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Sample records for cassava storage root

  1. Genotype × environment interaction effects on early fresh storage root yield and related traits in cassava

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    Robooni Tumuhimbise

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is an important root crop worldwide. It exhibits substantial differential genotypic responses to varying environmental conditions, a phenomenon termed genotype × environment interaction (GEI. A significant GEI presents challenges in the selection of superior genotypes. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of genotype, environment and GEI on early fresh storage root yield (FSRY and related traits in cassava. Accordingly, 12 cassava genotypes were evaluated in a randomised complete block design at three contrasting locations (Jinja, Nakasongola and Namulonge in Uganda. Trials were harvested nine months after planting and the data collected were analysed using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI model. The AMMI analysis of variance showed significant variation among genotypes for early FSRY and all other traits assessed. Locations were significantly different for all traits except for cassava brown streak disease root necrosis. The GEI effect was non-significant for early FSRY, but significant for other traits. For early FSRY, 48.5% of the treatment sum of squares was attributable to genotypes, 27.3% to environments, and 24.1% to GEI, indicating a predominance of genotypic variation for this trait. Predominance of genotypic variation was also observed for all the other traits. A majority of the genotypes (67% had low interaction effects with locations for early FSRY, with Akena, CT2, CT4 and NASE14 being the most stable genotypes for the trait. Significant negative correlation was observed between cassava mosaic disease severity and early FSRY and storage root number, indicating significant negative effects of cassava mosaic disease on early FSRY and stability in cassava. The information generated will inform future selection initiatives for superior early-yielding cassava genotypes combining resistance to cassava mosaic and brown streak diseases in Uganda.

  2. Proteomic analysis of injured storage roots in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) under postharvest physiological deterioration.

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    Qin, Yuling; Djabou, Astride Stéphanie Mouafi; An, Feifei; Li, Kaimian; Li, Zhaogui; Yang, Long; Wang, Xiaojing; Chen, Songbi

    2017-01-01

    Postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) is a global challenge in the improvement of cassava value chain. However, how to reduce cassava spoilage and reveal the mechanism of injured cassava storage roots in response to PPD were poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the activities of antioxidant enzymes of cassava injured storage roots in PPD-susceptible (SC9) and PPD-tolerant (QZ1) genotypes at the time-points from 0h to 120h, and further analyzed their proteomic changes using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) in combination with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. Ninety-nine differentially expressed proteins were identified from SC9 and QZ1 genotypes in the pairwise comparison of 24h/0h, 48h/0h, 72h/0h and 96h/0h. Of those proteins were associated with 13 biological functions, in which carbohydrate and energy metabolism related proteins were the biggest amount differential proteins in both genotypes, followed by chaperones, DNA and RNA metabolism, and defense system. We speculated that SOD in combination with CAT activities would be the first line of defense against PPD to support PPD-tolerant cassava varieties. The four hub proteins including CPN60B, LOS2, HSC70-1 and CPN20B, produced from the network of protein-protein interaction, will be the candidate key proteins linked with PPD. This study provides a new clue to improve cassava PPD-tolerant varieties and would be helpful to much better understand the molecular mechanism of PPD of cassava injured storage roots.

  3. Proteomic analysis of injured storage roots in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz under postharvest physiological deterioration.

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    Yuling Qin

    Full Text Available Postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD is a global challenge in the improvement of cassava value chain. However, how to reduce cassava spoilage and reveal the mechanism of injured cassava storage roots in response to PPD were poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the activities of antioxidant enzymes of cassava injured storage roots in PPD-susceptible (SC9 and PPD-tolerant (QZ1 genotypes at the time-points from 0h to 120h, and further analyzed their proteomic changes using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE in combination with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. Ninety-nine differentially expressed proteins were identified from SC9 and QZ1 genotypes in the pairwise comparison of 24h/0h, 48h/0h, 72h/0h and 96h/0h. Of those proteins were associated with 13 biological functions, in which carbohydrate and energy metabolism related proteins were the biggest amount differential proteins in both genotypes, followed by chaperones, DNA and RNA metabolism, and defense system. We speculated that SOD in combination with CAT activities would be the first line of defense against PPD to support PPD-tolerant cassava varieties. The four hub proteins including CPN60B, LOS2, HSC70-1 and CPN20B, produced from the network of protein-protein interaction, will be the candidate key proteins linked with PPD. This study provides a new clue to improve cassava PPD-tolerant varieties and would be helpful to much better understand the molecular mechanism of PPD of cassava injured storage roots.

  4. Sugar-mediated semidian oscillation of gene expression in the cassava storage root regulates starch synthesis

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    Jansson, Christer; Baguma, Yona; Sun, Chuanxin; Boren, Mats; Olsson, Helena; Rosenqvist, Sara; Mutisya, Joel; Rubaihayo, Patrick R.; Jansson, Christer

    2008-01-15

    Starch branching enzyme (SBE) activity in the cassava storage root exhibited a diurnal fluctuation, dictated by a transcriptional oscillation of the corresponding SBE genes. The peak of SBE activity coincided with the onset of sucrose accumulation in the storage, and we conclude that the oscillatory mechanism keeps the starch synthetic apparatus in the storage root sink in tune with the flux of sucrose from the photosynthetic source. When storage roots were uncoupled from the source, SBE expression could be effectively induced by exogenous sucrose. Turanose, a sucrose isomer that cannot be metabolized by plants, mimicked the effect of sucrose, demonstrating that downstream metabolism of sucrose was not necessary for signal transmission. Also glucose and glucose-1-P induced SBE expression. Interestingly, induction by sucrose, turanose and glucose but not glucose-1-P sustained an overt semidian (12-h) oscillation in SBE expression and was sensitive to the hexokinase (HXK) inhibitor glucosamine. These results suggest a pivotal regulatory role for HXK during starch synthesis. Abscisic acid (ABA) was another potent inducer of SBE expression. Induction by ABA was similar to that of glucose-1-P in that it bypassed the semidian oscillator. Both the sugar and ABA signaling cascades were disrupted by okadaic acid, a protein phosphatase inhibitor. Based on these findings, we propose a model for sugar signaling in regulation of starch synthesis in the cassava storage root.

  5. Natural variation in expression of genes associated with carotenoid biosynthesis and accumulation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root.

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    Carvalho, Luiz Jcb; Agustini, Marco Av; Anderson, James V; Vieira, Eduardo A; de Souza, Claudia Rb; Chen, Songbi; Schaal, Barbara A; Silva, Joseane P

    2016-06-10

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root provides a staple food source for millions of people worldwide. Increasing the carotenoid content in storage root of cassava could provide improved nutritional and health benefits. Because carotenoid accumulation has been associated with storage root color, this study characterized carotenoid profiles, and abundance of key transcripts associated with carotenoid biosynthesis, from 23 landraces of cassava storage root ranging in color from white-to-yellow-to-pink. This study provides important information to plant breeding programs aimed at improving cassava storage root nutritional quality. Among the 23 landraces, five carotenoid types were detected in storage root with white color, while carotenoid types ranged from 1 to 21 in storage root with pink and yellow color. The majority of storage root in these landraces ranged in color from pale-to-intense yellow. In this color group, total β-carotene, containing all-E-, 9-Z-, and 13-Z-β-carotene isomers, was the major carotenoid type detected, varying from 26.13 to 76.72 %. Although no α-carotene was observed, variable amounts of a α-ring derived xanthophyll, lutein, was detected; with greater accumulation of α-ring xanthophylls than of β-ring xanthophyll. Lycopene was detected in a landrace (Cas51) with pink color storage root, but it was not detected in storage root with yellow color. Based on microarray and qRT-PCR analyses, abundance of transcripts coding for enzymes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis were consistent with carotenoid composition determined by contrasting HPLC-Diode Array profiles from storage root of landraces IAC12, Cas64, and Cas51. Abundance of transcripts encoding for proteins regulating plastid division were also consistent with the observed differences in total β-carotene accumulation. Among the 23 cassava landraces with varying storage root color and diverse carotenoid types and profiles, landrace Cas51 (pink color storage root) had low

  6. Alpha-Glucan, Water Dikinase 1 Affects Starch Metabolism and Storage Root Growth in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

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    Zhou, Wenzhi; He, Shutao; Naconsie, Maliwan; Ma, Qiuxiang; Zeeman, Samuel C; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Zhang, Peng

    2017-08-29

    Regulation of storage root development by source strength remains largely unknown. The cassava storage root delay (srd) T-DNA mutant postpones storage root development but manifests normal foliage growth as wild-type plants. The SRD gene was identified as an orthologue of α-glucan, water dikinase 1 (GWD1), whose expression is regulated under conditions of light/dark cycles in leaves and is associated with storage root development. The GWD1-RNAi cassava plants showed both retarded plant and storage root growth, as a result of starch excess phenotypes with reduced photosynthetic capacity and decreased levels of soluble saccharides in their leaves. These leaves contained starch granules having greatly increased amylose content and type C semi-crystalline structures with increased short chains that suggested storage starch. In storage roots of GWD1-RNAi lines, maltose content was dramatically decreased and starches with much lower phosphorylation levels showed a drastically reduced β-amylolytic rate. These results suggested that GWD1 regulates transient starch morphogenesis and storage root growth by decreasing photo-assimilation partitioning from the source to the sink and by starch mobilization in root crops.

  7. In vitro cultured primary roots derived from stem segments of cassava (Manihot esculenta) can behave like storage organs.

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    Medina, Ricardo D; Faloci, Mirta M; Gonzalez, Ana M; Mroginski, Luis A

    2007-03-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) has three adventitious root types: primary and secondary fibrous roots, and storage roots. Different adventitious root types can also regenerate from in vitro cultured segments. The aim of this study was to investigate aspects of in vitro production of storage roots. Morphological and anatomical analyses were performed to identify and differentiate each root type. Twenty-nine clones were assayed to determine the effect of genotype on the capacity to form storage roots in vitro. The effects of cytokinins and auxins on the formation of storage roots in vitro were also examined. Primary roots formed in vitro and in vivo had similar tissue kinds; however, storage roots formed in vitro exhibited physiological specialization for storing starch. The only consistent diagnostic feature between secondary fibrous and storage roots was their functional differentiation. Anatomical analysis of the storage roots formed in vitro showed that radial expansion as a consequence of massive proliferation and enlargement of parenchymatous cells occurred in the middle cortex, but not from cambial activity as in roots formed in vivo. Cortical expansion could be related to dilatation growth favoured by hormone treatments. Starch deposition of storage roots formed in vitro was confined to cortical tissue and occurred earlier than in storage roots formed in vivo. Auxin and cytokinin supplementation were absolutely required for in vitro storage root regeneration; these roots were not able to develop secondary growth, but formed a tissue competent for starch storing. MS medium with 5 % sucrose plus 0.54 microM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 0.44 microM 6-benzylaminopurine was one of the most effective in stimulating the storage root formation. Genotypes differed significantly in their capacity to produce storage roots in vitro. Storage root formation was considerably affected by the segment's primary position and strongly influenced by hormone treatments. The storage

  8. Studies on variation of carotenoid-proteins content in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root reveal implications for breeding and the use of induced mutations

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    Protein content in storage roots of cassava is low but variable and characterization of this variability is lacking. Total buffer extractable proteins (TBEP) content in pigmented cassava landraces varied from 0.9-7.5 (mg/gDWt.) and correlated with total carotenoid content (R2=0.4757). More than 3x T...

  9. Leaf proteomic analysis in cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) during plant development, from planting of stem cutting to storage root formation.

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    Mitprasat, Mashamon; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Jiemsup, Surasak; Boonseng, Opas; Yokthongwattana, Kittisak

    2011-06-01

    Tuberization in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) occurs simultaneously with plant development, suggesting competition of photoassimilate partitioning between the shoot and the root organs. In potato, which is the most widely studied tuber crop, there is ample evidence suggesting that metabolism and regulatory processes in leaf may have an impact on tuber formation. To search for leaf proteins putatively involved in regulating tuber generation and/or development in cassava, comparative proteomic approaches have been applied to monitor differentially expressed leaf proteins during root transition from fibrous to tuberous. Stringent cross comparison and statistical analysis between two groups with different plant ages using Student's t test with 95% significance level revealed a number of protein spots whose abundance were significantly altered (P < 0.05) during week 4 to week 8 of growth. Of these, 39 spots were successfully identified by ion trap LC-MS/MS. The proteins span various functional categories from antioxidant and defense, carbohydrate metabolism, cyanogenesis, energy metabolism, miscellaneous and unknown proteins. Results suggested possible metabolic switches in the leaf that may trigger/regulate storage root initiation and growth. This study provides a basis for further functional characterization of differentially expressed leaf proteins, which can help understand how biochemical processes in cassava leaves may be involved in storage root development.

  10. Non-invasive monitoring of below ground cassava storage root bulking by ground penetrating radar technology

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    Ruiz Vera, U. M.; Larson, T. H.; Mwakanyamale, K. E.; Grennan, A. K.; Souza, A. P.; Ort, D. R.; Balikian, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture needs a new technological revolution to be able to meet the food demands, to overcome weather and natural hazards events, and to monitor better crop productivity. Advanced technologies used in other fields have recently been applied in agriculture. Thus, imagine instrumentation has been applied to phenotype above-ground biomass and predict yield. However, the capability to monitor belowground biomass is still limited. There are some existing technologies available, for example the ground penetrating radar (GPR) which has been used widely in the area of geology and civil engineering to detect different kind of formations under the ground without the disruption of the soil. GPR technology has been used also to monitor tree roots but as yet not crop roots. Some limitation are that the GPR cannot discern roots smaller than 2 cm in diameter, but it make it feasible for application in tuber crops like Cassava since harvest diameter is greater than 4 cm. The objective of this research is to test the availability to use GPR technology to monitor the growth of cassava roots by testing this technique in the greenhouse and in the field. So far, results from the greenhouse suggest that GPR can detect mature roots of cassava and this data could be used to predict biomass.

  11. RNAi inhibition of feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase reduces scopoletin biosynthesis and post-harvest physiological deterioration in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage roots.

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    Liu, Shi; Zainuddin, Ima M; Vanderschuren, Herve; Doughty, James; Beeching, John R

    2017-05-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major world crop, whose storage roots provide food for over 800 million throughout the humid tropics. Despite many advantages as a crop, the development of cassava is seriously constrained by the rapid post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of its roots that occurs within 24-72 h of harvest, rendering the roots unpalatable and unmarketable. PPD limits cassava's marketing possibilities in countries that are undergoing increased development and urbanisation due to growing distances between farms and consumers. The inevitable wounding of the roots caused by harvesting triggers an oxidative burst that spreads throughout the cassava root, together with the accumulation of secondary metabolites including phenolic compounds, of which the coumarin scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one) is the most abundant. Scopoletin oxidation yields a blue-black colour, which suggests its involvement in the discoloration observed during PPD. Feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase is a controlling enzyme in the biosynthesis of scopoletin. The cassava genome contains a seven membered family of feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase genes, four of which are expressed in the storage root and, of these, three were capable of functionally complementing Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants in this gene. A RNA interference construct, designed to a highly conserved region of these genes, was used to transform cassava, where it significantly reduced feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase gene expression, scopoletin accumulation and PPD symptom development. Collectively, our results provide evidence that scopoletin plays a major functional role in the development of PPD symptoms, rather than merely paralleling symptom development in the cassava storage root.

  12. Characterization of carotenoid-protein complexes and gene expression analysis associated with carotenoid sequestration in pigmented cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root

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    Carotenoid-protein complex separation by size exclusion chromatography, protein fractionation by SDS-PAGE, and shotgun PROTEOMICS technology were used to identify and characterize carotenoid associated proteins (CAPs) of chromoplast-enriched suspensions from cassava intense yellow storage root. A no...

  13. Effect of harvest period on the quality of storage roots and protein content of the leaves in five cassava cultivars (Manihot esculenta, Crantz

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    Sagrilo Edvaldo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of harvest period on the quality of storage roots and leaves of cassava cultivars was determined in an experiment carried out in a randomized complete block design with four replications in a split plot scheme, with five cultivars in the plots and ten harvest times in the subplots. The IAC 13 cultivar had the highest rate of dry matter accumulation in the storage roots and the Mico cultivar the lowest. The period of least dry matter content in the storage roots occurred later for the Fécula Branca, Mico and IAC 14 cultivars, and the minimum starch content in the storage roots occurred later for the Fécula Branca and Mico cultivars. In general, the IAC 13, IAC 14 and Fécula Branca cultivars had higher dry matter content in the storage roots, while higher starch content in the dry and fresh matter were obtained in the Fécula Branca cultivar. The crude protein content in the leaves decreased as the plant aged.

  14. Comparison of methods for phenotypic stability analysis of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz genotypes for yield and storage root dry matter content

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    Marcus Vinícius Kvitschal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare different phenotypic stability methods by using yield and storage root dry matter content data of eight cassava genotypes, assessed in eight environments in northwest of Paraná State, Brazil. All the methodologies applied showed to be able to study the stability of cassava genotypes, but each with its peculiarities. The methodologies of Eskridge, Annicchiarico and Lin and Binns were the most appropriated on situation with smaller effect of G x E interaction. The AMMI analysis and the Toler and Burrows methodology were the most specific on detailing specific adaptations of cassava genotypes to favorable and unfavorable environments. It could be suggested to use simultaneous AMMI analysis and Toler and Burrows methodology. The clone IAC 190-89 was the most promising.O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar diferentes metodologias de análise de estabilidade fenotípica considerando produção e teor de matéria seca nas raízes tuberosas de oito genótipos de mandioca, avaliados em oito ambientes na região Noroeste do Paraná. Todas as metodologias aplicadas se mostraram aptas no estudo da estabilidade dos genótipos avaliados, cada uma delas com suas particularidades. As metodologias de Eskridge, Annicchiarico e Lin e Binns se mostraram mais adequadas para situações de menor efeito da interação G x A. A análise AMMI e a metodologia de Toler e Burrows propiciaram um melhor detalhamento das adaptações específicas dos genótipos a ambientes favoráveis e desaforáveis. É sugerido o uso simultâneo da análise AMMI e da metodologia de Toler e Burrows. O clone IAC 190-89 mostrou-se mais promissor.

  15. Iron biofortification and homeostasis in transgenic cassava roots expressing an algal iron assimilatory protein, FEA1

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    Uzoma eIhemere; Narayanan eNarayanan; Richard eSayre

    2012-01-01

    We have engineered the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory protein, FEA1, in roots to enhance its nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36 ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500 gm meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 protein did not alter iron levels in l...

  16. Domestication syndrome in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): Assessing morphological traits and differentially expressed genes associated with genetic diversity of storage root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava is a starchy root crop that provides a staple food source for millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Brazil is considered the major center of diversification for species of the genus Manihot. It is also a center of domestication for the cul...

  17. Effect of Replacement of Maize with Cassava Root Meal Fortified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of replacement of maize with cassava root meal (CRM) fortified with palm oil on performance of starter broilers were determined in a 28-day feeding trial. Diets T2, T3, T4 and T5 were formulated such that they contained cassava root meal, fortified with 20% palm oil, in the proportions 10, 20, 30 and 40%, ...

  18. Maize Fungal Growth Control with Scopoletin of Cassava Roots Produced in Benin

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    Rafiatou Ba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical contamination of food is among the main public health issues in developing countries. With a view to find new natural bioactive products against fungi responsible for chemical contamination of staple food such as maize, the antifungal activity tests of scopoletin extracted from different components of the cassava root produced in Benin were carried out. The dosage of scopoletin from parts of the root (first skin, second skin, whole root, and flesh was done by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The scopoletin extract was used to assess the activity of 12 strains (11 strains of maize and a reference strain. The presence of scopoletin was revealed in all components of the cassava root. Scopoletin extracted from the first skin cassava root was the most active both as inhibition of sporulation (52.29 to 87.91% and the mycelial growth (36.51–80.41%. Scopoletin extract from the cassava root skins showed significant inhibitory activity on the tested strains with fungicide concentration (MFC between 0.0125 mg/mL and 0.1 mg/mL. The antifungal scopoletin extracted from the cassava root skins may be well beneficial for the fungal control of the storage of maize.

  19. Iron Biofortification and Homeostasis in Transgenic Cassava Roots Expressing the Algal Iron Assimilatory Gene, FEA1

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    Ihemere, Uzoma E.; Narayanan, Narayanan N.; Sayre, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    We have engineered the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory gene, FEA1, in its storage roots with the objective of enhancing the root nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36 ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500 g meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 gene in storage roots did not alter iron levels in leaves. Transgenic plants also had normal levels of zinc in leaves and roots consistent with the specific uptake of ferrous iron mediated by the FEA1 protein. Relative to wild-type plants, fibrous roots of FEA1 expressing plants had reduced Fe (III) chelate reductase activity consistent with the more efficient uptake of iron in the transgenic plants. We also show that multiple cassava genes involved in iron homeostasis have altered tissue-specific patterns of expression in leaves, stems, and roots of transgenic plants consistent with increased iron sink strength in transgenic roots. These results are discussed in terms of strategies for the iron biofortification of plants. PMID:22993514

  20. LAYER DRYING OF DICED CASSAVA ROOTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opiyo

    moisture content of the cassava cubes. Weather conditions during the experiments were also monitored. A parallel sun drying experiment was carried out to compare thin layer drying on the sun and thin layer drying in the fabricated dryer. For the fresh cassava that was used in the experiments, a duplicate sample was ...

  1. Toward better understanding of postharvest deterioration: biochemical changes in stored cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots.

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    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Coelho, Bianca; Moresco, Rodolfo; Domínguez, Moralba Garcia; Sánchez, Teresa; Meléndez, Jorge Luis Luna; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernan; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Hershey, Clair; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-05-01

    Food losses can occur during production, postharvest, and processing stages in the supply chain. With the onset of worldwide food shortages, interest in reducing postharvest losses in cassava has been increasing. In this research, the main goal was to evaluate biochemical changes and identify the metabolites involved in the deterioration of cassava roots. We found that high levels of ascorbic acid (AsA), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), dry matter, and proteins are correlated with overall lower rates of deterioration. On the other hand, soluble sugars such as glucose and fructose, as well as organic acids, mainly, succinic acid, seem to be upregulated during storage and may play a role in the deterioration of cassava roots. Cultivar Branco (BRA) was most resilient to postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD), while Oriental (ORI) was the most susceptible. Our findings suggest that PPO, AsA, and proteins may play a distinct role in PPD delay.

  2. Iron biofortification and homeostasis in transgenic cassava roots expressing an algal iron assimilatory protein, FEA1

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    Uzoma eIhemere

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We have engineered the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory protein, FEA1, in roots to enhance its nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36 ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500 gm meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 protein did not alter iron levels in leaves. Transgenic plants also had normal levels of zinc in leaves and roots consistent with the specific uptake of iron mediated by the FEA1 protein. Relative to wild-type plants, FEA1 expressing plants had reduced Fe(III chelate reductase activity and gene expression levels consistent with the more efficient uptake of iron in FEA1 transgenic plants. We also show that genes involved in iron homeostasis in cassava have altered tissue-specific patterns of expression in transgenic plants. Steady state transcript levels of the metal-chelate transporter MeYSL1, and the iron storage proteins, MeFER2 and MeFER6, were elevated in various tissues of FEA1 transgenic plants compared to wild-type plants. These results suggest that these gene products play a role in iron translocation and homeostasis in FEA1 transgenic cassava plants. These results are discussed in terms of enhanced strategies for the iron biofortification of plants.

  3. Quality evaluation of 'lafun' produced from stored cassava roots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freshly harvested cassava roots were stored in the soil and some were stored heaped on the floor of a well ventilated store room. These roots were stored for periods ranging from 1 to 9 days and samples were drawn from them respectively at 3 days interval and used to produce Lafun. Also, Lafun was produced from ...

  4. Cyanogen removal from cassava roots during sun-drying.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, A.J.; Grift, van der R.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Linamarin levels in sun-drying cassava root pieces showed an exponential decrease, parallel with the moisture loss, and stabilized when moisture levels reached about 15%. Linamarin degradation in thin root segments was significantly slower and less complete than in thick ones. Disinfected

  5. Biodegradation of cassava root sieviate with enzymes extracted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate changes in proximate, sugars and cell wall components of cassava root sieviates (CRS) treated with extracted enzymes obtained from Aspergillus niger (An), Trichoderma viridae (Tv), Rhizopus stolonifer (Rs) and Mucor mucedo (Mm) applied on autoclaved CRS at 250ml/kg. Another ...

  6. Leaf Chlorophyll Content and Tuberous Root Yield of Cassava in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field trials were established in 1996 and 1997 to assess genotypic variability of four cassava (Manihot esculanta) cultivars for adaptability in the inland valley in terms of leaf chlorophyll content and tuberous root yield, using a 4 x 4 Latin square design with four replications arranged along the toposequence.

  7. Isolation and partial characterization of a root-specific promoter for stacking multiple traits into cassava (Manihot esculenta CRANTZ).

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    Gbadegesin, M A; Beeching, J R

    2011-06-07

    Cassava can be cultivated on impoverished soils with minimum inputs, and its storage roots are a staple food for millions in Africa. However, these roots are low in bioavailable nutrients and in protein content, contain cyanogenic glycosides, and suffer from a very short post-harvest shelf-life, and the plant is susceptible to viral and bacterial diseases prevalent in Africa. The demand for improvement of cassava with respect to these traits comes from both farmers and national agricultural institutions. Genetic improvement of cassava cultivars by molecular biology techniques requires the availability of appropriate genes, a system to introduce these genes into cassava, and the use of suitable gene promoters. Cassava root-specific promoter for auxin-repressed protein was isolated using the gene walking approach, starting with a cDNA sequence. In silico analysis of promoter sequences revealed putative cis-acting regulatory elements, including root-specific elements, which may be required for gene expression in vascular tissues. Research on the activities of this promoter is continuing, with the development of plant expression cassettes for transformation into major African elite lines and farmers' preferred cassava cultivars to enable testing of tissue-specific expression patterns in the field.

  8. The retail market for fresh cassava root tubers in the European Union (EU)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind-Hansen, Lotte; Brimer, Leon

    2010-01-01

    A number of retail shops in Copenhagen sell fresh cassava roots. Cassava roots contain the toxic cyanogenic glucoside linamarin. A survey was made of the shop characteristics, origin of the roots, buyers, shop owner's knowledge of toxicity levels, and actual toxicity levels.......A number of retail shops in Copenhagen sell fresh cassava roots. Cassava roots contain the toxic cyanogenic glucoside linamarin. A survey was made of the shop characteristics, origin of the roots, buyers, shop owner's knowledge of toxicity levels, and actual toxicity levels....

  9. Study of culture media for in vitro storage of cassava

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    Aymé Rayas

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant tissue culture constitutes an alternative for germplasm conservation in case of vegetatively propagated species. This approach permits to maintain collections in small places free from attach of diseases and catastrophes. Eleven variants from MS culture media were tested. Variants consist of different sucrose (20, 30 and 40 g.l-1 and manitol (0, 10, 20 y 30 g.l-1 concentrations in order to decrease the subculture number in the in vitro storage of ‘Señorita’ and ‘CEMSA 74-725’ clones. Evaluations were carried out nine months after in vitro implantation based on: height (cm, internode number by plant, number of active leave, number of active roots and surviving percentage. After storage, explants were incubated for recovery in the described culture medium for in vitro cassava growing. A culture medium with the addition of 40 g.l-1 sucrose, 0.02 mg.l-1 BAP, 0.1 mg.l-1 de GA3 and 0.01 mg.l-1 ANA is recommended. Key Words: Manihot esculenta, micropropagation, genetics resourses

  10. Root growth and NPK status of cassava as influenced by oil palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    . 4.3. 3.3. 3.8. 3.4. 3.8. MAP = Month after planting; B = bitter cassava; S = sweet cassava. Table 3. Effect of palm bunch ash (OBA) on number of roots per cassava plant at Umudike. 3MAP. 6MAP. 9MAP. 12MAP. OBA (t/ha). B.

  11. Morphoanatomy and histochemistry analyses of cassava roots do not discriminate resistant from susceptible genotypes to soft root rot

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, Jonny Lucio Sousa; MOURA, Elisa Ferreira; ILKIU-BORGES, Fernanda; GALVÃO, Jessivaldo Rodrigues; FARIAS-NETO, João Tomé de; SILVA, Gisele Barata da; RÊGO, Marcela Cristiane Ferreira; CUNHA, Roberto Lisboa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cassava is an important culture in Brazil and in the North of the country, and soft root rot has affected root production. The aim of this work was to identify root morphoanatomic and histochemical characters associated with root rot resistance. In areas with no occurrence of the disease, nine cassava genotypes were tested, four of which were resistant, and five were susceptible to root rot. Root harvest was carried out twelve months after sowing, and thickness of suber, suber and co...

  12. Overexpression of Arabidopsis VIT1 increases accumulation of iron in cassava roots and stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Narayanan; Beyene, Getu; Chauhan, Raj Deepika; Gaitán-Solis, Eliana; Grusak, Michael A; Taylor, Nigel; Anderson, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Iron is extremely abundant in the soil, but its uptake in plants is limited due to low solubility in neutral or alkaline soils. Plants can rely on rhizosphere acidification to increase iron solubility. AtVIT1 was previously found to be involved in mediating vacuolar sequestration of iron, which indicates a potential application for iron biofortification in crop plants. Here, we have overexpressed AtVIT1 in the starchy root crop cassava using a patatin promoter. Under greenhouse conditions, iron levels in mature cassava storage roots showed 3-4 times higher values when compared with wild-type plants. Significantly, the expression of AtVIT1 showed a positive correlation with the increase in iron concentration of storage roots. Conversely, young leaves of AtVIT1 transgenic plants exhibit characteristics of iron deficiency such as interveinal chlorosis of leaves (yellowing) and lower iron concentration when compared with the wild type plants. Interestingly, the AtVIT1 transgenic plants showed 4 and 16 times higher values of iron concentration in the young stem and stem base tissues, respectively. AtVIT1 transgenic plants also showed 2-4 times higher values of iron content when compared with wild-type plants, with altered partitioning of iron between source and sink tissues. These results demonstrate vacuolar iron sequestration as a viable transgenic strategy to biofortify crops and to help eliminate micronutrient malnutrition in at-risk human populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cassava root meal as substitute for maize in layers ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Anaeto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing maize with graded levels of cassava root meal (CRM as energy source in the diet of laying hens was evaluated during the eight weeks of feeding experiment on performance and cost benefits on layers. Forty-five Nera black laying hens of 24 weeks of age were allocated to five dietary treatments, with nine birds per treatment in a completely randomized design. CRM was used to formulate the diets at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%. The result showed that the feed intake of birds in the control group was significantly (p<0.05 different from those fed the CRM diets. The average weight gain of layers receiving up to 50% CRM was similar to the control birds, but significantly different from layers fed 75 and 100% CRM. No mortality was recorded. Egg production per hen per day and average egg weight were significantly different (p<0.05 for birds consuming more than 50% CRM in T4 and T5. Layer feed ration was made cheaper by the replacement of maize with cassava root meal in the diets.

  14. Cloning and characterization of a tuberous root-specific promoter from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehorst-van Putten, H.J.J.; Wolters, A.M.A.; Pereira-Bertram, I.J.; Berg, H.; Krol, van der A.R.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain a tuberous root-specific promoter to be used in the transformation of cassava, a 1,728 bp sequence containing the cassava granule-bound starch synthase (GBSSI) promoter was isolated. The sequence proved to contain light- and sugar-responsive cis elements. Part of this sequence

  15. Soaking and drying of cassava roots reduced cyanogenic potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detoxification of three cassava varieties (NR-44/72, NW-45/72 and NW-44/72) by traditional methods of processing to produce cassava flour was investigated at the college of agriculture, Jimma University during February to May, 2007. The total hydrogen cyanide (HCN) quantitative determination in cassava flour was ...

  16. Kinetics of Natural Detoxification of Hydrogen Cyanide Contained In Retted Cassava Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the kinetics of natural detoxification of hydrogen cyanide contained in retted cassava roots. Retting is traditional fermentation of cassava, performed to soften the roots. During retting, cyanide diffuses into water used for the retting. The fresh cassava roots (bitter and sweet varieties used for this experiment were separately retted at ambient 0 temperature of 30 C. The cyanide content and pH were monitored daily. From the analysis of the experimental results, a first order consecutive rate equation is an adequate tool for explaining the mechanism of HCN reduction (or decay in retted cassava roots. The detoxification constants for the bound cyanide in the bitter and sweet cassava roots were 0.378/day and 0.438/day respectively, while that of the free hydrogen cyanide were 0.63/day and 0.74/day for the bitter and sweet varieties respectively. Cassava tubers from different species cannot be fermented with the same retting condition unless they have same or close functional properties.

  17. Isotope studies on rainfed rooting characteristics and efficient use of applied fertilizer on cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiwanakupt, S.

    1981-11-01

    Soil injection of 32 P was used to determine the root activity pattern of rainfed Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) in Thailand. Root activity decreased with depth so that 57, 38 and 5 percent of the total activity was noted at the 15, 30 and 50 cm depths, respectively. The root activity increased with distance from the plant. Twenty two, 28 and 50 percent of the root activity was obtained at the 10, 20 and 30 cm distances, respectively. It was thus concluded that phosphorus fertilizer should be mixed with the surface 15 cm soil 30 cm from Cassava rows to maximize fertilizer uptake

  18. Over-expression of hydroxynitrile lyase in transgenic cassava roots accelerates cyanogenesis and food detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Arias-Garzon, Diana; White, Wanda; Sayre, Richard T

    2004-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) roots are the primary source of calories for more than 500 million people, the majority of whom live in the developing countries of Africa. Cassava leaves and roots contain potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glycosides. Consumption of residual cyanogens (linamarin or acetone cyanohydrin) in incompletely processed cassava roots can cause cyanide poisoning. Hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL), which catalyses the conversion of acetone cyanohydrin to cyanide, is expressed predominantly in the cell walls and laticifers of leaves. In contrast, roots have very low levels of HNL expression. We have over-expressed HNL in transgenic cassava plants under the control of a double 35S CaMV promoter. We show that HNL activity increased more than twofold in leaves and 13-fold in roots of transgenic plants relative to wild-type plants. Elevated HNL levels were correlated with substantially reduced acetone cyanohydrin levels and increased cyanide volatilization in processed or homogenized roots. Unlike acyanogenic cassava, transgenic plants over-expressing HNL in roots retain the herbivore deterrence of cyanogens while providing a safer food product.

  19. iTRAQ-based analysis of changes in the cassava root proteome reveals pathways associated with post-harvest physiological deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owiti, Judith; Grossmann, Jonas; Gehrig, Peter; Dessimoz, Christophe; Laloi, Christophe; Hansen, Maria Benn; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2011-07-01

    The short storage life of harvested cassava roots is an important constraint that limits the full potential of cassava as a commercial food crop in developing countries. We investigated the molecular changes during physiological deterioration of cassava root after harvesting using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) of proteins in soluble and non-soluble fractions prepared during a 96 h post-harvest time course. Combining bioinformatic approaches to reduce information redundancy for unsequenced or partially sequenced plant species, we established a comprehensive proteome map of the cassava root and identified quantitatively regulated proteins. Up-regulation of several key proteins confirmed that physiological deterioration of cassava root after harvesting is an active process, with 67 and 170 proteins, respectively, being up-regulated early and later after harvesting. This included regulated proteins that had not previously been associated with physiological deterioration after harvesting, such as linamarase, glutamic acid-rich protein, hydroxycinnamoyl transferase, glycine-rich RNA binding protein, β-1,3-glucanase, pectin methylesterase, maturase K, dehydroascorbate reductase, allene oxide cyclase, and proteins involved in signal pathways. To confirm the regulation of these proteins, activity assays were performed for selected enzymes. Together, our results show that physiological deterioration after harvesting is a highly regulated complex process involving proteins that are potential candidates for biotechnology approaches to reduce such deterioration. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Changes in scopoletin concentration in cassava chips from four varieties during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnonlonfin, Gbemenou Joselin Benoit; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Gbenou, Joachim D.

    2011-01-01

    The use of the root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is constrained by its rapid deterioration after harvesting. Chemical and spectroscopic examination earlier revealed the accumulation of the four hydroxycoumarins esculetin, esculin, scopolin and scopoletin derived from the phenylpropanoid...

  1. Participation and performance of root crops scientists on cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted among cassava crops research scientists in Abia State Nigeria in order to evaluate their participation and performance in cassava research. The study described the socio economic characteristics of the researchers ascertain their level of participation in different research activities, identify their ...

  2. Soaking and drying of cassava roots reduced cyanogenic potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... Key words: Cassava flour, soaking, total hydrogen cyanide. INTRODUCTION. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important food crops ... vision, ataxia of gait, deafness and weakness (Howlett,. 1994; Cardoso et al., 2005). These medical conditions caused by cyanide overload could be ...

  3. Cloning and characterization of a tuberous root-specific promoter from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehorst-van Putten, Herma J J; Wolters, Anne-Marie A; Pereira-Bertram, Isolde M; van den Berg, Hans H J; van der Krol, Alexander R; Visser, Richard G F

    2012-12-01

    In order to obtain a tuberous root-specific promoter to be used in the transformation of cassava, a 1,728 bp sequence containing the cassava granule-bound starch synthase (GBSSI) promoter was isolated. The sequence proved to contain light- and sugar-responsive cis elements. Part of this sequence (1,167 bp) was cloned into binary vectors to drive expression of the firefly luciferase gene. Cassava cultivar Adira 4 was transformed with this construct or a control construct in which the luciferase gene was cloned behind the 35S promoter. Luciferase activity was measured in leaves, stems, roots and tuberous roots. As expected, the 35S promoter induced luciferase activity in all organs at similar levels, whereas the GBSSI promoter showed very low expression in leaves, stems and roots, but very high expression in tuberous roots. These results show that the cassava GBSSI promoter is an excellent candidate to achieve tuberous root-specific expression in cassava.

  4. Toward better understanding of postharvest deterioration: biochemical changes in stored cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots

    OpenAIRE

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Coelho, Bianca; Moresco, Rodolfo; Garcia Domínguez, Moralba; Sánchez, Teresa; Luna Meléndez, Jorge Luis; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernan; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Hershey, Clair; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Food losses can occur during production, postharvest, and processing stages in the supply chain. With the onset of worldwide food shortages, interest in reducing postharvest losses in cassava has been increasing. In this research, the main goal was to evaluate biochemical changes and identify the metabolites involved in the deterioration of cassava roots. We found that high levels of ascorbic acid (AsA), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), dry matter, and proteins are correlated with overall l...

  5. The role of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and polysaccharides in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots under postharvest physiological deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate the role of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), polysaccharides, and protein contents associated with the early events of postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) in cassava roots. Increases in APX and GPX activity, as well as total protein contents occurred from 3 to 5 days of storage and were correlated with the delay of PPD. Cassava samples stained with Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) highlighted the presence of starch and cellulose. Degradation of starch granules during PPD was also detected. Slight metachromatic reaction with toluidine blue is indicative of increasing of acidic polysaccharides and may play an important role in PPD delay. Principal component analysis (PCA) classified samples according to their levels of enzymatic activity based on the decision tree model which showed GPX and total protein amounts to be correlated with PPD. The Oriental (ORI) cultivar was more susceptible to PPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of aflatoxin in processed dried cassava root

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnonlonfin, Gbemenou Joselin Benoit; Katerere, David R.; Adjovi, Yann

    2010-01-01

    A new method that uses HPLC with a photochemical reactor for enhanced detection was developed and validated for the determination of aflatoxins in cassava flour. Samples were spiked with a mixture of four aflatoxins at 5, 10, and 20 microg/kg mixed with either 1 or 5 g NaCI and extracted with met......A new method that uses HPLC with a photochemical reactor for enhanced detection was developed and validated for the determination of aflatoxins in cassava flour. Samples were spiked with a mixture of four aflatoxins at 5, 10, and 20 microg/kg mixed with either 1 or 5 g NaCI and extracted...

  7. The influence of root rot incidence on cassava genotype on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Key words: Manihot esculenta Crantz., Botryodiplodia theobromae, sensory evaluation, Fusarium spp.,. Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Even though, cassava as a major food crop in the deve- loping countries of Africa has the potentials of addressing the increasing food demand of the growing African population ...

  8. Thin- layer drying of diced cassava roots | Kajuna | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fresh cassava (Manihot spp) roots were obtained from a farm and used in this study. They were peeled and diced using a special dicing machine into cubes of side 0.5 cm. The cubes were dried in thin layers (one to three layers) in a drier that was specifically designed and fabricated in the Department of Agricultural ...

  9. Mycoflora and nutrient analysis of sundried cassava chips (Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-22

    Manihot esculenta) during twenty weeks of storage and the ... The nutritional composition of cassava chips were depleted by the associated fungi during storage. Therefore ... chips by cutting the roots into slices. The slices were.

  10. Effects of Growth Environment and Ulking Rate on Cyanogenic Potential of Cassava Tuerous Roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Githunguri, C.M

    2002-01-01

    Various abiotic factors affect the pattern of growth and accumulation of cyanogenic glucosides in cassava plants. Five cassava genotypes were planted in a wet and a dry agro-ecological zone and analyzed at 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 months after planting for tuberous root bulking rate and cyanogenic potential. Cassava plants at Ibadan (the wetter zone) had higher tuberous roots bulking rate and lower cynogenic potential than those planted at Minjibir (the drier zone). Root bulking rate at Ibadan increased from 4 to 6 months after planting, fell to 10 months, and then levelled off thereafter. At Majorana, bulking rate increased from 4 to 6 months, levelling off u pto 8 months after planting, and then falling slightly u pto to 10 months, and rising gradually u pto 12 months after planting. At Minijibir, the 6-8 months after planting period coincided with drought and the highest root bulking rate but increasing cyanogenic potential. Similarly, at Ibadan the 6-8 months after planting period coincided with drought and the highest root bulking rate but increasing cyanogenic potential. Despite the onset of drought, bulking continued up to 8 months after planting, falling u pto 10 months and levelling off thereafter at both agro-ecological zones. However, whereas cyanogenic potential rose rapidly after 8 months to peak at 10 months, and levelling off up to 12 months at Minjibir, cyanogenic potential levelled of after 8 u pto 12 months at Ibadan. Correlation and regression analysis suggested that root bulking rate and cyanogenic potential were negatively associated, meaning that an increase in root bulking rate would lead to corresponding decrease in it's cyanogenic potential which is highly desirable. This study has demonstrated that whereas the plant age and genotypic effects are not important factors in determining tuberous roots bulking rate and cyanogenic potential of cassava, the agro-ecological zone effect is an important factor in determining them

  11. Linamarase Expression in Cassava Cultivars with Roots of Low- and High-Cyanide Content1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, María Angélica; Vásquez, Valeria; Matehus, Juan; Aldao, Rafael Rangel

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the expression and localization of linamarase in roots of two cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars of low and high cyanide. Two different patterns of linamarase activity were observed. In the low-cyanide type, young leaves displayed very high enzyme activity during the early plant growing stage (3 months), whereas in root peel, the activity increased progressively to reach a peak in 11-month-old plants. Conversely, in the high-cyanide cultivar (HCV), root peel linamarase activity decreased during the growth cycle, whereas in expanded leaves linamarase activity peaked in 11-month-old plants. The accumulation of linamarin showed a similar pattern in both cultivars, although a higher concentration was always found in the HCV. Linamarase was found mainly in laticifer cells of petioles and roots of both cultivars with no significant differences between them. At the subcellular level, there were sharp differences because linamarase was found mainly in the cell walls of the HCV, whereas in the low-cyanide cultivar, the enzyme was present in vacuoles and cell wall of laticifer cells. Reverse transcriptase-PCR on cassava tissues showed no expression of linamarase in cassava roots, thus, the transport of linamarase from shoots to roots through laticifers is proposed. PMID:12177481

  12. Proteome characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) somatic embryos, plantlets and tuberous roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Proteomics is increasingly becoming an important tool for the study of many different aspects of plant functions, such as investigating the molecular processes underlying in plant physiology, development, differentiation and their interaction with the environments. To investigate the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) proteome, we extracted proteins from somatic embryos, plantlets and tuberous roots of cultivar SC8 and separated them by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Results Analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) yielded a total of 383 proteins including isoforms, classified into 14 functional groups. The majority of these were carbohydrate and energy metabolism associated proteins (27.2%), followed by those involved in protein biosynthesis (14.4%). Subsequent analysis has revealed that 54, 59, 74 and 102 identified proteins are unique to the somatic embryos, shoots, adventitious roots and tuberous roots, respectively. Some of these proteins may serve as signatures for the physiological and developmental stages of somatic embryos, shoots, adventitious roots and tuberous root. Western blotting results have shown high expression levels of Rubisco in shoots and its absence in the somatic embryos. In addition, high-level expression of α-tubulin was found in tuberous roots, and a low-level one in somatic embryos. This extensive study effectively provides a huge data set of dynamic protein-related information to better understand the molecular basis underlying cassava growth, development, and physiological functions. Conclusion This work paves the way towards a comprehensive, system-wide analysis of the cassava. Integration with transcriptomics, metabolomics and other large scale "-omics" data with systems biology approaches can open new avenues towards engineering cassava to enhance yields, improve nutritional value and overcome the problem of post

  13. Proteome characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz somatic embryos, plantlets and tuberous roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Samrina

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomics is increasingly becoming an important tool for the study of many different aspects of plant functions, such as investigating the molecular processes underlying in plant physiology, development, differentiation and their interaction with the environments. To investigate the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz proteome, we extracted proteins from somatic embryos, plantlets and tuberous roots of cultivar SC8 and separated them by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Results Analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS yielded a total of 383 proteins including isoforms, classified into 14 functional groups. The majority of these were carbohydrate and energy metabolism associated proteins (27.2%, followed by those involved in protein biosynthesis (14.4%. Subsequent analysis has revealed that 54, 59, 74 and 102 identified proteins are unique to the somatic embryos, shoots, adventitious roots and tuberous roots, respectively. Some of these proteins may serve as signatures for the physiological and developmental stages of somatic embryos, shoots, adventitious roots and tuberous root. Western blotting results have shown high expression levels of Rubisco in shoots and its absence in the somatic embryos. In addition, high-level expression of α-tubulin was found in tuberous roots, and a low-level one in somatic embryos. This extensive study effectively provides a huge data set of dynamic protein-related information to better understand the molecular basis underlying cassava growth, development, and physiological functions. Conclusion This work paves the way towards a comprehensive, system-wide analysis of the cassava. Integration with transcriptomics, metabolomics and other large scale "-omics" data with systems biology approaches can open new avenues towards engineering cassava to enhance yields, improve nutritional value and overcome the

  14. Efeito da época de colheita no crescimento vegetativo, na produtividade e na qualidade de raízes de três cultivares de mandioca Effect of the harvesting time in the vegetative growth, yield and quality of the storage roots of three cassava cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Sagrilo

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar o efeito da época de colheita no crescimento vegetativo, na produtividade e na qualidade de raízes tuberosas de três cultivares de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, desenvolveu-se em Araruna, Noroeste do Estado do Paraná, um experimento em área de Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico, no período de outubro de 1997 a maio de 1999. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos completos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos principais as cultivares Mico, IAC 13 e IAC 14 e os tratamentos secundários, dez épocas de colheita, realizadas mensalmente a partir do início do segundo ciclo de crescimento das plantas. A produção da parte aérea apresentou, no segundo ciclo, aumentos de 50,0% em relação a um único ciclo vegetativo. O bom desenvolvimento da estrutura vegetativa das plantas levou ao acúmulo de material de reserva nas raízes tuberosas, aumentando a sua produtividade. Os maiores índices de colheita ocorreram dos 19 aos 21 meses de idade, com valores, em média, superiores a 54,0%. As cultivares não diferiram entre si quanto à produção de raízes tuberosas, de massa seca e de amido. Para todas as cultivares, a segunda fase de repouso fisiológico das plantas mostrou-se mais propícia à colheita, em face da maior produção de raízes tuberosas (92,5%, de massa seca (125,0% e de amido (144,0%.With the objective of determining the effect of harvesting time in the vegetative growth, yield and quality of storage roots of three cassava cultivars (Manihot esculenta Crantz, an experiment was carried out in an area of red distrophic Red Latosol in Araruna, Northwest of Paraná state, from October, 1997 to May, 1999. The experimental design was a randomized complete blocks with four replications and treatments arranged in split plots. The main treatments were the cassava cultivars Mico, IAC 13 and IAC 14 and the secondary treatments were ten

  15. Cold storage of rooted and non-rooted carnation cuttings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... The specific objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of storage duration on the survival rate of rooted cuttings and to determine the rooting and survival rates of non-rooted cuttings for two standard carnation cultivars (that is., Dianora and Vittorio). The survival rates of rooted cuttings showed ...

  16. Tissue distribution and deposition pattern of a cellulosic parenchyma-specific protein from cassava roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrônio A.S. Souza

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A protein with a molecular mass of 22kDa was purified from the cellulosic parenchyma of cassava roots. The amino acid composition of the protein was determined and antibodies generated against the purified protein were used to show that the concentration of the protein remains unchanged during root "tuber" formation. By using a tissue printing technique, as well as western blot, it was shown that the cellulosic parenchyma was the only root tissue in which the protein was deposited.

