and selection process. Cassava has a long growth cycle of 12-18 months which invariably contributes to a long breeding scheme for the crop. Modern breeding using advances in genomics and improved genotyping, is facilitating the dissection and genetic analysis of complex traits including drought tolerance, thus helping to better elucidate and understand the genetic basis of such traits. A beneficial goal of new innovative breeding strategies is to shorten the breeding cycle using minimized, efficient or fast phenotyping protocols. While high throughput genotyping have been achieved, this is rarely the case for phenotyping for drought adaptation. Some of the storage root phenotyping in cassava are often done very late in the evaluation cycle making selection process very slow. This paper highlights some modified traits suitable for early-growth phase phenotyping that may be used to reduce drought phenotyping cycle in cassava. Such modified traits can significantly complement the high throughput genotyping procedures to fast track breeding of improved drought tolerant varieties. The need for metabolite profiling, improved phenomics to take advantage of next generation sequencing technologies and high throughput phenotyping are basic steps for future direction to improve genetic gain and maximize speed for drought tolerance breeding. PMID

  17. Phenotypic Approaches to Drought in Cassava: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eOkogbenin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative trait and its multigenic nature makes it very challenging to effectively manipulate and combine genes in breeding for rapid genetic gain and selection process. Cassava has a long growth cycle of 12 - 18 months which invariably contributes to a long breeding scheme for the crop. Modern breeding using advances in genomics and improved genotyping, is facilitating the dissection and genetic analysis of complex traits including drought tolerance, thus helping to better elucidate and understand the genetic basis of such traits. A beneficial goal of new innovative breeding strategies is to shorten the breeding cycle using minimized, efficient or fast phenotyping protocols. While high throughput genotyping have been achieved, this is rarely the case for phenotyping for drought adaptation. Some of the storage root phenotyping in cassava are often done very late in the evaluation cycle making selection process very slow. This paper highlights some modified traits suitable for early-growth phase phenotyping that may be used to reduce drought phenotyping cycle in cassava. Such modified traits can significantly complement the high throughput genotyping procedures to fast track breeding of improved drought tolerant varieties. The need for metabolite profiling, improved phenomics to take advantage of next generation sequencing technologies and high throughput phenotyping are basic steps for future direction to improve genetic gain and maximize speed for drought tolerance

  18. Development of cassava germplasm resources for the improvement of high value root quality traits through induced mutation and marker aided breeding in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvement of cassava for increased beta carotene and protein content, dry matter content and delayed post-harvest physiological deterioration.is important for increased income and improved livelihood for poor farmers. Irradiation was used in this study to induce mutation using in vitro culture plantlets and botanical seeds. Gamma irradiated in vitro culture plantlets of varieties SM 909-25 and Col 2215 identified 12 clones with dry matter content above 40% and five clones with high beta carotenoid content. Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) resistant varieties/land race are presently being used for mutation breeding to reduce the effect of this devastating disease in Africa and irradiated plants are being selfed to generate M2 populations. Crosses of Latin American varieties having cream or deep yellow coloured-roots and crude protein contents of 3-8%.were made to generate populations with combined enhanced beta carotene and high protein contents in cassava roots. A total of 1555 seeds were derived from 17 parents. They were genotyped in marker-assisted selection (MAS) for resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) using one SSR marker, NS158 and a SCAR marker, RME 1. Fourteen percent (138 plants) were selected for CMD resistance and are being evaluated in the breeding scheme. Delayed post harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) have been introgressed from Manihot Walkerae and and backcross populations developed. About 150 SSR polymorphic markers were used for mapping in delayed PPD population resulting in the identification of three putative markers for this trait. A BC2 population for delayed PPD and CMD resistance have been developed. Initial results obtained with irradiated germplasm indicates that induced mutation can rapidly facilitate the development of value-added traits in cassava. The development of new populations for root quality traits using parental lines from Latin America in combination with MAS are also contributing immensely in the breeding for

  19. Tempo de cozimento e textura de raízes de mandioca Cooking time and texture of cassava roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Vilela Talma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adequação de medidas instrumentais de textura como índice de qualidade de raízes da mandioca de mesa e sua correlação com o tempo de cozimento. Quinze raízes de mandioca foram colhidas no 11.º mês de cultivo na região noroeste fluminense. Pedaços de raízes foram cozidos em água, sendo o tempo de cozimento determinado, em triplicata, quando se observou pouca resistência à penetração do garfo. A resistência ao corte foi realizada nas polpas cruas e cozidas, em cinco a nove repetições, operando o texturômetro TA. XT Plus Texture Analyser com probe Warner-Bratzler Blade HDP/BSW, velocidades de pré-teste de 0,2 cm/s, de pós-teste e de teste de 0,5 cm/s, e distância de 5 cm. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA e teste de média Tukey (tempo de cozimento; GLM, LSMEANS e PDIFF (resistência ao corte e análise de correlação de Pearson (p The objective of this work was to evaluate the adequacy of instrumental texture analyses as a quality index for cassava roots for direct consumption, and the correlation with cooking time. Fifteen cassava roots were harvested in the eleventh month of growth in the northwest of the State of Rio de Janeiro. Pieces of roots were boiled in water and the cooking time determined in triplicate, to the point where there was little resistance to penetration by a fork. The shear strength was determined in the raw and cooked pulps with five to nine replicates, using the texturometer TA-XT Plus Texture Analyser with the Warner-Bratzler Blade HDP / BSW probe, a pre-test speed of 0.2 cm/s, post-test and test speed of 0.5 cm/s and distance of 5 cm. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey (cooking time, GLM, LSMEANS and PDIFF (shear resistance and Pearson's correlation analysis (p < 0.05. The variety Viçosa Martinha stood out due to its shorter cooking time (18 minutes and lower shear resistance values for the raw (10.6 N and cooked (0.7 N pulps. With the exception of

  20. Biological implications in cassava for the production of amylose-free starch: impact on root yield and related traits.

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda eKarlström; Sandra eSalazar; Fernando eCalle; Nelson eMorante; Dominique eDufour; Hernán eCeballos

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an important food security crop, but it is becoming an important raw material for different industrial applications. Cassava is the second most important source of starch worldwide. Novel starch properties are of interest to the starch industry, and one them is the recently identified amylose-free (waxy) cassava starch. Waxy mutants have been found in different crops and have been often associated with a yield penalty. There are ongoing efforts to develo...

  1. Biological Implications in Cassava for the Production of Amylose-Free Starch: Impact on Root Yield and Related Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Karlström, Amanda; Calle, Fernando; Salazar, Sandra; Morante, Nelson; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an important food security crop, but it is becoming an important raw material for different industrial applications. Cassava is the second most important source of starch worldwide. Novel starch properties are of interest to the starch industry, and one them is the recently identified amylose-free (waxy) cassava starch. Waxy mutants have been found in different crops and have been often associated with a yield penalty. There are ongoing efforts to develo...

  2. Use of dried cassava root to replace corn in supplementation of Holstein cows grazing and consuming spontaneously, apparent digestibility and energy metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádler Carvalho da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of this experiment intended to evaluate the effect of replacing ground corn for dried and ground cassava roots with the levels of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% in the experimental supplements for lactating cows kept on tropical irrigated and fertilized pastures. Ten Holstein cows were divided into two 5x5 Latin squares, with an initial lactation average of 150 days, 22 kg/day of average milk production of lactation and approximate initial average body eight of 603 kg. The animals were kept in pasture constituted by elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, SCHUM cv Pioneer, associated with Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis, irrigated and fertilized with 600 kg of nitrogen per hectare/year. No significant effects on the substitution of ground corn for dried and ground cassava roots in the concentrate (P>0.05 over the spontaneous consumption of the total diet, with estimated average of 20.61 kg/DM/animal/day, apparent digestibility of DM with estimated average of 59.60% and energy balance with estimated average of +6.36 Mcal day-1. The results of this study demonstrate that the cassava root can be used as an energy source of high nutritional value for supplementation of lactating cows grazing on tropical pastures, similar to corn results.

  3. Effect of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat bread after storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo, Maria; Svanberg, Ulf; Ahrné, Lilia

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat (ratio 40:10:50) reference bread during storage. Added hydrocolloids were carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and high methoxyl pectin (HM pectin) at a 3% level (w/w) and/or the emulsifiers diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides (DATEM), lecithin (LC), and monoglycerides (MG) at a 0.3% level (w/w). After 4 days of storage, composite breads with MG had comparatively lower crumb moisture while crumb density was similar in all breads. The reference bread crumb firmness was 33.4 N, which was reduced with an addition of DATEM (23.0 N), MG (29.8 N), CMC (24.6 N) or HM pectin (22.4 N). However, the CMC/DATEM, CMC/LC, and HM pectin/DATEM combinations further reduced crumb firmness to cassava-maize-wheat breads. PMID:27386112

  4. Changes in scopoletin concentration in cassava chips from four varieties during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnonlonfin, Gbemenou Joselin Benoit; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Gbenou, Joachim D.;

    2011-01-01

    pathway, during the time course of postharvest deterioration. In this investigation the scopoletin level in parenchymal samples of four cassava cultivars used in Benin, i.e. Kpaki kpika, Kpaki soan, Logoguesse kotorou and BEN 86052, was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)....

  5. Global root zone storage capacity from satellite-based evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Bastiaanssen, Wim G. M.; Gao, Hongkai; Jägermeyr, Jonas; Senay, Gabriel B.; van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Guerschman, Juan P.; Keys, Patrick W.; Gordon, Line J.; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2016-04-01

    This study presents an "Earth observation-based" method for estimating root zone storage capacity - a critical, yet uncertain parameter in hydrological and land surface modelling. By assuming that vegetation optimises its root zone storage capacity to bridge critical dry periods, we were able to use state-of-the-art satellite-based evaporation data computed with independent energy balance equations to derive gridded root zone storage capacity at global scale. This approach does not require soil or vegetation information, is model independent, and is in principle scale independent. In contrast to a traditional look-up table approach, our method captures the variability in root zone storage capacity within land cover types, including in rainforests where direct measurements of root depths otherwise are scarce. Implementing the estimated root zone storage capacity in the global hydrological model STEAM (Simple Terrestrial Evaporation to Atmosphere Model) improved evaporation simulation overall, and in particular during the least evaporating months in sub-humid to humid regions with moderate to high seasonality. Our results suggest that several forest types are able to create a large storage to buffer for severe droughts (with a very long return period), in contrast to, for example, savannahs and woody savannahs (medium length return period), as well as grasslands, shrublands, and croplands (very short return period). The presented method to estimate root zone storage capacity eliminates the need for poor resolution soil and rooting depth data that form a limitation for achieving progress in the global land surface modelling community.

  6. Regulation of starch synthesis in cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Baguma, Yona

    2004-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a root crop, one of the world’s most important but under-exploited staple food crops and source of income. It is a high starch producer with levels between 73.7 and 84.9% of its total storage root dry weight. Increasingly, there is a need for diverse novel starches for both food and non-food applications. In response, sbeII encoding starch branching enzyme II was cloned. The relationship between spatial-temporal expression patterns of starch synthesis gen...

  7. Molecular genetic tools to modulate post-harvest physiology in cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within 24-72 hours of harvest the starchy storage roots of cassava deteriorate rapidly depending on variety and environmental conditions. This post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) necessitates their prompt consumption or processing. In traditional village society, cassava roots are left in the ground until required; but, with increased urbanisation and the entry of cassava into the cash economy, distances have increased and PPD has become a major constraint to the development of this important crop, which impacts on farmers, processors and consumers alike. Improvement of cassava with respect to its PPD response via breeding is fraught with difficulties due to the high heterozygosity of the crop, a strong association between PPD and high dry matter content, and a high genetic X environment interaction. Molecular genetic tools may offer alternative approaches via insights into the PPD response itself, the provision of molecular markers for use in marker assisted selection and via the direct manipulation of the cassava genome. cDNA microarrays identify 73 genes whose expression changes significantly during the time-course of PPD; these clones are available to the cassava community for mapping or other research. These data support the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species mediated programmed cell death is at the heart of the PPD response. Currently we are further testing this hypothesis through the genetic modification of cassava using genes with the ability to alter the reactive oxygen defence status of the roots or to enhance the root's antiprogrammed cell death response. These modifications have the potential to extend the shelf-life of the cassava roots and ultimately to benefit resource-poor farmers. (author)

  8. Tuberous Roots Yield, Transpiration Rate, Stomatal Conductance and Water Use Efficiency of Divergent Cassava Clones as Influenced by Climate and Growth Stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava roots provide a cheap source of dietary energy to millions of people in the tropics. Variations in yield, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and water use efficiency occur due to various factors. This makes selection of clones with wide ecological adaptation and high yield difficult. The influence of crop age and agroecozones (AEZ) in Nigeria on above parametres were studied. The tested AEZs were Sudan savanna (Minjibir), Southern Guinea savanna (Mokwa) and forest-savanna transition (Ibadan) AEZ. The environment plays a significant role in determining root yield with plant age playing a bigger role at the early stages. Results suggest root development was restricted by low moisture stress. Cassava ought to be harvested at eight months after planting (MAP) rather than at 12 MAP in order to obtain maximum yields. Yields at Mokwa were significantly higher than both Minjibir and Ibadan suggesting that cassava is not a crop for either forest or semi arid zones. During both seasons Minjbir had the highest stomatal conductance trend while Ibadan had the lowest. Stomatal conductance at Minjibir becomes critical at 12 MAP. The highest transpiration rate was recorded at Minijibir at 4 and 12 MAP. The lowest transpiration rate ws observed at Ibadan. The lowest transpiration rate was also observed during drought. There was a close positive close relationship between tuberous roots yield and transpiration. The lowest and highest water use efficiency (WUE) was recorded at 4 and 8 MAP during rains. The lowest and the highest WUE was recorded at Ibadan and Mokwa respectively. The two seasons trends were similar. Clone TMS 50395 had the highest WUE. Tere was close positive relationship between WUE and tuberous roots yield

  9. THE USE OF CASSAVA ROOT MEAL AS A PARTIAL REPLACEMENT FOR CORN IN DIETS FOR ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Nii NARKU NORTEY

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to determine if partial replacement of maize with cassava root meal (CRM in diets for albino rats will have an effect on performance, organ characteristics and blood parameters. Twenty five Sprague Dawley albino rats (F344 strain, initial body weight (216 ± 8g were randomly assigned to five treatments (T1 to T5 in a completely randomized (CRD arrangement. T1 was the control and contained zero CRM. T2 and T3 contained 30% CRM, while T4 and T5 contained 45% CRM. These levels of inclusion represented 50 and 75% replacement of corn in the diets respectively. T2 and T4 had 0.15% methionine (Met while T3 and T5 had 0.3% Met. The rats were each fed a single diet for 28d. Average daily feed intake (ADFI of rats on T1 was lower (P 0.05 in average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion efficiency (FCE. Similarly there were no differences (P>0.05 in carcass, viscera and other internal organ weights. Results of this trial indicate that albino rats can tolerate diets with added CRM (45% of the diet with no adverse effects on growth and internal organ characteristics. Future work will need to look at the possibility of using CRM at similar or higher levels in diets for growing pigs.

  10. Partical replacement of the rooting procedure of Chrysanthenum merifolium cuttings by pre-rooting storage in the dark.

    OpenAIRE

    Pol, van der, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Part of the rooting procedure of Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Pink Boston' and 'Refour' cuttings can be replaced by pre-rooting storage in the dark. Pre-rooting storage of 7 days at temperatures between 9° and 21°C was adequate. Longer periods of dark storage resulted in increase of root growth but also in severe senescence of the basal leaves.

  11. Nutritional composition of fufu analog flour produced from Cassava root (Manihot esculenta) and Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) tuber

    OpenAIRE

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P.; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B; Oladiran, Dolapo A.; Akande, Ebunoluwa O.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Nutritional properties of fufu analog produced from co‐processing of cassava and cocoyam were studied. Cassava and cocoyam were fermented for 72 h, dried to obtain fufu flour. Proximate, functional, minerals, antinutritional factor, pasting properties, and sensory evaluation of various samples were determined. The results revealed that the moisture contents of the samples showed significant difference from control with values between 6.50 and 7.30%. The protein contents (1.68–4.98%),...

  12. Cassava root husks powder as green adsorbent for the removal of Cu(II) from natural river water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgetto, A.O.; Silva, R.I.V.; Saeki, M.J.; Barbosa, R.C. [IB-UNESP, Dept. Química e Bioquímica, C.P. 510, 18618-000 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Martines, M.A.U. [UFMS – Dept. Química, 79074-460 Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Jorge, S.M.A.; Silva, A.C.P. [IB-UNESP, Dept. Química e Bioquímica, C.P. 510, 18618-000 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Schneider, J.F. [USP – Instituto de Física de São Carlos, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Castro, G.R., E-mail: castrogr@ibb.unesp.br [IB-UNESP, Dept. Química e Bioquímica, C.P. 510, 18618-000 Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    Through a series of simple processes, cassava root husks were turned into a fine powder of controlled particle size (63–75 μm). FTIR spectrum demonstrated the existence of alcohol, amine and carboxylic groups; and elemental analysis confirmed the presence of elements of interest such as sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen. Cross-polarized {"1H}-{sup 13}C NMR technique indicated the existence of methionine and thiamine through the signals observed at 55 ppm and 54 ppm, respectively, and the point of zero charge (pH{sub pzc}) was achieved at pH 5.2. The material was applied in solid-phase extraction of Cu(II) via batch experiments. Optimum adsorption pH was found to be in range of 3–6 and in the kinetic experiment the equilibrium was attained in 1 min. The highest adsorption capacity was 0.14 mmol g{sup −1}. The adsorption data were fit to the modified Langmuir equation, and the maximum amount of metal species extracted from the solution, N{sub s}, was determined to be ∼0.14 mmol g{sup −1}, which is an indicative that the main adsorption mechanism is through chemisorption. Under optimized conditions, the material was utilized in preconcentration experiments, which culminated in an enrichment factor of 41.3-fold. With the aid of the enrichment factor, experiments were carried out to determine the Cu(II) content in tap water and natural water. Preconcentration method was also applied to a certified reference material (1643e) and the concentration found was 23.03 ± 0.79 μg L{sup −1}, whereas the specified Cu(II) concentration was 22.7 ± 0.31 μg L{sup −1}.

  13. Cassava root husks powder as green adsorbent for the removal of Cu(II) from natural river water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgetto, A. O.; Silva, R. I. V.; Saeki, M. J.; Barbosa, R. C.; Martines, M. A. U.; Jorge, S. M. A.; Silva, A. C. P.; Schneider, J. F.; Castro, G. R.

    2014-01-01

    Through a series of simple processes, cassava root husks were turned into a fine powder of controlled particle size (63-75 μm). FTIR spectrum demonstrated the existence of alcohol, amine and carboxylic groups; and elemental analysis confirmed the presence of elements of interest such as sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen. Cross-polarized {1H}13C NMR technique indicated the existence of methionine and thiamine through the signals observed at 55 ppm and 54 ppm, respectively, and the point of zero charge (pHpzc) was achieved at pH 5.2. The material was applied in solid-phase extraction of Cu(II) via batch experiments. Optimum adsorption pH was found to be in range of 3-6 and in the kinetic experiment the equilibrium was attained in 1 min. The highest adsorption capacity was 0.14 mmol g-1. The adsorption data were fit to the modified Langmuir equation, and the maximum amount of metal species extracted from the solution, Ns, was determined to be ˜0.14 mmol g-1, which is an indicative that the main adsorption mechanism is through chemisorption. Under optimized conditions, the material was utilized in preconcentration experiments, which culminated in an enrichment factor of 41.3-fold. With the aid of the enrichment factor, experiments were carried out to determine the Cu(II) content in tap water and natural water. Preconcentration method was also applied to a certified reference material (1643e) and the concentration found was 23.03 ± 0.79 μg L-1, whereas the specified Cu(II) concentration was 22.7 ± 0.31 μg L-1.

  14. Solid Substrate Fermentation of Cassava Peel for Poultry Feed Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassava peel which is not used during cassava starch extraction is one of potential resources for animal feed. However, cassava peel has low level protein content, high level crude fiber, and high level of toxic cyanogenic compound. These problems limit the utilization of cassava peel as feed. Solid substrate fermentation using mold may be a solution process to increase its nutritional value and decrease toxic level of cassava peel. In this paper, matters that related with cassava peel fermentation process are subsequently described, namely: (i problems of cassava peel; (ii biodegradation and detoxification process; (iii solid state fermentation methods on cassava peel; (iv nutritional quality of fermented cassava peel; and (v application of fermented cassava peel in poultry feed. The fermented cassava peel application is compared with those of cassava root and waste (onggok. Addition of nitrogen inorganic in the fermentation process increases the mold growth and protein content of the product, while fiber and cyanogenic contents are decreased due to mold degradation activity. The fermentation process may be carried out using only the cassava peel as the substrate or mixed with wheat flour, using indigenous microbes, Aspergillus niger or a white rot fungus, Panus tigrinus as inoculum. As well as fermented cassava root and waste, fermented cassava peel can be used to substitute maize as poultry feed, although it is reported that the optimum substitution in broiler ration is only 10%.

  15. Food technologies and developing countries: a processing method for making edible the highly toxic cassava roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Lambri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to be a possible solution to the food crisis becoming a productive model to follow, the development of a process and/or a technique of food production in a developing country could create advantages from an industrial point of view due to the use of alternative raw materials, which have a potentially high competitiveness. In developing countries, agriculture is able to offer a variety of products making up the daily diet and provide products with potential that could make up for many nutritional deficiencies to which resident populations are subject. Food technology applications on cereals, tubers, roots, fruits, and by-products from related processes are reported at aiming to obtain finished and semi-finished foods and/or basic ingredients meeting the food safety criteria. In detail, this study aims to generate a processing method for the white bitter roots collected in a rural area of Burundi with a cyanogenic glycoside content >400 mg cyanide equivalent/kg dry weight. A standardised procedure consisting of peeling, grating, and oven drying at 60°C, with or without fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was successfully tested.

  16. SCREENING OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF CRUDE WATER EXTRACT OF DIFFERENT CASSAVA VARIETIES

    OpenAIRE

    Olajumoke Oke FAYINMINNU; Olubunmi Omowunmi FADINA; Alex Adeoluwa ADEDAPO

    2013-01-01

    Chemical composition of three sources of crude cassava water extract (CCWE) was evaluated in different varieties of cassava (MS6 Manihot Selection (local variety), TMS 30555 Tropical Manihot Selection (Improved variety) and Bulk (crude cassava water from cassava processing site). Crude cassava water extract from the pulp of cassava fresh roots was prepared and the chemical composition was determined in the analytical laboratory. The result of the analysis showed that, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) ...

  17. Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin levels in stored cassava chips as affected by processing practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essono, G.; Ayodele, M.; Akoa, A.;

    2009-01-01

    Cassava chips (cassava balls, and cassava pellets) are derived cassava products traditionally produced by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa following fermentation, and drying of fresh roots of cassava, and are widely consumed in Cameroon. Once produced, this food commodity can be stored for more than...

  18. Effects of processing, cooking, and storage on ß-carotene retention and bioaccessibility in biofortified cassava (Manihot esculenta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofortification of cassava with beta-carotene is currently being tested in African populations where cassava is a staple food and vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem. Measuring the impact of traditional African processing and cooking on beta-carotene concentration and bioaccessibility ...

  19. Enriching nutritive value of cassava root by yeast fermentation Enriquecimento do valor nutritivo da mandioca por fermentação com leveduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisada Boonnop

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta is extensively cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics regions due to its ability to grow in diverse soil conditions and minimal management. Experiments were made to study the cassava root fermentation by yeasts in order to enhance the nutritive value of their products (fresh pulp and chips. Both cassava chip (CC and fresh cassava root pulp (FCR samples were fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-liquid media fermentation conditions during 132 hours and dried at 30ºC. Products were analyzed for proximate composition, mineral composition, essential aminoacids and antinutrient content. There were increases (p A mandioca (Manihot esculenta é extensivamente cultivada nas regiões tropical e subtropical devido à sua habilidade de crescer em diveresas condições de clima e manejo. Experimentos foram efetuados para estudar o aumento do valor nutritivo de subprodutos derivados de raízes de mandioca (polpa fresca e raspas por processos de fermentação. Amostras de raspas (RM e de polpa fresca (PF foram fermentadas por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, em condições de meio sólido-líquido durante 132 horas e secas a 30ºC. Foram avaliados a composição aproximada, composição mineral, aminoácidos essenciais e conteúdo de antinutrientes dos produtos obtidos. Houve aumentos (p < 0.01 em proteínas (30,4% em RM e 13,5% in PF e conteúdo de gorduras (5,8% em RM e 3,0% in PF. Os subprodutos de mandioca fermentados por S. cerevisiae apresentaram baixos conteúdos de ácido hidrocianídrico (RM, 0,5 mg kg-1 e PF 47,3 mg kg-1. Houve aumento considerável de lisina nas raspas fermentadas (RMF. Valores aceitáveis de cor, textura e aroma das raspas de mandioca enriquecidas formam obtidos após 132 de bioprocessamento. Sugere-se que a RMF pode ser nutricionalmente melhorada para alimentação animal pelo uso de S. cerevisiae.

  20. Cassava is not a goitrogen in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the effect of cassava on the thyroid function of mice, the authors fed fresh cassava root to mice and compared this diet with low iodine diet and Purina. Cassava provided a low iodine intake and increased urine thiocyanate excretion and serum thiocyanate levels. Mice on cassava lost weight. The thyroid glands of mice on cassava were not enlarged, even when normalized for body weight. The 4- and 24-hr thyroid uptakes of mice on cassava were similar to those of mice on low iodine diets. Protein-bound [125I]iodine at 24 hr was high in mice on either the cassava or low iodine diets. The thyroid iodide trap (T/M) was similar in mice on cassava and low iodine diets. When thiocyanate was added in vitro to the incubation medium, T/M was reduced in all groups of mice; under these conditions, thiocyanate caused a dose-related inhibition of T/M. The serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations of mice on cassava were reduced compared with mice on Purina diet. Thyroid T4 and T3 contents of mice on cassava were relatively low compared with mice on Purina diet. Hepatic T3 content and T4 5'-monodeiodination in liver homogenates were reduced in mice on cassava compared with other groups. The data show that cassava does not cause goiter in mice. The thiocyanate formed from ingestation of cassava is insufficient to inhibit thyroid iodide transport or organification of iodide. The cassava diet leads to rapid turnover of hormonal iodine because it is a low iodine diet. It also impairs 5'-monodeiodination of T4 which may be related to nutritional deficiency. These data in mice do not support the concept that cassava per se has goitrogenic action in man

  1. Cassava For Space Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  2. Mechanical properties of sugar beet roots during harvest and storage

    OpenAIRE

    Puchalski C.; Gorzelany J.

    2000-01-01

    Comparative study of root mechanical properties of four sugar beet cultivars over harvest and storage periods in the conditions of static loads were carried out including determination of some mechanical parameters of beet root skin in two measurement zones within the applicability range of the Hook’s law. Tests concerning the effect of cultivar and measurement zone on tested parameters were performed on a micro tensile tester, Zwick model 1425 in the Department of Agricultural Productio...

  3. Nutritional composition of fufu analog flour produced from Cassava root (Manihot esculenta) and Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) tuber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B; Oladiran, Dolapo A; Akande, Ebunoluwa O

    2015-11-01

    Nutritional properties of fufu analog produced from co-processing of cassava and cocoyam were studied. Cassava and cocoyam were fermented for 72 h, dried to obtain fufu flour. Proximate, functional, minerals, antinutritional factor, pasting properties, and sensory evaluation of various samples were determined. The results revealed that the moisture contents of the samples showed significant difference from control with values between 6.50 and 7.30%. The protein contents (1.68-4.98%), ash (1.84-4.01%), and crude fiber (1.42-4.56%) showed significant increase with increasing level of cocoyam, while the crude fat and carbohydrate reduced with increase in cocoyam. The minerals also increased with increase in cocoyam level with sample E having the highest value of Magnesium (32.15 mg/100 g). The antinutritional factors were very low and the pasting properties revealed the importance of cocoyam in the fufu analog produced. In conclusion, fufu produced from co-processing of cassava and cocoyam has more nutritional qualities than the common fufu made from cassava alone. PMID:26788301

  4. CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta crantz): AN AFFORDABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN DAIRY RATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    F.R., ANJOS; L. TIVANA; J. DA CRUZ FRANCISCO; S. M. KAGANDE

    2014-01-01

    The current paper explores the evidence that exists on the potential use of cassava plant (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as an energy source for dairy cattle. Several studies have proven cassava roots, leaves and processing residues to be an important ruminant animal feed resource. Cassava root chip and meal are a potentially good rumen fermentable energy for dairy cows in the tropics. The vegetative parts of cassava are considered to be wastes since human beings grow cassava for its tubers. Feed...

  5. Accounting Carbon Storage in Decaying Root Systems of Harvested Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, G. Geoff; Van Lear, David H.; Hu, Huifeng; Kapeluck, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    Decaying root systems of harvested trees can be a significant component of belowground carbon storage, especially in intensively managed forests where harvest occurs repeatedly in relatively short rotations. Based on destructive sampling of root systems of harvested loblolly pine trees, we estimated that root systems contained about 32% (17.2 Mg ha−1) at the time of harvest, and about 13% (6.1 Mg ha−1) of the soil organic carbon 10 years later. Based on the published roundwood output data, we...

  6. Genetic modification of cassava enhances starch production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Recently, a field test of transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) for enhanced starch production by the Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology & Ecology (SIPPE), the CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, proved successful. Through application of transgenic technologies in cassava, the starch quality of this tropical root crop was largely improved. The new cassava cultivars are believed to have a tremendous potential for industrial application in the future.

  7. Accounting carbon storage in decaying root systems of harvested forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G Geoff; Van Lear, David H; Hu, Huifeng; Kapeluck, Peter R

    2012-05-01

    Decaying root systems of harvested trees can be a significant component of belowground carbon storage, especially in intensively managed forests where harvest occurs repeatedly in relatively short rotations. Based on destructive sampling of root systems of harvested loblolly pine trees, we estimated that root systems contained about 32% (17.2 Mg ha(-1)) at the time of harvest, and about 13% (6.1 Mg ha(-1)) of the soil organic carbon 10 years later. Based on the published roundwood output data, we estimated belowground biomass at the time of harvest for loblolly-shortleaf pine forests harvested between 1995 and 2005 in South Carolina. We then calculated C that remained in the decomposing root systems in 2005 using the decay function developed for loblolly pine. Our calculations indicate that the amount of C stored in decaying roots of loblolly-shortleaf pine forests harvested between 1995 and 2005 in South Carolina was 7.1 Tg. Using a simple extrapolation method, we estimated 331.8 Tg C stored in the decomposing roots due to timber harvest from 1995 to 2005 in the conterminous USA. To fully account for the C stored in the decomposing roots of the US forests, future studies need (1) to quantify decay rates of coarse roots for major tree species in different regions, and (2) to develop a methodology that can determine C stock in decomposing roots resulting from natural mortality. PMID:22535427

  8. The effect of extrusion and drying on roller techniques concerning the rheological characteristics of rice-, corn-, sweet potato-, bean- and cassava root- and leaf- based composite flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Aristizábal Galvis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Promoting food security in Latin-America and the Caribbean is directly related to agricultural products. The region faces a food crisis which has reduced large population groups’ access to food. This work contributes to the study of obtaining precooked composite flour made from biofortified crops using protein, vitamin A and/or minerals. This study evaluated the effect of precooked flour’s composition and precooking on its solubility in water, water absorption capacity, consistency and viscosity; such flour was obtained by extrusion and drying on rollers. The composite flours were obtained from cassava roots, sweet potato tubers, corn, rice and bean grains and cassava leaves. Four composite flours were formulated taking four- to six-year-old children’s daily nutrient requirements (protein, iron, zinc and beta-carotenes as a basis. The extruder was operated at 90ºC, 300 rpm screw rotation speed, 17.64 g/min feed flow, with 30% moisture mixture. The dryer rollers were operated at 4 rpm roller rotation speed, 90ºC surface temperature and 1 mm separation between rollers. It was determined that flour dried on rollers led to more complete cooking and modified starch granule structure than precooking by extrusion, thereby producing flour having greater solubility in water, less water absorption, higher consistency and smaller viscosity, comparable to that of pattern flour.

  9. Effects of mulch on soil properties and on the performance of late season cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz on an acid ultisol in Southwestern Zaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutaladio, NB.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Mulch effects on soil temperature, soil moisture content, soil chemical properties, growth and development, yield and yield components of late season cassava were investigated for three years on an acid ultisol in the tropical sa vanna zone of Southwestern Zaire. Diurnal soil temperature and soil moisture content were recorded at 30-day intervals during the first 4 months of growth. Cassava growth and development were monitored a t3, 6 and 9 months after planting while yield and yield components were noted at 12 months after planting. After each cropping year, changes in soil chemical constituents were recorded. Mulching significantly reduced soil temperature by about 3.5°C and increased soil moisture content by 6.1 % under late season cassava. Soil pH, soil organic carbon content, total nitrogen, soil available phosphorus and soil exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K increased as a result of increase in organic matter with continuous application of mulch for 3 years. Plant height, leaf area, shoot and root dry weights of cassava plants given mulch were significantly increased as compared to the plants in unmulched plots. Cassava plants given mulch produced more and bigger storage roots than unmulched plants. Storage root yield increased by 16.7, 28.1 and 57.7 % respectively in the first, the second and the third years of mulch application. The beneficiai effect of mulching over no-mulching increased from year to year, irrespective of cassava cultivars.

  10. Evaluation of phenotypic stability of cassava clones by AMMI analysis in northwestern Paraná state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Kvitschal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High yield stability and adaptability of storage root are highly desirable attributes of cassava clones. Theobjective of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of the genotype x environment interaction (G x E and the stability ofcassava clones developed at IAC. A subset of eight cassava genotypes was chosen in trials of storage root yield, arranged ina randomized complete block design with four replications, in two counties (Araruna and Maringá, in the northwesternregion of Paraná State, over five growing seasons (1997-2001. The G x E interaction was evaluated by joint varianceanalysis and stability and adaptability by AMMI analysis. The G x E interaction was significant (P<0.05 for storage rootyield. Results indicated AMMI analysis as an efficient tool for the evaluation of phenotypic adaptability and stability of cassavaclones and IAC 190 as the most promising clone.

  11. The BioCassava Plus program: Biofortification of cassava for sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 250 million Africans rely on the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) as their staple source of calories. A typical cassava-based diet, however, provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein and only 10-20% of that for iron, zinc, and vitamin A. The BioCassav...

  12. Cassava biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  13. Action of gamma radiation in the physico-chemical and sensorial characteristics of minimally processed cassava (Manihot esculenta CRANTZ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays irradiation has been the most studied method of food conservation. The publication of thousand of papers, not just scientific but also technological, economical and social, have proved the technical validity of the irradiation method and showed the ways of how to introduce it in commercial facilities in ali countries of the modem world. Cassava is cultivated almost ali over the world and it is considered one of the most important nutritious sources of calories in human diet. Cassava is a viable food against starving in several poor areas of the world because it is an extremely resistant culture and may reach satisfactory economical yield. Cassava is a quite perishable root, characterized by fast post harvest deterioration. Because of the lack of researches about the effects of radiations in this root, the objective of the present work was to examine the gamma radiation coming from 60Cobalt as a treatment to prolong the shelflife of the root after harvesting, aiming to increase its period of commercialization and to conserve its sensorial characteristics for a longer period. Samples were washed, peeled, cleaned and diced cassava roots packed in polyethylene bags. The treatments were: control; freezing and storage at 18 deg C for 21 days; and irradiation with the doses of 8 and 10 kGy. The control and the irradiated samples were stored under ambient temperature during 21 days. All samples were analyzed at each 7 days for alterations in the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics. The samples were analyzed for pH, acidity, weight, humidity, texture and color. The irradiation did not affect the chemical characteristics of the cassava. Neither the pH nor the acidity, the most relevant variables to verify deterioration in cassava, presented significant alterations during the period of storage. Comparing the irradiated treatments, the dose of 8 kGy was that less affected the physic-chemical characteristics of the cassava and scored the highest notes in the

  14. Variação na qualidade culinária das raízes de mandioca Culinary quality variation in cassava roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Osmar Lorenzi

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A falta de regularidade na qualidade culinária das raízes de mandioca de mesa é um dos fatores de restrição à expansão de seu consumo. Raízes cozidas de boa qualidade, entre outras características, devem apresentar-se, quando esmagadas por um garfo, na forma de uma massa não encaroçada, plástica e não pegajosa. O tempo de cozimento culinário correlaciona-se bem com a qualidade da massa cozida, isto é, quanto menor esse tempo, melhor a massa gerada. Dessa forma, neste trabalho, a duração do tempo de cozimento (DTC foi usada como método indireto e expedito para avaliação da qualidade culinária das raízes de mandioca. Os fatores que interferem na DTC podem ser reunidos em dois grupos: (a intrínsecos: variação dentro e entre raízes da mesma planta e entre plantas da mesma variedade; (b extrínsecos: variação em função do genótipo, do ambiente e do estado fisiológico das plantas. Estudos preliminares realizados pelo Instituto Agronômico (IAC tiveram por objetivos verificar e quantificar a magnitude dessas variações. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos de campo, em dois solos distintos, utilizando cinco variedades amostradas mensalmente, do 7.° ao 15.° mês de idade das plantas. A DTC foi determinada a partir de água fervente, em subamostras de cada raiz da planta. Os resultados mais relevantes mostraram que: (a a DTC diminuiu, de 10 a 14 minutos, da base para a ponta da raiz; (b a amplitude média de variação entre as raízes de uma mesma planta foi de 11, 10 e 27 minutos, respectivamente, para plantas com 8, 12 e 15 meses; (c houve diferenças na DTC para variedades (9 minutos e para tipos de solo (17 minutos; (d o efeito médio de época de colheita foi de 19 minutos. O período de menor DTC foi do 7.° ao 12.° mês de idade das plantas.Irregular culinary quality of cassava roots has been one of the major point that restricts its expansion for human consumption. A good quality cassava root, after cooking

  15. LINAMARIN: THE TOXIC COMPOUND OF CASSAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. CEREDA

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a widely grown root crop which accumulates two cyanogenic glucosides, linamarin and lotaustralin. Linamarin accounts for more than 80% of the cassava cyanogenic glucosides. It is a ß-glucoside of acetone cyanohydrin and ethyl-methyl-ketone-cyanohydrin. Linamarin ß-linkage can only be broken under high pressure, high temperature and use of mineral acids, while its enzymatic break occurs easily. Linamarase, an endogenous cassava enzyme, can break this ß-linkage. The enzymatic reaction occurs under optimum conditions at 25ºC, at pH 5.5 to 6.0. Linamarin is present in all parts of the cassava plant, being more concentrated on the root and leaves. If the enzyme and substrate are joined, a good detoxification can occur. All the cassava plant species are known to contain cyanide. Toxicity caused by free cyanide (CN¯ has already been reported, while toxicity caused by glucoside has not. The lethal dose of CN¯ is 1 mg/kg of live weight; hence, cassava root classification into toxic and non-toxic depending on the amount of cyanide in the root. Should the cyanide content be high enough to exceed such a dose, the root is regarded as toxic. Values from 15 to 400 ppm (mg CN¯/kg of fresh weight of hydrocyanic acid in cassava roots have been mentioned in the literature. However, more frequent values in the interval 30 to 150 ppm have been observed. Processed cassava food consumed in Brazil is safe in regard to cyanide toxicity.

  16. Strategies for developing the cassava industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The centralization of the cassava industry in tropical (and especially African) countries should be considered as a very important part of general strategy directed to the provision of the population with nutritionally balanced cassava foods. The Irish model of the development of dairy industry during the last 45 years had been a classical example of small involved groups in dairy farming getting together to pool their resources and family requirements to make a common objective succeed. This model based on a co-operative concept could be recommended for the cassava producing areas in order to improve this industry. The identification of the research areas required to improve the quality of the cassava fermented food products is another important part of the cassava strategy. These areas should include (i) fundamental studies of the various bacterial groups involved in the fermentation process and identification of the key groups involved at the various stages of fermentation (ii) strain screening programmes of these identified bacteria to select those which are most important to the fermentation of cassava (iii) studies to determine the appropriate methods for the propagation and the storage of these strains and (iv) systems to distribute these strains to the industries/small farmers/local co-operatives in cassava processing. Other technological and research aspects of improvement of the traditional fermentation practice of cassava are discussed in the paper. (author)

  17. Data supporting the role of enzymes and polysaccharides during cassava postharvest physiological deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; da Costa Nunes, Eduardo; de Oliveira Neubert, Enilto; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    This data article is referred to the research article entitled The role of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and polysaccharides in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots under postharvest physiological deterioration by Uarrota et al. (2015). Food Chemistry 197, Part A, 737-746. The stress duo to PPD of cassava roots leads to the formation of ROS which are extremely harmful and accelerates cassava spoiling. To prevent or alleviate injuries from ROS, plants have evolved antioxidant systems that include non-enzymatic and enzymatic defence systems such as ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase and polysaccharides. In this data article can be found a dataset called "newdata", in RData format, with 60 observations and 06 variables. The first 02 variables (Samples and Cultivars) and the last 04, spectrophotometric data of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, tocopherol, total proteins and arcsined data of cassava PPD scoring. For further interpretation and analysis in R software, a report is also provided. Means of all variables and standard deviations are also provided in the Supplementary tables ("data.long3.RData, data.long4.RData and meansEnzymes.RData"), raw data of PPD scoring without transformation (PPDmeans.RData) and days of storage (days.RData) are also provided for data analysis reproducibility in R software. PMID:26900596

  18. Diversity in oil content and fatty acid profile in seeds of wild cassava germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the only commercial species of the Manihot genus, cultivated for its starchy tuber roots. However, cassava seeds are known to be rich in oils and fats, there are scant reports on the content and properties of oil from cassava seeds and its wild relatives. Wild Manihot ...

  19. Fitonematóides associados à rizosfera e raízes da mandioca cultivada em rotação com inhame cultivar da Costa Nematodes associated with rhizosphere and roots of cassava planted in rotation with yam crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon da Silva Garrido

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar as populações de fitonematóides associados à cultura da mandioca, plantada em sucessão à cultura do inhame, em 22 propriedades rurais do Recôncavo da Bahia. Adicionalmente, foram feitos testes de hospedabilidade com as variedades de mandioca 'Cigana' e 'Talo Roxo', ao nematóide Scutellonema bradys. Foram constatadas as presenças dos seguintes nematóides: Pratylenchus brachyurus, Scutellonema bradys, Meloidogyne incognita e Rotylenchulus reniformis, nas raízes e amostras de solo. Além dos nematóides, Tylenchus sp., Aphelenchus sp., Meloidogyne incognita, Mesocriconema sp., Aphelenchoides sp., Helicotylenchus presente apenas nas amostras de solos. O teste de hospedabilidade demostrou que as variedades de mandioca estudadas não são hospedeiras de Scutellonema bradys.The work had the objective of evaluating the population of plant parasitic nematodes associated with the cassava crop planted in succession to the yam crop was evaluated in 22 farming in the Recôncavo region of Bahia. Additionally, the hospitability of two cassava varieties 'Cigana' and 'Talo Roxo' to Scutellonema bradys. The following nematodes were found in cassava roots and soils: Pratylenchus brachyurus, Scutellonema bradys, Meloidogyne incognita, and Rotylenchulus reniformis, Tylenchus sp., Aphelenchus sp., Mesocriconema sp., Aphelenchoides sp., Helicotylenchus. Host status test show that the studied varieties are not hostesses of nematode Scutellonema bradys.

  20. Microbiologia de farinhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz durante o armazenamento Microbiology of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta Crantz during the storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândido Ferreira Neto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as características microbiológicas em farinhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz simples e temperadas, armazenadas durante 180 dias. Os materiais consistiram de cinco amostras, sendo uma de farinha de mandioca sem mistura (simples e as demais de farinhas de mandioca temperadas. A farinha simples foi embalada em sacos de polietileno de baixa densidade com capacidade de 1,0kg e as farinhas temperadas foram embaladas em sacos plásticos de polipropileno pigmentado, com capacidade 0,5kg. Em todas as amostras, foram realizadas contagens de coliformes fecais, Staphylococcus aureus, bactérias mesófilas, bolores e leveduras e pesquisa de Salmonella sp. As análises foram realizadas em intervalos de 30 dias. Não foram detectadas diferenças entre as características microbiológicas das amostras simples e das temperadas. O armazenamento não alterou os padrões microbiológicos das amostras. As amostras apresentaram esterilidade para coliformes fecais, Salmonella sp. e Staphylococcus aureus. Os valores encontrados para coliformes fecais, Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, bactérias mesófilas e para bolores e leveduras estavam dentro dos padrões fixados pela legislação brasileira.This work was accomplished with the aim of evaluating the microbiological characteristic in cassava flours (Manihot esculenta Crantz simple and temperate, stored during 180 days. The materials consisted of five samples, being one of cassava flour without mixture (simple and the others of temperate cassava flours. The simple flour was packed in polyethylen bags of low density with capacity of 1,0kg and the temperate flours were packed in colored polipropilen bags, with capacity of 0.5kg. In all the samples fecal coliformes, Staphylococcus aureus, mesophile bacterias, yeasts counting and Salmonella sp research were accomplished. The analyses were accomplished in intervals of 30 days. Differences were not

  1. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMY OF REPLACING MAIZE WITH COMBINATIONS OF BREWERS’ GRAINS, JACK BEAN AND CASSAVA ROOT MEAL IN BROILER FINISHER RATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Uchegbu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to determine the effect of complete replacement of maize with maize/sorghum-based brewers’ dried grains (MSBDG, jackbean (JB and cassava root meal (CRM on performance of finisher broilers and the feed cost implication of using these test materials as the major energy sources. Four experimental diets T1, T2, T3 and T4 were formulated to contain maize, MSBDG, JB and CRM in the following proportions 60, 0, 0, 0%; 0, 20, 15, 25%; 0, 20, 20, 20%, and 0, 20, 25, 15% respectively. Other ingredients were the same for the four diets. One hundred and sixty eight (168 4-week-old Hubbard broilers were divided into 4 treatment groups of 42 birds each; and each group subdivided into 3 replicates of 14 birds per replicate. Each treatment group was randomly assigned to an experimental diet in a completely randomized design (CRD experiment. The feed intake of T1, T2 and T4 birds were similar (P>0.05 but lower (P0.05 difference in daily weight gain between T1 (1.70g and T2 (1.55g birds. The feed conversion ratio of T1 birds was better (P<0.05 than T2, T3 and T4 birds. The feed cost of N195.58 for T4 required to produce 1kg meat was lower than the cost of N214.50 required for meat production in T1. Generally, the MSBDG/JB/CRM feeds produced 1kg meat at costs 6.17%, 3.71% and 8.82% for T2, T3 and T4 lower than the T1 diet.

  2. EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON THE CYANIDE CONTENT OF CASSAVA PRODUCTS IN FIJI

    OpenAIRE

    Chand Bandna

    2012-01-01

    In Fiji cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most important root crops. According to the 2004 National Nutrition Survey, 59.2% of the Fijian population consumes cassava on a daily basis while 31% of the Indian population consumes cassava on a weekly basis. Substantial quantity of anti-nutrient factor cyanogenic glucoside, linamarine and a small amount of lotaustralin is also present in cassava that interferes with digestion and uptake of nutrients. This study was ai...

  3. Effect of medium and post-irradiation storage on rooting of irradiated onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooting test for detection of irradiation in onion bulbs was studied. Onions were exposed to different dose levels of 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 Gy. The effects of irradiation dose, cultivar difference, rooting medium and post-irradiation storage on the rooting were investigated. The number and the length of the roots formed in onions were found to decrease on irradiation. The effect was more at higher doses. The effect of irradiation on rooting was also evident after 120 days of storage. (author)

  4. Genetic Background Research on RAPD of Cassava with Different Root Starch Phosphorus Contents%块根淀粉磷差异木薯种质资源的RAPD遗传背景研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凯; 蒋盛军

    2011-01-01

    通过RAPD遗传背景研究方法,从分子水平对木薯块根淀粉磷差异种质资源进行分析,为木薯块根淀粉高磷品种的选育打下基础.以国家木薯种质圃筛选出的30个块根淀粉磷差异木薯品种为材料,采用改良CTAB法提取DNA,通过18条RAPD引物对材料进行PCR扩增,利用NTSYS软件对扩增结果进行了遗传关系分析.结果表明:采用改良的CTAB法提取的DNA可以用于RAPD分析;利用18条RAPD引物扩增共得出条带131条,其中多态性条带126条,多态性百分率为96.2%;其中没有发现与磷含量相关的特异性条带,块根淀粉磷含量相近的木薯品种问不能明显聚类;30个品种间的遗传相似性系数GS大于0.71.通过对RAPD结果进行分析,未发现块根淀粉磷含量差异的木薯品种间存在明显的遗传关系,也未发现与磷元素差异相关的特异基因.%To analyze cassava resource with different phosphorus contents in root starch by using the RAPD genetic background research method from the molecular level, which would lay foundation for the cassava breeding with high phosphorus in root starch. We chose 30 selected cassava varieties with different phosphorus in root starch as the material, which were from the cassava germplasm nursery in the Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture. The improved CTAB method was used to extract DNA, and then was for PCR amplification through 18 RAPD primers. The amplification products were conducting the genetic relationship analysis by NTSYS software. The results showed that DNA extracted by the improved CTAB method could be used to do RAPD analysis. Using 18 RAPD primers totally obtained 131 amplification bands, of which were 126 polymorphic bands and the percentage of polymorphism was 96.2%. It didn' t find specific band related with phosphorus content. The cassava resources with similar phosphorus content in root starch can not significantly cluster. The

  5. Cassava leaves as protein source for pigs in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to evaluate the use of cassava leaves as protein sources for pigs when used at high levels in the diet, either in fresh form or with simplified methods of processing. In twenty cassava varieties taken from the upper part of the plant at the root

  6. Global root zone storage capacity from satellite-based evaporation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Bastiaanssen, Wim; Gao, Hongkai; Jägermeyr, Jonas; Senay, Gabriel; van Dijk, Albert; Guerschman, Juan; Keys, Patrick; Gordon, Line; Savenije, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    We present an "earth observation-based" method for estimating root zone storage capacity - a critical, yet uncertain parameter in hydrological and land surface modelling. By assuming that vegetation optimises its root zone storage capacity to bridge critical dry periods, we were able to use state-of-the-art satellite-based evaporation data computed with independent energy balance equations to derive gridded root zone storage capacity at global scale. This approach does not require soil or vegetation information, is model independent, and is in principle scale-independent. In contrast to traditional look-up table approaches, our method captures the variability in root zone storage capacity within land cover type, including in rainforests where direct measurements of root depth otherwise are scarce. Implementing the estimated root zone storage capacity in the global hydrological model STEAM improved evaporation simulation overall, and in particular during the least evaporating months in sub-humid to humid regions with moderate to high seasonality. We find that evergreen forests are able to create a large storage to buffer for extreme droughts (with a return period of up to 60 years), in contrast to short vegetation and crops (which seem to adapt to a drought return period of about 2 years). The presented method to estimate root zone storage capacity eliminates the need for soils and rooting depth information, which could be a game-changer in global land surface modelling.

  7. Influence of soil and climate on root zone storage capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer-Euser, Tanja; McMillan, Hilary K.; Hrachowitz, Markus; Winsemius, Hessel C.; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2016-03-01

    Root zone storage capacity (Sr) is an important variable for hydrology and climate studies, as it strongly influences the hydrological functioning of a catchment and, via evaporation, the local climate. Despite its importance, it remains difficult to obtain a well-founded catchment representative estimate. This study tests the hypothesis that vegetation adapts its Sr to create a buffer large enough to sustain the plant during drought conditions of a certain critical strength (with a certain probability of exceedance). Following this method, Sr can be estimated from precipitation and evaporative demand data. The results of this "climate-based method" are compared with traditional estimates from soil data for 32 catchments in New Zealand. The results show that the differences between catchments in climate-derived catchment representative Sr values are larger than for soil-derived Sr values. Using a model experiment, we show that the climate-derived Sr can better reproduce hydrological regime signatures for humid catchments; for more arid catchments, the soil and climate methods perform similarly. This makes the climate-based Sr a valuable addition for increasing hydrological understanding and reducing hydrological model uncertainty.

  8. Correlation of Chemical Compositions of Cassava Varieties to Their Resistance to Prostephanus truncatus Horn (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Osipitan, Adebola A.; Sangowusi, Victoria T.; Lawal, Omoniyi I.; Popoola, Kehinde O.

    2015-01-01

    The preference of cassava as a major host by Prostephanus truncatus Horn is a major constraint to ample production of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz and storage. This study analyzed the nutritional and secondary metabolite compositions in 15 cassava varieties, evaluated levels of damage and reproduction by P. truncatus, and assessed their resistance to attack. One hundred grams of dried cassava chips in 250-ml Kilner jars were infested with 10 adult larger grain borerof 0–10 days old and h...

