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Sample records for cassava manihot esculenta

  1. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Simon E

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of plants is an indispensable technique used for fundamental research and crop improvement. Recent advances in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) transformation have facilitated the effective generation of stably transformed cassava plants with favorable traits. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable, embryogenic callus has evolved to become the most widely used approach and has been adopted by research laboratories in Africa. This procedure utilizes axillary meristem tissue (buds) to produce primary and secondary somatic embryos and subsequently friable, embryogenic callus. Agrobacterium harboring a binary expression cassette is used to transform this tissue, which is regenerated via cotyledons and shoot organogenesis to produce rooted in vitro plantlets. This chapter details each step of the procedure using the model cultivar 60444 and provides supplementary notes to successfully produce transgenic cassava.

  2. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msikita, Weston; Ihemere, Uzoma; Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard T

    2006-01-01

    During the last three years the generation of stably transformed cassava plants having value-added traits has become a reality. Currently, two Agrobacterium-mediated transformation systems are routinely used to engineer cassava. These systems use either somatic embryos or friable embryogenic calli. This paper presents detailed protocols for the transformation of cassava using primary somatic embryos. The effects of explant types, tissue culture conditions, and bacterial and plasmid related factors on transformation efficiency are discussed.

  3. Field Performance of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Tissue culture-derived plantlets, Field plant growth, Yield, Root tuber characteristics,. Cassava. Introduction. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical crop grown in the lowlands of Asia,. Africa and· South America for its thickened and tuberose roots. It produces more calories per unit of land than any other ...

  4. Micropropagation of selected cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava, (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a perennial woody herb which is cultivated in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Asia for its edible starchy roots and its ability to withstand marginal environmental conditions. Due to high seed dormancy and sluggish germination rate, farmers normally practice propagation of ...

  5. Evaluation of cassava (Manihot esculenta (Crantz) planting methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of cassava (Manihot esculenta (Crantz) planting methods and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] sowing dates on the yield performance of the component species in cassava/soybean intercrop under the humid tropical lowlands of southeastern Nigeria.

  6. Influence of cutting growing cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence du prélèvement des boutures de manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) en cours de vegetation sur la sévérité des maladies et ravageurs : Influence of cutting growing cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) plants on the severity of pests and diseases.

  7. Field Screening of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Marmey P., Beeching J. R., Hamon S. and Charrier A. (1994). Evaluation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) germplasm collection using RAPD markers. Euphytica 74: 203–209. Roa A. C., Maya, M. M., Duque M. M., Tohme J., Allen A. C. and Bonierbale M. W. (1997). AFLP analysis of relationships among cassava and ...

  8. Physiological causes of yield variation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltkamp, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important crop in many parts of the tropics, being mainly cultivated for its storage roots. Farmers' yields are low and one of the constraints to higher yields is the lack of adequate clones. At the beginning of the 1970s an extensive

  9. Effect of varying levels of dietary cassava ( Manihot esculenta, Crantz )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    60 day old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were used for this study which lasted for 7 weeks. Four experimental diets A, B, C and D were formulated and were designed to be both isonitrogenous and isocaloric in formulation. While diet A contained no cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf meal (CLM) and served as the control, diets B, ...

  10. Factors affecting in vitro propagation of cassava ( Manihot esculenta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is a perennial shrub of the Euphorbiaceae family native of eastern tropical South America, grown in the tropics of Africa and Asia for its tuberous roots. Its cultivation is constrained by several problems including the use of cuttings infected with diseases and pests, the lack of high quality ...

  11. Unveiling the Micronome of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogans, Sarah Jane; Rey, Chrissie

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of endogenous non-coding single-stranded small RNAs (21-24 nt in length), which serve as post-transcriptional negative regulators of gene expression in plants. Despite the economic importance of Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) only 153 putative cassava miRNAs (from multiple germplasm) are available to date in miRBase (Version 21), and identification of a number of miRNAs from the cassava EST database have been limited to comparisons with Arabidopsis. In this study, mature sequences of all known plant miRNAs were used as a query for homologous searches against cassava EST and GSS databases, and additional identification of novel and conserved miRNAs were gleaned from next generation sequencing (NGS) of two cassava landraces (T200 from southern Africa and TME3 from West Africa) at three different stages post explant transplantation and acclimatization. EST and GSS derived data revealed 259 and 32 miRNAs in cassava, and one of the miRNA families (miR2118) from previous studies has not been reported in cassava. NGS data collectively displayed expression of 289 conserved miRNAs in leaf tissue, of which 230 had not been reported previously. Of the 289 conserved miRNAs identified in T200 and TME3, 208 were isomiRs. Thirty-nine novel cassava-specific miRNAs of low abundance, belonging to 29 families, were identified. Thirty-eight (98.6%) of the putative new miRNAs identified by NGS have not been previously reported in cassava. Several miRNA targets were identified in T200 and TME3, highlighting differential temporal miRNA expression between the two cassava landraces. This study contributes to the expanding knowledge base of the micronome of this important crop.

  12. Exploring the African cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic-embryogenic competence of eleven cassava genotypes was determined in induction media containing 8 and 12 mg/l of the auxin picloram, using axillary meristems and leaf lobes as explants. There were significant differences (p<0.01) among the cassava genotypes for ability to form somatic embryos. Proembryo ...

  13. Genetic transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H Q; Sautter, C; Potrykus, I; Puonti-Kaerlas, J

    1996-06-01

    Genetic engineering can be used to complement traditional breeding methods in crop plant improvement. Transfer of genes from heterologous species provides the means of selectively introducing new traits into crop plants and expanding the gene pool beyond what has been available to traditional breeding systems. The prerequisites for genetic engineering are efficient transformation and tissue culture systems that allow selection and regeneration of transgenic plants. Cassava, an integral plant for food security in developing countries, has until now been recalcitrant to transformation approaches. We report here a method for regenerating stably transformed cassava plants after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which opens cassava for future improvement via biotechnology.

  14. Isolation and characterisation of starch biosynthesis genes from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munyikwa, T.R.I.

    1997-01-01


    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical crop grown for its starchy thickened roots, mainly by peasant farmers, in the tropics, for whom it is a staple food. There is an increasing demand for the use of cassava in processed food and feed products, and in the

  15. Biofuels and Biotechnology: Cassava (Manihot esculenta) as a Research Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes S, Simon; Chavarriaga, Paul; Lopez, Camilo

    2010-01-01

    Fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, obtained from plants and their constituents, have recently received the world's attention as a true alternative to the global energy supply, mainly because they are cheaper and less contaminant of the environment than the currently used, non-renewable fossil fuels. Due to the pushing biofuel market, the world is currently experiencing an increase of agricultural land devoted to grow crops used to obtain them, like maize and sugar cane, as well as crops that have the potential to become new sources of biofuels. Similarly, this emerging market is boosting the basic research oriented towards obtaining better quality and yield in these crops. Plants that store high quantities of starch, simple sugars or oils, are the target of the biofuel industry, although the newest technologies use also cellulose as raw material to produce fuels. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is widely grown in the tropics and constitutes a staple food for approximately 10% of the world population. The high starch content of its storage roots, together with the use of conventional and non-conventional breeding turn this crop into an option to obtain better adapted varieties for ethanol production. This manuscript reviews the current state of biofuels worldwide and at the national level,and discusses the benefits and challenges faced in terms of effect on the environment and the human food chain. Finally, it discusses the potential of cassava as a source of raw material for obtaining biofuels in Colombia.

  16. Manihot esculenta Crantz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sukhumal_wha

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its application in analysis of ... Relative real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a well- established method ... Key words: Cassava, housekeeping gene, hydroxynitrile lyase, linamarase, real-time polymerase chain reaction ...

  17. Isolation and characterisation of starch biosynthesis genes from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    Munyikwa, T.R.I.

    1997-01-01


    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical crop grown for its starchy thickened roots, mainly by peasant farmers, in the tropics, for whom it is a staple food. There is an increasing demand for the use of cassava in processed food and feed products, and in the paper and textile industries amongst others. This thesis describes research on the cloning of the genes encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small and large subunits (AGPase B and S, respectively)...

  18. Violet diode laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: a tool for assessing mosaic disease severity in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin; Eghan, Moses J; Asare-Bediako, Elvis; Buah-Bassuah, Paul K

    2012-01-01

    Violet diode laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence was used in agronomical assessment (disease severity and average yield per plant). Because cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is of economic importance, improved cultivars with various levels of affinity for cassava mosaic disease were investigated. Fluorescence data correlated with cassava mosaic disease severity levels and with the average yield per plant.

  19. Nutritional composition of "gari" analog produced from cassava (Manihot esculenta) and cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) tuber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Ogundele, Femi G; Ojubanire, Basirat A; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B; Bello, Olayide W

    2014-11-01

    Physicochemical properties ofgari analog produced from coprocessing of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) were investigated. Cassava tuber and cocoyam were coprocessed at different percentages before frying separately. Proximate composition, mineral content, antinutritional factors, and sensory evaluation of various samples were determined. The results showed that the moisture content of all the samples was in the same range (7.28 ± 0.30 to 7.78 ± 0.14%). The protein content (1.57 ± 0.14 to 4.43 ± 0.16), ash (1.89 ± 0.10 to 2.15 ± 0.30), and crude fiber (1.53 ± 0.50 to 2.19 ± 0.10%) showed a significant increase with increase in the level of cocoyam substitution. The fat and carbohydrate content decreased with an increase in cocoyam level. The mineral contents of the samples increased with an increase in cocoyam content with sample F having the highest value of potassium, followed by samples E and D (68 mg/100 g, 35 mg/100 g, and 24 mg/100 g). The antinutritional factors of all the samples were at very low concentration while samples B, C, and D competed favorably with sample A (control) in sensory evaluation. In conclusion, coprocessing of cassava and cocoyam improved the nutritional quality of thegari produced with high level of acceptance from the taste panelist.

  20. Pathological and Molecular Characterization of Xanthomonas campestris Strains Causing Diseases of Cassava (Manihot esculenta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdier, Valérie; Boher, Bernard; Maraite, Henri; Geiger, Jean-Paul

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-one strains representing Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis and cassavae and different pathovars occurring on plants of the family Euphorbiaceae were characterized by ribotyping with a 16S+23S rRNA probe of Escherichia coli and by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with a plasmid probe from X. campestris pv. manihotis. Pathogenicity tests were performed on cassava (Manihot esculenta). Histological comparative studies were conducted on strains of two pathovars of X. campestris (vascular and mesophyllic) that attack cassava. Our results indicated that X. campestris pv. manihotis and cassavae have different modes of action in the host and supplemented the taxonomic data on restriction fragment length polymorphism that clearly separate the two pathovars. The plasmid probe could detect multiple restriction fragment length polymorphisms among strains of the pathovar studied. Ribotyping provides a useful tool for rapid identification of X. campestris pathovars on cassava. Images PMID:16349463

  1. Food safety: importance of composition for assessing genetically modified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijssen, Fredrika W Jansen; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2013-09-04

    The importance of food composition in safety assessments of genetically modified (GM) food is described for cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) that naturally contains significantly high levels of cyanogenic glycoside (CG) toxicants in roots and leaves. The assessment of the safety of GM cassava would logically require comparison with a non-GM crop with a proven "history of safe use". This study investigates this statement for cassava. A non-GM comparator that qualifies would be a processed product with CG level below the approved maximum level in food and that also satisfies a "worst case" of total dietary consumption. Although acute and chronic toxicity benchmark CG values for humans have been determined, intake data are scarce. Therefore, the non-GM cassava comparator is defined on the "best available knowledge". We consider nutritional values for cassava and conclude that CG residues in food should be a priority topic for research.

  2. Analysis of heterogeneity of Copia-like retrotransposons in the genome of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadegesin, Micheal A; Beeching, John R

    2011-12-20

    Retrotransposons are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes and now proving to be useful genetic tools for genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses, especially in plants. In order to assess the diversity of Ty1/Copia-like retrotransposons of cassava, we used PCR primers anchored on the conserved domains of reverse transcriptases (RTs) to amplify cassava Ty1/Copia-like RT. The PCR product was cloned and sequenced. Sequences analysis of the clones revealed the presence of 69 families of Ty1/Copia-like retrotransposon in the genome of cassava. Comparative analyses of the predicted amino acid sequences of these clones with those of other plants showed that retroelements of this class are very heterogeneous in cassava. Cassava is widely grown for its edible roots in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Cassava roots, though poor in protein, are rich in starch (makes up about 80% of the dry matter), vitamin C, carotenes, calcium and potassium. It has a great commercial importance as a source of starch and starch based products. Realizing the importance of cassava, it stands out as a crop to benefit from biotechnology development. Heterogeneity of Mecops (Manihot esculenta copia-like Retrotransposons) showed that they may be useful for genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses of cassava germplasm.

  3. Case of escape in cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, N M A; Mendonza, M

    2017-02-08

    Two cassava escapes where collected from cultivated fields near natural habitat in Bolivia. They are described morphologically and analyzed cytogenetically in this study. It is suggested that they are the product of backcrosses of cassava interspecific hybrids with the cultigen itself, and that selective conditions have developed in which certain forms of cassava segregates have adapted to grow wildly in natural habitats near cassava fields. These segregates may hybridize with cultivated cassava upon coming in contact with such varieties. Because these escapes have incorporated useful genes from the wild into their genetic structure, they could be used for cassava improvement since their genetic barriers with other forms of cassava are very weak.

  4. Catalase activity of cassava (Manihot esculenta) plant under African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    . E-mail: sabastina.amoako@kintampo-hrc.org. Tel: +233543550743. Abbreviations: CBSD, Cassava brown streak disease; ACMV, African cassava mosaic virus; ROS, reactive oxygen species; H2O2, hydrogen peroxide; BSA, bovine serum ...

  5. Cassava chip (Manihot esculenta Crantz as an energy source for ruminant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Wanapat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is widely grown in sub-tropical and tropical areas, producing roots as an energy source while the top biomass including leaves and immature stems can be sun-dried and used as cassava hay. Cassava roots can be processed as dried chip or pellet. It is rich in soluble carbohydrate (75 to 85% but low in crude protein (2 to 3%. Its energy value is comparable to corn meal but has a relatively higher rate of rumen degradation. Higher levels of non-protein nitrogen especially urea (1 to 4% can be successfully incorporated in concentrates containing cassava chip as an energy source. Cassava chip can also be processed with urea and other ingredients (tallow, sulfur, raw banana meal, cassava hay, and soybean meal to make products such as cassarea, cassa-ban, and cassaya. Various studies have been conducted in ruminants using cassava chip to replace corn meal in the concentrate mixtures and have revealed satisfactory results in rumen fermentation efficiency and the subsequent production of meat and milk. In addition, it was advantageous when used in combination with rice bran in the concentrate supplement. Practical home-made-concentrate using cassava chip can be easily prepared for use on farms. A recent development has involved enriching protein in cassava chips, yielding yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP of up to 47.5% crude protein, which can be used to replace soybean meal. It is therefore, recommended to use cassava chip as an alternative source of energy to corn meal when the price is economical and it is locally available.

  6. Analysis of cassava (Manihot esculenta) ESTs: A tool for the discovery of genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Andres; Neme, Rafik; Sanabria, Carolina; Lopez, Camilo

    2011-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the main source of calories for more than 1,000 millions of people around the world and has been consolidated as the fourth most important crop after rice, corn and wheat. Cassava is considered tolerant to abiotic and biotic stress conditions; nevertheless these characteristics are mainly present in non-commercial varieties. Genetic breeding strategies represent an alternative to introduce the desirable characteristics into commercial varieties. A fundamental step for accelerating the genetic breeding process in cassava requires the identification of genes associated to these characteristics. One rapid strategy for the identification of genes is the possibility to have a large collection of ESTs (expressed sequence tag). In this study, a complete analysis of cassava ESTs was done. The cassava ESTs represent 80,459 sequences which were assembled in a set of 29,231 unique genes (unigen), comprising 10,945 contigs and 18,286 singletones. These 29,231 unique genes represent about 80% of the genes of the cassava's genome. Between 5% and 10% of the unigenes of cassava not show similarity to any sequences present in the NCBI database and could be consider as cassava specific genes. a functional category was assigned to a group of sequences of the unigen set (29%) following the Gene Ontology Vocabulary. the molecular function component was the best represented with 43% of the sequences, followed by the biological process component (38%) and finally the cellular component with 19%. in the cassava ESTs collection, 3,709 microsatellites were identified and they could be used as molecular markers. this study represents an important contribution to the knowledge of the functional genomic structure of cassava and constitutes an important tool for the identification of genes associated to agricultural characteristics of interest that could be employed in cassava breeding programs.

  7. Biolistic inoculation of cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... East African cassava mosaic virus-Cameroon (EACMV-CM) and a recombinant East African cassava mosaic virus-India/Cameroon (EACMV-CM/IC) can be transmitted easily and repeatedly to Nicotiana benthamiana plants, difficulty in mechanical transmission and multiplication of EACMV-UG and South African cassava ...

  8. Neurotoxic effect of linamarin in rats associated with cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Eduardo; Vázquez-Luna, Alma; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan Francisco; Díaz-Sobac, Rafael

    2013-09-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a plant widely used for food consumption in different processed products in rural areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Cassava is a good source of carbohydrates and micronutrients. However, if it is not adequately processed or the consumer has nutritional deficiencies, then its cyanogenic glycoside (i.e., linamarin and lotaustralin) content makes it potentially neurotoxic. In the present study, the neurotoxic effects of different concentrations of linamarin (0.075, 0.15, 0.22, and 0.30 mg/kg) contained in cassava juice were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor alterations in adult male Wistar rats. The linamarin concentration in cassava juice was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the juice was administered intraesophageally for 28 days. The results suggested that the consumption of linamarin in cassava juice increased the number of crossings and rearings in the open field test and caused behavioral deficiency, reflected by lateral swimming, in the swim test on days 21 and 28 of treatment. These alterations are possibly related to neuronal damage caused by linamarin in cassava juice in structures of the central nervous system involved in motor processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A genetic map of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with integrated physical mapping of immunity-related genes

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, Johana Carolina; Ortiz, Juan Felipe; Perlaza-Jim?nez, Laura; V?squez, Andrea Ximena; Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto Becerra; Mathew, Boby; L?on, Jens; Bernal, Adriana Jimena; Ballvora, Agim; L?pez, Camilo Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Background Cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, is one of the most important crops world-wide representing the staple security for more than one billion of people. The development of dense genetic and physical maps, as the basis for implementing genetic and molecular approaches to accelerate the rate of genetic gains in breeding program represents a significant challenge. A reference genome sequence for cassava has been made recently available and community efforts are underway for improving it...