  17. Cassava as a food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okezie, B O; Kosikowski, F V

    1982-01-01

    This review has attempted to examine information pertaining to the role of cassava (Manihot esculenta) as a major food source for a large part of the world population, particularly the countries of South America, Africa, and Asia, where it is primarily a major source of energy for 300 to 500 million people. Its cultivation, usually on small farms with little technology, is estimated to cover on an annual basis about 11 million hectares providing about 105 million tons, more than half of which is consumed by humans. The importance of cassava as an energy source can be seen by its growing demand in the European economic community countries where it forms up to 60% of the balanced diets for swine. Cassava is one of the crops that converts the greatest amount of solar energy into soluble carbohydrates per unit of area, thus 1 kg of moisture-free cassava meal may yield up to about 3750 kcal which would mean that a yearly production of 15 tons of cassava meal per hectare would yield some 56 million kcal. The major limitations of cassava as food appear to be its poor protein content and quality and the rapid post harvest deterioration of its roots which usually prevents their storage in the fresh state for more than a few days. However, in addition to its use for culinary purposes, cassava finds application in industrial products such as an adhesive for laundry purposes, for manufacturing paper, alcohol, butanol, dextrin, adhesive tape, textile sizing, and glue.

  18. Overexpression of hydroxynitrile lyase in cassava roots elevates protein and free amino acids while reducing residual cyanogen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Narayanan N; Ihemere, Uzoma; Ellery, Claire; Sayre, Richard T

    2011-01-01

    Cassava is the major source of calories for more than 250 million Sub-Saharan Africans, however, it has the lowest protein-to-energy ratio of any major staple food crop in the world. A cassava-based diet provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein. Moreover, both leaves and roots contain potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides. The major cyanogen in cassava is linamarin which is stored in the vacuole. Upon tissue disruption linamarin is deglycosylated by the apolplastic enzyme, linamarase, producing acetone cyanohydrin. Acetone cyanohydrin can spontaneously decompose at pHs >5.0 or temperatures >35°C, or is enzymatically broken down by hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) to produce acetone and free cyanide which is then volatilized. Unlike leaves, cassava roots have little HNL activity. The lack of HNL activity in roots is associated with the accumulation of potentially toxic levels of acetone cyanohydrin in poorly processed roots. We hypothesized that the over-expression of HNL in cassava roots under the control of a root-specific, patatin promoter would not only accelerate cyanogenesis during food processing, resulting in a safer food product, but lead to increased root protein levels since HNL is sequestered in the cell wall. Transgenic lines expressing a patatin-driven HNL gene construct exhibited a 2-20 fold increase in relative HNL mRNA levels in roots when compared with wild type resulting in a threefold increase in total root protein in 7 month old plants. After food processing, HNL overexpressing lines had substantially reduced acetone cyanohydrin and cyanide levels in roots relative to wild-type roots. Furthermore, steady state linamarin levels in intact tissues were reduced by 80% in transgenic cassava roots. These results suggest that enhanced linamarin metabolism contributed to the elevated root protein levels.

  19. Effect of Harvest Time and Nitrogen Doses on Cassava Root Yield and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Trajano de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen is considered the most limiting nutrient for cassava, and N availability can influence the crop cycle, including earlier harvest. The aim of this study was to study the effect of harvest time on the production components of cassava, “Aciolina” cultivar, at different rates of N fertiliser. The experiment was carried out in an area newly incorporated into the productive system in a savannah ecosystem in the northern Amazon. A randomised block experimental design was used in a split plot arrangement with four replications. The N rates (0, 30, 60, 150, and 330 kg ha-1 were allocated to the main plots, and the harvest times (90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300, and 360 days after emergence of the stalks - DAE were allocated to the subplots. Plant height, shoot fresh matter yield, number of roots per plant, average root diameter, and root fresh matter yield display an increasing linear response up to 360 DAE in cassava cv. “Aciolina”. For all harvest times, the N rates promote an increase in root fresh matter yield. At 300 and 360 DAE, the root fresh matter and starch yield and the harvest index show a quadratic response as a function of the N level. The greatest efficiency of N topdressing on the production of root fresh matter occurs at 300 DAE, promoting an earlier harvest. At that time, the dose of maximum technical efficiency, 226 kg ha-1 N, results in a yield of 62 Mg ha-1 of root fresh matter, 13 Mg ha-1 of starch, and a harvest index of 81 %.

  20. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain, least (P < 0.05) hydrocyanide (HCN) intake and best (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio. Chicks fed with control and diet containing 100 g/kg peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) had the least (P < 0.05) feed cost per weight gain. Chicks fed with diet containing 100 g/kg cassava root meal had higher (P < 0.05) final liveweight and weight gain and reduced (P < 0.05) HCN intake than chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg cassava root meal. Dietary inclusion of peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) for broiler chicks resulted in increased final liveweight (P < 0.05), weight gain (P < 0.01) and feed intake (P < 0.01) when compared with birds fed with diet containing unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM). The least (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain and worst (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio were obtained with chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM. Increased dietary inclusion levels of cassava root resulted in significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC) count, heterophil count and serum thiocyanate concentration. In comparison with chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P < 0.05) red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and reduced (P < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count and serum

  1. Quantitative trait loci controlling cyanogenic glucoside and dry matter content in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balyejusa Kizito, Elizabeth; Rönnberg-Wästljung, Ann-Christin; Egwang, Thomas; Gullberg, Urban; Fregene, Martin; Westerbergh, Anna

    2007-09-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a starchy root crop grown in the tropics mainly by small-scale farmers even though agro-industrial processing is rapidly increasing. For this processing market improved varieties with high dry matter root content (DMC) is required. Potentially toxic cyanogenic glucosides are synthesized in the leaves and translocated to the roots. Selection for varieties with low cyanogenic glucoside potential (CNP) and high DMC is among the principal objectives in cassava breeding programs. However, these traits are highly influenced by the environmental conditions and the genetic control of these traits is not well understood. An S(1) population derived from a cross between two bred cassava varieties (MCOL 1684 and Rayong 1) that differ in CNP and DMC was used to study the heritability and genetic basis of these traits. A broad-sense heritability of 0.43 and 0.42 was found for CNP and DMC, respectively. The moderate heritabilities for DMC and CNP indicate that the phenotypic variation of these traits is explained by a genetic component. We found two quantitative trait loci (QTL) on two different linkage groups controlling CNP and six QTL on four different linkage groups controlling DMC. One QTL for CNP and one QTL for DMC mapped near each other, suggesting pleiotrophy and/or linkage of QTL. The two QTL for CNP showed additive effects while the six QTL for DMC showed additive effect, dominance or overdominance. This study is a first step towards developing molecular marker tools for efficient breeding of CNP and DMC in cassava.

  2. Comparative Proteome Analysis of the Tuberous Roots of Six Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Varieties Reveals Proteins Related to Phenotypic Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Gabriela Justamante Händel; de Magalhães Andrade, Jonathan; Valle, Teresa Losada; Labate, Carlos Alberto; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

    2016-04-27

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food and an important source of starch, and the attributes of its tuberous root largely depend on the variety. The proteome of cassava has been investigated; however, to date, no study has focused on varieties that reveal the molecular basis of phenotypical characteristics. Therefore, we aimed to compare the proteome of the tuberous roots of six cassava varieties that differed in carbohydrates, carotenoids, and resistance to diseases, among other attributes. Two-dimensional gels showed 146 differential spots between the varieties, and the functional roles of some differential proteins were correlated to phenotypic characteristics of the varieties, such as the amount of carbohydrates or carotenoids and the resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses. The results obtained here highlight elements that might help to direct the improvement of new cultivars of cassava, which is an economically and socially relevant crop worldwide.

  3. Differentiated Gender Ownership of Cassava Fields and Implications for Root Yield Variations in Small Holder Agriculture of Southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of their relatively limited access to production resources, it has been variously reported that women obtain lower yields from their individual crop fields than men. Cassava root yields obtained from farmers' fields in three villages of southeast Nigeria were compared using separate ownership of fields by gender as a factor. The result of the analysis fails to confirm lower yields from women's fields. Instead, mean fresh root yield was lower for fields owned individually by men than for those owned individually by women, and about the same for fields owned jointly by the whole family and those owned individually by women. This was apparently because of differences in the use of purchased inputs, especially hired labor and improved cassava varieties, and perhaps also due to differences in the age of cassava at harvest and the intercropping of cassava as a minor crop with yam.

  4. Ground penetrating radar: a case study for estimating root bulking rate in cassava (Manihot esculentaCrantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Alfredo; Hays, Dirk B; Bruton, Richard K; Ceballos, Hernán; Novo, Alexandre; Boi, Enrico; Selvaraj, Michael Gomez

    2017-01-01

    Understanding root traits is a necessary research front for selection of favorable genotypes or cultivation practices. Root and tuber crops having most of their economic potential stored below ground are favorable candidates for such studies. The ability to image and quantify subsurface root structure would allow breeders to classify root traits for rapid selection and allow agronomist the ability to derive effective cultivation practices. In spite of the huge role of Cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz), for food security and industrial uses, little progress has been made in understanding the onset and rate of the root-bulking process and the factors that influence it. The objective of this research was to determine the capability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) to predict root-bulking rates through the detection of total root biomass during its growth cycle. Our research provides the first application of GPR for detecting below ground biomass in cassava. Through an empirical study, linear regressions were derived to model cassava bulking rates. The linear equations derived suggest that GPR is a suitable measure of root biomass ( r  = .79). The regression analysis developed accounts for 63% of the variability in cassava biomass below ground. When modeling is performed at the variety level, it is evident that the variety models for SM 1219-9 and TMS 60444 outperform the HMC-1 variety model (r 2  = .77, .63 and .51 respectively). Using current modeling methods, it is possible to predict below ground biomass and estimate root bulking rates for selection of early root bulking in cassava. Results of this approach suggested that the general model was over predicting at early growth stages but became more precise in later root development.

  5. The influence of root rot incidence on cassava genotype on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    28 panelists were asked to indicate their degree of preference for the colour, odour and taste of each gari sample by choosing the appropriate category in the hedonic scale. The results were compared with the tuberous root rot incidence and severity of genotypes in the field. All experiments were repeated and the data ...

  6. CASSAVA IN A SUBTROPICAL SHORT-SEASON ENVIRONMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sandy loam (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic Typic. Paleudult). Before land preparation for planting, fe.i'tili .... probably the result of pruning after planting. Number of ~ storage roots per plant varied ... Branching patterns. leaf area index, and number of storage roots of field grown cassava during 1983-1984'. Number of storage.

  7. Environmental effects on growth and development of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz). III. Assimilate distribution and storage organ yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, B.A.; Evenson, J.P.; Fukai, S.

    1982-12-01

    Assimilate distribution and storage organ (storage roots plus swollen planting piece) yield of serial plantings of the cassava cultivar M Aus 10, made throughout a year, and grown for one year duration were studied with sequential harvests in S.E. Queensland (latitude 27 degrees 37'S), Australia. Seasonal differences in the proportion of total dry matter assimilation partioned to storage organs over a given time period (referred to as distribution ratio, DR) were observed with low DR over the mid-summer (January to March) period (0.1 to 0.3) when crop growth rate (CGR) was at a maximum compared with 0.4 to 0.5 in November to December and 0.5 to 1.0 in late autumn to winter (April to July). This period of low DR restricted storage organ yields which generally lower (6-9 t DW ha-1 year-1) than those reported for adapted germplasm at lower latitudes. Multiple regression models were developed which accounted for much of the variation in DR in terms of mean air temperature of photoperiod and leaf area index (R2 = 0.73). High temperatures, long photoperiods and high leaf area indices were associated with reduced DR. Mean air temperature and photoperiod are highly correlated in this environment and their separate effects on DR could not be distinguised. This model of distribution ratio was combined with earlier published models of CGR, and storage organ growth rate predicted. (Refs. 20).

  8. Isolation of a yeast strain able to produce a polygalacturonase with maceration activity of cassava roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alicia Martos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was the isolation of a yeast strain, from citrus fruit peels, able to produce a polygalacturonase by submerged fermentation with maceration activity of raw cassava roots. Among 160 yeast strains isolated from citrus peels, one strain exhibited the strongest pectinolytic activity. This yeast was identified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus by 5.8S-ITS RFLP analysis and confirmed by amplification of the nucleotide sequence. The yeast produced a polygalacturonase (PG in Erlenmeyer shake flasks containing YNB, glucose, and citrus pectin. PG synthesis occurred during exponential growth phase, reaching 51 UE.mL-1 after 8 hours of fermentation. A growth yield (Yx/s of 0.43 gram of cell dry weight per gram of glucose consumed was obtained, and a maximal specific growth rate (µm of 0.346 h-1 was calculated. The microorganism was unable to assimilate sucrose, galacturonic acid, polygalacturonic acid, or citrus pectin, but it required glucose as carbon and energy source and polygalacturonic acid or citrus pectin as inducers of enzyme synthesis. The crude enzymatic extract of Wickerhamomyces anomalus showed macerating activity of raw cassava. This property is very important in the production of dehydrated mashed cassava, a product of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentina.

  9. An overview of protein identification studies in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista de Souza, Cláudia R; dos Reis, Sávio P; Castelo Branco Carvalho, Luiz J

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family and is originated from the Southern Amazon basin. The storage root is the most important product of cassava as food for more than 800 million people in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In this review, we present a retrospective of studies aiming the identification of cassava proteins, starting from the first investigations using SDS-PAGE and classical two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to recent studies with advanced technologies such as high-resolution 2DE, mass spectrometry, and iTRAQ-based analysis that have contributed for characterization of cassava proteome. Several cassava proteins have been identified, including those involved in the storage root formation and post-harvest physiological deterioration processes.

  10. Genetic parameters and simultaneous selection for root yield, adaptability and stability of cassava genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tomé de Farias Neto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate genetic parameters and to evaluate simultaneous selection for root yield and for adaptability and stability of cassava genotypes. The effects of genotypes were assumed as fixed and random, and the mixed model methodology (REML/Blup was used to estimate genetic parameters and the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genotypic values (HMRPGV, for simultaneous selection purposes. Ten genotypes were analyzed in a complete randomized block design, with four replicates. The experiment was carried out in the municipalities of Altamira, Santarém, and Santa Luzia do Pará in the state of Pará, Brazil, in the growing seasons of 2009/2010, 2010/2011, and 2011/2012. Roots were harvested 12 months after planting, in all tested locations. Root yield had low coefficients of genotypic variation (4.25% and broad-sense heritability of individual plots (0.0424, which resulted in low genetic gain. Due to the low genotypic correlation (0.15, genotype classification as to root yield varied according to the environment. Genotypes CPATU 060, CPATU 229, and CPATU 404 stood out as to their yield, adaptability, and stability.

  11. Effects of boiling and frying on the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in yellow-fleshed cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. BRS Jari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Suellen; Torres, Alexandre Guedes; Godoy, Ronoel; Pacheco, Sidney; Carvalho, José; Nutti, Marília

    2013-03-01

    The effects of boiling and frying on the bioaccessibility of all-trans-beta-carotene in biofortified BRS Jari cassava roots have not been investigated, although these are conventional methods of cassava preparation. The aims of the present study were to investigate beta-carotene micellarization efficiency of yellow-fleshed BRS Jari cassava roots after boiling and frying, as an indicator of the bioaccessibility of this carotenoid, and to apply fluorescence microscopy to investigate beta-carotene in the emulsified fraction. Uncooked, boiled, and fried cassava roots were digested in vitro for the evaluation, by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), of the efficiency of micellarization of all-trans-beta-carotene in BRS Jari cassava roots. Fluorescence microscopy of the micellar fraction was used to confirm the presence of beta-carotene in the emulsified fraction and to observe the structure of the microemulsion from the boiled and fried cassava samples. Fried cassava roots showed the highest (p < .05) micellarization efficiency for total carotenoids and all-trans-beta-carotene (14.1 +/- 2.25% and 14.37 +/- 2.44%, respectively), compared with boiled and raw samples. Fluorescence microscopy showed that after in vitro digestion there were no carotenoid crystals in the micellar fraction, but rather that this fraction presented a biphasic system compatible with emulsified carotenoids, which was consistent with the expected high bioavailability of beta-carotene in this fraction. Increased emulsification and bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from fried biofortified BRS Jari cassava roots compensates for chemical losses during preparation, indicating that this preparation is suitable for home use of BRS Jari cassava roots and might represent a relatively good food source of bioavailable provitamin A.

  12. INTEGRATING CASSAVA VARIETIES AND Typhlodramulus aripo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    The cassava green mite (CGM), Mononychellus tanajoa, is a pest that reduces root yield of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by 30-80% in the cassava belts of Africa. The objective of this study was to identify cassava varieties that enhance abundance and persistence of Typhlodramulus aripo on cassava and increase its ...

  13. Genotype × Environment Interaction of Mosaic Disease, Root Yields and Total Carotene Concentration of Yellow-Fleshed Cassava in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert G. Maroya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one yellow-fleshed cassava genotypes were evaluated over two years in five major cassava growing agroecological zones in Nigeria. The trials were established in a randomized complete block design with four replications to assess genotype performance and Genotype × Environment interaction for cassava mosaic disease (CMD, fresh and dry root yield (FYLD; DYLD, root dry matter content (DMC, and total carotene concentration (TCC. Combined analysis of variance showed significant differences (P<0.001 among genotypes (G, environment (E, and Genotype × Environment interaction (GE for all the traits tested. For reaction to CMD, the best genotypes showing stable resistance were TMS 07/0539 and TMS 07/0628. For root yield, the best genotypes were TMS 01/1368 and TMS 07/0553. Genotype TMS 07/0593 was the best for DMC and TCC across the 10 environments. Variation among genotypes accounted for most of the Total Sum of Squares for CMD (72.1% and TCC (34.4%. Environmental variation accounted for most of the Total Sum of Squares for FYLD (42.8%, DYLD (39.6%, and DMC (29.2%. This study revealed that TMS 07/0593 has the highest and most stable TCC, DMC with the lowest CMD severity score and appeared to be the best genotype.

  14. On-Farm Evaluation of the Use of Cassava Root Meal as a Partial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... inclusion from day old to market weight. The use of garri in place of cassava ... 35 days on commercial broiler starter ration. All necessary ... market weight. They also suggested the possibility of using fried garri in place of cassava flour to reduce its dustiness and improve the storability of the finished ration.

  15. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a widely grown root crop in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Netherlands Liaison Office

    primers previously developed from cassava were used to detect polymorphic 21 alleles in a sample of 69 ... security and in some areas for sale in fresh or processed ... evolving biotic factors as pests and diseases to cassava farming. Genetic diversity can most efficiently be quantified using molecular markers. The simple.

  16. Effect of shade on photosynthetic pigments in the tropical root crops: yam, taro, tannia, cassava and sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, M.; Onwueme, I.C.

    1998-01-01

    Plants of yam, taro, tannia, cassava and sweet potato were raised under shade or in full sunlight and the effect of shade on leaf chlorophyll and carotenoids was examined to determine and compare the relative shade tolerance and adaptability of the var ious species. All five species of root crops adapted to shade. The chlorophyll concentration was higher, while the chlorophyll a:b ratio, carotenoids per unit chlorophyll and the weight per unit area of leaf were lower in the shade than in the sun in yam, tannia, taro, cassava and sweet potato. All species had larger leaves and more chlorophyll per leaf in the shade. The extent of the changes, however, differed between species. The aroids (taro and tannia) appeared to be shade-tolerant species as their chlorophyll a:b ratios changed less than those of the other species in the shade, suggesting that their light-harvesting systems may be normally adapted to shade conditions. Taro and tannia also adapted to shade by a greater proportional increase in leaf size, a smaller reduction in leaf weight per unit area and a greater proportional increase in chlorophyll and carotenoids per leaf than the other species. Yam compensated for shade by having a large proportional increase in leaf size and appeared to be moderately tolerant of shade. Sweet potato and cassava appeared to be the least tolerant of shade of the major tropical root crops. (author)

  17. Information Needs of Cassava Farmers in Delta State of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    demand in overseas and domestic markets for cassava has also ... End-use markets for cassava are rapidly expanding. Real opportunities for a boom in the production and processing of cassava roots into cassava chips, edible cassava flour (Lafun), composite flour, cassava starch and garri for international markets exist.

  18. Variations in the chemical composition of cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) leaves and roots as affected by genotypic and environmental variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Anna Elizabeth; Gleadow, Roslyn Margaret; Zacarias, Anabela M; Cuambe, Constantino Estevão; Miller, Rebecca Elizabeth; Cavagnaro, Timothy Richard

    2012-05-16

    The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of cassava cultivars, in terms of cyanogenic potential and composition of macro- and micronutrients, sampled from different locations in rural Mozambique. Total cyanide concentrations in fresh cassava tissues were measured using portable cyanide testing kits, and elemental nutrients were later analyzed from dried plant tissue. Variation in cyanogenic potential and nutrient composition occurred both among cultivars and across locations. The majority of cultivars contained >100 ppm total cyanide, fresh weight, and are therefore considered to be dangerously poisonous unless adequately processed before consumption. Leaf cyanogenic and nutrient content varied with plant water status, estimated using carbon isotope discrimination (δ(13)C). The colonization of roots of all cultivars by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was also quantified and found to be high, indicating that mycorrhizas could play a key role in plant nutrient acquisition in these low-input farming systems.

  19. Cassava; African perspective on space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Looking on African perspective in space agriculture may contribute to increase diversity, and enforce robustness for advanced life support capability. Cassava, Manihot esculentaand, is one of major crop in Africa, and could be a candidate of space food materials. Since resource is limited for space agriculture in many aspects, crop yield should be high in efficiency, and robust as well. The efficiency is measured by farming space and time. Harvest yield of cassava is about 41 MJ/ m2 (70 ton/ha) after 11 months of farming. Among rice, wheat, potato, and sweet potato, cassava is ranked to the first place (40 m2 ) in terms of farming area required to supply energy of 5 MJ/day, which is recommended for one person. Production of cassava could be made under poor condition, such as acidic soil, shortage of fertilizer, draught. Laterite, similar to Martian regolith. Propagation made by stem cutting is an advantage of cassava in space agriculture avoiding entomophilous or anemophilous process to pollinate. Feature of crop storage capability is additional factor that determines the efficiency in the whole process of agriculture. Cassava root tuber can be left in soil until its consumption. Cassava might be an African contribution to space agriculture.

  20. Gamma radiation use to avoid enzymatic browning of cassava root (Manihot utilissima Pohl) in natura, peeled; Uso da radiacao gama na inibicao do escurecimento de mandioca (Manihot utilissima Pohl) in natura, sem casca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Neto, Pedro Ramos da [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana (CEFET), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Biologia; Spoto, Marta Helena Fille; Domarco, Rachel Elizabeth [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1997-01-01

    Cassava root was treated with gamma radiation at doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy to avoid enzymatic browning. The irradiated samples were kept for 9 days at room temperature and evaluated for color and sensorial analysis. Two days after harvest, the control sample showed black spots and alterations of organoleptic characteristics. The irradiated sample with 2 to 6 kGy showed good appearance and acceptability. However, after 9 days of storage, the control and the irradiated (2 to 6 kGy) samples were not safe to eat, only the irradiated cassava with doses of 8 and 10 kGy did not show enzymatic browning and kept the good sensorial characteristics. (author) 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Metabolomics combined with chemometric tools (PCA, HCA, PLS-DA and SVM) for screening cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots during postharvest physiological deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Coelho, Bianca; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2014-10-15

    Cassava roots are an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates and suffer markedly from postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD). This paper deals with metabolomics combined with chemometric tools for screening the chemical and enzymatic composition in several genotypes of cassava roots during PPD. Metabolome analyses showed increases in carotenoids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolics, reactive scavenging species, and enzymes (superoxide dismutase family, hydrogen peroxide, and catalase) until 3-5days postharvest. PPD correlated negatively with phenolics and carotenoids and positively with anthocyanins and flavonoids. Chemometric tools such as principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis, and support vector machines discriminated well cassava samples and enabled a good prediction of samples. Hierarchical clustering analyses grouped samples according to their levels of PPD and chemical compositions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Overexpression of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene improves floral development in cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemo, O Sarah; Chavarriaga, Paul; Tohme, Joe; Fregene, Martin; Davis, Seth J; Setter, Tim L

    2017-01-01

    Cassava is a tropical storage-root crop that serves as a worldwide source of staple food for over 800 million people. Flowering is one of the most important breeding challenges in cassava because in most lines flowering is late and non-synchronized, and flower production is sparse. The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene is pivotal for floral induction in all examined angiosperms. The objective of the current work was to determine the potential roles of the FT signaling system in cassava. The Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene (atFT) was transformed into the cassava cultivar 60444 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and was found to be overexpressed constitutively. FT overexpression hastened flower initiation and associated fork-type branching, indicating that cassava has the necessary signaling factors to interact with and respond to the atFT gene product. In addition, overexpression stimulated lateral branching, increased the prolificacy of flower production and extended the longevity of flower development. While FT homologs in some plant species stimulate development of vegetative storage organs, atFT inhibited storage-root development and decreased root harvest index in cassava. These findings collectively contribute to our understanding of flower development in cassava and have the potential for applications in breeding.

  3. Heritability, combining ability and inheritance of storage root dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Storage root dry matter content (RDM) is central to the improvement of consumer and industrial attributes of root crops. Yam bean (Pachyrhizus species) is a legume root crop newly introduced in Uganda, but its adoption may be constrained by low RDM. The objective of this study was to investigate the magnitude of ...

  4. Effects of root and tuber expansion programme (rtep) on cassava nd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RTEP) on cassava and yam farmers' level of production in Oyo state, as one of the participating states. Multistage sampling technique was used to select respondents from two participating zones in the study area for the study. Primary data were ...

  5. Global root zone storage capacity from satellite-based evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Bastiaanssen, Wim G. M.; Gao, Hongkai; Jägermeyr, Jonas; Senay, Gabriel B.; van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Guerschman, Juan P.; Keys, Patrick W.; Gordon, Line J.; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2016-04-01

    This study presents an "Earth observation-based" method for estimating root zone storage capacity - a critical, yet uncertain parameter in hydrological and land surface modelling. By assuming that vegetation optimises its root zone storage capacity to bridge critical dry periods, we were able to use state-of-the-art satellite-based evaporation data computed with independent energy balance equations to derive gridded root zone storage capacity at global scale. This approach does not require soil or vegetation information, is model independent, and is in principle scale independent. In contrast to a traditional look-up table approach, our method captures the variability in root zone storage capacity within land cover types, including in rainforests where direct measurements of root depths otherwise are scarce. Implementing the estimated root zone storage capacity in the global hydrological model STEAM (Simple Terrestrial Evaporation to Atmosphere Model) improved evaporation simulation overall, and in particular during the least evaporating months in sub-humid to humid regions with moderate to high seasonality. Our results suggest that several forest types are able to create a large storage to buffer for severe droughts (with a very long return period), in contrast to, for example, savannahs and woody savannahs (medium length return period), as well as grasslands, shrublands, and croplands (very short return period). The presented method to estimate root zone storage capacity eliminates the need for poor resolution soil and rooting depth data that form a limitation for achieving progress in the global land surface modelling community.

  6. Unraveling complex viral infections in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Yepes, Monica; Olaya, Cristian; Lozano, Ivan; Cuervo, Maritza; Castaño, Mauricio; Cuellar, Wilmer J

    2014-06-24

    In the Americas, different disease symptoms have been reported in cassava including leaf mosaics, vein clearings, mottles, ring spots, leaf distortions and undeveloped and deformed storage roots. Some viruses have been identified and associated with these symptoms while others have been reported in symptomless plants or latent infections. We observed that reoviruses associated with severe root symptoms (RS) of Cassava Frogskin Disease (CFSD) are not associated with leaf symptoms (LS) observed in the cassava indicator plant 'Secundina'. Neither were these LS associated with the previously characterized Cassava common mosaic virus, Cassava virus X, Cassava vein mosaic virus or phytoplasma, suggesting the presence of additional pathogens. In order to explain LS observed in cassava we used a combination of biological, serological and molecular tests. Here, we report three newly described viruses belonging to the families Secoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae and Luteoviridae found in cassava plants showing severe RS associated with CFSD. All tested plants were infected by a mix of viruses that induced distinct LS in 'Secundina'. Out of the three newly described viruses, a member of family Secoviridae could experimentally induce LS in single infection. Our results confirm the common occurrence of complex viral infections in cassava field-collected since the 1980s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Process Technology For Conversion Of Dried Cassava Chips Into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Gari”, made from fermented bitter Cassava roots (Manihot esculenta crantz) were successfully processed from already dried Cassava chips at 7% moisture level. Cassava mash at 67% moisture was prepared from dried Cassava chips. This was seeded severally with fresh cassava mash and fermented for 72hours.

  8. Mechanical properties of sugar beet root during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedomová, Šárka; Kumbár, Vojtěch; Pytel, Roman; Buchar, Jaroslav

    2017-10-01

    This paper is an investigation via two experimental methods, of the textural properties of sugar beet roots during the storage period. In the work, sugar beet roots mechanical properties were evaluated during the post-harvest period - 1, 8, 22, 43, and 71 days after crop. Both experimental methods, i.e. compression test and puncture test, suggest that the failure strength of the sugar beet root increases with the storage time. The parameters obtained using the puncture test, are more sensitive to the storage duration than those obtained by way of the compression test. We also found that such mechanical properties served as a reliable tool for monitoring the progress of sugar beet roots storage. The described methods could also be used to highlight important information on sugar beet evolution during storage.

  9. Physiological causes of yield variation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltkamp, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important crop in many parts of the tropics, being mainly cultivated for its storage roots. Farmers' yields are low and one of the constraints to higher yields is the lack of adequate clones. At the beginning of the 1970s an extensive

  10. Gene Co-Expression Analysis Inferring the Crosstalk of Ethylene and Gibberellin in Modulating the Transcriptional Acclimation of Cassava Root Growth in Different Seasons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treenut Saithong

    Full Text Available Cassava is a crop of hope for the 21st century. Great advantages of cassava over other crops are not only the capacity of carbohydrates, but it is also an easily grown crop with fast development. As a plant which is highly tolerant to a poor environment, cassava has been believed to own an effective acclimation process, an intelligent mechanism behind its survival and sustainability in a wide range of climates. Herein, we aimed to investigate the transcriptional regulation underlying the adaptive development of a cassava root to different seasonal cultivation climates. Gene co-expression analysis suggests that AP2-EREBP transcription factor (ERF1 orthologue (D142 played a pivotal role in regulating the cellular response to exposing to wet and dry seasons. The ERF shows crosstalk with gibberellin, via ent-Kaurene synthase (D106, in the transcriptional regulatory network that was proposed to modulate the downstream regulatory system through a distinct signaling mechanism. While sulfur assimilation is likely to be a signaling regulation for dry crop growth response, calmodulin-binding protein is responsible for regulation in the wet crop. With our initiative study, we hope that our findings will pave the way towards sustainability of cassava production under various kinds of stress considering the future global climate change.

  11. Tempo de cozimento e textura de raízes de mandioca Cooking time and texture of cassava roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Vilela Talma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adequação de medidas instrumentais de textura como índice de qualidade de raízes da mandioca de mesa e sua correlação com o tempo de cozimento. Quinze raízes de mandioca foram colhidas no 11.º mês de cultivo na região noroeste fluminense. Pedaços de raízes foram cozidos em água, sendo o tempo de cozimento determinado, em triplicata, quando se observou pouca resistência à penetração do garfo. A resistência ao corte foi realizada nas polpas cruas e cozidas, em cinco a nove repetições, operando o texturômetro TA. XT Plus Texture Analyser com probe Warner-Bratzler Blade HDP/BSW, velocidades de pré-teste de 0,2 cm/s, de pós-teste e de teste de 0,5 cm/s, e distância de 5 cm. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA e teste de média Tukey (tempo de cozimento; GLM, LSMEANS e PDIFF (resistência ao corte e análise de correlação de Pearson (p The objective of this work was to evaluate the adequacy of instrumental texture analyses as a quality index for cassava roots for direct consumption, and the correlation with cooking time. Fifteen cassava roots were harvested in the eleventh month of growth in the northwest of the State of Rio de Janeiro. Pieces of roots were boiled in water and the cooking time determined in triplicate, to the point where there was little resistance to penetration by a fork. The shear strength was determined in the raw and cooked pulps with five to nine replicates, using the texturometer TA-XT Plus Texture Analyser with the Warner-Bratzler Blade HDP / BSW probe, a pre-test speed of 0.2 cm/s, post-test and test speed of 0.5 cm/s and distance of 5 cm. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey (cooking time, GLM, LSMEANS and PDIFF (shear resistance and Pearson's correlation analysis (p < 0.05. The variety Viçosa Martinha stood out due to its shorter cooking time (18 minutes and lower shear resistance values for the raw (10.6 N and cooked (0.7 N pulps. With the exception of

  12. Domestication Syndrome Is Investigated by Proteomic Analysis between Cultivated Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and Its Wild Relatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei An

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz wild relatives remain a largely untapped potential for genetic improvement. However, the domestication syndrome phenomena from wild species to cultivated cassava remain poorly understood. The analysis of leaf anatomy and photosynthetic activity showed significantly different between cassava cultivars SC205, SC8 and wild relative M. esculenta ssp. Flabellifolia (W14. The dry matter, starch and amylose contents in the storage roots of cassava cultivars were significantly more than that in wild species. In order to further reveal the differences in photosynthesis and starch accumulation of cultivars and wild species, the globally differential proteins between cassava SC205, SC8 and W14 were analyzed using 2-DE in combination with MALDI-TOF tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 175 and 304 proteins in leaves and storage roots were identified, respectively. Of these, 122 and 127 common proteins in leaves and storage roots were detected in SC205, SC8 and W14, respectively. There were 11, 2 and 2 unique proteins in leaves, as well as 58, 9 and 12 unique proteins in storage roots for W14, SC205 and SC8, respectively, indicating proteomic changes in leaves and storage roots between cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. These proteins and their differential regulation across plants of contrasting leaf morphology, leaf anatomy pattern and photosynthetic related parameters and starch content could contribute to the footprinting of cassava domestication syndrome. We conclude that these global protein data would be of great value to detect the key gene groups related to cassava selection in the domestication syndrome phenomena.

  13. Domestication Syndrome Is Investigated by Proteomic Analysis between Cultivated Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Its Wild Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Feifei; Chen, Ting; Stéphanie, Djabou Mouafi Astride; Li, Kaimian; Li, Qing X; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Tomlins, Keith; Li, Jun; Gu, Bi; Chen, Songbi

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) wild relatives remain a largely untapped potential for genetic improvement. However, the domestication syndrome phenomena from wild species to cultivated cassava remain poorly understood. The analysis of leaf anatomy and photosynthetic activity showed significantly different between cassava cultivars SC205, SC8 and wild relative M. esculenta ssp. Flabellifolia (W14). The dry matter, starch and amylose contents in the storage roots of cassava cultivars were significantly more than that in wild species. In order to further reveal the differences in photosynthesis and starch accumulation of cultivars and wild species, the globally differential proteins between cassava SC205, SC8 and W14 were analyzed using 2-DE in combination with MALDI-TOF tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 175 and 304 proteins in leaves and storage roots were identified, respectively. Of these, 122 and 127 common proteins in leaves and storage roots were detected in SC205, SC8 and W14, respectively. There were 11, 2 and 2 unique proteins in leaves, as well as 58, 9 and 12 unique proteins in storage roots for W14, SC205 and SC8, respectively, indicating proteomic changes in leaves and storage roots between cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. These proteins and their differential regulation across plants of contrasting leaf morphology, leaf anatomy pattern and photosynthetic related parameters and starch content could contribute to the footprinting of cassava domestication syndrome. We conclude that these global protein data would be of great value to detect the key gene groups related to cassava selection in the domestication syndrome phenomena.

  14. EFFECTS OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON SHOOT MULTIPLICATION AND ROOT INDUCTION OF CASSAVA VARIETIES CULTURE IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERNI WIDHIASTUTI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on propagation of three superior cassava ( Crant varieties i.e.Darul Hidayah, Malang-6 and Adira-4 through tissue culture technique was conducted at theTissue Culture Lab of SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor. The objective of the experiment was tostudy effect of plant growth regulators on propagation, which can be used in cassavamicropropagation protocol. Plant materials used were auxiliary shoots of a stem node. Theexperiment consisted of (i shoot multiplication, (ii roots induction, and (iii acclimatization.The multiple shoot regeneration was observed by using Murashige & Skoog (MS basal mediasupplemented with 0, 0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/L of benzylaminopurine (BAP combined with 0.0,0.1 and 1.0 mg/L of thidiazuron. The root induction was observed by using 0.1 and 1.0 mg/Lof IBA and NAA. The resulting plantlets were transplanted into plastic polybags containingsoil mixed with organic fertilizer (1:1 covered with plastic sheets and transferred to agreenhouse. The result of the study showed that the highest number of shoots for DarulHidayah, Malang-6 and Adira-4 varieties were 4.93 shoots treated with BAP 1 mg/L +thidiazuron 0.1 mg/L, 4.20 shoots at BAP media of 1 mg/L, and 7.20 shoots at the mediaof BAP 1 mg/L + thidiazuron 0.1 mg/L respectively. The highest number of nodes producedwas 2.9 nodes for Darul Hidayah at BAP 5 mg/L, 5.13 nodes for Malang-6 at BAP 0.1 mg/L,and 6.18 nodes for Adira-4 at BAP 5 mg/L + thidiazuron 1 mg/L. The utilization of auxin IAAor NAA could induce and accelerate the growth of roots which finally could increase thesuccess of acclimatization process. With an average of four multiplication factors of eachculture period, the potency of each cassava shoot propagated through tissue culture couldproduce around 37 000 plants/year.

  15. Planting density and yield of cassava roots Densidade de plantio e rendimento de raízes de mandioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Santos Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Mata Fresca, an area located on the border of the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Ceará, in Brazil, small farmers have a source of income from the production of cassava roots, using planting densities of around 5,000 plants ha-1. This procedure might be helping to limit higher yields of the roots, since some studies have shown that it is possible to obtain higher yields of cassava using higher densities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the root yield and other characteristics of the cassava, as a response to planting density. The Vermelhinha cultivar was submitted to planting densities of from 5,000 to 21,000 plants ha-1, at intervals of 2,000 plants ha-1, in an experiment under irrigation. A completely randomized block design with four replications was used. The ideal planting densities in order to maximise leaf green matter, stems and branches, total roots, total marketable roots, number of marketable roots, marketable-root dry matter and stem dry matter, were 17,800; 17,077; 14,416; 13,594; 16,436; 12,361; and 18,149 plants ha-1 respectively. When adopting the planting density used by the farmers, a yield for marketable roots of 15,837 kg ha-1 was obtained. By using the optimal density as found in this work (13,594 plants ha-1, the yield was more than double that of the farmers. Increasing planting density reduced both the length of the marketable roots and the harvest index (the ratio of marketable-root dry matter to total plant dry matter.Na Mata Fresca, área situada na divisa dos Estados do Rio Grande do Norte e Ceará, pequenos agricultores têm como fonte de renda a obtida com a produção de raízes de mandioca, usando densidades de plantio em torno de 5.000 plantas ha-1. Esse procedimento pode estar limitando a obtenção de maiores rendimentos de raízes, pois alguns trabalhos demonstraram que é possível a obtenção de rendimentos maiores da mandioca, com maiores densidades. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o

  16. Vegetation root zone storage and rooting depth, derived from local calibration of a global hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ent, R.; Van Beek, R.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wang-Erlandsson, L.; Hessels, T.; Bastiaanssen, W.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    The storage and dynamics of water in the root zone control many important hydrological processes such as saturation excess overland flow, interflow, recharge, capillary rise, soil evaporation and transpiration. These processes are parameterized in hydrological models or land-surface schemes and the effect on runoff prediction can be large. Root zone parameters in global hydrological models are very uncertain as they cannot be measured directly at the scale on which these models operate. In this paper we calibrate the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB using a state-of-the-art ensemble of evaporation fields derived by solving the energy balance for satellite observations. We focus our calibration on the root zone parameters of PCR-GLOBWB and derive spatial patterns of maximum root zone storage. We find these patterns to correspond well with previous research. The parameterization of our model allows for the conversion of maximum root zone storage to root zone depth and we find that these correspond quite well to the point observations where available. We conclude that climate and soil type should be taken into account when regionalizing measured root depth for a certain vegetation type. We equally find that using evaporation rather than discharge better allows for local adjustment of root zone parameters within a basin and thus provides orthogonal data to diagnose and optimize hydrological models and land surface schemes.

  17. Utilization of unpeeled cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal supplemented with or without charcoal by broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oso, A O; Akapo, O; Sanwo, K A; Bamgbose, A M

    2014-06-01

    A 42-day feeding trial was conducted using 480-day-old, male Marshall broilers to study the utilization of unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM) supplemented with or without 6 g/kg charcoal. The experimental design was laid out in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments having three inclusion levels of UCRM (0, 100 and 200 g/kg) with or without 6 g/kg charcoal supplementation. Each treatment consisted of 80 birds replicated eight times with 10 birds per replicate. Main effect of inclusion level of UCRM and supplementation of charcoal showed reduced (p charcoal showed higher (p charcoal. Supplementation of charcoal in diet containing 100 g/kg UCRM resulted in improved (p charcoal. Broilers fed diet containing no UCRM but supplemented with charcoal had the highest overall (p charcoal recorded the poorest (p charcoal resulted in increased (p charcoal. In conclusion, supplementation of diet containing up to 100 g/kg UCRM with 6 g/kg charcoal showed improved weight gain without any deleterious effect on serum metabolites. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Accounting carbon storage in decaying root systems of harvested forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G Geoff; Van Lear, David H; Hu, Huifeng; Kapeluck, Peter R

    2012-05-01

    Decaying root systems of harvested trees can be a significant component of belowground carbon storage, especially in intensively managed forests where harvest occurs repeatedly in relatively short rotations. Based on destructive sampling of root systems of harvested loblolly pine trees, we estimated that root systems contained about 32% (17.2 Mg ha(-1)) at the time of harvest, and about 13% (6.1 Mg ha(-1)) of the soil organic carbon 10 years later. Based on the published roundwood output data, we estimated belowground biomass at the time of harvest for loblolly-shortleaf pine forests harvested between 1995 and 2005 in South Carolina. We then calculated C that remained in the decomposing root systems in 2005 using the decay function developed for loblolly pine. Our calculations indicate that the amount of C stored in decaying roots of loblolly-shortleaf pine forests harvested between 1995 and 2005 in South Carolina was 7.1 Tg. Using a simple extrapolation method, we estimated 331.8 Tg C stored in the decomposing roots due to timber harvest from 1995 to 2005 in the conterminous USA. To fully account for the C stored in the decomposing roots of the US forests, future studies need (1) to quantify decay rates of coarse roots for major tree species in different regions, and (2) to develop a methodology that can determine C stock in decomposing roots resulting from natural mortality.

  19. Computational identification of microRNAs and their targets in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanun, Onsaya; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Sojikul, Punchapat; Viboonjun, Unchera; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly discovered class of noncoding endogenous small RNAs involved in plant growth and development as well as response to environmental stresses. miRNAs have been extensively studied in various plant species, however, only few information are available in cassava, which serves as one of the staple food crops, a biofuel crop, animal feed and industrial raw materials. In this study, the 169 potential cassava miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified by computational approach. Interestingly, mes-miR319b was represented as the first putative mirtron demonstrated in cassava. A total of 15 miRNA clusters involving 7 miRNA families, and 12 pairs of sense and antisense strand cassava miRNAs belonging to six different miRNA families were discovered. Prediction of potential miRNA target genes revealed their functions involved in various important plant biological processes. The cis-regulatory elements relevant to drought stress and plant hormone response were identified in the promoter regions of those miRNA genes. The results provided a foundation for further investigation of the functional role of known transcription factors in the regulation of cassava miRNAs. The better understandings of the complexity of miRNA-mediated genes network in cassava would unravel cassava complex biology in storage root development and in coping with environmental stresses, thus providing more insights for future exploitation in cassava improvement.

  20. Transcriptome profiling of sweetpotato tuberous roots during low temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chang Yoon; Chung, Won-Hyong; Kim, Ho Soo; Jung, Won Yong; Kang, Le; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2017-03-01

    Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] is a globally important root crop with high industrial value. However, because sweetpotato tuberous roots undergo chilling injuries that negatively affect their quality at temperatures below 10 °C, postharvest damage during the winter season is a major constraint for industrialization. To understand chilling injury response during postharvest low temperature storage, we used next-generation sequencing technology to comprehensive analyze the transcriptome of tuberous roots stored at optimal (13 °C) or low temperature (4 °C) for 6 weeks. From nine cDNA libraries, we produced 298,765,564 clean reads, which were de novo assembled into 58,392 unigenes with an average length of 1100 bp. A total of 3216 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected and categorized into six clusters, of which clusters 2, 4, and 5 (1464 DEGs) were up-regulated under low temperature. The genes in these three clusters are involved in biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, pathogen defense, and phenylalanine metabolism. By contrast, genes in clusters 1, 3, and 6 (1752 DEGs), which were generally down-regulated at low temperature, encode antioxidant enzymes or are involved in glycerophospholipid, carbohydrate, or energy metabolism. We confirmed the results of the transcriptome analysis by quantitative RT-PCR. Our transcriptome analysis will advance our understanding of the comprehensive mechanisms of chilling injury during low temperature storage and facilitate improvements in postharvest storage of sweetpotato tuberous roots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Cassava root husks powder as green adsorbent for the removal of Cu(II) from natural river water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgetto, A.O.; Silva, R.I.V.; Saeki, M.J.; Barbosa, R.C. [IB-UNESP, Dept. Química e Bioquímica, C.P. 510, 18618-000 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Martines, M.A.U. [UFMS – Dept. Química, 79074-460 Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Jorge, S.M.A.; Silva, A.C.P. [IB-UNESP, Dept. Química e Bioquímica, C.P. 510, 18618-000 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Schneider, J.F. [USP – Instituto de Física de São Carlos, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Castro, G.R., E-mail: castrogr@ibb.unesp.br [IB-UNESP, Dept. Química e Bioquímica, C.P. 510, 18618-000 Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    Through a series of simple processes, cassava root husks were turned into a fine powder of controlled particle size (63–75 μm). FTIR spectrum demonstrated the existence of alcohol, amine and carboxylic groups; and elemental analysis confirmed the presence of elements of interest such as sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen. Cross-polarized {"1H}-{sup 13}C NMR technique indicated the existence of methionine and thiamine through the signals observed at 55 ppm and 54 ppm, respectively, and the point of zero charge (pH{sub pzc}) was achieved at pH 5.2. The material was applied in solid-phase extraction of Cu(II) via batch experiments. Optimum adsorption pH was found to be in range of 3–6 and in the kinetic experiment the equilibrium was attained in 1 min. The highest adsorption capacity was 0.14 mmol g{sup −1}. The adsorption data were fit to the modified Langmuir equation, and the maximum amount of metal species extracted from the solution, N{sub s}, was determined to be ∼0.14 mmol g{sup −1}, which is an indicative that the main adsorption mechanism is through chemisorption. Under optimized conditions, the material was utilized in preconcentration experiments, which culminated in an enrichment factor of 41.3-fold. With the aid of the enrichment factor, experiments were carried out to determine the Cu(II) content in tap water and natural water. Preconcentration method was also applied to a certified reference material (1643e) and the concentration found was 23.03 ± 0.79 μg L{sup −1}, whereas the specified Cu(II) concentration was 22.7 ± 0.31 μg L{sup −1}.

  2. Food technologies and developing countries: a processing method for making edible the highly toxic cassava roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Lambri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to be a possible solution to the food crisis becoming a productive model to follow, the development of a process and/or a technique of food production in a developing country could create advantages from an industrial point of view due to the use of alternative raw materials, which have a potentially high competitiveness. In developing countries, agriculture is able to offer a variety of products making up the daily diet and provide products with potential that could make up for many nutritional deficiencies to which resident populations are subject. Food technology applications on cereals, tubers, roots, fruits, and by-products from related processes are reported at aiming to obtain finished and semi-finished foods and/or basic ingredients meeting the food safety criteria. In detail, this study aims to generate a processing method for the white bitter roots collected in a rural area of Burundi with a cyanogenic glycoside content >400 mg cyanide equivalent/kg dry weight. A standardised procedure consisting of peeling, grating, and oven drying at 60°C, with or without fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was successfully tested.

  3. cyanide cassava genotypes in acid ultisols of south eastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENGR C.J

    2014-01-29

    Jan 29, 2014 ... cyanide cassava genotypes (TMS 99/2123, TMS 96/1642, TMS 98/0068 and TMS 94/3200﴿ were outstanding in fresh root yield performance. To improve fresh root yield in cassava, the inter- relationships among the various agronomic character of the cassava genotypes demands appropriate attention.

  4. Reduction of the cyanide content during fermentation of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reduction of the cyanide content during fermentation of cassava roots and leaves to produce bikedi and ntoba mbodi, two food products from Congo. ... the cassava roots is a lactic fermentation (pH 3.8) with Lactobacillus as dominant microflora whereas that of the cassava leaves is an alkaline fermentation (pH 8.5) where ...

  5. Field Performance of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Tissue culture-derived plantlets, Field plant growth, Yield, Root tuber characteristics,. Cassava. Introduction. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical crop grown in the lowlands of Asia,. Africa and· South America for its thickened and tuberose roots. It produces more calories per unit of land than any other ...