  9. Cassava Commercialization in Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Donovan, Cynthia; Haggblade, Steven; Salegua, Venancio Alexandre; Cuambe, Constantino; Mudema, Joao; Tomo, Alda

    2011-01-01

    Cassava supplies roughly 30% of all calories consumed in Mozambique, making it the country’s most important food security crop. Over the past several decades, growing urbanization and shifting demand patterns have led to growing opportunities for cassava processing and commercialization. This paper examines the commercial dynamics in Mozambique’s cassava value chain as well as the food security implications of growing cassava commercialization.

  10. Influence of temperature and rooting-promoter on the formation of root-primodia and on the rooting of chrysanthemum cuttings under storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to promote rooting for direct planting cuttings in a lighting cultivation of chrysanthemum, we clarified the effects of light, temperature and term of storage of the cuttings, and analyzed ways of using rooting promoters as a pre-treatment of cuttings for root-primodia formation and rooting. Light as a pre-treatment had little effect, so it seemed to be not necessary for the formation of root primodia. The formation of the root-primodia was most hastened at 25 degrees C; inversely, it was slowed down at low temperatures, that is, the root-primodia were formed in four days at 25 degrees C, five days at 20 degrees C, and seven days at 15 degrees C. With the use of rooting promoters as a pre-treatment for the rooting of cuttings, the root-primodia were formed faster when the whole of cuttings were dipped in 40 mg/L solution of indelebutyric acid (IBA) than when the base of cuttings were dipped or sprayed 400 mg/L solution of IBA. It was appropriate that cuttings were dipped in IBA then put in in plastic-pots (7.5cm) vertically, packed in polyethylene-bags and stored in a corrugated carton box

  11. Utilização da raspa integral de mandioca na alimentação de coelhos Use of cassava root scrapings in the feeding of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cristiane Michelan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos com o objetivo de avaliar a utilização da raspa integral de mandioca (RIM para coelhos em crescimento. No ensaio de digestibilidade, foram utilizados 22 coelhos com 50 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos e 11 repetições. Foram utilizadas duas rações, uma ração-referência e uma teste, na qual a RIM substituiu 25% da MS da ração-referência. Os teores digestíveis de MS, PB, FDN, FDA, energia e amido (% MS foram, respectivamente, de 83,84; 1,89; 8,34 e 3,31%; 3.447 kcal/kg e 55,35%. No ensaio de desempenho, foram utilizados 180 coelhos no período de 35 a 70 dias de idade. Os coelhos foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% de RIM em substituição à energia digestível do milho e 15 repetições de dois animais por unidade experimental. No período de 35 a 50 dias de idade, houve efeito quadrático do fornecimento de RIM na dieta sobre a conversão alimentar. No período de 35 a 70 dias de idade, houve também efeito quadrático sobre o PV aos 70 dias, o ganho de peso diário, a conversão alimentar e o custo de ração/kg de ganho de PV. Efeito quadrático também foi observado para o peso da carcaça. Nos períodos de 35 a 50 e de 35 a 70 dias de idade, a conversão alimentar dos animais alimentados com as dietas com 20 e 100% de substituição do milho pela raspa de mandioca foi melhor em comparação à dos demais animais. A raspa integral de mandioca pode ser incorporada a rações para coelhos em crescimento em até 27,32% em substituição a 100% da energia digestível do milho.Two experiments were carried out with the objective to evaluate the use of cassava root scrapings (CRS for growing rabbits. In the digestibility assay, 22 rabbits with 50 days of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with two treatments and 11 replicates. Two diets were used, one as

  12. Comparison of three cyanogen assays for total cyanogens in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saka, J.D.K.; Mhone, A.R.K.; Brimer, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity and reproducibility of three methods for determining the total cyanogenic potential (CNp) of 7 fresh and processed cassava varieties were determined and compared. The total cyanogen content of fresh cassava roots and three cassava products (kondowole, makaka, and starch) were anal...

  13. Cassava based diets for sustainable ruminant production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2-4 months of growth. The stems with leaves are chopped into 3 to 5-cm lengths and then sun-dried for 2 to 3 d to attain DM of about 80 to 90%. Cassava hay contains a high level of protein (25% of DM) and a strategic amount of condensed tannins (CT) (4% of DM) and appreciable amount of essential minerals (e.g. Mg, K). In comparison with SBM, CH has a higher concentration of RUP, which is beneficial since it can supply total AA for absorption in the lower gut. The AA profiles of CH were relatively comparable with SBM while methionine in CH was higher. CT was generally higher in matured cassava leaf but was lower in CH harvested at younger stage. Reed reported that if CT in the feeds exceeded 6% of DM, it would reduce feed intake and overall digestibility. However, if CT is only 2 to 4% of DM, they would help to protect protein from rumen digestion, thereby increasing total by-pass protein. Feeding trials with different class of animals is shown. The data revealed that CH enhanced rumen fermentation and increased milk yield and composition. Furthermore, supplementation with CH to dairy cows could markedly reduce concentrate requirements. In addition, CH supplementation in dairy cattle could increase milk thiocyanate and thus, possibly enhance milk quality and storage, especially in smallholder-dairy farming. CT contained in cassava hay has also been shown to have potential for reducing gastrointestinal nematodes and therefore, acts as an anthelmintic agent. cassava can be formulated as a sole resource of nutritious diets for productive ruminants. Therefore, cassava has great potential to increase the productivity and profitability of sustainable livestock production especially under food-feed-system. (author)

  14. 双波长分光光度法测定木薯块根淀粉含量的动态变化%Time Course of Starch Content in Cassava Root Tuber Determined by Dual- Wavelength Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄惠芳; 罗燕春; 田益农; 付海天; 苏文潘; 彭靖茹; 黎萍; 黄强; 侯学文

    2012-01-01

    以双波长分光光度法测定SC201、SC205、GR891和GR911共4个木薯品种生育期块根中直链淀粉与支链淀粉含量的动态变化.结果表明,4个木薯品种块根直链淀粉的含量是随生育期的延长而逐渐增加的,而支链淀粉的含量却缓慢下降,支链淀粉/直链淀粉的比例呈现下降趋势,到12月份4个品种的这一比例已接近相同;以鲜重计的总淀粉含量,4个品种均呈逐渐增加的趋势;而以干重计的总淀粉含量的变化则4个品种表现不一致.研究初步揭示了木薯块根直链淀粉、支链淀粉和总淀粉含量的积累规律.%The time course of amylase and amylopectin content in root tuber of four cassava cultivars,SC201, SC205 ,GR891and GR911 ,were determined by dual - wavelength spectrophotometry. The results showed that;the am-ylose content of cassava root tuber of four cultivars gradually increase in the time course, however the amylopectin decreased along with the growth period, and the ratios of amylopectin/amylose of four cultivars were decreased continuously , by December, their ratios were very close to 1: 1. The starch content by fresh weight in four cultivars also increased , while the starch content by dry weight in four cultivars were different. This research revealed the accumulation rule of amylose, amylopectin and total starch of cassava root tuber.

  15. Multi-year survival of sugarbeet root maggot (Tetanops myopaeformis) larvae in cold storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbeet root maggots (Tetanops myopaeformis), as third-instar larvae have been successfully maintained in cold (6 ± 1ºC) storage for up to six years. To test the hypothesis that this long term survival in storage is facilitated by larvae undergoing prolonged diapause, comparative studies on respir...

  16. Internal Lipids of Sugarbeet Root Maggot (Tetanops myopaeformis) Larvae: Effects of Multi-year Cold Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbeet root maggots, Tetanops myopaeformis (Röder), survive more than five years of laboratory cold (6oC) storage as mature third-instar larvae. To quantify energy costs associated with prolonged storage, internal lipids of larvae stored for 1, 2, 3, and 5 years were compared and characterized wi...

  17. The Evolution of Root Zone Storage Capacity after Land Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijzink, Remko C.; Hutton, Christopher; Pechlivanidis, Ilias; Capell, René; Arheimer, Berit; Wagener, Thorsten; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Hrachowitz, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Root zone storage capacity forms a crucial parameter in ecosystem functioning as it is the key parameter that determines the partitioning between runoff and transpiration. There is increasing evidence from several case studies for specific plants that vegetation adapts to the critical situation of droughts. For example, trees will, on the long term, try to improve their internal hydraulic conductivity after droughts, for example by allocating more biomass for roots. In spite of this understanding, the water storage capacity in the root zone is often treated as constant in hydrological models. In this study, it was hypothesized that root zone storage capacities are altered by deforestation and the regrowth of the ecosystem. Three deforested sub catchments as well as not affected, nearby control catchments of the experimental forests of HJ Andrews and Hubbard Brook were selected for this purpose. Root zone storage capacities were on the one hand estimated by a climate-based approach similar to Gao et al. (2014), making use of simple water balance considerations to determine the evaporative demand of the system. In this way, the maximum deficit between evaporative demand and precipitation allows a robust estimation of the root zone storage capacity. On the other hand, three conceptual hydrological models (FLEX, HYPE, HYMOD) were calibrated in a moving window approach for all catchments. The obtained model parameter values representing the root zone storage capacities of the individual catchments for each moving window period were then compared to the estimates derived from climate data for the same periods. Model- and climate-derived estimates of root zone storage capacities both showed a similar evolution. In the deforested catchments, considerable reductions of the root zone storage capacities, compared to the pre-treatment situation and control catchments, were observed. In addition, the years after forest clearing were characterized by a gradual recovery of the

  18. CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta crantz: AN AFFORDABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN DAIRY RATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R., ANJOS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper explores the evidence that exists on the potential use of cassava plant (Manihot esculenta Crantz as an energy source for dairy cattle. Several studies have proven cassava roots, leaves and processing residues to be an important ruminant animal feed resource. Cassava root chip and meal are a potentially good rumen fermentable energy for dairy cows in the tropics. The vegetative parts of cassava are considered to be wastes since human beings grow cassava for its tubers. Feeding trials with cattle have shown cassava hay to have a dry matter intake levels DMI of around 3.2% of BW and a digestibility (71%. The hay also contains tannin-protein complexes that may be a good source of rumen un-degradable protein that will be available to the animal post-ruminally. It has also be shown that supplementing 1-2 kg/head/day of cassava to dairy cattle may go a long way in reducing feeding costs and significantly increasing milk quality and quantity produced. Cassava hay was also noted to be anthelminthic and therapeutic since it contains condensed tannins. Condensed tannins have been proven to reduce gastrointestinal nematodes. Use of cassava as a substitute of maize in dairy rations can significantly lower the feed costs in smallholder dairy farms in cassava producing countries like Mozambique. It was concluded that cassava is potentially an affordable substitute for conventional energy source for small scale dairy farmers.

  19. Cassava Genetic Transformation and its Application in Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Liu; Qijie Zheng; Qiuxiang Ma; Kranthi Kumar Gadidasu; Peng Zhang

    2011-01-01

    As a major source of food, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important root crop in the tropics and subtropics of Africa and Latin America, and serves as raw material for the production of starches and bioethanol in tropical Asia. Cassava improvement through genetic engineering not only overcomes the high heterozygosity and serious trait separation that occurs in its traditional breeding, but also quickly achieves improved target traits. Since the first report on genetic transformation in cassava in 1996, the technology has gradually matured over almost 15 years of development and has overcome cassava genotype constraints, changing from mode cultivars to farmer-preferred ones.Significant progress has been made in terms of an increased resistance to pests and diseases, biofortification, and improved starch quality,building on the fundamental knowledge and technologies related to planting, nutrition, and the processing of this important food crop that has often been neglected. Therefore, cassava has great potential in food security and bioenergy development worldwide.

  20. Impact of edible chitosan-cassava starch coatings enriched with Lippia gracilis Schauer genotype mixtures on the shelf life of guavas (Psidium guajava L.) during storage at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino, Alana Bezerra; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Santana, Luciana Cristina Lins de Aquino

    2015-03-15

    The effect of edible chitosan-cassava starch (CH-CS) coatings containing a mixture of Lippia gracilis Schauer genotypes (EOM) on the shelf life of guavas during storage at room temperature for 10 days was studied. Sixteen formulations were prepared with a range of chitosan and essential oil mixtures concentrations, and the in vitro antimicrobial activity was tested. Formulations containing 2.0% cassava starch, 2.0% chitosan and 1.0%, 2.0% or 3.0% EOM were most effective in inhibiting the growth of the majority of bacteria. The edible CH-CS coating and CH-CS with 1.0% (CH-CS-EOM1) or 3.0% EOM (CH-CS-EOM3) were added to guavas and the shelf life was evaluated. On the tenth day of storage, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and mould and yeast counts were statistically lower (pcoated fruits than CH-CS-coated fruits. In addition, fruits coated with CH-CS or CH-CS-EOM showed no significant changes of total soluble solids content, while CH-CS-EOM-coated fruits showed lower titratable acidity than CH-CS-coated fruits at the end of storage. CH-CS-EOM3-coated guavas showed lower a(∗) and b(∗) values and higher L(∗) and hue values than those with other coatings. PMID:25308649

  1. Effects of the soil aeration on nutrient absorption, 14C-assimilates distribution and storage root yield in sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. cv Lushu7 and Xushu18 as materials, the effect of the soil aeration on mineral nutrition absorption, 14C-assimilates distribution in storage roots and storage root yield were studied. The results showed that the improved soil aeration could increase the content of potassium, calcium, manganese, boron and zinc in leaves, increase the content of potassium and calcium in storage roots, decrease the content of manganese, boron and zinc in storage roots, improve the transportation of 14C-assimilates, increase the starch content of storage roots and significantly increase the storage root yield. The role of mineral elements on improving the transportation of 14C-assimilates was discussed

  2. Sweet potato cysteine proteases SPAE and SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsien-Jung; Liang, Shu-Hao; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Lin, Yaw-Huei

    2015-08-15

    Sweet potato sporamins are trypsin inhibitors and exhibit strong resistance to digestion by pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. In addition, they constitute the major storage proteins in the sweet potato and, after degradation, provide nitrogen as a nutrient for seedling regrowth in sprouting storage roots. In this report, four cysteine proteases-one asparaginyl endopeptidase (SPAE), two papain-like cysteine proteases (SPCP1 and SPCP2), and one granulin-containing cysteine protease (SPCP3)-were studied to determine their association with sporamin degradation in sprouting storage roots. Sporamin degradation became significant in the flesh of storage roots starting from week 4 after sprouting and this correlated with expression levels of SPAE and SPCP2, but not of SPCP1 and SPCP3. In the outer flesh near the skin, sporamin degradation was more evident and occurred earlier than in the inner flesh of storage roots. Degradation of sporamins in the outer flesh was inversely correlated with the distance of the storage root from the sprout. Exogenous application of SPAE and SPCP2, but not SPCP3, fusion proteins to crude extracts of the outer flesh (i.e., extracted from a depth of 0.3cm and within 2cm of one-week-old sprouts) promoted in vitro sporamin degradation in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment of SPAE and SPCP2 fusion proteins at 95°C for 5min prior to their application to the crude extracts reduced sporamin degradation. These data show that sweet potato asparaginyl endopeptidase SPAE and papain-like cysteine protease SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting. PMID:26363719

  3. Cassava Commercialization in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Kambewa, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Malawi continues to rely on maize for household food security. Policies to enhance food security continue to target maize production. Traditionally production and use of cassava was localized in lakeshore areas until the past two decades when maize production was increasingly affected by rainfall variability. Cassava as an alternate food crop has rapidly gained popularity and commercialization of the cassava sector is steadily taking off. Policy and institutional support to diversify the food...

  4. 保水剂对土壤理化性状和木薯产量影响研究%Effects of Water Retaining Agent on the Physical and Chemical Biological Character of Soil and the Root Tubers Yield of Cassava

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘纪霜; 罗兴录; 樊吴静; 黄冬飞; 杨鑫; 曾文丹

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of water retaining agent on the physical and chemical biological character of soil and the root tubers yield of cassava. The cassava cultivar‘Fuxuan 01’were used as materials. The water retaining agent was applied on three different levels of 0 kg/hm2, 20 kg/hm2 and 40 kg/hm2 in this experiment. The physical and chemical biological character of soil, the agronomic characters of cassava and the root tubers character of soil, the agronomic characters of cassava and the root tubers yield of cassava were analyzed during the experiment. The results showed that, the water retaining agent could improve physical and chemical biological character of soil, promote cassava growth and increase the yield of cassava. The facilitation of the 40 kg/hm2 water retaining agent was the best which the soil moisture, total porosity, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium increased respectively by 12.56%, 16.47%, 11.62%, 36.87%, 45.42%; the tree height, stem diameter increased respectively by 14.74%, 12.74%; the yield and economic income of cassava increased respectively by 36.96%and 22.15%. This showed that the water retaining agent play a positive role in improving physical and chemical biological character of soil, promoting cassava growth, increasing the yield and the economic benefit of cassava, it should be applied extends in the planting of cassava.%为探讨保水剂对土壤理化性状和木薯产量的影响,以木薯品种‘辐选01’为材料,在每公顷施用保水剂(0 kg,20 kg,40 kg)的处理下,研究保水剂不同用量对土壤理化性状、木薯农艺性状及产量的影响。结果表明:施用保水剂能改善土壤理化性状,促进木薯生长,提高木薯产量。其中以40 kg/hm2保水剂施用量效果最好,其土壤含水量、孔隙度、速效氮、速效磷、速效钾分别增加了12.56%、16.47%、11.62%、36.87%、45.42%;株高、茎粗分别增加了14.74%

  5. Biofuels and Biotechnology: Cassava (Manihot esculenta) as a Research Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, obtained from plants and their constituents, have recently received the world's attention as a true alternative to the global energy supply, mainly because they are cheaper and less contaminant of the environment than the currently used, non-renewable fossil fuels. Due to the pushing biofuel market, the world is currently experiencing an increase of agricultural land devoted to grow crops used to obtain them, like maize and sugar cane, as well as crops that have the potential to become new sources of biofuels. Similarly, this emerging market is boosting the basic research oriented towards obtaining better quality and yield in these crops. Plants that store high quantities of starch, simple sugars or oils, are the target of the biofuel industry, although the newest technologies use also cellulose as raw material to produce fuels. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is widely grown in the tropics and constitutes a staple food for approximately 10% of the world population. The high starch content of its storage roots, together with the use of conventional and non-conventional breeding turn this crop into an option to obtain better adapted varieties for ethanol production. This manuscript reviews the current state of biofuels worldwide and at the national level,and discusses the benefits and challenges faced in terms of effect on the environment and the human food chain. Finally, it discusses the potential of cassava as a source of raw material for obtaining biofuels in Colombia.

  6. Biofuels and Biotechnology: Cassava (Manihot esculenta) as a Research Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, obtained from plants and their constituents, have recently received the world's attention as a true alternative to the global energy supply, mainly because they are cheaper and less contaminant of the environment than the currently used, non-renewable fossil fuels. Due to the pushing biofuel market, the world is currently experiencing an increase of agricultural land devoted to grow crops used to obtain them, like maize and sugar cane, as well as crops that have the potential to become new sources of biofuels. Similarly, this emerging market is boosting the basic research oriented towards obtaining better quality and yield in these crops. Plants that store high quantities of starch, simple sugars or oils, are the target of the biofuel industry, although the newest technologies use also cellulose as raw material to produce fuels. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is widely grown in the tropics and constitutes a staple food for approximately 10% of the world population. The high starch content of its storage roots, together with the use of conventional and non-conventional breeding turn this crop into an option to obtain better adapted varieties for ethanol production. This manuscrip reviews the current state of biofuels worldwide and at the national level, and discusses the benefits and challenges faced in terms of effect on the environment and the human food chain. Finally, it discusses the potential of cassava as a source of raw material for obtaining biofuels in Colombia.

  7. Avaliação nutricional da silagem de raiz de mandioca contendo soja integral para leitões na fase inicial Nutritional evaluation of cassava root silage with or without whole soybean for nursery piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Augusto Alves da Silva

    2008-08-01

    raiz de mandioca, contendo ou não soja integral, apresentam bom valor nutritivo e podem ser utilizadas sem restrições na alimentação de leitões na fase inicial.Two experiments were carried out to determine nutritive value and verify performance of piglets fed diets with by cassava root silage with or without whole soybean. In the first experiment, 15 crossbred barrows with initial BW of 21.90 ± 2.54 kg were allotted to a split plot design, whole plot (animals and plot (time with five diets and six repetitions. Four cassava root silages were evaluated: without inoculant (CA, with inoculant (CI, with integral soy (CS, and with integral soy and inoculant (CSI. The digestible values of dry matter, protein and ether extract of CS and CSI silages and of starch, organic matter and energy andthe metabolizable energy were 80.95, 1.82, 75.01, 77.31%, 3,249 and 3,184 kcal/kg for CA; 82.30, 1.95, 74.65, 81.81%, 3,292 and 3,271 kcal/kg for CI; 80.08, 6.69, 2.35, 64.18, 79.25%, 3,452 and 3,370 kcal/kg for CS and 79.22, 6.73, 2.20, 66.79, 78.46%, 3,342 and 3,303 kcal/kg for CSI, respectively, based on 85.45% dry matter. The use of inoculant bacterial enzyme was not effective to improve nutrients digestibility. In the second experiment, 36 crossbred piglets with initial 14.67±1.07 kg BW were assigned to a completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (feed and weight classes, with six replications and two piglets per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a corn-soy meal based diet and other two diets with total cornreplacement by cassava root silage with or without whole soybean. The offer of cassava silage + soybean decreased average daily gain, while the cassava silage + soybean and corn-soy meal based diet worst feed:gain of the piglets. Cassava root silage, with or without whole soybean, showed higher nutritive value and could be used without restriction in piglet feeding in the initial phase.

  8. Produtividade de raízes de mandioca consorciada com milho e caupi em sistema orgânico Yield of cassava roots intercropped with corn and cowpea in an organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Pries Devide

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados sistemas orgânicos de produção de mandioca "de mesa", em Seropédica (RJ. O experimento constou dos seguintes tratamentos: monocultivo de mandioca (cv. IAC 576-70 e consórcios com milho experimental (cv. Eldorado, caupi (cv. Mauá e milho+caupi. O manejo orgânico foi padronizado e toda a área experimental irrigada durante o período de permanência do milho no sistema. Do milho, foram colhidas espigas verdes (imaturas e a parte aérea acamada na superfície do solo. O caupi foi incluído como adubo verde e cortado na floração, sendo mantidos os resíduos na superfície do solo. Ambos os consortes ocuparam as entrelinhas da mandioca, de modo alternado, semeados após a primeira capina da cultura principal. A cultivar IAC 576-70 mostrou-se adaptada ao manejo orgânico, com produtividade de raízes de padrão comercial próxima a 31 Mg ha-1. Não houve diferenças significativas entre o monocultivo e os três tipos de consórcios testados. A inclusão do milho representou potencial de renda adicional ao produtor, colhendo-se, em média, 18.125 espigas ha-1, o que correspondeu a 5,1 Mg ha-1. Os resíduos provenientes da roçada do caupi proporcionaram um aporte de biomassa fresca de 12 Mg ha-1, com uma expressiva contribuição em nitrogênio (cerca de 44 kg de N ha-1. A fabácea (leguminosa cobriu por completo as entrelinhas da mandioca, demonstrando seu potencial de controle à erosão e a ervas espontâneas. O consórcio triplo mostrou-se vantajoso tendo em vista que a receita obtida com a venda do milho verde justificaria os custos da irrigação, além dos benefícios da inclusão do caupi e da não interferência dos consortes na produtividade da mandioca.Organic systems were evaluated for cassava root production directed to human comsumption in natura, at Seropédica-RJ. Treatments consisted of: cassava ('IAC 576-70' in single cropping and its intercropping with corn ('Eldorado', cowpea ('Mauá' or corn plus cowpea

  9. Limitations of Cassava Bacterial Blight: New Advances Limitaciones de la bacteriosis vascular de yuca: Nuevos avances

    OpenAIRE

    Verdier Valérie; López Camilo; Restrepo Silvia

    2006-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta), a starchy root crop, constitutes the source of alimentation for over 600 million people worldwide. Cassava Bacterial Blight (CBB) is caused bythe bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam). This review will focus on the current knowledge on the molecular cassava-Xam interaction. We will present the different molecular techniques developed to assess the genetic diversity and dynamics of Xam populations. We will also present different methods developed for...

  10. Physiological and molecular characterization of drought responses and identification of candidate tolerance genes in cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Turyagyenda, Laban F.; Kizito, Elizabeth B.; Ferguson, Morag; Baguma, Yona; Agaba, Morris; Jagger J W Harvey; Osiru, David S. O.

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is an important root crop to resource-poor farmers in marginal areas, where its production faces drought stress constraints. Given the difficulties associated with cassava breeding, a molecular understanding of drought tolerance in cassava will help in the identification of markers for use in marker-assisted selection and genes for transgenic improvement of drought tolerance. This study was carried out to identify candidate drought-tolerance genes and expression-based markers of droug...

  11. CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CARCAÇA DE FRANGOS TIPO CAIPIRA ALIMENTADOS COM DIETAS CONTENDO FARINHA DE RAÍZES DE MANDIOCA CARCASS TRAITS OF FREE RANGE BROILER CHICKENS FED ON DIETS CONTAINING CASSAVA ROOT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Maciel Cardoso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    O experimento objetivou avaliar o rendimento de carcaça, cortes comerciais e vísceras comestíveis de frangos tipo caipira alimentados com rações contendo farinha de raízes de mandioca (FRM como fonte energética alternativa ao milho. Para tanto, dividiram-se, aleatoriamente, trezentos e vinte pintos, metade de cada sexo, em quatro tratamentos representados por rações isonutritivas com diferentes níveis de substituição de milho por FRM (0%, 18%, 36% e 53%. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial 4x2 (quatro níveis de inclusão de FRM e dois sexos, com quatro repetições por tratamento e vinte aves por unidade experimental. Aos 84 dias, as aves foram pesadas e abatidas após jejum de seis horas e, em seguida, sangradas, depenadas e evisceradas para avaliação do rendimento de carcaça, cortes e órgãos. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que a substituição de milho por FRM reduziu significativamente o peso ao abate, mas não afetou o rendimento de carcaça, cortes comerciais ou vísceras comestíveis e promoveu redução no acúmulo de gordura abdominal, podendo ser uma alternativa satisfatória quando a redução no custo da ração compensar a diminuição no peso final das aves.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Alimentos alternativos, avicultura, mandioca, rendimento de carcaça. 
    The experiment aimed to evaluate carcass yield, commercial cuts and edible organs of free range broiler chickens fed on rations containing cassava root flour as alternative energy source replacing corn. Three hundred and twenty one-day-old chicks, one half of each sex, were randomly assigned into four treatments represented by isonutritive rations with different levels of cassava root flour (0%, 18%, 36% e 53%. A completely randomized 4x2 factorial design (4 levels x 2 sexes was used, being four replicates per treatment, with twenty birds each. Avian were slaughtered at 84 days after fasted

  12. Alterações na qualidade de raízes de mandioca(Manihot esculenta Crantz minimamente processadas Quality alterations in cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz minimally processed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Alves

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A conservação pós-colheita das raízes de mandioca tem sido uma preocupação das indústrias e produtores, devido ao curto tempo de estocagem e a alta perecibilidade das raízes. Dois fenômenos são apontados como responsáveis pela deterioração das raízes, um de ordem fisiológica, provocando a perda inicial da qualidade por meio do desenvolvimento da descoloração vascular do tecido parenquimatoso, e o outro, de ordem microbiana, que se segue à fisiologia, responsável pela decomposição do produto. Dessa forma, com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a conservação das raízes de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, submetidas à higienização em água clorada e armazenadas em três tipos de embalagens, bandeja de isopor envolta em filme de policloreto de vinila (PVC, embalagem multicamada (poliéster Saram-13,5µ/polietileno-100µ com e sem vácuo e resfriadas (5 ± 0,5°C, mediante análises físico-químicas, microbiológicas, fisiológicas e sensoriais. A conservação de mandioca minimamente processada sob refrigeração para os tratamentos realizados, é possível diferenciando-se o período de armazenamento, sendo que para as amostras armazenadas em bandeja, o período de armazenamento foi de 7 dias, no selado e a vácuo foi de aproximadamente 24 dias, respectivamente.Post harvest of cassava roots has been a great concern in food industries and producers due to the short shelf life and high perishability. Several phenomena have been pointed out as responsible for root deterioration. Among them there are physiological aspects, that lead to losses in initial quality through vascular discoloration of parenchymatous tissue. On the other hand, phenomena from microbial origin, which follow the physiological alterations, are responsible for product decomposition. In this context, this work was aimed at investigating the conservation of cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz submitted to chlorinated water, and stored using

  13. Emissão de folhas e início de acumulação de amido em raízes de uma variedade de mandioca em função da época de plantio Leaf emergence and beginning of starch accumulation in roots of a cassava variety as a function of planting date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Schons

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O número de folhas acumulado (NF na haste principal está associado com o aparecimento de vários estádios de desenvolvimento da cultura da mandioca. O início de acumulação de amido (IAA nas raízes tuberosas da mandioca marca o início da translocação dos fotoassimilados para o principal órgão de reserva nessa espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o filocrono e identificar um indicador morfológico baseado no NF para o IAA em mandioca plantada em diferentes épocas. Um experimento a campo foi conduzido em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, com quatro épocas de plantio (28/09; 11/10; 16/11 e 27/12/2005. A variedade de mandioca usada foi a "RS 13", plantada em baldes de 12 litros, enterrados no espaçamento com 2,0 x 0,8m. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com 11 repetições. A soma térmica diária (STd, °C dia foi calculada a partir da emergência e acumulada por: STa = sigmaSTd. O IAA foi determinado nas plantas de cada balde quando uma raiz atingia um diâmetro de 1cm. O NF na data do IAA e o número final de folhas (NFF até o primeiro simpódio também foram determinados. O filocrono variou de 20,3 a 29,5°C dia folha-1 e seus valores foram maiores quanto mais tardio foi o plantio. O NFF variou entre as épocas de plantio, aumentando com o atraso do plantio. O NF no IAA foi similar nas quatro épocas de plantio e ocorreu quando, em média, o NF corresponde a 20,9 (±1,0 folhas.The accumulated number of leaves (NF on the main stem is related to the appearance of several developmental stages in cassava. The beginning of starch accumulation (IAA in the fibrous roots of cassava switches the source/sink ratio because of the translocation of photoassimilates to the major storage organ in this species. This study was aimed at estimating the phyllochron and identifing a morphological indicator based on NF for IAA in cassava grown in several planting dates. A field experiment was carried out in Santa Maria, RS

  14. Isolation and characterisation of starch biosynthesis genes from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munyikwa, T.R.I.

    1997-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical crop grown for its starchy thickened roots, mainly by peasant farmers, in the tropics, for whom it is a staple food. There is an increasing demand for the use of cassava in processed food and feed products, and in the paper and textile industries amon

  15. Gene-based Microsatellites for Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): Prevalence, Polymorphisms, and Cross-taxa Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a large...

  16. Petaminer: Using ROOT for efficient data storage in MySQL database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) experiments store Petabytes of event data and Terabytes of calibration data in ROOT files. The Petaminer project is developing a custom MySQL storage engine to enable the MySQL query processor to directly access experimental data stored in ROOT files. Our project is addressing the problem of efficient navigation to PetaBytes of HENP experimental data described with event-level TAG metadata, which is required by data intensive physics communities such as the LHC and RHIC experiments. Physicists need to be able to compose a metadata query and rapidly retrieve the set of matching events, where improved efficiency will facilitate the discovery process by permitting rapid iterations of data evaluation and retrieval. Our custom MySQL storage engine enables the MySQL query processor to directly access TAG data stored in ROOT TTrees. As ROOT TTrees are column-oriented, reading them directly provides improved performance over traditional row-oriented TAG databases. Leveraging the flexible and powerful SQL query language to access data stored in ROOT TTrees, the Petaminer approach enables rich MySQL index-building capabilities for further performance optimization.

  17. Natural genetic variation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) landraces as a tool for gene discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava landraces are the earliest form of the modern cultivars and represents the first step in cassava domestication. Our forward genetic analysis uses this resource to discover spontaneous mutations in the sucrose/starch and carotenoid synthesis/accumulation and to develop both evolutionary and breeding perspective of gene function related to those traits. Biochemical phenotype variants for the synthesis and accumulation of carotenoid, free sugar and starch were identified. Six subtractive cDNA libraries were prepared to construct a high quality (phred > 20) EST database with 1645 entries. Macroarray analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed gene aiming to identify candidate gene related to sugary phenotype. cDNA sequence for gene coding for specific enzymes in the two pathways were obtained. Gene expression analysis for coding specific enzymes was performed by RNA blot and Real Time PCR analysis. Chromoplastassociated proteins of yellow storage root were fractionated and a peptide sequence data base with 906 entries sequences (MASCOT validated) was constructed. For the sucrose/starch metabolism a sugary class of cassava was identified carrying mutation in the BEI and GBSS mutation. For the pigmented cassava a pink color phenotype showed absence of expression of the gene CasLYB while an intense yellow phenotype showed a down regulation of the gene CasHYb. Heat shock proteins were identified as the major proteins associated with chromoplast. Genetic diversity for the GBSS gene in the natural population identified 22 haplotype and a large nucleotide diversity in four subset of population. Single segregating population derived from F2, half sib and S1 population showed segregation for sugary phenotype (93% of the individuals), waxy phenotype (38% of the individuals) and glycogen like starch (2% of the individuals). Here we summarize our current results for the genetic analysis of this variants and recent progress in the direction of mapping of

  18. Natural Genetic Variation in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Landraces: A Tool for Gene Discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava landraces are the earliest form of the modern cultivars and represent the first step in cassava domestication. Our forward genetic analysis uses this resource to discover spontaneous mutations in the sucrose/ starch and carotenoid synthesis/accumulation and to develop both an evolutionary and breeding perspective of gene function related to those traits. Biochemical phenotype variants for the synthesis and accumulation of carotenoid, free sugar and starch were identified. Six subtractive cDNA libraries were prepared to construct a high quality (phred > 20) EST database with 1,645 entries. Macroarray and micro-array analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed genes aiming to identify candidate genes related to sugary phenotype and carotenoid diversity. cDNA sequence for gene coding for specific enzymes in the two pathways was obtained. Gene expression analysis for coding specific enzymes was performed by RNA blot and Real Time PCR analysis. Chromoplast-associated proteins of yellow storage root were fractionated and a peptide sequence database with 906 entries sequences (MASCOT validated) was constructed. For the sucrose/starch, metabolism a sugary class of cassava was identified, carrying a mutation in the BEI and GBSS genes. For the pigmented cassava, a pink color phenotype showed absence of expression of the gene CasLYB, while an intense yellow phenotype showed a down regulation of the gene CasHYb. Heat shock proteins were identified as the major proteins associated with carotenoid. Genetic diversity for the GBSS gene in the natural population identified 22 haplotypes and a large nucleotide diversity in four subsets of population. Single segregating population derived from F2, half-sibling and S1 population showed segregation for sugary phenotype (93% of individuals), waxy phenotype (38% of individuals) and glycogen like starch (2% of individuals). Here we summarize our current results for the genetic analysis of these variants and recent

  19. The Cassava Genome: Current Progress, Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochnik, Simon; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Desany, Brian; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Rodriguez, Fausto; Fauquet, Claude; Tohme, Joseph; Harkins, Timothy; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Rounsley, Steve

    2012-03-01

    The starchy swollen roots of cassava provide an essential food source for nearly a billion people, as well as possibilities for bioenergy, yet improvements to nutritional content and resistance to threatening diseases are currently impeded. A 454-based whole genome shotgun sequence has been assembled, which covers 69% of the predicted genome size and 96% of protein-coding gene space, with genome finishing underway. The predicted 30,666 genes and 3,485 alternate splice forms are supported by 1.4 M expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Maps based on simple sequence repeat (SSR)-, and EST-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) already exist. Thanks to the genome sequence, a high-density linkage map is currently being developed from a cross between two diverse cassava cultivars: one susceptible to cassava brown streak disease; the other resistant. An efficient genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach is being developed to catalog SNPs both within the mapping population and among diverse African farmer-preferred varieties of cassava. These resources will accelerate marker-assisted breeding programs, allowing improvements in disease-resistance and nutrition, and will help us understand the genetic basis for disease resistance. PMID:22523606

  20. Altered Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in the Maize Lc-Expressed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Affects Storage Root Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxia; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Min; Fan, Weijuan; Firon, Nurit; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Yuan, Ling; Zhang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    There is no direct evidence of the effect of lignin metabolism on early storage root development in sweet potato. In this study, we found that heterologous expression of the maize leaf color (Lc) gene in sweet potato increased anthocyanin pigment accumulation in the whole plant and resulted in reduced size with an increased length/width ratio, low yield and less starch content in the early storage roots. RT-PCR analysis revealed dramatic up-regulation of the genes involved in the lignin biosynthesis pathway in developing storage roots, leading to greater lignin content in the Lc transgenic lines, compared to the wild type. This was also evidenced by the enhanced lignification of vascular cells in the early storage roots. Furthermore, increased expression of the β-amylase gene in leaves and storage roots also accelerated starch degradation and increased the sugar use efficiency, providing more energy and carbohydrate sources for lignin biosynthesis in the Lc transgenic sweet potato. Lesser starch accumulation was observed in the developing storage roots at the initiation stage in the Lc plants. Our study provides experimental evidence of the basic carbohydrate metabolism underlying the development of storage roots, which is the transformation of lignin biosynthesis to starch biosynthesis. PMID:26727353

  1. Consumo e Digestibilidade Aparente Total e Parcial de Rações com Cana-de-açúcar, Casca e Raspa de Mandioca Ensiladas com Polpa Cítrica Intake and Total and Partial Apparent Digestibility of Rations with Sugar Cane, Cassava Hull and Cassava Root Ensiled with Citrus Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma de Freitas

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente total (DAT e parcial dos nutrientes das silagens de cana-de-açúcar (SCnPc, de raspa (SRpPc e de casca de mandioca (SCcPc ensiladas com polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP. A dieta basal foi constituída de silagem de milho com farelo de soja, participando com 60% da matéria seca (MS dos tratamentos com SRpPc e SCcPc. Foram utilizados novilhos mestiços, fistulados no rúmen e duodeno, num delineamento experimental em quadrado latino (4x4. A determinação do coeficiente de digestibilidade total e parcial dos nutrientes, a produção fecal e o fluxo duodenal de MS foram estimados a partir da fibra detergente ácido indigestível. Os consumos de MS e proteína bruta (PB (% PV foram superiores para a SMi (2,47 e 0,33, SCcPc (2,12 e 0,30 e SRpPc (1,88 e 0,27 em relação à SCnPc (1,38 e 0,19, respectivamente. As DAT da matéria seca (65,0%, matéria orgânica (66,9% e energia bruta (64,3% para a SRpPc foram superiores em relação às demais dietas, menos para a FDN (39,4%. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ruminal (CDR e intestinal (CDI da MS, MO e PB não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as dietas, somente o CDR da FDN (% ingerido apresentou valores superiores para SMi (43,5, SRpPc (39,3 e SCnPc (37,0, sobre a SCcPc (20,0. A utilização da silagem de raspa de mandioca adicionada da PCP mostrou-se uma alternativa de boa qualidade na alimentação de bovinos.The goal of this study was to evaluate the intake of nutrients and the total and partial apparent digestibility of sugar cane + citrus pulp (ScSCp, cassava hulls + citrus pulp (ChSCp and cassava root + citrus pulp (CrSCp silages. The basal diet with corn silage (CS and soybean meal composed 60% of the total dry matter of ChSCp and CrSCp treatments. Four castrated crossbred (HxZ steers were, canulated in the rumen and in the duodenum and confined according to 4x4 Latin Square design. For total and partial

  2. Towards the development of a chimera-free in vitro induced mutagenesis system in cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava, an herbaceous plant with starchy storage roots, has the potentials for being the cheapest source of starch for varied industries. To achieve this, the starch types must be clearly discriminated into either high preponderance of amylose or the other extreme of amylopectin content (waxy starch). Being a vegetative propagated crop with major crossing barriers, induced mutagenesis holds promise for modifying the starch characteristics of this crop. The efficiency of induced mutagenesis in a vegetative propagated crop such as cassava is severely limited by the occurrence of chimeras. To ameliorate this, the induced mutagenesis strategy must permit the regeneration of plants from one or a few cells that have been induced to mutate. We report the optimisation of protocols for the generation of plantlets from somatic embryos that were exposed to EMS. Different explants (buds and somatic embryos) of a cassava clone with high starch content were exposed to different doses (concentration and duration) of ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) with the aim of determining the optimal doses for generating induced mutants. A wide range of reactions to EMS, from slightly reduced plantlet regeneration to lethality, was observed leading to the determination of the optimum exposure treatment. The regenerated plantlets were transplanted to pots in the greenhouse for hardening and later transferred to the field. In order to achieve homozygousity of the mutation events, the putative mutants were selfed- crosses. The immature embryos were rescued (cultured on aseptic growth media) in order to speed-up the process of generating the mutant population as well as avoid the possibility of embryo abortion. The resulting plantlets were again subsequently hardened and transferred to the field. Currently, 610 plants, constituting the putative mutant population have been established in the field in Palmira, Colombia. As a pilot assay, this work has demonstrated the feasibility of combining EMS

  3. Isolamento, fracionamento e caracterização de paredes celulares de raízes de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz Isolation, fractionation and characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz root cell walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Tschopoko Pedroso Pereira

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante a cocção de mandiocas o amido é gelatinizado e as paredes celulares sofrem alterações físicas e químicas que modificam a coesão das células e causam o amaciamento dos tecidos. Isolar, fracionar e caracterizar paredes celulares durante o envelhecimento de raízes, de duas cultivares, foram os objetivos deste trabalho. O amido foi eliminado por tamização e hidrólise enzimática e o material de paredes celulares foi fracionado em celulose, hemicelulose e pectina. Quantitativamente celulose foi a maior fração constituindo entre 57,2 e 70% do material inicial de paredes celulares isoladas, seguido por pectina e hemicelulose. O material isolado como paredes celulares diminuiu com o tempo de plantio das raízes e a concentração de celulose foi menor no material isolado de raízes mais velhas. A fração pectina diferiu em concentração de açúcares entre raízes de idades diferentes, sendo mais alta em raízes mais velhas enquanto a concentração de ácidos urônicos diferiu entre idades e cultivares.During cooking of cassava tubers starch gelatinizes and there are physical-chemical alterations in cell wall material, reducing intercellular cohesion and softening the tissue, playing an important role in cooking time. Cell wall material from tubers at two harvesting ages of two cultivars were isolated, fractionated and evaluated. Starch was eliminated by wet sieving and enzymatic hydrolysis and the cell wall material was fractionated into cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. Quantitatively cellulose had the highest concentration varying from 57.2 to 70% of the initial isolated cell wall material, followed by pectin and hemicellulose. Cell wall material isolated decreased with the age of the roots and cellulose concentration decreased in the older roots. Pectin fraction differed in sugar concentration between roots of different ages, higher in older roots while for uronic acid content there were differences for age of roots and

  4. ROOT - A C++ Framework for Petabyte Data Storage, Statistical Analysis and Visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Naumann, Axel; Ballintijn, Maarten; Bellenot, Bertrand; Biskup, Marek; Brun, Rene; Buncic, Nenad; Canal, Philippe; Casadei, Diego; Couet, Olivier; Fine, Valery; Franco, Leandro; Ganis, Gerardo; Gheata, Andrei; Gonzalez~Maline, David; Goto, Masaharu; Iwaszkiewicz, Jan; Kreshuk, Anna; Marcos Segura, Diego; Maunder, Richard; Moneta, Lorenzo; Offermann, Eddy; Onuchin, Valeriy; Panacek, Suzanne; Rademakers, Fons; Russo, Paul; Tadel, Matevz

    2009-01-01

    ROOT is an object-oriented C++ framework conceived in the high-energy physics (HEP) community, designed for storing and analyzing petabytes of data in an efficient way. Any instance of a C++ class can be stored into a ROOT file in a machine-independent compressed binary format. In ROOT the TTree object container is optimized for statistical data analysis over very large data sets by using vertical data storage techniques. These containers can span a large number of files on local disks, the web, or a number of different shared file systems. In order to analyze this data, the user can chose out of a wide set of mathematical and statistical functions, including linear algebra classes, numerical algorithms such as integration and minimization, and various methods for performing regression analysis (fitting). In particular, the RooFit package allows the user to perform complex data modeling and fitting while the RooStats library provides abstractions and implementations for advance...

  5. Caracterização de isolados de Phytophthora drechsleri, agente causal da podridão mole de raízes de mandioca Characterization of Phytophthora drechsleri, the causal agent of cassava soft root rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima S. Muniz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar nove isolados de Phytophthora sp. obtidos de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, através da morfologia e morfometria das estruturas propagativas e crescimento micelial em diferentes temperaturas e avaliar sua patogenicidade. Os esporângios produzidos em extrato de solo não esterilizado mostraram-se ovóides, não papilados, persistentes, formados em esporangióforos não ramificados ou em simpódio, com dimensões de 24,6 - 57,4 µ x 14,8 - 37,7 µm e relação comprimento/largura de 1,0 - 2,6. Os clamidósporos foram raros. Os oósporos obtidos em cultura monospórica em V8 ágar eram apleuróticos, com 13,1 - 34,4 µm de diâmetro. Oogônios mostraram-se esféricos e mediram 19,7 - 41,0 µm de diâmetro; anterídios anfígenos, com dimensões de 8,2 - 24,6 µm x 8,2 - 19,7 µm. O maior diâmetro das colônias ocorreu a 25 ºC em V8 ágar. Os isolados patogênicos às plantas e raízes destacadas de mandioca inoculados foram identificados como Phytophthora drechsleri.Nine Phytophthora isolates from cassava (Manihot esculenta were characterized based on morphology and morphometry of propagative structures, growth at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ºC, and by evaluating its pathogenicity. Sporangia produced on nonsterile soil extract were ovoid, nonpapillate and persistent, formed in a sympodium or unbranched sporangiophores, 24.6 to 57.4 µm long x 14.8 to 37.7 µm wide, and length-breadth ratio was 1.0 - 2.6. Chlamydospores were rarely observed. Oospores produced in single spore culture on V8 agar medium were aplerotic, and 13.1 to 34.4 µm in diameter. Antheridia were amphigynous, measuring 8.2 - 24.6 µ x 8.2 - 19.7 µ ; oogonia ranged from 19.7 to 41.0 µm in diameter. Culture growth was greatest at 25 ºC in V8 agar medium. The isolates that were pathogenic to plants and detached roots of cassava were identified as Phytophthora drechsleri Tucker.

  6. Use of irradiation to extend shelf life of cassava tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh cassava tubers (manihot esculenta crantz) were gamma irradiated at 0, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 KGy doses using cobalt-60 source. A portion of the irradiated cassava tubers was stored at room temperature (25-30 degree C) and the rest was packed in polyethylene bags and stored in refrigerator (5 1 degree C). Samples were analyzed for moisture, crude protein, starch and fibers percentages. Rotting ratio and weight loss percentages were also determined. The results indicated that the irradiation with gamma-rays followed by refrigeration extended the shelf-life of cassava tubers being more than 21 days. The lowest value of weight loss of cassava tubers during storage was observed by gamma irradiation and cold storage. Moreover, the irradiation treatments had no effect on protein content of cassava tubers, while it decreased moisture, starch and fiber contents especially those subjected to 1 kGy. As for the interaction between gamma-irradiation doses and periods of storage the crude protein slightly increased while the moisture, starch and fibers showed a gradual decrease up to the end of storage period as compared to unirradiated ones. 4 tabs

  7. UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry and chemometric analysis as tools for carotenoids analysis in cassava genotypes (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    Moresco, Rodolfo; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Pereira, Aline; Tomazzoli, Maíra Maciel; Nunes, Eduardo da C.; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Gazzola, Jussara; Costa, Christopher Borges; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the metabolomics characterization focusing on the carotenoid composition of ten cassava (Manihot esculenta) genotypes cultivated in southern Brazil by UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography was performed. Cassava roots rich in -carotene are an important staple food for populations with risk of vitamin A deficiency. Cassava genotypes with high pro-vitamin A activity have been identified as a strategy to reduce the prevalenc...

  8. Physiological Investigation and Transcriptome Analysis of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)-Induced Dehydration Stress in Cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Lili Fu; Zehong Ding; Bingying Han; Wei Hu; Yajun Li; Jiaming Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is an important tropical and sub-tropical root crop that is adapted to drought environment. However, severe drought stress significantly influences biomass accumulation and starchy root production. The mechanism underlying drought-tolerance remains obscure in cassava. In this study, changes of physiological characters and gene transcriptome profiles were investigated under dehydration stress simulated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatments. Five traits, including peroxidase (POD) act...

  9. A unigene catalogue of 5700 expressed genes in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Camilo; Jorge, Véronique; Piégu, Benoît; Mba, Chickelu; Cortes, Diego; Restrepo, Silvia; Soto, Mauricio; Laudié, Michèle; Berger, Christel; Cooke, Richard; Delseny, Michel; Tohme, Joe; Verdier, Valérie

    2004-11-01

    Two economically important characters, starch content and cassava bacterial blight resistance, were targeted to generate a large collection of cassava ESTs. Two libraries were constructed from cassava root tissues of varieties with high and low starch contents. Other libraries were constructed from plant tissues challenged by the pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv.manihotis. We report here the single pass sequencing of 11,954 cDNA clones from the 5' ends, including 111 from the 3' ends. Cluster analysis permitted the identification of a unigene set of 5,700 sequences. Sequence analyses permitted the assignment of a putative functional category for 37% of sequences whereas approximately 16% sequences did not show any significant similarity with other proteins present in the database and therefore can be considered as cassava specific genes. A group of genes belonging to a large multigene family was identified. We characterize a set of genes detected only in infected libraries putatively involved in the defense response to pathogen infection. By comparing two libraries obtained from cultivars contrasting in their starch content a group of genes associated to starch biosynthesis and differentially expressed was identified. This is the first large cassava EST resource developed today and publicly available thus making a significant contribution to genomic knowledge of cassava. PMID:15630618

  10. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Yam (Dioscorea spp.) Crops and Their Derived Foodstuffs: Safety, Security and Nutritional Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Piccirillo, Clara; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Manuela E

    2016-12-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and yam (Dioscorea spp.) are tropical crops consumed by ca. 2 billion people and represent the main source of carbohydrate and energy for the approximately 700 million people living in the tropical and sub-tropical areas. They are a guarantee of food security for developing countries. The production of these crops and the transformation into food-derived commodities is increasing, it represents a profitable business and farmers generate substantial income from their market. However, there are some important concerns related to the food safety and food security. The high post-harvest losses, mainly for yam, the contamination by endogenous toxic compounds, mainly for cassava, and the contamination by external agents (such as micotoxins, pesticides, and heavy metal) represent a depletion of economic value and income. The loss in the raw crops or the impossibility to market the derived foodstuffs, due to incompliance with food regulations, can seriously limit all yam tubers and the cassava roots processors, from farmers to household, from small-medium to large enterprises. One of the greatest challenges to overcome those concerns is the transformation of traditional or indigenous processing methods into modern industrial operations, from the crop storage to the adequate package of each derived foodstuff. PMID:26165549

  11. Using S3 cloud storage with ROOT and CvmFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga-Ríos, María; Heikkilä, Seppo S.; Duellmann, Dirk; Meusel, René; Blomer, Jakob; Couturier, Ben

    2015-12-01

    Amazon S3 is a widely adopted web API for scalable cloud storage that could also fulfill storage requirements of the high-energy physics community. CERN has been evaluating this option using some key HEP applications such as ROOT and the CernVM filesystem (CvmFS) with S3 back-ends. In this contribution we present an evaluation of two versions of the Huawei UDS storage system stressed with a large number of clients executing HEP software applications. The performance of concurrently storing individual objects is presented alongside with more complex data access patterns as produced by the ROOT data analysis framework. Both Huawei UDS generations show a successful scalability by supporting multiple byte-range requests in contrast with Amazon S3 or Ceph which do not support these commonly used HEP operations. We further report the S3 integration with recent CvmFS versions and summarize the experience with CvmFS/S3 for publishing daily releases of the full LHCb experiment software stack.