  10. Gene-based microsatellites for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): prevalence, polymorphisms, and cross-taxa utility

    OpenAIRE

    Ugwu Chike D; Kolade Olufisayo A; Anderson James V; Raji Adebola AJ; Dixon Alfred GO; Ingelbrecht Ivan L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a larger number of polymorphic SSRs for germplasm characterization and breeding applications. Results A total of 846 putative microsatellites were identified in silico from an 8,577 ca...

  11. Catalase activity of cassava ( Manihot esculenta ) plant under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African cassava mosaic virus has caused an immersed low yield of the cassava crop. The virus impacts stress on the cellular metabolism of the plant producing a lot of reactive oxygen species and increases the expression of the antioxidant enzymes. The activity of catalase as a response to oxidative stress was investigated ...

  12. Primary and cyclic somatic embryogenesis in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, C.J.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Cassava is one of the major food crops in the tropics. Several of the major problems in cassava can probably only be solved by breeding with cellular and molecular techniques, e.g., the introduction of specific genes (virus resistance, protein content, quality aspects and so on). These

  13. Toxicity of Cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) effluent on the Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of cassava tuber was conducted to determine some of the active ingredients and the toxicity of cassava effluent on the fingerlings of the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L). The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of hydrogen cyanide, oxalate and phytate. While hydrogen cyanide and oxalate ...

  14. Growth and development of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanujam, T.; Muraleedharan Nair, G.; Indira, P.

    1984-07-01

    The growth and development of twelve cassava genotypes were studied under the shade in a coconut garden. Internodal elongation, thin leaves and absence of branching were the most significant morphological changes noticed under shade. Cross section of leaves grown under shade showed poor starch deposition in vascular region. Most of the photosynthates of shade grown cassava were utilized for shoot growth affecting tuber development significantly. The cultivars H 165 and CI 590 recorded higher yield under shade when compared to other cultivars. Wider spacings of cassava in coconut garden resulted in higher tuber yield. 9 references.

  15. Diallel analysis of provitamin A carotenoid and dry matter content in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esuma, Williams; Kawuki, Robert S.; Herselman, Liezel; Labuschagne, Maryke Tine

    2016-01-01

    Global efforts are underway to biofortify cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with provitamin A carotenoids to help combat dietary vitamin A deficiency afflicting the health of more than 500 million resource-poor people in Sub-Saharan Africa. To further the biofortification initiative in Uganda, a 6×6 diallel analysis was conducted to estimate combining ability of six provitamin A clones and gene actions controlling total carotenoid content (TCC), dry matter content (DMC) in cassava roots and other relevant traits. Fifteen F1 families generated from the diallel crosses were evaluated in two environments using a randomized complete block design. General combining ability (GCA) effects were significant for TCC and DMC, suggesting the relative importance of additive gene effects in controlling these traits in cassava. On the other hand, non-additive effects were predominant for root and shoot weight. MH02-073HS, with the highest level of TCC, was the best general combiner for TCC while NASE 3, a popular white-fleshed variety grown by farmers in Uganda, was the best general combiner for DMC. Such progenitors with superior GCA effects could form the genetic source for future programs targeting cassava breeding for TCC and DMC. A negative correlation was observed between TCC and DMC, which will require breeding strategies to combine both traits for increased adoption of provitamin A cassava varieties. PMID:27795688

  16. Diallel analysis of provitamin A carotenoid and dry matter content in cassava (Manihot esculentaCrantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esuma, Williams; Kawuki, Robert S; Herselman, Liezel; Labuschagne, Maryke Tine

    2016-09-01

    Global efforts are underway to biofortify cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) with provitamin A carotenoids to help combat dietary vitamin A deficiency afflicting the health of more than 500 million resource-poor people in Sub-Saharan Africa. To further the biofortification initiative in Uganda, a 6×6 diallel analysis was conducted to estimate combining ability of six provitamin A clones and gene actions controlling total carotenoid content (TCC), dry matter content (DMC) in cassava roots and other relevant traits. Fifteen F 1 families generated from the diallel crosses were evaluated in two environments using a randomized complete block design. General combining ability (GCA) effects were significant for TCC and DMC, suggesting the relative importance of additive gene effects in controlling these traits in cassava. On the other hand, non-additive effects were predominant for root and shoot weight. MH02-073HS, with the highest level of TCC, was the best general combiner for TCC while NASE 3, a popular white-fleshed variety grown by farmers in Uganda, was the best general combiner for DMC. Such progenitors with superior GCA effects could form the genetic source for future programs targeting cassava breeding for TCC and DMC. A negative correlation was observed between TCC and DMC, which will require breeding strategies to combine both traits for increased adoption of provitamin A cassava varieties.

  17. Genetic fidelity and variability of micropropagated cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) evaluated using ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Á M; Vieira, L J; Ferreira, C F; Souza, F V D; Souza, A S; Ledo, C A S

    2015-07-14

    Molecular markers are efficient for assessing the genetic fidelity of various species of plants after in vitro culture. In this study, we evaluated the genetic fidelity and variability of micropropagated cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using inter-simple sequence repeat markers. Twenty-two cassava accessions from the Embrapa Cassava & Fruits Germplasm Bank were used. For each accession, DNA was extracted from a plant maintained in the field and from 3 plants grown in vitro. For DNA amplification, 27 inter-simple sequence repeat primers were used, of which 24 generated 175 bands; 100 of those bands were polymorphic and were used to study genetic variability among accessions of cassava plants maintained in the field. Based on the genetic distance matrix calculated using the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard's index, genotypes were clustered using the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages. The number of bands per primer was 2-13, with an average of 7.3. For most micropropagated accessions, the fidelity study showed no genetic variation between plants of the same accessions maintained in the field and those maintained in vitro, confirming the high genetic fidelity of the micropropagated plants. However, genetic variability was observed among different accessions grown in the field, and clustering based on the dissimilarity matrix revealed 7 groups. Inter-simple sequence repeat markers were efficient for detecting the genetic homogeneity of cassava plants derived from meristem culture, demonstrating the reliability of this propagation system.

  18. Microbial load and Microflora of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microbial load of cassava tubers that were grown at Awassa, Ethiopia, was analysed. The total viable microbial count of fresh cassava, before cleaning, ranged from 8.7x104 to 2.1x109 c.f.u/g whereas, in thoroughly cleaned product it was reduced to 106 c.f.u/g (% C.V., 19.5). Enterobacteriacae and spore former ...

  19. Engineering cyanogen synthesis and turnover in cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard

    2004-11-01

    Cassava is the major root crop for a quarter billion subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. It is valued for its ability to grow in adverse environments and the food security it provides. Cassava contains potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glycosides (linamarin) which protect the plant from herbivory and theft. The cyanogens, including linamarin and its deglycosylated product, acetone cyanohydrin, can be efficiently removed from the root by various processing procedures. Short-cuts in processing, which may occur during famines, can result in only partial removal of cyanogens. Residual cyanogens in cassava foods may cause neurological disorders or paralysis, particularly in nutritionally compromised individuals. To address this problem and to further understand the function of cyanogenic glycosides in cassava, we have generated transgenic cassava in which cyanogenic glycoside synthesis has been selectively inhibited in leaves and roots by antisense expression of CYP79D1/D2 gene fragments. The CYP79D1/D2 genes encode two highly similar cytochrome P450s that catalyze the first-dedicated step in cyanogenic glycoside synthesis. Transgenic plants in which the expression of these genes was selectively inhibited in leaves had substantially reduced (60- 94% reduction) linamarin leaf levels. Surprisingly, these plants also had a greater than a 99% reduction in root linamarin content. In contrast, transgenic plants in which the CYP79D1/D2 transcripts were reduced to non-detectable levels in roots had normal root linamarin levels. These results demonstrate that linamarin synthesized in leaves is transported to the roots and accounts for nearly all of the root linamarin content. Importantly, transgenic plants having reduced leaf and root linamarin content were unable to grow in the absence of reduced nitrogen (NH3) . Cassava roots have previously been demonstrated to have an active cyanide assimilation pathway leading to the synthesis of amino acids. We propose that

  20. Toxic effects of prolonged administration of leaves of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Blanco, Benito; Górniak, Silvana Lima

    2010-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major source of dietary energy for humans and domestic animals in many tropical countries. However, consumption of cassava is limited by its characteristic content of cyanogenic glycosides. The present work aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of ingestion of cassava leaves by goats for 30 consecutive days, and to compare the results with the toxic effects of cyanide in goats, which have been described previously. Eight Alpine cross-bred female goats were divided into two equal groups, and were treated with ground frozen cassava leaves at a target dose of 6.0mg hydrogen cyanide (HCN)/kg/day (treated animals), or with ground hay and water only (control group) by gavage for 30 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 15, 21, and 30 for biochemical panel and cyanide determination. At the end of the experiment, fragments of pancreas, thyroid gland, liver, kidney, lungs, heart, spleen, and the whole central nervous system were collected for histopathological examination. Clinical signs were observed in all goats treated with cassava on the first day of the experiment. From the second day the dose of cassava leaves was reduced to 4.5mgHCN/kg/day. No changes were found in the blood chemical panel. A mild increase in the number of resorption vacuoles in the thyroid follicular colloid, slight vacuolation of periportal hepatocytes, and spongiosis of the mesencephalon were found in goats treated with cassava. The pattern of lesions seen in the present goats was similar to what has been described previously in cyanide-dosed goats. Thus, the toxic effects of the ingestion of cassava leaves by goats can be attributed to the action of cyanide released from cyanogenic glycosides, and none of the effects was promoted by these glycosides directly.

  1. Improvements of cyclic somatic embryogenesis of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, C.J.J.M.; Schavemaker, C.M.; Jacobsen, E.; Visser, R.G.F.

    1993-01-01

    In cassava a cyclic system of somatic embryogenesis was developed. Primary (torpedo shaped or germinated) embryos, originating from leaf lobes, could only be obtained after culture on solid medium. Cyclic embryos, originating from embryos, could be obtained in both liquid and on solid medium. The

  2. Regeneration and transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofiari, E.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes different regeneration systems of cassava. In the first system the embryos were highly organized. The use of the auxins NAA and 2,4-D to induce this organized system of somatic embryogenesis were compared in several genotypes. Bombardment of organized tissues did not result in

  3. Effect of cassava ( Manihot esculenta crentz ) on thyroid status under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased thyroid weight (P < 0.001), inhibited thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity and reduced thyroid hormone profiles (P < 0.001) were noted in fresh and cooked cassava fed rats, resembling a relative state of morphological as well as biochemical hypothyroidism even in presence of adequate iodine. African Journal of ...

  4. Development of retrotransposon-based markers IRAP and REMAP for cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, B C; Mangolin, C A; Souto, E R; Vicient, C M; Machado, M F P S

    2016-04-07

    Retrotransposons are abundant in the genomes of plants. In the present study, inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) and retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) markers were developed for the cassava genome (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Four cassava cultivars (Fécula Branca, IPR-União, Olho Junto, and Tamboara, two samples per cultivar) were used to obtain IRAP and REMAP fingerprints. Twelve designed primers were amplified alone and in combinations. The 42 IRAP/REMAP primer combinations amplified 431 DNA segments (bands; markers) of which 36 (8.36%) were polymorphic. The largest number of informative markers (16) was detected using the primers AYF2 and AYF2xAYF4. The number of bands for each primer varied from 3 to 16, with an average of 10.26 amplified segments per primer. The size of the amplified products ranged between 100 and 7000 bp. The AYF2 primer generated the highest number of amplified segments and showed the highest number of polymorphic bands (68.75%). Two samples of each cassava cultivar were used to illustrate the usefulness and the polymorphism of IRAP/REMAP markers. IRAP and REMAP markers produced a high number of reproducible bands, and might be informative and reliable for investigation of genetic diversity and relationships among cassava cultivars.

  5. Gene-based microsatellites for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): prevalence, polymorphisms, and cross-taxa utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Adebola Aj; Anderson, James V; Kolade, Olufisayo A; Ugwu, Chike D; Dixon, Alfred Go; Ingelbrecht, Ivan L

    2009-09-11

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a larger number of polymorphic SSRs for germplasm characterization and breeding applications. A total of 846 putative microsatellites were identified in silico from an 8,577 cassava unigene set with an average density of one SSR every 7 kb. One hundred and ninety-two candidate SSRs were screened for polymorphism among a panel of cassava cultivars from Africa, Latin America and Asia, four wild Manihot species as well as two other important taxa in the Euphorbiaceae, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and castor bean (Ricinus communis). Of 168 markers with clean amplification products, 124 (73.8%) displayed polymorphism based on high resolution agarose gels. Of 85 EST-SSR markers screened, 80 (94.1%) amplified alleles from one or more wild species (M epruinosa, M glaziovii, M brachyandra, M tripartita) whereas 13 (15.3%) amplified alleles from castor bean and 9 (10.6%) amplified alleles from leafy spurge; hence nearly all markers were transferable to wild relatives of M esculenta while only a fraction was transferable to the more distantly related taxa. In a subset of 20 EST-SSRs assessed by fluorescence-based genotyping the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 10 with an average of 4.55 per locus. These markers had a polymorphism information content (PIC) from 0.19 to 0.75 with an average value of 0.55 and showed genetic relationships consistent with existing information on these genotypes. A set of 124 new, unique polymorphic EST-SSRs was developed and characterized which extends the repertoire of SSR markers for cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. The markers show high PIC values and therefore will be useful for cultivar identification, taxonomic studies, and

  6. Gene-based microsatellites for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz: prevalence, polymorphisms, and cross-taxa utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwu Chike D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a larger number of polymorphic SSRs for germplasm characterization and breeding applications. Results A total of 846 putative microsatellites were identified in silico from an 8,577 cassava unigene set with an average density of one SSR every 7 kb. One hundred and ninety-two candidate SSRs were screened for polymorphism among a panel of cassava cultivars from Africa, Latin America and Asia, four wild Manihot species as well as two other important taxa in the Euphorbiaceae, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula and castor bean (Ricinus communis. Of 168 markers with clean amplification products, 124 (73.8% displayed polymorphism based on high resolution agarose gels. Of 85 EST-SSR markers screened, 80 (94.1% amplified alleles from one or more wild species (M epruinosa, M glaziovii, M brachyandra, M tripartita whereas 13 (15.3% amplified alleles from castor bean and 9 (10.6% amplified alleles from leafy spurge; hence nearly all markers were transferable to wild relatives of M esculenta while only a fraction was transferable to the more distantly related taxa. In a subset of 20 EST-SSRs assessed by fluorescence-based genotyping the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 10 with an average of 4.55 per locus. These markers had a polymorphism information content (PIC from 0.19 to 0.75 with an average value of 0.55 and showed genetic relationships consistent with existing information on these genotypes. Conclusion A set of 124 new, unique polymorphic EST-SSRs was developed and characterized which extends the repertoire of SSR markers for cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. The markers show high PIC values and therefore will be useful for

  7. An EST-derived SNP and SSR genetic linkage map of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, Ismail Yusuf; Kulembeka, Heneriko Philbert; Masumba, Esther; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Ferguson, Morag

    2012-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important food security crops in the tropics and increasingly being adopted for agro-industrial processing. Genetic improvement of cassava can be enhanced through marker-assisted breeding. For this, appropriate genomic tools are required to dissect the genetic architecture of economically important traits. Here, a genome-wide SNP-based genetic map of cassava anchored in SSRs is presented. An outbreeder full-sib (F1) family was genotyped on two independent SNP assay platforms: an array of 1,536 SNPs on Illumina's GoldenGate platform was used to genotype a first batch of 60 F1. Of the 1,358 successfully converted SNPs, 600 which were polymorphic in at least one of the parents and was subsequently converted to KBiosciences' KASPar assay platform for genotyping 70 additional F1. High-precision genotyping of 163 informative SSRs using capillary electrophoresis was also carried out. Linkage analysis resulted in a final linkage map of 1,837 centi-Morgans (cM) containing 568 markers (434 SNPs and 134 SSRs) distributed across 19 linkage groups. The average distance between adjacent markers was 3.4 cM. About 94.2% of the mapped SNPs and SSRs have also been localized on scaffolds of version 4.1 assembly of the cassava draft genome sequence. This more saturated genetic linkage map of cassava that combines SSR and SNP markers should find several applications in the improvement of cassava including aligning scaffolds of the cassava genome sequence, genetic analyses of important agro-morphological traits, studying the linkage disequilibrium landscape and comparative genomics.

  8. FLOWERING LOCUS T Triggers Early and Fertile Flowering in Glasshouse Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Simon E; Alder, Adrian; Barsan, Cristina; Kohler, Mathias; Hennig, Lars; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2017-05-27

    Accelerated breeding of plant species has the potential to help challenge environmental and biochemical cues to support global crop security. We demonstrate the over-expression of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T in Agrobacterium -mediated transformed cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz; cultivar 60444) to trigger early flowering in glasshouse-grown plants. An event seldom seen in a glasshouse environment, precocious flowering and mature inflorescence were obtained within 4-5 months from planting of stem cuttings. Manual pollination using pistillate and staminate flowers from clonal propagants gave rise to viable seeds that germinated into morphologically typical progeny. This strategy comes at a time when accelerated crop breeding is of increasing importance to complement progressive genome editing techniques.

  9. Improvements of cyclic somatic embryogenesis of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raemakers, C J; Schavemaker, C M; Jacobsen, E; Visser, R G

    1993-02-01

    In cassava a cyclic system of somatic embryogenesis was developed. Primary (torpedo shaped or germinated) embryos, originating from leaf lobes, could only be obtained after culture on solid medium. Cyclic embryos, originating from embryos, could be obtained in both liquid and on solid medium. The production of embryos in liquid medium was distinctly higher, faster and more synchronized than on solid medium. Lower densities and fragmentation of starting embryos improved the production significantly. The highest production found was 32.1 embryos per initial embryo. In all treatments the explants initiated multiple embryos. The production of single embryos was achieved by pressing starting embryos through a fine meshed sieve, indicating that embryos can be produced from a piece of tissue with a restricted number of cells. The shoot conversion rate of embryos from liquid medium was comparable with that of embryos from solid medium.

  10. Anatomical alterations due to polyploidy in cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Nagib M A; Graciano-Ribeiro, D; Fernandes, S D C; Araujo, P C

    2008-04-01

    Information on anatomical structure is needed by breeders working on improvement for drought tolerance. For studying the effect of polyploidy on cassava anatomy and its significance to tolerance to drought, we induced a polyploidy type of a selected clone (UnB 530) by applying an aqueous solution of 0.2% colchicine on lateral buds for a period of 12 h. The stem identified as tetraploid was propagated to produce the whole plant. Free-hand cross-sections of the median portion between stem internodes were made. They were clarified using 50% sodium hypochlorite solution, stained with 1% safranin-alcian blue, passed through an ethanol series and butyl acetate and mounted in synthetic resin. The tetraploid type showed more prismatic and druse crystals in the cortical parenchyma, and its pericycle fibers had thicker walls. The secondary xylem of tetraploid types was wider than diploid ones, having thinner walls and less starch.