  6. Challenges of Women in Cassava Production and Processing: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information about cassava was sourced from friends (40.0%) often and they hardly use or see extension agent (70%) for research information on cassava production and processing. Despite the poor storage life of cassava, 80.5% of the respondents reported a poor knowledge on the possible ways of storage. The study ...

  7. Solid Substrate Fermentation of Cassava Peel for Poultry Feed Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassava peel which is not used during cassava starch extraction is one of potential resources for animal feed. However, cassava peel has low level protein content, high level crude fiber, and high level of toxic cyanogenic compound. These problems limit the utilization of cassava peel as feed. Solid substrate fermentation using mold may be a solution process to increase its nutritional value and decrease toxic level of cassava peel. In this paper, matters that related with cassava peel fermentation process are subsequently described, namely: (i problems of cassava peel; (ii biodegradation and detoxification process; (iii solid state fermentation methods on cassava peel; (iv nutritional quality of fermented cassava peel; and (v application of fermented cassava peel in poultry feed. The fermented cassava peel application is compared with those of cassava root and waste (onggok. Addition of nitrogen inorganic in the fermentation process increases the mold growth and protein content of the product, while fiber and cyanogenic contents are decreased due to mold degradation activity. The fermentation process may be carried out using only the cassava peel as the substrate or mixed with wheat flour, using indigenous microbes, Aspergillus niger or a white rot fungus, Panus tigrinus as inoculum. As well as fermented cassava root and waste, fermented cassava peel can be used to substitute maize as poultry feed, although it is reported that the optimum substitution in broiler ration is only 10%.

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of Storage Roots and Fibrous Roots of the Traditional Medicinal Herb Callerya speciosa (Champ.) ScHot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Wang, Jiabin; Lei, Ming; Li, Li; Fu, Yunliu; Wang, Zhunian; Ao, Mengfei; Li, Zhiying

    2016-01-01

    Callerya speciosa (Champ.) ScHot is a woody perennial plant in Fabaceae, the roots of which are used medicinally. The storage roots of C. speciosa are derived from fibrous roots, but not all fibrous roots can develop into storage roots. To detect key genes involved in storage roots formation, we performed Illumina sequencing of the C. speciosa storage roots and fibrous roots. De novo assembly resulted in 161,926 unigenes, which were subsequently annotated by BLAST, GO and KEGG analyses. After expression profiling, 4538 differentially expressed genes were identified. The KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed changes in the biosynthesis of cytokinin, phenylpropanoid, starch, sucrose, flavone and other secondary metabolites. Transcription factor-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were also identified, including such gene families as GRAS, COL, MIKC, ERF, LBD, and NAC. The DEGs related to light signaling, starch, sugar, photohormones and cell wall-loosening might be involved in the formation of storage roots. This study provides the first transcriptome profiling of C. speciosa roots, data that will facilitate future research of root development and metabolites with medicinal value as well as the breeding of C. speciosa.

  9. Rooting for cassava: insights into photosynthesis and associated physiology as a route to improve yield potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Amanda P; Massenburg, Lynnicia N; Jaiswal, Deepak; Cheng, Siyuan; Shekar, Rachel; Long, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Contents 50 I. 50 II. 52 III. 54 IV. 55 V. 57 VI. 57 VII. 59 60 References 61 SUMMARY: As a consequence of an increase in world population, food demand is expected to grow by up to 110% in the next 30-35 yr. The population of sub-Saharan Africa is projected to increase by > 120%. In this region, cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the second most important source of calories and contributes c. 30% of the daily calorie requirements per person. Despite its importance, the average yield of cassava in Africa has not increased significantly since 1961. An evaluation of modern cultivars of cassava showed that the interception efficiency (ɛ i ) of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the efficiency of conversion of that intercepted PAR (ɛ c ) are major opportunities for genetic improvement of the yield potential. This review examines what is known of the physiological processes underlying productivity in cassava and seeks to provide some strategies and directions toward yield improvement through genetic alterations to physiology to increase ɛ i and ɛ c . Possible physiological limitations, as well as environmental constraints, are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Nutritional composition of fufu analog flour produced from Cassava root (Manihot esculenta) and Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) tuber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B; Oladiran, Dolapo A; Akande, Ebunoluwa O

    2015-11-01

    Nutritional properties of fufu analog produced from co-processing of cassava and cocoyam were studied. Cassava and cocoyam were fermented for 72 h, dried to obtain fufu flour. Proximate, functional, minerals, antinutritional factor, pasting properties, and sensory evaluation of various samples were determined. The results revealed that the moisture contents of the samples showed significant difference from control with values between 6.50 and 7.30%. The protein contents (1.68-4.98%), ash (1.84-4.01%), and crude fiber (1.42-4.56%) showed significant increase with increasing level of cocoyam, while the crude fat and carbohydrate reduced with increase in cocoyam. The minerals also increased with increase in cocoyam level with sample E having the highest value of Magnesium (32.15 mg/100 g). The antinutritional factors were very low and the pasting properties revealed the importance of cocoyam in the fufu analog produced. In conclusion, fufu produced from co-processing of cassava and cocoyam has more nutritional qualities than the common fufu made from cassava alone.

  11. Removal of cyanogens from cassava roots : studies on domestic sun-drying and solid-substrate fermentation in rural Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, A.J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Cassava is an important staple crop, but its potential toxicity has led to some health problems in Africa. The potential toxicity comes from endogenous cyanogenic glucosides, mainly linamarin, which may degrade by linamarase to cyanohydrins and subsequently to hydrocyanic acid (HCN). A

  12. Biochemical and bioactive phytonutrients changes in tissues of two cultivars of fresh-cut cassava in stick form under refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus da Silva Junqueira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fresh-cut in stick form of two cassava cultivars on their biochemical and antioxidant characteristics, at two harvest times. The fresh cut cassava sticks were packaged in polypropylene, maintained at 5±1ºC, with 90±5% relative humidity for 12 days. The concentration of carotenoids, total soluble phenolic compounds and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and antioxidant capacity were significantly higher for the sticks of cultivar 'Amarela' cassava than for the sticks of cultivar 'Cacau'. The concentrations of carotenoids, total soluble phenolic compounds, and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and antioxidant capacity were all significantly greater when harvested at 14-month of age. There was a significant increase in the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase during the 12 days of storage at 5ºC. However, there was a decrease in total carotenoids, soluble phenolic compounds, and in the antioxidant capacity of the two cultivars.

  13. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Simon E

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of plants is an indispensable technique used for fundamental research and crop improvement. Recent advances in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) transformation have facilitated the effective generation of stably transformed cassava plants with favorable traits. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable, embryogenic callus has evolved to become the most widely used approach and has been adopted by research laboratories in Africa. This procedure utilizes axillary meristem tissue (buds) to produce primary and secondary somatic embryos and subsequently friable, embryogenic callus. Agrobacterium harboring a binary expression cassette is used to transform this tissue, which is regenerated via cotyledons and shoot organogenesis to produce rooted in vitro plantlets. This chapter details each step of the procedure using the model cultivar 60444 and provides supplementary notes to successfully produce transgenic cassava.

  14. Cassava For Space Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  15. The effect of extrusion and drying on roller techniques concerning the rheological characteristics of rice-, corn-, sweet potato-, bean- and cassava root- and leaf- based composite flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Aristizábal Galvis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoting food security in Latin-America and the Caribbean is directly related to agricultural products. The region faces a food crisis which has reduced large population groups’ access to food. This work contributes to the study of obtaining precooked composite flour made from biofortified crops using protein, vitamin A and/or minerals. This study evaluated the effect of precooked flour’s composition and precooking on its solubility in water, water absorption capacity, consistency and viscosity; such flour was obtained by extrusion and drying on rollers. The composite flours were obtained from cassava roots, sweet potato tubers, corn, rice and bean grains and cassava leaves. Four composite flours were formulated taking four- to six-year-old children’s daily nutrient requirements (protein, iron, zinc and beta-carotenes as a basis. The extruder was operated at 90ºC, 300 rpm screw rotation speed, 17.64 g/min feed flow, with 30% moisture mixture. The dryer rollers were operated at 4 rpm roller rotation speed, 90ºC surface temperature and 1 mm separation between rollers. It was determined that flour dried on rollers led to more complete cooking and modified starch granule structure than precooking by extrusion, thereby producing flour having greater solubility in water, less water absorption, higher consistency and smaller viscosity, comparable to that of pattern flour.

  16. APPLICATION OF ANTIOXIDANTS AND EDIBLE STARCH COATING TO REDUCE BROWNING OF MINIMALLY - PROCESSED CASSAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL GOMES COELHO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the quality of minimally - processed cassava treated with antioxidants and a starch - based edible coating. Cassava roots were washed, cooled, immersed in cold water, peeled and then cut. Root pieces were then immersed in a chloride solution, centrifuged, and subsequently immersed in either a starch suspension (3%, a solution containing antioxidants (3% citric acid and 3% ascorbic acid, or in both the coating and antioxidant solutions. Coated root pieces were dried at 18 ± 2°C for 1 hour, then packaged into polypropylene bags (150 g per pack and kept at 5 ± 2°C for 15 days, and assessed every 3 days. A completely randomized design was used in a 4 × 6 factorial consisting of the treatment (control, coating, antioxidant, or coating and antioxidant and the storage period (0, 3 6, 9, 12 or 15 days, with three replicates in each group. The pH, blackened area and peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities of the cassava was reduced in treatments containing antioxidants and the scores of visual analysis and phenolic content were higher. Therefore, treatment with antioxidants was effective for reducing browning in minimally - processed cassava, retaining the quality of cassava pieces stored for 15 days at 5 ± 2°C. The combination of antioxidants and the edible coating showed no improvement compared to treatment with antioxidants alone.

  17. Effects of Plant Growth Regulators on Shoot Multiplication and Root Induction of Cassava Varieties Culture in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    SUKMADJAJA, DEDEN; WIDHIASTUTI, HERNI

    2011-01-01

    A study on propagation of three superior cassava Manihot esculenta( Crant) varieties i.e.Darul Hidayah, Malang-6 and Adira-4 through tissue culture technique was conducted at theTissue Culture Lab of SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor. The objective of the experiment was tostudy effect of plant growth regulators on Manihot esculenta propagation, which can be used in cassavamicropropagation protocol. Plant materials used were auxiliary shoots of a stem node. Theexperiment consisted of (i) shoot multiplicat...

  18. ISLSCP II Total Plant-Available Soil Water Storage Capacity of the Rooting Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides two estimates of the geographic distribution of the total plant-available soil water storage capacity of the rooting zone ("rooting zone water...

  19. ISLSCP II Total Plant-Available Soil Water Storage Capacity of the Rooting Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides two estimates of the geographic distribution of the total plant-available soil water storage capacity of the rooting zone ("rooting...

  20. Effects of mulch on soil properties and on the performance of late season cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz on an acid ultisol in Southwestern Zaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutaladio, NB.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Mulch effects on soil temperature, soil moisture content, soil chemical properties, growth and development, yield and yield components of late season cassava were investigated for three years on an acid ultisol in the tropical sa vanna zone of Southwestern Zaire. Diurnal soil temperature and soil moisture content were recorded at 30-day intervals during the first 4 months of growth. Cassava growth and development were monitored a t3, 6 and 9 months after planting while yield and yield components were noted at 12 months after planting. After each cropping year, changes in soil chemical constituents were recorded. Mulching significantly reduced soil temperature by about 3.5°C and increased soil moisture content by 6.1 % under late season cassava. Soil pH, soil organic carbon content, total nitrogen, soil available phosphorus and soil exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K increased as a result of increase in organic matter with continuous application of mulch for 3 years. Plant height, leaf area, shoot and root dry weights of cassava plants given mulch were significantly increased as compared to the plants in unmulched plots. Cassava plants given mulch produced more and bigger storage roots than unmulched plants. Storage root yield increased by 16.7, 28.1 and 57.7 % respectively in the first, the second and the third years of mulch application. The beneficiai effect of mulching over no-mulching increased from year to year, irrespective of cassava cultivars.

  1. Quality of fermented cassava flour processed into placali | Koko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermented cassava flour was obtained from Yace variety. Cassava roots were washed, peeled and ground. After adding cassava inoculums at 8% (m/m), the pulp was allowed to ferment for 72 hours at ambient temperature. The fermented dough was removed, squeezed and oven-dried for 48 hours at 55 °C. The dried ...

  2. A MANUALLY OPERATED CASSAVA GRATING MACHINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1984-09-01

    Sep 1, 1984 ... substantial losses arising from the inability of the person to hold small pieces of cassava roots for grating. Happily, there now exist various. Versions of mechanical graters which are driven by electric motors or small internal combustion engines. In fact, it may be said that cassava grating has been effectively.

  3. Genetic diversity analysis of cyanogenic potential (CNp) of root among improved genotypes of cassava using simple sequence repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyib, O K; Mkumbira, J; Odunola, O A; Dixon, A G

    2012-12-01

    Cyanogenic potential (CNp) of cassava constitutes a serious problem for over 500 million people who rely on the crop as their main source of calories. Genetic diversity is a key to successful crop improvement for breeding new improved variability for target traits. Forty-three improved genotypes of cassava developed by International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (ITA), Ibadan, were characterized for CNp trait using 35 Simple Sequence.Repeat (SSR) markers. Essential colorimetry picric test was used for evaluation of CNp on a color scale of 1 to 14. The CNp scores obtained ranged from 3 to 9, with a mean score of 5.48 (+/- 0.09) based on Statistical Analysis System (SAS) package. TMS M98/ 0068 (4.0 +/- 0.25) was identified as the best genotype with low CNp while TMS M98/0028 (7.75 +/- 0.25) was the worst. The 43 genotypes were assigned into 7 phenotypic groups based on rank-sum analysis in SAS. Dissimilarity analysis representatives for windows generated a phylogenetic tree with 5 clusters which represented hybridizing groups. Each of the clusters (except 4) contained low CNp genotypes that could be used for improving the high CNp genotypes in the same or near cluster. The scatter plot of the genotypes showed that there was little or no demarcation for phenotypic CNp groupings in the molecular groupings. The result of this study demonstrated that SSR markers are powerful tools for the assessment of genetic variability, and proper identification and selection of parents for genetic improvement of low CNp trait among the IITA cassava collection.

  4. Accumulation and distribution of dry matter in relation to root yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... high dry matter also produce high leaf area index and root yield (Akparobi et al., 1999). Partitioning of dry matter is particularly important in cassava because the crop has simultaneous development of leaves, stems and storage roots and supply of assimilate is partitioned bet- ween these parts (Cock, 1984; ...

  5. Effect of medium and post-irradiation storage on rooting of irradiated onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rita

    2000-01-01

    Rooting test for detection of irradiation in onion bulbs was studied. Onions were exposed to different dose levels of 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 Gy. The effects of irradiation dose, cultivar difference, rooting medium and post-irradiation storage on the rooting were investigated. The number and the length of the roots formed in onions were found to decrease on irradiation. The effect was more at higher doses. The effect of irradiation on rooting was also evident after 120 days of storage. (author)

  6. Expression pattern conferred by a glutamic acid-rich protein gene promoter in field-grown transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, J; Prías, M; Al-Babili, S; Ladino, Y; López, D; Beyer, P; Chavarriaga, P; Tohme, J

    2010-05-01

    A major constraint for incorporating new traits into cassava using biotechnology is the limited list of known/tested promoters that encourage the expression of transgenes in the cassava's starchy roots. Based on a previous report on the glutamic-acid-rich protein Pt2L4, indicating a preferential expression in roots, we cloned the corresponding gene including promoter sequence. A promoter fragment (CP2; 731 bp) was evaluated for its potential to regulate the expression of the reporter gene GUSPlus in transgenic cassava plants grown in the field. Intense GUS staining was observed in storage roots and vascular stem tissues; less intense staining in leaves; and none in the pith. Consistent with determined mRNA levels of the GUSPlus gene, fluorometric analyses revealed equal activities in root pulp and stems, but 3.5 times less in leaves. In a second approach, the activity of a longer promoter fragment (CP1) including an intrinsic intron was evaluated in carrot plants. CP1 exhibited a pronounced tissue preference, conferring high expression in the secondary phloem and vascular cambium of roots, but six times lower expression levels in leaf vascular tissues. Thus, CP1 and CP2 may be useful tools to improve nutritional and agronomical traits of cassava by genetic engineering. To date, this is the first study presenting field data on the specificity and potential of promoters for transgenic cassava.

  7. Effect of cassava peel and cassava bagasse natural fillers on mechanical properties of thermoplastic cassava starch: Comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edhirej, Ahmed; Sapuan, S. M.; Jawaid, Mohammad; Zahari, Nur Ismarrubie; Sanyang, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Increased awareness of environmental and sustainability issues has generated increased interest in the use of natural fiber reinforced composites. This work focused on the use of cassava roots peel and bagasse as natural fillers of thermoplastic cassava starch (TPS) materials based on cassava starch. The effect of cassava bagasse (CB) and cassava peel (CP) content on the tensile properties of cassava starch (CS) biocomposites films was studied. The biocomposites films were prepared by casting technique using cassava starch (CS) as matrix and fructose as plasticizer. The CB and CP were added to improve the properties of the films. The addition of both fibers increased the tensile strength and modulus while decreased the elongation at break of the biocomposites films. Films containing CB showed higher tensile strength and modulus as compared to the films containing the same amount of CP. The addition of 6 % bagasse increased the modulus and maximum tensile stress to 581.68 and 10.78 MPa, respectively. Thus, CB is considered to be the most efficient reinforcing agent due to its high compatibility with the cassava starch. The use of CB and CP as reinforcement agents for CS thermoplastic cassava added value to these waste by-products and increase the suitability of CS composite films as environmentally friendly food packaging material.

  8. Cassava biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  9. Transgenic Biofortification of the Starchy Staple Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Generates a Novel Sink for Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhary, Mohammad; Siritunga, Dimuth; Stevens, Gene; Taylor, Nigel J.; Fauquet, Claude M.

    2011-01-01

    Although calorie dense, the starchy, tuberous roots of cassava provide the lowest sources of dietary protein within the major staple food crops (Manihot esculenta Crantz). (Montagnac JA, Davis CR, Tanumihardjo SA. (2009) Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 8:181–194). Cassava was genetically modified to express zeolin, a nutritionally balanced storage protein under control of the patatin promoter. Transgenic plants accumulated zeolin within de novo protein bodies localized within the root storage tissues, resulting in total protein levels of 12.5% dry weight within this tissue, a fourfold increase compared to non-transgenic controls. No significant differences were seen for morphological or agronomic characteristics of transgenic and wild type plants in the greenhouse and field trials, but relative to controls, levels of cyanogenic compounds were reduced by up to 55% in both leaf and root tissues of transgenic plants. Data described here represent a proof of concept towards the potential transformation of cassava from a starchy staple, devoid of storage protein, to one capable of supplying inexpensive, plant-based proteins for food, feed and industrial applications. PMID:21283593

  10. Genetic inheritance of pulp colour and selected traits of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) at early generation selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduwumuremyi, Athanase; Melis, Rob; Shanahan, Paul; Theodore, Asiimwe

    2017-12-12

    The early generation selection of cassava quantitative and qualitative traits saves breeding resources as it can shorten breeding schemes. Inheritance analysis provides important breeding information for developing new improved varieties. This study aimed at developing an F1 segregating cassava population and determining mode of gene action of pulp colour and selected traits at early generation selection (F1 seedling and clones). The 15 families exhibited significant (P < 0.05) phenotypic variation between offspring. The general combining ability (GCA) was significant for all traits except cassava brown streak disease on leaves, whereas specific combining ability (SCA) was significant for all evaluated traits. The Garukansubire and Gitamisi genotypes were the best general combiners for improving fresh storage root yield, while G1 and G2 were the best general combiners for improved carotenoid (yellow/orange pulp colour) and delayed physiological postharvest deterioration. The pulp colour had the highest GCA/SCA ratio and percent sum of squares due to GCA. The 15 F1 families exhibited essential genetic diversity for cassava improvement. The expression of most cassava traits was controlled by both additive and non-additive gene action. The study elucidated the role of dominance effects over the additive effects for the evaluated traits. However, the pulp colour was predominantly controlled by additive gene action. This implies the possibility of improving cassava through conventional breeding using recurrent selection for most traits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Characterization of cassava starch attributes of different genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anggraini, V.; Sudarmonowati, E.; Hartati, N.Sri.; Suurs, L.C.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic variation of starch of Indonesian cassava genotypes with various morphological characteristics of roots and eco-geographical origin was characterized and compared. The morphological characteristics of the roots of 71 collected cassava genotypes were classified into yellow and white for

  12. Allele exchange at the EPSPS locus confers glyphosate tolerance in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Aaron W; Chauhan, Raj Deepika; Cermak, Tomas; Mutka, Andrew M; Vijayaraghavan, Anupama; Boyher, Adam; Starker, Colby G; Bart, Rebecca; Voytas, Daniel F; Taylor, Nigel J

    2017-12-09

    Effective weed control can protect yields of cassava (Manihot esculenta) storage roots. Farmers could benefit from using herbicide with a tolerant cultivar. We applied traditional transgenesis and gene editing to generate robust glyphosate tolerance in cassava. By comparing promoters regulating expression of transformed 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) genes with various paired amino acid substitutions, we found that strong constitutive expression is required to achieve glyphosate tolerance during in vitro selection and in whole cassava plants. Using strategies that exploit homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair pathways, we precisely introduced the best-performing allele into the cassava genome, simultaneously creating a promoter swap and dual amino acid substitutions at the endogenous EPSPS locus. Primary EPSPS-edited plants were phenotypically normal, tolerant to high doses of glyphosate, with some free of detectable T-DNA integrations. Our methods demonstrate an editing strategy for creating glyphosate tolerance in crop plants and demonstrate the potential of gene editing for further improvement of cassava. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Microbiologia de farinhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz durante o armazenamento Microbiology of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta Crantz during the storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândido Ferreira Neto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as características microbiológicas em farinhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz simples e temperadas, armazenadas durante 180 dias. Os materiais consistiram de cinco amostras, sendo uma de farinha de mandioca sem mistura (simples e as demais de farinhas de mandioca temperadas. A farinha simples foi embalada em sacos de polietileno de baixa densidade com capacidade de 1,0kg e as farinhas temperadas foram embaladas em sacos plásticos de polipropileno pigmentado, com capacidade 0,5kg. Em todas as amostras, foram realizadas contagens de coliformes fecais, Staphylococcus aureus, bactérias mesófilas, bolores e leveduras e pesquisa de Salmonella sp. As análises foram realizadas em intervalos de 30 dias. Não foram detectadas diferenças entre as características microbiológicas das amostras simples e das temperadas. O armazenamento não alterou os padrões microbiológicos das amostras. As amostras apresentaram esterilidade para coliformes fecais, Salmonella sp. e Staphylococcus aureus. Os valores encontrados para coliformes fecais, Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, bactérias mesófilas e para bolores e leveduras estavam dentro dos padrões fixados pela legislação brasileira.This work was accomplished with the aim of evaluating the microbiological characteristic in cassava flours (Manihot esculenta Crantz simple and temperate, stored during 180 days. The materials consisted of five samples, being one of cassava flour without mixture (simple and the others of temperate cassava flours. The simple flour was packed in polyethylen bags of low density with capacity of 1,0kg and the temperate flours were packed in colored polipropilen bags, with capacity of 0.5kg. In all the samples fecal coliformes, Staphylococcus aureus, mesophile bacterias, yeasts counting and Salmonella sp research were accomplished. The analyses were accomplished in intervals of 30 days. Differences were not

  14. Influence of temperature and rooting-promoter on the formation of root-primodia and on the rooting of chrysanthemum cuttings under storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, J.; Fukuda, M.

    1998-01-01

    In order to promote rooting for direct planting cuttings in a lighting cultivation of chrysanthemum, we clarified the effects of light, temperature and term of storage of the cuttings, and analyzed ways of using rooting promoters as a pre-treatment of cuttings for root-primodia formation and rooting. Light as a pre-treatment had little effect, so it seemed to be not necessary for the formation of root primodia. The formation of the root-primodia was most hastened at 25 degrees C; inversely, it was slowed down at low temperatures, that is, the root-primodia were formed in four days at 25 degrees C, five days at 20 degrees C, and seven days at 15 degrees C. With the use of rooting promoters as a pre-treatment for the rooting of cuttings, the root-primodia were formed faster when the whole of cuttings were dipped in 40 mg/L solution of indelebutyric acid (IBA) than when the base of cuttings were dipped or sprayed 400 mg/L solution of IBA. It was appropriate that cuttings were dipped in IBA then put in in plastic-pots (7.5cm) vertically, packed in polyethylene-bags and stored in a corrugated carton box

  15. Sugars en route to the roots. Transport, metabolism and storage within plant roots and towards microorganisms of the rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennion, Nils; Durand, Mickael; Vriet, Cécile; Doidy, Joan; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Rémi; Pourtau, Nathalie

    2018-04-28

    In plants, root is a typical sink organ that relies exclusively on the import of sugar from the aerial parts. Sucrose is delivered by the phloem to the most distant root tips and, en route to the tip, is used by the different root tissues for metabolism and storage. Besides, a certain portion of this carbon is exuded in the rhizosphere, supplied to beneficial microorganisms and diverted by parasitic microbes. The transport of sugars towards these numerous sinks either occurs symplastically through cell connections (plasmodesmata) or is apoplastically mediated through membrane transporters (MST, SUT/SUC and SWEET) that control monosaccharide and sucrose fluxes. Here, we review recent progresses on carbon partitioning within and outside roots, discussing membrane transporters involved in plant responses to biotic and abiotic factors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Data supporting the role of enzymes and polysaccharides during cassava postharvest physiological deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; da Costa Nunes, Eduardo; de Oliveira Neubert, Enilto; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    This data article is referred to the research article entitled The role of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and polysaccharides in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots under postharvest physiological deterioration by Uarrota et al. (2015). Food Chemistry 197, Part A, 737-746. The stress duo to PPD of cassava roots leads to the formation of ROS which are extremely harmful and accelerates cassava spoiling. To prevent or alleviate injuries from ROS, plants have evolved antioxidant systems that include non-enzymatic and enzymatic defence systems such as ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase and polysaccharides. In this data article can be found a dataset called "newdata", in RData format, with 60 observations and 06 variables. The first 02 variables (Samples and Cultivars) and the last 04, spectrophotometric data of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, tocopherol, total proteins and arcsined data of cassava PPD scoring. For further interpretation and analysis in R software, a report is also provided. Means of all variables and standard deviations are also provided in the Supplementary tables ("data.long3.RData, data.long4.RData and meansEnzymes.RData"), raw data of PPD scoring without transformation (PPDmeans.RData) and days of storage (days.RData) are also provided for data analysis reproducibility in R software.

  17. Cassava: an appraisal of its phytochemistry and its biotechnological prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagbrough, Ian S; Bayoumi, Soad A L; Rowan, Michael G; Beeching, John R

    2010-12-01

    The present state of knowledge of the phytochemistry of small molecules isolated from the roots and leaves of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), is reviewed. Cassava roots are an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates, mainly eaten as a source of starch, forming the staple food to over 500 million; additionally, the roots have value as a raw material for industrial starch production and for animal feed giving the crop high economic value, but it suffers markedly from post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD). The hydroxycoumarins scopoletin and its glucoside scopolin as well as trace quantities of esculetin and its glucoside esculin are identified from cassava roots during PPD. The biotechnological prospects for cassava are also reviewed including a critical appraisal of transgenic approaches for crop improvement, together with its use for bioethanol production, due to cassava's efficient ability to fix carbon dioxide into carbohydrate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Unlocking the potential of tropical root crop biotechnology in east Africa by establishing a genetic transformation platform for local farmer-preferred cassava cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans eNyaboga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava genetic transformation capacity is still mostly restricted to advanced laboratories in the USA, Europe and China; and its implementation and maintainance in African laboratories has remained scarce. The impact of transgenic technologies for genetic improvement of cassava will depend largely on the transfer of such capabilities to researchers in Africa, where cassava has an important socioeconomic niche. A major constraint to the development of genetic transformation technologies for cassava improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. Despite the success achieved in genetic modification of few cassava cultivars, including the model cultivar 60444, transgenic cassava production remains difficult for farmer-preferred cultivars. In this study, a protocol for cultivar 60444 developed at ETH Zurich was successfully implemented and optimized to establish transformation of farmer-preferred cassava cultivars popular in east Africa. The conditions for production and proliferation of friable embryogenic calli (FEC and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation were optimized for three east African farmer-preferred cultivars (Ebwanatereka, Kibandameno and Serere. Our results demonstrated transformation efficiencies of about 14-22 independent transgenic lines per 100 mg of FEC for farmer-preferred cultivars in comparison to 28 lines per 100 mg of the model cultivar 60444. The presence, integration and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot analysis and histochemical GUS assay. This study reports the establishment of a cassava transformation platform at International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA hosted by Biosciences eastern and central Africa (BecA hub in Kenya and provides the basis for transferring important traits such as virus resistance and prolonged shelf-life to farmer-preferred cultivars in east Africa. We anticipate that such platform will also be

  19. Effects of irradiation and cold storage on rooting and growth of chrysanthemum cuttings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. K.; No, S. A.; Sin, H. S.; Song, H. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, B. J. [Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the combined effect of cold storage with irradiation on rooting of chrysanthemum cuttings. Each cutting had three real leaves and was 6 cm in length. Groups of the cuttings were irradiated with 0 to 70 Gy of gamma-ray after cold storage, while another groups were irradiated with the same doses and then stored at 4 .deg. C for four weeks. Root and shoot growth was observed at 15 and 20 days after planting of the cuttings in a plug tray. Accelerated root formation was observed in 30 Gy irradiated group, and root growth was also enhanced in 20 and 30 Gy irradiated groups 20 days after planting. In case of irradiation combined with pre-treatment of cold storage, survival rate of cuttings was the highest (80%) in 30 Gy irradiated group. The groups treated with cold storage after irradiation were generally better in root formation, among which 50 Gy irradiated group showed the highest rate of root growth.

  20. Effects of the soil aeration on nutrient absorption, 14C-assimilates distribution and storage root yield in sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Chunyu; Wang Zhenlin; Guo Fengfa; Yu Songlie

    2002-01-01

    Using Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. cv Lushu7 and Xushu18 as materials, the effect of the soil aeration on mineral nutrition absorption, 14 C-assimilates distribution in storage roots and storage root yield were studied. The results showed that the improved soil aeration could increase the content of potassium, calcium, manganese, boron and zinc in leaves, increase the content of potassium and calcium in storage roots, decrease the content of manganese, boron and zinc in storage roots, improve the transportation of 14 C-assimilates, increase the starch content of storage roots and significantly increase the storage root yield. The role of mineral elements on improving the transportation of 14 C-assimilates was discussed

  1. Comparison of three cyanogen assays for total cyanogens in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saka, J.D.K.; Mhone, A.R.K.; Brimer, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity and reproducibility of three methods for determining the total cyanogenic potential (CNp) of 7 fresh and processed cassava varieties were determined and compared. The total cyanogen content of fresh cassava roots and three cassava products (kondowole, makaka, and starch) were anal...

  2. The Value of Cassava for Growth of Sheep | Job | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatment groups received either a maize-groundnut meal control diet, a fresh cassava + poultry litter mixture that had been ensiled and later mixed with protein supplement, or dried cassava-groundnut meal diet, during the 70-day experimental period. In Experiment 2, unpeeled fresh cassava roots of the high HCN ...

  3. Simulating root carbon storage with a coupled carbon — Water cycle root model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, A.; Heimann, M.

    1996-12-01

    Is it possible to estimate carbon allocation to fine roots from the water demands of the vegetation? We assess this question by applying a root model which is based on optimisation principles. The model uses a new formulation of water uptake by fine roots, which is necessary to explicitly take into account the highly dynamic and non-steady process of water uptake. Its carbon dynamics are driven by maximising the water uptake while keeping maintenance costs at a minimum. We apply the model to a site in northern Germany and check averaged vertical fine root biomass distribution against measured data. The model reproduces the observed values fairly well and the approach seems promising. However, more validation is necessary, especially on the predicted dynamics of the root biomass.

  4. High-resolution identification and abundance profiling of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatabi, Behnam; Arikit, Siwaret; Xia, Rui; Winter, Stephan; Oumar, Doungous; Mongomake, Kone; Meyers, Blake C; Fondong, Vincent N

    2016-01-28

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) are endogenous sRNAs that play regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. In plants, one subset of sRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) exhibit tissue-differential expression and regulate gene expression mainly through direct cleavage of mRNA or indirectly via production of secondary phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs) that silence cognate target transcripts in trans. Here, we have identified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) miRNAs using high resolution sequencing of sRNA libraries from leaf, stem, callus, male and female flower tissues. To analyze the data, we built a cassava genome database and, via sequence analysis and secondary structure prediction, 38 miRNAs not previously reported in cassava were identified. These new cassava miRNAs included two miRNAs not previously been reported in any plant species. The miRNAs exhibited tissue-differential accumulation as confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis, largely reflecting levels observed in sequencing data. Some of the miRNAs identified were predicted to trigger production of secondary phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs) from 80 PHAS loci. Cassava is a woody perennial shrub, grown principally for its starch-rich storage roots, which are rich in calories. In this study, new miRNAs were identified and their expression was validated using qRT-PCR of RNA from five different tissues. The data obtained expand the list of annotated miRNAs and provide additional new resources for cassava improvement research.

  5. Divergent regulation of CBF regulon on cold tolerance and plant phenotype in cassava overexpressing Arabidopsis CBF3 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong An

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a tropical origin plant that is sensitive to chilling stress. In order to understand the CBF cold response pathway, a well-recognized regulatory mechanism in temperate plants, in cassava, overexpression of an Arabidopsis CBF3 gene is studied. This gene renders cassava increasingly tolerant to cold and drought stresses but is associated with retarded plant growth, leaf curling, reduced storage root yield, and reduced anthocyanin accumulation in a transcript abundance-dependent manner. Physiological analysis revealed that the transgenic cassava increased proline accumulation, reduced malondialdehyde production, and electrolyte leakage under cold stress. These transgenic lines also showed high relative water content when faced with drought. The expression of partial CBF-targeted genes in response to cold displayed temporal and spatial variations in the wild-type and transgenic plants: highly inducible in leaves and less altered in apical buds. In addition, anthocyanin accumulation was inhibited by downregulating the expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis and by interplaying between the CBF3 and the endogenous transcription factors. Thus, the heterologous CBF3 modulates the expression of stress-related genes and carries out a series of physiological adjustments under stressful conditions, showing a varied regulation pattern of CBF regulon from that of cassava CBFs.

  6. Farmers' perceptions of practices and constraints in cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... insufficient drying (42%), the use of infected cassava roots by plant pathogenic microbes from the fields (12%), or too ... discolouration, 112 farmers out of a total of 185 who were aware about chips damage, practiced sun- drying, and 21% ... important constraints in cassava chips production. From the results ...

  7. Effects of submerged and anaerobic fermentations on cassava flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oke Oluwatoyin Victoria

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... fermentation had greater sensory quality and higher consumer preference than that of anaerobic fermentation. Key words: Cassava fermentation, physicochemical, functional, ... enumerated the influence of age and variety of cassava roots as another constraint. Oyewole and Afolami (2004) investigated the ...

  8. A Biosensor for the Determination of Cyanide in Cassava | Jasper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple biosensor for the determination of total cyanide in cassava is demonstrated. The biosensor was developed based on the use of a cyanide ion selective electrode made from AgI and Ag2S and the enzyme linamarase which was isolated from cassava root cortex. Results are reported on a sensing system which ...

  9. Development and application of transgenic technologies in cassava

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, N.; Chavarriaga, P.; Raemakers, C.J.J.M.; Sititunga, D.; Zhang, P.

    2004-01-01

    The capacity to integrate transgenes into the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is now established and being utilized to generate plants expressing traits of agronomic interest. The tissue culture and gene transfer systems currently employed to produce these transgenic cassava

  10. Evaluation of a cabinet dryer developed for cassava chips | Taiwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drying is a very important unit operation in the processing of fresh cassava root tubers into chips because it forestalls unprecedented and, sometimes, incalculable amount of losses often incurred by cassava farmers and processors due to spoilage and massive reduction in quality, and by extension, income. This study ...

  11. Cassava leaves as protein source for pigs in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to evaluate the use of cassava leaves as protein sources for pigs when used at high levels in the diet, either in fresh form or with simplified methods of processing. In twenty cassava varieties taken from the upper part of the plant at the root

  12. Shrimp Waste Meal Supplementation Of Cassava Products Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the objective of investigating shrimp waste (SWM) and cassava leaf (CLM) meals as cheap alternatives and protein source mixtures that would best complement cassava root-soybean ration in total replacement for maize in broiler diets, six iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets were evaluated using two weeks old ...

  13. Quality of gari (roasted cassava mash) in Lagos State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gari is creamy-white, partially gelatinized roasted free flowing granular flour made from cassava roots. It is a major staple consumed in both urban and rural areas due to its convenience. Quality of Gari (roasted cassava mash) in Lagos, Nigeria was investigated. Gari samples were collected at random from different ...

  14. Effect of Milling Machines and Sieve Sizes on Cooked Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava flour has a wide range of uses and its product stability is a major advantage in exploiting its potentials for opening into new markets beyond the normal use of fresh roots and traditional food products. This study therefore examined appropriate processing methods to meet consumer needs. Dry cassava chips were ...

  15. Effects of different ratios and storage periods of liquid brewer's yeast mixed with cassava pulp on chemical composition, fermentation quality andin vitroruminal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphayae, Sukanya; Kumagai, Hajime; Angthong, Wanna; Narmseelee, Ramphrai; Bureenok, Smerjai

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation quality and in vitro ruminal fermentation of various ratios and storage periods of liquid brewer's yeast (LBY) mixed with cassava pulp (CVP). Four mixtures of fresh LBY and CVP were made (LBY0, LBY10, LBY20, and LBY30 for LBY:CVP at 0:100, 10:90, 20:80, and 30:70, respectively) on a fresh matter basis, in 500 g in plastic bags and stored at 30 to 32°C. After storage, the bags were opened weekly from weeks 0 to 4. Fermentation quality and in vitro gas production (IVGP) were determined, as well as the dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and acid detergent lignin contents. The contents of CP and EE increased, whereas all other components decreased, in proportion to LBY inclusion (ppH, ammonia nitrogen per total nitrogen (NH 3 -N/TN) and V-score in each mixture and storage period demonstrated superior fermentation quality (pH≤4.2, NH 3 -N/TN≤12.5%, and V-score>90%). The pH increased and NH 3 -N/TN decreased, with proportionate increases of LBY, whereas the pH decreased and NH 3 -N/TN increased, as the storage periods were extended (p<0.01). Although IVGP decreased in proportion to the amount of LBY inclusion (p<0.01), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) was unaffected by the mixture ratios. The highest IVGP and IVOMD were observed in week 0 (p<0.01). The inclusion of LBY (as high as 30%) into CVP improves the chemical composition of the mixture, thereby increasing the CP content, while decreasing IVGP, without decreasing fermentation quality and IVOMD. In addition, a preservation period of up to four weeks can guarantee superior fermentation quality in all types of mixtures. Therefore, we recommend limiting the use of CVP as a feed ingredient, given its low nutritional value and improving feed quality with the inclusion of LBY.

  16. Query Storage and Relay in Research Root (LACREND RR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-30

    3.2.1.2.1 Public Research Goals/Contribution The Domain Name System (DNS) is an important part of nearly every Internet transition, so correct...maintainable by a small group, and (d) to improve overall performance. All of those objectives were met. On 2015-08-07 IPv6 went live on the new...architecture, and on 2015-08-12 IPv4 went live as well. 2. [ext; PI] B-Root Infrastructure/Architecture: On 2015-12-16 we deployed a firewall in front of the

  17. A comparative study of proteomic differences between pencil and storage roots of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeung Joo; Kim, Yun-Hee; Kwak, Youn-Sig; An, Jae Young; Kim, Pil Joo; Lee, Byung Hyun; Kumar, Vikranth; Park, Kee Woong; Chang, Eun Sil; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-02-01

    Fibrous roots of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) usually develop into both pencil and storage roots. To understand protein function in root development, a proteomic analysis was conducted on the pencil and storage roots of the light orange-fleshed sweetpotato cultivar, Yulmi. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that expression of 30 protein spots differed between pencil and storage roots: 15 proteins were up-regulated or expressed in pencil roots and 15 in storage roots. Differentially expressed proteins spots were investigated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry, and 10 proteins from pencil roots were identified as binding protein isoform A, catechol oxidase, peroxidases, ascorbate peroxidase, endochitinase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase and unknown proteins. Of the proteins up-regulated in, or restricted to, storage roots, 13 proteins were identified as protein disulfide isomerase, anionic peroxidase, putative ripening protein, sporamin B, sporamin A and sporamin A precursor. An analysis of enzyme activity revealed that catechol oxidase and peroxidase as the first and last enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis pathway, and ascorbate peroxidase had higher activities in pencil than in storage roots. The total concentration of phenolic compounds was also far higher in pencil than in storage roots, and lignin accumulated only in pencil roots. These results provide important insight into sweetpotato proteomics, and imply that lignin biosynthesis and stress-related proteins are up-regulated or uniquely expressed in pencil roots. The results indicate that the reduction of carbon flow toward phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and its delivery to carbohydrate metabolism is a major event in storage root formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Storage of Miscanthus-derived carbon in rhizomes, roots, and soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Lærke, Poul Erik; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Compared with annual crops, dedicated perennial bioenergy crops are ascribed additional benefits in terms of reduced greenhouse gas emissions; these benefits include increased carbon (C) storage in soil. We measured Miscanthus-derived C in rhizomes, roots, and 0–100 cm soil beneath three 16-yr-ol...

  19. Techno-economic and environmental assessment of bioethanol production from high starch and root yield Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hanif

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transportation played a significant role in energy consumption and pollution subsequently. Caused by the intense growth of greenhouse gas emission, efficient and sustainable improvement of the transportation sector has elevated the concern in many nations including Malaysia. Bioethanol is an alternative and renewable energy that has a great potential to substitute for fossil gasoline in internal combustion engine (ICE. Although bioethanol has been widely utilized in road transport worldwide, the production and application of bioethanol in Malaysia is yet to be considered. Presently there is comprehensive diversity of bioethanol research on distillation, performance and emission analysis available worldwide. Yet, the study on techno-economic and feasibility of bioethanol fuel in Malaysia condition is unavailable. Thus, this study is concentrated on bioethanol production and techno-economic analysis of cassava bioethanol as an alternative fuel in Malaysia. Furthermore, the current study attempts to determine the effect of bioethanol employment towards the energy scenario, environmental and economy. From the economic analysis, determined that the life cycle cost for 54 ktons cassava bioethanol production plant with a project life time of 20 years is $132 million USD, which is equivalent to $0.11 USD per litre of bioethanol. Furthermore, substituting 5 % of gasoline fuel with bioethanol fuel in road transport can reduce the CO2 emissions up to 2,038 ktons in year 2036. In case to repay the carbon debt from converting natural forest to cassava cropland, cassava bioethanol required about 5.4 years. The cassava bioethanol is much cheaper than gasoline fuel even when 20 % taxation is subjected to bioethanol at current production cost. Thus, this study serves as a guideline for further investigation and research on bioethanol production, subsidy cost and other limitation factors before the extensive application of bioethanol can be implemented in

  20. Utilização da raspa integral de mandioca na alimentação de coelhos Use of cassava root scrapings in the feeding of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cristiane Michelan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos com o objetivo de avaliar a utilização da raspa integral de mandioca (RIM para coelhos em crescimento. No ensaio de digestibilidade, foram utilizados 22 coelhos com 50 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos e 11 repetições. Foram utilizadas duas rações, uma ração-referência e uma teste, na qual a RIM substituiu 25% da MS da ração-referência. Os teores digestíveis de MS, PB, FDN, FDA, energia e amido (% MS foram, respectivamente, de 83,84; 1,89; 8,34 e 3,31%; 3.447 kcal/kg e 55,35%. No ensaio de desempenho, foram utilizados 180 coelhos no período de 35 a 70 dias de idade. Os coelhos foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% de RIM em substituição à energia digestível do milho e 15 repetições de dois animais por unidade experimental. No período de 35 a 50 dias de idade, houve efeito quadrático do fornecimento de RIM na dieta sobre a conversão alimentar. No período de 35 a 70 dias de idade, houve também efeito quadrático sobre o PV aos 70 dias, o ganho de peso diário, a conversão alimentar e o custo de ração/kg de ganho de PV. Efeito quadrático também foi observado para o peso da carcaça. Nos períodos de 35 a 50 e de 35 a 70 dias de idade, a conversão alimentar dos animais alimentados com as dietas com 20 e 100% de substituição do milho pela raspa de mandioca foi melhor em comparação à dos demais animais. A raspa integral de mandioca pode ser incorporada a rações para coelhos em crescimento em até 27,32% em substituição a 100% da energia digestível do milho.Two experiments were carried out with the objective to evaluate the use of cassava root scrapings (CRS for growing rabbits. In the digestibility assay, 22 rabbits with 50 days of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with two treatments and 11 replicates. Two diets were used, one as

  1. Generation of cyanogen-free transgenic cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard T

    2003-07-01

    Cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the major source of calories for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. Cassava, however, contains potentially toxic levels of the cyanogenic glucoside, linamarin. The cyanogen content of cassava foods can be reduced to safe levels by maceration, soaking, rinsing and baking; however, short-cut processing techniques can yield toxic food products. Our objective was to eliminate cyanogens from cassava so as to eliminate the need for food processing. To achieve this goal we generated transgenic acyanogenic cassava plants in which the expression of the cytochrome P450 genes ( CYP79D1 and CYP79D2), that catalyze the first-dedicated step in linamarin synthesis, was inhibited. Using a leaf-specific promoter to drive the antisense expression of the CYP79D1/ CYP79D2 genes we observed up to a 94% reduction in leaf linamarin content associated with an inhibition of CYP79D1 and CYP79D2 expression. Importantly, the linamarin content of roots also was reduced by 99% in transgenic plants having between 60 and 94% reduction in leaf linamarin content. Analysis of CYP79D1/ CYP79D2 transcript levels in transgenic roots indicated they were unchanged relative to wild-type plants. These results suggest that linamarin is transported from leaves to roots and that a threshold level of leaf linamarin production is required for transport.

  2. Expression of class I knotted1-like homeobox genes in the storage roots of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaru; Kato, Nakao; Nakayama, Hiroki; Nakatani, Makoto; Takahata, Yasuhiro

    2008-11-01

    As a first step in clarifying the involvement of class I knotted1-like homeobox (KNOXI) genes in the storage root development of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas), we isolated three KNOXI genes, named Ibkn1, Ibkn2 and Ibkn3, expressed in the storage roots. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Ibkn1 was homologous to the SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) gene of Arabidopsis, while Ibkn2 and Ibkn3 were homologous to the BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP) gene. Of these, expression of Ibkn1 and Ibkn2 were upregulated in developing and mature storage roots compared with fibrous roots. Ibkn1 and Ibkn2 showed different expression patterns in the storage roots. Ibkn1 was preferentially expressed at the proximal end and around the primary vascular cambium, while Ibkn2 expression was highest in the thickest part and lower in both the proximal and distal ends. In contrast to Ibkn1 and Ibkn2, expression of Ibkn3 in roots was not consistent among sweetpotato cultivars. The distribution of endogenous trans-zeatin riboside (t-ZR) in sweetpotato roots showed a similarity to the expression pattern of KNOXI genes, supporting the idea that KNOXI genes control cytokinin levels in the storage roots. The physiological functions of these KNOXI genes in storage root development are discussed.

  3. Action of gamma radiation in the physico-chemical and sensorial characteristics of minimally processed cassava (Manihot esculenta CRANTZ);Acao da radiacao gama nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas e sensoriais da mandioca (Manihot esculenta CRANTZ) minimamente processada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simioni, Karime Raya

    2001-07-01

    Nowadays irradiation has been the most studied method of food conservation. The publication of thousand of papers, not just scientific but also technological, economical and social, have proved the technical validity of the irradiation method and showed the ways of how to introduce it in commercial facilities in ali countries of the modem world. Cassava is cultivated almost ali over the world and it is considered one of the most important nutritious sources of calories in human diet. Cassava is a viable food against starving in several poor areas of the world because it is an extremely resistant culture and may reach satisfactory economical yield. Cassava is a quite perishable root, characterized by fast post harvest deterioration. Because of the lack of researches about the effects of radiations in this root, the objective of the present work was to examine the gamma radiation coming from {sup 60}Cobalt as a treatment to prolong the shelflife of the root after harvesting, aiming to increase its period of commercialization and to conserve its sensorial characteristics for a longer period. Samples were washed, peeled, cleaned and diced cassava roots packed in polyethylene bags. The treatments were: control; freezing and storage at 18 deg C for 21 days; and irradiation with the doses of 8 and 10 kGy. The control and the irradiated samples were stored under ambient temperature during 21 days. All samples were analyzed at each 7 days for alterations in the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics. The samples were analyzed for pH, acidity, weight, humidity, texture and color. The irradiation did not affect the chemical characteristics of the cassava. Neither the pH nor the acidity, the most relevant variables to verify deterioration in cassava, presented significant alterations during the period of storage. Comparing the irradiated treatments, the dose of 8 kGy was that less affected the physic-chemical characteristics of the cassava and scored the highest notes

  4. Petaminer: Using ROOT for efficient data storage in MySQL database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranshaw, J; Malon, D; Vaniachine, A; Fine, V; Lauret, J; Hamill, P

    2010-01-01

    High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) experiments store Petabytes of event data and Terabytes of calibration data in ROOT files. The Petaminer project is developing a custom MySQL storage engine to enable the MySQL query processor to directly access experimental data stored in ROOT files. Our project is addressing the problem of efficient navigation to PetaBytes of HENP experimental data described with event-level TAG metadata, which is required by data intensive physics communities such as the LHC and RHIC experiments. Physicists need to be able to compose a metadata query and rapidly retrieve the set of matching events, where improved efficiency will facilitate the discovery process by permitting rapid iterations of data evaluation and retrieval. Our custom MySQL storage engine enables the MySQL query processor to directly access TAG data stored in ROOT TTrees. As ROOT TTrees are column-oriented, reading them directly provides improved performance over traditional row-oriented TAG databases. Leveraging the flexible and powerful SQL query language to access data stored in ROOT TTrees, the Petaminer approach enables rich MySQL index-building capabilities for further performance optimization.