  12. A proteomic analysis of storage stress responses in Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. tuberous root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yusong; Chen, Cheng; Tao, Xiang; Wang, Jianxi; Zhang, Yizheng

    2012-08-01

    During post-harvest storage, tuberous roots of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) usually undergo a biotic and abiotic stress influencing protein expression pattern and substance contents. This research compared the change of total proteins and carbohydrate content in tuberous roots of sweet potato during the storage period. The result of the two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that there were 25 differentially expressed proteins between day 0 and day 75 during the storage. Among these proteins, 11 proteins were down-regulated and the other 14 were up-regulated. The results from MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS analyses and mascot database searching showed that 11 of the 25 differentially expressed proteins were identified as store-stress regulated proteins. It was also found that the proteins involved in the energy metabolism and the stress-response were drastically up-regulated, whereas those in biomacromolecule synthesis were markedly down-regulated. Meanwhile, under the experimental conditions, the content of the starch and the cellulose was decreased by more than a quarter and the amylase activity was increased moderately. PMID:22547271

  13. RESPIROMETRY DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION AND HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES ON SUGARBEET ROOT MAGGOT LARVAE IN LONG-TERM STORAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature 3rd-instar sugarbeet root maggots, starting as diapausing larvae have a remarkable ability to survive more than 5 years in laboratory storage at 5-7 degrees Celsius. To test the hypothesis that this long term survival in storage is facilitated by larvae continuing in the state of diapause, co...

  14. ROOT - A C++ Framework for Petabyte Data Storage, Statistical Analysis and Visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Antcheva, Ilka; Bellenot, B; Biskup, M; Brun, R; Buncic, N; Canal, Ph.; Casadei, D; Couet, O; Fine, V; Franco, L; Ganis, G; Gheata, A; Gonzalez Maline, D; Goto, M; Iwaszkiewicz, J; Kreshuk, A; Marcos Segura, D; Maunder, R; Moneta, L; Naumann, A; Offermann, E; Onuchin, V; Panacek, S; Rademakers, F; Russo, P; Tadel, M

    2009-01-01

    ROOT is an object-oriented C++ framework conceived in the high-energy physics (HEP) community, designed for storing and analyzing petabytes of data in an efficient way. Any instance of a C++ class can be stored into a ROOT file in a machine-independent compressed binary format. In ROOT the TTree object container is optimized for statistical data analysis over very large data sets by using vertical data storage techniques. These containers can span a large number of files on local disks, the web, or a number of different shared file systems. In order to analyze this data, the user can chose out of a wide set of mathematical and statistical functions, including linear algebra classes, numerical algorithms such as integration and minimization, and various methods for performing regression analysis (fitting). In particular, ROOT offers packages for complex data modeling and fitting, as well as multivariate classification based on machine learning techniques. A central piece in these analysis tools are the histogr...

  15. Cassava tissue culture and long-term preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is cultivated mainly for its starchy roots as an important staple food for the tropics. M. esculenta is the only cultivated species in the genus Manihot, which contains 98 species, mostly native to Brazil. In recent years several research groups have reported metho...

  16. Avaliação nutricional e desempenho da silagem de raiz de mandioca contendo ou não soja integral em dietas para suínos = Nutritional evaluation and performance of cassava root silage with or without whole soybean in swine diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Augusto Alves da Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para determinar o valor nutritivo e o desempenho de suínos nas fases de crescimento e período total, alimentados com dietas formuladas com silagem de raiz de mandioca contendo ou não soja integral. No primeiro, foram utilizados 15 suínos, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em parcelas (animais subdivididas no tempo (subparcelas, totalizando cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Os alimentos avaliados foram silagem de raiz de mandioca (MA, silagem de raiz de mandioca com inoculante (MI, silagem de raiz de mandioca + soja integral (MS e silagem de raiz de mandioca + soja integral com inoculante (MSI. As silagens apresentaram bons valores nutritivos e o uso de inoculante não foi efetivo para melhorar a digestibilidade dos nutrientes. No segundo, foram utilizados 36 suínos mestiços, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com restrição na casualização para duas classes de peso inicial, com três tratamentos, seisrepetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram em raçãotestemunha à base de milho e farelo de soja (RT e outras duas com substituição total do milho por MA e MS. Para fase de crescimento, a conversão alimentar melhorou com o uso das silagens.Conclui-se que as silagens de mandioca, contendo ou não soja integral, apresentam bons valores nutritivos e podem substituir totalmente o milho na ração de suínos nas fases de crescimento eperíodo total.Two experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional value and performance of growing and total-period swine fed cassava root silage with or without whole soybean. In the first group, 15 crossbred swine were used, in a completely randomized design with parcels (animals subdivided in time (subparcels with five treatmentsand six replications. The study evaluated cassava root silage (CA, cassava root silage with inoculant (CI, cassava root silage + whole soybean (CS and

  17. ROOT — A C++ framework for petabyte data storage, statistical analysis and visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Antcheva, I; Bellenot, B; Biskup, M; Brun, R; Buncic, N; Canal, Ph; Casadei, D; Couet, O; Fine, V; Franco, L; Ganis, G; Gheata, A; Gonzalez Maline, D; Goto, M; Iwaszkiewicz, J; Kreshuk, A; Marcos Segura, D; Maunder, R; Moneta, L; Naumann, A; Offermann, E; Onuchin, V; Panacek, S; Rademakers, F; Russo, P; Tadel, M

    2011-01-01

    A new stable version (“production version”) v5.28.00 of ROOT [1] has been published [2]. It features several major improvements in many areas, most noteworthy data storage performance as well as statistics and graphics features. Some of these improvements have already been predicted in the original publication Antcheva et al. (2009) [3]. This version will be maintained for at least 6 months; new minor revisions (“patch releases”) will be published [4] to solve problems reported with this version.

  18. ROOT — A C++ framework for petabyte data storage, statistical analysis and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antcheva, I.; Ballintijn, M.; Bellenot, B.; Biskup, M.; Brun, R.; Buncic, N.; Canal, Ph.; Casadei, D.; Couet, O.; Fine, V.; Franco, L.; Ganis, G.; Gheata, A.; Maline, D. Gonzalez; Goto, M.; Iwaszkiewicz, J.; Kreshuk, A.; Segura, D. Marcos; Maunder, R.; Moneta, L.; Naumann, A.; Offermann, E.; Onuchin, V.; Panacek, S.; Rademakers, F.; Russo, P.; Tadel, M.

    2011-06-01

    A new stable version ("production version") v5.28.00 of ROOT [1] has been published [2]. It features several major improvements in many areas, most noteworthy data storage performance as well as statistics and graphics features. Some of these improvements have already been predicted in the original publication Antcheva et al. (2009) [3]. This version will be maintained for at least 6 months; new minor revisions ("patch releases") will be published [4] to solve problems reported with this version. New version program summaryProgram title: ROOT Catalogue identifier: AEFA_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFA_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU Lesser Public License v.2.1 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 934 693 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1009 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Intel i386, Intel x86-64, Motorola PPC, Sun Sparc, HP PA-RISC Operating system: GNU/Linux, Windows XP/Vista/7, Mac OS X, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris, HP-UX, AIX Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes RAM: > 55 Mbytes Classification: 4, 9, 11.9, 14 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEFA_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 180 (2009) 2499 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Storage, analysis and visualization of scientific data Solution method: Object store, wide range of analysis algorithms and visualization methods Reasons for new version: Added features and corrections of deficiencies Summary of revisions: The release notes at http://root.cern.ch/root/v528/Version528.news.html give a module-oriented overview of the changes in v5.28.00. Highlights include File format Reading of TTrees has been improved dramatically with respect to CPU time (30%) and notably with respect to disk space. Histograms A

  19. Effect of processing conditions on the texture of reconstituted cassava dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rodríguez-Sandoval

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Deformability modulus, hardness, cohesiveness and adhesiveness of cassava dough reconstituted from precooked flour were evaluated using a lubricated compression test and texture profile analysis. Cassava parenchyma processed under different cooking conditions and left at either -5ºC or -20ºC for 24 h was used to make flour, which was reconstituted into dough. As temperature decreased to -20ºC during the storage period of cooked parenchyma, deformability modulus, hardness and cohesiveness of dough increased significantly. The temperature during the storage period was the most important factor affecting the textural properties of cassava dough.

  20. Cassava leaves as protein source for pigs in Central Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to evaluate the use of cassava leaves as protein sources for pigs when used at high levels in the diet, either in fresh form or with simplified methods of processing. In twenty cassava varieties taken from the upper part of the plant at the root harvesting, the crude protein varied from 23.7 to 29.5 % in DM and the HCN from 610 to 1840 mg/kg DM. Chopping, washing and wilting the leaves are simple ways to process the. There was a 58% reductio...

  1. ROOT — A C++ framework for petabyte data storage, statistical analysis and visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Antcheva, I; Bellenot, B; Biskup,1, M; Brun, R; Buncic, N; Canal, Ph; Casadei, D; Couet, O; Fine, V; Franco,1, L; Ganis, G; Gheata, A; Gonzalez Maline, D; Goto, M; Iwaszkiewicz, J; Kreshuk, A; Marcos Segura, D; Maunder, R; Moneta, L; Naumann, A; Offermann, E; Onuchin, V; Panacek, S; Rademakers, F; Russo, P; Tadel, M

    2009-01-01

    ROOT is an object-oriented C++ framework conceived in the high-energy physics (HEP) community, designed for storing and analyzing petabytes of data in an efficient way. Any instance of a C++ class can be stored into a ROOT file in a machine-independent compressed binary format. In ROOT the TTree object container is optimized for statistical data analysis over very large data sets by using vertical data storage techniques. These containers can span a large number of files on local disks, the web, or a number of different shared file systems. In order to analyze this data, the user can chose out of a wide set of mathematical and statistical functions, including linear algebra classes, numerical algorithms such as integration and minimization, and various methods for performing regression analysis (fitting). In particular, the RooFit package allows the user to perform complex data modeling and fitting while the RooStats library provides abstractions and implementations for advanced statistical tools. Multivariat...

  2. Expanding the Application of Cassava Value Chain Technologies Through UPoCA Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braima Dama James

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava can play a key role in rural economic growth in Africa, but are we there yet? Cassava varieties with 50% more yielding potential and technologies to boost processing and marketing of cassava are available. However, the sub-sector is constrained by low productivity and marketing difficulties. In 2008, USAID and IITA initiated the project “Unleashing the Power of Cassava in Response to Food Price Crisis (UPOCA as a multi-country and inter-institutional partnership enabling cassava sub-sectors to realize their full potential in rural economies. By end 2009, small holder beneficiaries associated with 55 partner organizations and 11 agricultural related firms established 306 community cassava stem multiplication sites and root production farms totalling 10,097ha with 58 improved varieties. Through experiential learning, 345 men and 142 women learnt improved techniques in cassava production, processing, product development, and packaging/labelling. The evolving achievements show that a longer-term cassava R4D partnership platform of this nature will enable the sub-sector to contribute significantly to rural economic growth in Africa.

  3. Recent growth in African cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Nweke, Felix; Haggblade, Steven; Zulu, Ballard

    2004-01-01

    According to the authors, "Cassava serves as a staple food for 200 million Africans, second only to maize in its calorie contribution. In response to a series of devastating attacks by cassava diseases and pests over the past several decades, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and several national agricultural research services have launched successful cassava research programs... " This brief describes some of the programs, their impact and the drivers of change. It c...

  4. Feeding cassava foliage to sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Hue, Khuc Thi

    2012-01-01

    The potential of cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as a protein-rich feed in sheep production in Vietnam was examined by studying cassava foliage yield, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content, toxicity and performance of lambs fed the foliage as a supplement. Cassava foliage fed ad libitum as a protein supplement to a basal diet of urea-treated rice straw gave similar lamb live weight gain (LWG) as diets supplemented with commercial concentrate or protein-rich foliage of stylosanthes (S...

  5. Resistant starch in cassava products

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Letícia Buzati Pereira; Magali Leonel

    2014-01-01

    Found in different foods, starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the diet. Some factors present in starchy foods influence the rate at which the starch is hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. Due the importance of cassava products in Brazilian diet, the objective of this study was to analyze total starch, resistant starch, and digestible starch contents in commercial cassava products. Thirty three commercial cassava products from different brands, classifications, and origin were...

  6. Characterisation of Cassava Bagasse and Composites Prepared by Blending with Low-Density Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Oliveira Farias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to characterise the cassava bagasse and to evaluate its addition in composites. Two cassava bagasse samples were characterised using physicochemical, thermal and microscopic techniques, and by obtaining their spectra in the mid-infrared region and analysing them by using x-ray diffraction. Utilising sorption isotherms, it was possible to establish the acceptable conditions of temperature and relative humidity for the storage of the cassava bagasse. The incorporation of cassava bagasse in a low-density polyethylene (LDP matrix was positive, increasing the elasticity modulus values from 131.90 for LDP to 186.2 for 70% LDP with 30% SP bagasse. These results were encouraging because cassava bagasse could serve as a structural reinforcement, as well as having environmental advantages for its application in packaging, construction and automotive parts.

  7. Evaluation of synergistic effect in vacuum pack, refrigeration and irradiated treatments of minimally processed cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava is cultivated almost all over the world and it is considered one of the most important nutritious sources of calories in the human diet. Cassava is a viable food against starvation in several poor areas of the world because it is an extremely resistant culture and may reach satisfactory economical yield. We utilized vacuum packed industrialized cassava irradiated with 0,1 kGy, 3kGy and 5kGy and stored under refrigeration for 1, 21, 30 and 50 days. Our objective was to analyse the synergistic effect of vacuum packing, irradiation and refrigeration on the preservation of minimally processed cassava. The samples were analyzed for pH, acidity, weight, humidity, texture and color. The irradiation did not affect the chemical characteristics of the cassava. Neither the pH nor the acidity, the most relevant variables to verify deterioration in cassava, presented significant alterations during the period of storage. Comparing the irradiated treatments, the dose of 1kGy and 3kGy affected the physic-chemical characteristics of the cassava the least during the period of storage and refrigeration for 50 days; the doses of 1kGy,3kGy and 5kGy scored the highest rates the sensorial analysis during the period of storage for 21 days. (author)

  8. Cassava: The Drought, War and Famine Crop in a Changing World

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Burns; Roslyn Gleadow; Julie Cliff; Anabela Zacarias; Timothy Cavagnaro

    2010-01-01

    Cassava is the sixth most important crop, in terms of global annual production. Cassava is grown primarily for its starchy tuberous roots, which are an important staple for more than 800 million people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, but also in other parts of Africa, Asia, the Pacific and South America. Cassava is important for both small-scale farmers and larger-scale plantations due to its low requirement for nutrients, ability to tolerate dry conditions and easy low-cost propagation. It is...

  9. Altered Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in the Maize Lc-Expressed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Affects Storage Root Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hongxia Wang; Jun Yang; Min Zhang; Weijuan Fan; Nurit Firon; Sitakanta Pattanaik; Ling Yuan; Peng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    There is no direct evidence of the effect of lignin metabolism on early storage root development in sweet potato. In this study, we found that heterologous expression of the maize leaf color (Lc) gene in sweet potato increased anthocyanin pigment accumulation in the whole plant and resulted in reduced size with an increased length/width ratio, low yield and less starch content in the early storage roots. RT-PCR analysis revealed dramatic up-regulation of the genes involved in the lignin biosy...

  10. Isolation and characterisation of starch biosynthesis genes from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    OpenAIRE

    Munyikwa, T.R.I.

    1997-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical crop grown for its starchy thickened roots, mainly by peasant farmers, in the tropics, for whom it is a staple food. There is an increasing demand for the use of cassava in processed food and feed products, and in the paper and textile industries amongst others. This thesis describes research on the cloning of the genes encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small and large subunits (AGPase B and S, respectively) and granule bound starch syntha...

  11. Root crops and their biomass potential in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hair, S.K.; Locascio, S.J.; Forbes, R.R.; White, J.M.; Hensel, D.R.; Shumaker, J.R.; Dangler, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Root and tuber crops are of particular interest as biofuel crops because of their ability to concentrate and store fermentables including starch and sugars, in enlarged organs at or below the soil surface. In Florida, harvest index, the storage organ biomass divided by total plant biomass, of sweet potato, fodder beet, cassava and potato has approached 0.80. Chicory, fodder beet, cassava and sweet potato produced a total plant yield of 16.0, 14.1, 11.4 and 11.3 t/ha, respectively. Since the crops vary for time to maturity and storage organ chemical composition, a conventional unit to equate yield differences is kilocalorie (kcal) production/ha/day. Of the warm season crops, sweet potato and cassava roots produced an estimated 32 and 14 x 10/sup 4/ kcal/ha/day, respectively. Chinese radish and rutabaga roots produced 18 and 17 x 10/sup 4/ kcal/ha/day. Thus, a year round average of as much as 25 x 10/sup 4/ kcal/ha/day has been demonstrated. In conjunction with the total potential biomass production by a plant, root and tuber crops may be able to surpass grain crops in fermentable productivity on a temporal and spacial basis. The factors that will contribute to this include developing the appropriate cultural practices for biomass production along with breeding and selecting for adaptability and favorable harvest index. Since many of these crops have been neglected from a research standpoint, there is little doubt that improvements can be made by further work. 27 references.

  12. Cassava as an energy crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Kjeld;

    2014-01-01

    imperative to investigate opportunities and barriers for expansion of cassava production. This paper investigates the potential for an expansion of cassava cultivation for bioethanol production in Southern Mali. It is based on a questionnaire survey with 65 households in 2 villages in Loulouni municipality......, which represent two major agro-ecological environments in the Soudan-zone in Mali. The results reveal that farmers are experienced cassava producers and are interested in an expansion of cassava cultivation for bioethanol production and that suitable areas are available, especially for an expansion of......Cassava based bioethanol production is a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuels and commercial production is already well established in several countries. A production based on small holder production may involve a transformation of the existing production system and it is therefore...

  13. Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; dos Santos, Edna R; SABAA-SRUR Armando U. O.; Moura, Luciana S M

    2012-01-01

    Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to...

  14. ROOT: A C++ framework for petabyte data storage, statistical analysis and visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antcheva, I.; /CERN; Ballintijn, M.; /CERN; Bellenot, B.; /CERN; Biskup, M.; /CERN; Brun, R.; /CERN; Buncic, N.; /CERN; Canal, Ph.; /Fermilab; Casadei, D.; /New York U.; Couet, O.; /CERN; Fine, V.; /Brookhaven; Franco, L.; /CERN /CERN

    2009-01-01

    ROOT is an object-oriented C++ framework conceived in the high-energy physics (HEP) community, designed for storing and analyzing petabytes of data in an efficient way. Any instance of a C++ class can be stored into a ROOT file in a machine-independent compressed binary format. In ROOT the TTree object container is optimized for statistical data analysis over very large data sets by using vertical data storage techniques. These containers can span a large number of files on local disks, the web or a number of different shared file systems. In order to analyze this data, the user can chose out of a wide set of mathematical and statistical functions, including linear algebra classes, numerical algorithms such as integration and minimization, and various methods for performing regression analysis (fitting). In particular, the RooFit package allows the user to perform complex data modeling and fitting while the RooStats library provides abstractions and implementations for advanced statistical tools. Multivariate classification methods based on machine learning techniques are available via the TMVA package. A central piece in these analysis tools are the histogram classes which provide binning of one- and multi-dimensional data. Results can be saved in high-quality graphical formats like Postscript and PDF or in bitmap formats like JPG or GIF. The result can also be stored into ROOT macros that allow a full recreation and rework of the graphics. Users typically create their analysis macros step by step, making use of the interactive C++ interpreter CINT, while running over small data samples. Once the development is finished, they can run these macros at full compiled speed over large data sets, using on-the-fly compilation, or by creating a stand-alone batch program. Finally, if processing farms are available, the user can reduce the execution time of intrinsically parallel tasks - e.g. data mining in HEP - by using PROOF, which will take care of optimally

  15. ROOT: A C++ framework for petabyte data storage, statistical analysis and visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROOT is an object-oriented C++ framework conceived in the high-energy physics (HEP) community, designed for storing and analyzing petabytes of data in an efficient way. Any instance of a C++ class can be stored into a ROOT file in a machine-independent compressed binary format. In ROOT the TTree object container is optimized for statistical data analysis over very large data sets by using vertical data storage techniques. These containers can span a large number of files on local disks, the web or a number of different shared file systems. In order to analyze this data, the user can chose out of a wide set of mathematical and statistical functions, including linear algebra classes, numerical algorithms such as integration and minimization, and various methods for performing regression analysis (fitting). In particular, the RooFit package allows the user to perform complex data modeling and fitting while the RooStats library provides abstractions and implementations for advanced statistical tools. Multivariate classification methods based on machine learning techniques are available via the TMVA package. A central piece in these analysis tools are the histogram classes which provide binning of one- and multi-dimensional data. Results can be saved in high-quality graphical formats like Postscript and PDF or in bitmap formats like JPG or GIF. The result can also be stored into ROOT macros that allow a full recreation and rework of the graphics. Users typically create their analysis macros step by step, making use of the interactive C++ interpreter CINT, while running over small data samples. Once the development is finished, they can run these macros at full compiled speed over large data sets, using on-the-fly compilation, or by creating a stand-alone batch program. Finally, if processing farms are available, the user can reduce the execution time of intrinsically parallel tasks - e.g. data mining in HEP - by using PROOF, which will take care of optimally

  16. Cassava: The Drought, War and Famine Crop in a Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Burns

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is the sixth most important crop, in terms of global annual production. Cassava is grown primarily for its starchy tuberous roots, which are an important staple for more than 800 million people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, but also in other parts of Africa, Asia, the Pacific and South America. Cassava is important for both small-scale farmers and larger-scale plantations due to its low requirement for nutrients, ability to tolerate dry conditions and easy low-cost propagation. It is sometimes referred to as the “drought, war and famine crop of the developing world” and reliance upon this crop is expected to increase in the coming years as the global climate changes. As with all crops, cassava presents some challenges which need to be addressed, especially if its production is to continue to expand. We highlight here a number of key issues around the continued and increased reliance upon cassava as a staple food crop. Cassava contains cyanogenic glycosides that release hydrogen cyanide and many cultivars are toxic if not processed before consumption. The degree of toxicity is altered by plant breeding, agricultural practice, environmental conditions and methods of food preparation. We conclude that use of cassava has the potential to help many countries achieve food security in a sustainable manner, in the face of significant environmental change, but that its introduction should be accompanied by appropriate education about its toxicity.

  17. Alterations of reproduction system in a polyploidized cassava interspecific hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Nagib M A; Graciano-Ribeiro, Dalva; Gomes, Paula F; Hashimoto, Danielle Y C

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this research was to examine how much polyploidy may affect seed and root formation in cassava interspecific hybrids Manihot esculenta Crantz xM. oligantha Pax. A polyploid type was induced by colchicine treatment to lateral buds followed by propagating vegetatively arising stems. Cytogenetic and anatomical analyses were made on both polyploid and diploid types. The polyploid type showed extensive chromosome pairing and pollen viability. Multiembryonic ovule frequency increased in polyploid plants. Stalks became woody and propagation through roots difficult, the edible roots increased, however, in size. PMID:20536543

  18. Physiological Investigation and Transcriptome Analysis of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG-Induced Dehydration Stress in Cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Fu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is an important tropical and sub-tropical root crop that is adapted to drought environment. However, severe drought stress significantly influences biomass accumulation and starchy root production. The mechanism underlying drought-tolerance remains obscure in cassava. In this study, changes of physiological characters and gene transcriptome profiles were investigated under dehydration stress simulated by polyethylene glycol (PEG treatments. Five traits, including peroxidase (POD activity, proline content, malondialdehyde (MDA, soluble sugar and soluble protein, were all dramatically induced in response to PEG treatment. RNA-seq analysis revealed a gradient decrease of differentially expressed (DE gene number in tissues from bottom to top of a plant, suggesting that cassava root has a quicker response and more induced/depressed DE genes than leaves in response to drought. Overall, dynamic changes of gene expression profiles in cassava root and leaves were uncovered: genes related to glycolysis, abscisic acid and ethylene biosynthesis, lipid metabolism, protein degradation, and second metabolism of flavonoids were significantly induced, while genes associated with cell cycle/organization, cell wall synthesis and degradation, DNA synthesis and chromatin structure, protein synthesis, light reaction of photosynthesis, gibberelin pathways and abiotic stress were greatly depressed. Finally, novel pathways in ABA-dependent and ABA-independent regulatory networks underlying PEG-induced dehydration response in cassava were detected, and the RNA-Seq results of a subset of fifteen genes were confirmed by real-time PCR. The findings will improve our understanding of the mechanism related to dehydration stress-tolerance in cassava and will provide useful candidate genes for breeding of cassava varieties better adapted to drought environment.

  19. Physiological Investigation and Transcriptome Analysis of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)-Induced Dehydration Stress in Cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lili; Ding, Zehong; Han, Bingying; Hu, Wei; Li, Yajun; Zhang, Jiaming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is an important tropical and sub-tropical root crop that is adapted to drought environment. However, severe drought stress significantly influences biomass accumulation and starchy root production. The mechanism underlying drought-tolerance remains obscure in cassava. In this study, changes of physiological characters and gene transcriptome profiles were investigated under dehydration stress simulated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatments. Five traits, including peroxidase (POD) activity, proline content, malondialdehyde (MDA), soluble sugar and soluble protein, were all dramatically induced in response to PEG treatment. RNA-seq analysis revealed a gradient decrease of differentially expressed (DE) gene number in tissues from bottom to top of a plant, suggesting that cassava root has a quicker response and more induced/depressed DE genes than leaves in response to drought. Overall, dynamic changes of gene expression profiles in cassava root and leaves were uncovered: genes related to glycolysis, abscisic acid and ethylene biosynthesis, lipid metabolism, protein degradation, and second metabolism of flavonoids were significantly induced, while genes associated with cell cycle/organization, cell wall synthesis and degradation, DNA synthesis and chromatin structure, protein synthesis, light reaction of photosynthesis, gibberelin pathways and abiotic stress were greatly depressed. Finally, novel pathways in ABA-dependent and ABA-independent regulatory networks underlying PEG-induced dehydration response in cassava were detected, and the RNA-Seq results of a subset of fifteen genes were confirmed by real-time PCR. The findings will improve our understanding of the mechanism related to dehydration stress-tolerance in cassava and will provide useful candidate genes for breeding of cassava varieties better adapted to drought environment. PMID:26927071

  20. Dependence of fructooligosaccharide content on activity of fructooligosaccharide-metabolizing enzymes in yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) tuberous roots during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narai-Kanayama, A; Tokita, N; Aso, K

    2007-08-01

    Tuberous roots of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) accumulate about 10%, on a fresh weight basis, of inulin-type fructooligosacharides (FOSs), known as a food ingredient with various healthy benefits. However, we have a great difficulty to ensure these benefits because FOSs with a lower degree of polymerization (DP) decreased remarkably, and fructose increased when the tuberous roots were stored after harvesting even under previously recommended storage conditions of low temperature with high humidity. In the present study, to elucidate the involvement of FOS-metabolizing enzymes in FOS reduction during storage at 90% relative humidity and 8 degrees C, we extracted a crude protein from yacon tuberous roots and measured the activities of invertase (beta-fructofuranosidase, EC 3.2.1.26), sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST, EC 2.4.1.99), fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT, EC 2.4.1.100), and fructan 1-exohydrolase (1-FEH, EC 3.2.1.80). The enzyme activities acting on sucrose, both invertase and 1-SST, were weakened after storage for a month. In addition, the activity of 1-FEH acting on short FOSs such as 1-kestose (GF(2)) and 1-nystose (GF(3)) was higher than that of 1-FFT. These results suggest that the continuous decline in FOSs of low DP during storage was dependent mainly on the 1-FEH activity. On the other hand, FOSs with a DP of >or= 9 only slightly decreased in stored yacon tuberous roots during storage, though distinct 1-FEH activity was observed in vitro toward a high-DP inulin-type substrate, indicating that highly polymerized FOSs content was unlikely to be closely connected with the 1-FEH activity. PMID:17995694

  1. Estimation of root zone storage capacity at the catchment scale using improved Mass Curve Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Xu, Zongxue; Singh, Vijay P.

    2016-09-01

    The root zone storage capacity (Sr) greatly influences runoff generation, soil water movement, and vegetation growth and is hence an important variable for ecological and hydrological modelling. However, due to the great heterogeneity in soil texture and structure, there seems to be no effective approach to monitor or estimate Sr at the catchment scale presently. To fill the gap, in this study the Mass Curve Technique (MCT) was improved by incorporating a snowmelt module for the estimation of Sr at the catchment scale in different climatic regions. The "range of perturbation" method was also used to generate different scenarios for determining the sensitivity of the improved MCT-derived Sr to its influencing factors after the evaluation of plausibility of Sr derived from the improved MCT. Results can be showed as: (i) Sr estimates of different catchments varied greatly from ∼10 mm to ∼200 mm with the changes of climatic conditions and underlying surface characteristics. (ii) The improved MCT is a simple but powerful tool for the Sr estimation in different climatic regions of China, and incorporation of more catchments into Sr comparisons can further improve our knowledge on the variability of Sr. (iii) Variation of Sr values is an integrated consequence of variations in rainfall, snowmelt water and evapotranspiration. Sr values are most sensitive to variations in evapotranspiration of ecosystems. Besides, Sr values with a longer return period are more stable than those with a shorter return period when affected by fluctuations in its influencing factors.

  2. Microbiological and Biochemical Characterization of Cassava Retting, a Traditional Lactic Acid Fermentation for Foo-Foo (Cassava Flour) Production

    OpenAIRE

    Brauman, A.; Keleke, S.; Malonga, M.; Miambi, E.; Ampe, F

    1996-01-01

    The overall kinetics of retting, a spontaneous fermentation of cassava roots performed in central Africa, was investigated in terms of microbial-population evolution and biochemical and physicochemical parameters. During the traditional process, endogenous cyanogens were almost totally degraded, plant cell walls were lysed by the simultaneous action of pectin methylesterase and pectate lysate, and organic acids (C2 to C4) were produced. Most microorganisms identified were found to be facultat...

  3. Ultrastructures of phloem and its surrounding parenchyma cells of cassava fibrous and tuberous root%木薯须根、块根韧皮部及其周围薄壁细胞的超微结构观察和功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘坤; 聂佩显; 卢诚; 王文泉

    2013-01-01

    The transmission electron microscopy technology was used to investigate the ultrsastructure of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fibrous and tuberous root. This research aims to provide cytological evidences for cassava phloem unloading. The results show that there are a few plasmodesmata ( PD) at the primary fibrous root stage, with bigger intercellular space, plasma membrane invagination and the other characteristics of apoplasmic unloading pathway. Companinon cells of tuberous root often have plenty of organelles and contain heavily fragmented vacuoles. The number of PD increases evidently, and plenty of starch granules are accumulated in the parenchyma cells, and it is the densest in the maturity stage. The starch granule is also accumulated in the secondary fribrous root, but it is very little, which may be due to the break off of its swelling ability. The PD found in this stage is similar to that in the primary fribrous root. It can be concluded that the PD is associated with starch accumulation.%利用透射电镜技术对木薯初生、次生须根和3个时期的块根韧皮部进行了亚细胞结构的观察,目的在于为其同化物卸载研究提供细胞学证据.结果发现初生须根时期的细胞胞间连丝数量较少,韧皮部和皮层的细胞间间隙较大,特别是薄壁细胞间较明显,多数韧皮部细胞发生质膜内陷等质外体卸载证据.块根时期的伴胞细胞器丰富,伴胞液泡碎片化,胞间连丝数量大增,薄壁细胞内逐渐出现淀粉累积,到成熟期淀粉粒最为密集.同样发生次生生长的次生须根内虽然有少量淀粉累积,但随着其膨大活动的终止,其胞间连丝的密度和初生须根的差别不大.这些结果说明胞间连丝的数量和密度与淀粉的累积有着重要的关系,同样也是其共质体卸载路径的重要证据.

  4. Sistemas de preparo do solo, plantas de cobertura e produtividade da cultura da mandioca Soil tillage systems, cover crops and productivity in cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auro Akio Otsubo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do uso de plantas de cobertura e de sistemas de preparo do solo, no desenvolvimento e na produtividade da cultura da mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz. O trabalho foi conduzido em Argissolo Vermelho, sob sistema convencional de preparo do solo, e em cultivo mínimo sobre palhada de mucuna-cinza (Stizolobium cinereum Piper & Tracy, sorgo granífero [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] e milheto [Pennisetum americanum (L. K. Schum.]. Aos dezoito meses após o plantio da mandioca, foram avaliados: altura de plantas, produção de massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, número de raízes tuberosas, produtividade, percentagem de matéria seca e de amido nas raízes tuberosas e índice de colheita. Observou-se que o sistema convencional de preparo do solo pode ser substituído, na cultura da mandioca, pela prática do cultivo mínimo, associada ao uso de coberturas vegetais, por promover incrementos significativos na produtividade da cultura, especialmente, quando se utiliza o milheto como planta de cobertura. O uso de plantas de cobertura no pré-cultivo de mandioca, em sistema de preparo mínimo do solo, representa uma alternativa eficiente para um melhor manejo dessa cultura.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of cover crops and soil tillage systems in the development and yield of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. The experiment was carried out in an Arenic Hapludult under conventional tillage, and in a minimum tillage system over mucuna (Stizolobium cinereum Piper & Tracy, sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] and millet straw [Pennisetum americanum (L. K. Schum.]. Eighteen months after cassava planting, the following variables were evaluated: plant height, shoot dry matter production, number of roots, yield, dry matter and starch content on storage roots, and harvest index. It was observed that conventional tillage could be replaced by minimum tillage in cassava crop, when associated

  5. An Integrated Investment Appraisal of Cassava Starch Production in Rwanda: The Case of Kinazi Cassava Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Nsenkyire; Glenn P. Jenkins; Mikhail Miklyaev; Octave Semwaga

    2015-01-01

    In April 2012, Kinazi Cassava Plant was established as a government initiative to produce high quality cassava flour, and other value added cassava products. After the successful establishment of the cassava flour plant in Ruhango district, KCP now plans to diversify into cassava starch production to feed the emerging manufacturing industries such as the pharmaceuticals, food processing, breweries, textiles etc. both domestically and for exportation. The study assesses the financial and econo...

  6. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Eduardo; Ulf Svanberg; Jorge Oliveira; Lilia Ahrné

    2013-01-01

    Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented) on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w) was evaluated in combination with...

  7. Characterization of Acylated Anthocyanins in Callus Induced From Storage Root of Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potato, Ipomoea batatas L

    OpenAIRE

    Terahara N.; Konczak I.; Ono H.; Yoshimoto M.; Yamakawa O.

    2004-01-01

    Four anthocyanins were isolated from a highly pigmented callus induced from the storage root of purple-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L) cultivar Ayamurasaki. The anthocyanins were respectively identified as cyanidin 3- O -(2- O -(6- O -( E )-caffeoyl- β -D-glucopyranosyl)- β -D-glucopyranoside)-5- O - β -D-glucopyranoside, cyanidin 3- O -(2- O -(6- O -( E )- p -coumaroyl- β -D-glucopyranosyl)-6- O -( E )-caffeoyl- β -D-glucopyranoside)-5- O -...

  8. Water use impact of ethanol at a gasoline substitution ratio of 5% from cassava in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeoti, O. [Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, The Federal Polytechnic, Along Ikare Road, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State (Nigeria)

    2010-07-15

    The process of fuel ethanol production from cassava root is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resource of the country where the cassava plant is grown and the root processed into fuel ethanol. The paper assesses the impact of the domestic production of 5 per cent ethanol (E5) needed under the Nigerian biofuel programme from cassava root on the water resource of Nigeria. Using the 2007 Premium Motor Spirit (PMS) consumption as the baseline, Nigeria will require about 0.49 hm{sup 3} of ethanol to blend 9.32 hm{sup 3} of PMS to arrive at the 2007 consumption estimates. The impact of the domestic production of this ethanol requirement translates to about 6.0 km{sup 3} of water; out of which about 48 per cent is green and about 52 per cent is blue. Addressing future impact typical of a developing economy like Nigeria, a three-scenario analysis was adopted to examine the impact of future growth in cassava-fuel ethanol requirement on the water resource of Nigeria, and also, the impact of improved water use on the future water footprint of E5. The projected water impact of cassava-ethanol production into the future ranges from 6.02 to 7.28 km{sup 3}, while improved water use could lower these values by about 0.04-2.35 km{sup 3} for the same period, 2010 to 2020, under the projection assumptions made. (author)

  9. Phenotypic Approaches to Drought in Cassava: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel eOkogbenin; SETTER, TIM L.; Morag eFerguson; Rose eMutegi; Hernan eCeballos; Bunmi eOlasanmi; Martin eFregene

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitativ...

  10. Phenotypic approaches to drought in cassava: review

    OpenAIRE

    Okogbenin, Emmanuel; SETTER, TIM L.; Ferguson, Morag; Mutegi, Rose; Ceballos, Hernan; Olasanmi, Bunmi; Fregene, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative...

  11. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Mottin Demiate; Valesca Kotovicz

    2011-01-01

    Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results ...

  12. Avaliação nutricional e desempenho da silagem de raiz de mandioca contendo ou não soja integral em dietas para suínos - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i2.8055 Nutritional evaluation and performance of cassava root silage with or without whole soybean in swine diets - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i2.8055

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Levi Oliveira Carvalho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para determinar o valor nutritivo e o desempenho de suínos nas fases de crescimento e período total, alimentados com dietas formuladas com silagem de raiz de mandioca contendo ou não soja integral. No primeiro, foram utilizados 15 suínos, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em parcelas (animais subdivididas no tempo (subparcelas, totalizando cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Os alimentos avaliados foram silagem de raiz de mandioca (MA, silagem de raiz de mandioca com inoculante (MI, silagem de raiz de mandioca + soja integral (MS e silagem de raiz de mandioca + soja integral com inoculante (MSI. As silagens apresentaram bons valores nutritivos e o uso de inoculante não foi efetivo para melhorar a digestibilidade dos nutrientes. No segundo, foram utilizados 36 suínos mestiços, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com restrição na casualização para duas classes de peso inicial, com três tratamentos, seis repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram em ração-testemunha à base de milho e farelo de soja (RT e outras duas com substituição total do milho por MA e MS. Para fase de crescimento, a conversão alimentar melhorou com o uso das silagens. Conclui-se que as silagens de mandioca, contendo ou não soja integral, apresentam bons valores nutritivos e podem substituir totalmente o milho na ração de suínos nas fases de crescimento e período total. alimentos alternativos; amido; desempenho; digestibilidade; valores energéticosTwo experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional value and performance of growing and total-period swine fed cassava root silage with or without whole soybean. In the first group, 15 crossbred swine were used, in a completely randomized design with parcels (animals subdivided in time (subparcels with five treatments and six replications. The study evaluated cassava root silage (CA

  13. Tuber Storage Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Shewry, Peter R.

    2003-01-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits act...

  14. PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ (CASSAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahekar S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant kingdom has been the best source of remedies for curing a variety of diseases since ancient times. Plants continue to serve as possible sources for new drugs and chemicals derived from various parts of plants. Manihot esculenta Crantz, popularly known as cassava is one of the most neglected medicinal herbs found all over the world. It is not so commonly used in herbal medicine because of some of its potentially toxic components, but still various literatures have mentioned that this plant has numerous medicinal indications. Generally roots and leaves of this plant have been used in various parts of world for dietary as well as medicinal purposes. Though neglected, this is one of the most useful medicinal plants. In this review, we have tried to highlight various phytochemicals found and medicinal uses of this neglected plant.

  15. Comparison of leaf proteomes of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei An

    Full Text Available Cassava polyploid breeding has drastically improved our knowledge on increasing root yield and its significant tolerance to stresses. In polyploid cassava plants, increases in DNA content highly affect cell volumes and anatomical structures. However, the mechanism of this effect is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare and validate the changes between cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid at proteomic levels. The results showed that leaf proteome of cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid was clearly differentiated from its autotetraploid genotype using 2-DE combined MS technique. Sixty-five differential protein spots were seen in 2-DE image of autotetraploid genotype in comparison with that of diploid. Fifty-two proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, of which 47 were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in autotetraploid genotype compared with diploid genotype. The classified functions of 32 up-regulated proteins were associated with photosynthesis, defense system, hydrocyanic acid (HCN metabolism, protein biosynthesis, chaperones, amino acid metabolism and signal transduction. The remarkable variation in photosynthetic activity, HCN content and resistance to salt stress between diploid and autotetraploid genotypes is closely linked with expression levels of proteomic profiles. The analysis of protein interaction networks indicated there are direct interactions between the 15 up-regulation proteins involved in the pathways described above. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of cassava polyploid genotype, and gives a clue to improve cassava polyploidy breeding in increasing photosynthesis and resistance efficiencies.

  16. Exploiting the Combination of Natural and Genetically Engineered Resistance to Cassava Mosaic and Cassava Brown Streak Viruses Impacting Cassava Production in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé Vanderschuren; Isabel Moreno; Anjanappa, Ravi B.; Ima M Zainuddin; Wilhelm Gruissem

    2012-01-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD) are currently two major viral diseases that severely reduce cassava production in large areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. Natural resistance has so far only been reported for CMD in cassava. CBSD is caused by two virus species, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). A sequence of the CBSV coat protein (CP) highly conserved between the two virus species was used to demonstrate that a CBSV...

  17. Development of starter culture for improved processing of Lafun, an African fermented cassava food product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padonou, S.W.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Akissoe, N.H.;

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To select appropriate micro-organisms to be used as starter culture for reliable and reproducible fermentation of Lafun. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 22 cultures consisting of yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bacillus cereus strains predominant in traditionally fermented cassava...... during Lafun processing were tested as potential starter cultures. In an initial screening, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22, Lactobacillus fermentum 2L48P21, Lactobacillus plantarum 1L48P35 and B. cereus 2B24P31 were found to be the most promising of the cultures and were subsequently tested in...... different combinations as mixed starter cultures to ferment submerged cassava roots. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inoculated singly or combined with B. cereus, gave the softest cassava root after 48 h of fermentation according to determination of compression profile and stress at fracture. Overall, sensory...

  18. Characterization of different cassava samples by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is grown in all Brazilian states, being an important product in the diet of Brazilians. For many families of the North and Northeast states, it may represent the main energy source. The cassava root flour has high levels of starch, in addition to containing fiber, lipids and some minerals. There is, however, great genetic variability, which results in differentiation in its chemical composition and structural aspect. Motivated by the economic, nutritional and pharmacological importance of this product, this work is aimed at characterizing six cassava flour samples by NMR spectroscopy. The spectra revealed the main chemical groups. Furthermore, the results confirmed differences on chemical and structural aspect of the samples. For instance, the F1 sample is richer in carbohydrates, while the F4 sample has higher proportion of glycolipids, the F2 sample has higher amylose content and the F6 sample exhibits a greater diversity of glycolipid types. Regarding the molecular structure, the NMR spectra indicated that the F1 sample is more organized at the molecular level, while the F3 and F5 samples are similar in amorphicity and in the molecular packing. (author)

  19. Development and identification of SSR markers associated with starch properties and β-carotene content in the storage root of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kai eZhang; Zheng-dan eWu; Dao-bin eTang; Chang-wen eLv; Kai eLuo; Yong eZhao; Xun eLiu; Yuan-xin eHuang; Ji-chun eWang

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a nutritious food crop and, based on the high starch content of its storage root, a potential bioethanol feedstock. Enhancing the nutritional value and starch quantity of storage roots are important goals of sweet potato breeding programs aimed at developing improved varieties for direct consumption, processing, and industrial uses. However, developing improved lines of sweet potato is challenging due to the genetic complexity of this plant and the lack of...

  20. Development and Identification of SSR Markers Associated with Starch Properties and β-Carotene Content in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhengdan; Tang, Daobin; Lv, Changwen; Luo, Kai; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xun; Huang, Yuanxin; Wang, Jichun

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a nutritious food crop and, based on the high starch content of its storage root, a potential bioethanol feedstock. Enhancing the nutritional value and starch quantity of storage roots are important goals of sweet potato breeding programs aimed at developing improved varieties for direct consumption, processing, and industrial uses. However, developing improved lines of sweet potato is challenging due to the genetic complexity of this plant and the lack of...

  1. Fermentation protocols for the nutritive upgrading and detoxification of cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper outlines common recommended procedures to be followed by those working in the area to facilitate the comparison of the results obtained. The report contains the wide spectrum of recommendations towards (i) the methods of preliminary preparation fo the cassava root for further fermentation reprocessing; (ii) optimization of the environmental parameters of the fermentation process, including pretreatment manipulations, moisture content, pH, temperature, aeration, form/size of inoculum, etc., (iii) optimization of the incubation time and selecting the fermentation systems and (iv) the analytical and quality control aspects. Some problems connected with the use of exogenous nitrogen sources to enhance the protein/aminoacid synthesis (supplementation of the fermenting mash with inorganic nitrogen salts, yeast extracts, indigenous sources of vegetable/animal nature, nitrogen fixing bacteria, etc.) are discussed and considered depending on their cost and effectiveness. Concerns about the safety aspects possibly arising from the alteration of the traditional practice of the cassava fermentation are also reported. (author)

  2. Carotenoid Accumulation by Carrot Storage Roots in Relation to Nitrogen Fertilization Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek GAJEWSKI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of carotenoid compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L. roots of five cultivars, in relation to different nitrogen fertilization levels was investigated. The experiment was carried out at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. Carrot cultivars ‘Karotan’ F1, ‘Trafford’ F1, ‘Krakow’ F1, ‘Komarno’ F1 and ‘HY 7842’ were used in the study. Nitrogen fertilization was applied as urea form, in doses ranging from 0 to 120 kg N ha–1, and on two terms: pre-sowing and in the middle of the growing season. The carrot seeds were sown at the beginning of May and the roots were harvested in mid-October at maturity. Total carotenoids and β-carotene contents in the carrot roots were determined after the harvest by means of the standard spectrophotometric method. CIE L*a*b* colour parameters of the roots and the juice, as well as dry matter in the roots were determined. Results of the experiment showed that carotenoid accumulation in the roots was significantly affected by carrot genotype. ‘HY7842’ carrot showed the highest accumulation of total carotenoids and β-carotene. Nitrogen in the rates applied, did not significantly influence carotenoid content in the roots. Moderate correlation between carotenoid content and colour a* parameter (redness intensity of the roots and the juice was found.

  3. Carbon storage and nutrient mobilization from soil minerals by deep roots and rhizospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Harrison, Robert; Stupak, Inge;

    2016-01-01

    Roots mobilize nutrients via deep soil penetration and rhizosphere processes inducing weathering of primary minerals. These processes contribute to C transfer to soils and to tree nutrition. Assessments of these characteristics and processes of root systems are important for understanding long...

  4. A Comparative Study of Some Properties of Cassava and Tree Cassava Starch Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belibi, P. C.; Daou, T. J.; Ndjaka, J. M. B.; Nsom, B.; Michelin, L.; Durand, B.

    Cassava and tree cassava starch films plasticized with glycerol were produced by casting method. Different glycerol contents (30, 35, 40 and 45 wt. % on starch dry basis) were used and the resulting films were fully characterized. Their water barrier and mechanical properties were compared. While increasing glycerol concentration, moisture content, water solubility, water vapour permeability, tensile strength, percent elongation at break and Young's modulus decreased for both cassava and tree cassava films. Tree cassava films presented better values of water vapour permeability, water solubility and percent elongation at break compared to those of cassava films, regardless of the glycerol content.

  5. Nuclear and related techniques in the improvement of traditional fermentation processing of cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava, a starchy, cyanide-containing tuber root grown throughout the tropical areas, is one of the world's important food staples. The cassava root is very low in protein: its typical content for many cultivars is around one or two percent and thus is completely unable to provide the consumer with sufficient protein. The main goal of the Agency's Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Nuclear Techniques in the Improvement of Traditional Fermentation Practice in Developing Countries with Particular Emphasis on Cassava'' was to assist researchers from the tropical countries in the development of the techniques utilizing ionizing radiation for producing genetically improved mutants of the cassava-fermenting microorganisms with high abilities to eliminate poisonous glucosides and to increase the yield of desired nutrients to the fermented end-product. This document consists of fourteen final reports submitted by the scientists concerned to the final RCM as well as discussion materials covering main approaches to the problem of the improvement of traditional reprocessing of cassava, such as general microbiological aspects of the fermentation process and the genetic improvement of the selected specific microorganisms with the help of classical microbial mutagenesis methods and modern molecular gene-engineering techniques and tools. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Root biomass and underground C and N storage of the primitive Korean pine and broad-leaved forest and its different succession stages in Changbai Mountain, northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liyun; LUO Tianxiang; WU Songtao

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied root biomass and underground carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage of a more than 200-year-old primitive Korean pine and broad-leaved forest and its two 20- and 80-year-old secondary Populus davidiana and Betula platyphylla forests in Changbai Mountain,northeast China.The results showed that with forest succession,the root biomass of 20-year-old,80-year-old,and primitive forests was 2.437,2.742,and 4.114 kg/m2,respectively.The root C storage was 1.113,1.323,and 2.023kg/m2,soil C storage was 11.911,11.943,and 12.587 kg/m2,and underground C storage was 13.024,13.266,and 14.610kg/m2,respectively,while the root N storage was 0.035,0.032,and 0.038 kg/m2,soil N storage was 1.208,1.222,and 0.915 kg/m2,and underground N storage was 1.243,1.254,and 0.955 kg/m2,respectively,which indicated that along with forest succession,the forest underground became a potential"carbon sink,"whereas underground N storage did not change obviously.

  7. Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; Dos Santos, Edna R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U O; Moura, Luciana S M

    2013-09-01

    Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to cassava paste for preparation of flour in three parts 2.5, 5, and 10%. The acceptance test was done by 93 consumers of flour, using hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate characteristics like color, scent, flavor, bitterness, texture, and overall score. By the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), eight trained tasters evaluated the following characteristics: whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness, raw texture, leaf scent, and cassava scent. The acceptability test indicated that flour cassava with 2.5 was preferred. Whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, salty flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness texture, raw texture, and the smell of the leaves and cassava flour were the main descriptors defined for flour cassava with CPML has better characteristics. PMID:24804041

  8. Stability of cassava flour-based food bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Caroline da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of Brazilian cassava has been reduced due to a lack of adjustment to the modern lifestyle. To reverse this trend, new products could be developed specifically targeted to high-value niche markets. Cereal bars stand out as fast food high in nutritional value. A bar formula mimicking cereal bars was prepared using a mixture of Brazilian cassava flour, hydrogenated vegetable fat, dried bananas, ground cashew nuts, and glucose syrup. After being pressed, the bars were dried for 1 hour at 65 °C, packaged in films, and stored under ambient conditions. Its stability was continuously monitored for 210 days in order to ensure its safety and enable its introduction to the market. Texture loss was observed in the packed bars after 90 days of storage, but the sensory characteristics allowed the testers to perceive this tendency after only 30 days of storage. However, chemical, physical, and microbial analyses confirmed that the bars were safe for consumption for 180 days. The results showed that a 45 g cassava flour-based bar enriched with nuts and dried fruits can meet 6% of the recommended daily fiber intake with a caloric value between that of the common cereal bar and that of an energy bar. Adapting the formula with ingredients (fruits, nuts from different regions of Brazil may add value to this traditional product as a fast food.

  9. Post-harvest conservation of organic strawberries coated with cassava starch and chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel P Campos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is as non-climacteric fruit, but has a high post-harvest respiration rate, which leads to a rapid deterioration at room temperature. This study aimed to evaluate the application of biodegradable coating on postharvest conservation of organic strawberries, cv. Camarosa, packed in plastic hinged boxes and stored at 10ºC. The treatments consisted of: a control; b 2% cassava starch; c 1% chitosan; and d 2% cassava starch + 1% chitosan. Physical and chemical characteristics of fruits were evaluated at 3, 6 and 9 days of storage, and microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out at the end of the storage period. The treatments influenced positively the post-harvest quality of organic strawberries. The coating cassava starch + chitosan provided the best results, with less than 6% of loss in fruit mass, lower counts of yeast and psychrophilic microorganisms and the best appearance according to the sensory analysis.

  10. Commercial Dynamics in Zambia’s Cassava Value Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Nyembe, Misheck

    2008-01-01

    Cassava production has grown rapidly in Zambia since the early 1990’s. Available evidence suggests that volumes of traded cassava have been increasing roughly twice as fast as production. Yet this cassava production boom could stall unless commercial markets for it develop. To help accelerate commercial development of cassava and cassava-based products at the national level, Zambia’s Agricultural Consultative Forum (ACF) initiated an Acceleration of Cassava Utilization (ACU) Task Force, begin...

  11. Solid Substrate Fermentation of Cassava Peel for Poultry Feed Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie; Purwadaria T

    2013-01-01

    Cassava peel which is not used during cassava starch extraction is one of potential resources for animal feed. However, cassava peel has low level protein content, high level crude fiber, and high level of toxic cyanogenic compound. These problems limit the utilization of cassava peel as feed. Solid substrate fermentation using mold may be a solution process to increase its nutritional value and decrease toxic level of cassava peel. In this paper, matters that related with cassava peel fermen...