  11. Cyanide and Aflatoxin Loads of Processed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil. PMID:24403736

  12. High-resolution identification and abundance profiling of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatabi, Behnam; Arikit, Siwaret; Xia, Rui; Winter, Stephan; Oumar, Doungous; Mongomake, Kone; Meyers, Blake C; Fondong, Vincent N

    2016-01-28

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) are endogenous sRNAs that play regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. In plants, one subset of sRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) exhibit tissue-differential expression and regulate gene expression mainly through direct cleavage of mRNA or indirectly via production of secondary phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs) that silence cognate target transcripts in trans. Here, we have identified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) miRNAs using high resolution sequencing of sRNA libraries from leaf, stem, callus, male and female flower tissues. To analyze the data, we built a cassava genome database and, via sequence analysis and secondary structure prediction, 38 miRNAs not previously reported in cassava were identified. These new cassava miRNAs included two miRNAs not previously been reported in any plant species. The miRNAs exhibited tissue-differential accumulation as confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis, largely reflecting levels observed in sequencing data. Some of the miRNAs identified were predicted to trigger production of secondary phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs) from 80 PHAS loci. Cassava is a woody perennial shrub, grown principally for its starch-rich storage roots, which are rich in calories. In this study, new miRNAs were identified and their expression was validated using qRT-PCR of RNA from five different tissues. The data obtained expand the list of annotated miRNAs and provide additional new resources for cassava improvement research.

  13. Non-destructive determination of photosynthetic rates of eight varieties of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amadu, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    Cassava is an important food security crop in Ghana and in the wake of climate change there is the need for plant breeders to develop varieties with high water use efficiency as well as high photosynthetic rate in order to adapt to the changing climate. Thus, the photosynthetic rates of eight cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) varieties were non-destructively evaluated using photosynthesis meter miniPPM300, from June 2014 to May 2015, with the aim of selecting varieties with high photosynthetic rate for future breeding programmes. The mean photosynthetic rate varied depending on the varieties ranging from 40.5 μmol/m 2 s in Bosom nsia to 45.2 μmol/m 2 s in Gbenze. However, the presence of African cassava mosaic disease (ACMD) marginally reduced the photosynthetic rate to below 40 μmol/m 2 s in all the varieties. Similarly, the chlorophyll content index (CCI) as measured by chlorophyll meter and spectrophotometer also varied from one variety to another; it was low in Nandom (17.9 CCI) and high in Gbenze (39.93 CCI) using the chlorophyll meter and was also reduced by the presence of the virus. Although, the stomatal density varied between the varieties it was not influenced by virus infection. Furthermore, ACMD significantly decreased the leaf surface area from 5705.8mm 2 in uninfected plants to 1251.6mm 2 in infected plants, consequently reducing the number and weight of tubers produced 11 month after planting (MAP). Molecular Testing of the viruses using virus specific primers JSP001/JSP002, EAB555F/EAB555R, EACMV1e/EACMV2e at 6 MAP and 11MAP, showed that the mosaic symptoms were caused by African Cassava Mosaic virus disease. Cassava varieties with high photosynthetic efficiency and low virus infection can be used in cassava improvement programmes in Ghana. (au)

  14. Radiation induced mutants in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayar, G.G.; Rajendran, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    Full text: Stem cuttings and true seeds of three promising cultivars of cassava were exposed respectively to 1 to 5 kR and 10 to 50 kR acute gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Treatments of stem cuttings beyond 5 kR and seeds beyond 50 kR were lethal. One mutant each in the cultivars M4, H-165 and H-2304 was obtained from the stem irradiated populations. Another mutant was found in the seed irradiated progeny of H-2304. The mutant of M4 is characterised by light green (chlorina) leaves. The mutant of H-165 shows significantly shorter petiole (22,5 against 35.2 cm) and narrow leaf lobes, while the H-2304 mutant shows speckled leaves, branching and early flowering. The mutant found in the seed irradiated progeny of H-2304 is having yellow tuber flesh indicating the presence of carotene. The mutants may be useful in studies related to basic information as well as in practical breeding. The chlorina mutant in M4 showed slow growth and high HCN content in leaves. Late branching may be a useful trait in the traditionally non-branching clones of cassava to maintain the desirable leaf area index during high leaf fall period. Early flowering could be useful in a recombinant breeding programme. The tuber yield of the short petiole mutant in H-165 increased by 20% - 25% through closer planting. The narrow leaf lobes of this mutant permit better light penetration to lower leaves. (author)

  15. Transgenic Biofortification of the Starchy Staple Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Generates a Novel Sink for Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhary, Mohammad; Siritunga, Dimuth; Stevens, Gene; Taylor, Nigel J.; Fauquet, Claude M.

    2011-01-01

    Although calorie dense, the starchy, tuberous roots of cassava provide the lowest sources of dietary protein within the major staple food crops (Manihot esculenta Crantz). (Montagnac JA, Davis CR, Tanumihardjo SA. (2009) Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 8:181–194). Cassava was genetically modified to express zeolin, a nutritionally balanced storage protein under control of the patatin promoter. Transgenic plants accumulated zeolin within de novo protein bodies localized within the root storage tissues, resulting in total protein levels of 12.5% dry weight within this tissue, a fourfold increase compared to non-transgenic controls. No significant differences were seen for morphological or agronomic characteristics of transgenic and wild type plants in the greenhouse and field trials, but relative to controls, levels of cyanogenic compounds were reduced by up to 55% in both leaf and root tissues of transgenic plants. Data described here represent a proof of concept towards the potential transformation of cassava from a starchy staple, devoid of storage protein, to one capable of supplying inexpensive, plant-based proteins for food, feed and industrial applications. PMID:21283593

  16. Thermal characterization of partially hydrolyzed cassava (Manihot esculenta starch granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Lacerda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch, partially hydrolyzed by fungal á-amylase, was characterized using thermal analysis, light microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Thermal degradation was initiated at lower degradation temperatures after enzymatic treatment and the DSC (Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed almost similar range of gelatinization temperature, but the enthalpies of gelatinization were quite increased for the partially hydrolyzed starch granules. The results suggested that the partial degradation of the starch granules was concentrated in the amorphous regions.Amilases fúngicas são comumente empregadas a amidos com o intuito de otimizar o rendimento de leveduras, modificar a textura de produtos panificados e prolongar a vida de prateleira do produto final. A hidrólise parcial enzimática pode auxiliar no entendimento da estrutura do amido ganular. Amido de mandioca parcialmente hidrolisado por á-amilase fúngica foi investigado utilizando-se técnicas termoanalíticas, microscopia ótica e difratometria por raios X. A degradação térmica iniciou-se a temperaturas menores após o tratamento enzimático e a análise por DSC mostrou uma próxima faixa de temperatura de gelatinização, porém, a entalpia necessária para o evento foi maior para os grânulos parcialmente hidrolisados. Os resultados sugerem que a degradação parcial do amido granular foi concentrada em regiões amorfas.

  17. Current knowledge and future research perspectives on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) chemical defenses: An agroecological view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Pareja, Martín; Ambrogi, Bianca G

    2016-10-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important staple crops worldwide. It constitutes the major source of carbohydrates for millions of low-income people living in rural areas, as well as a cash crop for smallholders in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations predicts that cassava plantations will increase and production systems will intensify in the future, highlighting the need for developing strategies that improve the sustainability of production. Plant chemical defenses hold the potential for developing pest management strategies, as these plant traits can influence the behavior and performance of both pests and beneficial arthropods. Cassava plants are well-defended and produce a number of compounds involved in direct defense, such as cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoid glycosides, and hydroxycoumarins. In addition, volatile organic compounds induced upon herbivory and the secretion of extrafloral nectar act as indirect defense against herbivores by recruiting natural enemies. Here, cassava chemical defenses against pest arthropods are reviewed, with the aim of identifying gaps in our knowledge and areas of research that deserve further investigation for developing sound pest control strategies to improve sustainable production of this crop, and how these defenses can be used to benefit other crops. Cyanogenic content in cassava is also highly toxic to humans, and can cause irreversible health problems even at sub-lethal doses when consumed over prolonged periods. Therefore, the promotion of chemical defense in this crop should not aggravate these problems, and must be accompanied with the education on processing methods that reduce human exposure to cyanide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutritional composition of “gari” analog produced from cassava (Manihot esculenta) and cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) tuber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Ogundele, Femi G; Ojubanire, Basirat A; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B; Bello, Olayide W

    2014-01-01

    Physicochemical properties ofgari analog produced from coprocessing of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) were investigated. Cassava tuber and cocoyam were coprocessed at different percentages before frying separately. Proximate composition, mineral content, antinutritional factors, and sensory evaluation of various samples were determined. The results showed that the moisture content of all the samples was in the same range (7.28 ± 0.30 to 7.78 ± 0.14%). The protein content (1.57 ± 0.14 to 4.43 ± 0.16), ash (1.89 ± 0.10 to 2.15 ± 0.30), and crude fiber (1.53 ± 0.50 to 2.19 ± 0.10%) showed a significant increase with increase in the level of cocoyam substitution. The fat and carbohydrate content decreased with an increase in cocoyam level. The mineral contents of the samples increased with an increase in cocoyam content with sample F having the highest value of potassium, followed by samples E and D (68 mg/100 g, 35 mg/100 g, and 24 mg/100 g). The antinutritional factors of all the samples were at very low concentration while samples B, C, and D competed favorably with sample A (control) in sensory evaluation. In conclusion, coprocessing of cassava and cocoyam improved the nutritional quality of thegari produced with high level of acceptance from the taste panelist. PMID:25493189

  19. Diversity of begomoviruses associated with mosaic disease of cultivated cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its wild relative (Manihot glaziovii Mull. Arg.) in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sserubombwe, W S; Briddon, R W; Baguma, Y K; Ssemakula, G N; Bull, S E; Bua, A; Alicai, T; Omongo, C; Otim-Nape, G W; Stanley, J

    2008-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) growing in Uganda during 2001-2002 has been screened for the presence of begomoviruses using PCR-RFLP, cloning full-length genomic components and nucleotide sequence analysis. In contrast with a recent survey in neighbouring Kenya, which identified three distinct strains of East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV, EACMV-UG and EACMV-KE2) as well as East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus and the new species East African cassava mosaic Kenya virus, only EACMV-UG and, to a lesser extent, African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) were found associated with cassava in Uganda. The integrity of the cloned genomic components of representative virus isolates was confirmed by demonstrating their infectivity in Nicotiana benthamiana and cassava using biolistic inoculation, providing a convenient means to screen cassava varieties for disease resistance. Both EACMV-UG and ACMV were also associated with Manihot glaziovii. Infectivity studies using cloned components confirmed that viruses from one host could infect the other, suggesting that this wild relative of cassava might be a reservoir host for the disease. The relatively low level of diversity of begomoviruses associated with cassava mosaic disease in Uganda is consistent with reports that EACMV-UG has displaced other begomovirus species and strains during the recent epidemic that swept through the country.

  20. Quantitative trait loci controlling cyanogenic glucoside and dry matter content in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balyejusa Kizito, Elizabeth; Rönnberg-Wästljung, Ann-Christin; Egwang, Thomas; Gullberg, Urban; Fregene, Martin; Westerbergh, Anna

    2007-09-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a starchy root crop grown in the tropics mainly by small-scale farmers even though agro-industrial processing is rapidly increasing. For this processing market improved varieties with high dry matter root content (DMC) is required. Potentially toxic cyanogenic glucosides are synthesized in the leaves and translocated to the roots. Selection for varieties with low cyanogenic glucoside potential (CNP) and high DMC is among the principal objectives in cassava breeding programs. However, these traits are highly influenced by the environmental conditions and the genetic control of these traits is not well understood. An S(1) population derived from a cross between two bred cassava varieties (MCOL 1684 and Rayong 1) that differ in CNP and DMC was used to study the heritability and genetic basis of these traits. A broad-sense heritability of 0.43 and 0.42 was found for CNP and DMC, respectively. The moderate heritabilities for DMC and CNP indicate that the phenotypic variation of these traits is explained by a genetic component. We found two quantitative trait loci (QTL) on two different linkage groups controlling CNP and six QTL on four different linkage groups controlling DMC. One QTL for CNP and one QTL for DMC mapped near each other, suggesting pleiotrophy and/or linkage of QTL. The two QTL for CNP showed additive effects while the six QTL for DMC showed additive effect, dominance or overdominance. This study is a first step towards developing molecular marker tools for efficient breeding of CNP and DMC in cassava.

  1. Proteome characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) somatic embryos, plantlets and tuberous roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Proteomics is increasingly becoming an important tool for the study of many different aspects of plant functions, such as investigating the molecular processes underlying in plant physiology, development, differentiation and their interaction with the environments. To investigate the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) proteome, we extracted proteins from somatic embryos, plantlets and tuberous roots of cultivar SC8 and separated them by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Results Analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) yielded a total of 383 proteins including isoforms, classified into 14 functional groups. The majority of these were carbohydrate and energy metabolism associated proteins (27.2%), followed by those involved in protein biosynthesis (14.4%). Subsequent analysis has revealed that 54, 59, 74 and 102 identified proteins are unique to the somatic embryos, shoots, adventitious roots and tuberous roots, respectively. Some of these proteins may serve as signatures for the physiological and developmental stages of somatic embryos, shoots, adventitious roots and tuberous root. Western blotting results have shown high expression levels of Rubisco in shoots and its absence in the somatic embryos. In addition, high-level expression of α-tubulin was found in tuberous roots, and a low-level one in somatic embryos. This extensive study effectively provides a huge data set of dynamic protein-related information to better understand the molecular basis underlying cassava growth, development, and physiological functions. Conclusion This work paves the way towards a comprehensive, system-wide analysis of the cassava. Integration with transcriptomics, metabolomics and other large scale "-omics" data with systems biology approaches can open new avenues towards engineering cassava to enhance yields, improve nutritional value and overcome the problem of post

  2. Proteome characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz somatic embryos, plantlets and tuberous roots

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    Rehman Samrina

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomics is increasingly becoming an important tool for the study of many different aspects of plant functions, such as investigating the molecular processes underlying in plant physiology, development, differentiation and their interaction with the environments. To investigate the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz proteome, we extracted proteins from somatic embryos, plantlets and tuberous roots of cultivar SC8 and separated them by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Results Analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS yielded a total of 383 proteins including isoforms, classified into 14 functional groups. The majority of these were carbohydrate and energy metabolism associated proteins (27.2%, followed by those involved in protein biosynthesis (14.4%. Subsequent analysis has revealed that 54, 59, 74 and 102 identified proteins are unique to the somatic embryos, shoots, adventitious roots and tuberous roots, respectively. Some of these proteins may serve as signatures for the physiological and developmental stages of somatic embryos, shoots, adventitious roots and tuberous root. Western blotting results have shown high expression levels of Rubisco in shoots and its absence in the somatic embryos. In addition, high-level expression of α-tubulin was found in tuberous roots, and a low-level one in somatic embryos. This extensive study effectively provides a huge data set of dynamic protein-related information to better understand the molecular basis underlying cassava growth, development, and physiological functions. Conclusion This work paves the way towards a comprehensive, system-wide analysis of the cassava. Integration with transcriptomics, metabolomics and other large scale "-omics" data with systems biology approaches can open new avenues towards engineering cassava to enhance yields, improve nutritional value and overcome the

  3. Meristem micropropagation of cassava (Manihot esculenta) evokes genome-wide changes in DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitimu, Shedrack R; Taylor, Julian; March, Timothy J; Tairo, Fred; Wilkinson, Mike J; Rodríguez López, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    There is great interest in the phenotypic, genetic and epigenetic changes associated with plant in vitro culture known as somaclonal variation. In vitro propagation systems that are based on the use of microcuttings or meristem cultures are considered analogous to clonal cuttings and so widely viewed to be largely free from such somaclonal effects. In this study, we surveyed for epigenetic changes during propagation by meristem culture and by field cuttings in five cassava (Manihot esculenta) cultivars. Principal Co-ordinate Analysis of profiles generated by methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism revealed clear divergence between samples taken from field-grown cuttings and those recovered from meristem culture. There was also good separation between the tissues of field samples but this effect was less distinct among the meristem culture materials. Application of methylation-sensitive Genotype by sequencing identified 105 candidate epimarks that distinguish between field cutting and meristem culture samples. Cross referencing the sequences of these epimarks to the draft cassava genome revealed 102 sites associated with genes whose homologs have been implicated in a range of fundamental biological processes including cell differentiation, development, sugar metabolism, DNA methylation, stress response, photosynthesis, and transposon activation. We explore the relevance of these findings for the selection of micropropagation systems for use on this and other crops.

  4. Some Nutritional Characteristics of Enzymatically Resistant Maltodextrin from Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraya-Avilés, Rocío; Segura-Campos, Maira; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2017-06-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) native starch was treated with pyroconversion and enzymatic hydrolysis to produce a pyrodextrin and an enzyme-resistant maltodextrin. Some nutritional characteristics were quantified for both compounds. Pyroconversion was done using a 160:1 (p/v) starch:HCl ratio, 90 °C temperature and 3 h reaction time. The resulting pyrodextrin contained 46.21% indigestible starch and 78.86% dietary fiber. Thermostable α-amylase (0.01%) was used to hydrolyze the pyrodextrin at 95 °C for 5 min. The resulting resistant maltodextrin contained 24.45% dextrose equivalents, 56.06% indigestible starch and 86.62% dietary fiber. Compared to the cassava native starch, the pyrodextrin exhibited 56% solubility at room temperature and the resistant maltodextrin 100%. The glycemic index value for the resistant maltodextrin was 59% in healthy persons. Its high indigestible starch and dietary fiber contents, as well as its complete solubility, make the resistant maltodextrin a promising ingredient for raising dietary fiber content in a wide range of foods, especially in drinks, dairy products, creams and soups.

  5. Comparative Proteome Analysis of the Tuberous Roots of Six Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Varieties Reveals Proteins Related to Phenotypic Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Gabriela Justamante Händel; de Magalhães Andrade, Jonathan; Valle, Teresa Losada; Labate, Carlos Alberto; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

    2016-04-27

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food and an important source of starch, and the attributes of its tuberous root largely depend on the variety. The proteome of cassava has been investigated; however, to date, no study has focused on varieties that reveal the molecular basis of phenotypical characteristics. Therefore, we aimed to compare the proteome of the tuberous roots of six cassava varieties that differed in carbohydrates, carotenoids, and resistance to diseases, among other attributes. Two-dimensional gels showed 146 differential spots between the varieties, and the functional roles of some differential proteins were correlated to phenotypic characteristics of the varieties, such as the amount of carbohydrates or carotenoids and the resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses. The results obtained here highlight elements that might help to direct the improvement of new cultivars of cassava, which is an economically and socially relevant crop worldwide.