  5. Altered Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in the Maize Lc-Expressed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Affects Storage Root Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxia; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Min; Fan, Weijuan; Firon, Nurit; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Yuan, Ling; Zhang, Peng

    2016-01-04

    There is no direct evidence of the effect of lignin metabolism on early storage root development in sweet potato. In this study, we found that heterologous expression of the maize leaf color (Lc) gene in sweet potato increased anthocyanin pigment accumulation in the whole plant and resulted in reduced size with an increased length/width ratio, low yield and less starch content in the early storage roots. RT-PCR analysis revealed dramatic up-regulation of the genes involved in the lignin biosynthesis pathway in developing storage roots, leading to greater lignin content in the Lc transgenic lines, compared to the wild type. This was also evidenced by the enhanced lignification of vascular cells in the early storage roots. Furthermore, increased expression of the β-amylase gene in leaves and storage roots also accelerated starch degradation and increased the sugar use efficiency, providing more energy and carbohydrate sources for lignin biosynthesis in the Lc transgenic sweet potato. Lesser starch accumulation was observed in the developing storage roots at the initiation stage in the Lc plants. Our study provides experimental evidence of the basic carbohydrate metabolism underlying the development of storage roots, which is the transformation of lignin biosynthesis to starch biosynthesis.

  6. Altered Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in the Maize Lc-Expressed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Affects Storage Root Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxia; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Min; Fan, Weijuan; Firon, Nurit; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Yuan, Ling; Zhang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    There is no direct evidence of the effect of lignin metabolism on early storage root development in sweet potato. In this study, we found that heterologous expression of the maize leaf color (Lc) gene in sweet potato increased anthocyanin pigment accumulation in the whole plant and resulted in reduced size with an increased length/width ratio, low yield and less starch content in the early storage roots. RT-PCR analysis revealed dramatic up-regulation of the genes involved in the lignin biosynthesis pathway in developing storage roots, leading to greater lignin content in the Lc transgenic lines, compared to the wild type. This was also evidenced by the enhanced lignification of vascular cells in the early storage roots. Furthermore, increased expression of the β-amylase gene in leaves and storage roots also accelerated starch degradation and increased the sugar use efficiency, providing more energy and carbohydrate sources for lignin biosynthesis in the Lc transgenic sweet potato. Lesser starch accumulation was observed in the developing storage roots at the initiation stage in the Lc plants. Our study provides experimental evidence of the basic carbohydrate metabolism underlying the development of storage roots, which is the transformation of lignin biosynthesis to starch biosynthesis. PMID:26727353

  7. Engineering cyanogen synthesis and turnover in cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard

    2004-11-01

    Cassava is the major root crop for a quarter billion subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. It is valued for its ability to grow in adverse environments and the food security it provides. Cassava contains potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glycosides (linamarin) which protect the plant from herbivory and theft. The cyanogens, including linamarin and its deglycosylated product, acetone cyanohydrin, can be efficiently removed from the root by various processing procedures. Short-cuts in processing, which may occur during famines, can result in only partial removal of cyanogens. Residual cyanogens in cassava foods may cause neurological disorders or paralysis, particularly in nutritionally compromised individuals. To address this problem and to further understand the function of cyanogenic glycosides in cassava, we have generated transgenic cassava in which cyanogenic glycoside synthesis has been selectively inhibited in leaves and roots by antisense expression of CYP79D1/D2 gene fragments. The CYP79D1/D2 genes encode two highly similar cytochrome P450s that catalyze the first-dedicated step in cyanogenic glycoside synthesis. Transgenic plants in which the expression of these genes was selectively inhibited in leaves had substantially reduced (60- 94% reduction) linamarin leaf levels. Surprisingly, these plants also had a greater than a 99% reduction in root linamarin content. In contrast, transgenic plants in which the CYP79D1/D2 transcripts were reduced to non-detectable levels in roots had normal root linamarin levels. These results demonstrate that linamarin synthesized in leaves is transported to the roots and accounts for nearly all of the root linamarin content. Importantly, transgenic plants having reduced leaf and root linamarin content were unable to grow in the absence of reduced nitrogen (NH3) . Cassava roots have previously been demonstrated to have an active cyanide assimilation pathway leading to the synthesis of amino acids. We propose that

  8. STORAGE TIME EFFECT ON MINI-CUTTINGS ROOTING IN Tectona grandis LINN F. CLONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorleny Badilla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study aimed to evaluate the influence of storage length on Tectona grandis mini-cuttings survival and rooting. A factorial arrangement (4 x 7 was utilized, based on four clones (Carapá, Ipê, GU5 and TB7 and seven time intervals from mini-cuttings harvesting until final sowing (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 hours. A randomized block design with three replicates and 16 mini-cuttings per experimental unit was utilized. Survival and rooting rates were evaluated after greenhouse culture (30 days after sowing and after shadow house culture (40 days after sowing; as well as height, collar diameter, aerial and root biomass 55 days after sowing. No significant differences were observed in survival and rooting rates among time intervals in teak mini-cuttings preparation from these four clones. However differences among clones were registered for rooting rate, suggesting a genotypic effect. Survival and rooting rates were very high after greenhouse culture (93% and 90% respectively, as well as survival after culture in a shadow-house (88%.

  9. Standardization of cassava mahewu fermentation and assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava root is the main staple for 70% of the population in Mozambique, particularly in inaccessible rural areas, but is known to be low in iron. Anaemia is a public health problem in mothers and preschool children in Mozambique and up to 40% of these cases are probably due to dietary iron deficiency. The World Health ...

  10. Micropropagation of selected cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava, (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a perennial woody herb which is cultivated in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Asia for its edible starchy roots and its ability to withstand marginal environmental conditions. Due to high seed dormancy and sluggish germination rate, farmers normally practice propagation of ...

  11. ROOT - A C++ Framework for Petabyte Data Storage, Statistical Analysis and Visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Naumann, Axel; Ballintijn, Maarten; Bellenot, Bertrand; Biskup, Marek; Brun, Rene; Buncic, Nenad; Canal, Philippe; Casadei, Diego; Couet, Olivier; Fine, Valery; Franco, Leandro; Ganis, Gerardo; Gheata, Andrei; Gonzalez~Maline, David; Goto, Masaharu; Iwaszkiewicz, Jan; Kreshuk, Anna; Marcos Segura, Diego; Maunder, Richard; Moneta, Lorenzo; Offermann, Eddy; Onuchin, Valeriy; Panacek, Suzanne; Rademakers, Fons; Russo, Paul; Tadel, Matevz

    2009-01-01

    ROOT is an object-oriented C++ framework conceived in the high-energy physics (HEP) community, designed for storing and analyzing petabytes of data in an efficient way. Any instance of a C++ class can be stored into a ROOT file in a machine-independent compressed binary format. In ROOT the TTree object container is optimized for statistical data analysis over very large data sets by using vertical data storage techniques. These containers can span a large number of files on local disks, the web, or a number of different shared file systems. In order to analyze this data, the user can chose out of a wide set of mathematical and statistical functions, including linear algebra classes, numerical algorithms such as integration and minimization, and various methods for performing regression analysis (fitting). In particular, the RooFit package allows the user to perform complex data modeling and fitting while the RooStats library provides abstractions and implementations for advance...

  12. Sensory properties and storage stability of salad cream from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory properties and storage stability of salad cream prepared from cassava starch and soy protein concentrates was studied. Cassava starch and soy protein concentrate blends were prepared with 30% soy protein concentrate and incorporated into 70% cassava starch. The cassava-soy protein concentrate blend was ...

  13. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msikita, Weston; Ihemere, Uzoma; Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard T

    2006-01-01

    During the last three years the generation of stably transformed cassava plants having value-added traits has become a reality. Currently, two Agrobacterium-mediated transformation systems are routinely used to engineer cassava. These systems use either somatic embryos or friable embryogenic calli. This paper presents detailed protocols for the transformation of cassava using primary somatic embryos. The effects of explant types, tissue culture conditions, and bacterial and plasmid related factors on transformation efficiency are discussed.

  14. Deciduous and evergreen trees differ in juvenile biomass allometries because of differences in allocation to root storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Kyle W; van Langevelde, Frank; Ward, David; Bongers, Frans; da Silva, Dulce Alves; Prins, Herbert H T; de Bie, Steven; Sterck, Frank J

    2013-08-01

    Biomass partitioning for resource conservation might affect plant allometry, accounting for a substantial amount of unexplained variation in existing plant allometry models. One means of resource conservation is through direct allocation to storage in particular organs. In this study, storage allocation and biomass allometry of deciduous and evergreen tree species from seasonal environments were considered. It was expected that deciduous species would have greater allocation to storage in roots to support leaf regrowth in subsequent growing seasons, and consequently have lower scaling exponents for leaf to root and stem to root partitioning, than evergreen species. It was further expected that changes to root carbohydrate storage and biomass allometry under different soil nutrient supply conditions would be greater for deciduous species than for evergreen species. Root carbohydrate storage and organ biomass allometries were compared for juveniles of 20 savanna tree species of different leaf habit (nine evergreen, 11 deciduous) grown in two nutrient treatments for periods of 5 and 20 weeks (total dry mass of individual plants ranged from 0·003 to 258·724 g). Deciduous species had greater root non-structural carbohydrate than evergreen species, and lower scaling exponents for leaf to root and stem to root partitioning than evergreen species. Across species, leaf to stem scaling was positively related, and stem to root scaling was negatively related to root carbohydrate concentration. Under lower nutrient supply, trees displayed increased partitioning to non-structural carbohydrate, and to roots and leaves over stems with increasing plant size, but this change did not differ between leaf habits. Substantial unexplained variation in biomass allometry of woody species may be related to selection for resource conservation against environmental stresses, such as resource seasonality. Further differences in plant allometry could arise due to selection for different types

  15. Impact of edible chitosan-cassava starch coatings enriched with Lippia gracilis Schauer genotype mixtures on the shelf life of guavas (Psidium guajava L.) during storage at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino, Alana Bezerra; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Santana, Luciana Cristina Lins de Aquino

    2015-03-15

    The effect of edible chitosan-cassava starch (CH-CS) coatings containing a mixture of Lippia gracilis Schauer genotypes (EOM) on the shelf life of guavas during storage at room temperature for 10 days was studied. Sixteen formulations were prepared with a range of chitosan and essential oil mixtures concentrations, and the in vitro antimicrobial activity was tested. Formulations containing 2.0% cassava starch, 2.0% chitosan and 1.0%, 2.0% or 3.0% EOM were most effective in inhibiting the growth of the majority of bacteria. The edible CH-CS coating and CH-CS with 1.0% (CH-CS-EOM1) or 3.0% EOM (CH-CS-EOM3) were added to guavas and the shelf life was evaluated. On the tenth day of storage, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and mould and yeast counts were statistically lower (p<0.05) in the CH-CS-EOM1- or CH-CS-EOM3-coated fruits than CH-CS-coated fruits. In addition, fruits coated with CH-CS or CH-CS-EOM showed no significant changes of total soluble solids content, while CH-CS-EOM-coated fruits showed lower titratable acidity than CH-CS-coated fruits at the end of storage. CH-CS-EOM3-coated guavas showed lower a(∗) and b(∗) values and higher L(∗) and hue values than those with other coatings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploiting the combination of natural and genetically engineered resistance to cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak viruses impacting cassava production in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Vanderschuren

    Full Text Available Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD and cassava mosaic disease (CMD are currently two major viral diseases that severely reduce cassava production in large areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. Natural resistance has so far only been reported for CMD in cassava. CBSD is caused by two virus species, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV. A sequence of the CBSV coat protein (CP highly conserved between the two virus species was used to demonstrate that a CBSV-CP hairpin construct sufficed to generate immunity against both viral species in the cassava model cultivar (cv. 60444. Most of the transgenic lines showed high levels of resistance under increasing viral loads using a stringent top-grafting method of inoculation. No viral replication was observed in the resistant transgenic lines and they remained free of typical CBSD root symptoms 7 month post-infection. To generate transgenic cassava lines combining resistance to both CBSD and CMD the hairpin construct was transferred to a CMD-resistant farmer-preferred Nigerian landrace TME 7 (Oko-Iyawo. An adapted protocol allowed the efficient Agrobacterium-based transformation of TME 7 and the regeneration of transgenic lines with high levels of CBSV-CP hairpin-derived small RNAs. All transgenic TME 7 lines were immune to both CBSV and UCBSV infections. Further evaluation of the transgenic TME 7 lines revealed that CBSD resistance was maintained when plants were co-inoculated with East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV, a geminivirus causing CMD. The innovative combination of natural and engineered virus resistance in farmer-preferred landraces will be particularly important to reducing the increasing impact of cassava viral diseases in Africa.

  17. Biofuels and Biotechnology: Cassava (Manihot esculenta) as a Research Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes S, Simon; Chavarriaga, Paul; Lopez, Camilo

    2010-01-01

    Fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, obtained from plants and their constituents, have recently received the world's attention as a true alternative to the global energy supply, mainly because they are cheaper and less contaminant of the environment than the currently used, non-renewable fossil fuels. Due to the pushing biofuel market, the world is currently experiencing an increase of agricultural land devoted to grow crops used to obtain them, like maize and sugar cane, as well as crops that have the potential to become new sources of biofuels. Similarly, this emerging market is boosting the basic research oriented towards obtaining better quality and yield in these crops. Plants that store high quantities of starch, simple sugars or oils, are the target of the biofuel industry, although the newest technologies use also cellulose as raw material to produce fuels. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is widely grown in the tropics and constitutes a staple food for approximately 10% of the world population. The high starch content of its storage roots, together with the use of conventional and non-conventional breeding turn this crop into an option to obtain better adapted varieties for ethanol production. This manuscript reviews the current state of biofuels worldwide and at the national level,and discusses the benefits and challenges faced in terms of effect on the environment and the human food chain. Finally, it discusses the potential of cassava as a source of raw material for obtaining biofuels in Colombia.

  18. Produtividade de raízes de mandioca consorciada com milho e caupi em sistema orgânico Yield of cassava roots intercropped with corn and cowpea in an organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Pries Devide

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados sistemas orgânicos de produção de mandioca "de mesa", em Seropédica (RJ. O experimento constou dos seguintes tratamentos: monocultivo de mandioca (cv. IAC 576-70 e consórcios com milho experimental (cv. Eldorado, caupi (cv. Mauá e milho+caupi. O manejo orgânico foi padronizado e toda a área experimental irrigada durante o período de permanência do milho no sistema. Do milho, foram colhidas espigas verdes (imaturas e a parte aérea acamada na superfície do solo. O caupi foi incluído como adubo verde e cortado na floração, sendo mantidos os resíduos na superfície do solo. Ambos os consortes ocuparam as entrelinhas da mandioca, de modo alternado, semeados após a primeira capina da cultura principal. A cultivar IAC 576-70 mostrou-se adaptada ao manejo orgânico, com produtividade de raízes de padrão comercial próxima a 31 Mg ha-1. Não houve diferenças significativas entre o monocultivo e os três tipos de consórcios testados. A inclusão do milho representou potencial de renda adicional ao produtor, colhendo-se, em média, 18.125 espigas ha-1, o que correspondeu a 5,1 Mg ha-1. Os resíduos provenientes da roçada do caupi proporcionaram um aporte de biomassa fresca de 12 Mg ha-1, com uma expressiva contribuição em nitrogênio (cerca de 44 kg de N ha-1. A fabácea (leguminosa cobriu por completo as entrelinhas da mandioca, demonstrando seu potencial de controle à erosão e a ervas espontâneas. O consórcio triplo mostrou-se vantajoso tendo em vista que a receita obtida com a venda do milho verde justificaria os custos da irrigação, além dos benefícios da inclusão do caupi e da não interferência dos consortes na produtividade da mandioca.Organic systems were evaluated for cassava root production directed to human comsumption in natura, at Seropédica-RJ. Treatments consisted of: cassava ('IAC 576-70' in single cropping and its intercropping with corn ('Eldorado', cowpea ('Mauá' or corn plus cowpea

  19. CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CARCAÇA DE FRANGOS TIPO CAIPIRA ALIMENTADOS COM DIETAS CONTENDO FARINHA DE RAÍZES DE MANDIOCA CARCASS TRAITS OF FREE RANGE BROILER CHICKENS FED ON DIETS CONTAINING CASSAVA ROOT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Maciel Cardoso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    O experimento objetivou avaliar o rendimento de carcaça, cortes comerciais e vísceras comestíveis de frangos tipo caipira alimentados com rações contendo farinha de raízes de mandioca (FRM como fonte energética alternativa ao milho. Para tanto, dividiram-se, aleatoriamente, trezentos e vinte pintos, metade de cada sexo, em quatro tratamentos representados por rações isonutritivas com diferentes níveis de substituição de milho por FRM (0%, 18%, 36% e 53%. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial 4x2 (quatro níveis de inclusão de FRM e dois sexos, com quatro repetições por tratamento e vinte aves por unidade experimental. Aos 84 dias, as aves foram pesadas e abatidas após jejum de seis horas e, em seguida, sangradas, depenadas e evisceradas para avaliação do rendimento de carcaça, cortes e órgãos. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que a substituição de milho por FRM reduziu significativamente o peso ao abate, mas não afetou o rendimento de carcaça, cortes comerciais ou vísceras comestíveis e promoveu redução no acúmulo de gordura abdominal, podendo ser uma alternativa satisfatória quando a redução no custo da ração compensar a diminuição no peso final das aves.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Alimentos alternativos, avicultura, mandioca, rendimento de carcaça. 
    The experiment aimed to evaluate carcass yield, commercial cuts and edible organs of free range broiler chickens fed on rations containing cassava root flour as alternative energy source replacing corn. Three hundred and twenty one-day-old chicks, one half of each sex, were randomly assigned into four treatments represented by isonutritive rations with different levels of cassava root flour (0%, 18%, 36% e 53%. A completely randomized 4x2 factorial design (4 levels x 2 sexes was used, being four replicates per treatment, with twenty birds each. Avian were slaughtered at 84 days after fasted

  20. A proteomic analysis of storage stress responses in Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. tuberous root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yusong; Chen, Cheng; Tao, Xiang; Wang, Jianxi; Zhang, Yizheng

    2012-08-01

    During post-harvest storage, tuberous roots of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) usually undergo a biotic and abiotic stress influencing protein expression pattern and substance contents. This research compared the change of total proteins and carbohydrate content in tuberous roots of sweet potato during the storage period. The result of the two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that there were 25 differentially expressed proteins between day 0 and day 75 during the storage. Among these proteins, 11 proteins were down-regulated and the other 14 were up-regulated. The results from MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS analyses and mascot database searching showed that 11 of the 25 differentially expressed proteins were identified as store-stress regulated proteins. It was also found that the proteins involved in the energy metabolism and the stress-response were drastically up-regulated, whereas those in biomacromolecule synthesis were markedly down-regulated. Meanwhile, under the experimental conditions, the content of the starch and the cellulose was decreased by more than a quarter and the amylase activity was increased moderately.

  1. Using S3 cloud storage with ROOT and CvmFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga-Ríos, María; Heikkilä, Seppo S.; Duellmann, Dirk; Meusel, René; Blomer, Jakob; Couturier, Ben

    2015-12-01

    Amazon S3 is a widely adopted web API for scalable cloud storage that could also fulfill storage requirements of the high-energy physics community. CERN has been evaluating this option using some key HEP applications such as ROOT and the CernVM filesystem (CvmFS) with S3 back-ends. In this contribution we present an evaluation of two versions of the Huawei UDS storage system stressed with a large number of clients executing HEP software applications. The performance of concurrently storing individual objects is presented alongside with more complex data access patterns as produced by the ROOT data analysis framework. Both Huawei UDS generations show a successful scalability by supporting multiple byte-range requests in contrast with Amazon S3 or Ceph which do not support these commonly used HEP operations. We further report the S3 integration with recent CvmFS versions and summarize the experience with CvmFS/S3 for publishing daily releases of the full LHCb experiment software stack.

  2. Emissão de folhas e início de acumulação de amido em raízes de uma variedade de mandioca em função da época de plantio Leaf emergence and beginning of starch accumulation in roots of a cassava variety as a function of planting date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Schons

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O número de folhas acumulado (NF na haste principal está associado com o aparecimento de vários estádios de desenvolvimento da cultura da mandioca. O início de acumulação de amido (IAA nas raízes tuberosas da mandioca marca o início da translocação dos fotoassimilados para o principal órgão de reserva nessa espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o filocrono e identificar um indicador morfológico baseado no NF para o IAA em mandioca plantada em diferentes épocas. Um experimento a campo foi conduzido em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, com quatro épocas de plantio (28/09; 11/10; 16/11 e 27/12/2005. A variedade de mandioca usada foi a "RS 13", plantada em baldes de 12 litros, enterrados no espaçamento com 2,0 x 0,8m. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com 11 repetições. A soma térmica diária (STd, °C dia foi calculada a partir da emergência e acumulada por: STa = sigmaSTd. O IAA foi determinado nas plantas de cada balde quando uma raiz atingia um diâmetro de 1cm. O NF na data do IAA e o número final de folhas (NFF até o primeiro simpódio também foram determinados. O filocrono variou de 20,3 a 29,5°C dia folha-1 e seus valores foram maiores quanto mais tardio foi o plantio. O NFF variou entre as épocas de plantio, aumentando com o atraso do plantio. O NF no IAA foi similar nas quatro épocas de plantio e ocorreu quando, em média, o NF corresponde a 20,9 (±1,0 folhas.The accumulated number of leaves (NF on the main stem is related to the appearance of several developmental stages in cassava. The beginning of starch accumulation (IAA in the fibrous roots of cassava switches the source/sink ratio because of the translocation of photoassimilates to the major storage organ in this species. This study was aimed at estimating the phyllochron and identifing a morphological indicator based on NF for IAA in cassava grown in several planting dates. A field experiment was carried out in Santa Maria, RS

  3. Alterações na qualidade de raízes de mandioca(Manihot esculenta Crantz minimamente processadas Quality alterations in cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz minimally processed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Alves

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A conservação pós-colheita das raízes de mandioca tem sido uma preocupação das indústrias e produtores, devido ao curto tempo de estocagem e a alta perecibilidade das raízes. Dois fenômenos são apontados como responsáveis pela deterioração das raízes, um de ordem fisiológica, provocando a perda inicial da qualidade por meio do desenvolvimento da descoloração vascular do tecido parenquimatoso, e o outro, de ordem microbiana, que se segue à fisiologia, responsável pela decomposição do produto. Dessa forma, com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a conservação das raízes de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, submetidas à higienização em água clorada e armazenadas em três tipos de embalagens, bandeja de isopor envolta em filme de policloreto de vinila (PVC, embalagem multicamada (poliéster Saram-13,5µ/polietileno-100µ com e sem vácuo e resfriadas (5 ± 0,5°C, mediante análises físico-químicas, microbiológicas, fisiológicas e sensoriais. A conservação de mandioca minimamente processada sob refrigeração para os tratamentos realizados, é possível diferenciando-se o período de armazenamento, sendo que para as amostras armazenadas em bandeja, o período de armazenamento foi de 7 dias, no selado e a vácuo foi de aproximadamente 24 dias, respectivamente.Post harvest of cassava roots has been a great concern in food industries and producers due to the short shelf life and high perishability. Several phenomena have been pointed out as responsible for root deterioration. Among them there are physiological aspects, that lead to losses in initial quality through vascular discoloration of parenchymatous tissue. On the other hand, phenomena from microbial origin, which follow the physiological alterations, are responsible for product decomposition. In this context, this work was aimed at investigating the conservation of cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz submitted to chlorinated water, and stored using

  4. Root zone temperature control with thermal energy storage in phase change materials for soilless greenhouse applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyhan, Beyza; Paksoy, Halime; Daşgan, Yıldız

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • PCM based passive root zone temperature control system was developed. • The system was tested with zucchinis and peppers in a greenhouse in Turkey. • Two different fatty acids and mixtures were determined as suitable PCMs. • The optimum temperature levels necessary for growth of vegetables were maintained. - Abstract: A new root zone temperature control system based on thermal energy storage in phase change materials (PCM) has been developed for soilless agriculture greenhouses. The aim was to obtain optimum growing temperatures around the roots of plants. The candidate PCMs were 40% oleic acid–60% decanoic acid mixture and oleic acid alone. Field experiments with these PCMs were carried out in November 2009 with Cucurbite Pepo and March 2010 with Capsicum annum plants. No additional heating system was used in the greenhouse during these periods. In the November 2009 tests with zucchini, 40% oleic acid + 60% capric acid mixture was the PCM and a temperature increase in the PCM container (versus the control container) was measured as 1.9 °C. In our March 2010 tests with peppers, both PCMs were tried and the PCM mixture was found to be more effective than using oleic acidalone. A maximum temperature difference achieved by the PCM mixture around the roots of peppers was 2.4 °C higher than that near the control plants

  5. Design and construction of a hybrid system of heating air by combustion of biomass and solar radiation, using phase change material (PCM as a source of thermal storage, for cassava drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Torres-Gallo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study consisted of designing, building and validation a hybrid system of heating air by combustion of biomass and solar radiation, using phase change material (PCM as a thermal storage source, for cassava drying, a small scale. The dryer consists of a centrifugal fan, two solar collectors, a fuel burner solid (rice husk and a tray dryer. System validation was performed drying up Yucca. The PCM allowed to follow the drying process, even when the solar radiation was below 116,22 ± 31,94 W / m2, being able to maintain drying air temperatures in the two solar collectors at 46 ± 4, 29 ° C and 51 ± 4.08 ° C for an additional 45 min. The drying time was 10 h and 45 min, the efficiency of the solar collectors was 43.91 % and the rice husk burner of 36.72 %.

  6. Cassava Root Husks as a Sorbent Material for the Uptake and Pre-concentration of Cadmium(II from Aqueous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Oliveira Jorgetto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cassava husks were undergone to simple processes to obtain a fine powder whose particle diameter varied from 63 μm to 75 μm. The characterization of the material indicated the presence of the groups alcohol, amine and thiocarbonyl. The material was tested through batch experiments and the effect of the contact time and pH over the adsorption of Cd(II ions were evaluated. The material presented a rapid kinetic equilibrium, which was reached in less than 1 min, and the highest Cd(II uptake occurred at pH 5. The optimum conditions obtained were applied to determine the material’s maximum adsorption capacity with the aid of the linearized Langmuir equation (0.140 mmol g-1. A pre-concentration experiment was also carried out, and provided a pre-concentration factor of 43-fold.

  7. of cassava in africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This review summarises the available information on the viruses and virus diseases of cassava in Africa. .... Nevertheless, serological tests have been made on more than 150 isolates from mosaic- affected cassava in 22 countries of Africa or the. Indian sub-continent. ...... of Crop Pests in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. ROOT — A C++ framework for petabyte data storage, statistical analysis and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antcheva, I.; Ballintijn, M.; Bellenot, B.; Biskup, M.; Brun, R.; Buncic, N.; Canal, Ph.; Casadei, D.; Couet, O.; Fine, V.; Franco, L.; Ganis, G.; Gheata, A.; Maline, D. Gonzalez; Goto, M.; Iwaszkiewicz, J.; Kreshuk, A.; Segura, D. Marcos; Maunder, R.; Moneta, L.; Naumann, A.; Offermann, E.; Onuchin, V.; Panacek, S.; Rademakers, F.; Russo, P.; Tadel, M.

    2009-12-01

    ROOT is an object-oriented C++ framework conceived in the high-energy physics (HEP) community, designed for storing and analyzing petabytes of data in an efficient way. Any instance of a C++ class can be stored into a ROOT file in a machine-independent compressed binary format. In ROOT the TTree object container is optimized for statistical data analysis over very large data sets by using vertical data storage techniques. These containers can span a large number of files on local disks, the web, or a number of different shared file systems. In order to analyze this data, the user can chose out of a wide set of mathematical and statistical functions, including linear algebra classes, numerical algorithms such as integration and minimization, and various methods for performing regression analysis (fitting). In particular, the RooFit package allows the user to perform complex data modeling and fitting while the RooStats library provides abstractions and implementations for advanced statistical tools. Multivariate classification methods based on machine learning techniques are available via the TMVA package. A central piece in these analysis tools are the histogram classes which provide binning of one- and multi-dimensional data. Results can be saved in high-quality graphical formats like Postscript and PDF or in bitmap formats like JPG or GIF. The result can also be stored into ROOT macros that allow a full recreation and rework of the graphics. Users typically create their analysis macros step by step, making use of the interactive C++ interpreter CINT, while running over small data samples. Once the development is finished, they can run these macros at full compiled speed over large data sets, using on-the-fly compilation, or by creating a stand-alone batch program. Finally, if processing farms are available, the user can reduce the execution time of intrinsically parallel tasks — e.g. data mining in HEP — by using PROOF, which will take care of optimally

  9. Composition of Two Local Cassava Varieties and the Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two common Nigerian cassava varieties were subjected to proximate analysis with a view to assessing the relative potential nutrient composition of the roots, stems, leaves and seeds. The results obtained shaved that the leaves, seeds and stems in that order are much richer than the roots in protein but higher in crude fibre ...

  10. Screening cassava genotypes in two agroecological zones of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve cassava genotypes were evaluated in two agroecological zones (Ibadan: 25 ± 5 oC and Jos: 14 ± 5 oC) to determine the tuberous root poundability at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after planting (MAP). The results showed that there were no significant differences (P<0.05) in tuberous root poundability between the two ...

  11. Reducing post-harvest physiological deterioration in cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava roots are notable for their short shelf-life due to post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD). PPD is initiated by mechanical damage, which typically occurs during harvesting and progresses from the proximal site of damage to the distal end, making the roots unpalatable within 72h. The short shelf-life severely ...

  12. Survival of Salmonella during Drying of Fresh Ginger Root (Zingiber officinale) and Storage of Ground Ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Dana R; Sun, Lingxiang; Larkin, Emily L; Chirtel, Stuart J; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-11-01

    The survival of Salmonella on fresh ginger root (Zingiber officinale) during drying was examined using both a laboratory oven at 51 and 60°C with two different fan settings and a small commercially available food dehydrator. The survival of Salmonella in ground ginger stored at 25 and 37°C at 33% (low) and 97% (high) relative humidity (RH) was also examined. To inoculate ginger, a four-serovar cocktail of Salmonella was collected by harvesting agar lawn cells. For drying experiments, ginger slices (1 ± 0.5 mm thickness) were surface inoculated at a starting level of approximately 9 log CFU/g. Higher temperature (60°C) coupled with a slow fan speed (nonstringent condition) to promote a slower reduction in the water activity (aw) of the ginger resulted in a 3- to 4-log reduction in Salmonella populations in the first 4 to 6 h with an additional 2- to 3-log reduction by 24 h. Higher temperature with a higher fan speed (stringent condition) resulted in significantly less destruction of Salmonella throughout the 24-h period (P < 0.001). Survival appeared related to the rate of reduction in the aw. The aw also influenced Salmonella survival during storage of ground ginger. During storage at 97% RH, the maximum aw values were 0.85 at 25°C and 0.87 at 37°C; Salmonella was no longer detected after 25 and 5 days of storage, respectively, under these conditions. At 33% RH, the aw stabilized to approximately 0.35 at 25°C and 0.31 at 37°C. Salmonella levels remained relatively constant throughout the 365-day and 170-day storage periods for the respective temperatures. These results indicate a relationship between temperature and aw and the survival of Salmonella during both drying and storage of ginger.

  13. Effects on starch and amylolytic enzymes during Lepidium meyenii Walpers root storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondán-Sanabria, Gerby Giovanna; Valcarcel-Yamani, Beatriz; Finardi-Filho, Flavio

    2012-10-01

    The high water content in maca (Lepidium meyenii W.) roots combined with the damage produced during or after harvest makes them vulnerable to attack by enzymes and microorganisms. Although starch degradation has been extensively studied, in maca roots there is a paucity of research regarding the starch reserves. In this paper, parameters of starch degradation are shown to be related to the action of amylolytic enzymes during storage at room temperature. Over the course of three weeks, the starch and protein content, soluble sugar, total amylolytic activity, and α- and β-amylase activity were measured. In addition, the integrity of starch granules was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Despite the evidence of dehydration, there were no significant differences (p ≤ 0.5) in the total starch content or in the activities of α- and β-amylase. After the third week the roots remained suitable for consumption. The results indicate a postharvest latency that can lead to sprout or to senescence, depending on the environmental conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quality changes in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. roots during storage period in piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entessar Al-Jbawi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Root transportation or remaining in fields or trucks for many days before manufacturing is considered one of the main problems that leads to the deterioration of root quality, and caused a great loss for the farmer and government. Because of the importance of this issue, a study was conducted during 2007 and 2008 seasons at winter time (15th of Jan at Al Ghab Agriculture Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR, Syria, to determine the effect of some agricultural treatments (varieties, and environment conditions on the quality traits, water content of sugar beet during 1-10 days after harvest. Also to estimate correlation coefficient between post harvest period and the quality traits and water content. Four recommended sugar beet varieties were used, tow monogerm i.e. Rizor and Sherif, and tow multigerm i.e. Hospoly and Kronos. Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD was used with four replicates. The results showed that prolonging storage period of the harvested roots leads to high and gradual increment in the total soluble solids (brix %, from the first day to the last day of the studied storage period. The percent of increment for all varieties in brix% was 42.98%. Also the results clarified low sugar percent, and water content, which were 46 and 21.25 %, respectively. The reduction in juice purity % ranged from 76.08% in the first day to 67.23% in the last day for all varieties. The coefficient of correlation (r exhibited a positive correlation between brix % and sucrose % , and a negative correlation between brix % and purity %, and also a negative correlation between water content and both brix and sucrose percentages.International Journal of Environment Vol.4(4 2015: 77-85

  15. Isolation and characterisation of starch biosynthesis genes from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munyikwa, T.R.I.

    1997-01-01


    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical crop grown for its starchy thickened roots, mainly by peasant farmers, in the tropics, for whom it is a staple food. There is an increasing demand for the use of cassava in processed food and feed products, and in the

  16. Utilization Of Iita/Nrcri Cassava Pulp De-Watering Machine In Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava-pulp de-watering machine was developed by International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Ibadan and National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike to replace manual methods of expressing water from cassava pulps. The technology was introduced to farmers in South eastern Nigeria over two decades ago.

  17. Isolamento, fracionamento e caracterização de paredes celulares de raízes de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz Isolation, fractionation and characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz root cell walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Tschopoko Pedroso Pereira

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante a cocção de mandiocas o amido é gelatinizado e as paredes celulares sofrem alterações físicas e químicas que modificam a coesão das células e causam o amaciamento dos tecidos. Isolar, fracionar e caracterizar paredes celulares durante o envelhecimento de raízes, de duas cultivares, foram os objetivos deste trabalho. O amido foi eliminado por tamização e hidrólise enzimática e o material de paredes celulares foi fracionado em celulose, hemicelulose e pectina. Quantitativamente celulose foi a maior fração constituindo entre 57,2 e 70% do material inicial de paredes celulares isoladas, seguido por pectina e hemicelulose. O material isolado como paredes celulares diminuiu com o tempo de plantio das raízes e a concentração de celulose foi menor no material isolado de raízes mais velhas. A fração pectina diferiu em concentração de açúcares entre raízes de idades diferentes, sendo mais alta em raízes mais velhas enquanto a concentração de ácidos urônicos diferiu entre idades e cultivares.During cooking of cassava tubers starch gelatinizes and there are physical-chemical alterations in cell wall material, reducing intercellular cohesion and softening the tissue, playing an important role in cooking time. Cell wall material from tubers at two harvesting ages of two cultivars were isolated, fractionated and evaluated. Starch was eliminated by wet sieving and enzymatic hydrolysis and the cell wall material was fractionated into cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. Quantitatively cellulose had the highest concentration varying from 57.2 to 70% of the initial isolated cell wall material, followed by pectin and hemicellulose. Cell wall material isolated decreased with the age of the roots and cellulose concentration decreased in the older roots. Pectin fraction differed in sugar concentration between roots of different ages, higher in older roots while for uronic acid content there were differences for age of roots and

  18. Consumo e Digestibilidade Aparente Total e Parcial de Rações com Cana-de-açúcar, Casca e Raspa de Mandioca Ensiladas com Polpa Cítrica Intake and Total and Partial Apparent Digestibility of Rations with Sugar Cane, Cassava Hull and Cassava Root Ensiled with Citrus Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma de Freitas

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente total (DAT e parcial dos nutrientes das silagens de cana-de-açúcar (SCnPc, de raspa (SRpPc e de casca de mandioca (SCcPc ensiladas com polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP. A dieta basal foi constituída de silagem de milho com farelo de soja, participando com 60% da matéria seca (MS dos tratamentos com SRpPc e SCcPc. Foram utilizados novilhos mestiços, fistulados no rúmen e duodeno, num delineamento experimental em quadrado latino (4x4. A determinação do coeficiente de digestibilidade total e parcial dos nutrientes, a produção fecal e o fluxo duodenal de MS foram estimados a partir da fibra detergente ácido indigestível. Os consumos de MS e proteína bruta (PB (% PV foram superiores para a SMi (2,47 e 0,33, SCcPc (2,12 e 0,30 e SRpPc (1,88 e 0,27 em relação à SCnPc (1,38 e 0,19, respectivamente. As DAT da matéria seca (65,0%, matéria orgânica (66,9% e energia bruta (64,3% para a SRpPc foram superiores em relação às demais dietas, menos para a FDN (39,4%. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ruminal (CDR e intestinal (CDI da MS, MO e PB não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as dietas, somente o CDR da FDN (% ingerido apresentou valores superiores para SMi (43,5, SRpPc (39,3 e SCnPc (37,0, sobre a SCcPc (20,0. A utilização da silagem de raspa de mandioca adicionada da PCP mostrou-se uma alternativa de boa qualidade na alimentação de bovinos.The goal of this study was to evaluate the intake of nutrients and the total and partial apparent digestibility of sugar cane + citrus pulp (ScSCp, cassava hulls + citrus pulp (ChSCp and cassava root + citrus pulp (CrSCp silages. The basal diet with corn silage (CS and soybean meal composed 60% of the total dry matter of ChSCp and CrSCp treatments. Four castrated crossbred (HxZ steers were, canulated in the rumen and in the duodenum and confined according to 4x4 Latin Square design. For total and partial

  19. Middlemen and Smallholder Farmers in Cassava Marketing in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a basic food staple and a major source of farm income in Africa. Efficiency in cassava marketing is therefore a very important determinant of consumers living cost and producers' income. Exploitation of one marketing agent by another in the course of product distribution could contribute to increased marketing costs and hence inefficiency. The paper examines the extent to which the widely held view that middlemen exploit farmers through monopsony purchases and usury apply to cassava farmers. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework of the collaborative study of cassava in Africa (COSCA. The result of the analysis fails to support the view that middlemen generally engage in monopsony purchases of cassava products, because farmers had on average, higher volume of cassava products for sale in the market than middlemen. Prices of cassava products appeared more stable in Nigeria than in the other countries, because of the more elaborate involvement of middlemen, which encouraged competition. The intermediaries between the farmer and the consumer were at most three in each of the countries – the processor, the semi-wholesaler and the retailer. Cassava farmers and traders combined the role of the processor apparently because of the low development stage of mechanized processing technology. For both farmers and middlemen, transactions in cash were the predominant practice, followed by delayed payments. Advanced payment was non-existent except in Uganda. Marketing margins, though generally high, decline with good market access conditions. And the margins for granules were substantially lower than those of dried roots not only because of substantial differences in processing resource demand but also because of differences in marketing costs. This suggests that investments towards improving market access conditions, and in cost saving processing technologies for the production of granules are needed for the improvement

  20. Transcriptional profiling of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) roots indicates down-regulation of lignin biosynthesis and up-regulation of starch biosynthesis at an early stage of storage root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firon, Nurit; LaBonte, Don; Villordon, Arthur; Kfir, Yanir; Solis, Julio; Lapis, Evgenia; Perlman, Temima Schnitzer; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Hetzroni, Amots; Althan, Leviah; Adani Nadir, Lahan

    2013-07-09

    The number of fibrous roots that develop into storage roots determines sweetpotato yield. The aim of the present study was to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the initiation of storage root formation, by performing a detailed transcriptomic analysis of initiating storage roots using next-generation sequencing platforms. A two-step approach was undertaken: (1) generating a database for the sweetpotato root transcriptome using 454-Roche sequencing of a cDNA library created from pooled samples of two root types: fibrous and initiating storage roots; (2) comparing the expression profiles of initiating storage roots and fibrous roots, using the Illumina Genome Analyzer to sequence cDNA libraries of the two root types and map the data onto the root transcriptome database. Use of the 454-Roche platform generated a total of 524,607 reads, 85.6% of which were clustered into 55,296 contigs that matched 40,278 known genes. The reads, generated by the Illumina Genome Analyzer, were found to map to 31,284 contigs out of the 55,296 contigs serving as the database. A total of 8,353 contigs were found to exhibit differential expression between the two root types (at least 2.5-fold change). The Illumina-based differential expression results were validated for nine putative genes using quantitative real-time PCR. The differential expression profiles indicated down-regulation of classical root functions, such as transport, as well as down-regulation of lignin biosynthesis in initiating storage roots, and up-regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and starch biosynthesis. In addition, data indicated delicate control of regulators of meristematic tissue identity and maintenance, associated with the initiation of storage root formation. This study adds a valuable resource of sweetpotato root transcript sequences to available data, facilitating the identification of genes of interest. This resource enabled us to identify genes that are involved in the earliest stage of storage

  1. Transcriptional profiling of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) roots indicates down-regulation of lignin biosynthesis and up-regulation of starch biosynthesis at an early stage of storage root formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The number of fibrous roots that develop into storage roots determines sweetpotato yield. The aim of the present study was to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the initiation of storage root formation, by performing a detailed transcriptomic analysis of initiating storage roots using next-generation sequencing platforms. A two-step approach was undertaken: (1) generating a database for the sweetpotato root transcriptome using 454-Roche sequencing of a cDNA library created from pooled samples of two root types: fibrous and initiating storage roots; (2) comparing the expression profiles of initiating storage roots and fibrous roots, using the Illumina Genome Analyzer to sequence cDNA libraries of the two root types and map the data onto the root transcriptome database. Results Use of the 454-Roche platform generated a total of 524,607 reads, 85.6% of which were clustered into 55,296 contigs that matched 40,278 known genes. The reads, generated by the Illumina Genome Analyzer, were found to map to 31,284 contigs out of the 55,296 contigs serving as the database. A total of 8,353 contigs were found to exhibit differential expression between the two root types (at least 2.5-fold change). The Illumina-based differential expression results were validated for nine putative genes using quantitative real-time PCR. The differential expression profiles indicated down-regulation of classical root functions, such as transport, as well as down-regulation of lignin biosynthesis in initiating storage roots, and up-regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and starch biosynthesis. In addition, data indicated delicate control of regulators of meristematic tissue identity and maintenance, associated with the initiation of storage root formation. Conclusions This study adds a valuable resource of sweetpotato root transcript sequences to available data, facilitating the identification of genes of interest. This resource enabled us to identify genes that are involved

  2. SRD1 is involved in the auxin-mediated initial thickening growth of storage root by enhancing proliferation of metaxylem and cambium cells in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seol Ah; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Huh, Eun Joo; Huh, Gyung Hye; Paek, Kyung-Hee; Shin, Jeong Sheop; Bae, Jung Myung

    2010-03-01

    A sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas cv. 'Jinhongmi') MADS-box protein cDNA (SRD1) has been isolated from an early stage storage root cDNA library. The role of the SRD1 gene in the formation of the storage root in sweetpotato was investigated by an expression pattern analysis and characterization of SRD1-overexpressing (ox) transgenic sweetpotato plants. Transcripts of SRD1 were detected only in root tissues, with the fibrous root having low levels of the transcript and the young storage root showing relatively higher transcript levels. SRD1 mRNA was mainly found in the actively dividing cells, including the vascular and cambium cells of the young storage root. The transcript level of SRD1 in the fibrous roots increased in response to 1000 muM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) applied exogenously. During the early stage of storage root development, the endogenous IAA content and SRD1 transcript level increased concomitantly, suggesting an involvement of SRD1 during the early stage of the auxin-dependent development of the storage root. SRD1-ox sweetpotato plants cultured in vitro produced thicker and shorter fibrous roots than wild-type plants. The metaxylem and cambium cells of the fibrous roots of SRD1-ox plants showed markedly enhanced proliferation, resulting in the fibrous roots of these plants showing an earlier thickening growth than those of wild-type plants. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SRD1 plays a role in the formation of storage roots by activating the proliferation of cambium and metaxylem cells to induce the initial thickening growth of storage roots in an auxin-dependent manner.

  3. SRD1 is involved in the auxin-mediated initial thickening growth of storage root by enhancing proliferation of metaxylem and cambium cells in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seol Ah; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Huh, Eun Joo; Huh, Gyung Hye; Paek, Kyung-Hee; Shin, Jeong Sheop; Bae, Jung Myung

    2010-01-01

    A sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas cv. ‘Jinhongmi’) MADS-box protein cDNA (SRD1) has been isolated from an early stage storage root cDNA library. The role of the SRD1 gene in the formation of the storage root in sweetpotato was investigated by an expression pattern analysis and characterization of SRD1-overexpressing (ox) transgenic sweetpotato plants. Transcripts of SRD1 were detected only in root tissues, with the fibrous root having low levels of the transcript and the young storage root showing relatively higher transcript levels. SRD1 mRNA was mainly found in the actively dividing cells, including the vascular and cambium cells of the young storage root. The transcript level of SRD1 in the fibrous roots increased in response to 1000 μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) applied exogenously. During the early stage of storage root development, the endogenous IAA content and SRD1 transcript level increased concomitantly, suggesting an involvement of SRD1 during the early stage of the auxin-dependent development of the storage root. SRD1-ox sweetpotato plants cultured in vitro produced thicker and shorter fibrous roots than wild-type plants. The metaxylem and cambium cells of the fibrous roots of SRD1-ox plants showed markedly enhanced proliferation, resulting in the fibrous roots of these plants showing an earlier thickening growth than those of wild-type plants. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SRD1 plays a role in the formation of storage roots by activating the proliferation of cambium and metaxylem cells to induce the initial thickening growth of storage roots in an auxin-dependent manner. PMID:20150515

  4. Effect of channel size on sweet potato storage root enlargement in the Tuskegee University hydroponic nutrient film system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Carlton E.; Martinez, Edwin; Bonsi, C. K.; Mortley, Desmond G.; Hill, Walter A.; Ogbuehi, Cyriacus R.; Loretan, Phil A.

    1989-01-01

    The potential of the sweet potato as a food source for future long term manned space missions is being evaluated for NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program. Sweet potatoes have been successfully grown in a specially designed Tuskegee University nutrient film technique (TU NFT) system. This hydroponic system yielded storage roots as high as 1790 g/plant fresh weight. In order to determine the effect of channel size on the yield of sweet potatoes, the width and depth of the growing channels were varied in two separate experiments. Widths were studied using the rectangular TU NFT channels with widths of 15 cm (6 in), 30 cm (12 in) and 45 cm (18 in). Channel depths of 5 cm (2 in), 10 cm (4 in), and 15 cm (6 in) were studied using a standard NASA fan shaped Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) channel. A comparison of preliminary results indicated that, except for storage root number, the growth and yield of sweet potatoes were not affected by channel width. Storage root yield was affected by channel depth although storage root number and foliage growth were not. Both experiments are being repeated.