  12. Spatial regression between soil surface elevation, water storage in root zone and biomass productivity of alfalfa within an irrigated field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2014-05-01

    Efficiency of water use for the irrigation purposes is connected to the variety of circumstances, factors and processes appearing along the transportation path of water from its sources to the root zone of the plant. Water efficiency of agricultural irrigation is connected with variety of circumstances, the impacts and the processes occurring during the transportation of water from water sources to plant root zone. Agrohydrological processes occur directly at the irrigated field, these processes linked to the infiltration of the applied water subsequent redistribution of the infiltrated water within the root zone. One of them are agrohydrological processes occurring directly on an irrigated field, connected with infiltration of water applied for irrigation to the soil, and the subsequent redistribution of infiltrated water in the root zone. These processes have the strongly pronounced spatial character depending on the one hand from a spatial variation of some hydrological characteristics of soils, and from other hand with distribution of volume of irrigation water on a surface of the area of an irrigated field closely linked with irrigation technology used. The combination of water application parameters with agrohydrological characteristics of soils and agricultural vegetation in each point at the surface of an irrigated field leads to formation of a vector field of intensity of irrigation water. In an ideal situation, such velocity field on a soil surface should represent uniform set of vertically directed collinear vectors. Thus values of these vectors should be equal to infiltration intensities of water inflows on a soil surface. In soil profile the field of formed intensities of a water flow should lead to formation in it of a water storage accessible to root system of irrigated crops. In practice this ideal scheme undergoes a lot of changes. These changes have the different nature, the reasons of occurrence and degree of influence on the processes connected

  13. Cassava virus diseases: biology, epidemiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, James P; Lava Kumar, P; Makeshkumar, T; Tripathi, Leena; Ferguson, Morag; Kanju, Edward; Ntawuruhunga, Pheneas; Cuellar, Wilmer

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the most important vegetatively propagated food staple in Africa and a prominent industrial crop in Latin America and Asia. Its vegetative propagation through stem cuttings has many advantages, but deleteriously it means that pathogens are passed from one generation to the next and can easily accumulate, threatening cassava production. Cassava-growing continents are characterized by specific suites of viruses that affect cassava and pose particular threats. Of major concern, causing large and increasing economic impact in Africa and Asia are the cassava mosaic geminiviruses that cause cassava mosaic disease in Africa and Asia and cassava brown streak viruses causing cassava brown streak disease in Africa. Latin America, the center of origin and domestication of the crop, hosts a diverse set of virus species, of which the most economically important give rise to cassava frog skin disease syndrome. Here, we review current knowledge on the biology, epidemiology, and control of the most economically important groups of viruses in relation to both farming and cultural practices. Components of virus control strategies examined include: diagnostics and surveillance, prevention and control of infection using phytosanitation, and control of disease through the breeding and promotion of varieties that inhibit virus replication and/or movement. We highlight areas that need further research attention and conclude by examining the likely future global outlook for virus disease management in cassava. PMID:25591878

  14. Root biomass and carbon storage in differently managed multispecies temporary grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Mortensen, Tine Bloch; Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Species-rich grasslands may potentially increase carbon (C) storage in soil, and an experiment was established to investigate C storage in highly productive temporary multi-species grasslands. Plots were established with three mixtures: (1) a herb mixture containing salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor...

  15. Overexpression of the transporters AtZIP1 and AtMTP1 in cassava changes zinc accumulation and partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eGaitan-Solis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Zinc deficiency in humans is a serious problem worldwide with an estimated one third of populations at risk for insufficient zinc in diet which leads to impairment of cognitive abilities and immune system function. The goal of this research was to increase the bioavailable zinc in the edible portion of cassava roots to improve the overall zinc nutrition of populations that rely on cassava as a dietary staple. To increase zinc concentrations, two A. thaliana genes coding for ZIP1 and MTP1 were overexpressed with a tuber-specific or constitutive promoter. Eighteen transgenic events from four constructs, out of a total of 73 events generated, showed significantly higher zinc concentrations in the edible portion of the storage root compared to the non-transgenic controls. The zinc content in the transgenic lines ranged from 4 - 73 mg/Kg Dry Weight (DW as compared to the non-transgenic control which contained 8 mg/Kg. Striking changes in whole plant phenotype such as smaller plant size and chlorotic leaves were observed in transgenic lines that over accumulated zinc. In a confined field trial five transgenic events grown for 12 months showed a range of zinc concentrations from 18 – 217 mg/Kg DW. Although the overexpression of zinc transporters was successful in increasing the zinc concentrations in 25% of the transgenic lines generated, it also resulted in a decrease in plant and tuber size and overall yield due to what appears to be zinc deficiency in the aerial parts of the plant.

  16. Cassava Market Participation Decisions of Producing Households in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a basic staple and a major source of farm income for the people of sub-Saharan Africa. Efficiency in cassava marketing therefore becomes a very important determinant of both consumer's living cost and producer's income. At the farmer's level, which is the beginning of the marketing chain, food must produced in reasonable quantity to attract enough market participants that will make for efficient distribution. The use of food price policy to stimulate short-run marketed surplus of producing households has often been questioned. This is because some households are deficit producers who purchase crops they also produce. Increasing producer prices will therefore have adverse distributional effects on food buying, while bypassing autarkic households. An alternative would therefore be to find non-price strategic variables that motivate farm households to participate in commodity markets. This is the objective of this paper. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework by the collaborative study of cassava in Africa (COSCA. Good market access conditions, improved market information especially on prices, the production of granules instead of dried roots or pastes increased market participation for sellers, while rising grain prices, younger and less educated heads of households encouraged participation for buyers.

  17. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Sweetpotato Storage Roots Between Kokei No. 14 and Its Mutant Nongdafu 14 Using PCR-Based cDNA Subtraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; ZHAI Hong; YANG Yuan-jun; HE Shao-zhen; LIU De-gao; LIU Qing-chang

    2013-01-01

    The contents of carotenoids in the storage root of sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. vary dramatically among different cultivars. However, so far little is known about the regulation of carotenoids synthesis in sweetpotato. In our laboratory, we identified a novel sweetpotato mutant, Nongdafu 14, which is a homogenous mutant derived from the wild type Kokei No. 14. The contents of carotenoids in the storage root of Nongdafu 14 were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and it was found that the amount of carotenoids, b-carotene, lutein and zeaxantion, three major types of carotenoids in sweetpotato storage roots, increased 2-26 folds in Nongdafu 14 compared to Kokei No. 14. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed in Nongdafu 14, and a differentially expressed cDNA library was constructed using the cDNA of Nongdafu 14 storage roots as tester and that of Kokei No. 14 storage roots as driver. Out of the 1 530 clones sequenced, we identified 292 nonredundant ESTs. GO and KEGG analyses of these differentially expressed ESTs indicated that diverse metabolism pathways were affected and candidate genes involved in regulation of carotenoids synthesis are suggested.

  18. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production

    OpenAIRE

    Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore; Luciana Rodrigues do Canto; Edna Regina Amante; Valdir Soldi

    2005-01-01

    Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE). DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs accordin...

  19. Cassava flour and starch : progress in research and development

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, Eric; Brauman, Alain; Kéléke, S.; Gosselin, Laurent; Raimbault, Maurice

    1996-01-01

    An amylolytic lactic acid bacterium, identified as #Lactobacillus plantarum$, was isolated from cassava roots (#Manihot esculenta$ var. Ngansa) during retting. Cultured on starch, the strain displayed a growth rate of 0.43 per hour, a biomass yield of 0.19 g/g, and a lactate yield of 0.81 g/g. The growth kinetics were similar on starch and glucose. Enough enzyme was synthesized, and starch hydrolysis was not a limiting factor for growth. The synthesized amylolytic enzyme was purified by fract...

  20. Effect of Environment and Sugar Beet Genotype on Root Rot Development and Pathogen Profile During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Sebastian; Varrelmann, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Storage rots represent an economically important factor impairing the storability of sugar beet by increasing sucrose losses and invert sugar content. Understanding the development of disease management strategies, knowledge about major storage pathogens, and factors influencing their occurrence is crucial. In comprehensive storage trials conducted under controlled conditions, the effects of environment and genotype on rot development and associated quality changes were investigated. Prevalent species involved in rot development were identified by a newly developed microarray. The strongest effect on rot development was assigned to environment factors followed by genotypic effects. Despite large variation in rot severity (sample range 0 to 84%), the spectrum of microorganisms colonizing sugar beet remained fairly constant across all treatments with dominant species belonging to the fungal genera Botrytis, Fusarium, and Penicillium. The intensity of microbial tissue necrotization was strongly correlated with sucrose losses (R² = 0.79 to 0.91) and invert sugar accumulation (R² = 0.91 to 0.95). A storage rot resistance bioassay was developed that could successfully reproduce the genotype ranking observed in storage trials. Quantification of fungal biomass indicates that genetic resistance is based on a quantitative mechanism. Further work is required to understand the large environmental influence on rot development in sugar beet. PMID:26474333

  1. Effects of chlorocholine chloride and paclobutrazol on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. Rocha plant growth and tuberous root quality Efectos del cloruro de cloro colina y el paclobutrazol sobre el crecimiento de plantas y la calidad de raíces tuberosas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. Rocha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Medina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chlorocholine chloride (CCC and paclobutrazol (PBZ foliar application on shoot and root parameters of cassava field-grown plants were studied (0, 45 and 90 mg active ingredient per plant. CCC and PBZ reduced total plant and first branch height, aerial fresh mass and tuberous root number. PBZ delayed branching and significantly decreased tuberous root fresh mass, while CCC caused no modifications in these parameters. In addition, CCC and PBZ treatments did not modify tuberous root diameter, while PBZ reduced tuberous root length significantly. Starch content was increased by both growth regulators at the lower dose, whereas dry matter content was increased only by CCC. In conclusion, CCC suppresses excessive vegetative growth, favours quality attributes and does not alter yield, hence improving harvest index. Although PBZ at a low dose increases the starch content and harvest index, its effects on other parameters are undesirable.Se estudiaron los efectos de la aplicación foliar del cloruro de cloro colina (CCC y del paclobutrazol (PBZ sobre parámetros de crecimiento aéreo y radical de plantas de mandioca cultivadas a campo (0,45 y 90 mg de principio activo por planta. El CCC y el PBZ redujeron la altura total de las plantas y la altura de la primera ramificación, el peso fresco de los órganos aéreos y el número de raíces tuberosas por planta. El PBZ retrasó la ocurrencia de la ramificación y causó reducciones significativas del peso fresco de las raíces tuberosas, mientras que el CCC no afectó dichos parámetros. Los tratamientos con CCC y PBZ no modificaron el diámetro de las raíces tuberosas, aunque el PBZ redujo significativamente su longitud. El contenido de almidón de raíces tuberosas se incrementó por la aplicación de ambos reguladores del crecimiento en su dosis mínima; sin embargo, el contenido de materia seca de estas sólo fue aumentado por el tratamiento con CCC. En conclusión, el CCC evita el

  2. Bisdesmosidic saponins from Securidaca longepedunculata roots: evaluation of deterrency and toxicity to Coleopteran storage pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Philip C; Dayarathna, Thamara K; Belmain, Steven R; Veitch, Nigel C

    2009-10-14

    Powdered dry root bark of Securidaca longepedunculata was mixed with maize and cowpea and effectively reduced the numbers of Sitophilus zeamais and Callosobruchus maculatus emerging from these commodities, respectively, more than 9 months after treatment. This effect was reciprocated in grain treated with a methanol extract of the root bark, indicating that compounds were present that were oviposition deterrents or directly toxic to the adults or larvae. Two new bisdesmosidic saponins, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 --> 3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[4-O-(4-methoxycinnamoyl-beta-D-fucopyranosyl)])-medicagenic acid (securidacaside A) and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 --> 3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[4-O-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-(E)-cinnamoyl-beta-D-fucopyranosyl)])-medicagenic acid (securidacaside B), were isolated from the methanol extract of the roots of S. longepedunculata and characterized by spectroscopic methods. Securidacaside A, which occurred as (E)- and (Z)-regioisomers, showed deterrency and toxicity toward C. maculatus and S. zeamais and could contribute to the biological activity of the methanol extract. The potential to optimize the use of this plant for stored product protection using water extracts, which would be appropriate technology for target farmers, is discussed. PMID:19769365

  3. UTILIZAÇÃO DA MANDIOCA (Manihot utilissima, Pohl CRUA NUM ESTUDO COMPARATIVO DE TRÊS DIETAS PARA SUÍNOS EM CRESCIMENTO-ENGORDA USE OF RAW CASSAVA ROOTS (Manihot utilissima POHL IN A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THREE SWINE GROWING AND FATTENING DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Eduardo Galvão

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente experimento foi conduzido na Escola Média de Agricultura de Florestal, Minas Gerais, com o fim de verificar a viabilidade do uso da mandioca (Manihot utilissima Pohl “in natura” em dietas de suínos em crescimento e engorda. Foram usados três tratamentos constituídos de mistura comercial para crescimento mais mandioca "in natura" (A, mistura comercial para engorda (B, fubá de milho (C recebendo todos verde à vontade. Em cada tratamento foram usados 10 animais mestiços com 133, 5 dias de idade e peso médio inicial de aproximadamente 26,1Kg. O experimento teve duração de 210 dias e os ganhos diários em peso foram de 0,451; 0,452 e 0,178 Kg, para os tratamentos A, B e C respectivamente. As análises de variância revelaram, que para ganhos em peso e espessura de toucinho, não houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre leitegadas e os tratamentos A e B, havendo porém (p < 0,01 entre tratamento C contra A e B. O tratamento contendo mandioca "in natura” revelou ser o mais econômico.

    An experiment was carried out at the Escola Média de Agricultura de Florestal, Minas Gerais, in order to verify the viability of cassava roots use (Manihot utilissima, Pohl ";in natura"; in growing and fattening swine diets. Three treatments were used, containing commercial mixture for fatteningswine (B, ground corn (C and all receiving para grass (Brachiaria mutica Stapf ";ad libitum";. In each treatment were used ten crossbred animals of 133,5 days and gains were 0,451; 0,452 and 0,178 kg for treatments A, B and C, respectively. The analysis of

  4. Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Indian cassava mosaic virus transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) adults from colonies reared on cassava or sweet potato plants were studied to determine their ability to transmit Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) (Geminiviridae: Begomovirus) from cassava to cassava. Virus acquisition access (feeding) periods (AAP) of 48 h on ICMV-infec...

  5. Dynamics of Depletion and Replenishment of Water Storage in Stem and Roots of Black Spruce Measured by Dendrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Audrey; Rossi, Sergio; Deslauriers, Annie; Krause, Cornelia; Morin, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    In the short term, trees rely on the internal storage of water because it affects their ability to sustain photosynthesis and growth. However, water is not rapidly available for transpiration from all the compartments of the plant and the living tissues of the stem act as a buffer to preclude low water potentials during peaks of transpiration. In this paper, electronic dendrometers were used from mid-June to mid-September 2008 to compare the radius variations in stem and roots of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.] in two sites of the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada, with different soil characteristics and water retention. The duration of the daily cycles was similar between sites and measurement heights but greater amplitudes of contraction and expansion were observed on the stem and in the site with the shallowest soil organic layer. The expansion phase had higher amplitudes and lasted longer than contraction. On average, the contraction phase occurred between 07:00 and 16:30 (legal time), while expansion lasted 14.5 h. The roots in the site with the deepest organic layer showed a wider variation in the onset of contraction, which could be as late as 13:00. The probability of observing the contraction phase depended on precipitation. With a precipitation 60% probability of observing contraction between 05:00 and 21:00, decreasing to 20% with precipitation >1.1 mm h−1. These findings demonstrated that the depth of the organic layer plays an important role in maintaining the internal water reserve of trees. The dynamics of water depletion and replenishment can modify the water potential of xylem and cell turgor during the enlargement phase, thus affecting radial growth. Changes in temperature and precipitation regime could influence the dynamics of internal water storage in trees growing on shallower and drier soils. PMID:22639583

  6. Cassava Mutation Breeding: Current Status and Trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important energy source in the diets of millions of people in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, especially the poor. Also its industrial uses are steadily growing for starch, animal feed and bio-ethanol. Although it has high economic and social relevance, few major scientific efforts have been made to improve the crop until the 1970s. With the goals and objectives of cassava improvement through breeding, different strategies have been developed during the last several decades, such as evaluation and selection of the local landraces, introduced germplasm (as clones or segregating F1 population), hybridization (including inbreeding by both recurrent back-cross schemes and double haploids (DH)), interspecific hybridization, polyploidy breeding, genetic transformation, use of molecular markers and mutation breeding. Induced mutation breeding on cassava has been explored in the last several decades with few published papers. Yet, the production of novel genotypes, such as high amylose and small granule mutants and mutants with tolerance to post harvest physiological deterioration (PPD), has been reported. These results suggest that mutagenesis could be an effective alternative for cassava breeding. However, many drawbacks still exist in cassava mutation breeding, such as the occurrence of chimeras. Validated and developing protocols for different biotechnologies, such as TILLING protocol, cassava genome sequencing and cassava somatic embryogenesis, will significantly ameliorate the drawbacks to traditional mutation breeding, and consequently aid the routine application of induced mutation in both cassava improvement and in gene discovery and elucidation. (author)

  7. Fermented cassava waste and its utilization in broiler chickens rations

    OpenAIRE

    Supriyati,

    2003-01-01

    Cassava waste is a by-product of cassava flour industry and its amount is increasing following the increasing of cassava flour industry. Its utilization as a feedstuff, is limited by its low protein content. The cassava waste is only utilized as the energy source. One of the alternative technology in improving the utilization of cassava waste as a feedstuff, by improving the nutritive value through fermentation process. Fermentation was carried out by solid substrate fermentation using Asperg...

  8. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results showed that almost all modified starches were resistant to syneresis, produced pastes more stable to stirred cooking, and some of them were difficult to cook. The sour cassava starches presented high acidity and resulted in clear and unstable pastes during stirred cooking, susceptible to syneresis.

  9. Transgenic sweet potato expressing thionin from barley gives resistance to black rot disease caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata in leaves and storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramoto, Nobuhiko; Tanaka, Tomoko; Shimamura, Takashi; Mitsukawa, Norihiro; Hori, Etsuko; Koda, Katsunori; Otani, Motoyasu; Hirai, Masana; Nakamura, Kenzo; Imaeda, Takao

    2012-06-01

    Black rot of sweet potato caused by pathogenic fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata severely deteriorates both growth of plants and post-harvest storage. Antimicrobial peptides from various organisms have broad range activities of killing bacteria, mycobacteria, and fungi. Plant thionin peptide exhibited anti-fungal activity against C. fimbriata. A gene for barley α-hordothionin (αHT) was placed downstream of a strong constitutive promoter of E12Ω or the promoter of a sweet potato gene for β-amylase of storage roots, and introduced into sweet potato commercial cultivar Kokei No. 14. Transgenic E12Ω:αHT plants showed high-level expression of αHT mRNA in both leaves and storage roots. Transgenic β-Amy:αHT plants showed sucrose-inducible expression of αHT mRNA in leaves, in addition to expression in storage roots. Leaves of E12Ω:αHT plants exhibited reduced yellowing upon infection by C. fimbriata compared to leaves of non-transgenic Kokei No. 14, although the level of resistance was weaker than resistance cultivar Tamayutaka. Storage roots of both E12Ω:αHT and β-Amy:αHT plants exhibited reduced lesion areas around the site inoculated with C. fimbriata spores compared to Kokei No. 14, and some of the transgenic lines showed resistance level similar to Tamayutaka. Growth of plants and production of storage roots of these transgenic plants were not significantly different from non-transgenic plants. These results highlight the usefulness of transgenic sweet potato expressing antimicrobial peptide to reduce damages of sweet potato from the black rot disease and to reduce the use of agricultural chemicals. PMID:22212462

  10. Promoter regulatory domain identification of cassava starch synthase IIb gene in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhihui; Chen, Xin; Xie, Hairong; Wang, Wenquan

    2016-05-01

    Soluble starch synthase is a key enzyme in the starch biosynthesis pathway, and its enzyme activity significantly influences starch components in cassava storage root. However, studies on the regulation mechanism of soluble starch synthase gene are rare. In this study, we cloned the 5' flanking sequence of the MeSSIIb gene and predicted the distribution of cis-elements. The region from -453 to -1 was considered the primary core promoter by the quantitative detection of GUS activity in transgenic tobacco plants containing 5' truncated promoters fused with the GUS gene. Analysis results clarified that the region from -531 to -454 significantly repressed promoter activity. The region from -453 to -388 was a repressive domain of ethylene, and some unknown drought responsive cis-elements were located in the region from -387 to -1. These findings will provide useful information on the functional assay and transcriptional regulation mechanisms of the MeSSIIb gene. PMID:26919397

  11. Cytokinin-dependent secondary growth determines root biomass in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Geupil; Lee, Jung-Hun; Rastogi, Khushboo; Park, Suhyoung; Oh, Sang-Hun; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-08-01

    The root serves as an essential organ in plant growth by taking up nutrients and water from the soil and supporting the rest of the plant body. Some plant species utilize roots as storage organs. Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta), and radish (Raphanus sativus), for example, are important root crops. However, how their root growth is regulated remains unknown. In this study, we characterized the relationship between cambium and radial root growth in radish. Through a comparative analysis with Arabidopsis root expression data, we identified putative cambium-enriched transcription factors in radish and analysed their expression in representative inbred lines featuring distinctive radial growth. We found that cell proliferation activities in the cambium positively correlated with radial growth and final yields of radish roots. Expression analysis of candidate transcription factor genes revealed that some genes are differentially expressed between inbred lines and that the difference is due to the distinct cytokinin response. Taken together, we have demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that cytokinin-dependent radial growth plays a key role in the yields of root crops. PMID:25979997

  12. An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziska, Lewis H.; Tomecek, Martha; Sicher, Richard [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Systems and Global Change Lab, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Building 1, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Runion, G. Brett; Prior, Stephen A.; Torbet, H. Allen [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Soil Dynamics Laboratory, 411 South Donahue Drive, Auburn, AL 36832 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassava (Manihot esculentum) at locations near Auburn, Alabama and Beltsville, Maryland in order to measure root carbohydrate (starch, sucrose, glucose) and root biomass. Averaged for both locations, sweet potato yielded the highest concentration of root carbohydrate (ca 80%), primarily in the form of starch (ca 50%) and sucrose (ca 30%); whereas cassava had root carbohydrate concentrations of (ca 55%), almost entirely as starch. For sweet potato, overall carbohydrate production was 9.4 and 12.7 Mg ha{sup -1} for the Alabama and Maryland sites, respectively. For cassava, carbohydrate production in Maryland was poor, yielding only 2.9 Mg ha{sup -1}. However, in Alabama, carbohydrate production from cassava averaged {proportional_to}10 Mg ha{sup -1}. Relative to carbohydrate production from corn in each location, sweet potato and cassava yielded approximately 1.5 x and 1.6 x as much carbohydrate as corn in Alabama; 2.3 x and 0.5 x for the Maryland site. If economical harvesting and processing techniques could be developed, these data suggest that sweet potato in Maryland, and sweet potato and cassava in Alabama, have greater potential as ethanol sources than existing corn systems, and as such, could be used to replace or offset corn as a source of biofuels. (author)

  13. Cassava as a non-conventional filler in comminuted meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annor-Frempong, I E; Annan-Prah, A; Wiredu, R

    1996-11-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) was used as an unconventional filler to produce affordable comminuted meat products that stored well under tropical conditions without refrigeration. The study involved two experiments. In experiment 1, five different emulsion-type pork sausages containing 5.4, 9.0 and 10.0% mould-free cassava flour, 5.4% crude full fat soy flour and a control without filler were assessed 0 and 7 days after preparation. A 40-member taste panel sensorily assessed the products in a 5 × 2 factorial (treatment × storage occasion) experiment based on the external appearance of the uncooked products and the external and internal colour, consistency, texture, aroma and taste of the cooked products. Although the panel judged products with 5.4% cassava flour as the best, the 9% inclusion level of cassava flour was found not to compromise the organoleptic qualities of the product. At this level 54 000 cedis (US$150) was saved on the cost of producing 1t of the product. In experiment 2, the sausages were pasteurised at 80 °C for 1 h and stored in a 4:1 vinegar-sugar solution or a 1:1:50 vinegar-sugar-water solution at 5 and 30 °C. Storage in 4:1 vinegar-sugar medium arrested bacterial growth over the 7-day monitoring period. It was concluded that 9% cassava flour could conveniently replace fat in comminuted meat products and a combination of pasteurisation and storage in vinegar-sugar solution is an effective method of storage of such products in the tropics. PMID:22060829

  14. Irradiation effects on color and functional properties of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. folium) leaf extract and licorice (Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fischer) root extract during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Son, J.H.; Shin, M.G.; Byun, M.W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2003-06-01

    Irradiation effects on color and functional properties of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. folium) leaf extract and licorice (Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fischer) root extract were studied. Persimmon leaf and licorice root extracts were irradiated using {sup 60}Co gamma irradiator at 0 and 20 kGy absorbed dose and stored at 4 deg. C or -20 deg. C for 2 weeks. Tyrosinase inhibition effect (TIE) of both extracts was not different by 20 kGy-irradiation but reduced during storage. Electron donating ability (EDA) of the persimmon leaf extract was generally consistent, but that of licorice root extract was reduced by irradiation except for 1 week of storage. Both TIE and EDA of persimmon leaf extract were higher than that of licorice root. Hunter color L*-, a*-, and b*-values were changed, resulting in a desirable brighter color by irradiation. During storage, the bright yellow color of irradiated sample changed to brown gradually, and especially the changes in the refrigeration condition (4 deg. C) was faster than frozen (-20 deg. C). Results indicate that irradiation can be a useful method to produce value-added natural ingredients with functions such as persimmon leaf or licorice root for food or cosmetic industry in addition to elimination of microbial load.

  15. Irradiation effects on color and functional properties of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. folium) leaf extract and licorice (Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fischer) root extract during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation effects on color and functional properties of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. folium) leaf extract and licorice (Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fischer) root extract were studied. Persimmon leaf and licorice root extracts were irradiated using 60Co gamma irradiator at 0 and 20 kGy absorbed dose and stored at 4 deg. C or -20 deg. C for 2 weeks. Tyrosinase inhibition effect (TIE) of both extracts was not different by 20 kGy-irradiation but reduced during storage. Electron donating ability (EDA) of the persimmon leaf extract was generally consistent, but that of licorice root extract was reduced by irradiation except for 1 week of storage. Both TIE and EDA of persimmon leaf extract were higher than that of licorice root. Hunter color L*-, a*-, and b*-values were changed, resulting in a desirable brighter color by irradiation. During storage, the bright yellow color of irradiated sample changed to brown gradually, and especially the changes in the refrigeration condition (4 deg. C) was faster than frozen (-20 deg. C). Results indicate that irradiation can be a useful method to produce value-added natural ingredients with functions such as persimmon leaf or licorice root for food or cosmetic industry in addition to elimination of microbial load

  16. Phosphorus effects on the mycelium and storage structures of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus as studied in the soil and roots by analysis of fatty acid signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, P.A.; Bååth, E.; Jakobsen, I.

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus between soil and roots, and between mycelial and storage structures, was studied by use of the fatty acid signature 16:1 omega 5. Increasing the soil phosphorus level resulted in a decrease in the level of the fatty acid 16:1 omega 5 in the...... soil and roots. A similar decrease was detected by microscopic measurements of root colonization and of the length of AM fungal hyphae in the soil. The fatty acid 16:1 omega 5 was estimated from two types of lipids, phospholipids and neutral lipids, which mainly represent membrane lipids and storage...... lipids, respectively. The numbers of spores of the AM fungus formed in the soil correlated most closely, with neutral lipid fatty acid 16:1 omega 5, whereas the hyphal length in the soil correlated most closely with phospholipid fatty acid 16:1 omega 5. The fungal neutral lipid/phospholipid ratio in the...

  17. Phosphorus effects on the mycelium and storage structures of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus as studied in the soil and roots by analysis of fatty acid signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, P.A.; Bååth, E.; Jakobsen, I.

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus between soil and roots, and between mycelial and storage structures, was studied by use of the fatty acid signature 16:1 omega 5. Increasing the soil phosphorus level resulted in a decrease in the level of the fatty acid 16:1 omega 5 in the...... extraradical mycelium was positively correlated with the level of root infection and thus decreased with increasing applications of P. The neutral lipid/phospholipid ratio indicated that at high P levels, less carbon was allocated to storage structures. At all levels of P applied, the major part of the AM...... fungus was found to he present outside the roots, as estimated from phospholipid fatty acid 16:1 omega 5. The ratio of extraradical biomass/intraradical biomass was not affected by the application of P, except for a decrease at the highest level of P applied....

  18. Microbiological and biochemical characterization of cassava retting, a traditional lactic Acid fermentation for foo-foo (cassava flour) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauman, A; Keleke, S; Malonga, M; Miambi, E; Ampe, F

    1996-08-01

    The overall kinetics of retting, a spontaneous fermentation of cassava roots performed in central Africa, was investigated in terms of microbial-population evolution and biochemical and physicochemical parameters. During the traditional process, endogenous cyanogens were almost totally degraded, plant cell walls were lysed by the simultaneous action of pectin methylesterase and pectate lyase, and organic acids (C(inf2) to C(inf4)) were produced. Most microorganisms identified were found to be facultative anaerobes which used the sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) present in the roots as carbon sources. After 24 h of retting, the fermentation reached an equilibrium that was reproducible in all the spontaneous fermentations studied. Lactic acid bacteria were largely predominant (over 99% of the total flora after 48 h) and governed the fermentation. The epiphytic flora was first replaced by Lactococcus lactis, then by Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and finally, at the end of the process, by Lactobacillus plantarum. These organisms produced ethanol and high concentrations of lactate, which strongly acidified the retting juice. In addition, the rapid decrease in partial oxygen pressure rendered the process anaerobic. Strict anaerobes, such as Clostridium spp., developed and produced the volatile fatty acids (mainly butyrate) responsible, together with lactate, for the typical flavor of retted cassava. Yeasts (mostly Candida spp.) did not seem to play a significant role in the process, but their increasing numbers in the last stage of the process might influence the flavor and the preservation of the end products. PMID:16535378

  19. Effect of addition of different hydrocolloids on pasting, thermal, and rheological properties of cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dias Leite

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Starches and gums are hydrocolloids frequently used in food systems to provide proper texture, moisture, and water mobility. Starch-gum interaction in food systems can change the starch granule swelling and its gelatinization and rheological properties. In this study, the effect of the addition of xanthan gum (XG, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC, and carrageenan (CAR at the concentrations of the 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45% (w/v on the pasting, thermal, and rheological properties of cassava starch was studied. The swelling power (SP and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM of the starch gels were also evaluated. The results obtained showed that xanthan gum (XG had a strong interaction with the cassava starch penetrating between starch granules causing increase in pasting viscosities, SP, storage and loss (G', and G", respectively modulus and reduction in the setback of the starch; sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC greatly increased the pasting viscosities, the SP, and the storage and loss (G', and G", respectively modulus of the starch-mixtures, mainly due to its greater capacity to hold water and not due to the interaction with cassava starch. Carrageenan (CAR did not change any of the starch properties since there was no interaction between this gum and cassava starch at the concentrations used.

  20. Fresh cut cassava subjected to gamma radiationMandioca minimamente processada submetida a radiação gama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gonçalves Lozano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Fresh cut cassava is an alternative to prolong roots commercialization period, adding value to the raw material and assisting the consumer’s needs that seeks for products of easy preparation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of fresh cut cassava subjected to gamma radiation. For processing cassava roots (IAC – 567-70 were used, after preparation were packed in expanded polystyrene (EPS trays, covered by low density polyethylene (LDPE plastic film, being subjected to gamma radiation in the doses 0 (control, 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 KGy. Another treatment was also carried out in which roots were vacuum packed in nylon + polyethylene. Packed roots of all treatments were stored under refrigeration (5 ± 1 ºC and evaluations were made after 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Evaluated analyses were: titrable acidity, pH, firmness, coloration, polyphenoloxidase activity, cooking time and roots hydration percentage. Evaluations just proceeded until the nine storage day, because after this period the roots already presented visually detectable physiologic and microbiological alterations. For titrable acidity, the vacuum packed roots had the lowest values, followed by the control packed in trays. For the other treatments, values of acidity increased and influenced the pH values. For the other appraised parameters there was no significant difference among treatments, but alterations were observed with the storage. The firmness decreased with the storage. Brightness values and yellow color component decreased with the storage and the b * (green color values increased. Polyphenoloxidase activity was maximum in the day of elaboration of the product and it decreased with the storage. Cooking time and roots hydration percentage decreased with the roots storage.A mandioca minimamente processada é uma alternativa para prolongar o período de comercialização das raízes, agregando de valor a matéria prima e atendendo as necessidades do consumidor que

  1. Influence of the wax application time on cassava conservation; Influencia del momento de aplicación de un recubrimiento en la conservación de yuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rendón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article, product of a research project, shows the results of the evaluation of the influence of the time between harvest and the application of a natural wax in the deterioration of cassava roots; this time was called time of application. Tao chemistry Ltda. wax TAO FRESH ROOT was used in the development of this work. Three factors were considered for the evaluation:the quality of cassava roots, such as: physiological deterioration, loss of weight and dry matter content. They were evaluated in two varieties of cassava,five moments of application (1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h for a period of 21 days. The moment of application at 6 h presented the lowest averages of physiological deterioration and weight loss.This article is presented to establish the potential ofnatural waxes as a technique for the preservation of cassavaroots, highlighting the moment of application as an influential factor in the extension of the life of this product.

  2. Analysis of in vitro regenerated cassava plants using RAPD technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava is an important tuber crop grown in tropical and subtropical regions. Protocols for regeneration from tissue culture are very genotype dependent and in many cultivars quite ineffective, therefore improvement programmes through genetic engineering are restricted. Recently, protocols were developed for efficient somatic embryogenesis and/or organogenesis using zygotic embryos and nodal axillary meristems to minimize genotype dependency. Buds were regenerated directly from the exercised explants after a two step culture procedure. In the embryo explants, profilic shoot formation occurred within 2-3 weeks on a medium containing 0.5 mg I-1 BAP alone, or in combination with 0.1 mg I-1 NAA. Nodal explants with an axillary meristem were used to initiate a round, compact, 'bulb like' structure in the high cytokinin containing medium. In the presence of NAA (0.1 mg I-1), BAP (1 mg I-1) and GA3 (0.1 mg I-1), these structures produced multiple shoots. Efficient somatic embryogenesis was obtained from the cotyledon explants. Plants were obtained from all the African genotypes tested, although at different frequencies. The rooting of regenerated shoots exceeded 95% in phytohormone free medium. The polidy of the regenerants was examined using flow cytometry; no change in their ploidy level was observed. The random amplified polymorphic DAN (RAPD)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was employed to investigate molecular differences and also to generate polymorphic DNA markers in the in vitro regenerated Cassava plants. Twenty primers were used to generate patterns from several regenerants of two Cassava cultivars. The validity of using RAPD markers in such studies is discussed. (author). 3 refs, 1 tab

  3. Theory of a mechanical method of peeling cassava tubers with knives

    OpenAIRE

    O.B. Aluko; L.O. Adekoya; D.A. Adetan

    2006-01-01

    A newbut highly promising mechanical cassava peeling concept was investigated. The concept is based on the principle of peel-flesh separation through compression and peel removal with knives. The mechanism of this principle was described and mathematically modelled. Preliminary experiments were carried out on root slices of 100 mm length using a peeling machine developed earlier on the basis of this principle. The data collected were used to validate the model. The model developed predicts th...

  4. Concentrations of radionuclides in cassava growing in high background radiation area and their transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of several natural radionuclides in common cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing in Yangjiang County, a high background radiation area in Guangdong Province, and their uptake from soil and distribution in the plant were investigated. The results show that the concentrations of natural uranium and thorium in cassava root are of the order of 10-6 g/kg, and those of radium-226, radium-228, lead-210 and polonium-210 are of the order of 10-11 Ci/kg. The highest level is 9.30 +- 0.30 x 10-11 Ci/kg (lead-210), and the lowest is 3.99 +- 0.20 x 10-11 Ci/kg (radium-226). The levels of natural uranium, thorium, radium-226 and polonium-210 in cassava are below the limits stipulated by the regulations for food hygiene in China, while the lead-210 level approaches the limit. It is noticeable that the highest level of radium-228 is 7.28 +- 1.03 x 10-11 Ci/kg, 10.4 times higher than the limit. The transfer of all he nuclides from soil to different parts of cassava shows a pattern contrary to that of he nuclides in the other regions where uranium-and radium-containing waste water and phosphate fertilizer are used in agriculture

  5. Augmenting Iron Accumulation in Cassava by the Beneficial Soil Bacterium Bacillus subtilis (GBO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica A Freitas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta, a major staple food in the developing world, provides a basic carbohydrate diet for over half a billion people living in the tropics. Despite the iron abundance in most soils, cassava provides insufficient iron for humans as the edible roots contain 3-12 times less iron than other traditional food crops such as wheat, maize, and rice. With the recent identification that the beneficial soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis (strain GB03 activates iron acquisition machinery to increase metal ion assimilation in Arabidopsis, the question arises as to whether this plant-growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR also augments iron assimilation to increase endogenous iron levels in cassava. Biochemical analyses reveal that shoot-propagated cassava with GB03-inoculation exhibit elevated iron accumulation after 140 days of plant growth as determined by X-ray microanalysis and total foliar iron analysis. Growth promotion and increased photosynthetic efficiency were also observed for greenhouse-grown plants with GB03-exposure. These results demonstrate the potential of microbes to increase iron accumulation in an important agricultural crop and is consistent with idea that microbial signaling can regulate plant photosynthesis.

  6. Involvement of miR160/miR393 and their targets in cassava responses to anthracnose disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinweha, Nattaya; Asvarak, Thipa; Viboonjun, Unchera; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2015-02-01

    Cassava is a starchy root crop for food and industrial applications in many countries around the world. Among the factors that affect cassava production, diseases remain the major cause of yield loss. Cassava anthracnose disease is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Severe anthracnose attacks can cause tip die-backs and stem cankers, which can affect the availability of planting materials especially in large-scale production systems. Recent studies indicate that plants over- or under-express certain microRNAs (miRNAs) to cope with various stresses. Understanding how a disease-resistant plant protects itself from pathogens should help to uncover the role of miRNAs in the plant immune system. In this study, the disease severity assay revealed different response to C. gloeosporioides infection in two cassava cultivars. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis uncovered the differential expression of the two miRNAs and their target genes in the two cassava cultivars that were subjected to fungal infection. The more resistant cultivar revealed the up-regulation of miR160 and miR393, and consequently led to low transcript levels in their targets, ARF10 and TIR1, respectively. The more susceptible cultivar exhibited the opposite pattern. The cis-regulatory elements relevant to defense and stress responsiveness, fungal elicitor responsiveness and hormonal responses were the most prevalent present in the miRNAs gene promoter regions. The possible dual role of these specific miRNAs and their target genes associated with cassava responses to C. gloeosporioides is discussed. This is the first study to address the molecular events by which miRNAs which might play a role in fungal-infected cassava. A better understanding of the functions of miRNAs target genes should greatly increase our knowledge of the mechanism underlying susceptibility and lead to new strategies to enhance disease tolerance in this economically important crop. PMID:25462963

  7. UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry and chemometric analysis as tools for carotenoids analysis in cassava genotypes (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Rodolfo; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Pereira, Aline; Tomazzoli, Maíra Maciel; Nunes, Eduardo da C; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Gazzola, Jussara; Costa, Christopher; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the metabolomics characterization focusing on the carotenoid composition of ten cassava (Manihot esculenta) genotypes cultivated in southern Brazil by UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography was performed. Cassava roots rich in β-carotene are an important staple food for populations with risk of vitamin A deficiency. Cassava genotypes with high pro-vitamin A activity have been identified as a strategy to reduce the prevalence of deficiency of this vitamin. The data set was used for the construction of a descriptive model by chemometric analysis. The genotypes of yellow-fleshed roots were clustered by the higher concentrations of cis-β-carotene and lutein. Inversely, cream-fleshed roots genotypes were grouped precisely due to their lower concentrations of these pigments, as samples rich in lycopene (red-fleshed) differed among the studied genotypes. The analytical approach (UV-Vis, HPLC, and chemometrics) used showed to be efficient for understanding the chemodiversity of cassava genotypes, allowing to classify them according to important features for human health and nutrition. PMID:26673931

  8. Mutation Breeding in Root and Tuber Crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceeded by a few general considerations about problems and results of mutation breeding in vegetatively propagated plants a review is given of the results of mutation breeding programs up to new in the different (tropical) root and tuber crops (cassava, sweet potato, yam, potato and others). (author)

  9. 605 Salad crops: Root, bulb, and tuber Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root and tuber crops (potato, cassava, sweet potato, and yams) comprise 4 of the 10 major food staples of the world and serve as a major source of energy for the poor of developing nations. Minimal strain placed on agro ecosystems by root and tuber crops highlight their welcomed contribution to the ...

  10. Electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to analyze the electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch at various frequencies using electric impedance spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy, as well as determine the classification of the electrical parameters of both materials using the principle component analysis (PCA) method. All samples were measured at room temperature. The electrical and absorption parameters consisted of dielectric constant, dissipation factor, parallel capacitance, resistance, reactance, impedance and absorbance. It was found that the electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch were a function of frequency, and there were significant differences between the materials. The dielectric constant, parallel capacitance, resistance and impedance of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch had similar dramatic decreases with increasing frequency. However, the reactance of both materials increased with an increasing frequency. The electrical parameters of both materials could be classified into two groups. Moreover, the dissipation factor and phase of impedance were the parameters that could be used in the separation of both materials. According to the absorbance patterns of the fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch, there were significant differences

  11. Electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnsoongnoen, S.; Siritaratiwat, A.

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch at various frequencies using electric impedance spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy, as well as determine the classification of the electrical parameters of both materials using the principle component analysis (PCA) method. All samples were measured at room temperature. The electrical and absorption parameters consisted of dielectric constant, dissipation factor, parallel capacitance, resistance, reactance, impedance and absorbance. It was found that the electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch were a function of frequency, and there were significant differences between the materials. The dielectric constant, parallel capacitance, resistance and impedance of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch had similar dramatic decreases with increasing frequency. However, the reactance of both materials increased with an increasing frequency. The electrical parameters of both materials could be classified into two groups. Moreover, the dissipation factor and phase of impedance were the parameters that could be used in the separation of both materials. According to the absorbance patterns of the fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch, there were significant differences.

  12. Consumer preferences for table cassava characteristics in Pernambuco, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Carolina; Johnson, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    Cassava is a major source of carbohydrate for populations in the tropics; however, there is little information about the preferences of consumers toward the quality characteristics of this crop. This paper analyzes the demand for different cassava attributes, and applies the hedonic price method to estimate the values that consumers give to implicit attributes of cassava. The results show that ease of peeling, time of cooking and texture of cassava are the most important characteristics consu...

  13. Antioxidant activities of trypsin inhibitor, a 33 KDa root storage protein of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam cv. Tainong 57).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, W C; Chen, Y C; Chen, H J; Lin, Y H; Yang, L L; Lee, M H

    2001-06-01

    Trypsin inhibitors (TIs), root storage proteins, were purified from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas[L.] Lam cv. Tainong 57) roots by trypsin affinity column according to the methods of Hou and Lin (Plant Sci. 1997, 126, 11-19 and Plant Sci. 1997, 128, 151-158). A single band of 33 kDa TI was obtained by preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels. This purified 33 kDa TI had scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. There was positive correlation between scavenging effects against DPPH (2 to 22%) and amounts of 33 kDa TI (1.92 to 46 pmol). The scavenging activities of 33 kDa TI against DPPH were calculated from linear regression to be about one-third of those of glutathione between 5 and 80 pmol. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry for hydroxyl radical detection, it was found that 33 kDa TI could capture hydroxyl radical, and the intensities of EPR signal were significantly decreased from 1.5 to 6 pmol of 33 kDa TI compared to those of the controls. It is suggested that 33 kDa TI, one of the sweet potato root storage proteins, may play a role as an antioxidant in roots and may be beneficial to health when it is consumed. PMID:11409996

  14. Hazardous Material Storage Facilities and Sites, Shane Root- Root Spraying Service, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Lane County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hazardous Material Storage Facilities and Sites dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of...

  15. Variation in cassava germplasm for tolerance to post-harvest physiological deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, M T; Santos, L R; Vildoso, C I A; Santos, V S; Oliveira, E J

    2016-01-01

    Tolerant varieties can effectively control post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of cassava, although knowledge on the genetic variability and inheritance of this trait is needed. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters and identify sources of tolerance to PPD and their stability in cassava accessions. Roots from 418 cassava accessions, grown in four independent experiments, were evaluated for PPD tolerance 0, 2, 5, and 10 days post-harvest. Data were transformed into area under the PPD-progress curve (AUP-PPD) to quantify tolerance. Genetic parameters, stability (Si), adaptability (Ai), and the joint analysis of stability and adaptability (Zi) were obtained via residual maximum likelihood (REML) and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) methods. Variance in the genotype (G) x environment (E) interaction and genotypic variance were important for PPD tolerance. Individual broad-sense heritability (hg(2)= 0.38 ± 0.04) and average heritability in accessions (hmg(2)= 0.52) showed high genetic control of PPD tolerance. Genotypic correlation of AUP-PPD in different experiments was of medium magnitude (ȓgA = 0.42), indicating significant G x E interaction. The predicted genotypic values o f G x E free of interaction (û + ĝi) showed high variation. Of the 30 accessions with high Zi, 19 were common to û + ĝi, Si, and Ai parameters. The genetic gain with selection of these 19 cassava accessions was -55.94, -466.86, -397.72, and -444.03% for û + ĝi, Si, Ai, and Zi, respectively, compared with the overall mean for each parameter. These results demonstrate the variability and potential of cassava germplasm to introduce PPD tolerance in commercial varieties. PMID:27173317

  16. LIMITACIONES DE LA BACTERIOSIS VASCULAR DE YUCA: NUEVOS AVANCES Limitations of Cassava Bacterial Blight: New Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMILO LÓPEZ

    Full Text Available La yuca (Manihot esculenta constituye la base de la alimentación de más de 600 millones de personas en el mundo. Una de las principales limitaciones de este cultivo es la bacteriosis vascular, ocasionada por la bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam. Este artículo revisa el conocimiento actual acerca de la interacción Xanthomonasyuca. Se presentan estudios recientes llevados a cabo sobre la diversidad y dinámica de las poblaciones de Xam empleando diferentes estrategias moleculares. Se describen los diferentes métodos desarrollados para la detección y diagnóstico de la bacteria en plantas y semillas de yuca y su contribución para reducir el impacto de la enfermedad. Se presentan los estudios encaminados a comprender los mecanismos moleculares y los genes responsables en la resistencia de la yuca a la bacteriosis vascular incluyendo los últimos avances obtenidos gracias a la aplicación de estrategias de genómica funcional. El conocimiento adquirido en los últimos años en este patosistema permitirá desarrollar mejores estrategias para el manejo de la enfermedad así como desarrollar a corto plazo variedades de yuca resistentes a la bacteriosis lo que contribuiría a resolver uno de los principales problemas de los productores pobres de yuca y le abriría un horizonte promisorio al cultivo de la yuca en el mundo.Cassava (Manihot esculenta, a starchy root crop, constitutes the source of alimentation for over 600 million people worldwide. Cassava Bacterial Blight (CBB is caused the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam. This review will focus on the current knowledge on the molecular cassava-Xam interaction. We will present the different molecular techniques developed to assess the genetic diversity and dynamics of Xam populations. We will also present different methods developed for detecting the pathogen in vegetative planting materials and true seeds and their contribution to reduce the impact of the

  17. Limitations of Cassava Bacterial Blight: New Advances Limitaciones de la bacteriosis vascular de yuca: Nuevos avances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdier Valérie

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta, a starchy root crop, constitutes the source of alimentation for over 600 million people worldwide. Cassava Bacterial Blight (CBB is caused bythe bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam. This review will focus on the current knowledge on the molecular cassava-Xam interaction. We will present the different molecular techniques developed to assess the genetic diversity and dynamics of Xam populations. We will also present different methods developed for detecting the pathogen in vegetative planting materials and true seeds and their contribution to reduce the impact of the disease. We will review different studies conducted to gain a better understanding on the molecular mechanisms and the genes involved in the cassava bacterial resistance, including the recent advances obtained using functional
    genomics. The acquired knowledge in the last years for this pathosystem will help to establish better disease control strategies and generate, in a short term, resistant cassava varieties contributing to solve one of the main problems of poor cassava farmers and this effort will open a new horizon to the cassava crop in the world.La yuca (Manihot esculenta constituye la base de la alimentación de más de 600 millones de personas en el mundo. Una de las principales limitaciones de este cultivo es la bacteriosis vascular, ocasionada por la bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam. Este artículo revisa el conocimiento actual acerca de la interacción Xanthomonas-yuca. Se presentan estudios recientes llevados a cabo sobre la diversidad y dinámica de las poblaciones de Xam empleando diferentes estrategias moleculares. Se describen los diferentes métodos desarrollados para la detección y diagnóstico de la bacteria en plantas y semillas de yuca y su contribución para reducir el impacto de la enfermedad. Se presentan los estudios encaminados a comprender los mecanismos moleculares y los genes

  18. Sequences enhancing cassava mosaic disease symptoms occur in the cassava genome and are associated with South African cassava mosaic virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maredza, A T; Allie, F; Plata, G; Rey, M E C

    2016-06-01

    Cassava is an important food security crop in Sub-Saharan Africa. Two episomal begomovirus-associated sequences, named Sequences Enhancing Geminivirus Symptoms (SEGS1 and SEGS2), were identified in field cassava affected by the devastating cassava mosaic disease (CMD). The sequences reportedly exacerbated CMD symptoms in the tolerant cassava landrace TME3, and the model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana, when biolistically co-inoculated with African cassava mosaic virus-Cameroon (ACMV-CM) or East African cassava mosaic virus-UG2 (EACMV-UG2). Following the identification of small SEGS fragments in the cassava EST database, the intention of this study was to confirm their presence in the genome, and investigate a possible role for these sequences in CMD. We report that multiple copies of varying lengths of both SEGS1 and SEGS2 are widely distributed in the sequenced cassava genome and are present in several other cassava accessions screened by PCR. The endogenous SEGS1 and SEGS2 are in close proximity or overlapping with cassava genes, suggesting a possible role in regulation of specific biological processes. We confirm the expression of SEGS in planta using EST data and RT-PCR. The sequence features of endogenous SEGS (iSEGS) are unique but resemble non-autonomous transposable elements (TEs) such as MITEs and helitrons. Furthermore, many SEGS-associated genes, some involved in virus-host interactions, are differentially expressed in susceptible (T200) and tolerant TME3) cassava landraces infected by South African cassava mosaic virus (SACMV) of susceptible (T200) and tolerant (TME3) cassava landraces. Abundant SEGS-derived small RNAs were also present in mock-inoculated and SACMV-infected T200 and TME3 leaves. Given the known role of TEs and associated genes in gene regulation and plant immune responses, our observations are consistent with a role of these DNA elements in the host's regulatory response to geminiviruses. PMID:25920485

  19. Development and Identification of SSR Markers Associated with Starch Properties and β-Carotene Content in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhengdan; Tang, Daobin; Lv, Changwen; Luo, Kai; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xun; Huang, Yuanxin; Wang, Jichun

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a nutritious food crop and, based on the high starch content of its storage root, a potential bioethanol feedstock. Enhancing the nutritional value and starch quantity of storage roots are important goals of sweet potato breeding programs aimed at developing improved varieties for direct consumption, processing, and industrial uses. However, developing improved lines of sweet potato is challenging due to the genetic complexity of this plant and the lack of genome information. Short sequence repeat (SSR) markers are powerful molecular tools for tracking important loci in crops and for molecular-based breeding strategies; however, few SSR markers and marker-trait associations have hitherto been identified in sweet potato. In this study, we identified 1824 SSRs by using a de novo assembly of publicly available ESTs and mRNAs in sweet potato, and designed 1476 primer pairs based on SSR-containing sequences. We mapped 214 pairs of primers in a natural population comprised of 239 germplasms, and identified 1278 alleles with an average of 5.972 alleles per locus and a major allele frequency of 0.7702. Population structure analysis revealed two subpopulations in this panel of germplasms, and phenotypic characterization demonstrated that this panel is suitable for association mapping of starch-related traits. We identified 32, 16, and 17 SSR markers associated with starch content, β-carotene content, and starch composition in the storage root, respectively, using association analysis and further evaluation of a subset of sweet potato genotypes with various characteristics. The SSR markers identified here can be used to select varieties with desired traits and to investigate the genetic mechanism underlying starch and carotenoid formation in the starchy roots of sweet potato. PMID:26973669

  20. Comparative physiological and transcriptomic analyses reveal the actions of melatonin in the delay of postharvest physiological deterioration of cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eHu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin plays important roles in various aspects of biological processes. However, it is less known on the effects and mechanism of melatonin on the postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD process of cassava, which largely restricts the potential of cassava as a food and industrial crop. In this study, we found that exogenous application of melatonin significantly delayed PPD of cassava tuberous roots by reducing H2O2 content and improving activities of catalase and peroxidase. Moreover, 3425 differentially expressed genes by melatonin during the PPD process were identified by transcriptomic analysis. Several pathways were markedly affected by melatonin treatments, including metabolic-, ion homeostasis-, and enzyme activity-related processes. Further detailed analysis revealed that melatonin acted through activation of ROS-scavenging and ROS signal transduction pathways, including antioxidant enzymes, calcium signaling, MAPK cascades, and transcription factors at early stages. Notably, the starch degradation pathway was also activated at early stages, whereas it was repressed by melatonin at middle and late stages, thereby indicating its regulatory role in starch metabolism during PPD. Taken together, this study yields new insights into the effect and underlying mechanism of melatonin on the delay of PPD and provides a good strategy for extending shelf life and improvement of cassava tuberous roots.