  6. Microbiologia de farinhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz durante o armazenamento Microbiology of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta Crantz during the storage

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    Cândido Ferreira Neto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as características microbiológicas em farinhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz simples e temperadas, armazenadas durante 180 dias. Os materiais consistiram de cinco amostras, sendo uma de farinha de mandioca sem mistura (simples e as demais de farinhas de mandioca temperadas. A farinha simples foi embalada em sacos de polietileno de baixa densidade com capacidade de 1,0kg e as farinhas temperadas foram embaladas em sacos plásticos de polipropileno pigmentado, com capacidade 0,5kg. Em todas as amostras, foram realizadas contagens de coliformes fecais, Staphylococcus aureus, bactérias mesófilas, bolores e leveduras e pesquisa de Salmonella sp. As análises foram realizadas em intervalos de 30 dias. Não foram detectadas diferenças entre as características microbiológicas das amostras simples e das temperadas. O armazenamento não alterou os padrões microbiológicos das amostras. As amostras apresentaram esterilidade para coliformes fecais, Salmonella sp. e Staphylococcus aureus. Os valores encontrados para coliformes fecais, Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, bactérias mesófilas e para bolores e leveduras estavam dentro dos padrões fixados pela legislação brasileira.This work was accomplished with the aim of evaluating the microbiological characteristic in cassava flours (Manihot esculenta Crantz simple and temperate, stored during 180 days. The materials consisted of five samples, being one of cassava flour without mixture (simple and the others of temperate cassava flours. The simple flour was packed in polyethylen bags of low density with capacity of 1,0kg and the temperate flours were packed in colored polipropilen bags, with capacity of 0.5kg. In all the samples fecal coliformes, Staphylococcus aureus, mesophile bacterias, yeasts counting and Salmonella sp research were accomplished. The analyses were accomplished in intervals of 30 days. Differences were not

  7. The growth of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz on various alternative gelling agents

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    DODY PRIADI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelling agents which is an important component in plant tissue culture media is considered expensive which causes high cost of plant micropropagation in developing countries. The objective of the study was to evaluate various commercial starches (hunkue, sago, tapioca, maize and arrowroot and food agars for substitution of standard technical agar which commonly used in tissue culture medium. Young stem cuttings with five buds of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. genotype Iding and Gebang cultured on MS hormone-free media solidified with those starches and agars. Parameters observed were total and length of shoots and rate of contamination. Result of study showed that the highest total shoots (2.45 on genotype Iding obtained from Agar Swallow 0.8% (control, meanwhile on Gebang (2.85 obtained from tapioca 25%. The highest shoot length on genotype Iding (17.2 mm obtained from maize, meanwhile on Gebang obtained from agar Sinar Kencana 2% (8.95 mm. Contamination rate of explants caused by bacteria or fungi on genotype Iding was 30-70%, meanwhile on Gebang was 20-60%. Further study needs to be done to evaluate more gelling agents from different sources and their combinations.

  8. Genetic relatedness between cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and M. flabellifolia and M. Peruviana based on both RAPD and AFLP markers

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    Colombo Carlos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the genus Manihot is still uncertain and the genetic origin of cassava (M. esculenta Crantz continues to be controversial. We studied the degree of genetic relatedness between cassava and two naturally occurring species (M. flabellifolia and M. peruviana which are probably involved in the evolution of cassava, using RAPD and AFLP molecular markers. Thirty-three clonal accessions of cassava of known genetic diversity and 15 accessions of the wild species M. flabellifolia and M. peruviana were analyzed using 92 polymorphic RAPD bands and 73 polymorphic AFLP bands. The genetic markers were unable to differentiate the two wild species, which confirms their botanical similarity. Half of the total number of amplified bands were monomorphic in all of the genotypes evaluated. The mean genetic similarity (Jaccard between cassava and the species M. flabellifolia/M. peruviana was 0.59. A grouping analysis (neighbor-joining method with RAPD markers of cultivated cassava, M. flabellifolia/M. peruviana and the other wild species located the genotypes of cassava and M. flabellifolia/M. peruviana at one extremity and the three Mexican species (M. aesculifolia, M. michaelis and M. chlorostica at the other. An intermediate position between these groups was occupied by two wild species (M. glaziovii and M. reptans native to central and northeastern Brazil. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the species M. flabellifolia and M. peruviana gave rise to the cultivated species.

  9. Enhancing the biodegradation process of cassava ( Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels have been implicated in serious environmental pollution. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of N.P.K (15:15:15) and microbial inoculants on the biodegradation process of cassava peels. Fresh cassava peels were subjected to biodegradation process for twenty weeks.

  10. Domestication Syndrome Is Investigated by Proteomic Analysis between Cultivated Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and Its Wild Relatives.

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    Feifei An

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz wild relatives remain a largely untapped potential for genetic improvement. However, the domestication syndrome phenomena from wild species to cultivated cassava remain poorly understood. The analysis of leaf anatomy and photosynthetic activity showed significantly different between cassava cultivars SC205, SC8 and wild relative M. esculenta ssp. Flabellifolia (W14. The dry matter, starch and amylose contents in the storage roots of cassava cultivars were significantly more than that in wild species. In order to further reveal the differences in photosynthesis and starch accumulation of cultivars and wild species, the globally differential proteins between cassava SC205, SC8 and W14 were analyzed using 2-DE in combination with MALDI-TOF tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 175 and 304 proteins in leaves and storage roots were identified, respectively. Of these, 122 and 127 common proteins in leaves and storage roots were detected in SC205, SC8 and W14, respectively. There were 11, 2 and 2 unique proteins in leaves, as well as 58, 9 and 12 unique proteins in storage roots for W14, SC205 and SC8, respectively, indicating proteomic changes in leaves and storage roots between cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. These proteins and their differential regulation across plants of contrasting leaf morphology, leaf anatomy pattern and photosynthetic related parameters and starch content could contribute to the footprinting of cassava domestication syndrome. We conclude that these global protein data would be of great value to detect the key gene groups related to cassava selection in the domestication syndrome phenomena.

  11. Domestication Syndrome Is Investigated by Proteomic Analysis between Cultivated Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Its Wild Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Feifei; Chen, Ting; Stéphanie, Djabou Mouafi Astride; Li, Kaimian; Li, Qing X; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Tomlins, Keith; Li, Jun; Gu, Bi; Chen, Songbi

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) wild relatives remain a largely untapped potential for genetic improvement. However, the domestication syndrome phenomena from wild species to cultivated cassava remain poorly understood. The analysis of leaf anatomy and photosynthetic activity showed significantly different between cassava cultivars SC205, SC8 and wild relative M. esculenta ssp. Flabellifolia (W14). The dry matter, starch and amylose contents in the storage roots of cassava cultivars were significantly more than that in wild species. In order to further reveal the differences in photosynthesis and starch accumulation of cultivars and wild species, the globally differential proteins between cassava SC205, SC8 and W14 were analyzed using 2-DE in combination with MALDI-TOF tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 175 and 304 proteins in leaves and storage roots were identified, respectively. Of these, 122 and 127 common proteins in leaves and storage roots were detected in SC205, SC8 and W14, respectively. There were 11, 2 and 2 unique proteins in leaves, as well as 58, 9 and 12 unique proteins in storage roots for W14, SC205 and SC8, respectively, indicating proteomic changes in leaves and storage roots between cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. These proteins and their differential regulation across plants of contrasting leaf morphology, leaf anatomy pattern and photosynthetic related parameters and starch content could contribute to the footprinting of cassava domestication syndrome. We conclude that these global protein data would be of great value to detect the key gene groups related to cassava selection in the domestication syndrome phenomena.

  12. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) landraces from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongomake, Kone; Doungous, Oumar; Khatabi, Behnam; Fondong, Vincent N

    2015-01-01

    A procedure to regenerate cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars from Cameroon via somatic embryogenesis (SE) was developed. Shoot apical meristems and immature leaf lobes were used as explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium containing 33 or 50 µM of the auxins Picloram (Pic), 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), Dicamba (Dic), and α-Naphthalene acetic acid. Cultivar performance was assessed using SE and number of somatic embryos produced. Overall, the frequency of primary somatic embryogenesis (PSE) and the mean number of somatic embryos produced varied considerably with genotype, type of auxin and concentration tested. For example, cultivar (cv.) Ngan Mbada showed the best performance on MS medium supplemented with 50 µM Pic with a SE frequency of 40 % and an average number of somatic embryos of 90. The second best performance was recorded in cv. Local Red on MS medium supplemented with 33 µM 2,4-D, where the SE frequency was 40 % and an average number of somatic embryos of 60.5. Cultivar Ekona Red recorded the best performance on medium supplemented with 50 µM Pic showing a SE frequency of 47 % and an average number of somatic embryos of 45. We further examined secondary and cyclic somatic embryogenesis (SSE, CSE) and both were also observed to vary with genotype, however, both exhibited significantly higher frequencies of SE compared with PSE. SE started to decline at the fourth cycle of embryogenesis. Examination of organogenesis showed that shoot bud induction from green cotyledons varied across cultivars and benzylaminopurine was shown to outperform Thidiazuron in the ability to induce organogenesis. Furthermore, the frequencies of bud induction were identical under light and dark conditions. Finally, regenerated plants grew easily in the greenhouse with 90-100 % survival rate and did not display detectable variation in morphology.

  13. Izoenzimas esterases para discriminar cultivares "sem nome" de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Esterase isozymes for the characterization of "unnamed" cassava cultivars (Manihot esculenta Crantz

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    Fábio Pablos de Souza

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Isoenzimas esterases foram usadas como marcadores moleculares para discriminar e agrupar sete cultivares "sem nomes" (acessos A-G de Manihot esculenta. Os cultivares "sem nomes" de mandioca foram comparados com 25 diferentes cultivares (BG que vêm sendo mantidos na coleção de germoplasma do Departamento de Agronomia, da Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Acetato e propionato de 4-metilumbeliferona e acetato de α–naftil, foram os substratos utilizados para a detecção e análise comparativa das isoesterases. A similaridade entre as plantas, usando o coeficiente de Jaccard, variou de 47,6% até 100%. O dendrograma produzido pela análise de agrupamento mostrou identidade entre as plantas do cultivar BG23 e as plantas do acesso D. As plantas dos acessos B e G também foram agrupadas com o cultivar BG 23, mostrando similaridade de 95% e 89%, respectivamente. As plantas dos acessos A e E foram similares às plantas BG 1, mostrando 95% e 90% de similaridade, respectivamente. As plantas do acesso F foram agrupadas com as plantas do cultivar BG 9, mostrando 94% de similaridade. O dendrograma mostrou também que a maioria dos cultivares foram agrupados com 85-90% de similaridade. Assim, concluímos que as isozimas esterases podem ser utilizadas como marcadores moleculares de genótipos de mandioca, para a caracterização dos cultivares sem nomes de M. esculentaEsterase isozymes were used as molecular markers to discriminate and cluster seven "unnamed" cultivars (accesses A-G of M. esculenta. The "unnamed" cassava cultivars were compared to 25 different M. esculenta cultivars (cultivars BG, which have been maintained in the germplasm collection of the Agronomy Department, State University of Maringá. 4-Methylumbelliferyl acetate, 4-methylumbelliferyl propionate and α–naphthyl acetate were utilized as substrates for isoesterase detection and comparative analysis. Similarity between plants, using Jaccard’s coefficient, ranged from 47.6% to 100

  14. Changes in carbohydrate metabolism by triazole growth regulators in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz); effects on tuber production and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomathinayagam, Muthiah; Jaleel, Cheruth Abdul; Lakshmanan, G M Alagu; Panneerselvam, Rajaram

    2007-09-01

    We have evaluated the ability of two triazole growth regulators, viz. triadimefon (TDM) and hexaconazole (HEX), in the enhancement of tuber production and quality in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) through their effects on carbohydrate metabolism. One litre of 20 mg(-1) TDM and 15 mg(-1) HEX solution per plant were used for the treatments and groundwater was given to control plants. Triazole treatments reduced plant height and leaf area, but increased fresh and dry weights. Plants treated with TDM showed an increased net assimilation rate, which is followed by HEX and control plants. Triazole compounds increased the relative growth rate of cassava after 200 DAP, i.e. in the phase of tuber enlargement. Triazole compounds increased the starch and other carbohydrate contents and carbohydrate metabolising enzyme activities. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that these triazoles can significantly enhance the tuber production and quality by affecting the starch metabolism, apart from their fungicidal properties.

  15. Development of cosmetic formulations containing glucan polymer of Cassava (Manihot esculenta: stability and sensory analysis

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    Luisa M. Manço

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the development, rheological behaviour determination, and sensory analysis of cosmetic formulations containing glucan biopolymer (Manihot esculenta, a tensor agent that was proposed to produce an immediate lifting and smoothing effect. For this purpose, formulations were developed and supplemented or not with 4 % of hydrolysed Manihot esculenta tuber extract and submitted to preliminary stability tests. These formulations were evaluated in terms of rheological behaviour over 90 days. Sensory analysis was carried out through a research with 20 cosmetic consumers who answered a questionnaire regarding their perception to the cosmetic qualities. The formulations presented pseudoplastic behavior and were considered stable in the physical stability studies, with the exception of the gel formulation based on Ammonium Acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP Copolymer. The formulations were well evaluated in the sensory parameters. The gel formulations based on Polyacrylamide, C13- 14 Isoparaffin, and Laureth-7 were stable and presented the best sensory profile in some evaluated parameters, such as spreadability, smoothness and skin moisturizing, and can be considered an appropriate vehicle for formulations containing hydrolysed Manihot esculenta tuber extract.

  16. Crossability studies and zygotic embryo culture in cassava (manihot esculenta crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunekpeku, W.

    2010-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) germplasm in Ghana is mostly uncharacterized and includes a large collection of landraces variously suitable for specific end-uses at different locations across the country. None of the existing released varieties meets the requirements of an emerging local industry in starch production. In the absence of an active molecular genetic research group in the country to facilitate the incorporation of desired genes for high yield, high starch content and disease resistance into a single genotype, intra-specific hybridization remains a viable option in creating variability from which new varieties with a combination of the desired characteristics may be selected. Following a study of their phenological and reproductive characteristics, crosses were carried out among nine accessions of cassava (Megyewontem, Bamboo Akwetey, Ankra, BNARI Selection-1, Afisiafi, Security, Larbi, Asare and HO-008, abbreviated as ME, BA, AN, BS-1, AF, SE, LA, AS and HO-008 respectively). Flowering and fruiting characteristics differed significantly among the accessions. Percent crossability ranged from 0% (in AN x HO-008, AF x ME and LA x HO-008 crosses) to 88% (in AS x AF crosses). No clear relationship existed between seed set and embryo formation among the accessions. Fruit drop rate ranged from 11.7% to 83.3%. Zygotic embryos were harvested prior to seed maturity and cultured in vitro on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium to raise a collection of F 1 base population lines. In vitro germination rates of the hybrid embryos harvested at 45DAP ranged from 32.14% to 100%. Ex vitro acclimatization of 237 plantlets recovered from zygotic embryo cultures resulted in the survival of 35 hybrid progenies. These were grown for six months in a plant barn. Preliminary characterization of the hybrids with reference to above- and below-ground morphological traits, using IBPGR descriptors, revealed that they are generally similar in terms of pubescence of young

  17. Variability of chloroplast DNA and nuclear ribosomal DNA in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its wild relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregene, M A; Vargas, J; Ikea, J; Angel, F; Tohme, J; Asiedu, R A; Akoroda, M O; Roca, W M

    1994-11-01

    Chloroplast DNA (cp) and nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) variation was investigated in 45 accessions of cultivated and wild Manihot species. Ten independent mutations, 8 point mutations and 2 length mutations were identified, using eight restriction enzymes and 12 heterologous cpDNA probes from mungbean. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis defined nine distinct chloroplast types, three of which were found among the cultivated accessions and six among the wild species. Cladistic analysis of the cpDNA data using parsimony yielded a hypothetical phylogeny of lineages among the cpDNAs of cassava and its wild relatives that is congruent with morphological evolutionary differentiation in the genus. The results of our survey of cpDNA, together with rDNA restriction site change at the intergenic spacer region and rDNA repeat unit length variation (using rDNA cloned fragments from taro as probe), suggest that cassava might have arisen from the domestication of wild tuberous accessions of some Manihot species, followed by intensive selection. M. esculenta subspp flabellifolia is probably a wild progenitor. Introgressive hybridization with wild forms and pressures to adapt to the widely varying climates and topography in which cassava is found might have enhanced the crop's present day variability.

  18. Diversity of LTR-retrotransposons and Enhancer/Suppressor Mutator-like transposons in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadegesin, Michael A; Wills, Matthew A; Beeching, John R

    2008-10-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), though a major world crop with enormous potential, is very under studied. Little is known about its genome structure and organisation. Transposable elements have a key role in the evolution of genome structure, and can be used as important tools in applied genetics. This paper sets out to survey the diversity of members of three major classes of transposable element within the cassava genome and in relation to similar elements in other plants. Members of two classes of LTR-retrotransposons, Ty1/copia-like and Ty3/gypsy-like, and of Enhancer/Suppressor Mutator (En/Spm)-like transposons were isolated and characterised. Analyses revealed 59 families of Ty1/copia, 26 families of Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons, and 40 families of En/Spm in the cassava genome. In the comparative analyses, the predicted amino acid sequences for these transposon classes were compared with those of related elements from other plant species. These revealed that there were multiple lineages of Ty1/copia-like retrotransposons in the genome of cassava and suggested that vertical and horizontal transmission as the source of cassava Mecops may not be mutually exclusive. For the Ty3/gypsy elements network, two groups of cassava Megyps were evident including the Arabidopsis Athila lineage. However, cassava En/Spm-like elements (Meens) constituted a single group within a network of plant En/Spm-like elements. Hybridisation analysis supported the presence of transposons in the genome of cassava in medium (Ty3/gypsy and En/Spm) to high (Ty1/copia) copy numbers. Thus the cassava genome was shown to contain diverse members of three major classes of transposable element; however, the different classes exhibited contrasting evolutionary histories.