  5. ROOT: A C++ framework for petabyte data storage, statistical analysis and visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antcheva, I.; /CERN; Ballintijn, M.; /CERN; Bellenot, B.; /CERN; Biskup, M.; /CERN; Brun, R.; /CERN; Buncic, N.; /CERN; Canal, Ph.; /Fermilab; Casadei, D.; /New York U.; Couet, O.; /CERN; Fine, V.; /Brookhaven; Franco, L.; /CERN /CERN

    2009-01-01

    ROOT is an object-oriented C++ framework conceived in the high-energy physics (HEP) community, designed for storing and analyzing petabytes of data in an efficient way. Any instance of a C++ class can be stored into a ROOT file in a machine-independent compressed binary format. In ROOT the TTree object container is optimized for statistical data analysis over very large data sets by using vertical data storage techniques. These containers can span a large number of files on local disks, the web or a number of different shared file systems. In order to analyze this data, the user can chose out of a wide set of mathematical and statistical functions, including linear algebra classes, numerical algorithms such as integration and minimization, and various methods for performing regression analysis (fitting). In particular, the RooFit package allows the user to perform complex data modeling and fitting while the RooStats library provides abstractions and implementations for advanced statistical tools. Multivariate classification methods based on machine learning techniques are available via the TMVA package. A central piece in these analysis tools are the histogram classes which provide binning of one- and multi-dimensional data. Results can be saved in high-quality graphical formats like Postscript and PDF or in bitmap formats like JPG or GIF. The result can also be stored into ROOT macros that allow a full recreation and rework of the graphics. Users typically create their analysis macros step by step, making use of the interactive C++ interpreter CINT, while running over small data samples. Once the development is finished, they can run these macros at full compiled speed over large data sets, using on-the-fly compilation, or by creating a stand-alone batch program. Finally, if processing farms are available, the user can reduce the execution time of intrinsically parallel tasks - e.g. data mining in HEP - by using PROOF, which will take care of optimally

  6. Cassava as an energy crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    of the Attieké cassava variety. Little competition with food crops is likely, as cassava most likely would replace cotton as primary cash crop, following the decline of cotton production since 2005 and hence food security concerns appear not to be an issue. Stated price levels to motivate an expansion of cassava...

  7. Development and application of transgenic technologies in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel; Chavarriaga, Paul; Raemakers, Krit; Siritunga, Dimuth; Zhang, Peng

    2004-11-01

    The capacity to integrate transgenes into the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is now established and being utilized to generate plants expressing traits of agronomic interest. The tissue culture and gene transfer systems currently employed to produce these transgenic cassava have improved significantly over the past 5 years and are assessed and compared in this review. Programs are underway to develop cassava with enhanced resistance to viral diseases and insects pests, improved nutritional content, modified and increased starch metabolism and reduced cyanogenic content of processed roots. Each of these is described individually for the underlying biology the molecular strategies being employed and progress achieved towards the desired product. Important advances have occurred, with transgenic plants from several laboratories being prepared for field trails.

  8. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Yam (Dioscorea spp.) Crops and Their Derived Foodstuffs: Safety, Security and Nutritional Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Piccirillo, Clara; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Manuela E

    2016-12-09

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and yam (Dioscorea spp.) are tropical crops consumed by ca. 2 billion people and represent the main source of carbohydrate and energy for the approximately 700 million people living in the tropical and sub-tropical areas. They are a guarantee of food security for developing countries. The production of these crops and the transformation into food-derived commodities is increasing, it represents a profitable business and farmers generate substantial income from their market. However, there are some important concerns related to the food safety and food security. The high post-harvest losses, mainly for yam, the contamination by endogenous toxic compounds, mainly for cassava, and the contamination by external agents (such as micotoxins, pesticides, and heavy metal) represent a depletion of economic value and income. The loss in the raw crops or the impossibility to market the derived foodstuffs, due to incompliance with food regulations, can seriously limit all yam tubers and the cassava roots processors, from farmers to household, from small-medium to large enterprises. One of the greatest challenges to overcome those concerns is the transformation of traditional or indigenous processing methods into modern industrial operations, from the crop storage to the adequate package of each derived foodstuff.

  9. Developmental patterns in anatomy are shared among separate evolutionary origins of stem succulent and storage root-bearing growth habits in Adenia (Passifloraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, David J

    2009-11-01

    The architecture of flowering plants is astonishingly diverse. To understand evolutionary patterns and processes that account for this diversity, I investigated developmental anatomy of storage roots and stems of 58 species in the genus Adenia (Passifloraceae) using an explicit phylogenetic context. Because expanded storage roots and stem succulence evolved multiple times in Adenia, patterns of transition between succulent and nonsucculent forms were analyzed using a comparative test that accommodates phylogenetic uncertainty. I tested the innervation hypothesis, wherein I expected the evolution of vascular strands to be correlated with evolutionary increases in water storage tissue if evolution of vascular strands facilitates transport through water and starch storage structures. Not only is evolution of vascular strands in stems statistically coupled with evolutionary increases in parenchyma storage tissue, most lineages that evolved expanded storage roots also evolved vascular strands in these roots in parallel to succulent stems. I proposed that vascular strands and closely associated storage parenchyma found in both roots and shoots of Adenia comprise a homologous unit. A switch-like evolutionary mechanism that alters the spatial expression of this unit between roots and shoots can account, in large part, for transitions between markedly different habits such as storage-rooted herbs and succulent-stemmed shrubs.

  10. Identification and characterization of a novel cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) clone with high free sugar content and novel starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luiz Joaquim Castelo Branco; de Souza, Claudia Regina Batista; de Mattos Cascardo, Julio César; Junior, Carlos Bloch; Campos, Laura

    2004-11-01

    This study reports the identification of a new class of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with a storage root showing unusual free sugar accumulation and novel starch. Twenty-seven clones high in free sugar were identified under cultivation in primitive rural community areas in the Amazon. Iodine test and glucose oxidase-peroxidase reagent strips were used, in the field, for identification of starch and glucose, respectively. Five out of these 27 clones of cassava were cultivated at EMBRAPA Genetic Resources and Biotechnology and used for biochemical characterization, starch synthesis enzyme activities and gene expression analysis. Carbohydrates were fractioned into free sugar, polymerized water-soluble and -insoluble alpha-polyglucan. Clones of series CAS36 accumulate over 100 times more free sugar (mainly glucose) than commercial varieties. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed one clone with distinct water-soluble sugars not present in the commercial cultivar. Structure analysis of the water-soluble and -insoluble alpha-polyglucan revealed the presence of a glycogen-like starch in clone CAS36.1. This clone indicated disruption in the starch synthesis pathway for enzyme activities and protein blot analyses in ADPG-pyrophosphorylase and branching enzyme, and their corresponding protein. Gene expression analysis indicated the lack of transcript for the gene coding for branching enzyme, but not for the gene coding for the ADPG-pyrophosphorylase small subunit. In addition, the pattern of distribution of sugar and starch content showed to be related to tissue age in the storage root.

  11. Segregation of Hydroxycinnamic Acid Esters Mediating Sweetpotato Weevil Resistance in Storage Roots of Sweetpotato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanga, Milton O.; Yada, Benard; Yencho, G. C.; Ssemakula, Gorrettie N.; Alajo, Agnes; Farman, Dudley I.; Mwanga, Robert O. M.; Stevenson, Philip C.

    2017-01-01

    Resistance to sweetpotato weevils (Cylas spp.) has been identified in several sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) landraces from East Africa and shown to be conferred by hydroxycinnamic acids that occur on the surface of storage roots. The segregation of resistance in this crop is unknown and could be monitored using these chemical traits as markers for resistance in F1 offspring from breeding programs. For the first time in a segregating population, we quantified the plant chemicals that confer resistance and evaluated levels of insect colonization of the same progeny in field and laboratory studies. We used a bi-parental mapping population of 287 progenies from a cross between I. batatas ‘New Kawogo,’ a weevil resistant Ugandan landrace and I. batatas ‘Beauregard’ a North American orange-fleshed and weevil susceptible cultivar. The progenies were evaluated for resistance to sweetpotato weevil, Cylas puncticollis at three field locations that varied climatically and across two seasons to determine how environment and location influenced resistance. To augment our field open-choice resistance screening, each clone was also evaluated in a no choice experiment with weevils reared in the laboratory. Chemical analysis was used to determine whether differences in resistance to weevils were associated with plant compounds previously identified as conferring resistance. We established linkage between field and laboratory resistance to Cylas spp. and sweetpotato root chemistry. The data also showed that resistance in sweetpotato was mediated by root chemicals in most but not all cases. Multi-location trials especially from Serere data provided evidence that the hydroxycinnamic acid esters are produced constitutively within the plants in different clonal genotypes and that the ecological interaction of these chemicals in sweetpotato with weevils confers resistance. Our data suggest that these chemical traits are controlled quantitatively and that ultimately a knowledge of

  12. Cassava chip (Manihot esculenta Crantz as an energy source for ruminant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Wanapat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is widely grown in sub-tropical and tropical areas, producing roots as an energy source while the top biomass including leaves and immature stems can be sun-dried and used as cassava hay. Cassava roots can be processed as dried chip or pellet. It is rich in soluble carbohydrate (75 to 85% but low in crude protein (2 to 3%. Its energy value is comparable to corn meal but has a relatively higher rate of rumen degradation. Higher levels of non-protein nitrogen especially urea (1 to 4% can be successfully incorporated in concentrates containing cassava chip as an energy source. Cassava chip can also be processed with urea and other ingredients (tallow, sulfur, raw banana meal, cassava hay, and soybean meal to make products such as cassarea, cassa-ban, and cassaya. Various studies have been conducted in ruminants using cassava chip to replace corn meal in the concentrate mixtures and have revealed satisfactory results in rumen fermentation efficiency and the subsequent production of meat and milk. In addition, it was advantageous when used in combination with rice bran in the concentrate supplement. Practical home-made-concentrate using cassava chip can be easily prepared for use on farms. A recent development has involved enriching protein in cassava chips, yielding yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP of up to 47.5% crude protein, which can be used to replace soybean meal. It is therefore, recommended to use cassava chip as an alternative source of energy to corn meal when the price is economical and it is locally available.

  13. Analysis of heterogeneity of Copia-like retrotransposons in the genome of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadegesin, Micheal A; Beeching, John R

    2011-12-20

    Retrotransposons are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes and now proving to be useful genetic tools for genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses, especially in plants. In order to assess the diversity of Ty1/Copia-like retrotransposons of cassava, we used PCR primers anchored on the conserved domains of reverse transcriptases (RTs) to amplify cassava Ty1/Copia-like RT. The PCR product was cloned and sequenced. Sequences analysis of the clones revealed the presence of 69 families of Ty1/Copia-like retrotransposon in the genome of cassava. Comparative analyses of the predicted amino acid sequences of these clones with those of other plants showed that retroelements of this class are very heterogeneous in cassava. Cassava is widely grown for its edible roots in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Cassava roots, though poor in protein, are rich in starch (makes up about 80% of the dry matter), vitamin C, carotenes, calcium and potassium. It has a great commercial importance as a source of starch and starch based products. Realizing the importance of cassava, it stands out as a crop to benefit from biotechnology development. Heterogeneity of Mecops (Manihot esculenta copia-like Retrotransposons) showed that they may be useful for genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses of cassava germplasm.

  14. Avaliação nutricional e desempenho da silagem de raiz de mandioca contendo ou não soja integral em dietas para suínos = Nutritional evaluation and performance of cassava root silage with or without whole soybean in swine diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Augusto Alves da Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para determinar o valor nutritivo e o desempenho de suínos nas fases de crescimento e período total, alimentados com dietas formuladas com silagem de raiz de mandioca contendo ou não soja integral. No primeiro, foram utilizados 15 suínos, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em parcelas (animais subdivididas no tempo (subparcelas, totalizando cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Os alimentos avaliados foram silagem de raiz de mandioca (MA, silagem de raiz de mandioca com inoculante (MI, silagem de raiz de mandioca + soja integral (MS e silagem de raiz de mandioca + soja integral com inoculante (MSI. As silagens apresentaram bons valores nutritivos e o uso de inoculante não foi efetivo para melhorar a digestibilidade dos nutrientes. No segundo, foram utilizados 36 suínos mestiços, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com restrição na casualização para duas classes de peso inicial, com três tratamentos, seisrepetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram em raçãotestemunha à base de milho e farelo de soja (RT e outras duas com substituição total do milho por MA e MS. Para fase de crescimento, a conversão alimentar melhorou com o uso das silagens.Conclui-se que as silagens de mandioca, contendo ou não soja integral, apresentam bons valores nutritivos e podem substituir totalmente o milho na ração de suínos nas fases de crescimento eperíodo total.Two experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional value and performance of growing and total-period swine fed cassava root silage with or without whole soybean. In the first group, 15 crossbred swine were used, in a completely randomized design with parcels (animals subdivided in time (subparcels with five treatmentsand six replications. The study evaluated cassava root silage (CA, cassava root silage with inoculant (CI, cassava root silage + whole soybean (CS and

  15. Effect of processing conditions on the texture of reconstituted cassava dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rodríguez-Sandoval

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Deformability modulus, hardness, cohesiveness and adhesiveness of cassava dough reconstituted from precooked flour were evaluated using a lubricated compression test and texture profile analysis. Cassava parenchyma processed under different cooking conditions and left at either -5ºC or -20ºC for 24 h was used to make flour, which was reconstituted into dough. As temperature decreased to -20ºC during the storage period of cooked parenchyma, deformability modulus, hardness and cohesiveness of dough increased significantly. The temperature during the storage period was the most important factor affecting the textural properties of cassava dough.

  16. development of a motorized parboiled cassava tuber shredding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... to present farming and food system in Africa. Of late, the importance of cassava has been ... many disadvantages because it makes land unavailable for further cultivation and quality of root diminishes. .... Inserting the value of M into equation 3, gives Te as 169.94Nm. The equivalent bending moment was.

  17. Factors affecting in vitro propagation of cassava ( Manihot esculenta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is a perennial shrub of the Euphorbiaceae family native of eastern tropical South America, grown in the tropics of Africa and Asia for its tuberous roots. Its cultivation is constrained by several problems including the use of cuttings infected with diseases and pests, the lack of high quality ...

  18. Cassava tissue culture and long-term preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is cultivated mainly for its starchy roots as an important staple food for the tropics. M. esculenta is the only cultivated species in the genus Manihot, which contains 98 species, mostly native to Brazil. In recent years several research groups have reported metho...

  19. Preliminary sampling of arthropod fauna of transgenic cassava in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COLLINS-NRCRI, UMUDIKE

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... arthropod fauna of transgenic cassava in a confined field trial (CFT) at National Root Crops Research. Institute (NRCRI), Umudike, Nigeria. The trial took place from August to November, in 2009 and. February to July, in 2010 to identify the major arthropods associated with the crop and to monitor changes ...

  20. Toxic Ipomeamarone accumulation in healthy parts of Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) storage roots upon infection by Rhizopus stolonifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamalwa, Lydia N; Cheseto, Xavier; Ouna, Elizabeth; Kaplan, Fatma; Maniania, Nguya K; Machuka, Jesse; Torto, Baldwyn; Ghislain, Marc

    2015-01-14

    Furanoterpenoid accumulation in response to microbial attack in rotting sweetpotatoes has long been linked to deaths and lung edema of cattle in the world. However, it is not known whether furanoterpenoid ipomeamarone accumulates in the healthy-looking parts of infected sweetpotato storage roots. This is critical for effective utilization as animal feed and assessment of the potential negative impact on human health. Therefore, we first identified the fungus from infected sweetpotatoes as a Rhizopus stolonifer strain and then used it to infect healthy sweetpotato storage roots for characterization of furanoterpenoid content. Ipomeamarone and its precursor, dehydroipomeamarone, were identified through spectroscopic analyses, and detected in all samples and controls at varying concentrations. Ipomeamarone concentration was at toxic levels in healthy-looking parts of some samples. Our study provides fundamental information on furanoterpenoids in relation to high levels reported that could subsequently affect cattle on consumption and high ipomeamarone levels in healthy-looking parts.

  1. Toxic Ipomeamarone Accumulation in Healthy Parts of Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Storage Roots upon Infection by Rhizopus stolonifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Furanoterpenoid accumulation in response to microbial attack in rotting sweetpotatoes has long been linked to deaths and lung edema of cattle in the world. However, it is not known whether furanoterpenoid ipomeamarone accumulates in the healthy-looking parts of infected sweetpotato storage roots. This is critical for effective utilization as animal feed and assessment of the potential negative impact on human health. Therefore, we first identified the fungus from infected sweetpotatoes as a Rhizopus stolonifer strain and then used it to infect healthy sweetpotato storage roots for characterization of furanoterpenoid content. Ipomeamarone and its precursor, dehydroipomeamarone, were identified through spectroscopic analyses, and detected in all samples and controls at varying concentrations. Ipomeamarone concentration was at toxic levels in healthy-looking parts of some samples. Our study provides fundamental information on furanoterpenoids in relation to high levels reported that could subsequently affect cattle on consumption and high ipomeamarone levels in healthy-looking parts. PMID:25418792

  2. Food safety: importance of composition for assessing genetically modified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijssen, Fredrika W Jansen; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2013-09-04

    The importance of food composition in safety assessments of genetically modified (GM) food is described for cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) that naturally contains significantly high levels of cyanogenic glycoside (CG) toxicants in roots and leaves. The assessment of the safety of GM cassava would logically require comparison with a non-GM crop with a proven "history of safe use". This study investigates this statement for cassava. A non-GM comparator that qualifies would be a processed product with CG level below the approved maximum level in food and that also satisfies a "worst case" of total dietary consumption. Although acute and chronic toxicity benchmark CG values for humans have been determined, intake data are scarce. Therefore, the non-GM cassava comparator is defined on the "best available knowledge". We consider nutritional values for cassava and conclude that CG residues in food should be a priority topic for research.

  3. Evaluation of synergistic effect in vacuum pack, refrigeration and irradiated treatments of minimally processed cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroso, Bianca Maria

    2005-01-01

    Cassava is cultivated almost all over the world and it is considered one of the most important nutritious sources of calories in the human diet. Cassava is a viable food against starvation in several poor areas of the world because it is an extremely resistant culture and may reach satisfactory economical yield. We utilized vacuum packed industrialized cassava irradiated with 0,1 kGy, 3kGy and 5kGy and stored under refrigeration for 1, 21, 30 and 50 days. Our objective was to analyse the synergistic effect of vacuum packing, irradiation and refrigeration on the preservation of minimally processed cassava. The samples were analyzed for pH, acidity, weight, humidity, texture and color. The irradiation did not affect the chemical characteristics of the cassava. Neither the pH nor the acidity, the most relevant variables to verify deterioration in cassava, presented significant alterations during the period of storage. Comparing the irradiated treatments, the dose of 1kGy and 3kGy affected the physic-chemical characteristics of the cassava the least during the period of storage and refrigeration for 50 days; the doses of 1kGy,3kGy and 5kGy scored the highest rates the sensorial analysis during the period of storage for 21 days. (author)

  4. Characterisation of Cassava Bagasse and Composites Prepared by Blending with Low-Density Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Oliveira Farias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to characterise the cassava bagasse and to evaluate its addition in composites. Two cassava bagasse samples were characterised using physicochemical, thermal and microscopic techniques, and by obtaining their spectra in the mid-infrared region and analysing them by using x-ray diffraction. Utilising sorption isotherms, it was possible to establish the acceptable conditions of temperature and relative humidity for the storage of the cassava bagasse. The incorporation of cassava bagasse in a low-density polyethylene (LDP matrix was positive, increasing the elasticity modulus values from 131.90 for LDP to 186.2 for 70% LDP with 30% SP bagasse. These results were encouraging because cassava bagasse could serve as a structural reinforcement, as well as having environmental advantages for its application in packaging, construction and automotive parts.

  5. Phylogeny and expression pattern of starch branching enzyme family genes in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) under diverse environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jinli; Wang, Huijun; Xia, Zhiqiang; Liu, Chen; Chen, Xin; Ma, Pingan; Lu, Cheng; Wang, Wenquan

    2015-08-01

    Starch branching enzyme (SBE) is one of the key enzymes involved in starch biosynthetic metabolism. In this study, six SBE family genes were identified from the cassava genome. Phylogenetic analysis divided the MeSBE family genes into dicot family A, B, C, and the new group. Tissue-specific analysis showed that MeSBE2.2 was strongly expressed in leaves, stems cortex, and root stele, and MeSBE3 had high expression levels in stem cortex and root stele of plants in the rapid growth stage under field condition, whereas the expression levels of MeSBE2.1, MeSBE4, and MeSBE5 were low except for in stems cortex. The transcriptional activity of MeSBE2.2 and MeSBE3 was higher compared with other members and gradually increased in the storage roots during root growth process, while the other MeSBE members normally remained low expression levels. Expression of MeSBE2.2 could be induced by salt, drought, exogenous abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid signals, while MeSBE3 had positive response to drought, salt, exogenous abscisic acid, and salicylic acid in leaves but not in storage root, indicating that they might be more important in starch biosynthesis pathway under diverse environments.

  6. Novel Bioengineered Cassava Expressing an Archaeal Starch Degradation System and a Bacterial ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase for Starch Self-Digestibility and Yield Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayalew Ligaba-Osena

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To address national and global low-carbon fuel targets, there is great interest in alternative plant species such as cassava (Manihot esculenta, which are high-yielding, resilient, and are easily converted to fuels using the existing technology. In this study the genes encoding hyperthermophilic archaeal starch-hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and amylopullulanase from Pyrococcus furiosus and glucoamylase from Sulfolobus solfataricus, together with the gene encoding a modified ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (glgC from Escherichia coli, were simultaneously expressed in cassava roots to enhance starch accumulation and its subsequent hydrolysis to sugar. A total of 13 multigene expressing transgenic lines were generated and characterized phenotypically and genotypically. Gene expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR showed that the microbial genes are expressed in the transgenic roots. Multigene-expressing transgenic lines produced up to 60% more storage root yield than the non-transgenic control, likely due to glgC expression. Total protein extracted from the transgenic roots showed up to 10-fold higher starch-degrading activity in vitro than the protein extracted from the non-transgenic control. Interestingly, transgenic tubers released threefold more glucose than the non-transgenic control when incubated at 85°C for 21-h without exogenous application of thermostable enzymes, suggesting that the archaeal enzymes produced in planta maintain their activity and thermostability.

  7. SCREENING OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF CRUDE WATER EXTRACT OF DIFFERENT CASSAVA VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajumoke Oke FAYINMINNU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of three sources of crude cassava water extract (CCWE was evaluated in different varieties of cassava (MS6 Manihot Selection (local variety, TMS 30555 Tropical Manihot Selection (Improved variety and Bulk (crude cassava water from cassava processing site. Crude cassava water extract from the pulp of cassava fresh roots was prepared and the chemical composition was determined in the analytical laboratory. The result of the analysis showed that, hydrocyanic acid (HCN and with elements such as Magnesium (Mg, Manganese (Mn, Iron (Fe, Sulphur (S, Copper (Cu and Zinc (Zn. Nitrogen (N, Phosphorous (P and Potassium (K were found in the extract. The study showed that due to the presence of hydrocyanic acid in the extract, this waste found around the cassava processing sites possesses phytotoxic effects on weeds/vegetation in form of leaf decoloration (yellowing, wilting and eventually death. Crude cassava water extract showed a probable natural herbicide which can be used by the peasant farmers because it is environmental friendly and easily biodegradable into harmless compounds in the environment

  8. Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom K.

    and the necessary technical expertise. This quality manual was therefore developed to guide small- to medium-scale cassava in the design and implematation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and Good manufacturing Practices (GMP) plans for HQCF production. It describes the HQCF production......The high quality cassava flour (HQCF) industry has just started to evolve in Africa and elsewhere. The sustainability of the growing industry, the profitability of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) that are active in the industry and good-health of consumers can best be guaranteed through...... methods, and explanins in practical terms the concept of HACCP/QACCP quality system and procedure for aplication to HQCF production. The procedures described in this manual should help cassava processing enterprises to implement the HACCP/QACCP system from the point of root delivery through every...

  9. Effect of Genetic Conditions, Foliar Fertilisation with Magnesium and Storage on the Content of Nitrates (V and (III in the Storage Roots in Carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wszelaczyńska Elżbieta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During 2007-2009, studies were undertaken to determine the effect of genetic factors, magnesium fertilisation and storage on the content of nitrates (V and (III in carrot roots. After harvest as well as after storage, the cultivar ‘Perfekcja’ was characterised by the lowest content of NO3− and NO2−, while the greatest amounts were found in cultivar ‘Flacoro’. Magnesium was applied in doses of 0, 45 and 90 kg MgO ha-1 - in the form of 3% spraying during the vegetation season. The research items were cultivars: ‘Berjo’, Flacoro’, ‘Karotan’, ‘Koral’ and ‘Perfekcja’.

  10. Profiling of differentially expressed genes critical to storage root development in hydroponically and in-vitro grown sweetpotato for space farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egnin, M.; Gao, H.; He, G.; Woullard, F.; Mortley, D.; Scoffield, J.; Bey, B.; Quain, M.; Prakash, C. S.; Bonsi, C.

    Environment is known to have significant effects on the nutrient content and quality of crop plants especially through its impact on the temporal and spatial expression of genes Little is known about the molecular changes and harvest index in plants in response to microgravity Sweetpotato underline Ipomoea underline batatas L Lam is one of the most important root crops and an excellent NASA crop for space farming to provide essential nutrients to sustain human life on long-term space missions The initiation and development of storage root formation is one of the most critical processes determining yield of sweetpotato The molecular mechanism of storage root initiation and development in sweetpotato is poorly understood To this end knowledge of gravity perception the genetic and molecular nature of the induction process of storage root will tremendously help improve on sweetpotato harvest index for space farming cDNA-AFLP techniques were employed to investigate temporal and spatial expressions to gain molecular insights and identify transcripts differentially expressed during early stages of sweetpotato storage root development Two hydroponically grown cultivars using Nutrient Film Technology NFT and microstorage roots were evaluated TU-82-155 an early maturing 90 DAP with orange flesh and tinge red skin and PI318846-3 a late maturing 135 DAP with white flesh and off-yellow skin were compared for differential genes expression during storage root development at 14 21 28 35 and 45 DAP Total RNA was isolated from

  11. Awareness of Cassava Peel Utilization Forms among Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant quantities of generated peels are been thrown on dumping sites in southwest, Nigeria thereby constituting a source of environmental pollution. This study assessed the awareness of cassava peel utilization forms among cassava processors in rural communities of southwest, Nigeria. Interview guide was used to ...

  12. An assessment of cassava mosaic disease severity in cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trials were conducted at Uyo, Nigeria in 1995/97 to evaluate the impact of Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) on cassava when intercropped with maize. Observations at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after planting (MAP) showed that CMD severity was generally low. The symptoms decreased from 3 to 9 MAP and then sometimes ...

  13. Evaluation of new cassava genotypes for intercropping in a cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-one cassava genotypes were screened for their intercrop performance at Umudike between 1997 and 1998 cropping seasons. The 2-year yield data were subjected to Rank-Summation Index (RSI) and Simple Regression (SR) Techniques with the view to determine the performance of the new cassava genotypes ...

  14. Value chain analysis on cassava and cassava based - products in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the value Chain analysis (production process and cost related to each element of production chain to add value) on cassava and cassava products in Imo State specifically to ascertain the farm size holdings of the respondents as well as the ownerships of the land used for production. It also identified` ...

  15. Water adsorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of cassava bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polachini, Tiago Carregari, E-mail: tiagopolachini@terra.com.br; Betiol, Lilian Fachin Leonardo; Lopes-Filho, José Francisco; Telis-Romero, Javier

    2016-05-20

    Highlights: • Adsorption isotherms and composition of cassava bagasse were determined. • GAB equation was the best-fitted model to sorption data of type II isotherm. • Isosteric heat of sorption was calculated in a range of equilibrium moisture content. • Differential enthalpy and entropy confirmed the isokinetic compensation theory. • Water adsorption by cassava bagasse is considered an enthalpy driven process. - Abstract: Losses of food industry are generally wet products that must be dried to posterior use and storage. In order to optimize drying processes, the study of isotherms and thermodynamic properties become essential to understand the water sorption mechanisms of cassava bagasse. For this, cassava bagasse was chemically analyzed and had its adsorption isotherms determined in the range of 293.15–353.15 K through the static gravimetric method. The models of GAB, Halsey, Henderson, Oswin and Peleg were fitted, and best adjustments were found for GAB model with R{sup 2} > 0.998 and no pattern distribution of residual plots. Isosteric heat of adsorption and thermodynamic parameters could be determined as a function of moisture content. Compensation theory was confirmed, with linear relationship between enthalpy and entropy and higher values of isokinetic temperature (T{sub B} = 395.62 K) than harmonic temperature. Water adsorption was considered driven by enthalpy, clarifying the mechanisms of water vapor sorption in cassava bagasse.

  16. Isolation and characterisation of starch biosynthesis genes from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    Munyikwa, T.R.I.

    1997-01-01


    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical crop grown for its starchy thickened roots, mainly by peasant farmers, in the tropics, for whom it is a staple food. There is an increasing demand for the use of cassava in processed food and feed products, and in the paper and textile industries amongst others. This thesis describes research on the cloning of the genes encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small and large subunits (AGPase B and S, respectively)...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A CASSAVA PELLETING MACHINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... can be formed in dough-like fashion manner, includ- ing cassava. Cassava pellet is an unfermented dried cassava product obtained by compressing raw cassava chips under appropriate processing conditions result- ing in the formation of dried bulky product suitable for the animal feed industry with an ...

  18. THE USE OF CASSAVA SPECIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    water treatment. With this, an alternative coagulant can be studied so that it can be use in water treatment. The heavy metals content in the two varieties of cassava .... treated cassava, 50g was dissolved in 100ml of distilled water. The mixture was stirred for 1min using the magnetic stirrer and then filtered using filter material.

  19. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oils from Zanthoxylum dissitum Leaves and Roots against Three Species of Storage Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to investigate chemical composition of essential oils obtained from Zanthoxylum dissitum leaves and roots and their insecticidal activities against several stored product pests, namely the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne, red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum and black carpet beetle (Attagenus piceus. The analysis by GC-MS of the essential oils allowed the identification of 28 and 22 components, respectively. It was found that sesquiterpenoids comprised a fairly high portion of the two essential oils, with percentages of 74.0% and 80.9% in the leaves and roots, respectively. The main constituents identified in the essential oil of Z. dissitum leaves were δ-cadinol (12.8%, caryophyllene (12.7%, β-cubebene (7.9%, 4-terpineol (7.5% and germacrene D-4-ol (5.7%, while humulene epoxide II (29.4%, caryophyllene oxide (24.0%, diepicedrene-1-oxide (10.7% and Z,Z,Z-1,5,9,9-tetramethyl-1,4,7-cycloundecatriene (8.7% were the major components in the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots. The insecticidal activity results indicated that the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots exhibited moderate contact toxicity against three species of storage pests, L. serricorne,T. castaneum and A. piceus, with LD50 values of 13.8, 43.7 and 96.8 µg/adult, respectively.

  20. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oils from Zanthoxylum dissitum Leaves and Roots against Three Species of Storage Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Guo, Shan-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-05-04

    This work aimed to investigate chemical composition of essential oils obtained from Zanthoxylum dissitum leaves and roots and their insecticidal activities against several stored product pests, namely the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and black carpet beetle (Attagenus piceus). The analysis by GC-MS of the essential oils allowed the identification of 28 and 22 components, respectively. It was found that sesquiterpenoids comprised a fairly high portion of the two essential oils, with percentages of 74.0% and 80.9% in the leaves and roots, respectively. The main constituents identified in the essential oil of Z. dissitum leaves were δ-cadinol (12.8%), caryophyllene (12.7%), β-cubebene (7.9%), 4-terpineol (7.5%) and germacrene D-4-ol (5.7%), while humulene epoxide II (29.4%), caryophyllene oxide (24.0%), diepicedrene-1-oxide (10.7%) and Z,Z,Z-1,5,9,9-tetramethyl-1,4,7-cycloundecatriene (8.7%) were the major components in the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots. The insecticidal activity results indicated that the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots exhibited moderate contact toxicity against three species of storage pests, L. serricorne,T. castaneum and A. piceus, with LD50 values of 13.8, 43.7 and 96.8 µg/adult, respectively.

  1. Spatial regression between soil surface elevation, water storage in root zone and biomass productivity of alfalfa within an irrigated field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2014-05-01

    Efficiency of water use for the irrigation purposes is connected to the variety of circumstances, factors and processes appearing along the transportation path of water from its sources to the root zone of the plant. Water efficiency of agricultural irrigation is connected with variety of circumstances, the impacts and the processes occurring during the transportation of water from water sources to plant root zone. Agrohydrological processes occur directly at the irrigated field, these processes linked to the infiltration of the applied water subsequent redistribution of the infiltrated water within the root zone. One of them are agrohydrological processes occurring directly on an irrigated field, connected with infiltration of water applied for irrigation to the soil, and the subsequent redistribution of infiltrated water in the root zone. These processes have the strongly pronounced spatial character depending on the one hand from a spatial variation of some hydrological characteristics of soils, and from other hand with distribution of volume of irrigation water on a surface of the area of an irrigated field closely linked with irrigation technology used. The combination of water application parameters with agrohydrological characteristics of soils and agricultural vegetation in each point at the surface of an irrigated field leads to formation of a vector field of intensity of irrigation water. In an ideal situation, such velocity field on a soil surface should represent uniform set of vertically directed collinear vectors. Thus values of these vectors should be equal to infiltration intensities of water inflows on a soil surface. In soil profile the field of formed intensities of a water flow should lead to formation in it of a water storage accessible to root system of irrigated crops. In practice this ideal scheme undergoes a lot of changes. These changes have the different nature, the reasons of occurrence and degree of influence on the processes connected

  2. Root biomass and carbon storage in differently managed multispecies temporary grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Mortensen, Tine Bloch; Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    considerably with increasing content of herbs and with fertilizer application in plots with a 4-cut strategy. With a 6-cut strategy without fertilizer, herbs had no effect on the aboveground biomass. In the herb mixture, biomass of small roots was lower than in mixtures with white clover and ryegrass....... There was a tendency towards increased biomass in the large root fraction with increasing herb content. The experiment indicated increased CO2 evolution following cultivation of multispecies grasslands...

  3. Electroactive and High Dielectric Folic Acid/PVDF Composite Film Rooted Simplistic Organic Photovoltaic Self-Charging Energy Storage Cell with Superior Energy Density and Storage Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Swagata; Thakur, Pradip; Hoque, Nur Amin; Bagchi, Biswajoy; Sepay, Nayim; Khatun, Farha; Kool, Arpan; Das, Sukhen

    2017-07-19

    Herein we report a simplistic prototype approach to develop an organic photovoltaic self-charging energy storage cell (OPSESC) rooted with biopolymer folic acid (FA) modified high dielectric and electroactive β crystal enriched poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) composite (PFA) thin film. Comprehensive and exhaustive characterizations of the synthesized PFA composite films validate the proper formation of β-polymorphs in PVDF. Significant improvements of both β-phase crystallization (F(β) ≈ 71.4%) and dielectric constant (ε ≈ 218 at 20 Hz for PFA of 7.5 mass %) are the twosome realizations of our current study. Enhancement of β-phase nucleation in the composites can be thought as a contribution of the strong interaction of the FA particles with the PVDF chains. Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) interfacial polarization approves the establishment of thermally stable high dielectric values measured over a wide temperature spectrum. The optimized high dielectric and electroactive films are further employed as an active energy storage material in designing our device named as OPSESC. Self-charging under visible light irradiation without an external biasing electrical field and simultaneous remarkable self-storage of photogenerated electrical energy are the two foremost aptitudes and the spotlight of our present investigation. Our as fabricated device delivers an impressively high energy density of 7.84 mWh/g and an excellent specific capacitance of 61 F/g which is superior relative to the other photon induced two electrode organic self-charging energy storage devices reported so far. Our device also proves the realistic utility with good recycling capability by facilitating commercially available light emitting diode.

  4. The Symptom and Genetic Diversity of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses Infecting Cassava in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. U. Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic and symptom diversity of six virus isolates causing cassava brown streak disease (CBSD in the endemic (Kenya, Mozambique, and Tanzania and the recently affected epidemic areas (Uganda of eastern Africa was studied. Five cassava varieties; Albert, Colombian, Ebwanateraka, TMS60444 (all susceptible and Kiroba (tolerant were graft inoculated with each isolate. Based on a number of parameters including the severity of leaf and root symptoms, and the extent of virus transmission by grafting, the viruses were classified as either severe or relatively mild. These results were further confirmed by the mechanical inoculation of 13 herbaceous hosts in which the virulent isolates caused plant death in Nicotiana clevelandii and N. benthamiana whereas the milder isolates did not. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coat protein gene sequences of these isolates together with sequences obtained from 14 other field-collected samples from Kenya and Zanzibar, and reference sequences grouped them into two distinct clusters, representing the two species of cassava brown streak viruses. Put together, these results did not suggest the association of a hypervirulent form of the virus with the current CBSD epidemic in Uganda. Identification of the severe and milder isolates, however, has further implications for disease management and quarantine requirements.

  5. Carbon storage and nutrient mobilization from soil minerals by deep roots and rhizospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Harrison, Robert; Stupak, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Roots mobilize nutrients via deep soil penetration and rhizosphere processes inducing weathering of primary minerals. These processes contribute to C transfer to soils and to tree nutrition. Assessments of these characteristics and processes of root systems are important for understanding long......-term supplies of nutrient elements essential for forest growth and resilience. Research and techniques have significantly advanced since Olof Tamm’s 1934 “base mineral index” for Swedish forest soils, and the basic nutrient budget estimates for whole-tree harvesting systems of the 1970s. Recent research...... studies on potential release of nutrients due to chemical weathering indicate the importance of root access to deep soil layers. Nutrient release profiles clearly indicate depletion in the top layers and a much higher potential in B and C horizons. Reviewing potential sustainability of nutrient supplies...

  6. Genetic analysis and association of simple sequence repeat markers with storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content in sweetpotato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yada, Benard; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Alajo, Agnes; Ssemakula, Gorrettie N.; Owusu-Mensah, Eric; Carey, Edward E.; Mwanga, Robert O.M.; Yencho, G. Craig

    2017-01-01

    Molecular markers are needed for enhancing the development of elite sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) cultivars with a wide range of commercially important traits in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was conducted to estimate the heritability and determine trait correlations of storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content in a cross between ‘New Kawogo’ × ‘Beauregard’. The study was also conducted to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with these traits. A total of 287 progeny and the parents were evaluated for two seasons at three sites in Uganda and genotyped with 250 SSR markers. Broad sense heritability (H2) for storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content were 0.24, 0.68, 0.70 and 0.90, respectively. Storage root β-carotene content was negatively correlated with dry matter (r = −0.59, P < 0.001) and starch (r = −0.93, P < 0.001) content, while storage root yield was positively correlated with dry matter (r = 0.57, P = 0.029) and starch (r = 0.41, P = 0.008) content. Through logistic regression, a total of 12, 4, 6 and 8 SSR markers were associated with storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content, respectively. The SSR markers used in this study may be useful for quantitative trait loci analysis and selection for these traits in future. PMID:28588391

  7. In field damage of high and low cyanogenic cassava due to a generalist insect herbivore Cyrtomenus bergi (Hemiptera: Cydnidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Lisbeth; Bellotti, Anthony Charles; Castaño, Oscar

    2003-12-01

    The hypothesis that cyanogenic potential in cassava roots deters polyphagous insects in the field is relevant to current efforts to reduce or eliminate the cyanogenic potential in cassava. To test this hypothesis, experiments were conducted in the field under natural selection pressure of the polyphagous root feeder Cyrtomenus bergi Froeschner (Hemiptera: Cydnidae). A number of cassava varieties (33) as well as 13 cassava siblings and their parental clone, each representing a determined level of cyanogenic potential (CNP), were scored for damage caused by C. bergi and related to CNP and nonglycosidic cyanogens, measured as hydrogen cyanide. Additionally, 161 low-CNP varieties (Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) were screened for resistance/tolerance to C. bergi. Low root damage scores were registered at all levels of CNP. Nevertheless, CNP and yield (or root size) partly explained the damage in cassava siblings (r2 = 0.82) and different cassava varieties (r2 = 0.42), but only when mean values of damage scores were used. This relation was only significant in one of two crop cycles. A logistic model describes the underlying negative relation between CNP and damage. An exponential model describes the underlying negative relation between root size and damage. Damage, caused by C. bergi feeding, released nonglycosidic cyanogens, and an exponential model fits the underlying positive relation. Fifteen low-CNP clones were selected for potential resistance/tolerance against C. bergi.

  8. Effect of Environment and Sugar Beet Genotype on Root Rot Development and Pathogen Profile During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Sebastian; Varrelmann, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Storage rots represent an economically important factor impairing the storability of sugar beet by increasing sucrose losses and invert sugar content. Understanding the development of disease management strategies, knowledge about major storage pathogens, and factors influencing their occurrence is crucial. In comprehensive storage trials conducted under controlled conditions, the effects of environment and genotype on rot development and associated quality changes were investigated. Prevalent species involved in rot development were identified by a newly developed microarray. The strongest effect on rot development was assigned to environment factors followed by genotypic effects. Despite large variation in rot severity (sample range 0 to 84%), the spectrum of microorganisms colonizing sugar beet remained fairly constant across all treatments with dominant species belonging to the fungal genera Botrytis, Fusarium, and Penicillium. The intensity of microbial tissue necrotization was strongly correlated with sucrose losses (R² = 0.79 to 0.91) and invert sugar accumulation (R² = 0.91 to 0.95). A storage rot resistance bioassay was developed that could successfully reproduce the genotype ranking observed in storage trials. Quantification of fungal biomass indicates that genetic resistance is based on a quantitative mechanism. Further work is required to understand the large environmental influence on rot development in sugar beet.

  9. The ‘special cassava flour’: perception and processing of a smallholder agriculture product in the Juruá River valley, Acre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Hussak van Velthem

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Smallholders from upper Juruá river valley, state of Acre, in Brazil, produce cassava flour (farinha de mandioca for consumption and trade. This article describes the practices that produce and identify a 'special' cassava flour from the point of view of the local producers. These processes are both technical and conceptual, and they apply to the cassava roots, the objects associated to its processing and the cassava flour produced, differing from the assessment of traders and governmental institutions. This prescriptive set will be faced with the perception of traders and also with the public service, which operates in this production improvement considering it undervalued and with high variability.

  10. Awareness of Cassava Peel Utilization Forms among Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Cassava silage as cattle feed and fibrous waste-based broiler feed are value added products for feed sector and this can aid wealth creation. Industrial products for mini-agricultural business include wafers, gums and liquid adhesives. Immense.

  11. The amount of parenchyma and living fibers affects storage of nonstructural carbohydrates in young stems and roots of temperate trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavcová, Lenka; Hoch, Günter; Morris, Hugh; Ghiasi, Sara; Jansen, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) are used as proxies for the net carbon balance of trees and as indicators of carbon starvation resulting from environmental stress. Woody organs are the largest NSC-storing compartments in forest ecosystems; therefore, it is essential to understand the factors that affect the size of this important storage pool. In wood, NSC are predominantly deposited in ray and axial parenchyma (RAP); however, direct links between nutrient storage and RAP anatomy have not yet been established. Here, we tested whether the NSC storage capacity of wood is influenced by the amount of RAP. We measured NSC concentrations and RAP fractions in root and stem sapwood of 12 temperate species sampled at the onset of winter dormancy and in stem sapwood of four tropical trees growing in an evergreen lowland rainforest. The patterns of starch distribution were visualized by staining with Lugol's solution. The concentration of NSCs in sapwood of temperate trees scales tightly with the amount of RAP and living fibers (LFs), with almost all RAP and LFs being densely packed with starch grains. In contrast, the tropical species had lower NSC concentrations despite their higher RAP and LFs fraction and had considerable interspecific differences in starch distribution. The differences in RAP and LFs abundance affect the ability of sapwood to store NSC in temperate trees, whereas a more diverse set of functions of RAP might be pronounced in species growing in a tropical environment with little seasonality. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  12. Effect of plant-biostimulant on cassava initial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Emílio de Souza Magalhães

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biostimulants are complex substances that promote hormonal balance in plants, favor the genetic potential expression, and enhance growth of shoots and root system. The use of these plant growth promoters in crops can increase quantitatively and qualitatively crop production. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a commercial biostimulant on the initial growth of cassava. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 5 factorial design, corresponding to two cassava cultivars (Cacau-UFV and Coimbra and five biostimulant concentrations (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 mL L-1. At 90 days after planting, the characteristics leaf area, plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, total dry matter and dry matter of roots, stems and leaves were evaluated. The biostimulant promoted linear increases in plant height, leaf number, leaf area, total dry matter, dry matter of stems, leaves and roots. The cultivar Cacau-UFV had a higher growth rate than the cultivar Coimbra. The growth promoter stimulated the early growth of the cassava crop.

  13. Salinity reduces carbon assimilation and the harvest index of cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson Lopes Cruz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed to evaluate the effects of salinity on the growth and gas exchange of cassava plants, cultivar Verdinha. The four concentrations of NaCl (mM were as follows: 0, 20, 40, and 60. Under salinity, the lowest concentration of Na+ ions was observed in the tuberous roots; however, the dry matter of tuberous roots was reduced with an application of just 20 mM NaCl. The harvest index was reduced 50% with the highest salt concentration. Salinity reduced carbon assimilation (A, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration, and the instantaneous water use efficiency. The correlation between gs and A was high and positive, showing that stomatal movement was one of the responsible for the lower A. Under salt stress, there was an increase in intercellular CO2 concentration, indicating the impairment of carbon metabolism. Based on the reduction of dry matter of the tuberous roots (reduction of 81% under 60 mM NaCl, it was concluded that cassava is sensitive to salinity. The growth of shoots and the absorbing roots were minimally affected by salinity, even in the situation where A was reduced; therefore, the sensitivity of cassava was related to the high sensitivity of the tuberous roots to the ionic and/or osmotic effects of salinity. Thus, tuberous roots can be the target organ in studies that aim to improve the tolerance of cassava to salinity.

  14. Genetic by environment interaction on fresh root yield, dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighteen yellow-fleshed cassava genotypes and two released white-fleshed clones (check) were evaluated in five locations representing the major cassava growing agroecological zones of Nigeria to access their performance for fresh root yield, dry matter content, total carotene content and genotypes by environment ...

  15. Avaliação nutricional e desempenho da silagem de raiz de mandioca contendo ou não soja integral em dietas para suínos - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i2.8055 Nutritional evaluation and performance of cassava root silage with or without whole soybean in swine diets - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i2.8055

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Levi Oliveira Carvalho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para determinar o valor nutritivo e o desempenho de suínos nas fases de crescimento e período total, alimentados com dietas formuladas com silagem de raiz de mandioca contendo ou não soja integral. No primeiro, foram utilizados 15 suínos, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em parcelas (animais subdivididas no tempo (subparcelas, totalizando cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Os alimentos avaliados foram silagem de raiz de mandioca (MA, silagem de raiz de mandioca com inoculante (MI, silagem de raiz de mandioca + soja integral (MS e silagem de raiz de mandioca + soja integral com inoculante (MSI. As silagens apresentaram bons valores nutritivos e o uso de inoculante não foi efetivo para melhorar a digestibilidade dos nutrientes. No segundo, foram utilizados 36 suínos mestiços, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com restrição na casualização para duas classes de peso inicial, com três tratamentos, seis repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram em ração-testemunha à base de milho e farelo de soja (RT e outras duas com substituição total do milho por MA e MS. Para fase de crescimento, a conversão alimentar melhorou com o uso das silagens. Conclui-se que as silagens de mandioca, contendo ou não soja integral, apresentam bons valores nutritivos e podem substituir totalmente o milho na ração de suínos nas fases de crescimento e período total. alimentos alternativos; amido; desempenho; digestibilidade; valores energéticosTwo experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional value and performance of growing and total-period swine fed cassava root silage with or without whole soybean. In the first group, 15 crossbred swine were used, in a completely randomized design with parcels (animals subdivided in time (subparcels with five treatments and six replications. The study evaluated cassava root silage (CA

  16. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo, Maria; Svanberg, Ulf; Oliveira, Jorge; Ahrn?, Lilia

    2013-01-01

    Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented) on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w) was evaluated in combination with...

  17. Water use impact of ethanol at a gasoline substitution ratio of 5% from cassava in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeoti, O. [Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, The Federal Polytechnic, Along Ikare Road, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State (Nigeria)

    2010-07-15

    The process of fuel ethanol production from cassava root is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resource of the country where the cassava plant is grown and the root processed into fuel ethanol. The paper assesses the impact of the domestic production of 5 per cent ethanol (E5) needed under the Nigerian biofuel programme from cassava root on the water resource of Nigeria. Using the 2007 Premium Motor Spirit (PMS) consumption as the baseline, Nigeria will require about 0.49 hm{sup 3} of ethanol to blend 9.32 hm{sup 3} of PMS to arrive at the 2007 consumption estimates. The impact of the domestic production of this ethanol requirement translates to about 6.0 km{sup 3} of water; out of which about 48 per cent is green and about 52 per cent is blue. Addressing future impact typical of a developing economy like Nigeria, a three-scenario analysis was adopted to examine the impact of future growth in cassava-fuel ethanol requirement on the water resource of Nigeria, and also, the impact of improved water use on the future water footprint of E5. The projected water impact of cassava-ethanol production into the future ranges from 6.02 to 7.28 km{sup 3}, while improved water use could lower these values by about 0.04-2.35 km{sup 3} for the same period, 2010 to 2020, under the projection assumptions made. (author)

  18. Initial Soil Organic Matter Content Influences the Storage and Turnover of Litter-, Root- and Soil Carbon in Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Xu, S.; Li, P.; Sayer, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Grassland degradation is a worldwide problem that often leads to substantial loss of soil organic matter (SOM). Understanding how SOM content influences the stabilization of plant carbon (C) to form soil C is important to evaluate the potential of degraded grasslands to sequester additional C. We conducted a greenhouse experiment using C3 soils with six levels of SOM content and planted the C4 grass Cleistogenes squarrosa and/or added its litter to investigate how SOM content regulates the storage of new soil C derived from litter and roots, the decomposition of extant soil C, and the formation of soil aggregates. We found that microbial biomass carbon (MBC) increased with SOM content, and increased the mineralization of litter C. Both litter addition and planted treatments increased the amount of new C inputs to soil. However, litter addition had no significant impacts on the mineralization of extant soil C, but the presence of living roots significantly accelerated it. Thus, by the end of the experiment, soil C content was significantly higher in the litter addition treatments, but was not affected by planted treatments. The soil macroaggregate fraction increased with SOM content and was positively related to MBC. Overall, our study suggests that as SOM content increases, plant growth and soil microbes become more active, which allows microbes to process more plant-derived C and increases new soil C formation. The interactions between SOM content and plant C inputs should be considered when evaluating soil C turnover in degraded grasslands.