  1. Comparative Physiological and Transcriptomic Analyses Reveal the Actions of Melatonin in the Delay of Postharvest Physiological Deterioration of Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Kong, Hua; Guo, Yunling; Zhang, Yuliang; Ding, Zehong; Tie, Weiwei; Yan, Yan; Huang, Qixing; Peng, Ming; Shi, Haitao; Guo, Anping

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin plays important roles in various aspects of biological processes. However, it is less known on the effects and mechanism of melatonin on the postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) process of cassava, which largely restricts the potential of cassava as a food and industrial crop. In this study, we found that exogenous application of melatonin significantly delayed PPD of cassava tuberous roots by reducing H2O2 content and improving activities of catalase and peroxidase. Moreover, 3425 differentially expressed genes by melatonin during the PPD process were identified by transcriptomic analysis. Several pathways were markedly affected by melatonin treatments, including metabolic-, ion homeostasis-, and enzyme activity-related processes. Further detailed analysis revealed that melatonin acted through activation of ROS-scavenging and ROS signal transduction pathways, including antioxidant enzymes, calcium signaling, MAPK cascades, and transcription factors at early stages. Notably, the starch degradation pathway was also activated at early stages, whereas it was repressed by melatonin at middle and late stages, thereby indicating its regulatory role in starch metabolism during PPD. Taken together, this study yields new insights into the effect and underlying mechanism of melatonin on the delay of PPD and provides a good strategy for extending shelf life and improvement of cassava tuberous roots. PMID:27303428

  2. Improvement of cassava for resistance to insect pests and diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The African cassava mosaic virus and cassava mealybug are devastating the cassava crop in Uganda. Because of the severe widespread occurrence of the virus and mealybug, in vitro cultured cassava plantlets instead of stem cuttings will be irradiated. In addition, the project has incorporated sweet potato. Installation of tissue culture laboratory at Namulonge was completed in early 1993. Work is in progress to establish efficient in vitro culture micropropagation techniques for the two crops. Small numbers of cassava plantlets of varieties 'TMS 30337' and 'TMS 4(2)1425' and sweet potato entry 30 are in vitro culture. Mass irradiation of plantlets is planned in future. (author). 4 refs

  3. Study of Products Distilled Spirits with Cassava Dregs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG le; WANG Jun-gao; LIU Wen-long

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, Cassava dregs are an outgrowth produced during starchy production which uses cassava as raw material. It is usually dropped out or used as cheap feedstuff. In order to make the best use of cassava dregs, increase industries' benefits and reduce castoff this study developed a new technique which used cassava dregs as raw material to produce distilled spirits based on cassava dregs characteristics. The technique adopt solid-ferment procedure. At first, the ferment is processed by solid-state distilling, and then rectification extra care refinement: at last the tequila was produced with characteristics of simple and elegant fragrance and mellow-tasting.

  4. Biofortification of essential nutritional compounds and trace elements in rice and cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, C; Poletti, S; Zhang, P; Gruissem, W

    2006-05-01

    Plant biotechnology can make important contributions to food security and nutritional improvement. For example, the development of 'Golden Rice' by Professor Ingo Potrykus was a milestone in the application of gene technology to deliver both increased nutritional qualities and health improvement to wide sections of the human population. Mineral nutrient and protein deficiency as well as food security remain the most important challenges for developing countries. Current projects are addressing these issues in two major staple crops, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and rice. The tropical root crop cassava is a major source of food for approximately 600 million of the population worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa >200 million of the population rely on cassava as their major source of dietary energy. The nutritional quality of the cassava root is not sufficient to meet all dietary needs. Rice is the staple food for half the world population, providing approximately 20% of the per capita energy and 13% of the protein for human consumption worldwide. In many developing countries the dietary contributions of rice are substantially greater (29.3% dietary energy and 29.1% dietary protein). The current six most popular 'mega' rice varieties (in terms of popularity and acreage), including Chinese hybrid rice, have an incomplete amino acid profile and contain limited amounts of essential micronutrients. Rice lines with improved Fe contents have been developed using genes that have functions in Fe absorption, translocation and accumulation in the plant, as well as improved Fe bioavailability in the human intestine. Current developments in biotechnology-assisted plant improvement are reviewed and the potential of the technology in addressing human nutrition and health are discussed. PMID:16672076

  5. 菊苣根采后生理及贮藏技术研究%physiological Characteristics and Storage Technology of Chicory Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志平

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究菊苣根在贮藏期间的生理变化,得出菊苣根最佳的贮藏条件,为芽球菊苣的周年供应提供条件.[方法]采用分阶段随机法取样,采用直接滴定法进行总糖和还原糖的测定;参照Bradford的测定方法,以牛血清白蛋白作标准曲线测定可溶性蛋白;统计法计数腐烂率.[结果]在0和-2℃的贮藏条件下,菊苣根中的非还原糖和还原糖含量不尽相同,但总糖的含量(千重)几乎是一样的;两个温度下,菊苣根中可溶性蛋白含量在整个贮藏阶段差异较小;随着贮藏时间的延长,0℃下的菊苣根的腐烂指数越来越大于-2℃下的菊苣根.[结论]-2℃的贮藏条件适于菊苣根更长期的贮藏.%[ Objective ] To study the psychological characteristics of chicory root, so as to obtain its best storage conditions and supply chicory for the anniversary. [Method] The multistage random sampling method and direct titration method were adopted for the determination of total sugar and reducing sugar. The soluble protein content was determined according to the bradford determination method; the rate of decay was counted by the statistical method. [ Result] Under 0 and -2 ℃ storage conditions, the non-reducing sugar and reducing sugar in the chicory root were different, but the content of tutul sugar (dry weight) was basically the same; under the two temperatures, the soluble prolein content changed liltle during the whole storage conditions; with the prolonging storage time, the decay index of chicory root under 0 ℃ was gradually larger than that under -2 ℃. [Conclusion] -2 ℃ is better for the long-terra storage of chicory root.

  6. MOISTURE ISOTHERMS OF CASSAVA BAGASSE COMPOSITES IMPREGNATED WITH CASSAVA STARCH ACETATE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia N. MATSUI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The industrial processing of cassava to obtain starch generates a great variety of residues, with bagasse being the main solid residue produced. The improper disposal of this material represents an environmental problem and could be avoided by using this residue as a raw material to obtain biodegradable products. The bagasse produced during the process to obtain starch from cassava was used to prepare composites for disposable trays. Samples of the composites were impregnated with cassava starch acetate at atmospheric pressure and under vacuum condition. Moisture isotherms were determined and adjusted by GAB model. It was observed that the impregnation promoted an important decrease in sample higroscopicity, mainly at high relative humidities. These results suggest that starch acetate impregnation can be an alternative to water proofing biological materials like the composites obtained in this work. KEYWORDS: Cassava; bagasse; starch acetate; impregnation; isotherms.

  7. MOISTURE ISOTHERMS OF CASSAVA BAGASSE COMPOSITES IMPREGNATED WITH CASSAVA STARCH ACETATE SOLUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    KáTIA N. MATSUI; FáBIO D. S. LAROTONDA; Alfredo T. N. Pires; JOãO B. LAURINDO

    2009-01-01

    The industrial processing of cassava to obtain starch generates a great variety of residues, with bagasse being the main solid residue produced. The improper disposal of this material represents an environmental problem and could be avoided by using this residue as a raw material to obtain biodegradable products. The bagasse produced during the process to obtain starch from cassava was used to prepare composites for disposable trays. Samples of the composites were imp...

  8. Evaluating the Impacts of Selected Packaging Materials on the Quality Attributes of Cassava Flour (cvs. TME 419 and UMUCASS 36).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Umezuruike Linus; Caleb, Oluwafemi J; Uchechukwu-Agua, Amarachi D

    2016-02-01

    The influence of packaging materials (plastic bucket, low density polyethylene [LDPE] bags and paper bags) on quality attributes of the flour of 2 cassava cultivars (TME 419 and UMUCASS 36) stored at 23 ± 2 °C and 60% relative humidity (RH) were investigated for 12 wk. Cassava flour from each package type was evaluated for proximate composition, physicochemical properties and microbial growth at 4-wk intervals. Total color difference (∆E) of both cassava flour cultivars increased with storage duration. Flour packed in plastic bucket had the lowest change in color (3.2 ± 0.42) for cv. "TME 419ˮ and (4.1 ± 0.87) for cv. "UMUCASS 36ˮ at the end of week 12. Total carotenoid decreased across all treatment, and after the 12 wk storage, the highest total carotenoid retention (1.7 ± 0.02 and 2.0 ± 0.05 μg/mL) was observed in flour packed in plastic bucket. However, cassava flour in paper bag had the lowest microbial count of 3.4 ± 0.03 and 3.4 ± 0.08 log cfu/g for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and fungi, respectively. PMID:26720296

  9. Cassava Starch Edible Film Incorporated with Lemongrass Oil: Characteristics and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dani Supardan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to evaluate the effect of the addition of lemongrass essential oil (LGO on the characteristics and antimicrobial properties of cassava starch based films. Edible films were prepared from a mixture of cassava starch and glycerol. LGO was added to edible films as natural antimicrobial agent. There was a reduction in tensile strength of edible film because of incorporation of LGO. The presence of LGO also caused to a reduction in roughness of the edible film. The experimental results showed that Trichoderma and Penicillium was not appear upon the film until the third day of incubation. Meanwhile, the use of edible films containing LGO as antimicrobial agents caused to a reduction in microbial counts of meat during storage.

  10. High-resolution mapping of resistance to cassava mosaic geminiviruses in cassava using genotyping-by-sequencing and its implications for breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD), caused by different species of cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs), is the most important disease of cassava in Africa and the Indian sub-continent. The cultivated cassava species is protected from CMD by polygenic resistance introgressed from the wild species Manihot g...

  11. The Post-Genomic Era of Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genomics era revolutionized our efficiency at gathering and disseminating scientific information required for advancing our understanding of plant biology. In the case of cassava, the genomics revolution has not kept pace with other staple food and fiber crops important to global economies. As a...

  12. Recent advances in cassava pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, A C; Smith, L; Lapointe, S L

    1999-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) occupies a uniquely important position as a food security crop for smallholder farmers in ares of the tropics where climate, soils, or societal stresses constrain production. Given its reliability and productivity, cassava is the most important locally produced food in a third of the world's low-income, food-deficit countries. It is the fourth most important source of carbohydrates for human consumption in the tropics, after rice, sugar, and maize. World production of cassava from 1994-1996 averaged 166 million tons/year grown on 16.6 million hectares (ha), for an average yield of 9.9 tons/ha. Approximately 57% is used for human consumption, 32% for animal feed and industrial purposes, and 11% is waste. Africa accounts for 51.3% of the production; Asia, 29.4%; and Latin America, 19.3%. The area planted to cassava in Africa, Asia, and Latin America is 10.3, 3.7, and 2.6 million ha, respectively. PMID:9990720

  13. Effect of Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour with High Quality Cassava Flour on the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Sensory Quality, and Microbial Quality of Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Eleazu, Chinedum; Eleazu, Kate; Aniedu, Chinyere; Amajor, John; Ikpeama, Ahamefula; Ebenzer, Ike

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, wheat flour was mixed with high quality cassava flour (HQCF) in several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40, and used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) cassava bread, respectively. 100% wheat bread was prepared as a control (100% wheat bread). Five bread samples were prepared per group. Antioxidant assays [i.e., 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power assay] revealed that the bread s...

  14. Gene-based microsatellites for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz: prevalence, polymorphisms, and cross-taxa utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwu Chike D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a larger number of polymorphic SSRs for germplasm characterization and breeding applications. Results A total of 846 putative microsatellites were identified in silico from an 8,577 cassava unigene set with an average density of one SSR every 7 kb. One hundred and ninety-two candidate SSRs were screened for polymorphism among a panel of cassava cultivars from Africa, Latin America and Asia, four wild Manihot species as well as two other important taxa in the Euphorbiaceae, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula and castor bean (Ricinus communis. Of 168 markers with clean amplification products, 124 (73.8% displayed polymorphism based on high resolution agarose gels. Of 85 EST-SSR markers screened, 80 (94.1% amplified alleles from one or more wild species (M epruinosa, M glaziovii, M brachyandra, M tripartita whereas 13 (15.3% amplified alleles from castor bean and 9 (10.6% amplified alleles from leafy spurge; hence nearly all markers were transferable to wild relatives of M esculenta while only a fraction was transferable to the more distantly related taxa. In a subset of 20 EST-SSRs assessed by fluorescence-based genotyping the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 10 with an average of 4.55 per locus. These markers had a polymorphism information content (PIC from 0.19 to 0.75 with an average value of 0.55 and showed genetic relationships consistent with existing information on these genotypes. Conclusion A set of 124 new, unique polymorphic EST-SSRs was developed and characterized which extends the repertoire of SSR markers for cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. The markers show high PIC values and therefore will be useful for

  15. Economic Analysis of Cassava Production in Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.U. Odoemenem

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to analyze the economics of cassava production in Benue State. Data for this study were collected from a sample of one hundred and sixteen small-scale cassava farmers randomly selected. The objectives of the study were to determine and rank the cost elements of cassava production in the study area; determine the returns to cassava production; and evaluate the profitability of cassava production in the study area. Socio-economic factors include age, educational background, marital status, sex, sources of labour, awareness of extension services, method of weed control, and method of farm land acquisition were identified. Data collected for the study were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The coefficient of determination (R2 is 0.616, suggesting that the used model has a high goodness of fit. Furthermore, the result of the statistical analysis shows that investing in cassava production enterprise is profitable.

  16. Genome-wide characterization and analysis of bZIP transcription factor gene family related to abiotic stress in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Yang, Hubiao; Yan, Yan; Wei, Yunxie; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Zuo, Jiao; Peng, Ming; Li, Kaimian

    2016-01-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor family plays crucial roles in various aspects of biological processes. Currently, no information is available regarding the bZIP family in the important tropical crop cassava. Herein, 77 bZIP genes were identified from cassava. Evolutionary analysis indicated that MebZIPs could be divided into 10 subfamilies, which was further supported by conserved motif and gene structure analyses. Global expression analysis suggested that MebZIPs showed similar or distinct expression patterns in different tissues between cultivated variety and wild subspecies. Transcriptome analysis of three cassava genotypes revealed that many MebZIP genes were activated by drought in the root of W14 subspecies, indicating the involvement of these genes in the strong resistance of cassava to drought. Expression analysis of selected MebZIP genes in response to osmotic, salt, cold, ABA, and H2O2 suggested that they might participate in distinct signaling pathways. Our systematic analysis of MebZIPs reveals constitutive, tissue-specific and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MebZIP genes for further functional characterization in planta, yields new insights into transcriptional regulation of MebZIP genes, and lays a foundation for understanding of bZIP-mediated abiotic stress response. PMID:26947924

  17. Public attitudes towards genetically modified provitamin A Cassava in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Rojas, María Carolina

    2010-01-01

    Cassava is a basic staple food crop with worldwide distribution, mainly in developing countries. A fundamental source of energy for the poor, cassava grows well on marginal soils and resists pests and drought. In Latin America, Brazil is the largest cassava producer and consumer. The crop is especially important in the northeastern (NE) part of the country, where poverty and malnutrition rates are higher than in the rest of the country. However, despite the crop?s dietary importance, relative...

  18. New challenges in the cassava transformation in Nigeria and Ghana:

    OpenAIRE

    Nweke, Felix

    2004-01-01

    "This paper describes the dramatic cassava transformation that has taken place in Nigeria and Ghana over the past 50 years. From a rural subsistence crop, cassava has become a major cash crop sold in urban markets, a source of livestock feed, industrial starch and urban convenience foods. This paper documents the key factors driving the cassava transformation in Nigeria and Ghana. Differences in timing, promotional efforts and performance provide an instructive contrast which helps to identif...

  19. Slow Pyrolysis of Cassava Wastes for Biochar Production and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor; Adilah Shariff; Nurhayati Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Production of biochar from slow pyrolysis of biomass is a promising carbon negative procedure since it removes the net carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and produce recalcitrant carbon suitable for sequestration in soil. Biochar production can vary significantly with the pyrolysis parameter. This study investigated the impact of temperature and heating rate on the yield and properties of biochar derived from cassava plantations residues which are cassava stem (CS) and cassava rhizome (CR). The...

  20. Effects of Root Treatment on Potted Flowers of Araceae with Bare Root during Storage Transportation%根部处理对两种天南星科盆栽花卉脱土贮运的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马军; 安晓芹; 周孙; 孙永民; 刘美娜

    2015-01-01

    Anthurrium adraeanum and Alocasia macrorrhiza ,two kinds of potted flowers were used to study the effect of pretreatments with different matrixes encapsulated root or preservative soaked root on plant physiological changes while storage transportation with bare root,and the indexes of planting survival rate and ornamental quality were compared with storage transportation effects.The results showed that dif-ferent treatments have notable influence on the decrease of root activity,chlorophyll content,soluble sugar content,soluble protein content,and on the increase of leaf water content,relative conductivity rate,MDA content and proline content during transportation.After storage transportation,root activity,chlorophyll content,soluble protein content of Anthurrium adraeanum were all higher than Alocasia macrorrhiza un-der the same conditions,while the leaf water content,proline content,the planting survival rate,the rate of chlorisis or wilt were less than Alocasia macrorrhiza ,the amplitude of soluble sugar content were de-creased,and MDA content were similarly increased,In addition,the membrane stability of two flowers un-der the same conditions were different,the relative conductivity in all treatments of Anthurrium adraea-num went up sharply with the increase,while the relative conductivity in treatments of Alocasia macrorrh-iza changed differently.The storage tolerance of Alocasia macrorrhiza were better than Anthurrium ad-raeanum ,and the fresh keeping effects were the best,when the two flowers treated by encapsulated root with peat during storage transportation,encapsulated root with moss took second place,treatment of film got the third place,preservative treatment were not appropriate for these two kinds of flowers of keeping fresh during storage transportation.%以红掌和海芋两种天南星科盆栽植物为材料,研究不同基质包裹根部处理及保鲜剂浸根预处理对植株脱土贮运生理变化的影响,结合栽植生活力及观

  1. Residual Influence of Early Season Crop Fertilization and Cropping System on Growth and Yield of Cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Makinde

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In assessing fertilizer effects to sustain an intensive cropping system, the residual effects of fertilizer applied to preceding maize on the growth and yield of cassava and the effects of intercropping with soybean were studied in field experiments at Ibadan, Nigeria. Approach: Maize, established in April was fertilized using either organic manure or inorganic fertilizer or a mixture of organic manure and inorganic fertilizers. Organic manure was an equal mixture of domestic waste collected from a composted refuse dumping site applied at l0 t ha-1. Inorganic fertilizer was 150kg N supplied as urea and 50 kg P ha-1 as Single Super phosphate fertilizer. The mixture of organic and inorganic fertilizer treatment was 5 tonnes organic manure and 75kg N+25 kg P ha-1. Cassava was established in June and soybean planted in July, after harvesting maize. Results: Organic fertilizer treatment gave the tallest plants of 53 cm. Plants from sole inorganic fertilizer and from a mixture of organic and inorganic fertilizers had comparable heights but were significantly lower than plants from sole organic fertilizer application. Organic fertilizer application gave the highest seed yield of 481 kg ha-1 that was significantly higher than 380 kg ha-1 observed from a mixture of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Stover yield followed the same trend as seed yield. Cassava plant height was increased with fertilization but was reduced with intercropping. Sole organic fertilization had the tallest plants. Plant leaf area was neither significantly affected by fertilizer type nor cropping system. Fresh root yield was significantly reduced by 16% with soybean intercropping. Sole organic fertilizer application gave the highest yields of 22 tons ha-1 in sole crop and 18 tons ha-1 in intercrop with soybean. Conclusion: Cultivating an early season maize crop, followed by a cassava-soybean intercrop is more

  2. Water balance in the sugarbeet root maggot, Tetanops myopaeformis, during long-term low-temperature storage and after freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugarbeet root maggot, Tetanops myopaeformis (Röder), can be stored in moist sand at 4 - 6°C for up to five years and is freeze tolerant. The majority of the stored larvae are in post-diapause quiescence and the rest of the larvae are in a multi-year diapause. The percent body mass of water and ...

  3. 不同药剂处理对受寒害木薯出苗生长的影响%Effect of Different Chemical Treatments on Seedling Emergence Growth of Frozen Cassava

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁秀呈; 甘秀芹; 唐秀桦; 韦本辉; 韦民政; 韦哲; 覃维治; 何虎翼; 陆柳英; 韦威旭

    2008-01-01

    The rooting and growth of frozen cassava under different chemical treatments were studied.The result has demonstrated that disinfection effect could increase rooting rate and seedling emergence rate of cassava seed stem and decrease the rate of mildew.The sportak treatment could generate better effect(rooting rate and seedling emergence rate were 63%,the mildew rate of stem was 28%).Among different rooting reagents,Genwang+lime treatment generated better effect on rooting rate and emergence rate of frozen cassava than these of other groups and control group.It was concluded from the effects of different rooting reagents on growth of seed stem that Genwang+lime treatment could promote elongation and growth of cassava significantly(the mean plant height of experimental groups inceased 8.58 cm compared with that of control group) while paclobutrazol+lime generated the best effect on crassation of stem(the stem diameter of experimental group increased 0.4 cm compared with that of control group).

  4. Effect of chemical and mechanical weed control on cassava yield, soil quality and erosion under cassava cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Titiek; Wisnubroto, Erwin; Utomo, Wani

    2016-04-01

    Three years field experiments were conducted to study the effect of chemical and mechanical weed control on soil quality and erosion under cassava cropping system. The experiment were conducted at University Brawijaya field experimental station, Jatikerto, Malang, Indonesia. The experiments were carried out from 2011 - 2014. The treatments consist of three cropping system (cassava mono culture; cassava + maize intercropping and cassava + peanut intercropping), and two weed control method (chemical and mechanical methods). The experimental result showed that the yield of cassava first year and second year did not influenced by weed control method and cropping system. However, the third year yield of cassava was influence by weed control method and cropping system. The cassava yield planted in cassava + maize intercropping system with chemical weed control methods was only 24 t/ha, which lower compared to other treatments, even with that of the same cropping system used mechanical weed control. The highest cassava yield in third year was obtained by cassava + peanuts cropping system with mechanical weed control method. After three years experiment, the soil of cassava monoculture system with chemical weed control method possessed the lowest soil organic matter, and soil aggregate stability. During three years of cropping soil erosion in chemical weed control method, especially on cassava monoculture, was higher compared to mechanical weed control method. The soil loss from chemical control method were 40 t/ha, 44 t/ha and 54 t/ha for the first, second and third year crop. The soil loss from mechanical weed control method for the same years was: 36 t/ha, 36 t/ha and 38 t/ha. Key words: herbicide, intercropping, soil organic matter, aggregate stability.

  5. Comparative petiole anatomy of cassava (Manihot) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciano-Ribeiro, D; Hashimoto-Freitas, D Y; Nassar, N M A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we describe the petiole anatomy of six wild cassava (Manihot) species, one hybrid, and two cultivars of Manihot esculenta, in order to identify their dominant anatomical patterns and relate them to possible adaptations to abiotic factors in the Cerrado biome. The median parts of several petiole samples were transversally and longitudinally sectioned and stained. The results include data for the taxonomic classification of the genus, including distinctive anatomical characteristics of hybrid varieties of cassava and wild species, such as the presence/absence of trichomes and a hypodermis, layer type and number in the cortex, number of vascular bundles, cell types in the pith, and type of organization. Morphological analysis revealed differences in length and shape of the petiole insertion. The presence of trichomes, a hypodermis, the amount and type of supporting tissue in the cortex, as well as gelatinous fibers, may be related to drought tolerance. PMID:26909917

  6. Rehydration characteristics and modeling of cassava chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajala, A.S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava chips with dimension 4x2x0.2cm were re-hydrated in distilled water at 200C, 300C and 400C in a laboratory water bath. Kinetics of re-hydration was investigated using three different re-hydration models namely Peleg, exponential and Weibull. The pattern of water absorption was observed to be faster at the initial period of soaking. Higher temperature induces faster moisture absorption in the chips. Non linear regression analysis was used to fit in the experimental data and the coefficient of determination was found to be greater than 0.72 for all the models. The values of R2 , RMSE, MBE and reduced chi square showed that Weibull model best described the re-hydrating behaviour of the cassava chips.

  7. Studies on the cryopreservation of cassava meristems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts toward improving the efficiency of the droplet freezing method for the cryopreservation of cassava meristems were undertaken. The use of 15% DMSO as a cryoprotectant resulted in a meristem survival rate ranging from 0 to 38% following retrieval from liquid nitrogen and culturing on solid OMS medium. A method using a freezing solution consisting of OMS medium with 1 M sorbitol, 9% sucrose and 5% DMSO resulted in the highest survival rates (up to 62%)

  8. Ethanol Production by Carbonated Cassava%碳化木薯原料乙醇发酵的生产研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓峰; 李莉; 徐新

    2016-01-01

    Carbonated cassava and normal cassava were used respectively for ethanol production under the same technical conditions (flask shaking fermentation adopted). Their ethanol production results were compared. The results suggested that, there were great difference in rip-ened mash and ethanol production between carbonated cassava and normal cassava. This study provided useful reference for the purchase and the storage of cassava.%以碳化木薯和正常木薯为原料,在相同工艺条件下,采用摇瓶发酵法,进行酒精发酵效果的初步研究,探讨了碳化木薯的酒精发酵效果。结果表明,碳化木薯干的成熟醪酒分和发酵效果与正常木薯酒精发酵差别较大,为采购木薯和木薯储存提供参考。

  9. Fermented cassava waste and its utilization in broiler chickens rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava waste is a by-product of cassava flour industry and its amount is increasing following the increasing of cassava flour industry. Its utilization as a feedstuff, is limited by its low protein content. The cassava waste is only utilized as the energy source. One of the alternative technology in improving the utilization of cassava waste as a feedstuff, by improving the nutritive value through fermentation process. Fermentation was carried out by solid substrate fermentation using Aspergillus niger as an inoculant and mixing with urea and ammonium sulphate as inorganic nitrogen sources. The nutritive value of the product was evaluated by feeding trial using 144 “Shaver Stabro” strain 3 days old chicks with 3 treatments i.e. 0 (control, 5.0 and 10.0% fermented cassava waste. The results showed that the true protein content of fermented cassava increased from 2.2 to 18.4%. The inclusion of fermented cassava waste up to 10% in chicken broiler ration for 4 weeks feeding did not affect the feed consumption, bodyweight gain, FCR, weight of liver and gibblets. All parameter results from 10% inclusion were not significantly different (P>0.05 with the control (0% inclusion.

  10. Evaluation of cryogenic procedures for cryopreservation of Cassava genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculent Crantz) is a perennial plant widely grown in many tropical countries as one of the most important commercial crops. The global cassava production in 2009 was at 242 million tons. Because of its economic importance to a large number of developing world, the application of ad...

  11. Examining cassava's potential to enhance food security under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in the biofortification of cassava, a substantial yield gap and cassava's potential for increased productivity and its inherent potential to respond positively to globally increasing CO2 are synergistic and encouraging in an otherwise bleak global view of the future of food security ...

  12. Post-harvest regulated gene expression and splicing efficiency in storage roots of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotthues, Alexander; Kappler, Jeannette; Lichtfuss, Anna; Kloos, Dorothee U; Stahl, Dietmar J; Hehl, Reinhard

    2008-05-01

    Sixteen post-harvest upregulated genes from sugar beet comprising five novel sequences were isolated by subtractive cloning. Transcription profiles covering a period of up to 49 days after harvest under controlled storage conditions and in field clamps are reported. Post-harvest induced genes are involved in wound response, pathogen defense, dehydration stress, and detoxification of reactive oxygen species. An early induction of a cationic peroxidase indicates a response to post-harvest damage. Wound response reactions may also involve genes required for cell division such as a regulator of chromatin condensation and a precursor of the growth stimulating peptide phytohormone phytosulfokine-alpha. Surprisingly, also three putative non-protein coding genes were isolated. Two of these genes show intron specific and storage temperature dependent splicing of a precursor mRNA. The temperature dependent splicing of an intron containing sugar beet mRNA is also maintained in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. The storage induced genes are integrated into a model that proposes the response to several post-harvest stress conditions. Temperature regulated splicing may be a mechanism to sense seasonal temperature changes. PMID:18324413

  13. Properties of thermoplastic starch from cassave bagasse and cassava starch and their blends with poly (lactic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava bagasse is an inexpensive and broadly available waste byproduct from cassava starch production. It contains roughly 50% cassava starch along with mostly fiber and could be a valuable feedstock for various bioproducts. Cassava bagasse and cassava starch were used in this study to make fiber-r...

  14. Socio-economic Analysis of Cassava Marketing in Benue State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin C. Asogwa; J. A. C. Ezihe; Ater, P.I.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the socio-economics of cassava marketing in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 107 cassava marketers in Benue State, using a structured questionnaire. The study revealed that most of the cassava marketers had secondary education (72.9%). The study also revealed that marketing of cassava is mostly undertaken by females (57%). The result showed that married people (59.8%) were mostly involved in the marketing of cassava. The s...

  15. Modelling potential β-carotene intake and cyanide exposure from consumption of biofortified cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Josh M.; La Frano, Michael R.; Winter, Carl K.; Burri, Betty J

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency causes disability and mortality. Cassava can be crossbred to improve its β-carotene (BC) content; typical white cassava contains negligible amounts of BC. However, cassava contains cyanide and its continued consumption may lead to chronic disability. Our objective was to estimate the risk–benefit of consuming BC-enhanced cassava to increase VA intake. A total of ten American women were fed white and BC-enhanced cassava. BC and cyanide data from the feeding study were...

  16. Expanding the Application of Cassava Value Chain Technologies Through UPoCA Project

    OpenAIRE

    Braima Dama James; P. Bramel; E. Witte; R. Asiedu; D. Watson; R. Okechuckwu.

    2013-01-01

    Cassava can play a key role in rural economic growth in Africa, but are we there yet? Cassava varieties with 50% more yielding potential and technologies to boost processing and marketing of cassava are available. However, the sub-sector is constrained by low productivity and marketing difficulties. In 2008, USAID and IITA initiated the project “Unleashing the Power of Cassava in Response to Food Price Crisis (UPOCA) as a multi-country and inter-institutional partnership enabling cassava sub-...

  17. Study on the Rheological Property of Cassava Starch Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to use cassava starch in the production of environmentally sound adhesives. ‘Three-formaldehyde glue’ pollutes the environment and harms to human health strongly, which widely used for wood-based panels preparation. Environment-friendly cassava starch adhesives were prepared using method of oxidation-gelatinization, insteading of the three formaldehyde glue. The effects of the quality ratio of starch and water, temperature and shear rate on the apparent viscosity of the adhesive were studied. The rheological eigenvalue of apparent viscosity was studied through nonlinear regression. The results showed that the apparent viscosity of cassava starch adhesives decreased with the increasing of temperature; the apparent viscosity decreased slowly with the increasing of rotor speed; the phenomenon of shear thinning appeared within cassava starch adhesives which was pseudo-plastic fluids. Cassava starch adhesives with characteristics of non-toxic, no smell and pollution could be applied in interior and upscale packaging.

  18. Use of radiation for the improvement of fungal strains as the nutritional additive in the carbohydrate-rich root crops of Nigeria. Coordinated programme on radiation microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a short introduction describing the use of West African root plants (yams, cassava) as food and ways of increasing the protein content of this food, experiments on protein production by microbial fermentation of starches are described. Cassava starch was fermented as solid extrusions and in liquid phase with Rhizopus oligosporus wild and mutant strains (mutants obtained by irradiation with Co 60 source). The mutant strain was found to produce more proteins both on solid cassava starch extrusions and in liquid starch media. Experiments were carried out also with combinations of Rhizopus and other micro-organisms (Candida, Endomycopsis, Geotrichum, Saccharomyces) and with cassava starch supplemented with sugar cane molasses. The cyanogen glucoside content of cassava and the effect of cyanide on the protein production was also investigated

  19. Unveiling the Micronome of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogans, Sarah Jane; Rey, Chrissie

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of endogenous non-coding single-stranded small RNAs (21-24 nt in length), which serve as post-transcriptional negative regulators of gene expression in plants. Despite the economic importance of Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) only 153 putative cassava miRNAs (from multiple germplasm) are available to date in miRBase (Version 21), and identification of a number of miRNAs from the cassava EST database have been limited to comparisons with Arabidopsis. In this study, mature sequences of all known plant miRNAs were used as a query for homologous searches against cassava EST and GSS databases, and additional identification of novel and conserved miRNAs were gleaned from next generation sequencing (NGS) of two cassava landraces (T200 from southern Africa and TME3 from West Africa) at three different stages post explant transplantation and acclimatization. EST and GSS derived data revealed 259 and 32 miRNAs in cassava, and one of the miRNA families (miR2118) from previous studies has not been reported in cassava. NGS data collectively displayed expression of 289 conserved miRNAs in leaf tissue, of which 230 had not been reported previously. Of the 289 conserved miRNAs identified in T200 and TME3, 208 were isomiRs. Thirty-nine novel cassava-specific miRNAs of low abundance, belonging to 29 families, were identified. Thirty-eight (98.6%) of the putative new miRNAs identified by NGS have not been previously reported in cassava. Several miRNA targets were identified in T200 and TME3, highlighting differential temporal miRNA expression between the two cassava landraces. This study contributes to the expanding knowledge base of the micronome of this important crop. PMID:26799216

  20. Fibrous-Root-Inspired Design and Lithium Storage Applications of a Co-Zn Binary Synergistic Nanoarray System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia; Chen, Shimou; Hao, Wenjun; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-02-23

    Developing lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with fast charging/discharging capability and high capacity is a significant issue for future technical requirements. Transition-metal oxide (TMO) materials are widely studied as the next-generation LIB anode to satisfy this requirement due to their specific capacity, nearly three times than that of conventional graphite anode, and low cost. Meanwhile, they also suffer from slow lithium diffusion and limited electrochemical and structural stability, especially at high charging/discharging rate. The structure design of TMO is an effective strategy to obtain desirable LIB performance. Herein, inspired by natural fibrous roots consisting of functional and supporting units that can enhance substances and energy exchange efficiently, fibrous-root-like Zn(x)Co(3-x)O4@Zn(1-y)Co(y)O binary TMO nanoarrays are designed and synthesized on Cu substrates through a facile one-pot, successive-deposition process for use as an integrated LIB anode. In a multilevel array ordered by orientation, ultrafine Zn(x)Co(3-x)O4 nanowire functional units and stable Zn(1-y)Co(y)O nanorod supporting units synergize, resulting in superior rate performance. At a high current density of 500 mAg(-1), they could maintain a discharge capacity as high as 804 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles, working much higher than unary cobalt-based and zinc-based nanoarrays. This binary synergistic nanoarray system identifies an optimized electrode design strategy for advanced battery materials. PMID:26841220

  1. 木薯清洗机滚筒内运动轨迹的分析%Analysis of the Cassava Washing Machine Drum Trajectory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃振友; 班彩霞; 周清; 李岩舟; 阳潮声

    2015-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the cassava washing machine drum trajectory , establishing the arc-parabolic trajecto-ry equations to study the innermost layer of the cassava in the cleaning machine drum movement minimum radius , the best divorce angle , maximum drop height , cleaning factor , the best drum speed and other relevant parameters , in order to remove the dirt and fibrous roots on the surface of cassava more quickly , improve the cleaning efficiency of the cassava washing machines .To further optimize the cassava washing machine , thereby improving the efficiency of the entire indus-trial production of cassava provides a solid theoretical basis .%通过对木薯清洗机滚筒内运动轨迹的分析,建立了圆弧—抛物线运动轨迹方程;研究了木薯在清洗机滚筒内运动的最内层最小半径、最佳脱离角、最大降落高度、清洗系数及滚筒最佳速度等相关参数,以更加快速地清除木薯表面的泥土和须根,提高木薯清洗机的清洗效率。该研究可为进一步优化木薯清洗机,从而提高整个木薯工业化生产的效率提供了坚实的理论依据。

  2. Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Plata, Germán; Ayling, Sarah; Rodríguez-Zapata, Fausto; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Duitama, Jorge; Tohme, Joe

    2013-01-01

    The study of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60 miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants. PMID:24328029

  3. Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ballén-Taborda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of microRNAs (miRNAs in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60 miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants.

  4. Vertical Differentiation of Cassava Marketing Channels in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa are inherently risky because they are fundamentally dependent on vagaries of weather. Sub-Saharan Africa is also a region in crises; poverty, civil strife and HIV/AIDS. Attention must therefore be focused on improving the production and marketing of crops that could thrive under these circumstances. Because of its tolerance of extreme drought and low input use conditions, Cassava is perhaps the best candidate in this regard. And cassava is a basic food staple and a major source of farm income for the people of the region. Efficiency in cassava marketing is a very important determinant of both consumers' living cost and producers' income in Africa. Vertical differentiation of marketing channels improves marketing efficiency. Identified in this paper are factors that drive vertical differentiation of cassava marketing channels. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework of the Collaborative Study of Cassava in Africa. High population density, good market access conditions, availability of mechanized cassava processing technology and cassava price information stimulate vertical differentiation of the marketing channels.

  5. Incorporating root hydraulic redistribution in CLM4.5: Effects on predicted site and global evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and water storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinyun; Riley, William J.; Niu, Jie

    2015-12-01

    We implemented the Amenu-Kumar model in the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) to simulate plant Root Hydraulic Redistribution (RHR) and analyzed its influence on CLM hydrology from site to global scales. We evaluated two numerical implementations: the first solved the coupled equations of root and soil water transport concurrently, while the second solved the two equations sequentially. Through sensitivity analysis, we demonstrate that the sequentially coupled implementation (SCI) is numerically incorrect, whereas the tightly coupled implementation (TCI) is numerically robust with numerical time steps varying from 1 to 30 min. At the site-level, we found the SCI approach resulted in better agreement with measured evapotranspiration (ET) at the AmeriFlux Blodgett Forest site, California, whereas the two approaches resulted in equally poor agreement between predicted and measured ET at the LBA Tapajos KM67 Mature Forest site in Amazon, Brazil. Globally, the SCI approach overestimated annual land ET by as much as 3.5 mm d-1 in some grid cells when compared to the TCI estimates. These comparisons demonstrate that TCI is a more robust numerical implementation of RHR. However, we found, even with TCI, that incorporating RHR resulted in worse agreement with measured soil moisture at both the Blodgett Forest and Tapajos sites and degraded the agreement between simulated terrestrial water storage anomaly and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations. We find including RHR in CLM4.5 improved ET predictions compared with the FLUXNET-MTE estimates north of 20° N but led to poorer predictions in the tropics. The biases in ET were robust and significant regardless of the four different pedotransfer functions or of the two meteorological forcing data sets we applied. We also found that the simulated water table was unrealistically sensitive to RHR. Therefore, we contend that further structural and data improvements are warranted to improve the hydrological

  6. Mathematical Modelling of Cassava Wastewater Treatment Using Anaerobic Baffled Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    A.O. Ibeje

    2013-01-01

    The performance of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) was evaluated in the treatment of cassava wastewater as a pollutant residue. An ABR divided in four equal volume compartments (total volume 4L) and operated at 35°C was used in cassava wastewater treatment. Feed tank chemical oxygen demand (COD) was varied from 2000 to 7000mg L-1. The objective of the study was to formulate an improved mathematical model to describe cassava wastewater treatment without taking into account its inhibition ch...

  7. Utilization of cassava waste through fermentation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 400 isolates of molds were screened for raw starch digesting enzymes and aspergillus J8 ad Rhizopus N37 were selected for further investigations. Crude enzymes obtained from wheat bran was higher than from rice bran. Crude enzymes from Aspergillus is active at pH 4.0, whereas that from Rhizopus is active at pH 5.0. Aspergillus J8 gave higher yield of silage fermentation. Selection of yeast strain was accomplished, it was found that Saccharomyces cerevisiae SC90, the local commercial strain (non-flocculent) performed best in fermentation of cassava mash. Another strain AM12, a flocculent fusant strain derived from fusion between flocculent strain and sake brewing strain was comparable to that of commercial strain at normal temperature but performed better at higher temperature up to 40 deg C. It is unlikely that fuel alcohol produced from raw cassava will be able to compete with petroleum fuel at this moment. However, silage fermentation to increase nutritional quality of the silage through selected strains of microorganisms has a good prospect to pursue. (author)

  8. Effects of Tillage Practices on Growth and Yield of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and some Soil Properties in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndaeyo, NU.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of soil fertility status and optimum crop yield has been a great task in Nigeria. Against this background, studies were conducted in 1994 and 1995 growing seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Nigeria to evaluate the productivity of cassava and soil properties and dynamics under some tillage practices. Randomized block design with four replications was used and the tillage treatments were Heaping [HP], No-Till + Herbicide [NTH], Ridging [RG] and No-Till-Slash and Burn [NSB]. Results revealed that tillage practices had no significant effect on sprouting percentage in 1994 but in 1995, HP treatment was significantly (P < 0.05 higher than others. Tillage had no marked effect on cassava height in both years while number of leaves only differed significantly (P < 0.05 8 months after planting with HP treatment being higher than others. Stem girth showed no marked differences among treatments in both years. Similarly, in both years, cassava fresh root yield and yield components were not significantly affected by tillage practices. NSB showed significantly higher soil bulk density at planting in both years than other treatments. Generally, soil chemical properties were not markedly affected by the tillage practices. The highest cost of production was observed under NSB while RG produced the highest returns. The study suggests that successful growing of cassava under reduced tillage practices is practicable in an Alfisol in this agro-ecological zone.

  9. Mathematical Modelling Of Cyanide Inhibition on Cassava Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    E. Onukwugha

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic Baffled Reactors (ABR) is used to evaluate the extent of cyanide inhibition of cassava wastewater treatment. The reactor has aspect ratio of 4:1:1. Kinetic analyses of specific growth rate μmax and half saturation constant

  10. Properties of baked foams from citric acid modified cassava starch and native cassava starch blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornsuksomboon, Kanlaya; Holló, Berta Barta; Szécsényi, Katalin Mészáros; Kaewtatip, Kaewta

    2016-01-20

    Starch foams from native cassava starch (NS) and citric acid modified cassava starch (CNS) were prepared using baking processes with blend ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80. The density, thickness, morphology, thermal stability and water absorption of the NS, CNS and blended starch foams were determined. The ratio of the two starch components had a significant influence on the density and thickness of the blended starch foams. All blended starch foams showed good water resistance. Moreover, the morphology of the blended starch foam with the NS/CNS ratio of 50/50 showed a more ordered distribution of cell sizes with thicker cell walls than for the NS and CNS foams. The thermal stability of the blended starch foams was somewhat lower than the stability of the NS foam but not to the extent that it affected any potential practical applications. PMID:26572335

  11. Effect of gamma radiation in the conservation of minimally processed cassava-parsley (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft) packed under vacuous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the third millennium, when the main words are globalization, world net of computers, genetic code and efficiency, deep transformations have been incorporated to human behavior. Among such transformations it may be pointed out, matching with the objectives of this study, the modem consumer's profile. The consumers have quickly become more and more conscious and demanding regarding to the quality of the available products in the market. In that sense, the consumer's concern about the natural and healthy appearance, as well as the preservation of the nutritious content of the foods, have been a constant sign of alert for producers and suppliers. Besides, the timeless for domestic preparation of foods have imposed the use of minimally processed as an incontestable reality. A barrier for the production of minimally processed foods is imposed by the degree of perishability of certain products, such as the cassava-parsley. This vegetable is a source of energy, calcium, phosphorus and niacin, and important in the alimentary diet of children, seniors and convalescents. Post harvest treatments try to turn foods less perishable and also conserve as much as possible their original appearance. Among these post harvest treatments for food conservation it may be stood out the irradiation, which is the focus of this study. The objective of this study was to examine the viability of including the cassava parsley in the list of the minimally processed foods. Fresh cassavas were minimally processed and packed under vacuous. Samples were divided for three treatments: control and irradiation with the doses 2.0 and 4.0 kGy. After irradiation the samples were stored under refrigeration temperature (8 deg C) during 28 days. Physical-chemical and microbiological analyzes were carried out at each 7 days of the period of storage, and sensorial analysis were carried out in the 1st, 7th and 14th days of storage. The experimental design was in factorial scheme with two factors: dose of

  12. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    OpenAIRE

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, todefinedesign/retro...

  13. Biogas Production From Cassava Starch Effluent Using Microalgae As Biostabilisator

    OpenAIRE

    B. Budiyono; Tutuk Djoko Kusworo

    2011-01-01

    The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environ...

  14. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Colehour, Alese M.; Meadow, James F.; Liebert, Melissa A.; Tara J. Cepon-Robins; Theresa E. Gildner; Urlacher, Samuel S.; Bohannan, Brendan J.M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Lawrence S. Sugiyama

    2014-01-01

    Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chic...

  15. In vitro Micropropagation of Cassava Through Low Cost Tissue Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kwame O. Ogero; Gitonga N. Mburugu; Maina Mwangi; Omwoyo Ombori; Michael Ngugi

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of drought-tolerant crops such as cassava can help alleviate food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa. However, production is constrained by lack of disease-free planting materials. This can be circumvented through tissue culture but the technology is costly limiting its adoption. There is therefore, need to put in place interventions that will reduce the cost of production hence making tissue culture products affordable. In this research, a low cost protocol for cassava tissue culture ...

  16. Cassava crop improvement through in vitro mutation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava is of great economic significance in Zambia due to its increasing role as a food security crop in drought prone areas of the country.Studies to improve the quality of the cassava tuber and the quality and quantity of the planting material using in vitro techniques is being conducted in several areas of Zambia. The preliminary results are encouraging from the field trials conducted so far

  17. Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwadare, G. O.; Agbaje, O.

    The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2♦, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice) and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The cyanide in cassava juice does not attack the steel but it provides an environment of lower pH around the steel in the concrete which leads to breakdown of the passivating film provided by hydroxyl ions from cement. Other factors such as the curing time of the concrete also affect the corrosion rates of the steel in the concrete. The corrosion rate of the steel directly exposed to cassava juice i.e., steel not embedded in concrete is about twice that in concrete. Long exposure of concrete structure to cassava processing effluent might result in deterioration of such structures. Careful attention should therefore be paid to disposal of cassava processing effluents, especially in a country like Nigeria where such processing is now on the increase.

  18. Microbial population, chemical composition and silage fermentation of cassava residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napasirth, Viengsakoun; Napasirth, Pattaya; Sulinthone, Tue; Phommachanh, Kham; Cai, Yimin

    2015-09-01

    In order to effectively use the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) residues, including cassava leaves, peel and pulp for livestock diets, the chemical and microbiological composition, silage preparation and the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on silage fermentation of cassava residues were studied. These residues contained 10(4) to 10(5) LAB and yeasts, 10(3) to 10(4) coliform bacteria and 10(4) aerobic bacteria in colony forming units (cfu) on a fresh matter (FM) basis. The molds were consistently at or below the detectable level (10(2) cfu of FM) in three kinds of cassava residues. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of cassava residues were 17.50-30.95%, 1.30-16.41% and 25.40-52.90% on a DM basis, respectively. The silage treatments were designed as control silage without additive (CO) or with LAB inoculants Chikuso-1 (CH, Lactobacillus plantarum) and Snow Lacto (SN, Lactobacillus rhamnosus) at a rate of 5 mg/kg of FM basis. All silages were well preserved with a low pH (below 4.0) value and when cassava residues silage treated with inoculants CH and SN improved fermentation quality with a lower pH, butyric acid and higher lactic acid than control silage. PMID:25781881

  19. Development of cassava plants and its mycorrhizal association in soil supplemented with sugarcane agroindustrial residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Messias Leal Nascimento

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of organic agroindustrial residues on agriculture can be one way to improve the development and chemical composition of plants, reducing the cost with chemical fertilizers and impacts generated by the excessive use of them. Sugarcane agroindustrial residue has been generated in high quantity in Brazilian semiarid region and can be applied to cassava crop to improve its growth. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of application of sugarcane agroindustrial residue on the vegetative development, chemical composition and mycorrhizal association of cassava plants (Manihot esculenta var. Engana ladrão. It was performed an experiment in greenhouse with completely randomized design with four treatments of addition of sugarcane agroindustrial residue (0, 5, 10 and 15% with nine replicates. The addition of sugarcane agroindustrial residue increased fresh dry root biomass, leaf area, crude protein and mineral matter, without reducing the mycorrhizal colonization and glomerospores number. This type of residue can be one alternative to improve the nutritional value of these fodder.

  20. The diversity of postharvest losses in cassava value chains in selected developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Naziri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The extent of physical and economic postharvest losses at different stages of cassava value chains has been estimated in four countries that differ considerably in the way cassava is cultivated, processed and consumed and in the relationships and linkages among the value chain actors. Ghana incurs by far the highest losses because a high proportion of roots reach the consumers in the fresh form. Most losses occur at the last stage of the value chain. In Nigeria and Vietnam processors incur most of the losses while in Thailand most losses occur during harvesting. Poorer countries incur higher losses despite their capacity to absorb sub-standard products (therefore transforming part of the physical losses into economic losses and less strict buyer standards. In monetary terms the impact of losses is particularly severe in Ghana and estimated at about half a billion US dollar per annum while in the other countries it is at the most about USD 50 million. This comparison shows that there are no “one-size-fits-all" solutions for addressing postharvest losses but rather these must be tailor-made to the specific characteristics of the different value chains.

  1. 重金属镉在木薯中的积累及对其生长的影响%Accumulation of Cadmium in Cassava (Manihot esulenta Granz) and Its Impact on Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦璐阳; 蓝唯; 林鹰; 梁宏合; 李鸿; 甘志勇; 陈强

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To discuss the effects of different concentrations of Cd on cassava growth and absorption and accumulation of Cd. [ Method] with GR911 as tested cassava cultivar, the effects of different concentrations of Cd on cassava growth, absorption and accumulation of Cd in cassava plant were studied by the pot experiment. [Result] With the increasing Cd concentration in soil, the height, stem diameter, leaf area index and weight of root tuber had the trend of reducing. Most Cd was in cassava stem, less in leaves and least in root. The order of Cd concentration from high to low in different parts of cassava was stems > leaves > roots. [ Conclusion ] When the Cd concentration in the soil was over 30 mg/kg, the growth of cassava was restricted obviously. Cassava had obvious toxic effect, and the accumulation factor of Cd in stem and leaves presented declining tendency.%[目的]研究镉污染对木薯(Manihot esculenta Cranz)生长的影响及镉在木薯各部位中的吸收累积规律.[方法]以GR911木薯品种为材料,采用土壤盆栽试验,研究不同浓度镉对木薯生长的影响及镉在木薯各部位的吸收分布特点.[结果]随着镉浓度的增加,木薯的株高、茎径、叶面积指数及块根重量均有不同程度的降低;木薯吸收的镉,大部分停留在茎部,其次是叶片,少量留在块根中,整体分布特征为茎>叶>根.[结论]镉对木薯生长有明显的影响,当镉浓度大于30 mg/kg时,木薯表现出明显的毒害作用,且茎、叶对镉的累积系数也呈现下降趋势.

  2. Yield and Properties of Ethanol Biofuel Produced from Different Whole Cassava Flours

    OpenAIRE

    Ademiluyi, F. T.; Mepba, H. D.

    2013-01-01

    The yield and properties of ethanol biofuel produced from five different whole cassava flours were investigated. Ethanol was produced from five different whole cassava flours. The effect of quantity of yeast on ethanol yield, effect of whole cassava flour to acid and mineralized media ratio on the yield of ethanol produced, and the physical properties of ethanol produced from different cassava were investigated. Physical properties such as distillation range, density, viscosity, and flash poi...

  3. Exploring the potential of cassava in promoting agricultural growth in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Sanzidur Rahman; Brodrick O. Awerije

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is one of the major food crops in Nigeria, with multiple uses from human consumption to industrial applications. This study explores the potential of cassava in Nigerian agriculture based on a review of cassava development policies; performs a trend analysis of the cultivation area, production, productivity, and real price of cassava and other competing crops for the period 1961–2013; identifies the sources of growth in production; and examines the production constraints at the local ...