  19. High-resolution linkage map and chromosome-scale genome assembly for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from 10 populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-11

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major staple crop in Africa, Asia, and South America, and its starchy roots provide nourishment for 800 million people worldwide. Although native to South America, cassava was brought to Africa 400-500 years ago and is now widely cultivated across sub-Saharan Africa, but it is subject to biotic and abiotic stresses. To assist in the rapid identification of markers for pathogen resistance and crop traits, and to accelerate breeding programs, we generated a framework map for M. esculenta Crantz from reduced representation sequencing [genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)]. The composite 2412-cM map integrates 10 biparental maps (comprising 3480 meioses) and organizes 22,403 genetic markers on 18 chromosomes, in agreement with the observed karyotype. We used the map to anchor 71.9% of the draft genome assembly and 90.7% of the predicted protein-coding genes. The chromosome-anchored genome sequence will be useful for breeding improvement by assisting in the rapid identification of markers linked to important traits, and in providing a framework for genomic selection-enhanced breeding of this important crop. Copyright © 2015 International Cassava Genetic Map Consortium (ICGMC).

  20. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the KUP Family under Abiotic Stress in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Wenjun; Mao, Xiang; Huang, Chao; Tie, Weiwei; Yan, Yan; Ding, Zehong; Wu, Chunlai; Xia, Zhiqiang; Wang, Wenquan; Zhou, Shiyi; Li, Kaimian; Hu, Wei

    2018-01-01

    KT/HAK/KUP (KUP) family is responsible for potassium ion (K+) transport, which plays a vital role in the response of plants to abiotic stress by maintaining osmotic balance. However, our understanding of the functions of the KUP family in the drought-resistant crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is limited. In the present study, 21 cassava KUP genes (MeKUPs) were identified and classified into four clusters based on phylogenetic relationships, conserved motifs, and gene structure analyses. Transcriptome analysis revealed the expression diversity of cassava KUPs in various tissues of three genotypes. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that the activation of MeKUP genes by drought was more in roots than that in leaves of Arg7 and W14 genotypes, whereas less in roots than that in leaves of SC124 variety. These findings indicate that different cassava genotypes utilize various drought resistance mechanism mediated by KUP genes. Specific KUP genes showed broad upregulation after exposure to salt, osmotic, cold, H2O2, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. Taken together, this study provides insights into the KUP-mediated drought response of cassava at transcription levels and identifies candidate genes that may be utilized in improving crop tolerance to abiotic stress. PMID:29416511

  1. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the KUP Family under Abiotic Stress in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Wenjun; Mao, Xiang; Huang, Chao; Tie, Weiwei; Yan, Yan; Ding, Zehong; Wu, Chunlai; Xia, Zhiqiang; Wang, Wenquan; Zhou, Shiyi; Li, Kaimian; Hu, Wei

    2018-01-01

    KT/HAK/KUP (KUP) family is responsible for potassium ion (K + ) transport, which plays a vital role in the response of plants to abiotic stress by maintaining osmotic balance. However, our understanding of the functions of the KUP family in the drought-resistant crop cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) is limited. In the present study, 21 cassava KUP genes ( MeKUPs ) were identified and classified into four clusters based on phylogenetic relationships, conserved motifs, and gene structure analyses. Transcriptome analysis revealed the expression diversity of cassava KUPs in various tissues of three genotypes. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that the activation of MeKUP genes by drought was more in roots than that in leaves of Arg7 and W14 genotypes, whereas less in roots than that in leaves of SC124 variety. These findings indicate that different cassava genotypes utilize various drought resistance mechanism mediated by KUP genes. Specific KUP genes showed broad upregulation after exposure to salt, osmotic, cold, H 2 O 2 , and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. Taken together, this study provides insights into the KUP -mediated drought response of cassava at transcription levels and identifies candidate genes that may be utilized in improving crop tolerance to abiotic stress.

  2. Identificación de polimorfismos en genes candidatos de resistencia en yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz Identification of polymorphisms in resistance gene candidates in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vásquez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La yuca (Manihot esculenta es la base de la alimentación para más de 1000 millones de personas en el mundo. La producción es severamente afectada por enfermedades ocasionadas por diferentes patógenos. Las plantas de yuca han desarrollado una serie de proteínas de resistencia (R para defenderse de infecciones virales, bacterianas y fúngicas, las cuales son capaces de reconocer moléculas específicas de los patógenos. Un repertorio amplio de estas proteínas ha sido identificado en varias especies vegetales, no obstante, a pesar de conferir resistencia a patógenos diversos, presentan unos pocos dominios conservados. A partir de la reciente liberación de la secuencia completa del genoma de yuca se identificaron secuencias similares a proteínas R en este genoma. Con esta información se diseñaron cebadores para amplificar 13 genes R, logrando la amplificación de 10 de ellos en las variedades TMS30572 y CM2177-2, las cuales representan los parentales empleados en la construcción del mapa genético de yuca. A partir de la secuenciación de los amplicones obtenidos se identificaron 37 SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms de los cuales 18 (48.6% corresponden a transiciones y 19 (45.9% a transversiones. El restante corresponde a inserciones/deleciones. Este conocimiento permitirá desarrollar estrategias adecuadas para marcadores moleculares tipo CAPs (del inglés Cleaved Amplified Polymorphism para posteriormente evaluar su segregación en la población F1 y permitir de esta manera, posicionar estos marcadores en el mapa genético de yuca.Cassava production can be detrimentally affected by diseases caused for different pathogens. To defend against viral, bacterial and fungal diseases, plants have developed a group of resistance proteins (R, which are able to recognize pathogen’s molecules. A wide repertoire of R proteins has been identified in a large group of plants. Even though conferring resistance to different pathogens, these R

  3. UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry and chemometric analysis as tools for carotenoids analysis in cassava genotypes (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Rodolfo; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Pereira, Aline; Tomazzoli, Maíra Maciel; Nunes, Eduardo da C; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Gazzola, Jussara; Costa, Christopher; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2015-10-21

    In this study, the metabolomics characterization focusing on the carotenoid composition of ten cassava (Manihot esculenta) genotypes cultivated in southern Brazil by UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography was performed. Cassava roots rich in β-carotene are an important staple food for populations with risk of vitamin A deficiency. Cassava genotypes with high pro-vitamin A activity have been identified as a strategy to reduce the prevalence of deficiency of this vitamin. The data set was used for the construction of a descriptive model by chemometric analysis. The genotypes of yellow-fleshed roots were clustered by the higher concentrations of cis-β-carotene and lutein. Inversely, cream-fleshed roots genotypes were grouped precisely due to their lower concentrations of these pigments, as samples rich in lycopene (red-fleshed) differed among the studied genotypes. The analytical approach (UV-Vis, HPLC, and chemometrics) used showed to be efficient for understanding the chemodiversity of cassava genotypes, allowing to classify them according to important features for human health and nutrition.

  4. A genetic map of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with integrated physical mapping of immunity-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Johana Carolina; Ortiz, Juan Felipe; Perlaza-Jiménez, Laura; Vásquez, Andrea Ximena; Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto Becerra; Mathew, Boby; Léon, Jens; Bernal, Adriana Jimena; Ballvora, Agim; López, Camilo Ernesto

    2015-03-16

    Cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, is one of the most important crops world-wide representing the staple security for more than one billion of people. The development of dense genetic and physical maps, as the basis for implementing genetic and molecular approaches to accelerate the rate of genetic gains in breeding program represents a significant challenge. A reference genome sequence for cassava has been made recently available and community efforts are underway for improving its quality. Cassava is threatened by several pathogens, but the mechanisms of defense are far from being understood. Besides, there has been a lack of information about the number of genes related to immunity as well as their distribution and genomic organization in the cassava genome. A high dense genetic map of cassava containing 2,141 SNPs has been constructed. Eighteen linkage groups were resolved with an overall size of 2,571 cM and an average distance of 1.26 cM between markers. More than half of mapped SNPs (57.4%) are located in coding sequences. Physical mapping of scaffolds of cassava whole genome sequence draft using the mapped markers as anchors resulted in the orientation of 687 scaffolds covering 45.6% of the genome. One hundred eighty nine new scaffolds are anchored to the genetic cassava map leading to an extension of the present cassava physical map with 30.7 Mb. Comparative analysis using anchor markers showed strong co-linearity to previously reported cassava genetic and physical maps. In silico based searching for conserved domains allowed the annotation of a repertory of 1,061 cassava genes coding for immunity-related proteins (IRPs). Based on physical map of the corresponding sequencing scaffolds, unambiguous genetic localization was possible for 569 IRPs. This is the first study reported so far of an integrated high density genetic map using SNPs with integrated genetic and physical localization of newly annotated immunity related genes in cassava. These data build a

  5. Interferência de plantas daninhas sobre a produtividade da mandioca (Manihot esculenta Weed interference in cassava (Manihot esculenta yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.A. Albuquerque

    2008-06-01

    ência situou-se entre 25 e 75 DAP. Cultivos realizados após 75 DAP não afetaram as características da cultura da mandioca avaliadas.Inadequate handling of weeds is one of the main causes of cassava low yield in Brazil. The objective of this work was to identify the weed species interfering in cassava crop and the degree of this interference, in function of then coexistence period. Two experiments were carried out in adjacent areas in Viçosa-MG, Brazil, using the "cacauzinha" cultivar of the cassava group. A randomized block design was adopted, with seven treatments and four replications. The treatments in the first experiment were composed by the initial crop periods and weed coexistence 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 days after planting (DAP. In the second experiment, the cassava plants initially remained weed-free for the same periods. For both experiments, 1.0 x 0.5 m spacing was adopted, being the useful portion area constituted by the two central lines, with 1.0 m being left in each extremity as front borders, totaling 8.0 m².. The weeds were analyzed at 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250, 275, 300, 325 and 350 DAP. The characteristics root yield, aerial part weight, crop index, starch content and root dry matter were evaluated at twelve months after planting. The prevailing weed species in the experimental area were: Bidens pilosa, Raphanus raphanistrum, Cyperus rotundus and Commelina benghalensis, with Bidens pilosa prevailing in almost all collection times. The coexistence periods with the weeds did not interfere in the crop indexes, starch content and root dry matter. However, taking into account root yield, the end of the period before interference was close to 25 days and the interference prevention critical period was between 25 and 75 DAP. Crops sown after 75 DAP did not affect the analyzed cassava crop characteristics.

  6. Characterization of an 18,166 EST dataset for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) enriched for drought-responsive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokko, Y; Anderson, J V; Rudd, S; Raji, A; Horvath, D; Mikel, M A; Kim, R; Liu, L; Hernandez, A; Dixon, A G O; Ingelbrecht, I L

    2007-09-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food for over 600 million people in the tropics and subtropics and is increasingly used as an industrial crop for starch production. Cassava has a high growth rate under optimal conditions but also performs well in drought-prone areas and on marginal soils. To increase the tools for understanding and manipulating drought tolerance in cassava, we generated expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from normalized cDNA libraries prepared from dehydration-stressed and control well-watered tissues. Analysis of a total of 18,166 ESTs resulted in the identification of 8,577 unique gene clusters (5,383 singletons and 3,194 clusters). Functional categories could be assigned to 63% of the unigenes, while another approximately 11% were homologous to hypothetical genes with unclear functions. The remaining approximately 26% were not significantly homologous to sequences in public databases suggesting that some may be novel and putatively specific to cassava. The dehydration-stressed library uncovered numerous ESTs with recognized roles in drought-responses, including those that encode late-embryogenesis-abundant proteins thought to confer osmoprotective functions during water stress, transcription factors, heat-shock proteins as well as proteins involved in signal transduction and oxidative stress. The unigene clusters were screened for short tandem repeats for further development as microsatellite markers. A total of 592 clusters contained 646 repeats, representing 3.3% of the ESTs queried. The ESTs presented here are the first dehydration stress transcriptome of cassava and can be utilized for the development of microarrays and gene-derived molecular markers to further dissect the molecular basis of drought tolerance in cassava.

  7. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Yam (Dioscorea spp.) Crops and Their Derived Foodstuffs: Safety, Security and Nutritional Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Piccirillo, Clara; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Manuela E

    2016-12-09

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and yam (Dioscorea spp.) are tropical crops consumed by ca. 2 billion people and represent the main source of carbohydrate and energy for the approximately 700 million people living in the tropical and sub-tropical areas. They are a guarantee of food security for developing countries. The production of these crops and the transformation into food-derived commodities is increasing, it represents a profitable business and farmers generate substantial income from their market. However, there are some important concerns related to the food safety and food security. The high post-harvest losses, mainly for yam, the contamination by endogenous toxic compounds, mainly for cassava, and the contamination by external agents (such as micotoxins, pesticides, and heavy metal) represent a depletion of economic value and income. The loss in the raw crops or the impossibility to market the derived foodstuffs, due to incompliance with food regulations, can seriously limit all yam tubers and the cassava roots processors, from farmers to household, from small-medium to large enterprises. One of the greatest challenges to overcome those concerns is the transformation of traditional or indigenous processing methods into modern industrial operations, from the crop storage to the adequate package of each derived foodstuff.

  8. Leaf proteomic analysis in cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) during plant development, from planting of stem cutting to storage root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitprasat, Mashamon; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Jiemsup, Surasak; Boonseng, Opas; Yokthongwattana, Kittisak

    2011-06-01

    Tuberization in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) occurs simultaneously with plant development, suggesting competition of photoassimilate partitioning between the shoot and the root organs. In potato, which is the most widely studied tuber crop, there is ample evidence suggesting that metabolism and regulatory processes in leaf may have an impact on tuber formation. To search for leaf proteins putatively involved in regulating tuber generation and/or development in cassava, comparative proteomic approaches have been applied to monitor differentially expressed leaf proteins during root transition from fibrous to tuberous. Stringent cross comparison and statistical analysis between two groups with different plant ages using Student's t test with 95% significance level revealed a number of protein spots whose abundance were significantly altered (P < 0.05) during week 4 to week 8 of growth. Of these, 39 spots were successfully identified by ion trap LC-MS/MS. The proteins span various functional categories from antioxidant and defense, carbohydrate metabolism, cyanogenesis, energy metabolism, miscellaneous and unknown proteins. Results suggested possible metabolic switches in the leaf that may trigger/regulate storage root initiation and growth. This study provides a basis for further functional characterization of differentially expressed leaf proteins, which can help understand how biochemical processes in cassava leaves may be involved in storage root development.

  9. Molecular cloning, subcellular localization and characterization of two adenylate kinases from cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. KU50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonrueng, Channarong; Tangpranomkorn, Surachat; Yazhisai, Uthaman; Sirikantaramas, Supaart

    2016-10-01

    Adenylate kinase (ADK) is a phosphotransferase that plays an important role in cellular energy homeostasis. Many isozymes located in different subcellular compartments have been reported. In this study, we focus on the characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta) ADKs. We found 15 ADKs that are publicly available in the African cassava genome database. We cloned two ADKs, namely MeADK1 and MeADK2, which are phylogenetically grouped together with the plastidial ADK in potato. Both MeADK1 and MeADK2 showed 66% identity in the amino acid sequences with plastidial ADK in potato. However, we demonstrated that they are localized to mitochondria using GFP fusions of MeADK1 and MeADK2. The Escherichia coli-produced recombinant MeADK1 and MeADK2 preferred forward reactions that produce ATP. They exhibited similar specific activities. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that MeADK1 and MeADK2 in 2-month-old leaves have similar expression patterns under a diurnal light-dark cycle. However, MeADK2 transcripts were expressed at much higher levels than MeADK1 in 5-month-old leaves and roots. Thus, we conclude that MeADK2 might play a vital role in energy homeostasis in cassava mitochondria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact Of Thermotherapy And Chlorothalonil On Plantlets Production Of Some Genotypes Of Cassava Manihot Esculenta Crantz Produce In Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava Manihot esculenta is a starchy root plant of great economic importance in sub-Saharan Africa and particularly in Benin. Its production is confronted to virus diseases which cause a considerable losses of yield. This work aims to determine the impact of thermotherapy and chlorothalonil in the production of cassava material of plantation. Cuttings of four varieties RB89509 BEN86052 9102319 92B0057 are cultivated under two conditions of thermotherapy and a control under greenhouse during 4 weeks. These different conditions are a closed drying oven with 16 hours photoperiod at 40 C the day and 36C the night a drying oven Binder with photoperiod of 12 hours at 38C the day and 28C the night and the control carried out under the conditions of the greenhouse. The media used was Murashige and Skoog MS added with various amounts of chlorothalonil 0.6 gl and 2gl and control without chlorothalonil. Both techniques of thermotherapy eliminate the virus symptoms of cassava at the rate of 0 seedling infected in thermotherapy against 16 seedlings in natural condition. The technique of closed drying oven significantly favors the production of nodes at 5 level p0.000 and shoots p0.02 on the other hand Binder drying oven has no significant effect on the production of shoots p0.68. The chlorothalonil had a positive effect on in vitro infestations elimination of cassava p0.05 but influenced the growth and development of cassava explants by reducing of nodes production p0.01 without a lethal effect on the plantlets until the dose of 2gl.

  11. Ground penetrating radar: a case study for estimating root bulking rate in cassava (Manihot esculentaCrantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Alfredo; Hays, Dirk B; Bruton, Richard K; Ceballos, Hernán; Novo, Alexandre; Boi, Enrico; Selvaraj, Michael Gomez

    2017-01-01

    Understanding root traits is a necessary research front for selection of favorable genotypes or cultivation practices. Root and tuber crops having most of their economic potential stored below ground are favorable candidates for such studies. The ability to image and quantify subsurface root structure would allow breeders to classify root traits for rapid selection and allow agronomist the ability to derive effective cultivation practices. In spite of the huge role of Cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz), for food security and industrial uses, little progress has been made in understanding the onset and rate of the root-bulking process and the factors that influence it. The objective of this research was to determine the capability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) to predict root-bulking rates through the detection of total root biomass during its growth cycle. Our research provides the first application of GPR for detecting below ground biomass in cassava. Through an empirical study, linear regressions were derived to model cassava bulking rates. The linear equations derived suggest that GPR is a suitable measure of root biomass ( r  = .79). The regression analysis developed accounts for 63% of the variability in cassava biomass below ground. When modeling is performed at the variety level, it is evident that the variety models for SM 1219-9 and TMS 60444 outperform the HMC-1 variety model (r 2  = .77, .63 and .51 respectively). Using current modeling methods, it is possible to predict below ground biomass and estimate root bulking rates for selection of early root bulking in cassava. Results of this approach suggested that the general model was over predicting at early growth stages but became more precise in later root development.