  19. Cassava brown streak disease in Rwanda, the associated viruses and disease phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munganyinka, E; Ateka, E M; Kihurani, A W; Kanyange, M C; Tairo, F; Sseruwagi, P; Ndunguru, J

    2018-02-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) was first observed on cassava ( Manihot esculenta ) in Rwanda in 2009. In 2014 eight major cassava-growing districts in the country were surveyed to determine the distribution and variability of symptom phenotypes associated with CBSD, and the genetic diversity of cassava brown streak viruses. Distribution of the CBSD symptom phenotypes and their combinations varied greatly between districts, cultivars and their associated viruses. The symptoms on leaf alone recorded the highest (32.2%) incidence, followed by roots (25.7%), leaf + stem (20.3%), leaf + root (10.4%), leaf + stem + root (5.2%), stem + root (3.7%), and stem (2.5%) symptoms. Analysis by RT-PCR showed that single infections of Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) were most common (74.2% of total infections) and associated with all the seven phenotypes studied. Single infections of Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) were predominant (15.3% of total infections) in CBSD-affected plants showing symptoms on stems alone. Mixed infections (CBSV + UCBSV) comprised 10.5% of total infections and predominated in the combinations of leaf + stem + root phenotypes. Phylogenetic analysis and the estimates of evolutionary divergence, using partial sequences (210 nt) of the coat protein gene, revealed that in Rwanda there is one type of CBSV and an indication of diverse UCBSV. This study is the first to report the occurrence and distribution of both CBSV and UCBSV based on molecular techniques in Rwanda.

  20. Transgenic sweet potato expressing thionin from barley gives resistance to black rot disease caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata in leaves and storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramoto, Nobuhiko; Tanaka, Tomoko; Shimamura, Takashi; Mitsukawa, Norihiro; Hori, Etsuko; Koda, Katsunori; Otani, Motoyasu; Hirai, Masana; Nakamura, Kenzo; Imaeda, Takao

    2012-06-01

    Black rot of sweet potato caused by pathogenic fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata severely deteriorates both growth of plants and post-harvest storage. Antimicrobial peptides from various organisms have broad range activities of killing bacteria, mycobacteria, and fungi. Plant thionin peptide exhibited anti-fungal activity against C. fimbriata. A gene for barley α-hordothionin (αHT) was placed downstream of a strong constitutive promoter of E12Ω or the promoter of a sweet potato gene for β-amylase of storage roots, and introduced into sweet potato commercial cultivar Kokei No. 14. Transgenic E12Ω:αHT plants showed high-level expression of αHT mRNA in both leaves and storage roots. Transgenic β-Amy:αHT plants showed sucrose-inducible expression of αHT mRNA in leaves, in addition to expression in storage roots. Leaves of E12Ω:αHT plants exhibited reduced yellowing upon infection by C. fimbriata compared to leaves of non-transgenic Kokei No. 14, although the level of resistance was weaker than resistance cultivar Tamayutaka. Storage roots of both E12Ω:αHT and β-Amy:αHT plants exhibited reduced lesion areas around the site inoculated with C. fimbriata spores compared to Kokei No. 14, and some of the transgenic lines showed resistance level similar to Tamayutaka. Growth of plants and production of storage roots of these transgenic plants were not significantly different from non-transgenic plants. These results highlight the usefulness of transgenic sweet potato expressing antimicrobial peptide to reduce damages of sweet potato from the black rot disease and to reduce the use of agricultural chemicals.

  1. Selection of morphoagronomic descriptors for the characterization of accessions of cassava of the Eastern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R S; Moura, E F; Farias-Neto, J T; Ledo, C A S; Sampaio, J E

    2017-04-13

    The aim of this study was to select morphoagronomic descriptors to characterize cassava accessions representative of Eastern Brazilian Amazonia. It was characterized 262 accessions using 21 qualitative descriptors. The multiple-correspondence analysis (MCA) technique was applied using the criteria: contribution of the descriptor in the last factorial axis of analysis in successive cycles (SMCA); reverse order of the descriptor's contribution in the last factorial axis of analysis with all descriptors ('O'´p') of Jolliffe's method; mean of the contribution orders of the descriptor in the first three factorial axes in the analysis with all descriptors ('Os') together with ('O'´p'); and order of contribution of weighted mean in the first three factorial axes in the analysis of all descriptors ('Oz'). The dissimilarity coefficient was measured by the method of multicategorical variables. The correlation among the matrix generated with all descriptors and matrices based on each criteria varied (r = 0.21, r = 0.97, r = 0.98, r = 0.13 for SMCA, 'Os', 'Oz' and 'O'´p', respectively). The least informative descriptors were discarded independently and according to both 'Os' and 'Oz' criteria. Thirteen descriptors were capable to discriminate the accessions and to represent the morphological variability of accessions sampled in Brazilian Eastern Amazonia: color of apical leaves, petiole color, color of stem exterior, external color of storage root, color of stem cortex, color of root pulp, texture of root epidermis, color of leaf vein, color of stem epidermis, color of end branches of adult plant, branching habit, root shape, and constriction of root.

  2. the whitefly vector of cassava mosaic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All rights reserved. BEMISIA TABACI: THE WHITEFLY VECTOR OF CASSAVA MOSAIC. GEMINIVIRUSES IN AFRICA: AN ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE. J. P. LEGG ... amplified polymorphic DNA obtained via the ..... Association between cassava whitefly adult numbers and cassava green mite damage on five month old.

  3. 215 ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF CASSAVA PRODUCTION (A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2010-06-01

    Jun 1, 2010 ... ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF CASSAVA PRODUCTION (A CASE STUDY OF. KUJE AREA COUNCIL FEDERAL ... transportation were found to be affecting cassava production in the area. It was recommended ... of the Federal Government policy on cassava production for both local and international.

  4. Better cassava boosts food security | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... IDRC 's LASTING IMPACTS > FOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITION · Cassava: A hardy vegetable that feeds millions · Decades of cassava research bear fruit · Restoring cassava production in Uganda · International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) · Agriculture and Food Security Program · IDRC Digital ...

  5. Enhancing the biodegradation process of cassava ( Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels have been implicated in serious environmental pollution. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of N.P.K (15:15:15) and microbial inoculants on the biodegradation process of cassava peels. Fresh cassava peels were subjected to biodegradation process for twenty weeks.

  6. Limitations of Cassava Bacterial Blight: New Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo López

    2006-07-01

    genomics. The acquired knowledge in the last years for this pathosystem will help to establish better disease control strategies and generate, in a short term, resistant cassava varieties contributing to solve one of the main problems of poor cassava farmers and this effort will open a new horizon to the cassava crop in the world.

  7. Cassava green mite intervention technologies | Yaninek | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar) (Acari: Tetranychidae), became a conspicuous pest of cassava soon after its accidental introduction into Africa in the early 1970s. It has since spread across the entire cassava belt of the continent causing an estimated 30 to 80 percent reduction in yield and ...

  8. Determinants Of Adoption Of Improved Cassava Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were used to analyse the field data The identified cassava production technologies at different stages of adoption by the respondents are use of improved cassava cuttings, use of herbicides/pesticides, Alternate row/crop geometry in a cassava /maize/yam intercrop, ...

  9. Cassava production and consumption: Health implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr A. O. Akinpelu

    The paper examined health issues on production and consumption of cassava. It was revealed that production of ... cassava is both conservable and transportable over long distances. Cassava (Manihot .... A farmer loses on the average 22 working days when incapacitated by one sickness or the other per time (Ugwu,.

  10. Gene-based microsatellites for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): prevalence, polymorphisms, and cross-taxa utility

    OpenAIRE

    Ugwu Chike D; Kolade Olufisayo A; Anderson James V; Raji Adebola AJ; Dixon Alfred GO; Ingelbrecht Ivan L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a larger number of polymorphic SSRs for germplasm characterization and breeding applications. Results A total of 846 putative microsatellites were identified in silico from an 8,577 ca...

  11. Irradiation effects on color and functional properties of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. folium) leaf extract and licorice (Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fischer) root extract during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Son, J.H.; Shin, M.G.; Byun, M.W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2003-06-01

    Irradiation effects on color and functional properties of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. folium) leaf extract and licorice (Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fischer) root extract were studied. Persimmon leaf and licorice root extracts were irradiated using {sup 60}Co gamma irradiator at 0 and 20 kGy absorbed dose and stored at 4 deg. C or -20 deg. C for 2 weeks. Tyrosinase inhibition effect (TIE) of both extracts was not different by 20 kGy-irradiation but reduced during storage. Electron donating ability (EDA) of the persimmon leaf extract was generally consistent, but that of licorice root extract was reduced by irradiation except for 1 week of storage. Both TIE and EDA of persimmon leaf extract were higher than that of licorice root. Hunter color L*-, a*-, and b*-values were changed, resulting in a desirable brighter color by irradiation. During storage, the bright yellow color of irradiated sample changed to brown gradually, and especially the changes in the refrigeration condition (4 deg. C) was faster than frozen (-20 deg. C). Results indicate that irradiation can be a useful method to produce value-added natural ingredients with functions such as persimmon leaf or licorice root for food or cosmetic industry in addition to elimination of microbial load.

  12. Development of starter culture for improved processing of Lafun, an African fermented cassava food product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padonou, S.W.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Akissoe, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To select appropriate micro-organisms to be used as starter culture for reliable and reproducible fermentation of Lafun. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 22 cultures consisting of yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bacillus cereus strains predominant in traditionally fermented cassava...... during Lafun processing were tested as potential starter cultures. In an initial screening, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22, Lactobacillus fermentum 2L48P21, Lactobacillus plantarum 1L48P35 and B. cereus 2B24P31 were found to be the most promising of the cultures and were subsequently tested...... in different combinations as mixed starter cultures to ferment submerged cassava roots. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inoculated singly or combined with B. cereus, gave the softest cassava root after 48 h of fermentation according to determination of compression profile and stress at fracture. Overall, sensory...

  13. Phosphorus effects on the mycelium and storage structures of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus as studied in the soil and roots by analysis of fatty acid signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, P.A.; Bååth, E.; Jakobsen, I.

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus between soil and roots, and between mycelial and storage structures, was studied by use of the fatty acid signature 16:1 omega 5. Increasing the soil phosphorus level resulted in a decrease in the level of the fatty acid 16:1 omega 5...... in the soil and roots. A similar decrease was detected by microscopic measurements of root colonization and of the length of AM fungal hyphae in the soil. The fatty acid 16:1 omega 5 was estimated from two types of lipids, phospholipids and neutral lipids, which mainly represent membrane lipids and storage...... lipids, respectively. The numbers of spores of the AM fungus formed in the soil correlated most closely, with neutral lipid fatty acid 16:1 omega 5, whereas the hyphal length in the soil correlated most closely with phospholipid fatty acid 16:1 omega 5. The fungal neutral lipid/phospholipid ratio...

  14. Comparison of leaf proteomes of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Feifei; Fan, Jie; Li, Jun; Li, Qing X; Li, Kaimian; Zhu, Wenli; Wen, Feng; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Chen, Songbi

    2014-01-01

    Cassava polyploid breeding has drastically improved our knowledge on increasing root yield and its significant tolerance to stresses. In polyploid cassava plants, increases in DNA content highly affect cell volumes and anatomical structures. However, the mechanism of this effect is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare and validate the changes between cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid at proteomic levels. The results showed that leaf proteome of cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid was clearly differentiated from its autotetraploid genotype using 2-DE combined MS technique. Sixty-five differential protein spots were seen in 2-DE image of autotetraploid genotype in comparison with that of diploid. Fifty-two proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, of which 47 were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in autotetraploid genotype compared with diploid genotype. The classified functions of 32 up-regulated proteins were associated with photosynthesis, defense system, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) metabolism, protein biosynthesis, chaperones, amino acid metabolism and signal transduction. The remarkable variation in photosynthetic activity, HCN content and resistance to salt stress between diploid and autotetraploid genotypes is closely linked with expression levels of proteomic profiles. The analysis of protein interaction networks indicated there are direct interactions between the 15 up-regulation proteins involved in the pathways described above. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of cassava polyploid genotype, and gives a clue to improve cassava polyploidy breeding in increasing photosynthesis and resistance efficiencies.

  15. Genetic modification of cassava for enhanced starch production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihemere, Uzoma; Arias-Garzon, Diana; Lawrence, Susan; Sayre, Richard

    2006-07-01

    To date, transgenic approaches to biofortify subsistence crops have been rather limited. This is particularly true for the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Cassava has one of the highest rates of CO(2) fixation and sucrose synthesis for any C3 plant, but rarely reaches its yield potentials in the field. It was our hypothesis that starch production in cassava tuberous roots could be increased substantially by increasing the sink strength for carbohydrate. To test this hypothesis, we generated transgenic plants with enhanced tuberous root ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) activity. This was achieved by expressing a modified form of the bacterial glgC gene under the control of a Class I patatin promoter. AGPase catalyses the rate-limiting step in starch biosynthesis, and therefore the expression of a more active bacterial form of the enzyme was expected to lead to increased starch production. To facilitate maximal AGPase activity, we modified the Escherichia coli glgC gene (encoding AGPase) by site-directed mutagenesis (G336D) to reduce allosteric feedback regulation by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Transgenic plants (three) expressing the glgC gene had up to 70% higher AGPase activity than control plants when assayed under conditions optimal for plant and not bacterial AGPase activity. Plants having the highest AGPase activities had up to a 2.6-fold increase in total tuberous root biomass when grown under glasshouse conditions. In addition, plants with the highest tuberous root AGPase activity had significant increases in above-ground biomass, consistent with a possible reduction in feedback inhibition on photosynthetic carbon fixation. These results demonstrate that targeted modification of enzymes regulating source-sink relationships in crop plants having high carbohydrate source strengths is an effective strategy for increasing carbohydrate yields in sink tissues.

  16. Stability of cassava flour-based food bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Caroline da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of Brazilian cassava has been reduced due to a lack of adjustment to the modern lifestyle. To reverse this trend, new products could be developed specifically targeted to high-value niche markets. Cereal bars stand out as fast food high in nutritional value. A bar formula mimicking cereal bars was prepared using a mixture of Brazilian cassava flour, hydrogenated vegetable fat, dried bananas, ground cashew nuts, and glucose syrup. After being pressed, the bars were dried for 1 hour at 65 °C, packaged in films, and stored under ambient conditions. Its stability was continuously monitored for 210 days in order to ensure its safety and enable its introduction to the market. Texture loss was observed in the packed bars after 90 days of storage, but the sensory characteristics allowed the testers to perceive this tendency after only 30 days of storage. However, chemical, physical, and microbial analyses confirmed that the bars were safe for consumption for 180 days. The results showed that a 45 g cassava flour-based bar enriched with nuts and dried fruits can meet 6% of the recommended daily fiber intake with a caloric value between that of the common cereal bar and that of an energy bar. Adapting the formula with ingredients (fruits, nuts from different regions of Brazil may add value to this traditional product as a fast food.

  17. Cleaning cassava genotypes infected with cassava frogskin disease via in vitro shoot tip culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M J S; Oliveira, E J; Souza, A S; Pereira, J S; Diamantino, M S A S; Oliveira, S A S

    2017-05-31

    This study aimed to develop a methodology for eliminating cassava frogskin disease (CFSD) from in vitro shoot tip culture by associating thermotherapy and tetracycline. Cuttings from different accessions (BGM0232, BGM0315, BGM0464, BGM584, BGM0841, and BGM1342), infected with CFSD according to visual inspection of the disease symptoms, were used for cleaning. To verify the absence of other diseases, the plants were indexed for Cassava common mosaic virus - CsCMV (by ELISA) and Cassava vein mosaic virus - CsVMV (by polymerase chain reaction, PCR), proving that the accessions were free of these viruses, except for BGM0315 and BGM0464, which were infected with CsVMV. Subsequently, the cuttings were submitted to different tetracycline concentrations for 3 min, and then subjected to thermotherapy under different temperatures (35°, 38°, 40°, 45°, and 55°C). Shoots of 2 cm were harvested, and their surfaces were sterilized in a laminar flow chamber. Subsequently, the shoot tips of different sizes were removed (0.2, 0.4, 0.5, and 1.0 mm) for inoculation in a culture medium with tetracycline at the same concentrations in which the cuttings were dipped. After 60 days of cultivation, the explants were transferred to a multiplication medium without antibiotics. Thirty days after the transfer, the viability of the regenerated plants was evaluated, which were then acclimatized for 70 days in a greenhouse and transferred to the field. After 7 months, a visual analysis of the symptomatic roots and a PCR analysis were held to prove the elimination of CFSD and CsVMV from the accessions infected with these viruses (BGM0315 and BGM0464), respectively. Most of the treatments resulted in 100% cleaning of CFSD-infected plants. From accessions that were also infected with CsVMV, only 2% of the plants remained infected, also demonstrating the cleaning efficiency of this protocol for this disease.

  18. A Comparative Study of Some Properties of Cassava and Tree Cassava Starch Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belibi, P. C.; Daou, T. J.; Ndjaka, J. M. B.; Nsom, B.; Michelin, L.; Durand, B.

    Cassava and tree cassava starch films plasticized with glycerol were produced by casting method. Different glycerol contents (30, 35, 40 and 45 wt. % on starch dry basis) were used and the resulting films were fully characterized. Their water barrier and mechanical properties were compared. While increasing glycerol concentration, moisture content, water solubility, water vapour permeability, tensile strength, percent elongation at break and Young's modulus decreased for both cassava and tree cassava films. Tree cassava films presented better values of water vapour permeability, water solubility and percent elongation at break compared to those of cassava films, regardless of the glycerol content.

  19. Post-harvest conservation of organic strawberries coated with cassava starch and chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel P Campos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is as non-climacteric fruit, but has a high post-harvest respiration rate, which leads to a rapid deterioration at room temperature. This study aimed to evaluate the application of biodegradable coating on postharvest conservation of organic strawberries, cv. Camarosa, packed in plastic hinged boxes and stored at 10ºC. The treatments consisted of: a control; b 2% cassava starch; c 1% chitosan; and d 2% cassava starch + 1% chitosan. Physical and chemical characteristics of fruits were evaluated at 3, 6 and 9 days of storage, and microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out at the end of the storage period. The treatments influenced positively the post-harvest quality of organic strawberries. The coating cassava starch + chitosan provided the best results, with less than 6% of loss in fruit mass, lower counts of yeast and psychrophilic microorganisms and the best appearance according to the sensory analysis.

  20. Diallel analysis of provitamin A carotenoid and dry matter content in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esuma, Williams; Kawuki, Robert S.; Herselman, Liezel; Labuschagne, Maryke Tine

    2016-01-01

    Global efforts are underway to biofortify cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with provitamin A carotenoids to help combat dietary vitamin A deficiency afflicting the health of more than 500 million resource-poor people in Sub-Saharan Africa. To further the biofortification initiative in Uganda, a 6×6 diallel analysis was conducted to estimate combining ability of six provitamin A clones and gene actions controlling total carotenoid content (TCC), dry matter content (DMC) in cassava roots and other relevant traits. Fifteen F1 families generated from the diallel crosses were evaluated in two environments using a randomized complete block design. General combining ability (GCA) effects were significant for TCC and DMC, suggesting the relative importance of additive gene effects in controlling these traits in cassava. On the other hand, non-additive effects were predominant for root and shoot weight. MH02-073HS, with the highest level of TCC, was the best general combiner for TCC while NASE 3, a popular white-fleshed variety grown by farmers in Uganda, was the best general combiner for DMC. Such progenitors with superior GCA effects could form the genetic source for future programs targeting cassava breeding for TCC and DMC. A negative correlation was observed between TCC and DMC, which will require breeding strategies to combine both traits for increased adoption of provitamin A cassava varieties. PMID:27795688

  1. Diallel analysis of provitamin A carotenoid and dry matter content in cassava (Manihot esculentaCrantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esuma, Williams; Kawuki, Robert S; Herselman, Liezel; Labuschagne, Maryke Tine

    2016-09-01

    Global efforts are underway to biofortify cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) with provitamin A carotenoids to help combat dietary vitamin A deficiency afflicting the health of more than 500 million resource-poor people in Sub-Saharan Africa. To further the biofortification initiative in Uganda, a 6×6 diallel analysis was conducted to estimate combining ability of six provitamin A clones and gene actions controlling total carotenoid content (TCC), dry matter content (DMC) in cassava roots and other relevant traits. Fifteen F 1 families generated from the diallel crosses were evaluated in two environments using a randomized complete block design. General combining ability (GCA) effects were significant for TCC and DMC, suggesting the relative importance of additive gene effects in controlling these traits in cassava. On the other hand, non-additive effects were predominant for root and shoot weight. MH02-073HS, with the highest level of TCC, was the best general combiner for TCC while NASE 3, a popular white-fleshed variety grown by farmers in Uganda, was the best general combiner for DMC. Such progenitors with superior GCA effects could form the genetic source for future programs targeting cassava breeding for TCC and DMC. A negative correlation was observed between TCC and DMC, which will require breeding strategies to combine both traits for increased adoption of provitamin A cassava varieties.

  2. Nuclear and related techniques in the improvement of traditional fermentation processing of cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    Cassava, a starchy, cyanide-containing tuber root grown throughout the tropical areas, is one of the world's important food staples. The cassava root is very low in protein: its typical content for many cultivars is around one or two percent and thus is completely unable to provide the consumer with sufficient protein. The main goal of the Agency's Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Nuclear Techniques in the Improvement of Traditional Fermentation Practice in Developing Countries with Particular Emphasis on Cassava'' was to assist researchers from the tropical countries in the development of the techniques utilizing ionizing radiation for producing genetically improved mutants of the cassava-fermenting microorganisms with high abilities to eliminate poisonous glucosides and to increase the yield of desired nutrients to the fermented end-product. This document consists of fourteen final reports submitted by the scientists concerned to the final RCM as well as discussion materials covering main approaches to the problem of the improvement of traditional reprocessing of cassava, such as general microbiological aspects of the fermentation process and the genetic improvement of the selected specific microorganisms with the help of classical microbial mutagenesis methods and modern molecular gene-engineering techniques and tools. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Performance of High-Yielding Cassava Varieties in Terms of Quantity of Gari per Unit of Labor in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshiunza, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the quantifies of gari produced per unit of labor from high-yielding and local varieties of cassava in Nigeria. Gari is a cassava-based granule obtained by roasting fermented cassava paste. It is widely consumed in Nigeria and many other West African countries. The results of the study show that, although high-yielding cassava varieties are superior to local varieties in terms of fresh roots per unit area, the difference in terms of gari (kg per unit labor (person-day between the two is not significant. This is due to high labor requirements for transportation and processing activities incurred by high-yielding varieties. The study further indicates a negative relationship between the adoption of high-yielding cassava varieties and distance to fields, the use of headload/backload as transportation means, and lack of processing machines in the village. This means that farmers are less likely to adopt high-yielding varieties of cassava where transportation and processing activities of cassava are carried out manually.

  4. Characterization of Acylated Anthocyanins in Callus Induced From Storage Root of Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potato, Ipomoea batatas L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terahara, N.

    2004-01-01

    Four anthocyanins were isolated from a highly pigmented callus induced from the storage root of purple-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L) cultivar Ayamurasaki. The anthocyanins were respectively identified as cyanidin 3-O-(2-O-(6-O-(E)-caffeoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside) -5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, cyanidin 3-O-(2-O-(6-O-(E)-p -coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(E)-caffeoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside)-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, cyanidin 3-O-(2-O-(6-O-(E)-p -coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside)- 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and peonidin 3-O-(2-O-(6-O-(E)-p -coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside)-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside by chemical and spectroscopic analyses. These anthocyanins were examined with respect to the stability in neutral aqueous solution as well as the radical scavenging activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. These acylated anthocyanins exhibited both higher stability and higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than corresponding nonacylated cyanidin and peonidin 3-O-sophoroside-5-O-glucosides. PMID:15577190

  5. Bioethanol production from cassava peels using different microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioethanol production from cassava peels using different microbial inoculants. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Abstract. The potential of bioethanol production using different microbial inoculants for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava peels from three cassava cultivars was investigated.

  6. Overexpression of the transporters AtZIP1 and AtMTP1 in cassava changes zinc accumulation and partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eGaitan-Solis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Zinc deficiency in humans is a serious problem worldwide with an estimated one third of populations at risk for insufficient zinc in diet which leads to impairment of cognitive abilities and immune system function. The goal of this research was to increase the bioavailable zinc in the edible portion of cassava roots to improve the overall zinc nutrition of populations that rely on cassava as a dietary staple. To increase zinc concentrations, two A. thaliana genes coding for ZIP1 and MTP1 were overexpressed with a tuber-specific or constitutive promoter. Eighteen transgenic events from four constructs, out of a total of 73 events generated, showed significantly higher zinc concentrations in the edible portion of the storage root compared to the non-transgenic controls. The zinc content in the transgenic lines ranged from 4 - 73 mg/Kg Dry Weight (DW as compared to the non-transgenic control which contained 8 mg/Kg. Striking changes in whole plant phenotype such as smaller plant size and chlorotic leaves were observed in transgenic lines that over accumulated zinc. In a confined field trial five transgenic events grown for 12 months showed a range of zinc concentrations from 18 – 217 mg/Kg DW. Although the overexpression of zinc transporters was successful in increasing the zinc concentrations in 25% of the transgenic lines generated, it also resulted in a decrease in plant and tuber size and overall yield due to what appears to be zinc deficiency in the aerial parts of the plant.

  7. Alternate hosts of African cassava mosaic virus and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Ogbe, Francis O; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Lava Kumar, P; Dixon, Alfred G O; Hughes, Jaqueline d'A; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2008-01-01

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) caused by African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV) is the major constraint to cassava production in Nigeria. Sequences of the DNA-A component of ACMV and EACMCV isolates from leguminous plant species (Senna occidentalis, Leucana leucocephala and Glycine max), castor oil plant (Ricinus communis), a weed host (Combretum confertum) and a wild species of cassava (Manihot glaziovii) were determined. All ACMV isolates from these hosts showed 96-98% nucleotide sequence identity with cassava isolates from West Africa. EACMCV was found only in four hosts (S. occidentalis, L. leucocephala, C. confertum, M. glaziovii), and sequences of these isolates showed 96-99% identity with cassava isolates from West Africa. These results provide definitive evidence for the natural occurrence of ACMV and EACMCV in plant species besides cassava.

  8. 147__Sale_Cassava1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A total of 36 samples of Cassava flour were randomly collected inside clean polythene bag at each point of sale in three (3) major markets in Zaria, these are: Samaru, Sabon Gari and Zaria City Markets and transported to the laboratory for the department of microbiology Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria for further analysis.

  9. Resistant starch in cassava products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Letícia Buzati Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Found in different foods, starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the diet. Some factors present in starchy foods influence the rate at which the starch is hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. Due the importance of cassava products in Brazilian diet, the objective of this study was to analyze total starch, resistant starch, and digestible starch contents in commercial cassava products. Thirty three commercial cassava products from different brands, classifications, and origin were analyzed. The method used for determination of resistant starch consisted of an enzymatic process to calculate the final content of resistant starch considering the concentration of glucose released and analyzed. The results showed significant differences between the products. Among the flours and seasoned flours analyzed, the highest levels of resistant starch were observed in the flour from Bahia state (2.21% and the seasoned flour from Paraná state (1.93%. Starch, tapioca, and sago showed levels of resistant starch ranging from 0.56 to 1.1%. The cassava products analyzed can be considered good sources of resistant starch; which make them beneficial products to the gastrointestinal tract.

  10. Effects of Molasses and Storage Period on the Chemical, Microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of molasses and storage periods on the chemical composition, microbial and fermentation characteristics of silage produced from guinea grass and cassava leaves mixture. Guinea grass was harvested at 2 months regrowth from an established pasture and cassava tops ...

  11. Effect of partial replacement of dietary maize with cassava peel meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary cassava peel meal (CPM) inclusion in partial replacement for maize on egg quality characteristics during storage was investigated in this study. In a completely randomized design, ISA brown pullets (n=3,000) aged 20-week were assigned to three dietary treatments. Diets A, B, C contained CPM at 0, 10 and ...

  12. Comparison of three cyanogen assays for total cyanogens in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saka, J.D.K.; Mhone, A.R.K.; Brimer, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity and reproducibility of three methods for determining the total cyanogenic potential (CNp) of 7 fresh and processed cassava varieties were determined and compared. The total cyanogen content of fresh cassava roots and three cassava products (kondowole, makaka, and starch) were...... analysed by the acid hydrolysis, microdiffusion with solid state detection and Cooke's enzymatic assays. The total cyanogen contents of the cassava, obtained by the three methods were not significantly different (p....3+or-0.4 and 20.4+or-1.4 mg HCN eq. kg-1 fresh weight by Cooke's, acid hydrolysis and solid state methods, respectively. However, at very low cyanogen levels, less than 5 mg HCN eq. kg-1 fresh weight, the acid hydrolysis method overestimates by 3-5 times. Otherwise, their coefficients of variations...

  13. Effect of cassava leaf harvest on a cassava green mite predator in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of cassava leaf harvest on a cassava green mite predator in the Democratic Republic of Congo. K Tata-Hangy, R Hanna, M Toko, M Solo. Abstract. Typhlodromallus aripo, a predatory phytoseiid species of the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa was introduced to the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1998.

  14. Plastidial α-glucan phosphorylase 1 complexes with disproportionating enzyme 1 in Ipomoea batatas storage roots for elevating malto-oligosaccharide metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chen; Chang, Shih-Chung; Juang, Rong-Huay

    2017-01-01

    It has been proposed that malto-oligosaccharides (MOSs) are possibly recycled back into amylopectin biosynthesis via the sequential reactions catalyzed by plastidial α-glucan phosphorylase 1 (Pho1) and disproportionating enzyme 1 (Dpe1). In the present study, the reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation experiments using specific antibodies against Pho1 and Dpe1 demonstrated that these two enzymes can form a complex (the PD complex) in Ipomoea batatas storage roots. The immunohistochemistry analyses also revealed the co-localization of Pho1 and Dpe1 in the amyloplasts, and the protein levels of Pho1 and Dpe1 increased gradually throughout sweet potato storage root development. A high molecular weight PD complex was co-purified from sweet potato storage root lysates by size exclusion chromatography. Enzyme kinetic analyses showed that the PD complex can catalyze maltotriose and maltotetraose to generate glucose-1-phosphate in the presence of inorganic phosphate, and it also performs greater Dpe1 activity toward MOSs than does free form Dpe1. These data suggest that Pho1 and Dpe1 may form a metabolon complex, which provides elevated metabolic fluxes for MOS metabolism via a direct transfer of sugar intermediates, resulting in recycling of glucosyl units back into amylopectin biosynthesis more efficiently.

  15. Plastidial α-glucan phosphorylase 1 complexes with disproportionating enzyme 1 in Ipomoea batatas storage roots for elevating malto-oligosaccharide metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chen; Chang, Shih-Chung; Juang, Rong-Huay

    2017-01-01

    It has been proposed that malto-oligosaccharides (MOSs) are possibly recycled back into amylopectin biosynthesis via the sequential reactions catalyzed by plastidial α-glucan phosphorylase 1 (Pho1) and disproportionating enzyme 1 (Dpe1). In the present study, the reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation experiments using specific antibodies against Pho1 and Dpe1 demonstrated that these two enzymes can form a complex (the PD complex) in Ipomoea batatas storage roots. The immunohistochemistry analyses also revealed the co-localization of Pho1 and Dpe1 in the amyloplasts, and the protein levels of Pho1 and Dpe1 increased gradually throughout sweet potato storage root development. A high molecular weight PD complex was co-purified from sweet potato storage root lysates by size exclusion chromatography. Enzyme kinetic analyses showed that the PD complex can catalyze maltotriose and maltotetraose to generate glucose-1-phosphate in the presence of inorganic phosphate, and it also performs greater Dpe1 activity toward MOSs than does free form Dpe1. These data suggest that Pho1 and Dpe1 may form a metabolon complex, which provides elevated metabolic fluxes for MOS metabolism via a direct transfer of sugar intermediates, resulting in recycling of glucosyl units back into amylopectin biosynthesis more efficiently. PMID:28472155

  16. UTILIZAÇÃO DA MANDIOCA (Manihot utilissima, Pohl CRUA NUM ESTUDO COMPARATIVO DE TRÊS DIETAS PARA SUÍNOS EM CRESCIMENTO-ENGORDA USE OF RAW CASSAVA ROOTS (Manihot utilissima POHL IN A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THREE SWINE GROWING AND FATTENING DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Eduardo Galvão

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente experimento foi conduzido na Escola Média de Agricultura de Florestal, Minas Gerais, com o fim de verificar a viabilidade do uso da mandioca (Manihot utilissima Pohl “in natura” em dietas de suínos em crescimento e engorda. Foram usados três tratamentos constituídos de mistura comercial para crescimento mais mandioca "in natura" (A, mistura comercial para engorda (B, fubá de milho (C recebendo todos verde à vontade. Em cada tratamento foram usados 10 animais mestiços com 133, 5 dias de idade e peso médio inicial de aproximadamente 26,1Kg. O experimento teve duração de 210 dias e os ganhos diários em peso foram de 0,451; 0,452 e 0,178 Kg, para os tratamentos A, B e C respectivamente. As análises de variância revelaram, que para ganhos em peso e espessura de toucinho, não houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre leitegadas e os tratamentos A e B, havendo porém (p < 0,01 entre tratamento C contra A e B. O tratamento contendo mandioca "in natura” revelou ser o mais econômico.

    An experiment was carried out at the Escola Média de Agricultura de Florestal, Minas Gerais, in order to verify the viability of cassava roots use (Manihot utilissima, Pohl ";in natura"; in growing and fattening swine diets. Three treatments were used, containing commercial mixture for fatteningswine (B, ground corn (C and all receiving para grass (Brachiaria mutica Stapf ";ad libitum";. In each treatment were used ten crossbred animals of 133,5 days and gains were 0,451; 0,452 and 0,178 kg for treatments A, B and C, respectively. The analysis of

  17. Status of cassava mosaic begomoviruses in farmers’ fields in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K. Torkpo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey for cassava mosaic disease (CMD was carried out in Ghana from 2007−2008 to determine the status of cassava mosaic begomoviruses in farmers’ fields. The survey covered cassava growing areas in five major cassava producing regions of Ghana. Out of 136 fields visited, the plants in 5% were not affected by CMD, 18% contained plants with mild symptoms, whereas 77% had cassava with moderately severe or severe symptoms. A total of 412 cassava leaf samples and a symptomatic Manihot glaziovii sample were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction. African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV alone was detected in 42.0% of symptomatic cassava leaves with the remaining 58% being mixed infected by ACMV and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV. Mixed ACMV and EACMV infections were detected in symptomatic M. glaziovii, two non-symptomatic cassava samples and in individual whitefly vectors. EACMV was not detected alone in any cassava or whitefly sample. South African cassava mosaic virus (SACMV, Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV, East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus (EACMZV and the Uganda strain of EACMV were not detected in any cassava or whitefly sample. The occurrence of high proportion of mixed infections of cassava by cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs, which could lead to emergence of new species or variants in the country, require concerted effort to mitigate the CMD problem.

  18. Environmental effects on growth and development of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz). I. Crop development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, B.A.; Evenson, J.P.; Fukai, S.

    1982-01-01

    Morphological development of serial plantings of the cassava cultivar M Aus 10, made over a year and each grown for 1 year duration, were studied with sequential harvests in the relatively high latitude (27 degrees 37'S) environment of SE Queensland, Australia under favourable moisture and nutritional conditions. The extent and timing of storage root initiation was relatively unaffected by the different temperature, solar radiation and photoperiod conditions associated with the different planting dates. Likewise, main stem and lateral branch number showed little variation either between planting dates or with time in any one planting. The time to first flowering and forking was substantially reduced for mid-summer planting dates, an effect being most likely related to the longer photo-periods of these months. Canopy development was also highly seasonal with leaf area indices ranging from above 10.0 in March and April for early planted crops to zero in the cooler months of August and September for all planting dates. (Refs. 26).

  19. Development and Identification of SSR Markers Associated with Starch Properties and β-Carotene Content in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhengdan; Tang, Daobin; Lv, Changwen; Luo, Kai; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xun; Huang, Yuanxin; Wang, Jichun

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a nutritious food crop and, based on the high starch content of its storage root, a potential bioethanol feedstock. Enhancing the nutritional value and starch quantity of storage roots are important goals of sweet potato breeding programs aimed at developing improved varieties for direct consumption, processing, and industrial uses. However, developing improved lines of sweet potato is challenging due to the genetic complexity of this plant and the lack of genome information. Short sequence repeat (SSR) markers are powerful molecular tools for tracking important loci in crops and for molecular-based breeding strategies; however, few SSR markers and marker-trait associations have hitherto been identified in sweet potato. In this study, we identified 1824 SSRs by using a de novo assembly of publicly available ESTs and mRNAs in sweet potato, and designed 1476 primer pairs based on SSR-containing sequences. We mapped 214 pairs of primers in a natural population comprised of 239 germplasms, and identified 1278 alleles with an average of 5.972 alleles per locus and a major allele frequency of 0.7702. Population structure analysis revealed two subpopulations in this panel of germplasms, and phenotypic characterization demonstrated that this panel is suitable for association mapping of starch-related traits. We identified 32, 16, and 17 SSR markers associated with starch content, β-carotene content, and starch composition in the storage root, respectively, using association analysis and further evaluation of a subset of sweet potato genotypes with various characteristics. The SSR markers identified here can be used to select varieties with desired traits and to investigate the genetic mechanism underlying starch and carotenoid formation in the starchy roots of sweet potato. PMID:26973669

  20. Development and Identification of SSR Markers Associated with Starch Properties and β-Carotene Content in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhengdan; Tang, Daobin; Lv, Changwen; Luo, Kai; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xun; Huang, Yuanxin; Wang, Jichun

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a nutritious food crop and, based on the high starch content of its storage root, a potential bioethanol feedstock. Enhancing the nutritional value and starch quantity of storage roots are important goals of sweet potato breeding programs aimed at developing improved varieties for direct consumption, processing, and industrial uses. However, developing improved lines of sweet potato is challenging due to the genetic complexity of this plant and the lack of genome information. Short sequence repeat (SSR) markers are powerful molecular tools for tracking important loci in crops and for molecular-based breeding strategies; however, few SSR markers and marker-trait associations have hitherto been identified in sweet potato. In this study, we identified 1824 SSRs by using a de novo assembly of publicly available ESTs and mRNAs in sweet potato, and designed 1476 primer pairs based on SSR-containing sequences. We mapped 214 pairs of primers in a natural population comprised of 239 germplasms, and identified 1278 alleles with an average of 5.972 alleles per locus and a major allele frequency of 0.7702. Population structure analysis revealed two subpopulations in this panel of germplasms, and phenotypic characterization demonstrated that this panel is suitable for association mapping of starch-related traits. We identified 32, 16, and 17 SSR markers associated with starch content, β-carotene content, and starch composition in the storage root, respectively, using association analysis and further evaluation of a subset of sweet potato genotypes with various characteristics. The SSR markers identified here can be used to select varieties with desired traits and to investigate the genetic mechanism underlying starch and carotenoid formation in the starchy roots of sweet potato.

  1. The use of biolistic inoculation of cassava mosaic begomoviruses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... The resistance/susceptibility of 5 cassava cultivars from Ghana to infectious clones of two cassava mosaic viruses (ACMV-[CM] and EACMV/ACMV-[CM]) was investigated in this study. Plantlets of cassava cultivars were obtained using nodal cuttings initiated from tissue culture. These cassava cultivars were ...

  2. Effects of different companion crops on the performance of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ibadan in 1998/1999 and 1999/2000 cropping seasons to determine the effects of different intercropping systems which included: sole cassava, cassava/maize, cassava/maize/sweet potato and cassava/cocoyam/sweet potato on the ...

  3. Physicochemical Properties of Fungal Detoxified Cassava Mash and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physicochemical properties of fungal detoxified cassava mash and sensory characteristics of wheat-detoxified cassava composite doughnuts were investigated. Fungal isolates from soils collected at cassava processing sites were isolated, quantified and identified. Cassava mash from grated tuber was partially ...

  4. Case of escape in cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, N M A; Mendonza, M

    2017-02-08

    Two cassava escapes where collected from cultivated fields near natural habitat in Bolivia. They are described morphologically and analyzed cytogenetically in this study. It is suggested that they are the product of backcrosses of cassava interspecific hybrids with the cultigen itself, and that selective conditions have developed in which certain forms of cassava segregates have adapted to grow wildly in natural habitats near cassava fields. These segregates may hybridize with cultivated cassava upon coming in contact with such varieties. Because these escapes have incorporated useful genes from the wild into their genetic structure, they could be used for cassava improvement since their genetic barriers with other forms of cassava are very weak.

  5. Exploring the African cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic-embryogenic competence of eleven cassava genotypes was determined in induction media containing 8 and 12 mg/l of the auxin picloram, using axillary meristems and leaf lobes as explants. There were significant differences (p<0.01) among the cassava genotypes for ability to form somatic embryos. Proembryo ...

  6. Cassava household expenditure and anthropometric indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to verify the myth associated with cassava, that high consumption causes malnutrition, anthropometric measurements of 445 preschool children aged 0 - 5 years in 90 randomly selected farm households of cassava growing areas of Imo State were undertaken. Growth deviations (Z – scores) were calculated ...

  7. Variety Characteristics And Cassava Adoption Among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variety Characteristics And Cassava Adoption Among Rural Households In Imo State. DO Onu, DO Ohajianya. Abstract. This study investigated the factors contributing to low levels of adoption of improved cassava varieties in Imo State. A sample of 120 respondents was randomly selected for the study and interviewed ...

  8. Determinants of improved cassava processing technologies' (ICPT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of improved cassava processing technologies' (ICPT) utilization among rural processors in Oyo State. ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... Abstract. The study examined the factors determining the utilization of Improved Cassava Processing Technologies (ICPTs) in Oyo State, Nigeria.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF FOOD SAFETY PRACTICES AMONG CASSAVA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philips Olusola

    Inferential analysis of results shows that income contributed significantly to the cassava .... food safety practices and the income (p = 0.04) of respondents. ..... Internet Journal of. Food Safety. 2011; 13: 191-197. 19. UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization) Master plan on Cassava development in Nigeria ...

  10. Adoption Of Cassava Production Technologies Among Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings from the study revealed that the awareness level on cassava production technologies was low (36.9%) and adoption level was also low (21.6%). The study identified 5 important constraints to the adoption of cassava production technologies. These are: inadequate fund, high cost of technologies, inadequate land ...

  11. Antagonistic properties of microogranisms associated with cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antagonistic properties of indigenous microflora from cassava starch, flour and grated cassava were investigated using the conventional streak, novel ring and well diffusion methods. Antagonism was measured by zone of inhibition between the fungal plug and bacterial streak/ring. Bacillus species were more effective ...

  12. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results showed that almost all modified starches were resistant to syneresis, produced pastes more stable to stirred cooking, and some of them were difficult to cook. The sour cassava starches presented high acidity and resulted in clear and unstable pastes during stirred cooking, susceptible to syneresis.

  13. An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziska, Lewis H.; Tomecek, Martha; Sicher, Richard [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Systems and Global Change Lab, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Building 1, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Runion, G. Brett; Prior, Stephen A.; Torbet, H. Allen [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Soil Dynamics Laboratory, 411 South Donahue Drive, Auburn, AL 36832 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassava (Manihot esculentum) at locations near Auburn, Alabama and Beltsville, Maryland in order to measure root carbohydrate (starch, sucrose, glucose) and root biomass. Averaged for both locations, sweet potato yielded the highest concentration of root carbohydrate (ca 80%), primarily in the form of starch (ca 50%) and sucrose (ca 30%); whereas cassava had root carbohydrate concentrations of (ca 55%), almost entirely as starch. For sweet potato, overall carbohydrate production was 9.4 and 12.7 Mg ha{sup -1} for the Alabama and Maryland sites, respectively. For cassava, carbohydrate production in Maryland was poor, yielding only 2.9 Mg ha{sup -1}. However, in Alabama, carbohydrate production from cassava averaged {proportional_to}10 Mg ha{sup -1}. Relative to carbohydrate production from corn in each location, sweet potato and cassava yielded approximately 1.5 x and 1.6 x as much carbohydrate as corn in Alabama; 2.3 x and 0.5 x for the Maryland site. If economical harvesting and processing techniques could be developed, these data suggest that sweet potato in Maryland, and sweet potato and cassava in Alabama, have greater potential as ethanol sources than existing corn systems, and as such, could be used to replace or offset corn as a source of biofuels. (author)

  14. Allocative Efficiency Analysys Production Function Of Cassava Farming (Manihot, Sp.) In Tenayan Raya Sub-District Of Pekanbaru City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, Rini; Nurwati, Niken; Amalia

    2017-12-01

    Cassava (Manihot sp) has long been known and cultivated by Indonesian farmers. The economic and social potential of cassava aside from foodstuffs can also be used as raw materials for industrial use and animal feed. In Riau Province, Cassva has the potential to be developed considering Cassva is a plant that can easily grow on low altitude to high altitude lands. Cassava does not need a complex maintenance. Conventionally, this plant can be planted and left alone by itself. Cassava roots can be developed to be a processed products that society needs as main foodstuffs ingredients. This research is done in three months and the purpose is to know the influence of input use (pesticide, seeds, fertilizers and labor) on cassava farming to cassava farming by the model of cobb-douglas. Other than that is also the effect on economical efficiency. The method used in this research is a quantitative research by using Cobb-Douglas Function Model. This research was done in the Tenayan Raya sub-district with 55 farmer samples. This research shows Cobb-Douglas Production Function can be used as the predictor for Cassava production function in Tenayan Raya Sub-district of Pekanbaru City. Altogether the production factor used by farmers influence production. Partially only usage of organic fertilizer that does not affect production, while other production factor such as, seeds, pesticides, an-organic fertilizer (urea) and labor affect production by quite a bit. Usage of production factor seeds, urea and pesticides is not yet efficient while usage of organic fertilizer is not efficient and usage of labor on cassava agriculture by respondent farmers is relatively efficient

  15. Minimum tillage for cassava production in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chindarat Chuenrung

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This research paper study on the comparison between no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT incorporated with 3 levels of nitrogen fertilizer application rate (0, 50 and 100 kg N/ha on the fresh root yield of cassava (var. Rayong 72. The field trial has been established since 2000 on the Satuk soil series (fine loamy, silicious, Oxic Paleustults Khon Kaen, Thailand. Under no-tillage practices, the physical soil properties were improved compared to the conventional tillage system and the original soil properties at the start of the trial. The soil structure parameters such as total porosity, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat increased in NT plot, whilst soil bulk density (ρb decreased compared to CT plot. Results indicated that the higher yield of fresh root of cassava was observed in the NT plot (P0.05. For the nitrogen application, the yield increased as nitrogen supply increased but the increment was not significant statistically (P>0.05.

  16. LCD and CRT display of storage phosphor plate and limited cone beam computed tomography images for the evaluation of root canal fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksi, B Güniz; Soğur, Elif; Gröndahl, Hans-Göran

    2009-03-01

    The aim was to compare quality of liquid crystal display (LCD) and high resolution cathode ray tube (CRT) screens for the evaluation of length and homogeneity of root canal fillings in storage phosphor plate (SPP) and limited cone beam computed tomography (LCBCT) images. Endodontic treatment was performed to 17 extracted permanent lower incisor teeth. Images of each tooth positioned in a dried mandible were obtained with Digora SPP and Accu-I-Tomo LCBCT systems. Six observers scored the quality of all images on CRT and LCD screens. Results were compared using McNemar's and Cochran's Q tests (p LCD displays (p > 0.05). Agreement among observers' scores was higher with CRT display. Within the limits of this ex vivo study, differences between LCD and CRT monitors for the evaluation of root canal fillings are clinically insignificant independent on whether conventional radiographs, captured by means of image plates, or cone beam images are being displayed.