  4. Cost benefit analysis of cassava production in Sherpur district of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Afreen, N.; Haque, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to analyze the cost, benefit and profitability of cassava production in selected areas of Sherpur district in Bangladesh. Data were collected by interviewing a representative sample of 100 practicing cassava farmers, taking each 50 sample from traditional farmers of Jhinaigati and commercial cassava farmers of Sreebardi Upazila. Analyses showed that per hectare cost incurred for cassava was BDT 41,417.22 in Jhinaigati whereas BDT 53,642.59 in Sreebardi Upazila. ...

  5. PROCESSORS’ PERCEPTION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SOME CASSAVA PROCESSING INNOVATIONS IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayo, K.; Sangosina, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The current drive towards higher levels of commercialisation of cassava processing under the Presidential Initiative on Cassava requires that the scale of cassava processing be increased in Nigeria. Primary data obtained from 112 respondents selected from the 4 extension zones of Ogun State was used to examine the perception of effectiveness of innovations by cassava processors and the factors responsible for adoption of these innovations. The processors’ perception of effectiveness of cassav...

  6. Robust transformation procedure for the production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces

    OpenAIRE

    Zainuddin Ima M; Schlegel Kim; Gruissem Wilhelm; Vanderschuren Hervé

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Recent progress in cassava transformation has allowed the robust production of transgenic cassava even under suboptimal plant tissue culture conditions. The transformation protocol has so far been used mostly for the cassava model cultivar 60444 because of its good regeneration capacity of embryogenic tissues. However, for deployment and adoption of transgenic cassava in the field it is important to develop robust transformation methods for farmer- and industry-preferred landraces an...

  7. CASSAVA PULP AS A BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK OF AN ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Wahono Sumaryono; Dyah Primarini; Sumarno; Nonot Soewarno; Djuma’ali

    2011-01-01

    Cassava pulp, a low cost solid byproduct of cassava starch industry, has been proposed as a high potential ethanolic fermentation substrate due to its high residual starch level, low ash content and small particle size of the lignocellulosic fibers. As the economic feasibility depends on complete degradation of the polysaccharides to fermentable glucose, the comparative hydrolytic potential of cassava pulp by six commercial enzymes were studied. Raw cassava pulp (12%w/v, particle size

  8. Induced mutation breeding as a tool for the genetic improvement of cassava landraces for high starch and delayed post harvest deterioration (PPD) in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava a major staple in Ghana that contributes 22% of Agricultural Gross Domestic Product provides high and reliable cheap source of carbohydrates for over 200 million people has assumed an industrial and cash crop status in Sub- Sahara Africa. However, cassava suffers from pest and diseases, with the starchy roots rapidly deteriorating within 24 to 72 hours after harvest resulting in close to 20% loss in the fresh roots. Cassava crosses for the introgression of useful genes for delayed Post harvest Deterioration where Molecular Markers Assisted selected (MAS) inter-specific hybrids with delayed PPD properties were crossed with preferred land races. Inter-specific hybrids of walkererea evaluated showed remarkable disease resistance in all ecological zones tested, PPD score Clone CR 52A-25 additionally showed no signs of post harvest physiological deterioration after the seventh day of harvest and AR 14-10 had unique starch properties for potential industrial use. Induced mutation of tissue culture plantlets of four preferred cassava landraces 'Cedi bankye', 'Sisipe 166', 'Debor' (ancient variety) and 'Dabodabo' (zigzag plant architecture with stay green properties) at two levels of doses 15Gy and 12 Gy were at V5 stage hardened and established in a replicated field trial in three locations. Initial results showed high root yields for doses of 12Gy and remarkable resistance for ACMD (1.5 score) for all mutants at 3MAP, Debor at both doses showed the best vigour for all locations. Induced mutation of botanical seeds from landraces and inter-specific hybrids of walkererea at 200 and 300Gy showed moderate disease reaction and plant vigor. The mutants would be tested alongside the control for starch and PPD at 9MAP and 12MAP. (author)

  9. Developing GM super cassava for improved health and food security: future challenges in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenle Ademola A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to solve the problem of micronutrient malnutrition that is prevalent among young children and women in Africa. Genetically modified (GM biofortified cassava has great potential to solve part of this problem, but controversy surrounding GM technology and lack of awareness, limited facilities, biased news and other factors may hinder the adoption of GM cassava in the future. Method Using semi-structured interviews in Ghana and Nigeria, this paper examines the perspectives of scientists, including the BioCassava Plus (BC+ team, on the potential adoption of GM cassava for improving health and food security in Africa. The article also examines issues around the regulatory system and transfer and acceptance of GM cassava among scientists. Results and discussion The result suggests that an overwhelming majority of scientists agree that GM biofortified cassava will benefit the health of millions in Africa, and that GM cassava conferred with disease and pest resistance will increase cassava production as it is currently plagued by cassava mosaic diseases (CMD. However, respondents are wary of long-term effects of GM cassava on the environment and lack of a regulatory framework to facilitate the adoption of GM cassava. Even though scientists expressed little or no concern about health risks of GM cassava, they were concerned that consumers may express such concerns given limited understanding of GM technology. Conclusion The article concludes with a summary of priorities for policy development with regard to adopting biofortified food products.

  10. Glass transitions and physical aging of cassava starch - corn oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Adriana; Sandoval, Aleida J; Cova, Aura; Müller, Alejandro J

    2014-05-25

    Glass transition temperatures and physical aging of amorphous cassava starch and their blends with corn oil were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Two enthalpic relaxation endotherms, well separated in temperature values, were exhibited by neat amorphous cassava starch with 10.6% moisture content, evidencing two amorphous regions within the starch with different degrees of mobility. The phase segregation of these two amorphous regions was favored by added corn oil at low moisture contents during storage. The presence of amylose-lipid complexes in this matrix, may also affect the molecular dynamics of these two amorphous regions at low moisture contents. Increasing moisture content, leads to a homogeneous amorphous phase, with an aging process characterized by a single enthalpic relaxation peak. In all cases, after deleting the thermal history of the samples only one glass transition temperature was detected (during DSC second heating runs) indicating that a single homogeneous amorphous phase was attained after erasing the effects of physical aging. Trends of the enthalpic relaxation parameters were also different at the two moisture contents considered in this work. PMID:24708977

  11. 自走式木薯收获机的设计%Design of the Self-propelled Harvester for Cassava

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨怡; 廖宇兰; 王涛; 郑美云

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the inadaptation problems of low mechanization , and time–consuming, tedious, inefficient process in manual harvesting , a new self–propelled harvester for cassava was designed .The harvester was driven by a tracked chassis , and was mainly composed of digging device , clamping and conveying device , separating device and transmission system .The cassava harvester enables a one –stop achievement of cassava digging , clamping and conve-ying , separating roots from stems , soil removing and cassava collecting .The requirements of power and has been reduced by clamping and conveying device .It effectively decreases the labor cost and enhances the production efficiency .This design provides a reference for further research and development of cassava harvesters .%针对目前我国木薯机械化水平低、人工收获费时费力、效率低等问题,设计了自走式木薯收获机。收获机由履带底盘带动,主要由挖掘装置、夹持输送装置、土薯分离装置和传动系统等组成,能一次性完成木薯挖掘、夹持输送、薯茎分离及去土收集等工序;夹持输送机构能有效降低挖掘阻力,降低了机器动力要求;收获过程耗用人工少,显著提高了生产效率。该设计可为木薯收获机械的深入研究和发展提供参考。

  12. Slow Pyrolysis of Cassava Wastes for Biochar Production and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of biochar from slow pyrolysis of biomass is a promising carbon negative procedure since it removes the net carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and produce recalcitrant carbon suitable for sequestration in soil. Biochar production can vary significantly with the pyrolysis parameter. This study investigated the impact of temperature and heating rate on the yield and properties of biochar derived from cassava plantations residues which are cassava stem (CS and cassava rhizome (CR. The pyrolysis temperatures ranged from 400°C to 600°C while the heating rate parameter was varied from 5°C/min to 25°C/min. The experiment was conducted using the lab scale slow pyrolysis system. The increment of temperature and heating rate of slow pyrolysis for both cassava wastes had raised the fixed carbon content of the biochar but decreased the biochar yield. More biochar was produced at lower temperature and lower heating rate. Temperature gave more influence on the biochar yield as compared to the heating rate parameter. The highest biochar yield of more than 35 mf wt. % can be obtained from both CS and CR at 400°C and heating rate of 5°C/min. From the proximate analysis, the results showed that cassava wastes contain high percentage of volatile matter which is more than 80 mf wt. %. Meanwhile, the biochar produced from cassava wastes contain high percentage of fixed carbon which is about 5−8 times higher than their raw samples. This suggested that, it is a good step to convert CS and CR into high carbon biochar via slow pyrolysis process that can substantially yield more biochar, up to 37 mf wt. % in this study. Since the fixed carbon content for both CS and CR biochar produced in any studied parameter were found to be more than 75 mf wt. %, it is suggested that biochar from cassava wastes is suitable for carbon sequestration.

  13. Characterization of Brown Streak Virus-Resistant Cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjanappa, Ravi B; Mehta, Devang; Maruthi, M N; Kanju, Edward; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2016-07-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has become a major constraint to cassava production in East and Central Africa. The identification of new sources of CBSD resistance is essential to deploy CBSD mitigation strategies, as the disease is progressing westwards to new geographical areas. A stringent infection method based on top cleft-grafting combined with precise virus titer quantitation was utilized to screen 14 cassava cultivars and elite breeding lines. When inoculated with mixed infections of Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the scions of elite breeding lines KBH 2006/18 and KBH 2006/26 remained symptom-free during a 16-week period of virus graft inoculation, while susceptible varieties displayed typical CBSD infection symptoms at 4 weeks after grafting. The identified CBSD resistance was stable under the coinoculation of CBSV and UCBSV with cassava geminiviruses. Double-grafting experiments revealed that transmission of CBSV and UCBSV to CBSD-susceptible top scions was delayed when using intermediate scions of elite breeding lines KBH 2006/18 and KBH 2006/26. Nonetheless, comparison of virus systemic movement using scions from KBH2006/18 and a transgenic CBSD resistant 60444 line (60444-Hp9 line) showed that both CBSV and UCBSV move at undetectable levels through the stems. Further, protoplast-based assays of virus titers showed that the replication of CBSV is inhibited in the resistant line KBH2006/18, suggesting that the identified CBSD resistance is at least partially based on inhibition of virus replication. Our molecular characterization of CBSD resistance in cassava offers a robust virus-host system to further investigate the molecular determinants of CBSD resistance. PMID:27070326

  14. Dehydration Accelerates Respiration in Postharvest Sugarbeet Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots lose water during storage and often become severely dehydrated after prolonged storage and at the outer regions of storage piles which have greater wind and sun exposure. Sucrose loss is known to be elevated in dehydrated roots, although the metabolic processes re...

  15. Characterization of different cassava samples by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Caracterizacao de diferentes amostras de mandioca por espectroscopia de ressonancia magnetica nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iulianelli, Gisele C.V.; Tavares, Maria I.B., E-mail: gisele@ima.ufrj.br [Centro de Tecnologia, Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is grown in all Brazilian states, being an important product in the diet of Brazilians. For many families of the North and Northeast states, it may represent the main energy source. The cassava root flour has high levels of starch, in addition to containing fiber, lipids and some minerals. There is, however, great genetic variability, which results in differentiation in its chemical composition and structural aspect. Motivated by the economic, nutritional and pharmacological importance of this product, this work is aimed at characterizing six cassava flour samples by NMR spectroscopy. The spectra revealed the main chemical groups. Furthermore, the results confirmed differences on chemical and structural aspect of the samples. For instance, the F1 sample is richer in carbohydrates, while the F4 sample has higher proportion of glycolipids, the F2 sample has higher amylose content and the F6 sample exhibits a greater diversity of glycolipid types. Regarding the molecular structure, the NMR spectra indicated that the F1 sample is more organized at the molecular level, while the F3 and F5 samples are similar in amorphicity and in the molecular packing. (author)

  16. Nutritious value of co-products of the cassava Valor nutritivo de co-produtos da mandioca

    OpenAIRE

    André Luiz Rodrigues Magalhães; Elyzabeth da Cruz Cardoso; Ronaldo Lopes Oliveira; Geane Dias Gonçalves Ferreira; Elieldo Lameira Brito

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the chemical composition, protein and total carbohydrates content, energy estimative of industrial co-products of cassava from the North of Brazil (cassava scraping, cassava co-products flower, cassava mass and the superior third of cassava silage STSRM). The results were evaluated by description of the statistical analysis. Highest mean values were found for STSRM Crude Protein (CP) and Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF). Variation values occurred in protein content, t...

  17. Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.; Chitundu, M.;

    2011-01-01

    perceptions concerning cassava and chemical food safety. Chips, mixed biscuits and flour, procured from households and markets in three regions of Zambia (Luapula-North, Western and Southern) as well as products from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi, were analyzed for total cyanogenic...... products commercially available on the market. Risk assessments disclose that effects harmful to the developing central nervous system (CNS) may be observed at a lower exposure than previously anticipated. We interviewed farmers in Zambia and Malawi about their cultivars, processing procedures and...

  18. Breeding of Root and Tuber Crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The root and tuber crops cassava, yams and sweet potato are important in Nigeria and Africa. Breeding methods most appropriate to these crops are discussed in terms of mating systems, creation of source populations, selections. Intervarietal hybridization, interspecific hybridization, and population improvement through cyclic selection and recombination procedures are methods of creating source populations. Factors affecting the effectiveness of selection, and efficient methods of selection to make maximum genetic progress are discussed. Use of selections is briefly stated. Synthetics, composites, or single and double crosses of yam produced from true seed may be used at the farmer level. (author)

  19. Robust transformation procedure for the production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainuddin Ima M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent progress in cassava transformation has allowed the robust production of transgenic cassava even under suboptimal plant tissue culture conditions. The transformation protocol has so far been used mostly for the cassava model cultivar 60444 because of its good regeneration capacity of embryogenic tissues. However, for deployment and adoption of transgenic cassava in the field it is important to develop robust transformation methods for farmer- and industry-preferred landraces and cultivars. Because dynamics of multiplication and regeneration of embryogenic tissues differ between cassava genotypes, it was necessary to adapt the efficient cv. 60444 transformation protocol to genotypes that are more recalcitrant to transformation. Here we demonstrate that an improved cassava transformation protocol for cv. 60444 could be successfully modified for production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces. The modified transformation method reports on procedures for optimization and is likely transferable to other cassava genotypes reportedly recalcitrant to transformation provided production of high quality FEC. Because the three farmer-preferred cassava landraces selected in this study have been identified as resistant or tolerant to cassava mosaic disease (CMD, the adapted protocol will be essential to mobilize improved traits into cassava genotypes suitable for regions where CMD limits production.

  20. Root carbohydrate storage in young saplings of an Amazonian tidal várzea forest before the onset of the wet season Armazenamento de carboidratos antecedendo à estação chuvosa em raízes de plantas jovens em floresta de várzea de estuário amazônico

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Rubio Scarano; José Henrique Cattânio; Robert M.M. Crawford

    1994-01-01

    Root starch and glucose content were measured for young saplings of 18 Amazonian tidal várzea tree species during a dry season. The pattern of carbohydrate storage depended on the type of plant involved and soil topography which is directly linked to flood regime. Most plants showed high root carbohydrate content at this point in the dry season, however, several typically flood-tolerant species (particularly palm trees) presented a low root carbohydrate content, suggesting a strategy of acqui...

  1. Induction of mutants with useful traits in a Chinese cassava genotype via irradiation combined with tissue culture and molecular characterization of induced mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We concentrated on investigation of the following four aspects: A. Investigate the sensitive dosage of 60Co γ-ray for irradiating stem segments of a Chinese cassava genotype grown in the field, in soil pot or from in vitro seedling for the purpose of mutation induction. B. Create and select cassava mutations with improved root yielding ability and lysine content. C. Establishment of a protocol for induction of somatic embryos from auxiliary buds. D. Establishment of molecular marker technique for identification of induced mutations of cassava. Sensitive dosages of irradiation had been determined to be 25- 30 Gy for stem segments taken from field or soil pot grown plants, 20-25 Gy for in vitro grown stem segments. For either kind of stems, restoring process after irradiation was necessary for about 30-40 days in the soil pot or onto MS medium before the stem could be cut for further culture in MS based medium for trait segregation. In addition, cassava callus from petioles was also irradiated by 60Co γ-ray and 9 Gy irradiation dosage was effective dosage to be used to induce mutation accordingly. Cassava mutations with changed root yielding ability and lysine content through gamma irradiation combined with tissue culture have been obtained from irradiated test tube seedlings after segregations over 4 generations. By the end of last year, 16 mutagenic plant lines were generated. Compared with the non-mutagenic control, some mutagenic lines like MV4, MV1, MV6 harvested more than 2 times of tube root by fresh weight. Lysine content in the root also showed big difference among different lines and the control. And what is interesting is that some mutagenic lines showed higher lysine content than the parent line, especially in the root parenchyma. However, the difference among mutagenic lines in lysine content was not as obvious as in root yield. An efficient and reproducible plant regeneration system via germination of somatic embryos induced from auxiliary buds of a

  2. Linamarase production by some microbial isolates and a comparison of the rate of degradation of cassava cyanide by microbial and cassava linamarases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonnaya Nwokoro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of linamarase and the effects of media composition on enzyme production were studied. A total of eight linamarase-producing bacteria were isolated from fermenting cassava tubers and soil samples. Selection of the isolates was based on their high growth in media containing 800 mg/L potassium cyanide solution. Eight of the isolates which showed very high growth in the growth medium as demonstrated by increase in their optical density readings to at least 0.6 in the cyanide containing media were selected for further studies. The isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis. All the isolates were grown in media containing Tween 80 solution and in control media without the surfactant. Best enzyme activity of 6.82 U/mL was obtained in the medium containing Tween 80 solution and Lactobacillus fermentum as the test bacterium. Comparatively, linamarase production by the isolates in media without Tween 80 showed lower enzyme productivity. Cassava endogenous and microbial enzymes were tested for their abilities to hydrolyze cyanide in cassava flour samples pretreated to either remove the endogenous or microbial enzyme. Residual cyanide in cassava flour samples treated with linamarase of Lactobacillus plantarum was undecteded in 30 h, while in contrast, the residual cyanide in cassava flour samples treated with endogenous linamarase was 0.39 mg/10g cassava flour after 80 h. Residual cyanide in the untreated control sample was 1.98 mg HCN /10g cassava flour after 80 h. The results from this finding demonstrated improved cassava cyanide degradation with microbial linamarase as compared to endogenous cassava linamarase. Massive inoculation of fermenting cassava tubers with the isolates reported in this study would enable better control of the cassava fermentation process and may

  3. Stability and genotype by environment interaction of provitamin A carotenoid and dry matter content in cassava in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esuma, Williams; Kawuki, Robert Sezi; Herselman, Liezel; Labuschagne, Maryke Tine

    2016-06-01

    Efforts are underway to develop staple crops with improved levels of provitamin A carotenoids to help combat dietary vitamin A deficiency (VAD), which has afflicted the health of resource-poor people in the developing world. As a staple crop for more than 500 million people in sub-Saharan Africa, cassava enriched with provitamin A carotenoids could have a widespread nutritional impact. To this effect, 13 provitamin A clones were evaluated in a randomized complete block design in six environments to assess genotype by environment interaction (GEI) effects for total carotenoid (TCC) and dry matter content (DMC) in roots. Additive main effect and multiplicative interaction analysis showed significant variation among genotypes for TCC, DMC, fresh root weight and harvest index. Environmental effects were non-significant for TCC, but GEI effects were significantly large for all traits measured. There were significant temporal increments for all traits measured within 12 months after planting. TCC correlated negatively with DMC, illustrating an important challenge to overcome when developing provitamin A cassava varieties without compromising DMC, which is a major farmer-preference trait. Nonetheless, best performing genotypes were identified for TCC, DMC and FRW, and these could constitute genetic resources for advancement or developing breeding populations through hybridization. PMID:27436954

  4. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Cassava Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava (Manihot esculanta Crantz) is popularly consumed as a staple food crop in many tropical countries in Africa, South America and Asia. In Africa the crop has been recognized as more than a subsistence crop. The crop is very important and commercially serves as a raw material for industries with significant effect on the economy of a country. Cassava roots contain high starch content and approximately half of the total roots produced is used for the production of starch for industrial purposes. Limitation to utilization of cassava roots by processors is due to its high perishability and bulkness, while native starches are structurally too weak and funtionally restricted for a wide variety of industrial applications. The objective of the project was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation as a modifying agent on native starch from three cassava varieties namely Ankra, Bosome nsia and TME419. Gamma radiation doses applied ranged between 0 - 20kGy and changes in physicochemical, functional and pasting indices of the starch were measured. Physicochemical indices measured were moisture content, amylose content, carbohydrate content, pH, ash content, fat content, protein content and L*a*b* values. Functional indices mesured were water absorption capacity, solubility index, bulk density, swelling power, fat absorption capacity, emulsion capacity, emulsion stability and least gelation concentration. Pasting indices measured were gelatinzation temperature, peak viscosity, viscosity at 92 degrees C and 50 degrees C, breakdown viscosity and setback viscosity. The pH, amylose content, carbohydrate content and ash content of native starch from Ankra, Bosome nsia and TME 419 were respectively 8.06, 7.80 and 7.18, 17.62%, 19.46% and 23.54%, 56.11%, 52.43% and 35.70%, 0.11%, 0.19% and 0.12%. The water absortion capacity and least gelation concentration of native starch from Ankra, Bosome nsia and TME 419 were 12.3%, 13.0% and 10.0%, respectively, least gelation

  5. Analyses of Twelve New Whole Genome Sequences of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses and Ugandan Cassava Brown Streak Viruses from East Africa: Diversity, Supercomputing and Evidence for Further Speciation

    OpenAIRE

    Ndunguru, Joseph; Sseruwagi, Peter; Tairo, Fred; Stomeo, Francesca; Maina, Solomon; Djinkeng, Appolinaire; Kehoe, Monica; Boykin, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    Cassava brown streak disease is caused by two devastating viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) which are frequently found infecting cassava, one of sub-Saharan Africa’s most important staple food crops. Each year these viruses cause losses of up to $100 million USD and can leave entire families without their primary food source, for an entire year. Twelve new whole genomes, including seven of CBSV and five of UCBSV were uncovered in this re...

  6. Cold temperature delays wound healing in postharvest sugarbeet roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storage temperature affects the rate and extent of wound-healing in a number of root and tuber crops. The effect of storage temperature on wound-healing in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots, however, is largely unknown. Wound-healing of sugarbeet roots was investigated using surface-abraded roots s...

  7. Biogas Production From Cassava Starch Effluent Using Microalgae As Biostabilisator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Budiyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environmental problems to the nearby rural population. The possible alternative to solve the problem is by converting waste to energy biogas in the biodigester. The main problem of the biogas production of cassava starch effluent is acid forming-bacteria quickly produced acid resulting significantly in declining pH below the neutral pH and diminishing growth of methane bacteria. Hence, the only one of the method to cover this problem is by adding microalgae as biostabilisator of pH. Microalgae can also be used as purifier agent to absorb CO2.The general objective of this research project was to develop an integrated process of biogas production and purification from cassava starch effluent by using biostabilisator agent microalgae. This study has been focused on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production. The result can be concluded as follows: i The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added, ii Biogas production with microalgae and cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid, iii Biogas production without  microalgae was 189 ml/g total solid.

  8. Roots Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Barnabas

    1998-01-01

    Offers historical information about square roots. Presents three different methods--Hero's method, visual method, and remainder method--which can be used to teach the finding of square roots and one method for determining cube roots. (ASK)

  9. The largest Swiss diffusion storage system - Geology, petrophysics, hydro-geology and experience gained from the realisation of heat probes; Groesster saisonaler Diffusionsspeicher der Schweiz D4 in Root (LU): Geologie, Petrophysik, Hydrogeologie und Erfahrungen mit der Realisation des Sondenfeldes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, B.

    2007-07-15

    This article takes a look at a large heat-diffusion storage system that is to be implemented in stages at a business and innovation centre in Root, near Lucerne in Switzerland. The aim is to meet 50 percent of energy needs using renewable energy. Apart from conventional oil and gas-fired systems, a combined heat and power (CHP) unit, heat and cold storage, a solar roof and photovoltaics, a seasonal underground diffusion storage system is used. This storage system is 'filled' with heat in summer from the roof and waste heat. It then functions in winter as a heat source. The system features two fields of 49, 160 metre-long heat probes that use a volume of 376,000 cubic metres of rock. The dimensioning of the rock-storage system was simulated using the PILESIM program and the first field was implemented in 2001. A geological overview is presented and the physical properties of the rock structures used are discussed. The temperature profile measured is presented and the precautions taken as a result of the possibility of meeting pockets of natural gas are discussed. Know-how gained from the implementation of the first probe field is discussed.

  10. Life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To increase the security of energy supply, lessen dependence on crude oil import and buffer against the impacts of large change in crude oil prices, the Thai government initiated and officially announced the national ethanol fuel program in year 2000. Since then, domestic ethanol demand has grown rapidly. Presently, all commercial ethanol in Thailand is produced from molasses as Thai law prohibits producing it from sugar cane directly. This is likely to limit ethanol supply in the near future. One possible solution is to supply more ethanol from cassava which is widely cultivated in this country. However, its production cost has not yet been known for certain. The objective of this study is to estimate the life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava and to assess its economic competitiveness with gasoline in the Thai fuel market. Based on the record of cassava prices during the years 2002-2005, it was found that using it as feedstock would share more than 50% of the ethanol from cassava total production cost. It was also found that a bio-ethanol plant, with a capacity of 150,000 l/day, can produce ethanol from cassava in a range of ex-factory costs from 16.42 to 20.83 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (excluding all taxes), with an average cost of 18.15 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (41, 52 and 45 US cents/l gasoline equivalent respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate). In the same years, the range of 95-octane gasoline prices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to 20.86 baht/l, with an average price of 11.50 baht/l (15, 52 and 29 US cents/l respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate) which were much cheaper than the costs of ethanol made from cassava. Thus, we conclude that under the scenario of low to normal crude oil price, ethanol from cassava is not competitive with gasoline. The gasoline price has to rise consistently above 18.15 baht (45 US cents)/l before ethanol made from cassava can be commercially competitive with gasoline. (author)

  11. Life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorapipatana, Chumnong; Yoosin, Suthamma [Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Pracha-Uthit Rd., Tungkru, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Center for Energy Technology and Environment, Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-02-15

    To increase the security of energy supply, lessen dependence on crude oil import and buffer against the impacts of large change in crude oil prices, the Thai government initiated and officially announced the national ethanol fuel program in year 2000. Since then, domestic ethanol demand has grown rapidly. Presently, all commercial ethanol in Thailand is produced from molasses as Thai law prohibits producing it from sugar cane directly. This is likely to limit ethanol supply in the near future. One possible solution is to supply more ethanol from cassava which is widely cultivated in this country. However, its production cost has not yet been known for certain. The objective of this study is to estimate the life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava and to assess its economic competitiveness with gasoline in the Thai fuel market. Based on the record of cassava prices during the years 2002-2005, it was found that using it as feedstock would share more than 50% of the ethanol from cassava total production cost. It was also found that a bio-ethanol plant, with a capacity of 150,000 l/day, can produce ethanol from cassava in a range of ex-factory costs from 16.42 to 20.83 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (excluding all taxes), with an average cost of 18.15 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (41, 52 and 45 US cents/l gasoline equivalent respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate). In the same years, the range of 95-octane gasoline prices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to 20.86 baht/l, with an average price of 11.50 baht/l (15, 52 and 29 US cents/l respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate) which were much cheaper than the costs of ethanol made from cassava. Thus, we conclude that under the scenario of low to normal crude oil price, ethanol from cassava is not competitive with gasoline. The gasoline price has to rise consistently above 18.15 baht (45 US cents)/l before ethanol made from cassava can be commercially competitive with gasoline. (author)

  12. Radiation processing of cassava starch hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper consists of two topics on cassava starch (CS). The first paper deals with radiation-induced graft polymerization of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (VP) onto CS. The results from PVP -grafted-starch were subsequently compared with those of PVP hydrogels and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels. It was found that the PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels, with gel fraction higher than 80%, could be prepared at the dose of 20 kGy, while PVP and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels require at least 30 kGy to obtain gels with more than 80% gel fraction. And at the same dose used for irradiation, the gel strength of the PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels is significantly higher than that of the PVP and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels. Radiation crosslinking of carboxymethyl CS is the second topic. CS was chemically modified by sodium monochloroacetate (SMCA) to yield carboxymethyl starch (CMS). The aqueous solution of CMS was irradiated and underwent radiation-induced crosslinking, resulting in a crosslinked CMS (XLCMS) hydrogel. The optimum condition for obtaining hydrogels with desirable properties is irradiation at low dose, 2 kGy. At higher doses, the gel fraction tends to diminish, due to the domination of degradation over crosslinking. (author)

  13. Comparative analysis of virus-derived small RNAs within cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) infected with cassava brown streak viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwok, Emmanuel; Ilyas, Muhammad; Alicai, Titus; Rey, Marie E C; Taylor, Nigel J

    2016-04-01

    Infection of plant cells by viral pathogens triggers RNA silencing, an innate antiviral defense mechanism. In response to infection, small RNAs (sRNAs) are produced that associate with Argonaute (AGO)-containing silencing complexes which act to inactivate viral genomes by posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Deep sequencing was used to compare virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in cassava genotypes NASE 3, TME 204 and 60444 infected with the positive sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the causal agents of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). An abundance of 21-24nt vsRNAs was detected and mapped, covering the entire CBSV and UCBSV genomes. The 21nt vsRNAs were most predominant, followed by the 22 nt class with a slight bias toward sense compared to antisense polarity, and a bias for adenine and uracil bases present at the 5'-terminus. Distribution and frequency of vsRNAs differed between cassava genotypes and viral genomes. In susceptible genotypes TME 204 and 60444, CBSV-derived sRNAs were seen in greater abundance than UCBSV-derived sRNAs. NASE 3, known to be resistant to UCBSV, accumulated negligible UCBSV-derived sRNAs but high populations of CBSV-derived sRNAs. Transcript levels of cassava homologues of AGO2, DCL2 and DCL4, which are central to the gene-silencing complex, were found to be differentially regulated in CBSV- and UCBSV-infected plants across genotypes, suggesting these proteins play a role in antiviral defense. Irrespective of genotype or viral pathogen, maximum populations of vsRNAs mapped to the cytoplasmic inclusion, P1 and P3 protein-encoding regions. Our results indicate disparity between CBSV and UCBSV host-virus interaction mechanisms, and provide insight into the role of virus-induced gene silencing as a mechanism of resistance to CBSD. PMID:26811902

  14. Socio-economic Analysis of Cassava Marketing in Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Asogwa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the socio-economics of cassava marketing in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 107 cassava marketers in Benue State, using a structured questionnaire. The study revealed that most of the cassava marketers had secondary education (72.9%. The study also revealed that marketing of cassava is mostly undertaken by females (57%. The result showed that married people (59.8% were mostly involved in the marketing of cassava. The study revealed that cassava marketing is operated in a competitive market environment and the marketing margin obtained by an average cassava marketer is 31%. Cassava marketing is a profitable venture in the study area. It was also revealed that greater percentage of cassava traded in the study area was primarily obtained from the farmers. Majority of the respondents (92.5% belong to cassava marketing association. The most pressing problem (46.73% faced by the marketers is high taxes during transportation. Majority of the cassava marketers use the revenue generated from cassava business to train their children in schools and buildings of modern houses (57.0.There is the need to: open centralized cassava market in the study area; construct good network of feeder roads; establish processing companies/facilities; restructure the entire marketing system. Traders should be encouraged to form agricultural marketing cooperatives in order to eliminate the exploitative activities of the middlemen. Marketing agencies should be enforced by government to take care of the marketing problems that are associated with the speculative activities of the middlemen.

  15. Avaliação da aceitação de "chips" de mandioca Acceptance evaluation of cassava chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Kitagawa Grizotto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Pré-tratamentos como o cozimento, a fermentação natural e a secagem parcial foram aplicados em raízes de mandioca, visando a obtenção de "chips" comestíveis. A avaliação sensorial foi feita com base na aceitação e aparência dos "chips" das variedades IAC Mantiqueira e IAC 576.70. Trinta consumidores potenciais do produto foram selecionados em função da disponibilidade e interesse em participar dos testes. Foi utilizada escala hedônica de 7 pontos, onde os provadores avaliaram as amostras delineadas em blocos casualizados. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os "chips" controle e pré-cozidos foram aceitos sensorialmente, apresentado médias de 5,1 (gostei ligeiramente para IAC Mantiqueira e 6,0 (gostei moderadamente para IAC 576.70. Os "chips" pré-fermentados de ambas variedades foram rejeitados. Os termos de agrado mais comentados pelos provadores foram "sabor de mandioca", "crocância" e "textura". Os termos de desagrado mais citados incluem "textura dura", "falta sabor de mandioca" e "gosto de óleo". Os provadores consideraram adequada a aparência dos "chips" de ambas variedades, sendo ligeiramente preferida a aparência dos "chips" da IAC 576.70, com exceção dos "chips" cozidos por 8 minutos e os fermentados, rejeitados pelos consumidores. A cor amarela da polpa pode ter influenciado a aceitação da variedade IAC 576.70. A composição centesimal e o teor de fibras na mandioca in natura e, o teor de lipídeos em "chips" de mandioca, também foram apresentados.Pre-treatments such as cooking, natural fermentation and partial drying were applied to cassava roots, aimed at obtaining edible cassava chips. The sensory evaluation was based on the acceptance and appearance of the chips, using the varieties IAC Mantiqueira and IAC 576.70. Thirty potential consumers of the product were selected based on their availability and interest. A 7-point hedonic scale was used, all the judges evaluating all the samples using a randomised

  16. Transcriptome response of cassava leaves under natural shade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zehong; Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Yi; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Minghui; Zhu, Xinguang; Liu, Peng; Sun, Qi; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Brutnell, Tom; Li, Pinghua

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is an important staple crop in tropical and sub-tropical areas. As a common farming practice, cassava is usually cultivated intercropping with other crops and subjected to various degrees of shading, which causes reduced productivity. Herein, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed on a series of developmental cassava leaves under both full sunlight and natural shade conditions. Gene expression profiles of these two conditions exhibited similar developmental transitions, e.g. genes related to cell wall and basic cellular metabolism were highly expressed in immature leaves, genes involved in lipid metabolism and tetrapyrrole synthesis were highly expressed during the transition stages, and genes related to photosynthesis and carbohydrates metabolism were highly expressed in mature leaves. Compared with the control, shade significantly induced the expression of genes involved in light reaction of photosynthesis, light signaling and DNA synthesis/chromatin structure; however, the genes related to anthocyanins biosynthesis, heat shock, calvin cycle, glycolysis, TCA cycle, mitochondrial electron transport, and starch and sucrose metabolisms were dramatically depressed. Moreover, the shade also influenced the expression of hormone-related genes and transcriptional factors. The findings would improve our understanding of molecular mechanisms of shade response, and shed light on pathways associated with shade-avoidance syndrome for cassava improvement. PMID:27539510

  17. Mathematical Modelling Of Cyanide Inhibition on Cassava Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Onukwugha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic Baffled Reactors (ABR is used to evaluate the extent of cyanide inhibition of cassava wastewater treatment. The reactor has aspect ratio of 4:1:1. Kinetic analyses of specific growth rate μmax and half saturation constant

  18. Functional genomic analysis of cassava proteins with TIR domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteins containing a TIR domain (toll interleukin receptor) are involved in plant and animal immunity. The aim of this work was to carry out an overall genomic analysis of cassava proteins with a TIR domain and discern their possible role in resistance to cassava bacterial blight. In total 46 proteins with a TIR domain were identified in the cassava proteome and were classed in four categories according the presence or absence of other domains: TIR (T), TIR -NB (TN), TIR - lRR (TL) and TIR - NB - lRR (TNL). 56.6 % of these 46 proteins have TIR, NB and lRR domains. Using multiple alignments it was possible to demonstrate that not all cassava TIR domains contain the AE region, involved in dimerization and activation of immune responses. Three of the four proteins categories (T, TNL and TN) presented a higher number of synonymous substitutions suggesting that they are not involved in recognition process. two TIR domains not presenting the ae region were analyzed by yeast two hybrid assays and by agro-infiltration, finding that both are able to form homo and heterodimers, but they do not trigger defense responses. With this study it was possible to conclude that TIR domains can function as adaptors in the signal transduction with other resistance proteins. In addition, it became clear that not always the AE region is important for TIR dimerization but it seems necessary to activate defense responses signals.

  19. Transcriptional response to petiole heat girdling in cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    The heat-girdling technique, which is known to inhibit photoassimilate translocation, was performed on the petiole of cassava leaves at the end of the light cycle to inhibit starch remobilization during the night. The inhibition of starch remobilization caused significant starch accumulation at the ...

  20. Ethanol production of banana shell and cassava starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms saccharomyces cerevisiae nrrl y-2034 and zymomonas mobilis cp4. The banana shell has been characterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicelluloses that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to ph 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with saccharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92± 0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with zymomonas mobilis

  1. Properties of Cassava Starch Modified by Amylomaltase from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyakul Na Ayudhaya, Pitcha; Pongsawasdi, Piamsook; Laohasongkram, Kalaya; Chaiwanichsiri, Saiwarun

    2016-06-01

    Amylomaltase (α-1,4-glucanotransferase, AM; EC 2.4.1.25) from Corynebacterium glutamicum expressed in Escherichia coli was used to prepare the enzyme-modified cassava starch for food application. About 5% to 15% (w/v) of cassava starch slurries were incubated with 1, 3, or 5 units of amylomaltase/g starch. Apparent amylose, amylopectin chain length distribution, thermal properties, freeze-thaw stability, thermo-reversibility, and gel strength of the obtained modified starches were measured. The apparent amylose content and retrogradation enthalpy were lower, whereas the retrogradation temperatures, freeze-thaw stability, and thermo-reversibility were higher than those of the native cassava starch. However, when amylomaltase content was increased to 20 units of amylomaltase/g starch and for 24 h, the modified starch showed an improvement in the thermo-reversibility property. When used in panna cotta, the gel strength of the sample using the 20 units/24 h modified cassava starch was similar to that of using gelatin. PMID:27105125

  2. Sino-Swiss center for cassava technology launched in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Under the joint sponsorship of the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences (SIBS) and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich), the Shanghai Center for Cassava Biotechnology (SCCB) has been established at the Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology(SIPE), SIBS.

  3. Response of cassava genotypes to different micropropagation media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava is one of the most important staple foods in the human diet in the tropics, where it ranks fourth as a source of energy, after rice, sugar cane and maize. Since it is a vegetative propagated crop, the use of in vitro propagation is very important to preserve the germplasm free of pest and di...

  4. Field experiment on transgenic cassava proves successful in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A pioneer study on field tests of transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by a Sino-Swiss research consortium has proved successful. The experiment was carried out in 2006 at an experimental station in Haikou, capital of south China's Hainan Province.

  5. Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom K.;

    The high quality cassava flour (HQCF) industry has just started to evolve in Africa and elsewhere. The sustainability of the growing industry, the profitability of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) that are active in the industry and good-health of consumers can best be guaranteed throug...

  6. Development of comprehensive medium for micropropagation of cultivated Cassava accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava is one of the most important foods in the human diet in the tropics, where it ranks fifth as a source of energy, after rice, sugar cane, and maize. Since it is a vegetative propagated crop, the use of in vitro propagation is very important to preserve germplasm free of pest and diseases. M...

  7. Comparative effect of radioactive radiation on roots in coastal and hinterland locations in Akwa Ibom state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of the radiation levels in root crops from Ibeno (an oil producing area) and Uyo, (a non oil producing area) in Akwa Ibom state was carried out. The radioactivity level in cassava, potato, sweet yam and coco yam was investigated. Result shows that the radiation level in root samples in Uyo ranges between 8.58 mBqg''-''1 and 1.06 mBqg''-''1 as compared with those from Ibeno, which ranges between 34.7 mBqg''-''1 and 3.7 mBqg''-''1. Yam and cassava samples from Ibeno have the highest radioactive levels of 34.7 mBqg''-''1 while water yam sample in Uyo has the highest radioactive level of radioactive materials in roots than Uyo. This is probably due to the oil producing activities in the area

  8. Protein concentrate obtainment from leaves and aerial part cassava (ManihotesculentaCrantz)
    Obtenção de concentrado protéico de folhas e parte aérea da mandioca (ManihotesculentaCrantz)

    OpenAIRE

    Janaina Lima da Silva; Simone Damasceno Gomes; Silvia Renata Machado Coelho; Janete Evarini; Priscila Ferri; Marney Pascoli Cereda; Shaiane Dal`Maso Lucas

    2012-01-01

    The aerial parts of cassava, constituted by leaves, stalk sand stems, are considered as agro-industrial waste, so, they are thrown away during roots crop. This material has content of protein, vitamin and mineral; therefore, it can be used as a dietary supplement for food industries. Thus, alternatives have come to extract protein from leaves and remove toxic agent sand anti-nutrients that make part of their composition. In this context, this study aimed at evaluating yield, mineral compositi...

  9. Genome-wide association and prediction analysis in African cassava (Manihot esculenta) reveals the genetic architecture of resistance to cassava mosaic disease and prospects for rapid genetic improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a crucial, under-researched crop feeding millions worldwide, especially in Africa. Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) has plagued production in Africa for over a century. Bi-parental mapping studies suggest primarily a single major gene mediates resistance. To be certain and...

  10. Energetic potential of biogas produced from cassava starch wastewater using a pilot scale two-stage anaerobic biodigester; Potencial energetico do biogas gerado no tratamento de aguas residuarias de fecularias em sistema piloto de biodigestao anaerobia com separacao de fases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiden, Armin [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: armin_feiden@yahoo.com.br; Cereda, Marney Pascoli [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Centro de Raizes Tropicais

    2003-06-01

    Cassava starch is extracted in more of 70 units in west of Parana state, South of Brazil. Near the border of the Parana river there is a big concentration of this type of industry. The cassava starch extraction generates a great quantity of wastewater. The aim of this work was to evaluate the energetic potential of biogas generated in the anaerobic treatment of cassava. The pilot reactors were located at a cassava processing factory, with cassava roots grauding capacity of 250 metric ton day{sup -1} at the parallel 24 deg 09'18'' South latitude and meridian 54 deg 09'26'' West longitude of Grw. The treatment pilot system was consisted of two settling tanks with 500 L each, connected in series, followed by a two-stage anaerobic biodigester reactor. The acidogenic reactor had a capacity of 1,000 L and the methanogenic had a capacity of 3,000 L. The experiment was conducted at temperatures ranging from 23.9 deg C to 27.7 deg C, with a annual average of 25.8 deg C. It was not used the addition of nutrients nor pH correction. The best results were obtained at a flow rate of 901 L d{sup -1} with a TOC (total organic carbon) loading rate of 0.565 g L{sup -1} d{sup -1} and COD (chemical oxygen demand) of 2.49 g L{sup -1} d{sup -1}, and a hydraulic residence time of 4.4 days. At this loading rate, the system had an average biogas yield of 3.975 L L{sup -1} wastewater 0.895 L L{sup -1} reactor day{sup -1}, and 0.391 L g{sup -1} TOC removed. The net biogas yield was 16.10 m{sup 3} ton{sup -1} cassava roots processed, with 28.65% CO{sub 2}. By calculation it was found that the biogas production is enough to supply 30% of the heat necessity to steam production of the industry, 100% of the heat necessity of direct drying of cassava starch, or 50% of the general total electricity need of the factory. (author)

  11. Labour Arrangements in Cassava Production in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abila, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of labour arrangements on the profitability of cassava enterprises in Oyo North Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted for data collection, while data were analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary analysis. The results show that the prevalent labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are: a combination of Family, Hired and Contract labour (38.9%; Family-Hired labour (27.8%; Family-Contract labour (31.1%. The gross margin per hectares across labour arrangements are N279481.99 (all-labour, N286044.24 (family-hired, N216940.10 (familycontract, and N235000.00 (family only. The returns on a naira invested on variable costs across different labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are N2.04 (all-labour, N3.66 (family-hired, N2.37 (familycontract, and N2.61 (family only. This implies that a unit (N1 variable cost in the various labour arrangements of all-labour, family/hired, family/contract and family only in cassava production will yield a marginal return of N3.04, N3.66, N2.37 and N2.61 respectively. Family-hired labour arrangement yields higher marginal return per unit of manday and one naira spent than all other arrangements. The study recommends among others the application of laboursaving technologies and an optimum combination of various labour arrangements to reduce the cost of labour used in cassava production.

  12. Analyses of Twelve New Whole Genome Sequences of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses and Ugandan Cassava Brown Streak Viruses from East Africa: Diversity, Supercomputing and Evidence for Further Speciation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ndunguru

    Full Text Available Cassava brown streak disease is caused by two devastating viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV which are frequently found infecting cassava, one of sub-Saharan Africa's most important staple food crops. Each year these viruses cause losses of up to $100 million USD and can leave entire families without their primary food source, for an entire year. Twelve new whole genomes, including seven of CBSV and five of UCBSV were uncovered in this research, doubling the genomic sequences available in the public domain for these viruses. These new sequences disprove the assumption that the viruses are limited by agro-ecological zones, show that current diagnostic primers are insufficient to provide confident diagnosis of these viruses and give rise to the possibility that there may be as many as four distinct species of virus. Utilizing NGS sequencing technologies and proper phylogenetic practices will rapidly increase the solution to sustainable cassava production.

  13. Analyses of Twelve New Whole Genome Sequences of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses and Ugandan Cassava Brown Streak Viruses from East Africa: Diversity, Supercomputing and Evidence for Further Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunguru, Joseph; Sseruwagi, Peter; Tairo, Fred; Stomeo, Francesca; Maina, Solomon; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Djinkeng, Appolinaire; Kehoe, Monica; Boykin, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    Cassava brown streak disease is caused by two devastating viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) which are frequently found infecting cassava, one of sub-Saharan Africa's most important staple food crops. Each year these viruses cause losses of up to $100 million USD and can leave entire families without their primary food source, for an entire year. Twelve new whole genomes, including seven of CBSV and five of UCBSV were uncovered in this research, doubling the genomic sequences available in the public domain for these viruses. These new sequences disprove the assumption that the viruses are limited by agro-ecological zones, show that current diagnostic primers are insufficient to provide confident diagnosis of these viruses and give rise to the possibility that there may be as many as four distinct species of virus. Utilizing NGS sequencing technologies and proper phylogenetic practices will rapidly increase the solution to sustainable cassava production. PMID:26439260

  14. Uncertainty in life cycle economical analysis of cassava-based ethanol fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Ru-bo; DAI Du; CHEN Xiao-jun; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    Biomass ethanol fuel is not only renewable but also environmental-friendly. Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region is developing the cassava-based ethanol fuel. Economical performance of the project is the key issue.The traditional life cycle economical analysis is just a static calculation process. Uncertainty is the character of cassava yield, cost of cassava plant, cassava price, tax rate and gasoline price, and the economical performance of the project is determined by these aspects. This study proposes an economical model of cassava-based ethanol fuel. The method of Monte Carol is used to simulate the economical performance. This method conquers the shortage of the traditional way. The results show that cassava-based ethanol fuel can get survived when the tax is exempted. Finally, the study also evaluates the potential of the economical performance.

  15. Induced mutation breeding in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar 'Bosom Nsia'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava is one of the most important staple food crops in the lowland tropics. In most cassava producing countries, it is mainly utilized for human consumption. Cassava leaves are a good source of protein and vitamins, and are used as food in Africa. In Ghana, 'Bosom Nsia' is one of the most widely grown cultivars probably because of its good cooking quality and fast maturation in six months. However, this cultivar is highly susceptible to cassava mosaic virus disease (CMV), hence the need to improve its resistance to the disease. Various in vitro techniques have been developed for cassava research, Klu and Lamptey reported irradiation doses of 25 and 30 Gy to be ideal for in vitro mutagenesis of cassava. These doses were applied to in vivo and in vitro mutation for breeding CMV resistance in the cultivar 'Bosom Nsia'. 6 refs

  16. Advances in experimental methods for root system architecture and root development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-bang Wang; Xiu-juan Zhang; Chu Wu

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots play important roles in acquisition of water and nutrients, storage, anchoring, transport, and symbiosis with soil microorganisms, thus quantitative researches on root developmental processes are essential to understand root functions and root turnover in ecosystems, and at the same time such researches are the most difficult because roots are hidden underground. Therefore, how to investigate efficiently root functions and root dynamics is the core aspect in underground ecology. In this article, we reviewed some experimental methods used in root resear-ches on root development and root system architecture, and summarized the advantages and shortages of these meth-ods. Based on the analyses, we proposed three new ways to more understand root processes: (1) new experimental materials for root development; (2) a new observatory system comprised of multiple components, including many observatory windows installed in field, analysis software, and automatic data transport devices; (3) new techniques used to analyze quantitatively functional roots.

  17. Studies on the effects of increasing cassava yield by soaking the seed-stems with homobrassinolide%云大-120浸种对木薯的增产效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗兴录

    2001-01-01

    The effects of increasing the cassava yield by soakin g the seedstems with homobrassinolide were studied in this experiment.The r esult showed that the yields of cassava,of which seed-stems were soaked with ho mobrassinolide were higher than that of with water.The effects of increasing yie ld varied with different concentrations of homobrassinolide.The yield of cassava was the highest when the seed-stems were soaked with homobrassinolide solu tion diluted 3000 times.It was also showed that soaking the seed-stems with homobrassinolide can promote the cassava germinating and the root tuber growing and the starch accumulating.%1998~1999年对不同浓度的云大-120浸种对木薯的增产效应进行了研究。结果表明,木薯种茎用云大-1202000~4000倍液浸种均获得不同程度增产,其中以3000倍液浸种增产效果最好。木薯用云大-120浸种可以促进种茎根、芽萌发和茎叶生长,促进块根分化、发育和淀粉积累,提高块根产量和淀粉含量。

  18. Relationship of Soilborne Mycoflora of Cassava Growing Fields to Incidence of Postharvest Rots of Cassava Tubers in Sokoto, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maccido Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study the fungi associated with cassava growing fields in Sokoto were isolated and identified using soil dilution technique. A total of 215 fungal colonies from 9 fungal species were isolated from soil samples of different cassava fields between the month of June and August, 2012. It was observed that soil samples from Lambara recorded the highest number (64 of fungal species followed by Damba and the least number (44 of fungal species was observed in Wamakko.The fungi isolated were Alternaria species, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cylindrocarpon lichenicola, Fusarium oxysporum, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor hiemalis, Rhizopus orgyzae and Scopulariopsis candida.The highest percentage frequency of occurrence was observed in Aspergillus niger (39.5% seconded by Fusarium oxysporum (18.2% and the least was seen in Rhizopus oryzae ( 2.3%. The pathogenicity test indicated that all the fungal isolates were pathogenic on cassava tubers.The fungus M. hiemalis is the most pathogenic followed by F. oxysporum and the least was recorded by R. oryzae. Therefore, it would be concluded that there is relationship between soilborne fungi and incidence of postharvest rots of cassava tubers.

  19. Cassava about-FACE: Greater than expected yield stimulation of cassava (Manihot esculenta) by future CO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for tuber crops such as cassava, yams and potatoes to enhance food security in the future is underestimated. In tuber crops there is the potential for a much higher ratio of edible to non-edible components than in above ground grain and bean crops such as rice, wheat, maize or soybean....

  20. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

  1. Efeito do tempo de armazenamento de minestacas no enraizamento de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla Effect of storage time of minicuttings on the rooting of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bueno Goulart

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do tempo de armazenamento de miniestacas no processo de enraizamento de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas em minijardim clonal conduzido em sistema de hidroponia em canaletas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 6 x 4, constituído de seis tratamentos (estaqueamento após a coleta e estaqueamento após o armazenamento em câmara fria por 1, 2, 4, 8 e 16 dias e quatro clones, em quatro repetições e parcelas compostas de 16 plantas/repetição. Foram realizadas avaliações do porcentual de enraizamento e crescimento das miniestacas enraizadas em casa de vegetação, casa de sombra e a pleno sol. Concluiu-se que o plantio das miniestacas logo após a coleta no minijardim clonal foi o que proporcionou melhor resposta ao enraizamento nos quatro clones estudados, sendo observado efeito negativo do armazenamento dos propágulos, mesmo quando realizado por curto período de tempo.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the storage time of minicuttings on the rooting process of four clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. The minicuttings were collected in a clonal minigarden carried on in a hydroponic system in small gutters. The experimental design used was of random plots, in a factorial arrangement 6 x 4, constituted by six treatments (cutting after collection, cutting after storage in cold chamber per 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 days and four clones, in four repetitions and plots of 16 plants per repetition. Evaluations of the rooting percentage and growth of the rooted minicuttings in a greenhouse, a shade house and in the open sun were made. It was concluded that planting the minicuttings right after the collection in the clonal miniorchard had the best rooting response for the four clones studied and also that there was a negative effect of the storage, even when stored for a short

  2. Cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid as external carbon sources in biological nutrient removal*

    OpenAIRE

    Bu, Fan; Hu, Xiang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of one kind of food industry effluent, cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, on biological nutrient removal (BNR) from municipal wastewater in anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Experiments were carried out with cassava stillage supernatant and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, and one pure compound (sodium acetate) served as an external carbon source. Cyclic studies indicated that the cassava by-p...