  12. Quantitative trait loci and candidate genes associated with starch pasting viscosity characteristics in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanyasiriwat, T; Sraphet, S; Whankaew, S; Boonseng, O; Bao, J; Lightfoot, D A; Tangphatsornruang, S; Triwitayakorn, K

    2014-01-01

    Starch pasting viscosity is an important quality trait in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars. The aim here was to identify loci and candidate genes associated with the starch pasting viscosity. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for seven pasting viscosity parameters was carried out using 100 lines of an F1 mapping population from a cross between two cassava cultivars Huay Bong 60 and Hanatee. Starch samples were obtained from roots of cassava grown in 2008 and 2009 at Rayong, and in 2009 at Lop Buri province, Thailand. The traits showed continuous distribution among the F1 progeny with transgressive variation. Fifteen QTL were identified from mean trait data, with Logarithm of Odds (LOD) values from 2.77-13.01 and phenotype variations explained (PVE) from10.0-48.4%. In addition, 48 QTL were identified in separate environments. The LOD values ranged from 2.55-8.68 and explained 6.6-43.7% of phenotype variation. The loci were located on 19 linkage groups. The most important QTL for pasting temperature (PT) (qPT.1LG1) from mean trait values showed largest effect with highest LOD value (13.01) and PVE (48.4%). The QTL co-localised with PT and pasting time (PTi) loci that were identified in separate environments. Candidate genes were identified within the QTL peak regions. However, the major genes of interest, encoding the family of glycosyl or glucosyl transferases and hydrolases, were located at the periphery of QTL peaks. The loci identified could be effectively applied in breeding programmes to improve cassava starch quality. Alleles of candidate genes should be further studied in order to better understand their effects on starch quality traits. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Identification and characterization of a novel cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) clone with high free sugar content and novel starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luiz Joaquim Castelo Branco; de Souza, Claudia Regina Batista; de Mattos Cascardo, Julio César; Junior, Carlos Bloch; Campos, Laura

    2004-11-01

    This study reports the identification of a new class of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with a storage root showing unusual free sugar accumulation and novel starch. Twenty-seven clones high in free sugar were identified under cultivation in primitive rural community areas in the Amazon. Iodine test and glucose oxidase-peroxidase reagent strips were used, in the field, for identification of starch and glucose, respectively. Five out of these 27 clones of cassava were cultivated at EMBRAPA Genetic Resources and Biotechnology and used for biochemical characterization, starch synthesis enzyme activities and gene expression analysis. Carbohydrates were fractioned into free sugar, polymerized water-soluble and -insoluble alpha-polyglucan. Clones of series CAS36 accumulate over 100 times more free sugar (mainly glucose) than commercial varieties. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed one clone with distinct water-soluble sugars not present in the commercial cultivar. Structure analysis of the water-soluble and -insoluble alpha-polyglucan revealed the presence of a glycogen-like starch in clone CAS36.1. This clone indicated disruption in the starch synthesis pathway for enzyme activities and protein blot analyses in ADPG-pyrophosphorylase and branching enzyme, and their corresponding protein. Gene expression analysis indicated the lack of transcript for the gene coding for branching enzyme, but not for the gene coding for the ADPG-pyrophosphorylase small subunit. In addition, the pattern of distribution of sugar and starch content showed to be related to tissue age in the storage root.

  14. Large-scale SNP discovery through RNA sequencing and SNP genotyping by targeted enrichment sequencing in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pootakham, Wirulda; Shearman, Jeremy R; Ruang-Areerate, Panthita; Sonthirod, Chutima; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Jomchai, Nukoon; Yoocha, Thippawan; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2014-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crop species being the main source of dietary energy in several countries. Marker-assisted selection has become an essential tool in plant breeding. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery via transcriptome sequencing is an attractive strategy for genome complexity reduction in organisms with large genomes. We sequenced the transcriptome of 16 cassava accessions using the Illumina HiSeq platform and identified 675,559 EST-derived SNP markers. A subset of those markers was subsequently genotyped by capture-based targeted enrichment sequencing in 100 F1 progeny segregating for starch viscosity phenotypes. A total of 2,110 non-redundant SNP markers were used to construct a genetic map. This map encompasses 1,785 cM and consists of 19 linkage groups. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling starch pasting properties was identified and shown to coincide with the QTL previously reported for this trait. With a high-density SNP-based linkage map presented here, we also uncovered a novel QTL associated with starch pasting time on LG 10.

  15. Natural variation in expression of genes associated with carotenoid biosynthesis and accumulation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luiz Jcb; Agustini, Marco Av; Anderson, James V; Vieira, Eduardo A; de Souza, Claudia Rb; Chen, Songbi; Schaal, Barbara A; Silva, Joseane P

    2016-06-10

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root provides a staple food source for millions of people worldwide. Increasing the carotenoid content in storage root of cassava could provide improved nutritional and health benefits. Because carotenoid accumulation has been associated with storage root color, this study characterized carotenoid profiles, and abundance of key transcripts associated with carotenoid biosynthesis, from 23 landraces of cassava storage root ranging in color from white-to-yellow-to-pink. This study provides important information to plant breeding programs aimed at improving cassava storage root nutritional quality. Among the 23 landraces, five carotenoid types were detected in storage root with white color, while carotenoid types ranged from 1 to 21 in storage root with pink and yellow color. The majority of storage root in these landraces ranged in color from pale-to-intense yellow. In this color group, total β-carotene, containing all-E-, 9-Z-, and 13-Z-β-carotene isomers, was the major carotenoid type detected, varying from 26.13 to 76.72 %. Although no α-carotene was observed, variable amounts of a α-ring derived xanthophyll, lutein, was detected; with greater accumulation of α-ring xanthophylls than of β-ring xanthophyll. Lycopene was detected in a landrace (Cas51) with pink color storage root, but it was not detected in storage root with yellow color. Based on microarray and qRT-PCR analyses, abundance of transcripts coding for enzymes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis were consistent with carotenoid composition determined by contrasting HPLC-Diode Array profiles from storage root of landraces IAC12, Cas64, and Cas51. Abundance of transcripts encoding for proteins regulating plastid division were also consistent with the observed differences in total β-carotene accumulation. Among the 23 cassava landraces with varying storage root color and diverse carotenoid types and profiles, landrace Cas51 (pink color storage root) had low

  16. Mycoflora and nutrient analysis of sundried cassava chips (Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-22

    Manihot esculenta) during twenty weeks of storage and the ... The nutritional composition of cassava chips were depleted by the associated fungi during storage. Therefore ... chips by cutting the roots into slices. The slices were.

  17. Validation of Reference Genes for Relative Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meizhen; Hu, Wenbin; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Wang, Wenquan

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, also referred to as quantitative RT-PCR or RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive and high-throughput method used to study gene expression. Despite the numerous advantages of RT-qPCR, its accuracy is strongly influenced by the stability of internal reference genes used for normalizations. To date, few studies on the identification of reference genes have been performed on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Therefore, we selected 26 candidate reference genes mainly via the three following channels: reference genes used in previous studies on cassava, the orthologs of the most stable Arabidopsis genes, and the sequences obtained from 32 cassava transcriptome sequence data. Then, we employed ABI 7900 HT and SYBR Green PCR mix to assess the expression of these genes in 21 materials obtained from various cassava samples under different developmental and environmental conditions. The stability of gene expression was analyzed using two statistical algorithms, namely geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm software suggests the combination of cassava4.1_017977 and cassava4.1_006391 as sufficient reference genes for major cassava samples, the union of cassava4.1_014335 and cassava4.1_006884 as best choice for drought stressed samples, and the association of cassava4.1_012496 and cassava4.1_006391 as optimal choice for normally grown samples. NormFinder software recommends cassava4.1_006884 or cassava4.1_006776 as superior reference for qPCR analysis of different materials and organs of drought stressed or normally grown cassava, respectively. Results provide an important resource for cassava reference genes under specific conditions. The limitations of these findings were also discussed. Furthermore, we suggested some strategies that may be used to select candidate reference genes.

  18. Application of molecular markers in germplasm enhancement of Cassava (Manihot esculenta L. Crantz) and Yams (Dioscorea spp.) at IITA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignouna, H.D.; Asiedu, R.; Dixon, A.G.O.; Tonukari, J.; Ng, N.Q.; Thottappilly, G.; Knox, M.; Ellis, T.H.N.

    1998-01-01

    The genetic variation among 28 varieties of cassava (Manihot esculenta L. Crantz), collected from different parts of the Republic of Benin was determined using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. A set of ten primers out of the one hundred that were screened, detected polymorphisms. Thirty-five cassava landraces from three countries of West Africa, along with five improved varieties and one genetic stock (58308), were analysed using both micro satellite markers and nine selected random primers which generated fifty-four polymorphic markers. Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), six major groups of clusters were identified among the forty one genotypes. Clone 58308, the original source of resistance to African Cassava Mosaic Disease (ACMD) in IITA's cassava breeding program, and TMS 30572, an improved cultivar derived from clone 58308, were found in the same cluster group. All 34 of the landraces that are known to be resistant to ACMD were genetically distant from 58308 and TMS 30572. A diallel mating programme has been initiated to elucidate the genetics of these new sources of resistance to ACMD and determine their complementarity as well as allellism for resistance. A set of eight random primers for RAPD and two combinations of enzymes and specific primers for AFLP were used to generate DNA fingerprinting of twenty varietal groups among the 32 described for cultivated yams in the region. The results obtained confirm that a given varietal group is a mixture of different genotypes. The molecular taxonomy of 30 accessions of cultivated yams, D. rotundata and D. cayenensis, and 35 accessions of wild yams from Nigeria was established using RAPD and micro satellite markers. The cultivated yams separated into two distinct groups corresponding to the two species. D. rotundata genotypes showed relationship to the wild species D. abyssinica and D. praehensilis, whereas D. cayenensis

  19. ( Manihot esculenta Crantz ) chips production in rural Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey aimed at collecting information on practices and constraints in the production of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) chips, a transformed cassava product obtained through fermentation and drying of its fresh roots was carried out in 45 villages located in three geographical regions (Yaoundé, Mbalmayo, and ...

  20. Identification of QTLs Associated to Plant Architecture in Cassava (Manihot esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La yuca (Manihot esculenta es el cuarto cultivo en importancia a nivel mundial como fuente de calorías para la población humana después del arroz, el azúcar y el maíz, posicionándose por esta razón como un cultivo primordial para la seguridad alimentaria. Su arquitectura ha sido considerada como un factor clave que subyace a la fisiología del rendimiento, relacionando características morfológicas con productividad. En este trabajo se evaluaron diferentes características de arquitectura vegetal en yuca. Los caracteres fueron evaluados en una población F1 compuesta por 133 hermanos completos (familia K sembrados en dos lugares biogeográficamente diferentes: La Vega (Cundinamarca y Arauca (Arauca en Colombia. Las características evaluadas relacionadas con la arquitectura vegetal fueron altura de la planta (AT, número de brotes (NB, longitud entrenudos (LE, número de raíces (NR, peso de raíces (PR, pigmentación del peciolo (PP, área de la hoja (AH y tipo de hoja (TH. A partir de los datos obtenidos y empleando un mapa genético de alta densidad basado en SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms se llevó a cabo un análisis de QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci. Se lograron identificar tres QTLs para La Vega asociados con los caracteres altura total, número de brotes y área de la hoja. Para Arauca se detectaron tres QTLs asociados con altura total, longitud de entrenudos y número de brotes. Los QTLs se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos de ligamiento y explicaron entre 18,93 y 41,92 % de la variación genética.

  1. The protective effect of two commercial formats of Ginkgo biloba on motor alterations induced by cassava juice (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, E; Vázquez-Luna, A; Rodríguez-Landa, J F; Mérida-Portilla, C V; Díaz-Sobac, R

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the protective effects of 2 commercial formats of Ginkgo biloba on motor alterations induced by cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) juice consumption in male Wistar rats. The effects were evaluated with the open field and swim tests at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of treatment, one hour after administering the product. Compared to controls, open field crossings increased after day 21 of cassava juice consumption, and lateral swimming in the swim test was reported after day 7. Ginkgo biloba extracts prevented motor alterations associated with cassava juice consumption, probably due to the flavonoid content in both formats of Ginkgo biloba. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolution of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) after recent introduction into a South Pacific Island system: the contribution of sex to the diversification of a clonally propagated crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardos, J; McKey, D; Duval, M F; Malapa, R; Noyer, J L; Lebot, V

    2008-11-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a clonally propagated crop that was introduced into the South Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu in the 1850s. Based on a survey conducted in 10 different villages throughout the archipelago, we present here a study of its diversity. Farmers' knowledge about cultivation cycle and sexual reproduction of cassava was recorded during group interviews in each village. Using a set of 11 SSR markers, we genotyped the 104 landraces collected and 60 supplementary accessions from a within-landrace study (12 landraces x 5 plants). Out of the 104 landraces collected, we discovered 77 different multilocus genotypes and the within-landrace study identified several polyclonal landraces. Our data suggest a number of hypotheses about the dynamics of diversity of cassava in Vanuatu.

  3. Highly efficient mesophyll protoplast isolation and PEG-mediated transient gene expression for rapid and large-scale gene characterization in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Zheng; Liu, Qin; Geng, Xiao-Shan; Li, Kai-Mian; Luo, Li-Juan; Liu, Jin-Ping

    2017-03-14

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major crop extensively cultivated in the tropics as both an important source of calories and a promising source for biofuel production. Although stable gene expression have been used for transgenic breeding and gene function study, a quick, easy and large-scale transformation platform has been in urgent need for gene functional characterization, especially after the cassava full genome was sequenced. Fully expanded leaves from in vitro plantlets of Manihot esculenta were used to optimize the concentrations of cellulase R-10 and macerozyme R-10 for obtaining protoplasts with the highest yield and viability. Then, the optimum conditions (PEG4000 concentration and transfection time) were determined for cassava protoplast transient gene expression. In addition, the reliability of the established protocol was confirmed for subcellular protein localization. In this work we optimized the main influencing factors and developed an efficient mesophyll protoplast isolation and PEG-mediated transient gene expression in cassava. The suitable enzyme digestion system was established with the combination of 1.6% cellulase R-10 and 0.8% macerozyme R-10 for 16 h of digestion in the dark at 25 °C, resulting in the high yield (4.4 × 10 7 protoplasts/g FW) and vitality (92.6%) of mesophyll protoplasts. The maximum transfection efficiency (70.8%) was obtained with the incubation of the protoplasts/vector DNA mixture with 25% PEG4000 for 10 min. We validated the applicability of the system for studying the subcellular localization of MeSTP7 (an H + /monosaccharide cotransporter) with our transient expression protocol and a heterologous Arabidopsis transient gene expression system. We optimized the main influencing factors and developed an efficient mesophyll protoplast isolation and transient gene expression in cassava, which will facilitate large-scale characterization of genes and pathways in cassava.

  4. Marker-based estimates reveal significant non-additive effects in clonally propagated cassava (Manihot esculenta): implications for the prediction of total genetic value and the selection of varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    In clonally propagated crops, non-additive genetic effects can be effectively exploited by the identification of superior genetic individuals as varieties. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a clonally propagated staple food crop that feeds hundreds of millions. We quantified the amount and natur...

  5. Comparison of three cyanogen assays for total cyanogens in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saka, J.D.K.; Mhone, A.R.K.; Brimer, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity and reproducibility of three methods for determining the total cyanogenic potential (CNp) of 7 fresh and processed cassava varieties were determined and compared. The total cyanogen content of fresh cassava roots and three cassava products (kondowole, makaka, and starch) were anal...

  6. Diversidad genética y contenido de carotenos totales en accesiones de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz Genetic diversity and total carotene content in accessions of the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cruz Morillo C.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz es un arbusto perenne cultivado en África, América Latina y el Sureste asiático, cuya raíz constituye una fuente importante de energía en la dieta humana en países tropicales. Los carotenoides son pigmentos naturales que se encuentran ampliamente distribuidos en la naturaleza. Se reconoce que aproximadamente cincuenta de ellos tienen actividad provitamina A, siendo b-caroteno el de mayor eficiencia para su conversión en vitamina A. El estudio de la variabilidad genética es un procedimiento útil para fortificar, enriquecer o incrementar el contenido de nutrientes de los alimentos o cultivos, entre ellos los carotenos en raíz de yuca mediante procesos de selección y recombinación en programas de mejoramiento que permitan identificar genotipos superiores. En el presente estudio, a partir de la evaluación de la diversidad genética, se generó un dendrograma de accesiones de yuca en el cual se formaron seis grupos con 68% de similitud. La heterocigosidad promedio observada fue de Ht = 0.559. Los análisis de regresión y correlación entre el contenido de carotenos totales y los datos moleculares mostraron que los marcadores que se encuentran correlacionados con altos contenidos de carotenos pertenecen al grupo de ligamiento D del mapa molecular de yuca.Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is a perennial shrub cultivated in Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia. It is an important dietary source for humans in tropical countries. Carotenoids are natural pigments that are widely distributed in the nature, where about 50 of them have provitamin A activity, b-carotene has been the most efficient. Among the procedures to fortify (enrich or increase the nutritional content of foods or crops cassava varieties, the study of genetic variability of the content of carotenoids in the root is one of the most common to carried out processes of selection and recombination in the breeding program which will allow the

  7. Induced mutation breeding in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar 'Bosom Nsia'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahiabu, R.K.A.; Klu, G.Y.P.