  17. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the KUP Family under Abiotic Stress in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Wenjun; Mao, Xiang; Huang, Chao; Tie, Weiwei; Yan, Yan; Ding, Zehong; Wu, Chunlai; Xia, Zhiqiang; Wang, Wenquan; Zhou, Shiyi; Li, Kaimian; Hu, Wei

    2018-01-01

    KT/HAK/KUP (KUP) family is responsible for potassium ion (K+) transport, which plays a vital role in the response of plants to abiotic stress by maintaining osmotic balance. However, our understanding of the functions of the KUP family in the drought-resistant crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is limited. In the present study, 21 cassava KUP genes (MeKUPs) were identified and classified into four clusters based on phylogenetic relationships, conserved motifs, and gene structure analyses. Transcriptome analysis revealed the expression diversity of cassava KUPs in various tissues of three genotypes. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that the activation of MeKUP genes by drought was more in roots than that in leaves of Arg7 and W14 genotypes, whereas less in roots than that in leaves of SC124 variety. These findings indicate that different cassava genotypes utilize various drought resistance mechanism mediated by KUP genes. Specific KUP genes showed broad upregulation after exposure to salt, osmotic, cold, H2O2, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. Taken together, this study provides insights into the KUP-mediated drought response of cassava at transcription levels and identifies candidate genes that may be utilized in improving crop tolerance to abiotic stress. PMID:29416511

  18. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the KUP Family under Abiotic Stress in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Wenjun; Mao, Xiang; Huang, Chao; Tie, Weiwei; Yan, Yan; Ding, Zehong; Wu, Chunlai; Xia, Zhiqiang; Wang, Wenquan; Zhou, Shiyi; Li, Kaimian; Hu, Wei

    2018-01-01

    KT/HAK/KUP (KUP) family is responsible for potassium ion (K + ) transport, which plays a vital role in the response of plants to abiotic stress by maintaining osmotic balance. However, our understanding of the functions of the KUP family in the drought-resistant crop cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) is limited. In the present study, 21 cassava KUP genes ( MeKUPs ) were identified and classified into four clusters based on phylogenetic relationships, conserved motifs, and gene structure analyses. Transcriptome analysis revealed the expression diversity of cassava KUPs in various tissues of three genotypes. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that the activation of MeKUP genes by drought was more in roots than that in leaves of Arg7 and W14 genotypes, whereas less in roots than that in leaves of SC124 variety. These findings indicate that different cassava genotypes utilize various drought resistance mechanism mediated by KUP genes. Specific KUP genes showed broad upregulation after exposure to salt, osmotic, cold, H 2 O 2 , and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. Taken together, this study provides insights into the KUP -mediated drought response of cassava at transcription levels and identifies candidate genes that may be utilized in improving crop tolerance to abiotic stress.

  19. Identification, Expression, and Functional Analysis of the Fructokinase Gene Family in Cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fructokinase (FRK proteins play important roles in catalyzing fructose phosphorylation and participate in the carbohydrate metabolism of storage organs in plants. To investigate the roles of FRKs in cassava tuber root development, seven FRK genes (MeFRK1–7 were identified, and MeFRK1–6 were isolated. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the MeFRK family genes can be divided into α (MeFRK 1, 2, 6, 7 and β (MeFRK 3, 4, 5 groups. All the MeFRK proteins have typical conserved regions and substrate binding residues similar to those of the FRKs. The overall predicted three-dimensional structures of MeFRK1–6 were similar, folding into a catalytic domain and a β-sheet ‘‘lid” region, forming a substrate binding cleft, which contains many residues involved in the binding to fructose. The gene and the predicted three-dimensional structures of MeFRK3 and MeFRK4 were the most similar. MeFRK1–6 displayed different expression patterns across different tissues, including leaves, stems, tuber roots, flowers, and fruits. In tuber roots, the expressions of MeFRK3 and MeFRK4 were much higher compared to those of the other genes. Notably, the expression of MeFRK3 and MeFRK4 as well as the enzymatic activity of FRK were higher at the initial and early expanding tuber stages and were lower at the later expanding and mature tuber stages. The FRK activity of MeFRK3 and MeFRK4 was identified by the functional complementation of triple mutant yeast cells that were unable to phosphorylate either glucose or fructose. The gene expression and enzymatic activity of MeFRK3 and MeFRK4 suggest that they might be the main enzymes in fructose phosphorylation for regulating the formation of tuber roots and starch accumulation at the tuber root initial and expanding stages.

  20. Variação de carboidratos e ácido cianídrico em raízes de mandioca, após a poda da parte aérea Carbohydrates and hydrocyanic acid variation in cassava roots which aereal portions were totally pruned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Osmar Lorenzi

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados resultados do estudo da variação de matéria seca, HCN, amido, carboidratos solúveis totais e açúcares redutores em raízes de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz nos dias que sucederam à poda ou remoção total da parte aérea. Na amostragem foi utilizado o método convencional: raízes tomadas ao acaso e representativas da população. Diferentes tipos de raízes (da base e meio da maniva e da base das hastes coletadas 17 dias após a poda apresentaram teores de carboidratos bem diferentes, seja pela mobi-lização mais acentuada de reservas, seja pela sua constituição originalmente diversa, o que sugere pesquisas mais detalhadas sobre o método de amostragem das raízes para análise de laboratório. Verificou-se que, num período de quatorze dias após a poda de plantas com treze meses de idade e em época quente e chuvosa, as transformações mais profundas ocorreram no teor de amido, que decresceu de 79,06% para 62,52%, e nos carboidratos solúveis totais e açúcares redutores, que tiveram um incremento na matéria seca das raízes, respectiva-mente de 7,65% e 1,55% para 17,56% e 5,03%. 0 teor de carboidratos totais foi pouco afetado pela poda, Indicando perda pequena destinada a nova brotação ou a outros processos fisiológicos. O teor de HCN decresceu de 67 para 35 ppm.Data are presented on the variation of the level of dry matter, cyanide, starch, total soluble carbohydrates, and reducing sugars content in roots of 13 months old cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz at successive stages after the total removal of the aereal portions. During the 14 days following pruning starch percentage decreased from 79.06% to 62.52%; total soluble carbohydrates and reducing sugars showed a variation from 7.65% and 1.55% up to 17.56% and 5.03% respectively. Total carbohydrate presented small losses by pruning probably due to the new sprouting process. Root cyanid content decreased from 67 to 35 ppm. Its has also been observed

  1. The effect of cassava and corn flour utilization on the physicochemical characteristics of cassava leaves snack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarsari, I.; Endrasari, R.; Oktaningrum, G. N.

    2018-01-01

    Cassava leaves are nutritious vegetable, but often regarded as an inferior commodity. One of the efforts increasing in the benefit of cassava leaves is through processing it into snack. In order to support the food diversification program and to reduce the dependence on imported commodities, the development of cassava leaves snack could be accompanied by optimizing the use of local materials to minimize the use of wheat flour. The aim of this assessment was to learn the effects of cassava and corn flour substitution on the physicochemical characteristics of cassava-leaves snack. The substitution of local flour (cassava and corn) on the snack production was carried on three levels at 15, 30, and 45%. A control treatment was using 100% wheat flour. The results showed that cassava and corn flour were potential to substitute wheat flour for making cassava-leaves snack. The substitution of cassava and corn flour as much as 45% was able to produce crispy products with a brighter color. The substitution of corn flour was resulting in snacks with the lower content of lipid than the other substitution snacks.

  2. Genetic transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H Q; Sautter, C; Potrykus, I; Puonti-Kaerlas, J

    1996-06-01

    Genetic engineering can be used to complement traditional breeding methods in crop plant improvement. Transfer of genes from heterologous species provides the means of selectively introducing new traits into crop plants and expanding the gene pool beyond what has been available to traditional breeding systems. The prerequisites for genetic engineering are efficient transformation and tissue culture systems that allow selection and regeneration of transgenic plants. Cassava, an integral plant for food security in developing countries, has until now been recalcitrant to transformation approaches. We report here a method for regenerating stably transformed cassava plants after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which opens cassava for future improvement via biotechnology.

  3. Consumer’s market analysis of products based on cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unteawati, Bina; Fitriani; Fatih, Cholid

    2018-03-01

    Cassava product has the important role for enhancing household's income in rural. Cassava as raw material food is plentiful as local food in Lampung. Cassava product is one of strategic value addition activities. Value additional activities are a key to create income source enrichment in rural. The household was product cassava as a snack or additional food. Their product cassava was operated in small-scale, traditional, and discontinuous production. They have been lacked in technology, capital, and market access. Measurement the sustainability of their business is important. The market has driven the business globally. This research aims to (1) describe the cassava demand to locally product cassava in rural and (2) analysis the consumer's perception of cassava product. Research take placed in Lampung Province, involved Bandar Lampung and Metro City, Pringsewu, Pesawaran, Central Lampung, and East Lampung district. It is held in February until April 2017. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistic and multidimensional scaling. Based on the analysis conclude that (1) the demand of product cassava from rural was massive in volume and regularity with the enormous transaction. This fact is very important to role business cycles. Consumers demand continuously will lead the production of cassava product sustain. Producers of product cassava will consume fresh cassava for the farmer. Consumption of fresh cassava for home industry regularly in rural will develop balancing in fresh cassava price in the farming gate (2) The consumer's perception on cassava product in the different market showed that they prefer much to consume cassava chips as cassava product products than other. Next are crackers, opak, and tiwul rice. Urban consumers prefer product products as snacks (chips, crumbs, and opak), with consumption frequency of 2-5 times per week and volume of 1-3 kg purchases. Consumers in rural were more frequent with daily consumption frequency. Multidimensional scaling

  4. Influence of the wax application time on cassava conservation; Influencia del momento de aplicación de un recubrimiento en la conservación de yuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rendón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article, product of a research project, shows the results of the evaluation of the influence of the time between harvest and the application of a natural wax in the deterioration of cassava roots; this time was called time of application. Tao chemistry Ltda. wax TAO FRESH ROOT was used in the development of this work. Three factors were considered for the evaluation:the quality of cassava roots, such as: physiological deterioration, loss of weight and dry matter content. They were evaluated in two varieties of cassava,five moments of application (1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h for a period of 21 days. The moment of application at 6 h presented the lowest averages of physiological deterioration and weight loss.This article is presented to establish the potential ofnatural waxes as a technique for the preservation of cassavaroots, highlighting the moment of application as an influential factor in the extension of the life of this product.

  5. Effect of paclobutrazol and kinetins on the vegetative growth, root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manual weeding was employed. From the result, the PBZ application reduced plants height and number of leaves, but tend to increase stem diameter while Kenitin application improved plant height and number of leaves, number of root, harvest Index and root weight, but reduced stem diameter of cassava as compared to ...

  6. 605 Salad crops: Root, bulb, and tuber Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root and tuber crops (potato, cassava, sweet potato, and yams) comprise 4 of the 10 major food staples of the world and serve as a major source of energy for the poor of developing nations. Minimal strain placed on agro ecosystems by root and tuber crops highlight their welcomed contribution to the ...

  7. Transgenic salt-tolerant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) constitutively expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana vacuolar Na/H antiporter gene, AtNHX3, accumulates more soluble sugar but less salt in storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Wang, Qiuqing; Yu, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yanyan; Wu, Yingbao; Zhang, Hongxia

    2008-09-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, six vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporters (AtNHX1-6) were identified. Among them, AtNHX1, 2 and 5 are functional Na(+)/H(+) antiporters with the most abundant expression levels in seedling shoots and roots. However, the expression of AtNHX3 in Arabidopsis can only be detected by RT-PCR, and its physiological function still remains unclear. In this work, we demonstrate that constitutive expression of AtNHX3 in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) conferred augmented resistance to high salinity on transgenic plants. In the presence of 300 or 500 mm NaCl, transgenic plants showed very high potassium accumulation in the roots and storage roots. Furthermore, the transcripts of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), sucrose synthase (SS) and cell wall sucrose invertase (SI) genes were maintained in transgenic plants. The accumulation of soluble sugar in the storage roots of transgenic plants grown under high salt stress condition was also higher. Our results implicate that AtNHX3 is also a functional antiporter responsible for salt tolerance by mediating K(+)/H(+) exchange in higher plants. The salt accumulation in leaves but not in the storage roots, and the increased yield of storage roots with enhanced constituent soluble sugar contents under salt stress condition demonstrate a great potential use of this gene in improving the quality and yield of crop plants.

  8. Protein Storage Vacuoles Are Transformed into Lytic Vacuoles in Root Meristematic Cells of Germinating Seedlings by Multiple, Cell Type-Specific Mechanisms1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiqiong; Staehelin, L. Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the structural events associated with vacuole biogenesis in root tip cells of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seedlings preserved by high-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution techniques. Our micrographs demonstrate that the lytic vacuoles (LVs) of root tip cells are derived from protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) by cell type-specific sets of transformation events. Analysis of the vacuole transformation pathways has been aided by the phytin-dependent black osmium staining of PSV luminal contents. In epidermal and outer cortex cells, the central LVs are formed by a process involving PSV fusion, storage protein degradation, and the gradual replacement of the PSV marker protein α-tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) with the LV marker protein γ-TIP. In contrast, in the inner cortex and vascular cylinder cells, the transformation events are more complex. During mobilization of the stored molecules, the PSV membranes collapse osmotically upon themselves, thereby squeezing the vacuolar contents into the remaining bulging vacuolar regions. The collapsed PSV membranes then differentiate into two domains: (1) vacuole “reinflation” domains that produce pre-LVs, and (2) multilamellar autophagosomal domains that are later engulfed by the pre-LVs. The multilamellar autophagosomal domains appear to originate from concentric sheets of PSV membranes that create compartments within which the cytoplasm begins to break down. Engulfment of the multilamellar autophagic vacuoles by the pre-LVs gives rise to the mature LVs. During pre-LV formation, the PSV marker α-TIP disappears and is replaced by the LV marker γ-TIP. These findings demonstrate that the central LVs of root cells arise from PSVs via cell type-specific transformation pathways. PMID:21278307

  9. Evaluation of synergistic effect in vacuum pack, refrigeration and irradiated treatments of minimally processed cassava; Avaliacao do efeito sinergistico da embalagem a vacuo, irradiacao e refrigeracao da mandioca minimamente processada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroso, Bianca Maria

    2005-07-01

    Cassava is cultivated almost all over the world and it is considered one of the most important nutritious sources of calories in the human diet. Cassava is a viable food against starvation in several poor areas of the world because it is an extremely resistant culture and may reach satisfactory economical yield. We utilized vacuum packed industrialized cassava irradiated with 0,1 kGy, 3kGy and 5kGy and stored under refrigeration for 1, 21, 30 and 50 days. Our objective was to analyse the synergistic effect of vacuum packing, irradiation and refrigeration on the preservation of minimally processed cassava. The samples were analyzed for pH, acidity, weight, humidity, texture and color. The irradiation did not affect the chemical characteristics of the cassava. Neither the pH nor the acidity, the most relevant variables to verify deterioration in cassava, presented significant alterations during the period of storage. Comparing the irradiated treatments, the dose of 1kGy and 3kGy affected the physic-chemical characteristics of the cassava the least during the period of storage and refrigeration for 50 days; the doses of 1kGy,3kGy and 5kGy scored the highest rates the sensorial analysis during the period of storage for 21 days. (author)

  10. Cassava processors' awareness of occupational and environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) is not without hazards both to the environment, the processors, and even the consumers. This study, therefore, investigated cassava processors' awareness of occupational and environmental hazards associated with and factors affecting ...

  11. UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry and chemometric analysis as tools for carotenoids analysis in cassava genotypes (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Rodolfo; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Pereira, Aline; Tomazzoli, Maíra Maciel; Nunes, Eduardo da C; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Gazzola, Jussara; Costa, Christopher; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2015-10-21

    In this study, the metabolomics characterization focusing on the carotenoid composition of ten cassava (Manihot esculenta) genotypes cultivated in southern Brazil by UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography was performed. Cassava roots rich in β-carotene are an important staple food for populations with risk of vitamin A deficiency. Cassava genotypes with high pro-vitamin A activity have been identified as a strategy to reduce the prevalence of deficiency of this vitamin. The data set was used for the construction of a descriptive model by chemometric analysis. The genotypes of yellow-fleshed roots were clustered by the higher concentrations of cis-β-carotene and lutein. Inversely, cream-fleshed roots genotypes were grouped precisely due to their lower concentrations of these pigments, as samples rich in lycopene (red-fleshed) differed among the studied genotypes. The analytical approach (UV-Vis, HPLC, and chemometrics) used showed to be efficient for understanding the chemodiversity of cassava genotypes, allowing to classify them according to important features for human health and nutrition.

  12. Improving Genomic Prediction in Cassava Field Experiments Using Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani A. Elias

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is an important staple food in sub-Saharan Africa. Breeding experiments were conducted at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture in cassava to select elite parents. Taking into account the heterogeneity in the field while evaluating these trials can increase the accuracy in estimation of breeding values. We used an exploratory approach using the parametric spatial kernels Power, Spherical, and Gaussian to determine the best kernel for a given scenario. The spatial kernel was fit simultaneously with a genomic kernel in a genomic selection model. Predictability of these models was tested through a 10-fold cross-validation method repeated five times. The best model was chosen as the one with the lowest prediction root mean squared error compared to that of the base model having no spatial kernel. Results from our real and simulated data studies indicated that predictability can be increased by accounting for spatial variation irrespective of the heritability of the trait. In real data scenarios we observed that the accuracy can be increased by a median value of 3.4%. Through simulations, we showed that a 21% increase in accuracy can be achieved. We also found that Range (row directional spatial kernels, mostly Gaussian, explained the spatial variance in 71% of the scenarios when spatial correlation was significant.

  13. Improving Genomic Prediction in Cassava Field Experiments Using Spatial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Ani A; Rabbi, Ismail; Kulakow, Peter; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2018-01-04

    Cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important staple food in sub-Saharan Africa. Breeding experiments were conducted at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture in cassava to select elite parents. Taking into account the heterogeneity in the field while evaluating these trials can increase the accuracy in estimation of breeding values. We used an exploratory approach using the parametric spatial kernels Power, Spherical, and Gaussian to determine the best kernel for a given scenario. The spatial kernel was fit simultaneously with a genomic kernel in a genomic selection model. Predictability of these models was tested through a 10-fold cross-validation method repeated five times. The best model was chosen as the one with the lowest prediction root mean squared error compared to that of the base model having no spatial kernel. Results from our real and simulated data studies indicated that predictability can be increased by accounting for spatial variation irrespective of the heritability of the trait. In real data scenarios we observed that the accuracy can be increased by a median value of 3.4%. Through simulations, we showed that a 21% increase in accuracy can be achieved. We also found that Range (row) directional spatial kernels, mostly Gaussian, explained the spatial variance in 71% of the scenarios when spatial correlation was significant. Copyright © 2018 Elias et al.

  14. Deciduous and evergreen trees differ in juvenile biomass allometries because of differences in allocation to root storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomlinson, K.W.; Langevelde, van F.; Ward, D.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Alves da Silva, D.; Prins, H.H.T.; Bie, de S.; Sterck, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims - Biomass partitioning for resource conservation might affect plant allometry, accounting for a substantial amount of unexplained variation in existing plant allometry models. One means of resource conservation is through direct allocation to storage in particular organs. In this

  15. Evaluation of cassava (Manihot esculenta (Crantz) planting methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of cassava (Manihot esculenta (Crantz) planting methods and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] sowing dates on the yield performance of the component species in cassava/soybean intercrop under the humid tropical lowlands of southeastern Nigeria.

  16. Catalase activity of cassava (Manihot esculenta) plant under African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    . E-mail: sabastina.amoako@kintampo-hrc.org. Tel: +233543550743. Abbreviations: CBSD, Cassava brown streak disease; ACMV, African cassava mosaic virus; ROS, reactive oxygen species; H2O2, hydrogen peroxide; BSA, bovine serum ...

  17. Limitation in detecting African cassava mosaic geminivirus in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    symptomatic (I) stems of the moderately-resistant ... 30001. Key words: African cassava mosaic geminivirus, infection status, cassava genotypes, detection limitations, .... soil maintained in an insect-proof greenhouse. There were ...

  18. Effectiveness of incorporating citric acid in cassava starch edible coatings to preserve quality of Martha tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarsari, I.; Oktaningrum, G. N.; Endrasari, R.

    2018-01-01

    Tomato as an agricultural product is extremely perishable. Coatings of tomatoes with edible starch extend quality and storage life of the fruits. Incorporation of citric acid as antimicrobial agent in the edible starch coatings is expected to preserve the quality of tomatoes during storage. The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of citric acid incorporated in cassava starch coating to preserve quality of tomatoes. The edible coatings formula consisted of cassava starch solutions (1; 2; 3%), citric acid (0.5; 1.0%) and glycerol (10%). Tomatoes were dipped to the coating solution for 10 seconds, then air-dried and stored at room temperature during 18 days. All the treatments were carried out in triplicates. Experimental data were analyzed using One Way ANOVA. The results showed that coating treatments did not affect the weight loss, moisture content, color characteristic, carotene and vitamin C content on Martha tomatoes. The low concentration of starch coating on Martha tomatoes are indicated to be the reason why there was no significant difference between coated and coated tomatoes for some parameters. However, incorporating citric acid in cassava starch-based coatings could prevent tomato fruits from firmness reduction and spoilage during storage.

  19. Improvement of local cassava germ plasm in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    important staple in the country replacing bananas. Cassava ... (multilocational & replicated x 4). On-farm trials. (Farmer participants). Fig. I: Breeding and selection scheme for resistance to cassava pests and diseases ... Performance of selected cassava clones at advanced yield trial stage planted at Serere and Ngetta 97/98.

  20. Cassava brown streak disease effects on leaf metabolites and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava Brown Streak Disease (CBSD) is a threat to productivity and product quality in East Africa. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of CBSD on the primary photosynthetic apparatus of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Three cassava varieties with varying levels of reaction to infection by CBSD ...

  1. Utilization Of Cassava and Pawpaw Diets By Growing Snails ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kg M. E). The treatments were T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5. The rations had 10% inclusion of pawpaw leaf (T2) Unripe Pawpaw fruit (T3), Cassava peel (T4) cassava leaf (T5). The treatment without the inclusion of pawpaw and cassava meal served as ...

  2. chemical adjustment chemical adjustment of effluent from cassava

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Cassava waste water from a cassava processing plant in Nsukka was collected and chemically waste water from a cassava processing ... waste water effluents generated from industries and homes are discharged into the rivers, .... engineering sanitary laboratory at the University of. Nigeria Nsukka for further analysis for 20 ...

  3. Controlled transmission of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jatropha curcas, a plant with great biodiesel potential is also used to reduce the population of whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci on cassava fields when planted as a hedge. We therefore, investigated the transmission of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) by the whitefly vector from cassava to seedlings of 10 accessions of J.

  4. Approaches to diagnosis and detection of cassava brown streak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has been a problem in the East African coastal cassava growing areas for more than 70 years. The disease is caused by successful infection with Cassava Brown Streak Virus (CBSV) (Family, Potyviridae: Genus, Ipomovirus). Diagnosis of CBSD has for long been primarily leaf ...

  5. Economic Analysis Of Cassava Production In Akwa Ibom State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... encourage farmers to use recommended rate of fertilizer application, improved varieties of cassava stem for increased efficiency and increased cassava production in the country since there is availability of markets for Nigeria cassava products( chips/pellets) in China, Netherlands, Germany, Belgium and Luxembourg.

  6. Development of putative transgenic lines of cassava variety H-226 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CMD) caused by the Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) and Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV). An attempt was done to develop transgenic cassava lines resistant to SLCMV through RNAi vector targeting a conserved 440 bp of 5' end ...

  7. Controlled transmission of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sarkodie

    2013-07-10

    Jul 10, 2013 ... Jatropha curcas, a plant with great biodiesel potential is also used to reduce the population of whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci on cassava fields when planted as a hedge. We therefore, investigated the transmission of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) by the whitefly vector from cassava to seedlings.

  8. Origin and management of neotropical cassava arthropod pests ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava, one of the worlds major food crops is grown throughout the tropical regions of the world. Cassava originated in the neotropics; it was introduced into West Africa from Brazil by slave traders in the 1500's, and taken to Asia during the 17th century. Consequently the greatest diversity of cassava pests, as well as their ...

  9. cassava brown streak disease effects on leaf metabolites

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Cassava Brown Streak Disease (CBSD) is a threat to productivity and product quality in East Africa. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of CBSD on the primary photosynthetic apparatus of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Three cassava varieties with varying levels of reaction to infection by CBSD.

  10. Cyanide content of cassava products (Garri, Fufu and Abacha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cassava is diversified into different food products and these products are available year round thus making cassava an important staple food for many rural households in Nigeria. A safety concern among cassava products consumers arises from the presence of cyanogenicglucoside which upon hydrolysis ...

  11. Use of morphological characters to identify cassava mosaic disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genotypes were scored for resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and cassava bacteria blight (CBB) attacks in the field. It was evident that identification of cassava genotypes using morphological characters is reliable. Some genotypes were resistant to CMD and CBB attack. It was found that pigmentation and level ...

  12. The use of biolistic inoculation of cassava mosaic begomoviruses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These cassava cultivars were challenged with both DNA A and B components of the infectious clones named above using particle gun bombardment. The cassava cultivars showed varying degrees of susceptibility/resistance to the two infectious clones used. All symptoms of Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) observed were ...

  13. Evaluation of cassava foliage as a protein supplement for sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three trials were conducted to evaluate the potential of cassava (Manihot esculenta) foliage (leaves and petioles) as a protein supplement for sheep. In the first trial, nylon bag degradability of cassava foliage was studied. Proximate analysis of cassava foliage was conducted before and after the incubation. Rumen ...

  14. Status of cassava mosaic disease and whitefly population in Zambia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava mosaic disease is the most important disease affecting cassava in Zambia. A study was conducted through a survey to determine the status of cassava mosaic disease incidence, severity and whitefly abundance in farmers' fields in six provinces: Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Luapula, Eastern and Western ...

  15. Nutritive value and sensory quality of fermented cassava soy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study unfermented cassava mash was prepared and developed into four different samples A, B ,C and D as an approach to add and improve nutritive value. To obtain flour sample (A) containing only 100% unfermented cassava, the mash was dried and milled. Part of the unfermented cassava mash was ...

  16. The performance of cassava flour as a water reducing admixture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHINYERE

    concrete with improved strength and durability. In a pilot investigation on the potentials of cassava flour as a set-retarding admixture in concrete [10], it was observed that cassava flour exhibited plasticizing effect in concrete. To further enhance the ample use of cassava flour as admixture in concrete, the plasticizing effect of ...

  17. Biolistic inoculation of cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... East African cassava mosaic virus-Cameroon (EACMV-CM) and a recombinant East African cassava mosaic virus-India/Cameroon (EACMV-CM/IC) can be transmitted easily and repeatedly to Nicotiana benthamiana plants, difficulty in mechanical transmission and multiplication of EACMV-UG and South African cassava ...

  18. Cassava Sun Drying Performance on Various Surfaces and Drying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    depth and recommended for sun drying of cassava. However; there is need to investigate on whether there is significant quality difference between cassava sun dried at different bed depths investigated in this study. Key words: drying characteristics, weight loss, ambient air temperature, perforated surface, cassava drying ...

  19. Value chain and marketing margins of cassava: An assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava is one of the emerging market oriented agricultural commodities with potential to contribute to improved livelihoods of smallholder farmers in Uganda. Besides being a food crop, cassava is attracting more attention as a commercial commodity. The rise in the commercial orientation of cassava is due to the fact that ...

  20. Cassava chips quality as influenced by cultivar, blanching time and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, fried cassava chips and crisps are increasingly being consumed as snacks; and fried cassava chips are produced by street processors. The quality and safety of these products is not known, therefore, the current study was to establish the influence of cassava cultivar, blanching time and slice thickness on quality ...

  1. Factors influencing cassava - pulp fermentation period for gari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paper examined factors influencing cassava pulp fermentation period for gari processing among cassava processors in South-eastern Nigeria. Five out of nine states that constitute South-east Agro-ecological zone of Nigeria were purposively sampled on the basis of being notable for cassava production. From each ...

  2. Protein enrichment of cassava peel by submerged fermentation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peel is one of the solid wastes produced as a consequence of cassava processing. It is low in protein but contains a large amount of carbohydrate, causing an environmental problem with disposal. In order to add-value to this major cassava processing waste and also reduce its resultant ...

  3. Bio-oil production via fast pyrolysis of biomass residues from cassava plants in a fluidised-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattiya, Adisak

    2011-01-01

    Biomass residues from cassava plants, namely cassava stalk and cassava rhizome, were pyrolysed in a fluidised-bed reactor for production of bio-oil. The aims of this work were to investigate the yields and properties of pyrolysis products produced from both feedstocks as well as to identify the optimum pyrolysis temperature for obtaining the highest organic bio-oil yields. Results showed that the maximum yields of the liquid bio-oils derived from the stalk and rhizome were 62 wt.% and 65 wt.% on dry basis, respectively. The pyrolysis temperatures that gave highest bio-oil yields for both feedstocks were in the range of 475-510 °C. According to the analysis of the bio-oils properties, the bio-oil derived from cassava rhizome showed better quality than that derived from cassava stalk as the former had lower oxygen content, higher heating value and better storage stability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND STORAGE ON EFFECTIVENESS OF Trichoderma viride as BIOCONTROL on Rigidoporus microporus, PATHOGEN of WHITE ROOT ON RUBBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Damiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the effect of temperature and storage on effectiveness of Trichoderma viride to suppress Rigidoporus microporus development, the pathogen of white root disease on rubber. This research applied a randomized complete block design with five treatments and five replications. Each treatment contained two rubber plants (total of plants 50. There were five treatments i.e.: compost containing T. viride which was stored at 17oC for a month ( A , compost containing T. viride which was stored at 24oC for a month ( B , compost containing T. viride which was stored at 30oC for a month (C, Triadimefon ( D and R. microporus ( control Results showed that that T. viride compost which was stored for a month at various temperatures was able to suppress R. microporus development. Trichoderma viride compost which was stored at of 17o C for a month showed the best result. It was was able to supress white root disease severity up to 70 percent and rhizomorph colonization up to 62 percent respectively. The treatment was also able to increase the plant height and stem diameters.

  5. Fibrous-Root-Inspired Design and Lithium Storage Applications of a Co-Zn Binary Synergistic Nanoarray System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia; Chen, Shimou; Hao, Wenjun; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-02-23

    Developing lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with fast charging/discharging capability and high capacity is a significant issue for future technical requirements. Transition-metal oxide (TMO) materials are widely studied as the next-generation LIB anode to satisfy this requirement due to their specific capacity, nearly three times than that of conventional graphite anode, and low cost. Meanwhile, they also suffer from slow lithium diffusion and limited electrochemical and structural stability, especially at high charging/discharging rate. The structure design of TMO is an effective strategy to obtain desirable LIB performance. Herein, inspired by natural fibrous roots consisting of functional and supporting units that can enhance substances and energy exchange efficiently, fibrous-root-like Zn(x)Co(3-x)O4@Zn(1-y)Co(y)O binary TMO nanoarrays are designed and synthesized on Cu substrates through a facile one-pot, successive-deposition process for use as an integrated LIB anode. In a multilevel array ordered by orientation, ultrafine Zn(x)Co(3-x)O4 nanowire functional units and stable Zn(1-y)Co(y)O nanorod supporting units synergize, resulting in superior rate performance. At a high current density of 500 mAg(-1), they could maintain a discharge capacity as high as 804 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles, working much higher than unary cobalt-based and zinc-based nanoarrays. This binary synergistic nanoarray system identifies an optimized electrode design strategy for advanced battery materials.

  6. Dry matter production and distribution in three cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz cultivars during the second vegetative plant cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Sagrilo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in Araruna County, State of Paraná, to understand the relationship between the total dry matter yield and its proportion allocated to the storage roots of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz plants in the second vegetative cycle. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in split-plot scheme with four replications. The plots consisted of the Mico, IAC 13 and IAC 14 cultivars and the monthly harvesting dates were assessed in the sub-plots. The results showed that the Mico and IAC 13 cultivars were more efficient in allocating dry matter to the storage roots. The IAC 14 cultivar allocated a higher proportion of assimilates to stems compared with the other two cultivars. With regard to the influence of harvesting time, the lowest harvest indexes were observed in the periods of more intense vegetative growth. However, the highest carbohydrate proportions were allocated to the storage roots during periods of low vegetative growth.Com o objetivo de uma melhor compreensão da relação entre a produtividade total de massa seca e a proporção de alocação desta nas raízes tuberosas em plantas de mandioca, foi conduzido no município de Araruna-PR, um experimento em delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições. Nas parcelas foram dispostas três cultivares (Mico, IAC 13 e IAC 14, e nas subparcelas dez épocas de colheita mensais, a partir do início do segundo ciclo vegetativo das plantas. As cultivares Mico e IAC 13 foram mais eficientes do que a IAC 14 em alocar massa seca nas raízes tuberosas, ao passo que esta última alocou maior proporção de massa seca em suas hastes. Em relação às épocas, os menores índices de colheita ocorreram em períodos de mais intenso crescimento vegetativo das plantas, ao passo que a maior proporção de carboidratos foi alocada nas raízes tuberosas em períodos de baixo crescimento vegetativo.

  7. Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin levels in stored cassava chips as affected by processing practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essono, G.; Ayodele, M.; Akoa, A.

    2009-01-01

    two months and contaminated by a wide array of harmful microbes. In order to assess persistence of toxigenic fungi in cassava chips, aflatoxin-producing fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nomius, and Aspergillus parasiticus) and aflatoxins were contrasted at regular intervals in home....... The levels of aflatoxin ranged between 5.2 and 14.5 ppb. The distribution of aflatoxin in positive samples depended on 8 parameters including pH, moisture content, storage duration, types of chips, level of contamination by aflatoxin-producing fungi, processing practices and storage facilities. From analysis...... significantly (p practices, storage facilities, and storage duration of the chips....

  8. Improvement of cassava for resistance to insect pests and diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwanga, R.O.M.

    1997-01-01

    The African cassava mosaic virus and cassava mealybug are devastating the cassava crop in Uganda. Because of the severe widespread occurrence of the virus and mealybug, in vitro cultured cassava plantlets instead of stem cuttings will be irradiated. In addition, the project has incorporated sweet potato. Installation of tissue culture laboratory at Namulonge was completed in early 1993. Work is in progress to establish efficient in vitro culture micropropagation techniques for the two crops. Small numbers of cassava plantlets of varieties 'TMS 30337' and 'TMS 4(2)1425' and sweet potato entry 30 are in vitro culture. Mass irradiation of plantlets is planned in future. (author). 4 refs

  9. Expression patterns of members of the ethylene signaling-related gene families in response to dehydration stresses in cassava.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yun Ren

    Full Text Available Drought is the one of the most important environment stresses that restricts crop yield worldwide. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is an important food and energy crop that has many desirable traits such as drought, heat and low nutrients tolerance. However, the mechanisms underlying drought tolerance in cassava are unclear. Ethylene signaling pathway, from the upstream receptors to the downstream transcription factors, plays important roles in environmental stress responses during plant growth and development. In this study, we used bioinformatics approaches to identify and characterize candidate Manihot esculenta ethylene receptor genes and transcription factor genes. Using computational methods, we localized these genes on cassava chromosomes, constructed phylogenetic trees and identified stress-responsive cis-elements within their 5' upstream regions. Additionally, we measured the trehalose and proline contents in cassava fresh leaves after drought, osmotic, and salt stress treatments, and then it was found that the regulation patterns of contents of proline and trehalose in response to various dehydration stresses were differential, or even the opposite, which shows that plant may take different coping strategies to deal with different stresses, when stresses come. Furthermore, expression profiles of these genes in different organs and tissues under non-stress and abiotic stress were investigated through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analyses in cassava. Expression profiles exhibited clear differences among different tissues under non-stress and various dehydration stress conditions. We found that the leaf and tuberous root tissues had the greatest and least responses, respectively, to drought stress through the ethylene signaling pathway in cassava. Moreover, tuber and root tissues had the greatest and least reponses to osmotic and salt stresses through ethylene signaling in cassava, respectively. These results show that these

  10. Expression patterns of members of the ethylene signaling–related gene families in response to dehydration stresses in cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hou Rui; Lu, Li Fang; Yun, Tian Yan; Peng, Ming; Guan, Xiao; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Jing Yi; Zhang, Xi Yan; Li, Cheng Liang; Chen, Yan Jun; He, Peng; Zhang, Yin Dong; Xie, Jiang Hui

    2017-01-01

    Drought is the one of the most important environment stresses that restricts crop yield worldwide. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food and energy crop that has many desirable traits such as drought, heat and low nutrients tolerance. However, the mechanisms underlying drought tolerance in cassava are unclear. Ethylene signaling pathway, from the upstream receptors to the downstream transcription factors, plays important roles in environmental stress responses during plant growth and development. In this study, we used bioinformatics approaches to identify and characterize candidate Manihot esculenta ethylene receptor genes and transcription factor genes. Using computational methods, we localized these genes on cassava chromosomes, constructed phylogenetic trees and identified stress-responsive cis-elements within their 5’ upstream regions. Additionally, we measured the trehalose and proline contents in cassava fresh leaves after drought, osmotic, and salt stress treatments, and then it was found that the regulation patterns of contents of proline and trehalose in response to various dehydration stresses were differential, or even the opposite, which shows that plant may take different coping strategies to deal with different stresses, when stresses come. Furthermore, expression profiles of these genes in different organs and tissues under non-stress and abiotic stress were investigated through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses in cassava. Expression profiles exhibited clear differences among different tissues under non-stress and various dehydration stress conditions. We found that the leaf and tuberous root tissues had the greatest and least responses, respectively, to drought stress through the ethylene signaling pathway in cassava. Moreover, tuber and root tissues had the greatest and least reponses to osmotic and salt stresses through ethylene signaling in cassava, respectively. These results show that these plant tissues had

  11. Effect of Drying Method and Variety on Quality of Cassava Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava tubers are main sources of calories and dietary fibre for Nigerians. Cassava tubers are highly perishable and need to be processed immediately after harvest. Cassava can be used for human consumption, livestock feed or industrial purposes. Cassava starch is one of the main industrial products of cassava ...

  12. An atlas of cassava in Africa : historical, agroecological and demographic aspects of crop distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Fresco, L.O.; Jones, P.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains 6 chapters covering: the dynamics of cassava in Africa; the introduction and diffusion of cassava in Africa; current distribution of cassava in Africa; the relationship of cassava distribution to environment and population; distribution and change in cassava production in Nigeria,

  13. Biofortification of essential nutritional compounds and trace elements in rice and cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, C; Poletti, S; Zhang, P; Gruissem, W

    2006-05-01

    Plant biotechnology can make important contributions to food security and nutritional improvement. For example, the development of 'Golden Rice' by Professor Ingo Potrykus was a milestone in the application of gene technology to deliver both increased nutritional qualities and health improvement to wide sections of the human population. Mineral nutrient and protein deficiency as well as food security remain the most important challenges for developing countries. Current projects are addressing these issues in two major staple crops, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and rice. The tropical root crop cassava is a major source of food for approximately 600 million of the population worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa >200 million of the population rely on cassava as their major source of dietary energy. The nutritional quality of the cassava root is not sufficient to meet all dietary needs. Rice is the staple food for half the world population, providing approximately 20% of the per capita energy and 13% of the protein for human consumption worldwide. In many developing countries the dietary contributions of rice are substantially greater (29.3% dietary energy and 29.1% dietary protein). The current six most popular 'mega' rice varieties (in terms of popularity and acreage), including Chinese hybrid rice, have an incomplete amino acid profile and contain limited amounts of essential micronutrients. Rice lines with improved Fe contents have been developed using genes that have functions in Fe absorption, translocation and accumulation in the plant, as well as improved Fe bioavailability in the human intestine. Current developments in biotechnology-assisted plant improvement are reviewed and the potential of the technology in addressing human nutrition and health are discussed.

  14. Effect of modified cassava starch on the rheological and quality properties of a dairy beverage prepared with sweet whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Catalina IMBACHÍ-NARVÁEZ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of sweet whey and octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA-modified cassava starch on the quality and rheological properties of fermented dairy beverages was evaluated. Sweet whey (45-65% and OSA-modified cassava starch (0.8-1.2% were added to determine an optimal fermented dairy beverage with the highest viscosity and the lowest syneresis possible. The optimal fermented dairy beverage corresponded to the addition of 40.9% sweet whey and 1.13% OSA-modified cassava starch with respect to the milk and sweet whey mixture. Moreover, the rheological and quality properties of the optimal fermented dairy beverage were compared to a commercial beverage (control during 22 days of storage. No significant differences were found in soluble solids, acidity, pH and consistency index during the time evaluated, while the syneresis of both products showed an increase during storage. OSA-modified cassava starch can be used as a stabiliser in sweet whey fermented dairy beverages because it helps improve its quality properties.

  15. Non-Preference for Oviposition Cassava Lace Bug Vatiga illudens (Hemiptera: Tingidae by Cassava Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the non-preference for oviposition Vatiga illudens (Drake, 1922 (Hemiptera: Tingidae in cassava cultivars. The following cultivars were compared: Kiriris, N-25, Fécula Branca, IAC 90, M Ecu 72 and IAC 576, preference tests for oviposition were conducted, with a choice test in semi-field conditions. An adult double V. illudens was released in the leaves of cassava of their cultivars. Allowed to feeding and oviposition of these insects for 72 hours. We evaluated the number of eggs / female / leaf, the number of droppings / couple / sheet and the preference index for oviposition. The cultivar M Ecu 72 demonstrated to be highly resistant to cassava lace bug. This study showed that there are resistance mechanisms to V. illudens in cassava cultivars, which justifies the new studies on these cultivars in breeding programs, aiming to control this pest and identification of such mechanisms.

  16. MOISTURE ISOTHERMS OF CASSAVA BAGASSE COMPOSITES IMPREGNATED WITH CASSAVA STARCH ACETATE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia N. MATSUI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The industrial processing of cassava to obtain starch generates a great variety of residues, with bagasse being the main solid residue produced. The improper disposal of this material represents an environmental problem and could be avoided by using this residue as a raw material to obtain biodegradable products. The bagasse produced during the process to obtain starch from cassava was used to prepare composites for disposable trays. Samples of the composites were impregnated with cassava starch acetate at atmospheric pressure and under vacuum condition. Moisture isotherms were determined and adjusted by GAB model. It was observed that the impregnation promoted an important decrease in sample higroscopicity, mainly at high relative humidities. These results suggest that starch acetate impregnation can be an alternative to water proofing biological materials like the composites obtained in this work. KEYWORDS: Cassava; bagasse; starch acetate; impregnation; isotherms.

  17. Production of multiple extracellular enzyme activities by novel submerged culture of Aspergillus kawachii for ethanol production from raw cassava flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Toshikazu; Makita, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Koutaro; Shoji, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    Cassava is a starch-containing root crop that is widely used as a raw material in a variety of industrial applications, most recently in the production of fuel ethanol. In the present study, ethanol production from raw (uncooked) cassava flour by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using a preparation consisting of multiple enzyme activities from Aspergillus kawachii FS005 was investigated. The multi-activity preparation was obtained from a novel submerged fermentation broth of A. kawachii FS005 grown on unmilled crude barley as a carbon source. The preparation was found to consist of glucoamylase, acid-stable α-amylase, acid carboxypeptidase, acid protease, cellulase and xylanase activities, and exhibited glucose and free amino nitrogen (FAN) production rates of 37.7 and 118.7 mg/l/h, respectively, during A. kawachii FS005-mediated saccharification of uncooked raw cassava flour. Ethanol production from 18.2% (w/v) dry uncooked solids of raw cassava flour by SSF with the multi-activity enzyme preparation yielded 9.0% (v/v) of ethanol and 92.3% fermentation efficiency. A feasibility study for ethanol production by SSF with a two-step mash using raw cassava flour and the multi-activity enzyme preparation manufactured on-site was verified on a pilot plant scale. The enzyme preparation obtained from the A. kawachii FS005 culture broth exhibited glucose and FAN production rates of 41.1 and 135.5 mg/l/h, respectively. SSF performed in a mash volume of about 1,612 l containing 20.6% (w/v) dry raw cassava solids and 106 l of on-site manufactured A. kawachii FS005 culture broth yielded 10.3% (v/v) ethanol and a fermentation efficiency of 92.7%.

  18. Impact of genotype and cooking style on the content, retention, and bioacessibility of β-carotene in biofortified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) conventionally bred in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni, Paulo; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G; De Moura, Fabiana F; Failla, Mark L

    2014-07-16

    Biofortification is a strategy for decreasing micronutrient deficiencies in vulnerable populations by increasing nutrient density in staple food crops. Roots from five varieties of cassava biofortified with β-carotene (βC), three parental accessions, and one variety of commonly consumed white cassava from Brazil were investigated. Roots from biofortified varieties contained up to 23-fold higher βC than white cassava, and the additional complement of βC was primarily the all-trans isomer. At least 68% of βC per gram fresh weight was retained after boiling or boiling and briefly frying. Micellarization of βC during simulated digestion of fried root exceeded that of boiled root. Apical uptake of all-trans-βC from mixed micelles by Caco-2 cells was affected by an interaction between variety and cooking style. These results suggest that Brazilian cassava biofortified with βC has the potential to reduce vitamin A deficiency without requiring major changes in local and ethnic styles of home cooking.

  19. Participation and performance of root crops scientists on cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 2 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Early screening of cassava for resistance to root knot nematodes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Eisenback and Triantaphyllou, 1991). Mcsorley et al. (1983) reported that cultivars can respond ... steam-sterilized sawdust. Each cutting was separated from each other within the half-pipe using plastic spacers. Each cutting occupied 20 cm. cm of ...

  1. Replacing Maize With Cassava Root Meal Or Its Mixture With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rabbits were then slaughtered and their dressed carcasses and organs weighed. At 70 days of feeding, the average liveweights of rabbits fed MC, CR and CVS were 2120g, 2026g and 2098g respectively. Average daily reed intake, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were 66.8Og, 64.92g and 60.70g, 15.65g ...

  2. Tuber Storage Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHEWRY, PETER R.

    2003-01-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose‐binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers. PMID:12730067

  3. Tuber storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R

    2003-06-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose-binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers.

  4. Revamping Nigerian Economy through Cassava Production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Applying the Open System Theory to the paper, the political actors, bureaucrats at the. Federal Ministries of Agriculture, Federal Ministries of Economic Planning, etc. must fashioned out policy and programmes targeted at increasing cassava production in. Nigeria. This policy must percolate to the various interventionist ...

  5. Performance evaluation of prototype mechanical cassava harvester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large-scale cassava harvesting, especially during the dry season, is a major constraint to its industrial demand and commercial production. Manual harvesting is slow and ... Results from field trials showed prototype harvesters weighing 268 – 310 kg can achieve optimum performance on ridged landforms. When harvested ...

  6. EVALUATION OF CASSAVA/SOYBEAN INTERCROPPING SYSTEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of three cassava genotypes (NR 8212, TMS 91934 and TMS 30572) grown sole or intercropped with soybean were investigated in two field experiments in 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 cropping seasons at Umudike in the lowland humid forest zone of south-eastern Nigeria. The plant height, canopy diameter, ...

  7. Phylogenetic diversity of cassava green mite, Mononychellus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava green mite (CGM) of the Mononychellus genus is an invasive species in Africa, introduced from South America. Its phylogenetic diversity over geographical localities has never been assessed in East Africa, where mite density dynamics oscillate from few individuals to a peak of hundreds. The objective of this study ...

  8. Prospects for genomic selection in cassava breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a clonally propagated staple food crop in the tropics. Genomic selection (GS) has been implemented at three breeding institutions in Africa in order to reduce cycle times. Initial studies provided promising estimates of predictive abilities. Here, we expand on p...

  9. Adoption of Improved Cassava Production Technologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings showed that the area has young, experienced, good level of education and high social participation amongst members, which is an advantage for innovation adoption and transfer. Majority inherited their cassava farms and financed them mainly through personal savings. The result showed that extension ...

  10. PHYLOGENETIC DIVERSITY OF CASSAVA GREEN MITE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Cassava green mite (CGM) of the Mononychellus genus is an invasive species in Africa, introduced from South. America. Its phylogenetic diversity over geographical localities has never been assessed in East Africa, where mite density dynamics oscillate from few individuals to a peak of hundreds. The objective of this study ...

  11. The Post-Genomic Era of Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genomics era revolutionized our efficiency at gathering and disseminating scientific information required for advancing our understanding of plant biology. In the case of cassava, the genomics revolution has not kept pace with other staple food and fiber crops important to global economies. As a...

  12. Cassava household expenditure and anthropometric indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expenditure on cassava and other staple foods was determined for each household of the preschool children and classified into two groups and the average determined. Significance of difference between the mean Z – scores of the children for above and below average expenditure households was determined by Student ...

  13. Adoption Of Improved Cassava Varieties Among Smallscale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption Of Improved Cassava Varieties Among Smallscale Farmers In Ikot Ekpene Agricultural Zone Of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. ... Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural Extension. Journal Home ... Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and multiple regression analysis. Results ...

  14. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afuape

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Organized embryogenic callus development: In our experiment, somatic embryos were developed from leaf lobes collected from transgenic cassava lines carrying the AtAOX1a gene. Immature leaf lobes measuring about 1 to 6 mm obtained from about six weeks old in vitro derived plants were used.