  3. SACCHARIFICATION OF NATIVE CASSAVA STARCH AT HIGH DRY SOLIDS IN AN ENZYMATIC MEMBRANE REACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    I Nyoman Widiasa; I Gede Wenten

    2012-01-01

    This study is aimed to develop a novel process scheme for hydrolysis of native cassava starch at high dry solids using an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR). Firstly, liquefied cassava starch having solids content up to 50% by weight was prepared by three stage liquefactions in a conventional equipment using a commercially available heat stable a-amylase (Termamyl 120L). The liquefied cassava starch was further saccharified in an EMR using glucoamylase (AMG E). By using the developed process sc...

  4. Thermoanalytical and starch content evaluation of cassava bagasse as agro-industrial residue

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Gustavo Lacerda; Rafael Ramires Almeida; Ivo Mottin Demiate; Marco Aurélio Silva Carvalho Filho; Eliane Carvalho Vasconcelos; Adenise Lorenci Woiciechowski; Gilbert Bannach; Egon Schnitzler; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

    2009-01-01

    Starch nutritional fractions as well as thermal properties and other analysis are essential for food and industrial application. Cassava bagasse is an important agro-industrial residue and its starch content was evaluated using two alternative methods. Thermal characterization and microscopy analyses helped to understand how hydrolysis digests starchy fraction of cassava bagasse. The melting point of cassava starch occurred at 169.2ºC. Regarding TG analyses, after moisture content, there were...

  5. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose concentration on physical properties of biodegradable cassava starch-based films

    OpenAIRE

    Sriburi Pensiri; Wongruong Sasitorn; Mauer Lisa J; Tongdeesoontorn Wirongrong; Rachtanapun Pornchai

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cassava starch, the economically important agricultural commodity in Thailand, can readily be cast into films. However, the cassava starch film is brittle and weak, leading to inadequate mechanical properties. The properties of starch film can be improved by adding plasticizers and blending with the other biopolymers. Results Cassava starch (5%w/v) based films plasticized with glycerol (30 g/100 g starch) were characterized with respect to the effect of carboxymethyl cellu...

  6. False beliefs on the socio-economic drivers of cassava cropping

    OpenAIRE

    Fermont, van, A.M.; Babirye, A.; Obiero, H.M.; Abele, S; Giller, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    General belief has it that cassava is (i) a subsistence crop, grown to avoid hunger (ii) by poor farmers, (iii) predominantly as an intercrop, (iv) requiring less labour than other crops and (v) no inputs. These beliefs influence policy, project development and implementation, and if wrong, may have far-reaching consequences for the success and sustainability of interventions. This study examines five beliefs about cassava and discusses consequences for interventions targeting cassava. From 2...

  7. A crop of one's own? Women’s experiences of cassava commercialization in Nigeria and Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Forsythe, Lora; Posthumus, Helena; Martin, Adrienne

    2016-01-01

    Improving the effectiveness of agricultural markets for economic growth and poverty reduction has been a central focus for development initiatives, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Staple crops with low input requirements and drought tolerance, such as cassava, are being promoted for market development due to their accessibility for poor smallholder farmers. Narratives often equate commercialization of cassava to benefits for women, as cassava is commonly labelled a ‘women’s crop’. However...

  8. Fermentation Methods for Protein Enrichment of Cassava and Corn with Candida tropicalis

    OpenAIRE

    Azoulay, Edgard; Jouanneau, Françoise; Bertrand, Jean-Claude; Raphael, Alain; Janssens, Jacques; LEBEAULT, Jean Michel

    1980-01-01

    Candida tropicalis grows on soluble starch, corn, and cassava powders without requiring that these substrates be previously hydrolyzed. C. tropicalis possesses the enzyme needed to hydrolyze starch, namely, an α-amylase. That property has been used to develop a fermentation process whereby C. tropicalis can be grown directly on corn or cassava powders so that the resultant mixture of biomass and residual corn or cassava contains about 20% protein, which represents a balanced diet for either a...

  9. Kinetics of the solid state fermentation of raw cassava flour by Rhizopus formosa 28422

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Leon, J.A.; Stertz, S.C.; Soccol, S.R.; Raimbault, Maurice

    1998-01-01

    The strain #Rhizopus formosa$ 28422 was selected from the stock of ten strains from genera #Rhizopus$, for their capacity to attack raw cassava starch by solid substrate fermentation and showed the highest growth in this substrate. The optimal substrate composition, estimated by surface response design experiments, was 10% cassava bagasse, 10% soybean flour and 80% cassava flour. Optimal fermentation conditions were temperature, 32°C, moisture, 64%, initial pH, 6.5 and inoculum rate, 10exp6 s...

  10. Contribution to the understanding of the cooking quality of cassava (Manihot esculenta L. Crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava cooking quality was investigated from the mealiness of the cooked roots, and elasticity and freedom from lumpiness of the pounded paste. Microscopic study of the cells of raw and cooked roots showed that the cooking quality was related to the size of the starch granules, and the difference between varieties could be explained on the basis of cell disorganization. Dry matter and starch content were related to the differences in mealiness, and amylose content of the starch to the elasticity and smoothness of the pounded paste. Fibre content was negatively correlated with cooking quality. The loss in cooking quality during rainy season was due more to the reduction of dry matter than starch content. Changes in the gelatinization properties of the starch were also related to the loss in cooking quality. Addition of common salt to fufu paste reduced the retrogradation tendency of the starch and made fufu acceptable for consumption long after its preparation. Application of mulch during the dry season minimized soil temperature fluctuations, maintained high soil moisture, which in turn reduced changes in tuber composition. (author). 16 refs, 6 tabs

  11. Enraizamento de estacas caulinares e radiculares de cultivares de amoreira-preta coletadas em diferentes épocas, armazenadas a frio e tratadas com AIB Rooting of stems and root cutting of blackberry cultivars collected in different times, cold storage and treatment with IBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Angelo Campagnolo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o enraizamento de estacas caulinares e radiculares de cultivares de amoreira-preta, coletadas em diferentes épocas, armazenadas a frio e tratadas com AIB. No primeiro experimento, estacas radiculares e caulinares da amoreira-preta 'Tupy' foram coletadas no momento da poda hibernal, realizada nas seguintes épocas: 07/06, 22/06, 08/07, 22/07, 06/08 e 20/08 de 2009. Já no segundo experimento, metade das estacas caulinares e radiculares da mesma cultivar foi armazenada a frio por 30 dias e a outra metade das estacas foi colocada diretamente para enraizar. Todas as estacas foram tratadas com diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (AIB: 1000, 2000, 3000 e 4000mg L-1 por 10s., além do controle composto somente por água. No terceiro experimento, foram coletadas estacas radiculares das cultivares 'Choctaw', 'Ébano', 'Guarani', 'Arapaho', 'Brazos', 'Cherokee', 'Comanche', 'Caingangue', 'Tupy' e 'Xavante' na poda realizada no dia 22 de junho do ano seguinte. As estacas foram armazenadas a frio por 30 dias e não foi realizado tratamento com AIB. Em ambos os experimentos, as estacas caulinares foram enterradas 2/3 de seu comprimento na posição vertical e as estacas radiculares foram totalmente imersas na posição horizontal, utilizando a vermiculita de grânulos finos como substrato, em telado com sombreamento de 50%. Após 90 dias, pode-se concluir que as estacas radiculares apresentam melhores resultados, devendo ser armazenadas a frio e não tratadas com AIB, mas há diferença do potencial propagativo entre os cultivares de amoreira-preta.The objective of the present research was to quantify the rizogenic potential of stems and root cuttings of blackberry cultivars, collected in different times, cold storage and treated with indolbutyric acid. In the first experiment, roots and stems cuttings of 'Tupy' blackberry were collected close to it hibernal prune and accomplished in the following

  12. Effect of the gamma radiation in the conservation of pre-cooked cassava wrapped to vacuum it is stored under cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cassava represents a source of energy of great importance for the Brazilian population, especially in the north and northeast area where is consumed in the flour form being very also used in the cooked form or bragged. Due to need of having at the market a product that is of easy consumption, since the consumer's profile is altering, with the preference of the acquisition for products semi-ready or ready for consumption this research had as objective evaluates the effects of the gamma radiation in semi-ready cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz, variety IAC-567-70 for the consumption easiness. For that the cassava roots were washed, peeled and cut in uniform pieces, being despised the finest tips and the final portion of the root. After this procedure the pieces were separate in 12 treatments, with approximately 250 g of cassava, and was accomplished the combination of distilled water and deionized water, cooked by 15 minutes and for 20 minutes, with and without vacuum in the packing, irradiated and stored under of refrigeration. The cooking to 15 minutes presented better appearance that the of 20 minutes. All the twelve treatments were irradiated with doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy, also a control treatment was accomplished without irradiation. Already in the first week of evaluation all of the treatments of the control presented points of contamination for mushrooms, in this same period the treatments with doses of radiation of 1 kGy and 3 kGy presented smaller amounts of points of contamination than the control, however much larger than in the treatment with the dose of 5 kGy. Therefore the gamma radiation of the Cobalt-60 was efficient reducing the emergence of points of contamination considerably for mushrooms. The treatments that were used packing with vacuum presented smaller points of contamination. Therefore, the best results were obtained by the treatment of cooking of the cassava by 15 minutes, conditioned to vacuous and irradiated with the dose of 5 k

  13. Carbohydrate storage in meadow plants and its depletion after disturbance: do roots and stem-derived organs differ in their roles?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeček, Štěpán; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 175, č. 1 (2014), s. 51-61. ISSN 0029-8549 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : carbon * roots * rhizomes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.093, year: 2014

  14. Promoting Cassava as an Industrial Crop in Ghana: Effects on Soil Fertility and Farming System Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Owuraku Sakyi-Dawson

    2012-01-01

    Cassava is an important starchy staple crop in Ghana with per capita consumption of 152.9 kg/year. Besides being a staple food crop, cassava can be used as raw material for the production of industrial starch and ethanol. The potential of cassava as an industrial commercial crop has not been exploited to a large extent because of perceptions that cassava depletes soils. Recent finding from field studies in the forest/savannah transitional agroecological zone of Ghana indicates that when integ...

  15. Molecular Evidence for the Association of a Strain of Uganda Variant of East African Cassava Mosaic Virus to Symptom Severity in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Fields in Togo

    OpenAIRE

    K. D. Adjata; Muller, E; Peterschmitt, M.; Traore, O; Y. M.D. Gumedzoe

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study was carried out to demonstrate that the severity of Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) in Togo, is not only influenced by synergism between cassava Begomoviruses in presence, but essentially by recombination between the different Begomoviruses infecting cassava. Approach: Foliar samples presenting typical biological features of Begomoviruses infection were collected from cassava and wild infected plants from different regions of Togo and analysed by PCR targeting the C...

  16. Studies on Photosynthetic Characteristics of High and Low Starch Cassava Variety%高低淀粉木薯品种光合特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐娟娟; 罗兴录; 韦素; 蒋冬兰

    2012-01-01

    The photosynthetic characteristics of high and low starch cassava variety were studied with LI-6400 portable photosynthesis-fluorescence measurement instrument in this experiment. The results showed that, in the whole growth period, the high and low cassava starch varieties net photosynthetic rate rise was first after a downward trend. In seedling stage of cassava, 'Fuxuan0l' solar net photosynthetic rate was significantly lower than SC124. In the root of swollen, 'Fuxuan0l' of solar net photosynthetic rate was significantly higher than SCI24. In root formation, root at maturity, no obvious difference. In the whole growth period, the high and low cassava starch varieties transpiration rate rise was first after a downward trend. Cassava in seedling stage, the root formation, root at maturity, the transpiration rate of 'Fuxuan0l' was obviously lower than SCI24. And in the root of swollen, 'Fuxuan0l' the transpiration rate was higher than SC124, but no obvious difference. In the whole growth period, the high and low cassava starch varieties stomatal conductance was first after the rise of the decline of the trend. In the whole growth period of cassava, 'Fuxuan0l' solar stomatal conductance were lower than SC124. In the whole growth period, the high and low cassava starch varieties intercellular CO2 concentration was first falling trend after rising. In seedling stage, the formation of the root of cassava, 'Fuxuan0l' solar intercellular CO2 concentration was lower than SC124, but no obvious difference. In the root of swollen, 'Fuxuan0l' solar intercellular CO2 concentration was significantly higher than SC124. In root at maturity, 'Fuxuan0l' solar intercellular CO2 concentration was significantly lower than SC124.%为了探讨高低淀粉木薯品种不同生育期内光合特性的变化,以SC124和‘辐选01’两个块根淀粉含量不同的木薯品种为材料,利用LI-6400光合作用测定仪,研究高、低淀粉木薯品种的光合特性.结果表明:在

  17. Efeito da fermentação na qualidade de "chips" de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz Effect of fermentation on the quality of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Kitagawa Grizotto

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigado o efeito da fermentação natural da mandioca, isoladamente, ou em combinação com o cozimento em água em ebulição, na crocância dos "chips". As fatias de mandioca, oriundas de raízes previamente descascadas e limpas foram imersas em água potável a 30ºC durante períodos de 8h e 24h e depois fritas. As raízes inteiras, descascadas e limpas, foram mantidas nas mesmas condições, porém por períodos mais longos: 24h, 30h e 48h, após os quais as raízes foram fatiadas e fritas. A fermentação natural foi conduzida sem a adição de qualquer agente fermentativo, imergindo uma parte de fatias ou de raízes de mandioca em quatro partes de água potável a 30ºC, em estufa com controle de temperatura. Outras variáveis estudadas foram: variedades de mandioca e o formato das fatias. O efeito dos tratamentos foi avaliado com base na fraturabilidade dos "chips", medidos em Analisador de Textura TA.XT2. O formato das fatias pareceu ser um fator importante, pois afetou as características de textura dos "chips", além dos tratamentos propriamente ditos. O formato retangular das fatias, apesar do aspecto atrativo, foi considerado inadequado para a fabricação dos "chips", sendo sugerido o formato redondo. Foi verificado que a fermentação natural das raízes inteiras ou cortadas em fatias, isoladamente ou em combinação com o cozimento em água em ebulição, foi considerada uma técnica inadequada para tornar os "chips" de mandioca mais crocantes, visto que promoveram, na maioria dos casos, aumento na dureza comparado aos "chips" obtidos do controle. Estas observações foram válidas para todas as variedades estudadas: IAC Mantiqueira, IAC 576.70, IAC 13 e IAC 14.It was investigated the effect of natural fermentation of cassava, alone or combined with cooking in boiling water on the crispness of cassava chips. The thin slices of cassava, originally from previously peeled and cleaned roots were submerged in drinkable water

  18. Comparative moisture sorption, insect infestation and aflatoxin production by resident aspergillus flavus link spores in solar and sun dried cassava accessions before and after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten accessions of Solar and Sun dried cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) were studied for their comparative ability to absorb moisture and harbour insects under varying Environmental Relative Humidities, (ERH's) representative of the Ghanaian tropic conditions. The colour change during storage was also assessed by the Hunter's L * a* b* colour system. The production of aflatoxin (B1 B2, G1, and G2) before and after gamma irradiation (0, 20KGy) by resident Aspergillus flavus spores was also investigated. The moisture sorption isotherms of both solar and sun dried cassava flours followed a near sigmoid curve and equilibration at ERH's (55, 75, 95 %) was attained after 4-6 days at 32 degrees Celsius. The drying method did not significantly (P>0.01) influence the sorption isotherms. A gamma irradiation dose of at least 5KGy eliminated the infesting insects predominated by Araecerus fasciculatus and Lasioderma serricorne. Analysis of variance to determine the influence of incubation humidity (A) accession number (B) and radiation treatment (C) as well as the interaction of these factors showed that A, B, C significantly (P1. There was an apparent enhanced formation by A. flavus spores in the artificially inoculated cassava flour samples after irradiation with 20 KGy but this was not attributable to the irradiation treatment per se but rather to the tendency of reduced inoculum of A.flavus to produce more aflatoxins. (au)

  19. Effect of irradiation and colchicine on callus and somatic embryo formation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , embryo formation and prolific root was observed in cases where there was no embryo. Similarly, somatic embryo formation was significantly (p≤0.05) different among the accessions. No response to callus formation was observed in 0.25 g/l colchicine treatment after 30 days. Among the four accessions evaluated, Ankrah was the most promising accession in terms of callus induction frequency and somatic embryo formation ability. The results presented in this thesis clearly show that, sprouting in all accessions decreased as the dose of irradiation increased. Gamma irradiation had significantly (p≤0.05) affected height of cassava plant but this varied among accessions. Also, among the four accessions studied Ankrah and Tuaka were the most promising accession in terms of callus induction and somatic embryo formation ability. (author)

  20. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed.......The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  1. Effects of Climate Change on the Production and Profitability of Cassava in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayi, J. O.

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria is the single largest producer of cassava in the world with the bulk of the cassava coming out from the Niger Delta region. Human, economic and agricultural activities are currently threatened in the region by vagaries in climatic factors. These vagaries affect the production and profitability of cassava. The study was therefore conducted to assess the effects of climate change on the production and profitability of cassava in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The study made use of a...

  2. Cloning of a peroxidase gene from cassava with potential as a molecular marker for resistance to bacterial blight

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Filipe Pereira; Goodwin, Paul H.; Larry Erickson

    2003-01-01

    Cassava bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis, is considered one of the most important bacterial diseases of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). In order to characterize the cassava genes involved in resistance to this disease, a genomic clone of a cationic peroxidase gene, MEPX1, was isolated by PCR from cassava cultivar MCOL 22. The DNA sequence of MEPX1 showed high homology with other plant peroxidase genes and contained a large intron typical of peroxidase...

  3. Transcriptome Analysis Using a High-Density Oligomicroarray under Drought Stress in Various Genotypes of Cassava: An Important Tropical Crop

    OpenAIRE

    Utsumi, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Maho; Morosawa, Taeko; Kurotani, Atsushi; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Mochida, Keiichi; Matsui, Akihiro; Umemura, Yoshimi; Ishitani, Manabu; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Seki, Motoaki

    2012-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop that provides food security and income generation in many tropical countries and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. Despite its global importance, the development of cassava microarray tools has not been well established. Here, we describe the development of a 60-mer oligonucleotide Agilent microarray representing ∼20 000 cassava genes and how it can be applied to expression profiling under drought stress using three cassava genotyp...

  4. RESOURCE UTILIZATION BEHAVIOUR OF CASSAVA PRODUCERS IN EPE AREA OF LAGOS STATE: STOCHASTIC FRONTIER PRODUCTION FUNCTION APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunbameru, A.; Okeowo, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Stochastic frontier production function was used to assess the technical efficiency of cassava production in Epe Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Results show that cassava farmers in the study area experienced increasing positive return-to-scale (2.2675. The study also reveals that a significant relationship exists between farm size, labour, planting materials, cost of other input and cassava output in the study area. Cassava farmers with large farmers are found to have higher net farm incom...

  5. Square Root +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, John G.

    1969-01-01

    A rational presentation of the so-called long division method for extracting the square root of a number. Diagrams are used to show relationship of this technique to the binomial theorem. Presentation exposes student to many facets of mathematics in addition to the mechanics of funding square root and cube root. Geometry, algebraic statements,…

  6. Responses of tropical root crops to climate change: implications for Pacific food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleadow, R.; Webber, B.; Macness, N.; Lisson, S.; Nauluvula, P.; Hargraves, J.; Crimp, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Cassava and taro are an important source of calories in many parts of the developing world and hold much promise for meeting the need for food security in equatorial regions. Communities in the Pacific Island countries reliant on agriculture-based livelihood systems have been identified as particularly at risk from climate change, due to likely increases in crop failure, new patterns of pests and diseases, lack of appropriate seed and plant material, loss of livestock and potential loss of arable land. Recent shortfalls in agricultural production resulting from changing export markets, commodity prices, climatic variation, and population growth and urbanisation, have contributed further to regional food insecurity concerns. Cassava and taro contain herbivore defense chemicals that are detrimental to human health (cyanogenic glucosides and calcium oxalate). Unprocessed cassava can cause acute cyanide intoxication, paralysis and even death, especially during droughts. A number of activities are already underway in the Pacific region to identify ways to ameliorate existing climate risk and enhance current agricultural production. Whilst these activities are important to ensure long-term agricultural sustainability, there remains a significant degree of uncertainty as to how effective these strategies may be in the face of a changing and increasingly variable future climate. We present our current understanding of the impact of climate change on key Pacific production systems - specifically those based on the staple root crops, taro and cassava. This includes (1) Our understanding of the responses of cassava and taro crops to existing environmental drivers (climate, soil and nutrient interactions); (2) The responses of cassava and taro crops to enhanced CO2 conditions; and (3) Efforts to model productivity responses (within the APSIM framework) and results for locations in the Pacific.

  7. Factors Influencing Rural Women Cassava Processors' Intention to Participate in an Agricultural Extension Education Program. Summary of Research 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojomo, Christian O.; McCaslin, N. L.

    A study examined factors influencing female cassava processors' intentions regarding participation in an extension education program on cassava processing in rural Nigeria. Interviews were conducted with 224 women who were purposely selected from areas of zone 3 of Ondo State, Nigeria, which has large concentrations of cassava processors.…

  8. Assessing the potential of biofortified cassava for improving indices of vitamin A status: Update on human studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava usually contains essentially no beta-carotene (BC). However, cassava is being bred to increase its BC content. Our objective was to test how effective biofortified cassava is at increasing serum BC and vitamin A (VA) concentrations in healthy adult women. Ten American women participated in ...

  9. Analysis of cassava (Manihot esculenta) ESTs: A tool for the discovery of genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the main source of calories for more than 1,000 millions of people around the world and has been consolidated as the fourth most important crop after rice, corn and wheat. Cassava is considered tolerant to abiotic and biotic stress conditions; nevertheless these characteristics are mainly present in non-commercial varieties. Genetic breeding strategies represent an alternative to introduce the desirable characteristics into commercial varieties. A fundamental step for accelerating the genetic breeding process in cassava requires the identification of genes associated to these characteristics. One rapid strategy for the identification of genes is the possibility to have a large collection of ESTs (expressed sequence tag). In this study, a complete analysis of cassava ESTs was done. The cassava ESTs represent 80,459 sequences which were assembled in a set of 29,231 unique genes (unigen), comprising 10,945 contigs and 18,286 singletones. These 29,231 unique genes represent about 80% of the genes of the cassava's genome. Between 5% and 10% of the unigenes of cassava not show similarity to any sequences present in the NCBI database and could be consider as cassava specific genes. a functional category was assigned to a group of sequences of the unigen set (29%) following the Gene Ontology Vocabulary. the molecular function component was the best represented with 43% of the sequences, followed by the biological process component (38%) and finally the cellular component with 19%. in the cassava ESTs collection, 3,709 microsatellites were identified and they could be used as molecular markers. this study represents an important contribution to the knowledge of the functional genomic structure of cassava and constitutes an important tool for the identification of genes associated to agricultural characteristics of interest that could be employed in cassava breeding programs.

  10. Comparative analysis of virus-derived small RNAs within cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) infected with cassava brown streak viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwok, Emmanuel; Ilyas, Muhammad; Alicai, Titus; Rey, Marie E.C.; Taylor, Nigel J.

    2016-01-01

    Infection of plant cells by viral pathogens triggers RNA silencing, an innate antiviral defense mechanism. In response to infection, small RNAs (sRNAs) are produced that associate with Argonaute (AGO)-containing silencing complexes which act to inactivate viral genomes by posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Deep sequencing was used to compare virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in cassava genotypes NASE 3, TME 204 and 60444 infected with the positive sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the causal agents of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). An abundance of 21–24 nt vsRNAs was detected and mapped, covering the entire CBSV and UCBSV genomes. The 21 nt vsRNAs were most predominant, followed by the 22 nt class with a slight bias toward sense compared to antisense polarity, and a bias for adenine and uracil bases present at the 5′-terminus. Distribution and frequency of vsRNAs differed between cassava genotypes and viral genomes. In susceptible genotypes TME 204 and 60444, CBSV-derived sRNAs were seen in greater abundance than UCBSV-derived sRNAs. NASE 3, known to be resistant to UCBSV, accumulated negligible UCBSV-derived sRNAs but high populations of CBSV-derived sRNAs. Transcript levels of cassava homologues of AGO2, DCL2 and DCL4, which are central to the gene-silencing complex, were found to be differentially regulated in CBSV- and UCBSV-infected plants across genotypes, suggesting these proteins play a role in antiviral defense. Irrespective of genotype or viral pathogen, maximum populations of vsRNAs mapped to the cytoplasmic inclusion, P1 and P3 protein-encoding regions. Our results indicate disparity between CBSV and UCBSV host-virus interaction mechanisms, and provide insight into the role of virus-induced gene silencing as a mechanism of resistance to CBSD. PMID:26811902

  11. Crossability studies and zygotic embryo culture in cassava (manihot esculenta crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) germplasm in Ghana is mostly uncharacterized and includes a large collection of landraces variously suitable for specific end-uses at different locations across the country. None of the existing released varieties meets the requirements of an emerging local industry in starch production. In the absence of an active molecular genetic research group in the country to facilitate the incorporation of desired genes for high yield, high starch content and disease resistance into a single genotype, intra-specific hybridization remains a viable option in creating variability from which new varieties with a combination of the desired characteristics may be selected. Following a study of their phenological and reproductive characteristics, crosses were carried out among nine accessions of cassava (Megyewontem, Bamboo Akwetey, Ankra, BNARI Selection-1, Afisiafi, Security, Larbi, Asare and HO-008, abbreviated as ME, BA, AN, BS-1, AF, SE, LA, AS and HO-008 respectively). Flowering and fruiting characteristics differed significantly among the accessions. Percent crossability ranged from 0% (in AN x HO-008, AF x ME and LA x HO-008 crosses) to 88% (in AS x AF crosses). No clear relationship existed between seed set and embryo formation among the accessions. Fruit drop rate ranged from 11.7% to 83.3%. Zygotic embryos were harvested prior to seed maturity and cultured in vitro on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium to raise a collection of F1 base population lines. In vitro germination rates of the hybrid embryos harvested at 45DAP ranged from 32.14% to 100%. Ex vitro acclimatization of 237 plantlets recovered from zygotic embryo cultures resulted in the survival of 35 hybrid progenies. These were grown for six months in a plant barn. Preliminary characterization of the hybrids with reference to above- and below-ground morphological traits, using IBPGR descriptors, revealed that they are generally similar in terms of pubescence of young

  12. Yield and Benefit Analysis of Cassava Intercropping Mode in Wuming County%武鸣县木薯间(套)种模式的产量与效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆昆典; 李兆贵; 李春光; 黄洁

    2011-01-01

    2009年.广西区武鸣县建立6个木薯间(套)种模式示范基地,对验收产量及其效益分析的结果表明:西瓜、南瓜、香瓜或毛节瓜套种木薯、以及木薯间作花生或大豆的鲜薯单产比对照(纯种木薯)提高6.1%~25.2%,总收入是对照的1.6~4.2倍,净收入是对照的1.7~4.9倍,其中,瓜类套种的效益优于花生和大豆间作。2009年,以上木薯间(套)种模式的种植总面积达到13800hm2,占全县的49.3%。%6 demonstration bases for the models of cassava intercropped or interplant were built in Wuming County, Guangxi Province, P.R. China in 2009. the analytical results of yield and benefit showed that: compare with single cassava model (CK), water melon, pumpkin, muskmelon or hair melon interplant cassava, and cassava intercropped peanut or soybean improved 6.1%-25.2% cassava fresh root yield than CK; 1.6-4.2 times total income of CK; 1.7-4.9 times net income of CK. Interplant model of melon were high benefit than the intercropped model of peanut or soybean. Above model were 16 800 hm2 planted area and occupied 60% in whole Wuming county in 2009.

  13. NOTE - Genetic variability among cassava accessions based on SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Nazaré Oliveira Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize and estimate the genetic similarity among 93 cassava accessions. The DNAamplification was performed with 14 microsatellite primers. The amplification products were separated by a polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis, showing a polymorphism formation, through which the accessions were discriminated against. The genetic similarityamong accessions of cassava was estimated by the Dice coefficient. Cluster analysis was carried out using the UPGMA method. Thepolymorphic primers amplified a total of 26 alleles with 2-4 alleles per loci. The genetic similarity ranged from 0.16 to 0.96. Theaverage values for observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.18 and 0.46, respectively. Twenty genetic similarity clusters weredetermined, demonstrating diversity among accessions, suggesting the possibility of heterotic hybrid generation.

  14. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design........ Also, simultaneously with sustainability analysis, the life cycle impact on environment associated with bioethanol production is performed. Finally, candidate alternative designs are generated and compared with the base case design in terms of LCA, economics, waste, energy usage and enviromental impact...... of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, to definedesign/retrofit targets for process improvements. Economic analysis is performed to evaluate the profitability of the process...

  15. Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds of Cassava (Manihot esculenta from Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haofu Dai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to isolate antioxidant components from cassava stems produced in Hainan. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed greater DPPH˙and ABTS·+ scavenging activities than other fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield ten phenolic compounds: Coniferaldehyde (1, isovanillin (2, 6-deoxyjacareubin (3, scopoletin (4, syringaldehyde (5, pinoresinol (6, p-coumaric acid (7, ficusol (8, balanophonin (9 and ethamivan (10, which possess significant antioxidant activities. The relative order of DPPH· scavenging capacity for these compounds was ascorbic acid (reference > 6 > 1 > 8 > 10 > 9 > 3 > 4 > 7 > 5 > 2, and that of ABTS·+ scavenging capacity was 5 > 7 > 1 > 10 > 4 > 6 > 8 > 2 > Trolox (reference compound > 3 > 9. The results showed that these phenolic compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of cassava.

  16. Improvement of cassava cooking quality through mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many high-yielding cassava varieties do not have the desired cooking quality. The objective of this project was to induce mutations to produce varieties with improved cooking quality while maintaining the disease-resistance and high-yielding characteristics. A cassava mutant (ISU-W) was obtained after irradiation of a variety from IITA with gamma rays and selection. Cuttings of the mutant were grown for 12 months in a field trial and investigated for tuber yield and cooking quality. Pest and disease incidence were monitored during the entire growth period. The results showed that the mutant retained the high-yield and disease resistant characters of the parent, and had improved cooking quality based on increased smoothness, mealiness and elasticity of the flour. (author). 7 refs, 5 tabs

  17. Study of cassava starch enzymatic modification for maltodextrins obtention

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Angel Díaz; María Isabel Filella; Velásquez, Mario E.

    2012-01-01

    It was pretended to investigate the effect of the most relevant variables in cassava starch enzymatic hydrolysis process, on laboratory scale, to determine appropriate industrial conditions for the obtention of different kinds of maltodextrins. An a-Amylase enzyme, from genetically modified strain of Bacillus lichenijormis, was used to hydrolize the starch. Once the variables were chosen, an experimental fractioned factorial design was established with two levels. The Dextrose Equivalent (DE)...

  18. Use of Cassava Starch Waste as Adjoined of Covering Mortar

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Hermes; Patrícia Gracieli Zembrzuski Pelissari; Djuliano Paz; Luana Boron; Carlos Alberto Mucelin

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed to study the reuse of the residual fiber of the cassava as material excels in civil construction, as adjoined of covering mortar. The waste used was obtained from an industry located in Missal - Paraná. Four different treatments were applied with 0, 10, 20 and 30% of fiber adding, assessing the mechanical and physical performance with respect to compression resistance, water retention, mass density, incorporated air content and retraction test. The compression resistance test ...

  19. Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) from Hainan

    OpenAIRE

    Haofu Dai; Ying Luo; Hui Wang; Kaibing Zhou; Wenli Mei; Bo Yi; Lifei Hu; Xiaoyi Wei

    2011-01-01

    An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to isolate antioxidant components from cassava stems produced in Hainan. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed greater DPPH˙and ABTS·+ scavenging activities than other fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield ten phenolic compounds: Coniferaldehyde (1), isovanillin (2), 6-deoxyjacareubin (3), scopoletin (4), syringaldehyde (5), pinoresinol (6), p-coumaric acid (7), fic...

  20. Modification of Foamed Articles Based on Cassava Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports the influence of radiation, plasticizers and poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) on the barrier properties [water vapour permeability (WVP)) and mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation; compression resistance and flexibility) of foamed articles based on cassava starch. The starch foam was obtained by thermopressing process. Poly ethylene glycol (PEG, 300) was selected as plasticizer and water was necessary for the preparation of the foams. The foamed articles based on cassava starch were irradiated at low doses of 2 and 5 kGy, commonly used in food irradiation. The mechanical properties of starch foams are influenced by the plasticizer concentration and by irradiation dose. An increase in PEG content showed a considerable increase in elongation percentage and a decrease in the tensile strength of the foams; also increase the permeability of the foams in water. After irradiation, the barrier properties and mechanical properties of the foams were improved due to chemical reactions among polymer molecules. Irradiated starch cassava foams with poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) have good flexibility and low water permeability. WVP can be reduced by low doses of gamma radiation

  1. Acid whey powder modification of gari from cassava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okezie, B.O.; Kosikowski, F.V.

    1981-01-01

    Gari, a staple food consumed in Nigeria, is made from peeled and ground cassava tubers. The ground material is pressed with a stone slab for 2-4 days to remove moisture, and the partially fermented product is then baked over an open fire. Since gari mainly contributes energy to the diet, attempts were made to develop a more nutritious product without altering organoleptic and textural properties. In laboratory tests, ground cassava was fermented in stainless steel cheese vats for 4 days (to produce gari flavour) and then partially dehydrated by pressing in cheese cloth. A reduction in HCN content from 6.2 to 3.4 mg/100 g resulted. Various combinations of spray-dried acid whey, soya protein and freeze-dried Candida tropicalis were added to the fermented cassava, which was then pressure-cooked for 10 minutes at 121 degrees Celcius, dried and ground in a hammer mill. Product (i), made with gari fortified with 15% soya concentrate and 5% dried acid whey, was as acceptable as traditional gari and had a protein score of 75.8 vs. 9.91 for traditional gari. Product (ii), gari fortified with 20% yeast and 10% dried acid whey, had significantly lower scores for flavour and texture than traditional gari and the protein score was only 29.45. Supplementing gari with relatively inexpensive whey concentrates appears to be a means of overcoming protein energy malnutrition in children.

  2. Emergy analysis of cassava-based fuel ethanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergy analysis considers both energy quality and energy used in the past, and compensates for the inability of money to value non-market inputs in an objective manner. Its common unit allows all resources to be compared on a fair basis. As feedstock for fuel ethanol, cassava has some advantages over other feedstocks. The production system of cassava-based fuel ethanol (CFE) was evaluated by emergy analysis. The emergy indices for the system of cassava-based fuel ethanol (CFE) are as follows: transformity is 1.10 E + 5 sej/J, EYR is 1.07, ELR is 2.55, RER is 0.28, and ESI is 0.42. Compared with the emergy indices of wheat ethanol and corn ethanol, CFE is the most sustainable. CFE is a good alternative to substitute for oil in China. Non-renewable purchased emergy accounts for 71.15% of the whole input emergy. The dependence on non-renewable energy increases environmental degradation, making the system less sustainable relative to systems more dependent on renewable energies. For sustainable development, it is vital to reduce the consumption of non-renewable energy in the production of CFE. (author)

  3. Emergy analysis of cassava-based fuel ethanol in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hui; Chen, Li; Yan, Zongcheng; Wang, Honglin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Emergy analysis considers both energy quality and energy used in the past, and compensates for the inability of money to value non-market inputs in an objective manner. Its common unit allows all resources to be compared on a fair basis. As feedstock for fuel ethanol, cassava has some advantages over other feedstocks. The production system of cassava-based fuel ethanol (CFE) was evaluated by emergy analysis. The emergy indices for the system of cassava-based fuel ethanol (CFE) are as follows: transformity is 1.10 E + 5 sej/J, EYR is 1.07, ELR is 2.55, RER is 0.28, and ESI is 0.42. Compared with the emergy indices of wheat ethanol and corn ethanol, CFE is the most sustainable. CFE is a good alternative to substitute for oil in China. Non-renewable purchased emergy accounts for 71.15% of the whole input emergy. The dependence on non-renewable energy increases environmental degradation, making the system less sustainable relative to systems more dependent on renewable energies. For sustainable development, it is vital to reduce the consumption of non-renewable energy in the production of CFE. (author)

  4. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava to obtain fermentable sugars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renata M. COLLARES; Luiza V. S. MIKLASEVICIUS; Mariana M. BASSACO; Nina P. G. SALAU; Marcio A. MAZUTTI; Dilson A. BISOGNIN; Lisiane M. TERRA

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluates the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch from cassava using pectinase,α-amylase,and amyloglucosidase.A central composite rotational design (CCRD) was carried out to evaluate the effects of amyloglucosidase,pectinase,reaction time,and solid to liquid ratio.All the experiments were carried out in a bioreactor with working volume of 2 L.Approximately 98% efficiency hydrolysis was obtained,resulting in a concentration of total reducing sugar released of 160 g/L.It was concluded that pectinase improved the hydrolysis of starch from cassava.Reaction time was found to be significant until 7 h of reaction.A solid to liquid ratio of 1.0 was considered suitable for hydrolysis of starch from cassava.Amyloglucosidase was a significant variable in the process:after its addition to the reaction media,a 30%-50% increase in the amount of total reducing sugar released was observed.At optimal conditions the maximum productivity obtained was 22.9 g/(L·h).

  5. ROOT Tutorial for Summer Students

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Piparo, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    ROOT is a "batteries-included" tool kit for data analysis, storage and visualization. It is widely used in High Energy Physics and other disciplines such as Biology, Finance and Astrophysics. This event is an introductory tutorial to ROOT and comprises a front lecture and hands on exercises. IMPORTANT NOTE: The tutorial is based on ROOT 6.04 and NOT on the ROOT5 series.  IMPORTANT NOTE: if you have ROOT 6.04 installed on your laptop, you will not need to install any virtual machine. The instructions showing how to install the virtual machine on which you can find ROOT 6.04 can be found under "Material" on this page.

  6. Exploring the potential of cassava in promoting agricultural growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanzidur Rahman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one of the major food crops in Nigeria, with multiple uses from human consumption to industrial applications. This study explores the potential of cassava in Nigerian agriculture based on a review of cassava development policies; performs a trend analysis of the cultivation area, production, productivity, and real price of cassava and other competing crops for the period 1961–2013; identifies the sources of growth in production; and examines the production constraints at the local level based on a survey of 315 farmers/processors and 105 marketers from Delta State. The results revealed that several policies and programmes were implemented to develop the cassava sector with mixed outcomes. Although cassava productivity grew at 1.5% per annum (p.a. during the post-structural adjustment programme period (1993–2013, its real price declined at a rate of 3.5% p.a. The effect of yield is the main source of growth in production, contributing 76.4% of the total growth followed by the area effect (28.2%. The cassava sector is constrained by inadequate market infrastructure, processing facilities, and lack of information and unstable prices at the local level. The widespread diffusion of improved tropical manioc selection technologies and investments in market and marketing infrastructure, processing technologies, irrigation/water provision and information dissemination are recommended to enhance the potential of the cassava sector to support agricultural growth in Nigeria.

  7. Genetic mapping using genotyping-by-sequencing in the clonally-propagated cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) is one of the most important food crops in the tropics, but yields are far below their potential. The gene-pool of cassava contains natural genetic diversity relevant to many important breeding goals, but breeding progress has been slow, partly due to insufficient geno...

  8. GENETIC VARIATION IN FOLIAGE AND PROTEIN YIELD OF SOME ELITE CASSAVA (MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ GENOTYPES IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Adjebeng-Danquah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz contains high levels of proteins and minerals which can be utilized for human and animal consumption. A randomized complete block design with three replications was established to evaluate 25 cassava genotypes for their foliage and crude protein (CP productivity as well as growth persistency under rain-fed conditions. The foliage comprising the leaves and the young tender stems were periodically harvested from 20cm above ground starting from three months after planting and every three months until root harvest at 12 months after planting. Apart from the first harvest, significant genotypic differences (P≤ 0.05 were established for foliage yield for the subsequent harvest days. The highest total cumulative fresh and dry foliage yields were 41.07t/ha and 15.73 t/ha respectively. Cumulative crude protein yield also ranged between 0.64 t/ha and 1.63 t/ha. Periodic pruning resulted in much higher foliage and protein yields than when the foliage was obtained only once at root harvest. Strong phenotypic correlations were observed among most of the different traits. Protein yield was observed to be highly correlated with fresh and dry foliage yield whereas a weak and non-significant correlation was recorded for protein content and all the other traits except with number of shoots and protein yield. Harvesting time also had a significant effect on foliage and crude protein yields with the second harvest giving a much higher foliage production for most of the genotypes. High heritability (broad sense estimates were observed for most of the traits studied. These traits can be used to select genotypes for foliage and protein production.

  9. Biofuels and Biotechnology: Cassava (Manihot esculenta as research model BIOCOMBUSTIBLES Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA: LA YUCA (Manihot esculenta COMO MODELO DE INVESTIGACIÓN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavarriaga Paul

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, obtained from plants and their constituents, have recently received the world’s attention as a true alternative to the global energy supply, mainly because they are cheaper and less contaminant of the environment than the currently used, non-renewable fossil fuels. Due to the pushing biofuel market, the world is currently experiencing an increase of agricultural land devoted to grow crops used to obtain them, like maize and sugar cane, as well as crops that have the potential to become new sources of biofuels. Similarly, this emerging market is boosting the basic research oriented towards obtaining better quality and yield in these crops. Plants that store high quantities of starch, simple sugars or oils, are the target of the biofuel industry, although the newest technologies use also cellulose as raw material to produce fuels. Cassava (Manihot esculenta is widely grown in the tropics and constitutes a staple food for approximately 10% of the world population. The high starch content of its storage roots, together with the use of conventional and non-conventional breeding turn this crop into an option to obtain better adapted varieties for ethanol production. This reflexion article reviews the current status of biofuels worldwide and at the national level, and discusses the benefits and challenges faced in terms of effect on the environment and the human food chain. Finally, it discusses the potential of cassava as a source of raw material for obtaining biofuels in Colombia.Los combustibles obtenidos a partir de materia vegetal, como el etanol y el biodiesel, están tomando importancia en la dinámica energética mundial, gracias principalmente a que son más económicos y menos contaminantes del medio ambiente que los combustibles fósiles. El mercado de biocombustibles ha producido un incremento en las áreas de cultivo tanto de plantas regularmente usadas como materia prima para su obtención como de

  10. BIOCOMBUSTIBLES Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA: LA YUCA (Manihot esculenta COMO MODELO DE INVESTIGACIÓN Biofuels and Biotechnology: Cassava (Manihot esculenta as research model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMÓN CORTÉS SIERRA

    used, non-renewable fossil fuels. Due to the pushing biofuel market, the world is currently experiencing an increase of agricultural land devoted to grow crops used to obtain them, like maize and sugar cane, as well as crops that have the potential to become new sources of biofuels. Similarly, this emerging market is boosting the basic research oriented towards obtaining better quality and yield in these crops. Plants that store high quantities of starch, simple sugars or oils, are the target of the biofuel industry, although the newest technologies use also cellulose as raw material to produce fuels. Cassava (Manihot esculenta is widely grown in the tropics and constitutes a staple food for approximately 10% of the world population. The high starch content of its storage roots, together with the use of conventional and non-conventional breeding turn this crop into an option to obtain better adapted varieties for ethanol production. This reflexion article reviews the current status of biofuels worldwide and at the national level, and discusses the benefits and challenges faced in terms of effect on the environment and the human food chain. Finally, it discusses the potential of cassava as a source of raw material for obtaining biofuels in Colombia .

  11. Biorefinery approach for cassava-based industrial wastes: Current status and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Xie, Li; Yin, Zhixuan; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Zhou, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Cassava, an important food crop, has been extensively employed as raw materials for various agri-industries to produce starch, bioethanol and other biobased products/chemicals. These cassava-based industries also generate large quantities of wastes/residues, rich in organic matter and suspended solids, and pose significant environmental issues. Their complex biochemical composition with high organic content endows them with a great potential for bioconversion into value-added products via biorefinery thereby providing economic and environmental sustainability to cassava industries. This state-of-the-art review covers the source, composition and characteristics of cassava industrial wastes and residues, and their bioconversion into value-added products, mainly biofuels (ethanol and butanol), biogas, biosurfactant, organic acids and other valuable biochemicals among others. This paper also outlines future perspectives with respect to developing more effective and efficient bioconversion processes for converting the cassava wastes and residues into high-value products. PMID:27117291

  12. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava to succinic acid by Escherichia coli NZN111.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cuixia; Ding, Shaopeng; Wang, Dezheng; Li, Zhimin; Ye, Qin

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the production of succinic acid from cassava starch and raw cassava instead of glucose by Escherichia coli NZN111 was investigated. During the two-stage fermentation, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was applied in the anaerobic stage. The results showed that both the productivity and specific productivity in the process conducted at 40°C were higher than those in the cultivation conducted at 37°C. The yield of succinic acid based on the amount of added starch reached the highest level 0.86 g/g and cassava starch was almost totally hydrolyzed in the SSF process. With the improved cell density, 127.13 g/L of succinic acid was obtained. When the liquefied crude cassava powder was used directly in SSF, 106.17 g/L of succinic acid was formed. The result showed that crude cassava powder could be another cheap raw material for succinic acid formation. PMID:24787322

  13. Optimizing The Use of Cassava Plant and its Byproduct as Ruminant Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Antari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An alternative to overcome the lack of feed is to use local feed resources. Cassava (Manihot utilissima is a tropical plant that grows easily in all types of soil. At the time of harvest, the price is relatively cheap. Cassava has a low nutritive value, especially in crude protein, but it is a potential source of energy. The research to optimize the use of cassava as feed is by enrichment of its nutritional value, production of single cell protein or supplementation with other feed ingredient. Cassava leaves or hay contain high protein level so that it can be used as protein source. However, its utilization is limited by anti nutritive compounds, such as cyanide acid and linamarin. It can be overcome by physical, chemical and biological treatments as detoxification. The use of cassava in livestock feed requires a formulation strategy to obtain the optimal productivity.

  14. Reprogramming of cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores towards sporophytic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, P I P; Ordoñez, C A; Dedicova, B; Ortega, P E M

    2014-01-01

    Gametes have the unique potential to enter the sporophytic pathway, called androgenesis. The plants produced are usually haploid and recombinant due to the preceding meiosis and they can double their chromosome number to form doubled haploids, which are completely homozygous. Availability of the doubled haploids facilitates mapping the genes of agronomically important traits, shortening the time of the breeding process required to produce new hybrids and homozygous varieties, and saving the time and cost for inbreeding. This study aimed to test the feasibility of using isolated and in vitro cultured immature cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores to reprogramme and initiate sporophytic development. Different culture media and different concentrations of two ion components (Cu(2+) and Fe(2+)) were tested in two genotypes of cassava. External structural changes, nuclear divisions and cellular changes during reprogramming were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, by staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and through classical histology and transmission electron microscopy. In two cassava genotypes, different developmental stages of microspores were found to initiate sporophytic cell divisions, that is, with tetrads of TMS 60444 and with mid or late uni-nucleate microspores of SM 1219-9. In the modified NLN medium (NLNS), microspore enlargements were observed. The medium supplemented with either sodium ferrous ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) or CuSO4·5H2O induced sporophytic cell division in both genotypes. A low frequency of the reprogramming and the presence of non-responsive microspores among the responsive ones in tetrads were found to be related to the viability and exine formation of the microspores. The present study clearly demonstrated that reprogramming occurs much faster in isolated microspore culture than in anther culture. This paves the way for the development of an efficient technique for the production of homozygous lines in

  15. The effect of microbial starter composition on cassava chips fermentation for the production of fermented cassava flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Listianingrum, Zaenudin, Ahmad; Trihatmoko, Kharisrama

    2015-12-01

    The processing of cassava into fermented cassava flour (fercaf) or the widely known as modified cassava flour (mocaf) presents an alternative solution to improve the competitiveness of local foods and to support national food security. However, the mass production of fercaf is being limited by several problems, among which is the availability of starter cultures. This paper presents the mapping of the effect of microbial starter compositions on the nutritional content of fercaf in order to obtain the suitable nutritional composition. Based on their enzymatic activities, the combination of Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus oryzae were tested during the study. In addition, commercial starter was also tested. During the fermentation, the dynamics in microbial population were measured as well as changes in cyanogenic glucoside content. The microbial starter composition was observed to affect the dynamics in microbial populationcynaogenic glucoside content of the produced fercaf. In general, steady state microbial population was reached within 12 hours of fermentation. Cyanogenic glucoside was observed to decrease along the fermentation.

  16. Roots & Hollers

    OpenAIRE

    Kollman, Patrick L; Gorman, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Roots & Hollers, 2011 A documentary by Thomas Gorman & Patrick Kollman Master’s Project Abstract: Roots & Hollers uncovers the wild American ginseng trade, revealing a unique intersection between Asia and rural America. Legendary in Asia for its healing powers, ginseng helps sustain the livelihoods of thousands in Appalachia. A single root can sell for thousands of dollars at auction. Shot on-location in the mountains of Kentucky and West Virginia, this student doc...

  17. The control of root-eating scarabaeid grubs in Queensland cane-fields

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Edmund

    2010-01-01

    The world-wide damage caused by the larvae of various lamellicorn beetles to sugar-cane, cassava, pasture land, root crops, and miscellaneous economic trees and plants, has engaged the undivided attention of many scientists during the last thirty years or more. The "White Grub" question in America, the notorious Cockchafer or "May Bug" in Europe, and the formidable "Grub Pest" of Australian cane-fields, constitute exceedingly complex problems which have for many years defied the efforts of en...

  18. Marker-assisted selection in common beans and cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) is reviewed in relation to the breeding system of each crop and the breeding goals of International Agricultural Research Centres (IARCs) and National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS). The importance of each crop is highlighted and examples of successful use of molecular markers within selection cycles and breeding programmes are given for each. For common beans, examples are given of gene tagging for several traits that are important for bean breeding for tropical environments and aspects considered that contribute to successful application of MAS. Simple traits that are tagged with easy-to-use markers are discussed first as they were the first traits prioritized for breeding at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) and with NARS partners in Central America, Colombia and eastern Africa. The specific genes for MAS selection were the bgm-1 gene for bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) resistance and the bc-3 gene for bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) resistance. MAS was efficient for reducing breeding costs under both circumstances as land and labour savings resulted from eliminating susceptible individuals. The use of markers for other simply inherited traits in marker-assisted backcrossing and introgression across Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools is suggested. The possibility of using MAS for quantitative traits such as low soil phosphorus adaptation is also discussed as are the advantages and disadvantages of MAS in a breeding programme. For cassava, the use of multiple flanking markers for selection of a dominant gene, CMD2 for cassava mosaic virus (CMV) resistance at CIAT and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) as well as with NARS partners in the United Republic of Tanzania using a participatory plant breeding scheme are reviewed. MAS for the same gene is important during introgression of cassava green mite

  19. Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Crispim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS; they were characterized for their antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 CFU/g. 16S-23S rRNA ARDRA pattern assigned 116 isolates to the Lactobacillus genus, represented by the species Lactobacillus fermentum (59 isolates, Lactobacillus delbrueckii (18 isolates, Lactobacillus casei (9 isolates, Lactobacillus reuteri (6 isolates, Lactobacillus brevis (3 isolates, Lactobacillus gasseri (2 isolates, Lactobacillus nagelii (1 isolate, and Lactobacillus plantarum group (18 isolates. recA gene-multiplex PCR analysis revealed that L. plantarum group isolates belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum (15 isolates and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3 isolates. Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence-based PCR using the primer ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus. The Lactobacillus isolates exhibited genetic heterogeneity and species-specific fingerprint patterns. All the isolates showed antagonistic activity against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria tested. This antibacterial effect was attributed to acid production, except in the cases of three isolates that apparently produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. This study provides the first insight into the genetic diversity of Lactobacillus spp. of puba.