    1997-01-01

    Cassava is one of the most important staple food crops in the lowland tropics. In most cassava producing countries, it is mainly utilized for human consumption. Cassava leaves are a good source of protein and vitamins, and are used as food in Africa. In Ghana, 'Bosom Nsia' is one of the most widely grown cultivars probably because of its good cooking quality and fast maturation in six months. However, this cultivar is highly susceptible to cassava mosaic virus disease (CMV), hence the need to improve its resistance to the disease. Various in vitro techniques have been developed for cassava research, Klu and Lamptey reported irradiation doses of 25 and 30 Gy to be ideal for in vitro mutagenesis of cassava. These doses were applied to in vivo and in vitro mutation for breeding CMV resistance in the cultivar 'Bosom Nsia'. 6 refs

  8. In vitro cultured primary roots derived from stem segments of cassava (Manihot esculenta) can behave like storage organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Ricardo D; Faloci, Mirta M; Gonzalez, Ana M; Mroginski, Luis A

    2007-03-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) has three adventitious root types: primary and secondary fibrous roots, and storage roots. Different adventitious root types can also regenerate from in vitro cultured segments. The aim of this study was to investigate aspects of in vitro production of storage roots. Morphological and anatomical analyses were performed to identify and differentiate each root type. Twenty-nine clones were assayed to determine the effect of genotype on the capacity to form storage roots in vitro. The effects of cytokinins and auxins on the formation of storage roots in vitro were also examined. Primary roots formed in vitro and in vivo had similar tissue kinds; however, storage roots formed in vitro exhibited physiological specialization for storing starch. The only consistent diagnostic feature between secondary fibrous and storage roots was their functional differentiation. Anatomical analysis of the storage roots formed in vitro showed that radial expansion as a consequence of massive proliferation and enlargement of parenchymatous cells occurred in the middle cortex, but not from cambial activity as in roots formed in vivo. Cortical expansion could be related to dilatation growth favoured by hormone treatments. Starch deposition of storage roots formed in vitro was confined to cortical tissue and occurred earlier than in storage roots formed in vivo. Auxin and cytokinin supplementation were absolutely required for in vitro storage root regeneration; these roots were not able to develop secondary growth, but formed a tissue competent for starch storing. MS medium with 5 % sucrose plus 0.54 microM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 0.44 microM 6-benzylaminopurine was one of the most effective in stimulating the storage root formation. Genotypes differed significantly in their capacity to produce storage roots in vitro. Storage root formation was considerably affected by the segment's primary position and strongly influenced by hormone treatments. The storage

  9. Unraveling complex viral infections in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Yepes, Monica; Olaya, Cristian; Lozano, Ivan; Cuervo, Maritza; Castaño, Mauricio; Cuellar, Wilmer J

    2014-06-24

    In the Americas, different disease symptoms have been reported in cassava including leaf mosaics, vein clearings, mottles, ring spots, leaf distortions and undeveloped and deformed storage roots. Some viruses have been identified and associated with these symptoms while others have been reported in symptomless plants or latent infections. We observed that reoviruses associated with severe root symptoms (RS) of Cassava Frogskin Disease (CFSD) are not associated with leaf symptoms (LS) observed in the cassava indicator plant 'Secundina'. Neither were these LS associated with the previously characterized Cassava common mosaic virus, Cassava virus X, Cassava vein mosaic virus or phytoplasma, suggesting the presence of additional pathogens. In order to explain LS observed in cassava we used a combination of biological, serological and molecular tests. Here, we report three newly described viruses belonging to the families Secoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae and Luteoviridae found in cassava plants showing severe RS associated with CFSD. All tested plants were infected by a mix of viruses that induced distinct LS in 'Secundina'. Out of the three newly described viruses, a member of family Secoviridae could experimentally induce LS in single infection. Our results confirm the common occurrence of complex viral infections in cassava field-collected since the 1980s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Computational identification of microRNAs and their targets in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanun, Onsaya; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Sojikul, Punchapat; Viboonjun, Unchera; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly discovered class of noncoding endogenous small RNAs involved in plant growth and development as well as response to environmental stresses. miRNAs have been extensively studied in various plant species, however, only few information are available in cassava, which serves as one of the staple food crops, a biofuel crop, animal feed and industrial raw materials. In this study, the 169 potential cassava miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified by computational approach. Interestingly, mes-miR319b was represented as the first putative mirtron demonstrated in cassava. A total of 15 miRNA clusters involving 7 miRNA families, and 12 pairs of sense and antisense strand cassava miRNAs belonging to six different miRNA families were discovered. Prediction of potential miRNA target genes revealed their functions involved in various important plant biological processes. The cis-regulatory elements relevant to drought stress and plant hormone response were identified in the promoter regions of those miRNA genes. The results provided a foundation for further investigation of the functional role of known transcription factors in the regulation of cassava miRNAs. The better understandings of the complexity of miRNA-mediated genes network in cassava would unravel cassava complex biology in storage root development and in coping with environmental stresses, thus providing more insights for future exploitation in cassava improvement.

  11. Cloning and characterization of a tuberous root-specific promoter from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehorst-van Putten, H.J.J.; Wolters, A.M.A.; Pereira-Bertram, I.J.; Berg, H.; Krol, van der A.R.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain a tuberous root-specific promoter to be used in the transformation of cassava, a 1,728 bp sequence containing the cassava granule-bound starch synthase (GBSSI) promoter was isolated. The sequence proved to contain light- and sugar-responsive cis elements. Part of this sequence

  12. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a widely grown root crop in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Netherlands Liaison Office

    primers previously developed from cassava were used to detect polymorphic 21 alleles in a sample of 69 ... security and in some areas for sale in fresh or processed ... evolving biotic factors as pests and diseases to cassava farming. Genetic diversity can most efficiently be quantified using molecular markers. The simple.

  13. Overexpression of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene improves floral development in cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemo, O Sarah; Chavarriaga, Paul; Tohme, Joe; Fregene, Martin; Davis, Seth J; Setter, Tim L

    2017-01-01

    Cassava is a tropical storage-root crop that serves as a worldwide source of staple food for over 800 million people. Flowering is one of the most important breeding challenges in cassava because in most lines flowering is late and non-synchronized, and flower production is sparse. The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene is pivotal for floral induction in all examined angiosperms. The objective of the current work was to determine the potential roles of the FT signaling system in cassava. The Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene (atFT) was transformed into the cassava cultivar 60444 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and was found to be overexpressed constitutively. FT overexpression hastened flower initiation and associated fork-type branching, indicating that cassava has the necessary signaling factors to interact with and respond to the atFT gene product. In addition, overexpression stimulated lateral branching, increased the prolificacy of flower production and extended the longevity of flower development. While FT homologs in some plant species stimulate development of vegetative storage organs, atFT inhibited storage-root development and decreased root harvest index in cassava. These findings collectively contribute to our understanding of flower development in cassava and have the potential for applications in breeding.

  14. Development of friable embryogenic callus and embryogenic suspension culture systems in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N J; Edwards, M; Kiernan, R J; Davey, C D; Blakesley, D; Henshaw, G G

    1996-06-01

    Procedures for the production of a new and highly prolific embryogenic culture system have been developed in cassava. The importance of the basal salts and type of auxin in controlling the development of cassava embryogenic tissues has been demonstrated, with culture on Gresshoff and Doy basal medium in the presence of 4-amino-3,5,6,trichloro-picolinic acid (picloram) inducing the formation of friable embryogenic callus from which highly totipotent embryogenic suspension cultures could be established. Plants have been regenerated from these cultures. The availability of embryogenic suspension cultures is considered to have important implications for the application of genetic transformation and other biotechnologies in the agronomic improvement of cassava.

  15. Molecular and supra-molecular structure of waxy starches developed from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Sabaté, Agnès; Sanchez, Teresa; Buléon, Alain; Colonna, Paul; Ceballos, Hernan; Zhao, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Peng; Dufour, Dominique

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this work was to characterize the amylopectin of low amylose content cassava starches obtained from transgenesis comparatively with a natural waxy cassava starch (WXN) discovered recently in CIAT (International Center for Tropical Agriculture). Macromolecular features, starch granule morphology, crystallinity and thermal properties of these starches were determined. M¯(w) of amylopectin from the transgenic varieties are lower than WXN. Branched and debranched chain distributions analyses revealed slight differences in the branching degree and structure of these amylopectins, principally on DP 6-9 and DP>37. For the first time, a deep structural characterization of a series of transgenic lines of waxy cassava was carried out and the link between structural features and the mutated gene expression approached. The transgenesis allows to silenced partially or totally the GBSSI, without changing deeply the starch granule ultrastructure and allows to produce clones with similar amylopectin as parental cassava clone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Toward better understanding of postharvest deterioration: biochemical changes in stored cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots

    OpenAIRE

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Coelho, Bianca; Moresco, Rodolfo; Garcia Domínguez, Moralba; Sánchez, Teresa; Luna Meléndez, Jorge Luis; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernan; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Hershey, Clair; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Food losses can occur during production, postharvest, and processing stages in the supply chain. With the onset of worldwide food shortages, interest in reducing postharvest losses in cassava has been increasing. In this research, the main goal was to evaluate biochemical changes and identify the metabolites involved in the deterioration of cassava roots. We found that high levels of ascorbic acid (AsA), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), dry matter, and proteins are correlated with overall l...

  17. Comparison of leaf proteomes of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Feifei; Fan, Jie; Li, Jun; Li, Qing X; Li, Kaimian; Zhu, Wenli; Wen, Feng; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Chen, Songbi

    2014-01-01

    Cassava polyploid breeding has drastically improved our knowledge on increasing root yield and its significant tolerance to stresses. In polyploid cassava plants, increases in DNA content highly affect cell volumes and anatomical structures. However, the mechanism of this effect is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare and validate the changes between cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid at proteomic levels. The results showed that leaf proteome of cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid was clearly differentiated from its autotetraploid genotype using 2-DE combined MS technique. Sixty-five differential protein spots were seen in 2-DE image of autotetraploid genotype in comparison with that of diploid. Fifty-two proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, of which 47 were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in autotetraploid genotype compared with diploid genotype. The classified functions of 32 up-regulated proteins were associated with photosynthesis, defense system, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) metabolism, protein biosynthesis, chaperones, amino acid metabolism and signal transduction. The remarkable variation in photosynthetic activity, HCN content and resistance to salt stress between diploid and autotetraploid genotypes is closely linked with expression levels of proteomic profiles. The analysis of protein interaction networks indicated there are direct interactions between the 15 up-regulation proteins involved in the pathways described above. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of cassava polyploid genotype, and gives a clue to improve cassava polyploidy breeding in increasing photosynthesis and resistance efficiencies.

  18. SSR and EST-SSR-based genetic linkage map of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sraphet, Supajit; Boonchanawiwat, Athipong; Thanyasiriwat, Thanwanit; Boonseng, Opas; Tabata, Satoshi; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Lightfoot, David A; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn

    2011-04-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers provide a powerful tool for genetic linkage map construction that can be applied for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL). In this study, a total of 640 new SSR markers were developed from an enriched genomic DNA library of the cassava variety 'Huay Bong 60' and 1,500 novel expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) loci were developed from the Genbank database. To construct a genetic linkage map of cassava, a 100 F(1) line mapping population was developed from the cross Huay Bong 60 by 'Hanatee'. Polymorphism screening between the parental lines revealed that 199 SSRs and 168 EST-SSRs were identified as novel polymorphic markers. Combining with previously developed SSRs, we report a linkage map consisted of 510 markers encompassing 1,420.3 cM, distributed on 23 linkage groups with a mean distance between markers of 4.54 cM. Comparison analysis of the SSR order on the cassava linkage map and the cassava genome sequences allowed us to locate 284 scaffolds on the genetic map. Although the number of linkage groups reported here revealed that this F(1) genetic linkage map is not yet a saturated map, it encompassed around 88% of the cassava genome indicating that the map was almost complete. Therefore, sufficient markers now exist to encompass most of the genomes and efficiently map traits in cassava.

  19. Efficacy Of Jatropha gossypifolia And Manihot esculenta Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of physic nut (Jatropha gossypifolia linn) and cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) seed extracts in controlling Sclerotium rolfsii sacc and Fusarium ... growth radii of the fungus among the various concentrations and 1000pm of J. gossypifolia was most effective in reducing the growth radii of the fungal pathogens.

  20. Cardiovascular effects of the crude extract of Manihot esculenta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular effects of the crude extract of Manihot esculenta crantz (Cassava) in animal models. P.M Emeka, A Akintonwa, O.O Adeyemi, C Nwaigwe, B.J Adegunloye. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Proteomic analysis of injured storage roots in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) under postharvest physiological deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuling; Djabou, Astride Stéphanie Mouafi; An, Feifei; Li, Kaimian; Li, Zhaogui; Yang, Long; Wang, Xiaojing; Chen, Songbi

    2017-01-01

    Postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) is a global challenge in the improvement of cassava value chain. However, how to reduce cassava spoilage and reveal the mechanism of injured cassava storage roots in response to PPD were poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the activities of antioxidant enzymes of cassava injured storage roots in PPD-susceptible (SC9) and PPD-tolerant (QZ1) genotypes at the time-points from 0h to 120h, and further analyzed their proteomic changes using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) in combination with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. Ninety-nine differentially expressed proteins were identified from SC9 and QZ1 genotypes in the pairwise comparison of 24h/0h, 48h/0h, 72h/0h and 96h/0h. Of those proteins were associated with 13 biological functions, in which carbohydrate and energy metabolism related proteins were the biggest amount differential proteins in both genotypes, followed by chaperones, DNA and RNA metabolism, and defense system. We speculated that SOD in combination with CAT activities would be the first line of defense against PPD to support PPD-tolerant cassava varieties. The four hub proteins including CPN60B, LOS2, HSC70-1 and CPN20B, produced from the network of protein-protein interaction, will be the candidate key proteins linked with PPD. This study provides a new clue to improve cassava PPD-tolerant varieties and would be helpful to much better understand the molecular mechanism of PPD of cassava injured storage roots.

  2. Proteomic analysis of injured storage roots in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz under postharvest physiological deterioration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuling Qin

    Full Text Available Postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD is a global challenge in the improvement of cassava value chain. However, how to reduce cassava spoilage and reveal the mechanism of injured cassava storage roots in response to PPD were poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the activities of antioxidant enzymes of cassava injured storage roots in PPD-susceptible (SC9 and PPD-tolerant (QZ1 genotypes at the time-points from 0h to 120h, and further analyzed their proteomic changes using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE in combination with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. Ninety-nine differentially expressed proteins were identified from SC9 and QZ1 genotypes in the pairwise comparison of 24h/0h, 48h/0h, 72h/0h and 96h/0h. Of those proteins were associated with 13 biological functions, in which carbohydrate and energy metabolism related proteins were the biggest amount differential proteins in both genotypes, followed by chaperones, DNA and RNA metabolism, and defense system. We speculated that SOD in combination with CAT activities would be the first line of defense against PPD to support PPD-tolerant cassava varieties. The four hub proteins including CPN60B, LOS2, HSC70-1 and CPN20B, produced from the network of protein-protein interaction, will be the candidate key proteins linked with PPD. This study provides a new clue to improve cassava PPD-tolerant varieties and would be helpful to much better understand the molecular mechanism of PPD of cassava injured storage roots.

  3. Molecular assessment of the bacterial community associated with Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivation in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Begoude, Aime Didier Boyogueno; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Araki, Shigeru; Nawata, Eiji

    2017-04-01

    Bacterial communities play an important role in nutrient cycles and plant development. Their distribution and activity may depend on location and environmental heterogeneity. This study characterized soil bacterial communities in cassava fields of Eastern (Andom) and Southern (Bityili) Cameroon using molecular tools. In both sites, two improved varieties (TMS-96/1414; TMS-92/0326) and a local variety (Local) were grown in a randomized block design. Composite bulk soils were collected at 10months after planting from cassava plots. The 16S rDNA region was amplified, MiSeq was performed and sequence data analyzed. The same 17 bacterial phyla were present in both Andom and Bityili, while Chlorobi and Deinococcus-Thermus were only specific to Andom. The phyla Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria were dominant. Although both sites shared similar phyla, the principal coordinate analysis revealed significant variations in their composition, suggesting that the functions of the bacteria in nutrients cycling are likely to differ between Andom and Bityili. Cassava yields were generally higher in Andom which also displayed a higher diversity of bacterial communities. This study provides useful information on the composition of bacterial communities in cassava fields in two agro-ecologies of Cameroon. It constitutes to our knowledge the first report describing soil bacterial communities in association with cassava growth in the country, using molecular tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Cloning and characterization of a tuberous root-specific promoter from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehorst-van Putten, Herma J J; Wolters, Anne-Marie A; Pereira-Bertram, Isolde M; van den Berg, Hans H J; van der Krol, Alexander R; Visser, Richard G F

    2012-12-01

    In order to obtain a tuberous root-specific promoter to be used in the transformation of cassava, a 1,728 bp sequence containing the cassava granule-bound starch synthase (GBSSI) promoter was isolated. The sequence proved to contain light- and sugar-responsive cis elements. Part of this sequence (1,167 bp) was cloned into binary vectors to drive expression of the firefly luciferase gene. Cassava cultivar Adira 4 was transformed with this construct or a control construct in which the luciferase gene was cloned behind the 35S promoter. Luciferase activity was measured in leaves, stems, roots and tuberous roots. As expected, the 35S promoter induced luciferase activity in all organs at similar levels, whereas the GBSSI promoter showed very low expression in leaves, stems and roots, but very high expression in tuberous roots. These results show that the cassava GBSSI promoter is an excellent candidate to achieve tuberous root-specific expression in cassava.

  5. Rheological behavior of gamma-irradiated cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Orelio L.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2013-01-01

    Cassava starch is the by-product of the process of pressing water out of cassava to make cassava meal. The juice has a fine starch, similar to rice or potato starch that, when dried, yields polvilho doce (sweet manioc starch); from the fermented juice comes polvilho azedo (sour manioc starch). Cassava starch can perform most of the functions where maize, rice and wheat starch are currently used. The aim of the present work was to determine the influence or ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of aqueous preparations of gamma-irradiated cassava starch at different concentrations. Samples of polvilho doce and polvilho azedo were obtained at the local market and irradiated in plastic bags in a Gammacell 220 with doses of 1, 3 e 5 kGy, dose rate ∼ 1.2 kGy h-1. A Brooksfield viscometer was employed for the viscosity measurements. The results showed a strong dependence of the viscosity with the concentration of the starch solutions. In most of the cases there was a decrease of viscosity with the increase of the radiation dose usually seen in irradiated polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the dose response relation of the two kind of starch was different. (author)

  6. Rheological behavior of gamma-irradiated cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Orelio L.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Cassava starch is the by-product of the process of pressing water out of cassava to make cassava meal. The juice has a fine starch, similar to rice or potato starch that, when dried, yields polvilho doce (sweet manioc starch); from the fermented juice comes polvilho azedo (sour manioc starch). Cassava starch can perform most of the functions where maize, rice and wheat starch are currently used. The aim of the present work was to determine the influence or ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of aqueous preparations of gamma-irradiated cassava starch at different concentrations. Samples of polvilho doce and polvilho azedo were obtained at the local market and irradiated in plastic bags in a Gammacell 220 with doses of 1, 3 e 5 kGy, dose rate ∼ 1.2 kGy h-1. A Brooksfield viscometer was employed for the viscosity measurements. The results showed a strong dependence of the viscosity with the concentration of the starch solutions. In most of the cases there was a decrease of viscosity with the increase of the radiation dose usually seen in irradiated polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the dose response relation of the two kind of starch was different. (author)

  7. Bio-ethanol production from non-food parts of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwamanya, Ephraim; Chiwona-Karltun, Linley; Kawuki, Robert S; Baguma, Yona

    2012-05-01

    Global climate issues and a looming energy crisis put agriculture under pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate adaptation measures must entail sustainable development benefits, and growing crops for food as well as energy may be a solution, removing people from hunger and poverty without compromising the environment. The present study investigated the feasibility of using non-food parts of cassava for energy production and the promising results revealed that at least 28% of peels and stems comprise dry matter, and 10 g feedstock yields >8.5 g sugar, which in turn produced >60% ethanol, with pH ≈ 2.85, 74-84% light transmittance and a conductivity of 368 mV, indicating a potential use of cassava feedstock for ethanol production. Thus, harnessing cassava for food as well as ethanol production is deemed feasible. Such a system would, however, require supportive policies to acquire a balance between food security and fuel.