  15. Effects of Drying Temperature on Flavonoids Extraction Rate from Young Stems and Leaves of Two Cassava Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ding-mei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve flavonoids resources utilization level of young cassava stems and leaves, using cassava varieties SC09 and SC205 as ob jects, investigated the effect of different drying temperatures(40~120℃on the flavonoids extraction rate(FERand their stability in 120 d storage period after drying, explored a right drying storage method for postharvest young cassava stems and leaves. The research showed that total FER rised first, and then fell and rised again with the increase of drying temperature. During 40~80℃, the total FER was obviously in fluenced by variety and temperature, but only temperature was main factor affecting total FER during 90~120℃. Extract degree of flavonoids include rutin, amentoflavone or catechin, kaempferol, hesperidin, quercetin minished in order; the effect of cassava variety on the extraction rate of catechin and hesperidin was greater than that of drying temperature, but that contrary to other 4 flavonoids. Variety and temperature had a maximum impact respectively on catechin and rutin extraction rates. Whereas both of variety and temperature had a minimum impact on kaempferol extraction rate. FER reached higher levels of 1.42%and 1.53% respectively in SC09 after 120℃drying and SC205 after 110℃drying, and had best stability during 120 d storage period. The extraction rate of hesperidin increased after drying storage, and that of other 5 ingredients were changing with different varieties and temperatures; the coefficient variation(CV=1.03%~6.86%of kaempferol was minimum and its stability was best; extraction rates of rutin and kaempferol in SC205 after 110℃drying were maximum, whose increasing rates were 44.89%and 7.27%respectively with a small separate degree(CV were 6.94%, 4.59%and good extraction stability. Maximum in creasing rates of catechin, amentoflavone, quercetin and hesperidin were 211.60%,17.60%,186.39% and 538.08% respectively. However,their stabilities of extraction efficiency were poor

  16. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Critical Function of Sucrose Metabolism Related-Enzymes in Starch Accumulation in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhengdan; Tang, Daobin; Luo, Kai; Lu, Huixiang; Liu, Yingying; Dong, Jie; Wang, Xin; Lv, Changwen; Wang, Jichun; Lu, Kun

    2017-01-01

    The starch properties of the storage root (SR) affect the quality of sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.). Although numerous studies have analyzed the accumulation and properties of starch in sweet potato SRs, the transcriptomic variation associated with starch properties in SR has not been quantified. In this study, we measured the starch and sugar contents and analyzed the transcriptome profiles of SRs harvested from sweet potatoes with high, medium, and extremely low starch contents, at five developmental stages [65, 80, 95, 110, and 125 days after transplanting (DAP)]. We found that differences in both water content and starch accumulation in the dry matter affect the starch content of SRs in different sweet potato genotypes. Based on transcriptome sequencing data, we assembled 112336 unigenes, and identified several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, and revealed the transcriptional regulatory network controlling starch and sucrose metabolism in sweet potato SRs. Correlation analysis between expression patterns and starch and sugar contents suggested that the sugar-starch conversion steps catalyzed by sucrose synthase (SuSy) and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) may be essential for starch accumulation in the dry matter of SRs, and IbβFRUCT2, a vacuolar acid invertase, might also be a key regulator of starch content in the SRs. Our results provide valuable resources for future investigations aimed at deciphering the molecular mechanisms determining the starch properties of sweet potato SRs.

  17. Gene-based microsatellites for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): prevalence, polymorphisms, and cross-taxa utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Adebola Aj; Anderson, James V; Kolade, Olufisayo A; Ugwu, Chike D; Dixon, Alfred Go; Ingelbrecht, Ivan L

    2009-09-11

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a larger number of polymorphic SSRs for germplasm characterization and breeding applications. A total of 846 putative microsatellites were identified in silico from an 8,577 cassava unigene set with an average density of one SSR every 7 kb. One hundred and ninety-two candidate SSRs were screened for polymorphism among a panel of cassava cultivars from Africa, Latin America and Asia, four wild Manihot species as well as two other important taxa in the Euphorbiaceae, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and castor bean (Ricinus communis). Of 168 markers with clean amplification products, 124 (73.8%) displayed polymorphism based on high resolution agarose gels. Of 85 EST-SSR markers screened, 80 (94.1%) amplified alleles from one or more wild species (M epruinosa, M glaziovii, M brachyandra, M tripartita) whereas 13 (15.3%) amplified alleles from castor bean and 9 (10.6%) amplified alleles from leafy spurge; hence nearly all markers were transferable to wild relatives of M esculenta while only a fraction was transferable to the more distantly related taxa. In a subset of 20 EST-SSRs assessed by fluorescence-based genotyping the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 10 with an average of 4.55 per locus. These markers had a polymorphism information content (PIC) from 0.19 to 0.75 with an average value of 0.55 and showed genetic relationships consistent with existing information on these genotypes. A set of 124 new, unique polymorphic EST-SSRs was developed and characterized which extends the repertoire of SSR markers for cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. The markers show high PIC values and therefore will be useful for cultivar identification, taxonomic studies, and

  18. Gene-based microsatellites for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz: prevalence, polymorphisms, and cross-taxa utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwu Chike D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a larger number of polymorphic SSRs for germplasm characterization and breeding applications. Results A total of 846 putative microsatellites were identified in silico from an 8,577 cassava unigene set with an average density of one SSR every 7 kb. One hundred and ninety-two candidate SSRs were screened for polymorphism among a panel of cassava cultivars from Africa, Latin America and Asia, four wild Manihot species as well as two other important taxa in the Euphorbiaceae, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula and castor bean (Ricinus communis. Of 168 markers with clean amplification products, 124 (73.8% displayed polymorphism based on high resolution agarose gels. Of 85 EST-SSR markers screened, 80 (94.1% amplified alleles from one or more wild species (M epruinosa, M glaziovii, M brachyandra, M tripartita whereas 13 (15.3% amplified alleles from castor bean and 9 (10.6% amplified alleles from leafy spurge; hence nearly all markers were transferable to wild relatives of M esculenta while only a fraction was transferable to the more distantly related taxa. In a subset of 20 EST-SSRs assessed by fluorescence-based genotyping the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 10 with an average of 4.55 per locus. These markers had a polymorphism information content (PIC from 0.19 to 0.75 with an average value of 0.55 and showed genetic relationships consistent with existing information on these genotypes. Conclusion A set of 124 new, unique polymorphic EST-SSRs was developed and characterized which extends the repertoire of SSR markers for cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. The markers show high PIC values and therefore will be useful for

  19. Effect of explant density and medium culture volumes on cassava micropropagation in Temporal Immersion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Basail

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the need of producing high quality planting material available to cassava growers, it has been necessary to look for alternatives in order to increase the efficiancy of in vitro propagation methods and their automation, such as the use of the Temporal Immersion Systems (RITA®. This work was carried out to increase the multiplication coefficient for cassava mass propagation through out Temporal Immersion Systems. The clone ‘CMC-40’ was used. Different medium volumes per explant, and material density per unit at a given Immersion frequency were tested. The highest results were obtained in the 2.8 multiplication coefficient with 20 ml culture medium volume and 3.2 using a density of 40 explants/flask. When the Temporal Immersion System is used with these results, a more efficient method for cassava micropropagation is established and also higher quality vitroplants for the rooting stage and further acclimatization in field conditions are produced. Key Words: Tissue Culture, liquid culture medium, Manihot esculenta Crantz

  20. Reduction of cyanide levels in sweet cassava leaves grown in Busia County, Kenya based on different processing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojiambo, O.C.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, is the third most important carbohydrate food source around the world and in particular in sub-Sahara Africa. Both the roots and leaves have dual antagonistic contribution of which; one being nutritional value and secondly, contain cyanogenic glycosides. The latter when hydrolyzed by linamarase produces poisonous hydrogen cyanide attributed to among other factors, the methods of processing. Little has been reported on processing methods and information downstream will be great given the toxicity. This report assessed the variation of cyanide levels following different processing methods of leaves of sweet cassava varieties. A number of conditions were varied to mimic affordable and as well sustainable processing methods. Processing prior to boiling for up to 25 minutes involved leaves being pounded and pounded then soaked in water. Determination of cyanide was done using picrate papers and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The cyanide levels ranged from 576.30 ± 0.32 - 128.34 ± 0.34 mg HCN Equivalence/Kg in raw cassava leaves that significantly reduced up to 88.45% with the processing’s (P< 0.001. Longer duration of boiling cassava leaves with prior processings’ of pounding and that of pounding and soaking is promoted to minimize the risks associated with cyanide poisoning.

  1. Bridging gender gaps with dairy goats and root crops | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    4 mars 2014 ... dairy goats and root crops. Introducing dairy goats in semi-arid regions of Tanzania has led to farmers earning US$160 from milk sales during the first lactation, as well as an increase in household milk consumption. In these trials led by Canadian and Tanzanian researchers, cassava and sweet potato ...

  2. Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of liquid waste, press water and pond water, produced in the cassava flour industry, and of antitoxic sodium thiosulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Lilian Ávila; Düsman, Elisângela; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2014-02-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a plant used as food and an ingredient in industry, contains cyanogenic glycosides. The cassava root contains wastewater, popularly known as manipueira, which is a toxic substance. Its ingestion by animals causes poisoning although they react positively to treatment with sodium thiosulfate. The present research evaluates the cytotoxicity and the mutagenicity of liquid waste produced in the process of industrialization of the bitter cassava, olho-junto variety. The liquid wastes are characterized as press water, which is obtained when the cassava roots are pressed; pond water, which is press water stored in impounded ponds; and a solution of sodium thiosulfate, pure and with other waste. The system tests comprised root meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. and bone marrow cells of Rattus norvegicus. Treatment with saline solution was cytotoxic for Allium cepa L. and significantly reduced cell division rate. Although no treatment was cytotoxic in any of the tests with rats, the thiosulfate solution was clastogenic for the chromosomal aberrations test. Since it is harmful to the genetic material submitted within the conditions of current research, sodium thiosulfate should only be used in emergency conditions in which the benefits exceed the risks. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Comparative effect of radioactive radiation on roots in a coastal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detection of the radiation levels in root crops from Ibeno (an oil producing area) and Uyo, (a non oil producing area) in Akwa Ibom state was carried out. The radioactivity level in Cassava, Potato, Sweet yam, water yam and cocoyam was investigated. Result shows that the radiation level in root samples in Uyo ranges ...

  4. The potential of using biotechnology to improve cassava: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Chavarriaga-Aguirre, Paul; Brand, Alejandro; Medina, Adriana; Pr?as, M?nica; Escobar, Roosevelt; Martinez, Juan; D?az, Paula; L?pez, Camilo; Roca, Willy M; Tohme, Joe

    2016-01-01

    The importance of cassava as the fourth largest source of calories in the world requires that contributions of biotechnology to improving this crop, advances and current challenges, be periodically reviewed. Plant biotechnology offers a wide range of opportunities that can help cassava become a better crop for a constantly changing world. We therefore review the state of knowledge on the current use of biotechnology applied to cassava cultivars and its implications for breeding the crop into ...

  5. CHARACTERISATION OF CASSAVA FIBRE FOR USE AS A BIOMATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Lois Larbie; Claude Fiifi Hayford; Elsie Effah Kaufmann

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the cytotoxicity of de-starched cassava fibre granules and fine powder using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and examine changes in the composition of Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) resulting from immersion of cassava fibre samples. The purpose of the study was to characterise cassavafibre for possible biomaterial applications. Preliminary results indicate insignificant cytotoxic effects on PBMCs with cassava sample concentrations of 0.1g/ml, 0.025g/ml...

  6. The industrial applications of cassava: current status, opportunities and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shubo; Cui, Yanyan; Zhou, Yuan; Luo, Zhiting; Liu, Jidong; Zhao, Mouming

    2017-06-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a drought-tolerant, staple food crop that is grown in tropical and subtropical areas. As an important raw material, cassava is a valuable food source in developing countries and is also extensively employed for producing starch, bioethanol and other bio-based products (e.g. feed, medicine, cosmetics and biopolymers). These cassava-based industries also generate large quantities of wastes/residues rich in organic matter and suspended solids, providing great potential for conversion into value-added products through biorefinery. However, the community of cassava researchers is relatively small and there is very limited information on cassava. Therefore this review summarizes current knowledge on the system biology, economic value, nutritional quality and industrial applications of cassava and its wastes in an attempt to accelerate understanding of the basic biology of cassava. The review also discusses future perspectives with respect to integrating and utilizing cassava information resources for increasing the economic and environmental sustainability of cassava industries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Effect of modification with 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme on the rheological properties of cassava starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yadi; Li, Caiming; Gu, Zhengbiao; Hong, Yan; Cheng, Li; Li, Zhaofeng

    2017-10-01

    Steady and dynamic shear measurements were used to investigate the rheological properties of cassava starches modified using the 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE) from Geobacillus thermoglucosidans STB02. GBE treatment lowered the hysteresis loop areas, the activation energy (E a ) values and the parameters in rheological models of cassava starch pastes. Moreover, GBE treatment increased its storage (G') and loss (G″) moduli, and decreased their tan δ (ratio of G″/G') values and frequency-dependencies. Scanning electron microscopic studies showed the selective and particular attack of GBE on starch granules, and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that GBE treatment produces significant structural changes in amylose and amylopectin. These changes demonstrate that GBE modification produces cassava starch with a more structured network and improved stability towards mechanical processing. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis and temperature sweeps indicated greater resistance to granule rupture, higher gel rigidity, and a large decrease in the rate of initial conformational ordering with increasing GBE treatment time. Pronounced changes in rheological parameters revealed that GBE modification enhances the stability of cassava starch and its applicability in the food processing industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A time series transcriptome analysis of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) varieties challenged with Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    OpenAIRE

    Amuge, T.; Berger, D. K.; Katari, M. S.; Myburg, A. A.; Goldman, S. L.; Ferguson, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    A time-course transcriptome analysis of two cassava varieties that are either resistant or susceptible to cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) was conducted using RNASeq, after graft inoculation with Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). From approximately 1.92 billion short reads, the largest number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was obtained in the resistant (Namikonga) variety at 2 days after grafting (dag) (3887 DEGs) and 5 dag (4911 DEGs). At the same time points, several ...

  9. Effect of chemical and mechanical weed control on cassava yield, soil quality and erosion under cassava cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Titiek; Wisnubroto, Erwin; Utomo, Wani

    2016-04-01

    Three years field experiments were conducted to study the effect of chemical and mechanical weed control on soil quality and erosion under cassava cropping system. The experiment were conducted at University Brawijaya field experimental station, Jatikerto, Malang, Indonesia. The experiments were carried out from 2011 - 2014. The treatments consist of three cropping system (cassava mono culture; cassava + maize intercropping and cassava + peanut intercropping), and two weed control method (chemical and mechanical methods). The experimental result showed that the yield of cassava first year and second year did not influenced by weed control method and cropping system. However, the third year yield of cassava was influence by weed control method and cropping system. The cassava yield planted in cassava + maize intercropping system with chemical weed control methods was only 24 t/ha, which lower compared to other treatments, even with that of the same cropping system used mechanical weed control. The highest cassava yield in third year was obtained by cassava + peanuts cropping system with mechanical weed control method. After three years experiment, the soil of cassava monoculture system with chemical weed control method possessed the lowest soil organic matter, and soil aggregate stability. During three years of cropping soil erosion in chemical weed control method, especially on cassava monoculture, was higher compared to mechanical weed control method. The soil loss from chemical control method were 40 t/ha, 44 t/ha and 54 t/ha for the first, second and third year crop. The soil loss from mechanical weed control method for the same years was: 36 t/ha, 36 t/ha and 38 t/ha. Key words: herbicide, intercropping, soil organic matter, aggregate stability.

  10. Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.; Chitundu, M.

    2011-01-01

    and perceptions concerning cassava and chemical food safety. Chips, mixed biscuits and flour, procured from households and markets in three regions of Zambia (Luapula-North, Western and Southern) as well as products from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi, were analyzed for total cyanogenic...... of products commercially available on the market. Risk assessments disclose that effects harmful to the developing central nervous system (CNS) may be observed at a lower exposure than previously anticipated. We interviewed farmers in Zambia and Malawi about their cultivars, processing procedures......The cassava belt area in Southern Africa is experiencing an unforeseen surge in cassava production, processing and consumption. Little documentation exists on the effects of this surge on processing procedures, the prevailing levels of cyanogenic glucosides of products consumed and the levels...

  11. Fungal enrichment of cassava peels proteins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2006-02-02

    Feb 2, 2006 ... Short Communication. Fungal enrichment of cassava peels proteins. Obadina A.O.1*, Oyewole O.B.2 Sanni .L. O, 3 and Abiola S. S.4 .... 0.22 M KOH solution and a few drops of octanol were added to each sample. The mixtures were again heated for 30 min with constant stirring. The contents of the beaker ...

  12. Progress in cassava technology transfer in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Otim-Nape, G. W.; Bua, A.; Thresh, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    This publication contains the full text of papers presented at a Workshop held in Masindi, Uganda, 9-12 January 1996, and sponsored by the Gatsby Charitable Foundation. During the Workshop the need became evident for additional statistics on the multiplication, distribution and uptake of improved varieties of cassava in the six districts where activities are supported by The Gatsby Charitable Foundation and also elsewhere. The results of a subsequent survey in selected sub-counties of each of...

  13. Impact Of Thermotherapy And Chlorothalonil On Plantlets Production Of Some Genotypes Of Cassava Manihot Esculenta Crantz Produce In Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava Manihot esculenta is a starchy root plant of great economic importance in sub-Saharan Africa and particularly in Benin. Its production is confronted to virus diseases which cause a considerable losses of yield. This work aims to determine the impact of thermotherapy and chlorothalonil in the production of cassava material of plantation. Cuttings of four varieties RB89509 BEN86052 9102319 92B0057 are cultivated under two conditions of thermotherapy and a control under greenhouse during 4 weeks. These different conditions are a closed drying oven with 16 hours photoperiod at 40 C the day and 36C the night a drying oven Binder with photoperiod of 12 hours at 38C the day and 28C the night and the control carried out under the conditions of the greenhouse. The media used was Murashige and Skoog MS added with various amounts of chlorothalonil 0.6 gl and 2gl and control without chlorothalonil. Both techniques of thermotherapy eliminate the virus symptoms of cassava at the rate of 0 seedling infected in thermotherapy against 16 seedlings in natural condition. The technique of closed drying oven significantly favors the production of nodes at 5 level p0.000 and shoots p0.02 on the other hand Binder drying oven has no significant effect on the production of shoots p0.68. The chlorothalonil had a positive effect on in vitro infestations elimination of cassava p0.05 but influenced the growth and development of cassava explants by reducing of nodes production p0.01 without a lethal effect on the plantlets until the dose of 2gl.

  14. Improvement in the nutritive quality of cassava and its by-products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of the extent of fermentation of cassava and its by-products was made in order to highlight the role played by fermentation on the bio-conversion of cassava and cassava by-products for improved nutrient quality. The reasons for cassava products fermentation mentioned were synonymous with the reasons ...

  15. comparative analysis of type 3 and type 4 cassava peeling machines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOME

    hectares of land [3]. Other major producers of cassava are Congo DR, Thailand, Indonesia, China, Malaysia, ... with type 4 cassava peeling machine. The study seeks an uncomplicated design to make it cost effective just ... The design and development of type 4 cassava peeling machine is similar to type 3 cassava peeling ...

  16. Improvement in the nutritive quality of cassava and its by-products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... A review of the extent of fermentation of cassava and its by-products was made in order to highlight the role played by fermentation on the bio-conversion of cassava and cassava by-products for improved nutrient quality. The reasons for cassava products fermentation mentioned were synonymous with the.

  17. THE PRODUCTION OF A LOW DIETARY BULK DENSITY CASSAVA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iya beji

    ABSTRACT. Fermentation is an ancient food-processing technique, employed in the preparation of cassava flours for home consumption. This study compares two fermentation procedures practiced at the village level in Nigeria. In the first procedure, sliced cassava chips are soaked in water for 3 days; in the second ...

  18. Vitamin A cassava in Nigeria: crop development and delivery | Ilona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin A cassava in Nigeria: crop development and delivery. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... By 2016, HarvestPlus and its partners had successfully developed and delivered vitamin A cassava varieties to more than one million farming households in Nigeria and the Democratic ...

  19. control of the cassava mealybug in africa: lessons from a

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implementing IPM in cassava or other crops? These questions are ... Colombia originally feeding on P. herreni, and from Brazilon P. manihoti, are ...... Crop. Protection 8:147-168. Hammond, W.N.O. 1988. Ecological Assessment of Natural Enemies of the Cassava Mealybug. Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr. (Hom.:.

  20. Bemisia tabaci : the whitefly vector of cassava mosaic geminiviruses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant gaps in our understanding of this system remain, particularly concerning the importance of interactions of B. tabaci with other arthropod pests of cassava and the influence of ecological factors such as soil nutrients indirectly through their effects upon cassava. An holistic ecological approach to future work on B.

  1. Assessing arthropod pests and disease occurrence in cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On-station trials were conducted at CSIR-Crops Research Institute's research farms at Kwadaso and Ejura, Ashanti Region, Ghana, during 2010/2011 cropping season, to assess the pests and disease occurrence in cassava-cowpea intercrop farming systems and their effect on yield of produce. Three improved cassava ...

  2. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Adoption of Improved Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result shows that the major factors affecting adoption of improved cassava varieties were adaptability of the technology compatibility, age, educational status, sex and complexity of the technology. The result also reviewed that more of elderly people farmed cassava in the study area and the farmers were more of women ...

  3. WEED FLORA OF CASSAVA IN WEST NILE ZONES OF UGANDA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Information on weeds of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in eastern Africa is limited. The objective of this study was to establish the status of weed flora in selected cassava growing regions of Uganda. This study was conducted in 2013 at Abi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute; (AbiZARDI) in Arua, ...

  4. The effect of different cassava ( Manihot utilissima ) components on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Liver is the main organ in vertebrates that is responsible for metabolism of substances ingested. Cassava is a rich source of carbohydrate that provides calories for many Nigerians. It is grossly deficient in protein, fat, some minerals and vitamins. The effect of consumption of the different cassava components on ...

  5. Bemisia tabaci : the whitefly vector of cassava mosaic geminiviruses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecology of the Bemisia tabaci/cassava/African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) pathosystem is reviewed briefly with special attention given to the parameters affecting the pattern of population development of B. tabaci. Significant gaps in our understanding of this system remain, particularly concerning the importance of ...

  6. Characterization and utilization of fermented cassava flour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composite breads of 85% wheat and 15% cassava fermented flour were accepted by a sensory evaluation panellist. Fermented flour has been successfully used in breadmaking and placali preparation. It is a means of diversifying cassava utilization form. Keywords: Gelatinized food, yace cultivar, sensory evaluation, ...

  7. Efficiency of resource - use in cassava production in Kogi State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Kogi State to study the efficiency of resource use in cassava production and its implications on food security and environmental degradation. The study reveals that land, family labour, hired labour, fertilizer and planting materials are significant factors influencing the output of cassava. The scale coefficient is 1.304 hence, ...

  8. Quality evaluation of 'gari' produced from cassava and sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality evaluation of gari produced from mixes of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) tubers were investigated and reported. This is done to allow for the establishment of the best mixes of cassava and potato tubers to be adopted in the composite gari produced. Gari was produced ...

  9. Functional and pasting properties of cassava and sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and sweet potato starch mixtures at different ratios were investigated. Starches from four different cassava genotypes ('Adehye', AFS048, 'Bankye Botan' and OFF146) and one local sweet potato were used for the study. The swelling volume and swelling power of ...

  10. 181 Farmers Adoption Scenarios for the Control of Cassava Mosaic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exchange earner were highlighted and brought to lime light. ... expansion of postharvest processing and marketing outlets for cassava products. ... Purpose of the Study. The purpose of the study was to determine the farmers' adoption scenarios under the. Cassava Enterprise Development Project in Enugu State, Nigeria.

  11. Optimization of the Ethanol Fermentation of Cassava Wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work focused on the optimisation of the cassava wastewater medium for ethanol fermentation. The main thrust was the investigation of the influence of the glucose concentration, nutrient (NH4Cl) level, and cell concentration on the yield of ethanol from cassava wastewater. Twenty experiments based on ...

  12. Study of the Reproductive Characteristics of Nine Cassava Accessions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    as syrups, ethanol and biodegradable plastics. (Pranamuda et al., 1996; Garcia & Dale,. 1999). With such a wide use to which cassava can be put, the main objective of breeding cassava is to develop varieties superior to those currently cultivated, especially for the economically and, or biologically important traits such as ...

  13. Cassava as feedstock for ethanol production in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sanette

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... fermenting cassava pulp (starch and peels) to ethanol with a surface-engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nitayavardhana et al. (2010) used ultrasound to try and increase the ethanol yield and overall ethanol conversion efficiency when converting cassava starch to ethanol using S. cerevisiae, ...

  14. Effects of weather conditions on cassava yield in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the effect of agro-climatic variables on cassava yield in Nigeria. Secondary data on cassava yields were collected over the period of 40 years (1965 – 2004) from international institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan. The Linear Trend Model (regression) and Parvin\\'s Model were used for data ...

  15. 13 Comparative Effects of Cassava Starch and Simple Sugar in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    Abstract. Comparative effects of simple laboratory quality sugar and cassava starch on grade C35 concrete were studied in the laboratory. The simple white sugar was used at concentrations of 0 to 1% by weight of cement in concrete cured at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days using ordinary Portland cement. Cassava starch of the same ...

  16. Catalase activity of cassava ( Manihot esculenta ) plant under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African cassava mosaic virus has caused an immersed low yield of the cassava crop. The virus impacts stress on the cellular metabolism of the plant producing a lot of reactive oxygen species and increases the expression of the antioxidant enzymes. The activity of catalase as a response to oxidative stress was investigated ...

  17. The potential of using biotechnology to improve cassava: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarriaga-Aguirre, Paul; Brand, Alejandro; Medina, Adriana; Prías, Mónica; Escobar, Roosevelt; Martinez, Juan; Díaz, Paula; López, Camilo; Roca, Willy M; Tohme, Joe

    2016-01-01

    The importance of cassava as the fourth largest source of calories in the world requires that contributions of biotechnology to improving this crop, advances and current challenges, be periodically reviewed. Plant biotechnology offers a wide range of opportunities that can help cassava become a better crop for a constantly changing world. We therefore review the state of knowledge on the current use of biotechnology applied to cassava cultivars and its implications for breeding the crop into the future. The history of the development of the first transgenic cassava plant serves as the basis to explore molecular aspects of somatic embryogenesis and friable embryogenic callus production. We analyze complex plant-pathogen interactions to profit from such knowledge to help cassava fight bacterial diseases and look at candidate genes possibly involved in resistance to viruses and whiteflies-the two most important traits of cassava. The review also covers the analyses of main achievements in transgenic-mediated nutritional improvement and mass production of healthy plants by tissue culture and synthetic seeds. Finally, the perspectives of using genome editing and the challenges associated to climate change for further improving the crop are discussed. During the last 30 yr, great advances have been made in cassava using biotechnology, but they need to scale out of the proof of concept to the fields of cassava growers.

  18. Primary and cyclic somatic embryogenesis in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, C.J.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Cassava is one of the major food crops in the tropics. Several of the major problems in cassava can probably only be solved by breeding with cellular and molecular techniques, e.g., the introduction of specific genes (virus resistance, protein content, quality aspects and so on). These

  19. Field Screening of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Marmey P., Beeching J. R., Hamon S. and Charrier A. (1994). Evaluation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) germplasm collection using RAPD markers. Euphytica 74: 203–209. Roa A. C., Maya, M. M., Duque M. M., Tohme J., Allen A. C. and Bonierbale M. W. (1997). AFLP analysis of relationships among cassava and ...

  20. Understanding the productivity of cassava in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezui, K.S.

    2017-01-01

    Drought stress and sub-optimal soil fertility management are major constraints to crop production in general and to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in particular in the rain-fed cropping systems in West Africa. Cassava is an important source of calories for millions of smallholder households in

  1. Economics of Improved and Local Varieties of Cassava among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was based on the economics of improved and local cassava varieties and its welfare effect on producing farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria. A three-stage sampling procedure was used to collect information from 144 cassava farmers in the study area. However, only 120 pieces of questionnaires were retrieved and ...

  2. Effect of lactic acid bacteria starter culture fermentation of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... culture fermented cassava fufu flour were not significantly different in terms of color, odor, and texture, but the cassava fufu flour produced using starter culture SL19 had the highest overall acceptability. (P<0.05). Key words: ... human consumption, while in Asia and parts of Latin. America, it is also used ...

  3. Boosting food security in sub-Saharan Africa through cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boosting food security in sub-Saharan Africa through cassava production: a case study of Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Economic History ... The paper argues that cassava which is widely grown in Sub-Saharan Africa with a lot of variety of food derivatives from it can reduce to the barest minimum the present state of food ...

  4. Weeds and their control in cassava | Melifonwu | African Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate weed control methods for resource-limited cassava farmers, namely, cultural and biological, as well as an integrated system which combines two or more weed control methods at low input levels are suggested as ways of ensuring sustained production of cassava in developing countries. Key Words: Manihot ...

  5. Sources of resistance to cassava anthracnose disease | Owolade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 436 African landraces and 497 improved cassava genotypes were planted in 1996, 1997, 1998 and 1999 growing seasons.. These were evaluated for their reactions to cassava anthracnose disease (CAD) under natural infection conditions at Ibadan (a high infection zone). The severity of the disease was ...

  6. Processing method influences the effect of Cassava ( Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava is consumed in many tropical countries and is fast becoming the major raw material of many diets, especially in the bakery, brewery and pharmaceutical industries. This study was aimed at determining the effects of various formulations of Cassava feeds on blood lipid profile in rats. Forty adult Wistar rats weighing ...

  7. Differentials in returns and adoption of improved cassava varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analysed the determinants of adoption of improved cassava varieties by farmers in Umunneochi LGA of Abia State, estimated the level of adoption of the improved varieties and compared the yield and income among adopters and non-adopters of improved cassava varieties. A multistage sampling technique was ...

  8. Adoption of improved cassava varieties in six rural communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of 118 randomly selected cassava farmers was conducted in Ukpor, Amichi, Osumenyi, Ezinifite, Ekwulummili and Ebenator, communities in Nnewi South Local Government Area of Anambra State using structured interview schedule, to determine the use of improved cassava and local cassavacultivars in the area.

  9. Farmers\\' Perception Of Improved And Local Cassava Cultivars In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantity of the byproduct of cassava, taste of byproduct, maturity time and disease resistance significantly contributed to farmers' perception of the cassava cultivars. Apart from good agronomic characteristics of disease resistance and early maturity, farmers' perception of cultivars is also tied to food value issues, field ...

  10. Identification and analysis of cassava genotype TME3 bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava is an economically important crop in sub-Saharan Africa; however, its yield potential is constrained by cassava mosaic disease (CMD) infection. Classical genetics and biotechnology are being harnessed to overcome the disease and secure yields for farmers. The CMD2 resistance locus flanked by three simple ...

  11. Efficency of cassava processing techniques among rural women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty eight hours was spent in processing cassava tuber into tapioca using traditional methods. It was discovered that using trado-modern and modern methods in cassava tuber processing were more efficient in terms of output, labour input and costs than traditional method. However, there existed no modern technology ...

  12. Effects of submerged and anaerobic fermentations on cassava flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava tubers for processing into cassava flour, Lafun a Nigerian locally fermented product was subjected to two different types of fermentations: submerged and anaerobic fermentation for 72 h. Physicochemical changes that occurred during fermentation and their influence on the functional, rheological and sensory ...

  13. Comparative Effects of Cassava Starch and Simple Sugar in Cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative effects of simple laboratory quality sugar and cassava starch on grade C35 concrete were studied in the laboratory. The simple white sugar was used at concentrations of 0 to 1% by weight of cement in concrete cured at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days using ordinary Portland cement. Cassava starch of the same ...

  14. Investigation of ethanol productivity of cassava crop as a sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanol productivity of cassava crop was investigated in a laboratory experiment by correlating volumes and masses of ethanol produced to the masses of samples used. Cassava tubers (variety TMS 30555) were peeled, cut and washed. 5, 15, 25 and 35 kg samples of the tubers were weighed in three replicates, ...

  15. Technical Efficiency Among Cassava Farmers im Ikenne Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava has played and continues to play a remarkable role on the agricultural stage of Nigeria. The inability of the country meeting existing demand has been traced to resource use efficiency of the farmers. The study evaluates the technical efficiency among cassava farmers in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun ...

  16. Resource Use Efficency by Rural Poor Cassava Farmers in Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motivated by this, the study aim is to assess the possibility of alleviating poverty in the rural set-up through efficient and effective use of resources by rural poor cassava farmers in Imo State. It adopts a multistage sampling technique, and a total of 120 cassava farmers were used for the study. The data was analyzed using ...

  17. Inventory of cassava plant protection and development projects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 303 cassava protection and development projects were identified of which about half are plant protection-oriented. Most activities on cassava protection have been centred on biological control and host plant resistance. The least activity has been on chemical control. The applicability of the collected database is ...

  18. Refined cassava flour in bread making: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Alejandra Aristizabal Galvis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Different studies have developed a variety of breads using cassava flour, with similar characteristics to wheat flour breads. The use of cassava flour in bread making is a convenient alternative for promoting the use of a local crop as well as reducing imports of wheat flour, promoting the production of high quality cassava flour, offering a gluten-free product and developing biofortified and fortified foods. Although the substitution level of cassava flour is limited, in some products, the incorporation of additives or flours from other crops improve the nutritional value and breadmaking quality of the baked foods. Several limitations have hindered the success of initiatives to promote, in some cassava producing countries, the intensive use cassava flour in bread making. Among these include the costs and efficiency of processing technologies, standards of the quality of cassava flour and lack of favorable policies. Further studies about bioavailability and retention of nutrients on baked foods and evaluation on the effects of processing cassava flour in relation to increasing the resistance starch are required to provide scientific evident for the health benefits of this flour.

  19. Assessment of labour roles by gender in cassava production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the labour roles played by different gender in cassava production in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 cassava farmers purposively selected from three (3) communities with the aid of questionnaire validated by expert judgment. Data collected were ...

  20. Effects of processing conditions on hydrolysis of cassava starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different procedures for hydrolyzing raw cassava starch were studied, namely: acid, acid-enzyme and enzyme-enzyme hydrolysis. The effects of temperature, initial cassava starch concentration, acid concentration and time on acid hydrolysis using dilute hydrochloric acid were investigated. In addition, the effect of initial ...

  1. Effects of different levels of supplementation with cassava leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different levels of supplementation with cassava leaves ( Manihot esculenta ) on growth, parasite load and some characteristics of blood in the dwarf goat ... Also, supplementations with fresh cassava leaves do not affect red blood cells, white blood cells, haematocrite and sedimentation speed of the blood of Dwarf ...

  2. Economic Efficiency of small and Medium Scale Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... medium scale enterprises. Small and medium scale cassava processor should therefore focus more on ways of accessing credit while government should ensure more extension visits to the processors. Key words; Economic Efficiency, Small and Medium Enterprise, Cassava Processing Enterprise, Nigeria, Agribusiness ...

  3. Non-Vector Mechanisms for Transmission and Infection of Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    In replicated screen-house experiments, transmission of CBSV was achieved through cutting tools (22 %) using susceptible cassava cv. Albert as test plants. Up to 54 % ... such recent wide-spread detection of the disease is not known. ..... Legg JP and MD Raya Survey of cassava virus diseases in Tanzania. Intern. J.

  4. Assessment of Extension Service Delivery on Improved Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    Assessment of Extension Service Delivery on Improved. Cassava Technologies Among Cassava Farmers in Osun. State, Nigeria. 1. Ajala, A. O.,. 1. Ogunjimi, S.I. and. 2. Farinde, A.J.. 1Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Landmark University, Omu –Aran, Kwara. State. 2Department of Agricultural ...

  5. effect of cassava flour processing methods and substitution level

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MASAMBA

    produce bread. This study was carried out to assess the effect of using two differently processed cassava flour (fermented and unfermented) and substitution level on proximate ... to improve the bread characteristics from different cassava processing methods and assessing ..... Tobago. Journal of Curriculum and Teaching.

  6. Farmers Accessibility to the Cassava Initiative Elements in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Government cassava initiative was introduced in July 2002 to address the poor linkage between production, marketing and utilization of cassava. This study examined the extent of farmers' accessibility to the elements of this initiative. Data were obtained from individuals who had at least 10 years membership of ...

  7. Effect od Soybean/Cassava Flour Blend in the Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava tubers were also peeled, chopped, dried and milled in a similar fashion. Eventually, the soybean and cassava flour samples were blended individually with the quality protein maize flour in three different proportions: 5:95, 10:90 and 15:85, respectively. Normal maize flour was used as a control for the quality ...

  8. Toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents to African catfish: Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative lethal and sublethal toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents from a local food factory were investigated on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings using a renewable static bioassay. The physico-chemical characteristics of the cassava wastewater effluents showed a number of deviations from the standards of the Federal ...

  9. Isolation and characterization of amylase from fermented cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The processing of cassava tubers for the production of nutrient enriched cassava flour, gari and farinha madioca, is usually accompanied with the production of stinking wastewater which usually constitute nuisance to both terrestrial and aquatic life. Thus, this study sought to assess the potential utilization of the wastewater ...

  10. Sensory evaluation of different preparations of cassava leaves from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aikay Shaikh

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... Cassava leaves are largely consumed in Africa and are among the top three African indigenous vegetables rich in nutrients. Leaves from bitter (Manihot utilissima), sweet (Manihot dulcis) and wild. (Manihot glaziovii) species of cassava were cooked by boiling in salted (sodium bicarbonate and table.

  11. Sensory evaluation of different preparations of cassava leaves from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava leaves are largely consumed in Africa and are among the top three African indigenous vegetables rich in nutrients. Leaves from bitter (Manihot utilissima), sweet (Manihot dulcis) and wild (Manihot glaziovii) species of cassava were cooked by boiling in salted (sodium bicarbonate and table salt) water with the ...

  12. Gender differentials in adoption of cassava value addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated adoption by gender of Cassava Value Addition Technologies (CVATs) in Imo State. It identified CVATs disseminated to farmers among other issues. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used in the selection of respondents. A sample size of 150 cassava farmers comprising of 75 male and 75 ...

  13. simple and low-cost strategy for micropropagation of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the aim of transferring micropropagation techniques to cassava seed producers, a simple and lowcost medium for in vitro micropropagation was developed. CM6740-7 cassava cultivar from CIAT was used as planting material. Commercially available nutrients were used in order to substitute the propagation media ...

  14. Toxicity of Cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) effluent on the Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of cassava tuber was conducted to determine some of the active ingredients and the toxicity of cassava effluent on the fingerlings of the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L). The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of hydrogen cyanide, oxalate and phytate. While hydrogen cyanide and oxalate ...

  15. Production Relationships among Cassava Farmers in Etche Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined production relationships among cassava farmers in Etche L.G.A. of Rivers State, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was used in the data generation exercise. A total of 96 cassava farmers were randomly selected from three out of the five clans for interview using structured questionnaire.

  16. Assessment of Constraints to Cassava Value-Added Enterprises in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The severe constraints of cassava processing were lack of funds, high cost of processing equipment, and scarcity of cassava tubers with respective mean scores ( X ) of 3.44, 3.35 and 3.23. The chi-square test of independence revealed that positive and significant relationship existed between socio-economic characteristics ...

  17. Nutritional potentials of differently processed cassava peels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two unconventional feed ingredients (cassava peels and whole bovine blood) were processed and the effect of such processing on their chemical compositions was examined. Cassava peels from the sweet variety TMS 30572 were subjected to 3 different processing methods namely ash treatment (ATD), parboiling (PAB) ...

  18. optimization of the ethanol fermentation of cassava wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Umo

    Optimising cassava wastewater as the medium for ethanol production would improve the ethanol yield, and thereby reduce the cost of production. KEYWORDS: Ethanol, cassava wastewater, optimization, culture medium, response surface methodology. 1. INTRODUCTION. Biofuels which are fuels derived from biomass ...

  19. Evaluation of the effect of ginger modified cassava starch as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raw cassava starch has been used as thickener and binder in the formulation of water based paint, but with a problem of loss of viscosity in a very short period. This study evaluates the modification of cassava starch using active component of ginger extract and its use as a water- based paint thickener. 150 g of starch in ...

  20. Socio-economic factors influencing cassava production in Kuje and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined socio-economic factors influencing output level of cassava production in Kuje and Abaji Area Councils of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The specific objectives were to:identify the socio-economic characteristics of sampled cassava farmers in the study area; determine the socio-economic factors ...

  1. quality and safety characteristics of cassava crisps sold in urban

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    QUALITY AND SAFETY CHARACTERISTICS OF CASSAVA CRISPS SOLD IN. URBAN KENYA. G.O. ABONG', S.I. SHIBAIRO, ... This study sought to characterise the quality and safety in terms of cyanide levels of cassava crisps ... Crantz) to food security and incomes for rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa, cannot be.

  2. The contibutions of soil properties to cassava yield parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Collaborative Study of Cassava in Africa (COSCA) undertook cassava yield and soil fertility surveys in sub-Saharan Africa in 1991 with the objectives of obtaining average yields from farmers' fields and determining factors which could account for the yield differences across the various climate, altitude, population ...

  3. Biodegradation Potentials of Cassava Mill Effluent (CME) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    This work was aimed at assessing the biodegradation potentials of indigenous microbial isolates from cassava mill effluent ... Bioremediation of cassava mill effluent by these microorganisms was manifested in the reduction of biological oxygen demand ... in the manufacturing industries and degradation or transformation of ...

  4. Status of cassava mosaic disease and whitefly population in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-08-19

    Aug 19, 2015 ... Table 1. Primer pairs used for amplification of cassava mosaic begomoviruses. Primer. Sequence (5' - 3'). Specificity Strand. DNA component. JSP001a .... Cassava mosaic begomoviruses. EACMVb. ACMV + EACMV. Lusaka. 15 (6.8%). 7 (4.7%). 2 (13.3%). 6 (10.7%). Luapula. 14 (6.4%). 12 (8.1%). 0 (0.0 ...

  5. Anaerobic co-digestion of cassava peels and manure: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment before use as a substrate, hence, a multi-stage and high rate digestion system might be adop-ted in efficient digestion of cassava peels. To optimize carbon-nitrogen ratio for efficient digestion, cassava sh-ould be co-digested with manure.

  6. Effect of cassava effluent on Okada natural water | Ehiagbonare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effect of cassava effluent on Okada natural water. It was observed that the colour, taste and odour of the water changed after cassava effluent had been discharched into it. This was an indication of pollution. The physico-chemical analysis showed that the characteristics of water analysed varied ...

  7. Economics of cassava farmers' adoption of improved varieties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the economics of cassava farmers' adoption of improved varieties in Isoko North Local Government Area of Delta State. Studies on the economic analysis of farmers adoption of improved cassava varieties in the study area is lacking. This therefore constitutes a research gap which must be ...

  8. Selection and in-vitro propagation of five cassava ( Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirteen cassava cultivars were collected from farmers in the Greater Accra Region using a structured questionanire. Five cultivars namely, Ankrah, Bosom nsia, Biafra, Santom and Afisiafi were selected based on popularity, duration to maturity and tolerance to African Cassava Mosaic Virus (ACMV) disease. The cultivars ...

  9. Soil Contamination from Cassava Wastewater Discharges in a Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten soil samples were collected with a 9mm Dutch auger along two transects for six months for the purposes of investigating the effects of cassava wastewater on the physico-chemical characteristics of soils around a cassava processing plant in a rural community in the Niger Delta. It was observed that the addition of ...

  10. Effect of lactic acid bacteria starter culture fermentation of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of lactic acid fermentation of cassava on the chemical and sensory characteristic of fufu flour were investigated. Two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were used as starter cultures for the fermentation of cassava to fufu for 96 h. The resultant wet fufu samples were dried at 65oC in a cabinet dryer for 48 h and ...

  11. Isolation and characterization of resistant gene analogs in cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sheds light on the nature of NBS- leucine-rich repeat (LRR) R genes in cassava and closely related taxa in the family Euphorbiaceae. These candidate sequences mapped to the draft cassava genome with high sequence similarity to predicted NBS-LRR genes. These novel sequences may serve as a stepping ...

  12. Assessment of food safety practices among cassava processors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food safety assessment is an effective means of discovering knowledge and data gaps that limit effective risk analysis and at the same time providing information to develop public policies on food safety management. The study assessed the cassava food safety practices among cassava processors in selected rural ...

  13. The effects of cropping systems on cassava whiteflies in Colombia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cassava whiteflies Aleurotrachelus socialis and Trialeurodes variabilis are outbreak pests which cause high yield losses in the Departments of Tolima and Cauca, Colombia. Studies were undertaken to examine the effects of intercopping and cassava varietal mixtures on whitefly population dynamics and related crop ...

  14. Experimental poisoning by cassava wastewater in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir C. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The processing of Manihot esculenta (cassava tubers yield different by-products, including cassava wastewater, which is the liquid pressed out of the tuber after it has been mechanically crushed. Cyanide poisoning after ingestion of cassava wastewater has been reported in ruminants and pigs in Northeastern Brazil. With the aim of studying its toxicity, cassava wastewater was administered orally to six sheep at doses of 0.99, 0.75, 0.70, 0.63, and 0.5 mg of hydrocyanic acid kg-1 body weight, which corresponded to 14.2, 10.6, 9.8, 8.89, and 7.1 mL of wastewater kg-1. On the second day, the sheep received a volume of wastewater which corresponded to 0.46, 0.34, 0.31, 0.28, and 0.23 mg of HCN kg-1. A sheep used as control received 9.9 mL of water kg-1 BW. Sheep that received from 0.75 to 0.99 mg kg-1 of HCN on the first day exhibited severe clinical signs of poisoning, and the sheep that received 0.63 and 0.5 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs. All sheep were successfully treated with sodium thiosulfate. On the second day, only the sheep that received 0.46 mg kg-1 and 0.34 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs and recovered spontaneously. The concentration of HCN in the wastewater was 71.69±2.19 μg mL-1 immediately after production, 30.56±2.45 μg mL-1 after 24 hours, and 24.25±1.28 μg mL-1 after 48 hours. The picric acid paper test was strongly positive 5 minutes after production; moderately positive 24 hours after production, and negative 48 hours after production. We conclude that cassava wastewater is highly toxic to sheep if ingested immediately after production, but rapidly loses toxicity in 24-48 hours.

  15. Optimization of the fermentation time and bacteria cell concentration in the starter culture for cyanide acid removal from wild cassava (Manihot glaziovii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawashi Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one of the most widespread starchy tuberous roots in Indonesia, being one of the typical plants used in the starch market. However, due to the high cyanide content (338.41 ppm, these roots become a poison if they are unsuitably processed. Therefore, a detoxification process is needed to reduce the cyanide level to the safe level for human consumption (10 ppm. This study was focused on (i the investigation of the detoxification potential of fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum on the cyanide level of wild cassava tubers (Manihot glaziovii and (ii the optimization of the fermentation time and bacteria cell number in the starter culture. The fermentation was performed for different periods of time (12, 24 and 36 h and various initial bacteria cell number (7x1010, 7x1011, 1.05x1012, and 3.5x1012 L. plantarum cells. The results showed a significant decrease of the cyanide level, 97 % of cyanide degradation being noticed after 36 h of fermentation for an initial bacterial cell number of 3.5x1012 cells. Hence, the strong point of the study consists of a noteworthy reduction of the cyanide content in wild cassava in short periods, whereas the protein content was increased (from 1.5% to 3.5% in Modified Cassava Flour (MOCAF.

  16. Use of radiation for the improvement of fungal strains as the nutritional additive in the carbohydrate-rich root crops of Nigeria. Coordinated programme on radiation microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, E.

    1976-04-01

    After a short introduction describing the use of West African root plants (yams, cassava) as food and ways of increasing the protein content of this food, experiments on protein production by microbial fermentation of starches are described. Cassava starch was fermented as solid extrusions and in liquid phase with Rhizopus oligosporus wild and mutant strains (mutants obtained by irradiation with Co 60 source). The mutant strain was found to produce more proteins both on solid cassava starch extrusions and in liquid starch media. Experiments were carried out also with combinations of Rhizopus and other micro-organisms (Candida, Endomycopsis, Geotrichum, Saccharomyces) and with cassava starch supplemented with sugar cane molasses. The cyanogen glucoside content of cassava and the effect of cyanide on the protein production was also investigated

  17. Expanding the Application of Cassava Value Chain Technologies Through UPoCA Project

    OpenAIRE

    Braima Dama James; P. Bramel; E. Witte; R. Asiedu; D. Watson; R. Okechuckwu.

    2013-01-01

    Cassava can play a key role in rural economic growth in Africa, but are we there yet? Cassava varieties with 50% more yielding potential and technologies to boost processing and marketing of cassava are available. However, the sub-sector is constrained by low productivity and marketing difficulties. In 2008, USAID and IITA initiated the project “Unleashing the Power of Cassava in Response to Food Price Crisis (UPOCA) as a multi-country and inter-institutional partnership enabling cassava sub-...

  18. Effect of cassava mosaic disease, soil fertility, plant spacing and their interactions on cassava yields in Zanzibar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spittel, M.C.; Huis, van A.

    2000-01-01

    Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) and low soil fertility are limiting factors for the production of the preferred cassava varWiety Kibiriti mwekundu on the northern part of the island of Pemba in Zanzibar. Because CMD severity, assessed 7 months after planting in shifting cultivation fields at wide

  19. Yellow cassava: efficacy of provitamin A rich cassava on improvement of vitamin A status in Kenyan schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, E.F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Biofortified yellow cassava has great potential to alleviate vitamin A deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa and can be used as a complementary approach to other interventions. However, direct evidence whether yellow cassava can significantly contribute to the vitamin A

  20. Properties of thermoplastic starch from cassave bagasse and cassava starch and their blends with poly (lactic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava bagasse is an inexpensive and broadly available waste byproduct from cassava starch production. It contains roughly 50% cassava starch along with mostly fiber and could be a valuable feedstock for various bioproducts. Cassava bagasse and cassava starch were used in this study to make fiber-r...