  20. Improvement of root and tuber crops by induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme is to breed cultivars which are more productive, more resistant to diseases and pests and which have better quality. Two Research Co-ordination Meetings in this programme were convened. They reviewed in detail the status and breeding research needs of the major root and tuber crops and other vegetatively propagated corps, viz. cassava, yam, sweet potato, potato and sugar cane. The participants presented their research achievements and difficulties, exchanged information, co-ordinated their future research and made recommendations

  1. Avaliação da substituição do milho pela mandioca e seus resíduos na digestibilidade aparente em novilhas confinadas Evaluation of cassava and its industrial residues replacing corn in the apparent digestibility for feedlot heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Ferriani Branco

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a substituição do milho pela casca de mandioca, farinha de varredura ou raspa de mandioca sobre a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, energia bruta (EB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e amido (AM, utilizando a cinza insolúvel em ácido (CIA como indicador interno em novilhas confinadas. Foram utilizadas 28 novilhas mestiças, com aproximadamente 24 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 365kg, distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, nos quatro tratamentos e sete repetições. A substituição do milho pela raspa de mandioca aumentou o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da MS, PB, MO, EB e AM. O coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da FDN foi semelhante entre rações com casca e com raspa de mandioca. O coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da FDA foi menor para a ração com farinha de varredura e semelhante para as demais rações.The objective of this work was to study the effect of replacement of corn meal by cassava hulls, cassava meal or cassava roots on apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude energy, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and starch. Ash insoluble acid (AIAwas used as an internal indicator, in heifers. Twenty-eight crossbred heifers, averaging 365kg live weight and 24 months old, were used in a complete randomized design to test four diets with seven repetitions. The replacement of corn by cassava roots increased the apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude energy and starch. The apparent digestibility coefficient of the neutral detergent fiber was similar in diets with cassava hulls and diets with cassava roots. The apparent digestibility coefficient of the acid detergent fiber was smaller for cassava meal and similar for other diets.

  2. Selection and in-vitro propagation of five cassava (Manihot Esculenta, Crantz) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirteen cassava cultivars were collected from farmers in the Greater Accra Region using a structured questionnaire. Five cultivars namely, Ankrah, Bosom nsia, Biafra, Santom and Afisiafi were selected based on popularity, duration to maturity and tolerance to African Cassava Mosaic Virus (ACMV) disease. The cultivars were propagated in vitro using meristem, multiple shoots culture, and somatic embryogenesis. Meristematic explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal salts and vitamins (MS) amended with NAA 0.1 mg/l, GA3 0.1 mg/l BA (0.0-0.15 mg/l BA). There was profuse callus formation in all the cultivars. The optimal concentration for shoot proliferation was 0.10 mg/l BA or 0.15 mg/l BA. With reduced NAA and GA3 concentrations(0.02 and 0.04 mg/l respectively in the culture medium BA 0.05 mg/l was optimum with 100% and 46% shoot regeneration respectively in Bosom nsia and Santom compared to 37% and 0% in the previous treatment. All the selected cultivars formed multiple shoots from single bud cutting of in vitro plantlets. However, the number of apical shoots formed was dependent on BA concentration in the medium. Embryogenic calli formation on MS amended 2,4-D 0.0-16 mg/l depended on the type of explants. For greenhouse grown plants development of embryogenic calli from young leaf lobe and apical meristem explants was significantly higher than stipule explants. However, none of the calli were able to induce primary embryos when transferred to a maturation medium (MS plus 0.1 mg/l BA). Similarly embryogenic calli formation from tissue-cultured young leaf lobe explants on the same media were high in all the 2,4-D treatments. Subsequent production of primary embryo was low on the maturation medium and was found to depend on the cultivar and 2,4-D concentration. Somatic embryo formation was higher on 2,4-D 16 mg/l medium than on 4 mg/l or 8 mg/l 2,4-D medium. Santom produced the highest percentage of embryo (25%) among the cultivars used. Embryogenic

  3. Manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura da mandioca Weed management in cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A mandioca (Manihot esculenta é cultivada em vários países, sendo de grande importância como fonte de energia para alimentação humana e animal e na geração de empregos e renda. No Brasil, apesar de essa cultura apresentar alto potencial produtivo - em alguns estudos alcançando valores superiores a 100 t ha-1 de raízes - , a produtividade nacional é baixa, atribuída em grande parte ao manejo inadequado das plantas daninhas. A interferência dessas plantas resulta em competição pelos recursos essenciais, como nutrientes, água e luz. Além disso, o controle realizado de maneira incorreta das plantas daninhas nos mandiocais dificulta outros tratos culturais e aumenta os custos de produção. Nesta revisão são abordados os aspectos relativos ao manejo das plantas daninhas na cultura, descrevendo, de forma detalhada, os principais componentes de interferência. Discute-se, em várias situações, o período crítico de competição. Por fim, são apresentados os principais métodos de controle visando à utilização do manejo integrado como forma sustentável do controle de plantas daninhas nessa cultura.Cassava (Manihot esculenta is grown in many countries, being of great importance as an energy source for food, generating jobs and income. Although this crop has been proved to have high yield potential in some studies, reaching values above 100 t ha-1 roots, its national productivity in Brazil is low, being largely attributed to inadequate weed management. The interference of weeds results in competition for essential resources, such as nutrients, water, and light. In addition, incorrectly performed control of weeds in cassava can complicate management and increase production costs. In this review, aspects related to weed management in the culture are described, detailing the main components of interference. The critical period of competition, in many situations, is also discussed. Finally, the main methods of control aimed at the

  4. 挖拔式木薯收获机的研制与样机试验%Development and prototype trial of digging-pulling style cassava harvester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖宇兰; 孙佑攀; 刘世豪; 陈丹萍; 王高平

    2012-01-01

    Aim at the complexity of cassava tuber distributing in the soil,in order to harvest cassava tuber from different soils with a variety of hard levels,referencing the basic principles and structure of potatoes,garlic,sweet potatoes and other root crops harvesting machinery,a kind of digging-pulling style cassava harvester was developed based on cassava's biological and physical characteristics,which can complete tuber's digging,transportation,separation and other work simultaneously.The digging shovel,clamping conveyor and power transmission mechanism were designed and the key parameters were determined.The key parameters of the grizzly bar-type shovel is shovel's plane angle of on more 20°,the shovel's length of is 550 mm and shovel's width is 1000 mm.The total transmission ratio is 2.29,gearbox's transmission ratio is 2.The gearbox output shaft speed is 500 r/min.The chain transmission ratio is 1.15,and output speed is 435 r/min.The digging-pulling cassava harvester should be used with medium-sized tractor.Through the trial of the prototype and field test,the results showed that digging-pulling cassava harvester runs smoothly,and reaches the combination of digging and pulling to harvest cassava.%针对木薯块根在土壤中分布的复杂性,为了将木薯块根顺利地从各种松硬程度不同的土壤收获出来,模拟人工收获木薯的机理,借鉴马铃薯、大蒜、红薯等根茎类作物收获机械的基本原理和结构,以木薯生物和物理特性为依据,该文研制出一种可一次性完成薯块的挖掘、分离、输送等工作的挖拔式木薯收获机.该文主要介绍了挖掘铲、夹持输送机构及动力传输机构及关键参数的确定.该栅条式挖掘铲的关键参数为铲平面倾角为20°,铲长为550 mm,铲宽为1 000 mm.计算出整机总传动比为2.29,变速箱传动比为2,输出速度为500 r/min,链传动的传动比为1.15,输出速度为435 r/min.该机与中型拖拉机配套使用,通过样机的

  5. Cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid as external carbon sources in biological nutrient removal*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Fan; Hu, Xiang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of one kind of food industry effluent, cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, on biological nutrient removal (BNR) from municipal wastewater in anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Experiments were carried out with cassava stillage supernatant and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, and one pure compound (sodium acetate) served as an external carbon source. Cyclic studies indicated that the cassava by-products not only affected the transformation of nitrogen, phosphorus, poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), and glycogen in the BNR process, but also resulted in higher removal efficiencies for phosphorus and nitrogen compared with sodium acetate. Furthermore, assays for phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) and denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) demonstrated that the proportion of DPAOs to PAOs reached 62.6% (Day 86) and 61.8% (Day 65) when using cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, respectively, as the external carbon source. In addition, the nitrate utilization rates (NURs) of the cassava by-products were in the range of 5.49–5.99 g N/(kg MLVSS∙h) (MLVSS is mixed liquor volatile suspended solids) and 6.63–6.81 g N/(kg MLVSS∙h), respectively. The improvement in BNR performance and the reduction in the amount of cassava stillage to be treated in-situ make cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid attractive alternatives to sodium acetate as external carbon sources for BNR processes. PMID:25845364

  6. Milk production and economic assessment of cassava bagasse in the feed of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Pereira Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The addition of 0; 5; 10 and 15% cassava bagasse, based on the dry matter of the total diet of crossbred Holstein v. Zebu cows, was evaluated on milk production and composition and on the impacts of diet costs. The animals, weighing an average of 478.5 kg, were in the middle third lactation period. Diet with 15% cassava bagasse provided a 13.2% increase in production when compared to control. Feed conversion had a quadratic effect with minimum point at 4.2% of cassava bagasse inclusion. Crude protein, the only milk component that changed, increased linearly with the inclusion of cassava bagasse levels. Treatment with 15% cassava bagasse caused a more effective operational cost (42.8% higher when compared to control and the highest leveling point for milk production and price. The lowest leveling points were treatments with 5 and 10% inclusion of cassava bagasse, which had the best economic results. Concentrates caused cost increase, particularly when roughage : concentrate ratio decreased due to higher cassava bagasse inclusion levels.

  7. Sequencing wild and cultivated cassava and related species reveals extensive interspecific hybridization and genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeson, Jessen V; Lyons, Jessica B; Prochnik, Simon E; Wu, G Albert; Ha, Cindy M; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Rabbi, Ismail Y; Egesi, Chiedozie; Nauluvula, Poasa; Lebot, Vincent; Ndunguru, Joseph; Mkamilo, Geoffrey; Bart, Rebecca S; Setter, Tim L; Gleadow, Roslyn M; Kulakow, Peter; Ferguson, Morag E; Rounsley, Steve; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2016-05-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) provides calories and nutrition for more than half a billion people. It was domesticated by native Amazonian peoples through cultivation of the wild progenitor M. esculenta ssp. flabellifolia and is now grown in tropical regions worldwide. Here we provide a high-quality genome assembly for cassava with improved contiguity, linkage, and completeness; almost 97% of genes are anchored to chromosomes. We find that paleotetraploidy in cassava is shared with the related rubber tree Hevea, providing a resource for comparative studies. We also sequence a global collection of 58 Manihot accessions, including cultivated and wild cassava accessions and related species such as Ceará or India rubber (M. glaziovii), and genotype 268 African cassava varieties. We find widespread interspecific admixture, and detect the genetic signature of past cassava breeding programs. As a clonally propagated crop, cassava is especially vulnerable to pathogens and abiotic stresses. This genomic resource will inform future genome-enabled breeding efforts to improve this staple crop. PMID:27088722

  8. Improvement of the nutrient qualities of cassava fermented end-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yeast strains Saccharomycopsis fibuliger NRRL (Y-2388), Saccharomyces diastaticus NRRL (Y-2416 and Y-4238), Schwaniomyces occidentalis NRRLY-2477 as well as nor-leucine resistant and amylase-overproducing mutants of NRRL-Y-2338 (obtained with the help of NTG-mutagenesis) were used to study their abilities to increase the yield of protein into the cassava fermenting pulp. Their growth kinetics, amylase activity and biomass production initially studied on 2% MYPS medium. S. fibuliger (Y-2388) gave the highest biomass concentration (13,4 g/e) and was found to be superior to other wild strains for protein enrichment of cassava through fermentation. The optimization of the condition for fermentation revealed that 5% w/v of the cassava pulp at pH 6 with an addition of the yeast extract increased the protein content of cassava from 2.8% to 5.6%. The use of amylase overproducing mutants of S. fibuliger Y-2388 inoculated singly or in combination with others did not promote the enrichment of cassava, whereas nor-leucine resistant mutants considerable increased the protein content in the cassava pulp and no supplementation of the pulp with any nutrients is required. Hence, both S. fibuligera Y-2388 wild and its nor-leucine resistant mutant should be considered as a potential inocula with respect to protein enrichment of the cassava fermented end-product. (author). 3 figs, 9 tabs

  9. Production and Purification of Bioethanol from Molasses and Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryana, Roni; Wahono, Satriyo Krido

    2009-09-01

    This research aim to analysis bioethanol purification process. Bioethanol from cassava has been produced in previous research and the ethanol from molasses was taken from Bekonang region. The production of bioethanol from cassava was carried out through several processes such as homogenization, adding of α-amylase, β-amylase and yeast (Saccharomyces c). Two types of laboratory scale distillator have been used, the first type is 50 cm length and 4 cm diameter. The second type distillator is 30 cm length and 9 cm diameter. Both types have been used to distill bioethanol The initial concentration after the fermentation process is 15% for bioethanol from cassava and 20-30% ethanol from molasses. The results of first type distillator are 90% of bioethanol at 50° C and yield 2.5%; 70% of bioethanol at 60° C and yield 11.2%. 32% of bioethanol at 70° C and yield 42%. Meanwhile the second distillator results are 84% of bioethanol at 50° C with yield 12%; 51% of bioethanol at 60° C with yield 35.5%; 20% of bioethanol at 70° C with yield 78.8%; 16% of bioethanol at 80° C with yield 81.6%. The ethanol from molasses has been distillated once times in Bekonang after the fermentation process, the yield was about 20%. In this research first type distillator and the initial concentration is 20% has been used. The results are 95% of bioethanol at 75° C with yield 8%; 94% of bioethanol at 85° C with yield 13% when vacuum pump was used. And 94% of bioethanol at 90° C with yield 3.7% and 94% of bioethanol at 96° C with yield 10.27% without vacuum pump. The bioethanol purification use second type distillator more effective than first type distillator.

  10. Density Equation of Cassava-Stalk Briquettes Under Moderate Die-Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patomsok Wilaipon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Agricultural residues seem to be the most promising energy resources for developing countries. However, the majority of them have low energy density. One of the favorable technologies for enhancing that property is briquetting. For the case of Phitsanulok, a province in Northern Thailand, cassava is one of the most important crops. Therefore, a large amount of cassava stalk is left in the field after harvest. This study was aimed to investigate the quantity of cassava stalk in this province and to study cassava stalk briquette production. Approach: The potential energy from cassava stalk was calculated based on the productivity, residue-to-product ratio, residue returned to soil ratio and its heating value. Besides, the effects of moderate-range compression pressure, 70-110 bar, and the binder ratio, 10-20%, on briquette density were investigated. An empirical model was also developed and validated. Results: Base on the estimation, the quantity of usable cassava stalk in this area was approximately 18 kton year-1. The heating value of cassava stalk was found to be 16.39 MJ kg-1. Therefore, the total energy over 289 TJ year-1 can be obtained from this agricultural waste. According to the experiment, briquette density was in the range of 0.40-0.77 g cm-3. The coefficient of multiple determination for prediction of the proposed model was about 94.7%. Conclusion: It appeared that cassava stalk has high potential as energy source for this area. The density of cassava stalk briquette was increased with an increase in compaction pressure. Besides, it was found that the proposed model can be used for density prediction over the studied range.

  11. Bio-composites of cassava starch-green coconut fiber: part II-Structure and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomelí-Ramírez, María Guadalupe; Kestur, Satyanarayana G; Manríquez-González, Ricardo; Iwakiri, Setsuo; de Muniz, Graciela Bolzon; Flores-Sahagun, Thais Sydenstricker

    2014-02-15

    Development of any new material requires its complete characterization to find potential applications. In that direction, preparation of bio-composites of cassava starch containing up to 30 wt.% green coconut fibers from Brazil by thermal molding process was reported earlier. Their characterization regarding physical and tensile properties of both untreated and treated matrices and their composites were also reported. Structural studies through FTIR and XRD and thermal stability of the above mentioned composites are presented in this paper. FT-IR studies revealed decomposition of components in the matrix; the starch was neither chemically affected nor modified by either glycerol or the amount of fiber. XRD studies indicated increasing crystallinity of the composites with increasing amount of fiber content. Thermal studies through TGA/DTA showed improvement of thermal stability with increasing amount of fiber incorporation, while DMTA showed increasing storage modulus, higher glass transition temperature and lower damping with increasing fiber content. Improved interfacial bonding between the matrix and fibers could be the cause for the above results. PMID:24507321

  12. Energy and greenhouse gas balances of cassava-based ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuel production has been promoted to save fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there have been concerns about the potential of biofuel to improve energy efficiency and mitigate climate change. This paper investigates energy efficiency and GHG emission saving of cassava-based ethanol as energy for transportation. Energy and GHG balances are calculated for a functional unit of 1 km of road transportation using life-cycle assessment and considering effects of land use change (LUC). Based on a case study in Vietnam, the results show that the energy input for and GHG emissions from ethanol production are 0.93 MJ and 34.95 g carbon dioxide equivalent per megajoule of ethanol respectively. The use of E5 and E10 as a substitute for gasoline results in energy savings, provided that their fuel consumption in terms of liter per kilometer of transportation is not exceeding the consumption of gasoline per kilometer by more than 2.4% and 4.5% respectively. It will reduce GHG emissions, provided that the fuel consumption of E5 and E10 is not exceeding the consumption of gasoline per kilometer by more than 3.8% and 7.8% respectively. The quantitative effects depend on the efficiency in production and on the fuel efficiency of E5 and E10. The variations in results of energy input and GHG emissions in the ethanol production among studies are due to differences in coverage of effects of LUC, CO2 photosynthesis of cassava, yields of cassava, energy efficiency in farming, and by-product analyses. -- Highlights: ► Cassava-based ethanol substitution for gasoline in form of E5 could save 1.4 MJ km−1 ► Ethanol substitution for gasoline in form of E5 reduces a CO2e emission of 156 g km−1 ► We examined changes in fuel efficiency of blends affecting energy and GHG balances. ► LUC and change in soil management lead to a CO2e emission of 942 g L−1 of ethanol. ► LUC effects, energy inputs, yields, and by-products explain results among studies

  13. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha Kandasamy; Balachandar Dananjeyan; Kumar Krishnamurthy; Gero Benckiser

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the in...

  14. Water Quality Changes Associated with Cassava Production: Case Study of White Volta Bain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awotwi, Alfred; Bediako, Michael Asare; Harris, Emmanuel; Forkuo, Eric Kwabena

    2016-08-01

    The outcome reveal that as the land use in the catchment areas change from mixed agricultural to cassava cultivation, the simulated loads and concentrations of nitrogen species from cassava land-use scenario recorded reduction. The resultant concentrations of nitrate and nitrite for both current and future land-use scenarios are all below the daily limit suggested by the WHO, (World Health Organization). For the phosphate concentration, an increase of 4.21% was depicted under cassava land-use scenario. The results show that SWAT is a reliable water quality model, capable of simulating accurate information for developing environmental management plans. PMID:27626092

  15. Enhanced thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage by chemical pretreatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Luo, Gang; Xie, Li;

    2013-01-01

    Acid and alkaline pretreatments for enhanced hydrogen production from cassava stillage were investigated in the present study. The result showed that acid pretreatment was suitable for enhancement of soluble carbohydrate while alkaline pretreatment stimulated more soluble total organic carbon...... production from cassava stillage. Acid pretreatment thereby has higher capacity to promote hydrogen production compared with alkaline pretreatment. Effects of pretreatment temperature, time and acid concentration on hydrogen production were also revealed by response surface methodology. The results showed...... highest hydrogen production of 434 mL, 67% higher than raw cassava stillage....

  16. Root resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during...... orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost......-an ectodermal tissue layer (Malassez′s epithelium), a middle layer-composed by the collagen-mesodermal tissue layer, and an innermost root-close innervation layer. Abnormalities in one of these tissue layers are thought to cause inflammatory processes in the periodontal membrane comparable to inflammatory...

  17. DMA thermal analysis of yacon tuberous roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahovec, J.; Lahodová, M.; Kindl, M.; Fernández, E. C.

    2013-12-01

    Specimens prepared from yacon roots in first two weeks after harvest were tested by dynamic mechanical analysis thermal analysis at temperatures between 30 and 90°C. No differences between different parts of roots were proved. There were indicated some differences in the test parameters that were caused by short time storage of the roots. One source of the differences was loss of water during the roots storage. The measured modulus increased during short time storage. Detailed study of changes of the modulus during the specimen dynamic mechanical analysis test provided information about different development of the storage and loss moduli during the specimen heating. The observed results can be caused by changes in cellular membranes observed earlier during vegetable heating, and by composition changes due to less stable components of yacon like inulin.

  18. Resistance to Sri Lankan Cassava Mosaic Virus (SLCMV) in Genetically Engineered Cassava cv. KU50 through RNA Silencing

    KAUST Repository

    Ntui, Valentine Otang

    2015-04-22

    Cassava ranks fifth among the starch producing crops of the world, its annual bioethanol yield is higher than for any other crop. Cassava cultivar KU50, the most widely grown cultivar for non-food purposes is susceptible to Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV). The objective of this work was to engineer resistance to SLCMV by RNA interference (RNAi) in order to increase biomass yield, an important aspect for bioethanol production. Here, we produced transgenic KU50 lines expressing dsRNA homologous to the region between the AV2 and AV1 of DNA A of SLCMV. High level expression of dsRNA of SLCMV did not induce any growth abnormality in the transgenic plants. Transgenic lines displayed high levels of resistance to SLCMV compared to the wild-type plants and no virus load could be detected in uninoculated new leaves of the infected resistant lines after PCR amplification and RT-PCR analysis. The agronomic performance of the transgenic lines was unimpaired after inoculation with the virus as the plants presented similar growth when compared to the mock inoculated control plants and revealed no apparent reduction in the amount and weight of tubers produced. We show that the resistance is correlated with post-transcriptional gene silencing because of the production of transgene specific siRNA. The results demonstrate that transgenic lines exhibited high levels of resistance to SLCMV. This resistance coupled with the desirable yield components in the transgenic lines makes them better candidates for exploitation in the production of biomass as well as bioethanol.

  19. Resistance to Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV in genetically engineered cassava cv. KU50 through RNA silencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Otang Ntui

    Full Text Available Cassava ranks fifth among the starch producing crops of the world, its annual bioethanol yield is higher than for any other crop. Cassava cultivar KU50, the most widely grown cultivar for non-food purposes is susceptible to Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV. The objective of this work was to engineer resistance to SLCMV by RNA interference (RNAi in order to increase biomass yield, an important aspect for bioethanol production. Here, we produced transgenic KU50 lines expressing dsRNA homologous to the region between the AV2 and AV1 of DNA A of SLCMV. High level expression of dsRNA of SLCMV did not induce any growth abnormality in the transgenic plants. Transgenic lines displayed high levels of resistance to SLCMV compared to the wild-type plants and no virus load could be detected in uninoculated new leaves of the infected resistant lines after PCR amplification and RT-PCR analysis. The agronomic performance of the transgenic lines was unimpaired after inoculation with the virus as the plants presented similar growth when compared to the mock inoculated control plants and revealed no apparent reduction in the amount and weight of tubers produced. We show that the resistance is correlated with post-transcriptional gene silencing because of the production of transgene specific siRNA. The results demonstrate that transgenic lines exhibited high levels of resistance to SLCMV. This resistance coupled with the desirable yield components in the transgenic lines makes them better candidates for exploitation in the production of biomass as well as bioethanol.

  20. Fertilization effects and nutrient absorption characteristics of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc,and boron on cassava%木薯对氮、磷、钾、镁、锌、硼的吸收特性及施肥效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭宏伟; 周柳强; 谢如林; 黄美福; 谭庆军; 阮康乐

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究氮、磷、钾、镁、锌、硼肥对木薯养分吸收及生长的影响.[方法]采用田间试验,设最佳施肥处理OPT(N+P+K+Mg+Zn+B)、减氮施肥OPT-N、减磷施肥OPT-P、减钾施肥OPT-K、减镁施肥OPT-Mg、减锌施肥OPT-Zn、减硼施肥OPT-B处理和不施肥处理,测定各处理木薯产量以及块根、茎、叶养分吸收量和养分吸收强度.[结果]OPT处理木薯所吸收的N、P、K、Zn养分主要累积在茎部,Ca、Mg养分主要累积在叶片和茎部,B养分主要累积在叶片部位中.木薯对N、P、K养分的吸收强度呈抛物线状,在块根膨大期前呈逐渐提高,块根膨大后,木薯对N、P、K养分的吸收强度逐渐下降.增施N、P、K、Mg肥,木薯产量分别提高38.01%、13.09%、23.14%和8.99%;增施1 kgN、P2O5、K2O、MgO木薯产量分别增加101、54、22和49 kg; OPT处理产值最高(13217元/ha).[结论]施肥均可提高木薯的养分吸收量,但K、Za、B肥会抑制Mg的吸收.不同施肥条件对木薯产量有显著的影响.%[Objective]This research studied the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, and boron on the nutrient absorption characteristics and growth of cassava. [Method]Under field experiment, different fertilization treatments, including the optimal OPT treatment (N+P+K+Mg+Zn+B), reduced nitrogen fertilizer treatment OPT-N, reduced phosphorus fertilizer treatment OPT-P, reduced potassium fertilizer treatment OPT-K, reduced magnesium fertilizer treatment OPT-Mg, reduced zinc fertilizer treatment OPT-Zn, reduced boron fertilizer treatment OPT-B, and non-fertilization treatment, were set to determine the cassava yield and the nutrient absorption strength in cassava root tubes, stems, and leaves. [Result]Under OPT treatment, the absorbed untrients of N, P, K, and Zn were mainly concentrated in cassava stems, Ca and Mg were mainly concentrated in cassava leaves and stems, and B was mainly concentrated in cassava leaves. By

  1. The in vitro mass-produced model mycorrhizal fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, significantly increases yields of the globally important food security crop cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Isabel; Ruiz, Michael; Fernández, Cristhian; Peña, Ricardo; Rodríguez, Alia; Sanders, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P). The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future. PMID:23950975

  2. The in vitro mass-produced model mycorrhizal fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, significantly increases yields of the globally important food security crop cassava.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Ceballos

    Full Text Available The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P. The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future.

  3. Growth and yield of maize and cassava cultivars as affected by mycorrhizal inoculation and alley cropping regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami Olusola Abiodun

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of myeorrhizal inoculation and two pruning regimes in experimental alley cropping treatments on the leaf biomass and nutrient yield of sole and mixed Gliricidica septum (a Modulating plant ami Senna siamea (a non-nodulating plant were investigated both in the greenhouse and in the field. The impact of the mixtures of these legumes as hedgerows on maize and one cultivar of cassava was also studied on the Held. Gliricidia sepiuni prunnings were found to have high nutrient yields, notably 358.4 kg ha-1 of N and 14.7 kg ha-1 of P as well as fast decomposition and nutrient release. In both Giricidia and Senna. there was similar leaf dry matter values in sole and mixed inoculated or non-inoculated trees for either of the pruning regime and for most of the pruning harvests, although significant differences occurred between inoculated and non-inoculated mixed or sole trees. There was no difference between the total leaf dry matter of the two- and three-month pruning regimes in G. sepium. However, in contrast to G. sepium, the total leaf dry matter of the two-month pruning regime of iS'. sianica was lower than its three-month pruning regime, except for sole non-inoculated trees. Generally, inoculation and mixing of trees in the same hedgerows significantly increased the total N and P yield in G. sepium and S. siantea with greater values in the former than the latter. In G. sephium and except for mixed inoculated trees, while total N yield in the leaf was higher in three-monthly primed than two-monthly pruned trees, the converse was the case for P. For S. siamea the total N and P yield were higher in three-monthly than two-monthly pruned trees. Myeorrhizal inoculations consistently increased the yield of the cassava root tuber and maize grain over their non-inoculated counterparts.

  4. Effect of cassava starch coating on quality and shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril cv "Pérola").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierhals, Vânia S; Chiumarelli, Marcela; Hubinger, Miriam D

    2011-01-01

    This research studied the influence of treatment with ascorbic acid, citric acid, and calcium lactate dipping and cassava starch edible coatings on quality parameters and shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple in slices during 12 d at 5 °C. After previous tests, the treatments selected for this study were samples dipped into antibrowning solution with 0.5% of ascorbic acid and 1% of citric acid, with and without 2% of calcium lactate and coated with 2% of cassava starch suspensions. Changes in weight loss, juice leakage, mechanical properties (stress at failure), color parameters (L* and H*), ascorbic acid content, sensory acceptance, and microbial growth of fruits were evaluated. Samples only treated with antibrowning agents were used as control. Edible coatings with and without calcium lactate were efficient in reducing weight loss, juice leakage, and maintaining firmness during storage. However, these samples showed more browning and the ascorbic acid content was reduced. All treatments presented good sensory acceptance (scores above 6). The determining factor of shelf life of pineapple slices was the microbial spoilage. A shelf life of 8 d was obtained for pineapple slices only treated with antibrowning agents. On the other hand, coated samples showed a reduced shelf life of 7 d and higher yeast and mold growth. Thus, although cassava starch coatings were efficient in reducing respiration rate, weight loss, and juice leakage and maintained mechanical properties, these treatments were not able to increase the shelf life of minimally processed pineapple. Practical Application: Pineapple fruit is highly appreciated for its aroma, flavor, and juiciness, but its immediate consumption is difficult. Therefore, pineapple is a potential fruit for minimal processing. However, shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple is very limited by changes in color, texture, appearance, off-flavors, and microbial growth. The use of edible coatings as gas and water vapor barrier and antibrowning

  5. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colehour, Alese M; Meadow, James F; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2014-01-01

    Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal. PMID:25071997

  6. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alese M. Colehour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal.

  7. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Kandasamy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM and glucose (0.2% w/v. The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters.

  8. Enzyme activities and substrate degradation by fungal isolates on cassava waste during solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothiraj, C; Eyini, M

    2007-12-01

    The growth and bioconversion potential of selected strains growing on cassava waste substrate during solid state fermentation were assessed. Rhizopus stolonifer showed the highest and the fastest utilization of starch and cellulose in the cassava waste substrate. It showed 70% starch utilization and 81% cellulose utilization within eight days. The release of reducing sugars indicating the substrate saccharification or degradation potential of the organisms reached the highest value of 406.5 mg/g by R. stolonifer on cassava waste during the eighth day of fermentation. The protein content was gradually increased (89.4 mg/g) on the eighth day of fermentation in cassava waste by R. stolonifer. The cellulase and amylase activity is higher in R. stolonifer than A. niger and P. chrysosporium. The molecular mass of purified amylase and cellulase seemed to be 75 KDal, 85 KDal respectively. PMID:24015097

  9. CONTRIBUTIONS OF MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS TO ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF CASSAVA FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley Chukwuemeka OBIKE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examined contributions of microfinance institutions to economic efficiency of cassava farmers in Abia state, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted in collecting cross sectional data on a sample size of 240 respondents (120 MFI beneficiaries and 120 non beneficiaries. Primary Data was collected by administering questionnaire on cassava farmers. The result showed that economic efficiency of MFI beneficiaries was influenced by wage rate, price of fertilizer and adjusted Y (output, while wage rate, price of fertilizer and price of cassava cutting s are variables that influenced economic efficiency of non beneficiaries. The t – test analysis confirmed that MFI beneficiaries had higher economic efficiency advantage compared with non beneficiaries. It is recommended that government agricultural policy should take positive steps to reduce interest rate to encourage MFI efforts in providing the necessary platform to encourage higher efficiency in cassava production in Abia state, Nigeria.

  10. The sustainability of cassava-based bioethanol production in southern Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Bruun, Thilde Bech;

    2015-01-01

    The demand for biofuels has been rising, which has led developing countries to focus on production of feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production. This has caused concerns for the impacts on food security, food prices and environmental sustainability. This paper examines a hypothetical case...... of cassava-based bioethanol production in southern Mali, assessing its environmental, economic and social sustainability. Results demonstrate that environmental sustainability of cassava-based bioethanol production depends on the ‘baseline’ chosen: Compared to the situation before the decline in cotton...... of labour input. Analysis of the significance of current cassava production for food security shows that bioethanol production should be based on the attiéké variety of cassava, thereby avoiding interference with the important role of the bonouma in assuring food security in northern Mali. The key factor...

  11. Application of thermophilic enzymes and water jet system to cassava pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikaew, Siriporn; Maeno, Yuka; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Ogura, Kota; Sugino, Gaku; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko

    2012-12-01

    Co-production of fermentable sugars and nanofibrillated cellulose from cassava pulp was achieved by the combination of thermophilic enzymes (endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, and α-amylase) and a new atomization system (Star Burst System; SBS), which employs opposing water jets. The SBS represents a key technology for providing cellulose nanofibers and improving the enzymatic saccharification of cassava pulp. Depending on the enzymes used, the production of glucose from cassava pulp treated with the SBS was 1.2- to 2.5-fold higher than that from pulp not treated with the SBS. Nanofibrillated cellulose with the gel-like property in suspension was produced (yield was over 90%) by α-amylase treatment, which completely released trapped starch granules from the fibrous cell wall structure of cassava pulp pretreated with the SBS. The SBS provides an environmentally low-impact pretreatment system for processing biomass material into value-added products. PMID:23073093

  12. Iron oxide/cassava starch-supported Ziegler-Natta catalysts for in situ ethylene polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancharoenrith, Sittikorn; Kamonsatikul, Choavarit; Namkajorn, Montree; Kiatisevi, Supavadee; Somsook, Ekasith

    2015-03-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were used as supporters for in situ polymerization to produce polymer nanocomposites with well-dispersed fillers in polymer matrix. Iron oxide could be sustained as colloidal solutions by cassava starch to produce a good dispersion of iron oxide in the matrix. New supports based on iron oxide/cassava starch or cassava starch for Ziegler-Natta catalysts were utilized as heterogeneous supporters for partially hydrolyzed triethylaluminum. Then, TiCl4 was immobilized on the supports as catalysts for polymerization of ethylene. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites were obtained by the synthesized catalysts. A good dispersion of iron oxide/cassava starch particles was observed in the synthesized polymer matrix promoting to good mechanical properties of HDPE. PMID:25498641

  13. Application of pure strains to standardize the acidification process and the amylolytic activity in cassava fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes some aspects of the optimization of the traditional fermentation of cassava and potential role of the acidification process in the development of microflora at the different stages of the fermentation. It was shown that the inoculation of the cassava fermenting pulp by pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus cellobiosus and L. plantarum had resulted in sufficient acceleration of the fermentation process and the desired condition of the fermented end-product could reach in 7-24 hours instead of 72 hours (natural fermentation). The effects similar to these were obtained in the experiments on inoculation of cassava with the fermented mass (or with drained liquor) from the previous bath. The optimal condition for the exhibition of the amylolytic activity in fresh cassava was: pH 6,0 at 40 deg. C, out of this range the activity falls down sharply. (author). 22 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Research Progress on the Comprehensive Utilization of Cassava Waste%木薯废弃物综合利用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩; 刘光华; 李月仙; 严炜; 娄予强; 郭容琦; 张林辉; 段春芳

    2012-01-01

    木薯在种植、收获、加工过程中会产生木薯叶、木薯杆、木薯渣、术薯皮等废弃物,其中,木薯叶可食用、饲用;木薯杆、小薯渣均可作为栽培食用菌的基质,木薯杆还可粉碎还田作为肥料,木薯渣也可生产肥料、饲料、沼气:木薯皮则能制成表面活性炭或作为有机生态无土栽培的主要基质。%Cassava waste materials such as cassava leaf, cassava stem, cassava bagasse, cassava bark, etc. resulted from cassava planting, harvesting and processing. Comprehensive utilization of cassava waste materials was discussed in this paper. Cassava leaf can be used for food and feed. Cassava stem, cassava bagasse can be used for matrix of cultivating edible fungi. Crushed cassava stem also can be used as fertilizer. Fertilizer, feed and biogas can be produced from cassava bagasse. Cassava bark can be used for surface active carbon and matrix of eco-organic type soiUess culture system.

  15. Effect of gamma radiation in the conservation of minimally processed cassava-parsley (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft) packed under vacuous;Efeito da radiacao gama na conservacao da mandioquinha-salsa (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft) minimamente processada e embalada a vacuo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iemma, Juliana

    2001-07-01

    In the third millennium, when the main words are globalization, world net of computers, genetic code and efficiency, deep transformations have been incorporated to human behavior. Among such transformations it may be pointed out, matching with the objectives of this study, the modem consumer's profile. The consumers have quickly become more and more conscious and demanding regarding to the quality of the available products in the market. In that sense, the consumer's concern about the natural and healthy appearance, as well as the preservation of the nutritious content of the foods, have been a constant sign of alert for producers and suppliers. Besides, the timeless for domestic preparation of foods have imposed the use of minimally processed as an incontestable reality. A barrier for the production of minimally processed foods is imposed by the degree of perishability of certain products, such as the cassava-parsley. This vegetable is a source of energy, calcium, phosphorus and niacin, and important in the alimentary diet of children, seniors and convalescents. Post harvest treatments try to turn foods less perishable and also conserve as much as possible their original appearance. Among these post harvest treatments for food conservation it may be stood out the irradiation, which is the focus of this study. The objective of this study was to examine the viability of including the cassava parsley in the list of the minimally processed foods. Fresh cassavas were minimally processed and packed under vacuous. Samples were divided for three treatments: control and irradiation with the doses 2.0 and 4.0 kGy. After irradiation the samples were stored under refrigeration temperature (8 deg C) during 28 days. Physical-chemical and microbiological analyzes were carried out at each 7 days of the period of storage, and sensorial analysis were carried out in the 1st, 7th and 14th days of storage. The experimental design was in factorial scheme with two factors

  16. Field testing and exploitation of genetically modified cassava with low-amylose or amylose-free starch in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Koehorst-van Putten, H. J. J.; Sudarmonowati, E.; Herman, M; Pereira-Bertram, I. J.; Wolters, A. M. A.; Meima, H.; Vetten, de, N.; Raemakers, C.J.J.M.; Visser, R. G. F.

    2012-01-01

    The development and testing in the field of genetically modified -so called- orphan crops like cassava in tropical countries is still in its infancy, despite the fact that cassava is not only used for food and feed but is also an important industrial crop. As traditional breeding of cassava is difficult (allodiploid, vegetatively propagated, outbreeding species) it is an ideal crop for improvement through genetic modification. We here report on the results of production and field testing of g...

  17. Determinants Of Export-Led Cassava Production Intensification Among Small-Holder Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Achoja, F. O.; Idoge, D. E.; Ukwuaba, S. I.; Esowhode, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Determinants of export-led cassava production intensification among small-holder farmers were investigated. Primary data collected with structured questionnaire from randomly selected 60 respondents, were analysed using appropriate statistics. The result showed a slow increasing trend in response to export opportunities. Farm size, credit availability, cassava product domestic prices, labour and frequency of extension contact had positive effect on cassava output while existence of efficient ...

  18. Perception of Infestation Problems on Cassava Farms and Preference for Weed Management Practices in Humid Agro- Ecological Zone of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Agumagu; Olufemi Martins Adesope; Edna Chioma Matthews-Njoku

    2008-01-01

    The problem of weed infestation on cassava farms is a major factor for low crop yield. This problem has caused untold hardship on the small-scale cassava farms where production at the subsistence level and where farmers still manage to produce some quantity for sale. The study examines cassava farmers’ perception of problems of infestation and preference for weed management practices in the humid agro-ecological zone of Nigeria. Data was collected with the aid of questionnaire and interviews....

  19. Infochemical use by predatory mites of the cassava green mite in a multitrophic context

    OpenAIRE

    Gnanvossou, D.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes research on multitrophic interactions in a system consisting of (1) cassava plants ( Manihot esculenta ), (2) three herbivorous mites, i.e. the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa, the red spider mite Oligonychus gossypii and the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and (3) two exotic predatory mites Typhlodromalus manihoti and T. aripo , in Africa. The objectives are to understand how the two exotic predators (i) exploit chemical information to locate the ta...

  20. Production of freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria starter culture for cassava fermentation into gari.

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Amenan Anastasie; Dortu, Carine; Egounlety, Moutairu; Pinto, Cristina; Vinodh, A. Edward; Huch, Melanie; Franz, Charles M. A. P.; Holzapfel, Willhelm; Mbugua, Samuel; Mengu, Moses; Thonart, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Sixteen lactic acid bacteria, eight Lactobacillus plantarum, three L. pentosus, 2 Weissella paramesenteroides, two L. fermemtum and one Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides were previously isolated from cassava fermentation and selected on the basis of their biochemical properties with a view to selecting appropriate starter cultures during cassava fermentation for gari production. In this study, the potential of these pre-selected strains as suitable freeze-dried cultures was eval...

  1. Factors affecting the relative competitiveness of cassava production in southwestern Trinidad

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson-Andrews, Hazel; Pemberton, Carlisle

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to determine the factors affecting the relative competitiveness (RC) measured as the normalized profit per acre, of cassava farmers in South Western Trinidad through a determination of the factors affecting the mean and variance of the RC inefficiency term of the farmers. A sample of 112 small farmers growing cassava as their main crop provided the data for the study. A normalized translog stochastic RC frontier model was estimated. The model also determined the factors affe...

  2. Developing GM super cassava for improved health and food security: future challenges in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Adenle Ademola A; Aworh Ogugua C; Akromah Richard; Parayil Govindan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There is an urgent need to solve the problem of micronutrient malnutrition that is prevalent among young children and women in Africa. Genetically modified (GM) biofortified cassava has great potential to solve part of this problem, but controversy surrounding GM technology and lack of awareness, limited facilities, biased news and other factors may hinder the adoption of GM cassava in the future. Method Using semi-structured interviews in Ghana and Nigeria, this paper exa...

  3. Determinants of profitability among small scale cassava processors in South Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    EHINMOWO O.O.; AFOLABI J.A.; FATUASE A.I.

    2015-01-01

    This study empirically analyzed the determinants of profitability among small scale cassava processors in Southwest, Nigeria. Three States were considered for the study which was Ogun, Oyo and Ondo. A multistage sampling technique was employed to randomly select 373 respondents. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression models. The findings revealed that the cassava processing business was profitable in the study area given the value of gross margin...

  4. Effect of the improved fermentation on physicochemical properties and sensorial acceptability of sour cassava starch

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Janete Angeloni Marcon; Gisele Cristina Netto Vieira; Karina Nunes de Simas; Karina Santos; Manoela Alano Vieira; Renata Dias de Mello Castanho Amboni; Edna Regina Amante

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of improved fermentation on sour cassava starch, aiming to reduce its fermentation time and to enhance its expansion capacity as well as its viscoamylographic properties and its sensorial acceptability. Results showed that the improved process of cassava starch production did not harm starch expansion, physicochemical properties or sensorial acceptability; it also produced starches with different viscoamylographic properties, which compared favoura...

  5. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of cassava flower honey samples produced by africanized honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    Lucimar Peres de Moura Pontara; Edmar Clemente; Dalany Menezes Oliveira; Angela Kwiatkowski; Cássia Inês Lourenzi Franco Rosa; Valter Eugênio Saia

    2012-01-01

    Cassava producers in the region of Marília-São Paulo are integrating their farming activity with beekeeping to diversify their income. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological quality of honey samples produced by Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera from cassava flower in 2008. Analysis were carried out for pH, total soluble solids (TSS), acidity, moisture, reducing and total sugars, apparent sucrose, hydroxymethylfurfural, color, ash, proteins, water inso...

  6. Effects of Contract Farming Scheme on Cassava Production Enterprise in Oyo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Fawole, Pippy; Thomas, Kehinde A.

    2011-01-01

    There are indications that the domestic demand for cassava particularly as staple food may in no time outweigh that of the industrial sector, except contract and non-contract farming entrepreneurs operate within the framework of sustainable agriculture. The study thus examines the effects of contract farming scheme on cassava production in Oyo State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used. Oyo and Ibadan/Ibarapa zones were randomly selected from the four Agricultural Development Proj...

  7. Post-harvest conservation of organic strawberries coated with cassava starch and chitosan

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel P Campos; Angela Kwiatkowski; Edmar Clemente

    2011-01-01

    The strawberry is as non-climacteric fruit, but has a high post-harvest respiration rate, which leads to a rapid deterioration at room temperature. This study aimed to evaluate the application of biodegradable coating on postharvest conservation of organic strawberries, cv. Camarosa, packed in plastic hinged boxes and stored at 10ºC. The treatments consisted of: a) control; b) 2% cassava starch; c) 1% chitosan; and d) 2% cassava starch + 1% chitosan. Physical and chemical characteristics of f...

  8. Enzyme Activities and Substrate Degradation by Fungal Isolates on Cassava Waste During Solid State Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Pothiraj, C.; Eyini, M.

    2007-01-01

    The growth and bioconversion potential of selected strains growing on cassava waste substrate during solid state fermentation were assessed. Rhizopus stolonifer showed the highest and the fastest utilization of starch and cellulose in the cassava waste substrate. It showed 70% starch utilization and 81% cellulose utilization within eight days. The release of reducing sugars indicating the substrate saccharification or degradation potential of the organisms reached the highest value of 406.5 m...

  9. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose concentration on physical properties of biodegradable cassava starch-based films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriburi Pensiri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cassava starch, the economically important agricultural commodity in Thailand, can readily be cast into films. However, the cassava starch film is brittle and weak, leading to inadequate mechanical properties. The properties of starch film can be improved by adding plasticizers and blending with the other biopolymers. Results Cassava starch (5%w/v based films plasticized with glycerol (30 g/100 g starch were characterized with respect to the effect of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%w/w total solid and relative humidity (34 and 54%RH on the mechanical properties of the films. Additionally, intermolecular interactions were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, melting temperature by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Water solubility of the films was also determined. Increasing concentration of CMC increased tensile strength, reduced elongation at break, and decreased water solubility of the blended films. FT-IR spectra indicated intermolecular interactions between cassava starch and CMC in blended films by shifting of carboxyl (C = O and OH groups. DSC thermograms and SEM micrographs confirmed homogeneity of cassava starch-CMC films. Conclusion The addition of CMC to the cassava starch films increased tensile strength and reduced elongation at break of the blended films. This was ascribed to the good interaction between cassava starch and CMC. Cassava starch-CMC composite films have the potential to replace conventional packaging, and the films developed in this work are suggested to be suitable for low moisture food and pharmaceutical products.

  10. Cassava Processing and Marketing by Rural Women in the Central Region of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    SHIOYA, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the development of rural women's commercial activities in Central Cameroon, particularly the Department of Lekié, which is adjacent to Yaoundé, the capital of Cameroon. I focused on cassava processing technologies and the sale of cassavabased processed foods undertaken by women in a suburban farming village. Cassava is one of the main staple foods in central Cameroon, including in urban areas. One of its characteristics is that it keeps for a long period in the ground but ...

  11. Characteristics of cassava starch fermentation wastewater based on structural degradation of starch granules

    OpenAIRE

    Juliane Mascarenhas Pereira; Ana Carolina Moura de Sena Aquino; Daiana Cardoso de Oliveira; Gabriela Rocha; Alícia de Francisco; Pedro Luiz Manique Barreto; Edna Regina Amante

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Sour cassava starch is a naturally modified starch produced by fermentation and sun drying, achieving the property of expansion upon baking. Sour cassava starch' bakery products can be prepared without the addition of yeast and it is gluten free. The fermentation process associated with this product has been well studied, but the wastewater, with high acidity and richness in other organic compounds derived from starch degradation, requires further investigation. In this study, the s...

  12. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Growth and Yield of Cassava Manihot esculenta (Crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    B. O. ODIYI; J. J. F. Bamidele

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nigeria is a major cassava producing area that has been subjected to air pollution from increasing industrial activities and population explosion in the coastal towns and cities. The level of pollution is not expected to change drastically in the immediate future. Investigations were carried out to study the changes in the morphology, survival, growth and yield of TMS 96/1672 cultivar of cassava Manihot esculenta (Crantz) to simulated acid rain. The plants were exposed to simulated a...

  13. Effects of sweet cassava polysaccharide extracts on endurance exercise in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, Chia Hung; Tsao, Te Hung; Huang, Cheng Uan; Yang, Chang Bin; Kuo, Chung Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Sweet cassava tubers have abundant carbohydrates consisting of monosaccharides and polysaccharides. In addition, polysaccharides extracted from plants improve sports performance, according to recent studies. We therefore examined whether the administration of sweet cassava polysaccharides (SCPs) benefited endurance performance in rats Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 30, 7 weeks old) were divided into three groups: control (C), exercise (Ex), and exercise plus SCPs administrat...

  14. Radiosensitivity of the reproductive organs exposed to the flow of cassava mixed neutron/gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study of seeds and cuttings radiosensitivity for Cassava mutation breeding was performed. Three Cassava clones were irradiated at different times morder to determine the maximum mutagenic treatment. Data obtained show that treatments of which irradiated time is greater than 6 seconds are lethals for cutting regeneration. Duration inferior or equal to 6 seconds have no negative effect. The cutting regeneration is maximum for 3 seconds treatment and decreases with irradiation time. For irradiated seeds, germination has been completely inhibited.

  15. Technical Efficiency Analysis of Nigerian Cassava Farmers: A Guide for Food Security Policy

    OpenAIRE

    B.C. Asogwa; Umeh, Joseph Chinedu; P.I. Ater

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzed relationship between techn ical efficiency and socio-economic variables of cassava farmers in Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 360 cassava farmers in Nigeria using a structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics comprising mean, minimum value, maximum value and standard deviation, as well as inferential statistics, which comprised correlation and regression. The findings of the s tudy indicated that a significant relationsh...

  16. Profitability and Value Addition in Cassava Processing in Buton District of Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Haji Saediman; Asmiati Amini; Rosmawaty Basiru; La Ode Nafiu

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine profitability of and value addition from cassava processing into kaopi based on the type of graters being used. A two-stage random sampling technique was employed to obtain primary data from 53 respondents selected for this study. Data were analyzed using cost and return analysis, R/C ratio, Break Even Point, and production structure. The study revealed that cassava processing into kaopi is profitable and a significant value adding process, but the level ...

  17. Batch and Continuous Lactic Acid Production from Cassava by Streptococcus bovis

    OpenAIRE

    Fachrul Razi; S D Yuwono

    2006-01-01

    Process variables were optimized for the production of lactic acid from cassava by Streptococcus bovis for batch and continuous fermentations. In the batch fermentation, maximum yield 82.5% and maximum lactic acid productivity 2.43 was achieved at 39 oC, pH 5.5 with 50 g/l cassava concentration. In the continuous fermentation maximum productivity lactic acid 1.25 g/l.h was obtained at dilution rate 0.05 /h.

  18. Beef production based on cassava products and legume foliage in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Chu Manh, Thang

    2010-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to determine the associative effects of supplemental sources of protein, or protein and energy, using cassava products and legume foliage on rumen degradability, in vivo digestibility, feed intake and growth rate of crossbred growing cattle. First it was hypothesized that the substitution of a part of a conventional concentrate with mixed cassava and legume foliage will positively influence rumen degradability and improve the performance of growing cattle. T...

  19. Effect of the gamma radiation in the conservation of pre-cooked cassava wrapped to vacuum it is stored under cooling; Efeitos das radiacoes gama na conservacao de mandioca pre-cozida embalada a vacuo e armazenada sob refrigeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Germano, Romilda M.A. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia]. E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G.; Spoto, Marta H.F. [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Agroindustria Alimentos e Nutricao]. E-mail: slgcbraza@esalq.usp.br; mhfspoto@esalq.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The cassava represents a source of energy of great importance for the Brazilian population, especially in the north and northeast area where is consumed in the flour form being very also used in the cooked form or bragged. Due to need of having at the market a product that is of easy consumption, since the consumer's profile is altering, with the preference of the acquisition for products semi-ready or ready for consumption this research had as objective evaluates the effects of the gamma radiation in semi-ready cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz, variety IAC-567-70 for the consumption easiness. For that the cassava roots were washed, peeled and cut in uniform pieces, being despised the finest tips and the final portion of the root. After this procedure the pieces were separate in 12 treatments, with approximately 250 g of cassava, and was accomplished the combination of distilled water and deionized water, cooked by 15 minutes and for 20 minutes, with and without vacuum in the packing, irradiated and stored under of refrigeration. The cooking to 15 minutes presented better appearance that the of 20 minutes. All the twelve treatments were irradiated with doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy, also a control treatment was accomplished without irradiation. Already in the first week of evaluation all of the treatments of the control presented points of contamination for mushrooms, in this same period the treatments with doses of radiation of 1 kGy and 3 kGy presented smaller amounts of points of contamination than the control, however much larger than in the treatment with the dose of 5 kGy. Therefore the gamma radiation of the Cobalt-60 was efficient reducing the emergence of points of contamination considerably for mushrooms. The treatments that were used packing with vacuum presented smaller points of contamination. Therefore, the best results were obtained by the treatment of cooking of the cassava by 15 minutes, conditioned to vacuous and irradiated with the dose of 5 k

  20. Overexpression of Arabidopsis VIT1 increases accumulation of iron in cassava roots and stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is extremely abundant in the soil, but its uptake in plants is limited due to low solubility in neutral or alkaline soils. Plants can rely on rhizosphere acidification to increase iron solubility. AtVIT1 was previously found to be involved in mediating vacuolar sequestration of iron, which indi...