  8. Toward better understanding of postharvest deterioration: biochemical changes in stored cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Coelho, Bianca; Moresco, Rodolfo; Domínguez, Moralba Garcia; Sánchez, Teresa; Meléndez, Jorge Luis Luna; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernan; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Hershey, Clair; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-05-01

    Food losses can occur during production, postharvest, and processing stages in the supply chain. With the onset of worldwide food shortages, interest in reducing postharvest losses in cassava has been increasing. In this research, the main goal was to evaluate biochemical changes and identify the metabolites involved in the deterioration of cassava roots. We found that high levels of ascorbic acid (AsA), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), dry matter, and proteins are correlated with overall lower rates of deterioration. On the other hand, soluble sugars such as glucose and fructose, as well as organic acids, mainly, succinic acid, seem to be upregulated during storage and may play a role in the deterioration of cassava roots. Cultivar Branco (BRA) was most resilient to postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD), while Oriental (ORI) was the most susceptible. Our findings suggest that PPO, AsA, and proteins may play a distinct role in PPD delay.

  9. Bio-ethanol production from non-food parts of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuwamanya, Ephraim; Kawuki, Robert S.; Baguma, Yona [National Agricultural Research organization, National Crops Resources Research Inst. (NaCRRI), Kampala (Uganda); Chiwona-Karltun, Linley [Dept. of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)], email: Linley.karltun@slu.se

    2012-03-15

    Global climate issues and a looming energy crisis put agriculture under pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate adaptation measures must entail sustainable development benefits, and growing crops for food as well as energy may be a solution, removing people from hunger and poverty without compromising the environment. The present study investigated the feasibility of using non-food parts of cassava for energy production and the promising results revealed that at least 28% of peels and stems comprise dry matter, and 10 g feedstock yields >8.5 g sugar, which in turn produced >60% ethanol, with pH {approx} 2.85, 74-84% light transmittance and a conductivity of 368 mV, indicating a potential use of cassava feedstock for ethanol production. Thus, harnessing cassava for food as well as ethanol production is deemed feasible. Such a system would, however, require supportive policies to acquire a balance between food security and fuel.

  10. Dry matter production and distribution in three cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz cultivars during the second vegetative plant cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Sagrilo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in Araruna County, State of Paraná, to understand the relationship between the total dry matter yield and its proportion allocated to the storage roots of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz plants in the second vegetative cycle. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in split-plot scheme with four replications. The plots consisted of the Mico, IAC 13 and IAC 14 cultivars and the monthly harvesting dates were assessed in the sub-plots. The results showed that the Mico and IAC 13 cultivars were more efficient in allocating dry matter to the storage roots. The IAC 14 cultivar allocated a higher proportion of assimilates to stems compared with the other two cultivars. With regard to the influence of harvesting time, the lowest harvest indexes were observed in the periods of more intense vegetative growth. However, the highest carbohydrate proportions were allocated to the storage roots during periods of low vegetative growth.Com o objetivo de uma melhor compreensão da relação entre a produtividade total de massa seca e a proporção de alocação desta nas raízes tuberosas em plantas de mandioca, foi conduzido no município de Araruna-PR, um experimento em delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições. Nas parcelas foram dispostas três cultivares (Mico, IAC 13 e IAC 14, e nas subparcelas dez épocas de colheita mensais, a partir do início do segundo ciclo vegetativo das plantas. As cultivares Mico e IAC 13 foram mais eficientes do que a IAC 14 em alocar massa seca nas raízes tuberosas, ao passo que esta última alocou maior proporção de massa seca em suas hastes. Em relação às épocas, os menores índices de colheita ocorreram em períodos de mais intenso crescimento vegetativo das plantas, ao passo que a maior proporção de carboidratos foi alocada nas raízes tuberosas em períodos de baixo crescimento vegetativo.

  11. Efficient production of transgenic plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, M.M.; Raemakers, C.J.J.M.; Jacobsen, E.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2001-01-01

    An efficient and reproducible method was developed for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic suspension cultures of cassava. LBA4404(pTOK233), containing the nptII, hph and gus marker genes, was used in the experiments. Chemical selection by means of kanamycin was used to establish

  12. Biosafety considerations for selectable and scorable markers used in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, William; Umbeck, Paul; Hokanson, Karen; Halsey, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Cassava is an important subsistence crop grown only in the tropics, and represents a major source of calories for many people in developing countries. Improvements in the areas of resistance to insects and viral diseases, enhanced nutritional qualities, reduced cyanogenic content and modified starch characteristics are urgently needed. Traditional breeding is hampered by the nature of the crop, which has a high degree of heterozygosity, irregular flowering, and poor seed set. Biotechnology has the potential to enhance crop improvement efforts, and genetic engineering techniques for cassava have thus been developed over the past decade. Selectable and scorable markers are critical to efficient transformation technology, and must be evaluated for biosafety, as well as efficiency and cost-effectiveness. In order to facilitate research planning and regulatory submission, the literature on biosafety aspects of the selectable and scorable markers currently used in cassava biotechnology is surveyed. The source, mode of action and current use of each marker gene is described. The potential for toxicity, allergenicity, pleiotropic effects, horizontal gene transfer, and the impact of these on food or feed safety and environmental safety is evaluated. Based on extensive information, the selectable marker genes nptII, hpt, bar/pat, and manA, and the scorable marker gene uidA, all have little risk in terms of biosafety. These appear to represent the safest options for use in cassava biotechnology available at this time.

  13. Thermomechanical characterization of an amylose-free starch extracted from cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido Díaz, Adriana; Lourdin, Denis; Della Valle, Guy; Fernández Quintero, Alejandro; Ceballos, Hernán; Tran, Thierry; Dufour, Dominique

    2017-02-10

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the melting (T m ), glass transition (T g ) and mechanical relaxation (T α ) temperatures of a new waxy cassava starch. Thermal transitions measurements were obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamical Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA). The experimental data showed a high correlation between water volume fraction and melting temperature (T m ) indicating that the Flory-Huggins theory can be used to describe the thermal behavior of this starch. The T m of waxy cassava starch-water mixes were lower than a waxy corn starch-water reference system, but differences were not statistically significant. The mechanical relaxation temperatures taken at tan δ peaks were found 29-38°C larger than T g . The T α and T g measured for waxy cassava starch exhibited similar properties to the ones of waxy corn starch, implying that waxy cassava starch can be used in food and materials industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Salinity reduces carbon assimilation and the harvest index of cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson Lopes Cruz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed to evaluate the effects of salinity on the growth and gas exchange of cassava plants, cultivar Verdinha. The four concentrations of NaCl (mM were as follows: 0, 20, 40, and 60. Under salinity, the lowest concentration of Na+ ions was observed in the tuberous roots; however, the dry matter of tuberous roots was reduced with an application of just 20 mM NaCl. The harvest index was reduced 50% with the highest salt concentration. Salinity reduced carbon assimilation (A, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration, and the instantaneous water use efficiency. The correlation between gs and A was high and positive, showing that stomatal movement was one of the responsible for the lower A. Under salt stress, there was an increase in intercellular CO2 concentration, indicating the impairment of carbon metabolism. Based on the reduction of dry matter of the tuberous roots (reduction of 81% under 60 mM NaCl, it was concluded that cassava is sensitive to salinity. The growth of shoots and the absorbing roots were minimally affected by salinity, even in the situation where A was reduced; therefore, the sensitivity of cassava was related to the high sensitivity of the tuberous roots to the ionic and/or osmotic effects of salinity. Thus, tuberous roots can be the target organ in studies that aim to improve the tolerance of cassava to salinity.

  15. Nutritional composition of fufu analog flour produced from Cassava root (Manihot esculenta) and Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) tuber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B; Oladiran, Dolapo A; Akande, Ebunoluwa O

    2015-11-01

    Nutritional properties of fufu analog produced from co-processing of cassava and cocoyam were studied. Cassava and cocoyam were fermented for 72 h, dried to obtain fufu flour. Proximate, functional, minerals, antinutritional factor, pasting properties, and sensory evaluation of various samples were determined. The results revealed that the moisture contents of the samples showed significant difference from control with values between 6.50 and 7.30%. The protein contents (1.68-4.98%), ash (1.84-4.01%), and crude fiber (1.42-4.56%) showed significant increase with increasing level of cocoyam, while the crude fat and carbohydrate reduced with increase in cocoyam. The minerals also increased with increase in cocoyam level with sample E having the highest value of Magnesium (32.15 mg/100 g). The antinutritional factors were very low and the pasting properties revealed the importance of cocoyam in the fufu analog produced. In conclusion, fufu produced from co-processing of cassava and cocoyam has more nutritional qualities than the common fufu made from cassava alone.

  16. A time series transcriptome analysis of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) varieties challenged with Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    OpenAIRE

    Amuge, T.; Berger, D. K.; Katari, M. S.; Myburg, A. A.; Goldman, S. L.; Ferguson, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    A time-course transcriptome analysis of two cassava varieties that are either resistant or susceptible to cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) was conducted using RNASeq, after graft inoculation with Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). From approximately 1.92 billion short reads, the largest number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was obtained in the resistant (Namikonga) variety at 2 days after grafting (dag) (3887 DEGs) and 5 dag (4911 DEGs). At the same time points, several ...

  17. Regeneration of transgenic cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from microbombarded embryogenic suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpke, C; Taylor, N; Cárcamo, R; Konan, N K; Marmey, P; Henshaw, G G; Beachy, R N; Fauquet, C

    1996-06-01

    A protocol was established for the introduction of DNA into embryogenic suspension-derived tissues of cassava via microparticle bombardment, for the selection of genetically transformed cells, and for the regeneration of fully transgenic plants from these cells. The plasmid DNA used for bombardment contained a gene encoding neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) and a gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (uidA). Selection of bombarded tissue with paromomycin resulted in the establishment of putative transgenic embryogenic calli. In most of these calli, beta-glucuronidase was detected histochemically. Molecular analysis of paromomycin-resistant embryogenic calli and of plants regenerated from these calli, confirmed the stable integration of bombarded DNA into the cassava genome.

  18. RNAi inhibition of feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase reduces scopoletin biosynthesis and post-harvest physiological deterioration in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi; Zainuddin, Ima M; Vanderschuren, Herve; Doughty, James; Beeching, John R

    2017-05-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major world crop, whose storage roots provide food for over 800 million throughout the humid tropics. Despite many advantages as a crop, the development of cassava is seriously constrained by the rapid post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of its roots that occurs within 24-72 h of harvest, rendering the roots unpalatable and unmarketable. PPD limits cassava's marketing possibilities in countries that are undergoing increased development and urbanisation due to growing distances between farms and consumers. The inevitable wounding of the roots caused by harvesting triggers an oxidative burst that spreads throughout the cassava root, together with the accumulation of secondary metabolites including phenolic compounds, of which the coumarin scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one) is the most abundant. Scopoletin oxidation yields a blue-black colour, which suggests its involvement in the discoloration observed during PPD. Feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase is a controlling enzyme in the biosynthesis of scopoletin. The cassava genome contains a seven membered family of feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase genes, four of which are expressed in the storage root and, of these, three were capable of functionally complementing Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants in this gene. A RNA interference construct, designed to a highly conserved region of these genes, was used to transform cassava, where it significantly reduced feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase gene expression, scopoletin accumulation and PPD symptom development. Collectively, our results provide evidence that scopoletin plays a major functional role in the development of PPD symptoms, rather than merely paralleling symptom development in the cassava storage root.

  19. Genetic diversity characterization of cassava cultivars (Manihot esculenta Crantz.: I RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo Carlos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available RAPD markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity of 31 Brazilian cassava clones. The results were compared with the genetic diversity revealed by botanical descriptors. Both sets of variates revealed identical relationships among the cultivars. Multivariate analysis of genetic similarities placed genotypes destinated for consumption "in nature" in one group, and cultivars useful for flour production in another. Brazil?s abundance of landraces presents a broad dispersion and is consequently an important resource of genetic variability. The botanical descriptors were not able to differentiate thirteen pairs of cultivars compared two-by-two, while only one was not differentiated by RAPD markers. These results showed the power of RAPD markers over botanical descriptors in studying genetic diversity, identifying duplicates, as well as validating, or improving a core collection. The latter is particularly important in this vegetatively propagated crop.

  20. Effect of irradiation and colchicine on callus and somatic embryo formation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzimega, D. A.

    2012-06-01

    A study was conducted to assess the mutagenic effect of gamma radiation on sprouting and height in four local cassava accessions. The four cassava accessions were assessed for their callus induction and somatic embryo formation ability from leaf lobes from gamma irradiated stakes as well as colchicine treated leaf lobes on different concentrations of plant growth regulators, incorporated into Murashige and skoog, (1962) (MS) basal medium. The cassava accessions were irradiated at 0, 32, 35, 45 and 50 Gy and planted in pots filled with loamy soil. The height of the shoots was measured with rule after sprouting. The leaf lobes were collected from the shoots and cultured on MS medium supplemented with 8 mg/l 2, 4-D and 16 mg/l Picloram. Another set of leaf lobes were treated with 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.25 g/l colchicine for one hour and thereafter culture on MS medium supplemented with 8 mg/l 2,4-D and 16 mg/l Picloram as described above. Callus induction from leaf lobes in 45 and 50 Gy were significantly (p≤0.05) affected by the irradiation. On the other hand, Callus induction from leaf lobes in 0.1-0.25 g/l colchicine were significantly (p≤0.05) affected by the mutagenic treatment whereas callus induced from leaf lobes in 0.05 g/l colchicine was not significantly (p≤0.05) affected. Callus induced on 8 mg/l 2, 4-D and 16 mg/l picloram gave the best response in Ankrah and all control tested while Tomfa recorded the least. Colchicine at a concentration of 0.05 g/l and radiation dose of 32 Gy treatments gave the best response of callusing. Callus induction decreased with increasing colchicine concentration and gamma irradiation. Callus derived from irradiated and colchicine leaf lobes appeared soft but friable and tiny, compact, respectively, predominately with creamy to brown colouration. Calli obtained were sub-cultures on embryo regeneration medium consisting of MS supplemented with 0.01mg/1 NAA and o.1 mg/1 BAP. There was no plantlet regeneration. Instead

  1. Protein extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis of ammonia-treated cassava leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urribarrí, Lauris; Chacón, David; González, Orlaidy; Ferrer, Alexis

    2009-05-01

    In the present work, cassava leaves were treated with 0.5 kg ammonia/kg dry matter at 78 degrees C and 30% moisture content in a 2-kg reactor. Protein extraction was carried out with a calcium hydroxide solution (pH 10) for 30 min at several temperatures (30 degrees C, 45 degrees C, 60 degrees C, 75 degrees C, and 90 degrees C) and solid/liquid ratios (1:10 and 1:15) in a thermostatized bath. Soluble protein content of the extracts was determined by Lowry's method. Dry substrate concentrations of 5%, 7.5%, and 10% and enzyme doses of 2 and 5 IU/g dry matter were used for the enzymatic hydrolysis in an orbital incubator at 50 degrees C and 100 rpm. Both cellulase and xylanase were used. Reducing sugars produced were determined with the dinitrosalicylic acid method. The highest protein extraction yield for the ammonia-treated leaves was 29.10%, which was 50% higher than with the untreated leaves (20%), and was obtained at 90 degrees C with a 1:10 solid/liquid ratio. The concentrate had a protein content of 36.35% and the amino acid profile was suitable for swine and poultry. The highest sugar yield was 54.72% with respect to theoretical and was obtained with 5% solids and an enzyme dose of 5 IU/g dry matter. This yield was 3.4 times higher than the yield of the untreated leaves (16.13%). These results indicate that cassava leaves have a great potential for animal feeding and ethanol production. Both protein extraction and sugar yields may be enhanced by optimizing the ammonia treatment.

  2. Reproductive performance of breeding rabbits fed by graded levels of cassava (Manihot esculenta leaf meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ahemen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Twenty breeding does and 4 rabbit bucks aged 28 weeks, weighing between 1622 to 1746g ,were used to investigate the reproductive performance of breeding does fed by graded levels of cassava leaf meal (CLM. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments viz: T (control, T , T and T with CLM inclusion levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, respectively, after balancing for live weight. Each rabbit was 1 2 3 4 individually caged and served as a replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 17 weeks. The results showed that does on diet T (100% achieved the 2 highest conception rate, followed by T (75% and T (75% and the least in T (66.67%. Average daily weight change and change in weight 3 4 1 during pregnancy were the highest (p<0.05 in T . Litter size at birth was significantly (p<0.05 lower in T (2.67, while litter size at weaning was 4 4 significantly (p<0.05 higher in T (3.67 Average birth and weaning weights were significantly (p<0.05 higher in treatment T . Percentage of still 3 . 4 birth was higher in T (60% while pre-weaning mortality was the highest in T (5. It was concluded that the inclusion of up to 30% of CLM in 2 1 rabbit diet may support reproductive performance in female rabbits. It is recommended that further studies on the feeding potential of cassava leaf meal at higher levels of inclusion on reproductive performance be investigated.

  3. Alterações na qualidade de raízes de mandioca(Manihot esculenta Crantz minimamente processadas Quality alterations in cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz minimally processed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Alves

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A conservação pós-colheita das raízes de mandioca tem sido uma preocupação das indústrias e produtores, devido ao curto tempo de estocagem e a alta perecibilidade das raízes. Dois fenômenos são apontados como responsáveis pela deterioração das raízes, um de ordem fisiológica, provocando a perda inicial da qualidade por meio do desenvolvimento da descoloração vascular do tecido parenquimatoso, e o outro, de ordem microbiana, que se segue à fisiologia, responsável pela decomposição do produto. Dessa forma, com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a conservação das raízes de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, submetidas à higienização em água clorada e armazenadas em três tipos de embalagens, bandeja de isopor envolta em filme de policloreto de vinila (PVC, embalagem multicamada (poliéster Saram-13,5µ/polietileno-100µ com e sem vácuo e resfriadas (5 ± 0,5°C, mediante análises físico-químicas, microbiológicas, fisiológicas e sensoriais. A conservação de mandioca minimamente processada sob refrigeração para os tratamentos realizados, é possível diferenciando-se o período de armazenamento, sendo que para as amostras armazenadas em bandeja, o período de armazenamento foi de 7 dias, no selado e a vácuo foi de aproximadamente 24 dias, respectivamente.Post harvest of cassava roots has been a great concern in food industries and producers due to the short shelf life and high perishability. Several phenomena have been pointed out as responsible for root deterioration. Among them there are physiological aspects, that lead to losses in initial quality through vascular discoloration of parenchymatous tissue. On the other hand, phenomena from microbial origin, which follow the physiological alterations, are responsible for product decomposition. In this context, this work was aimed at investigating the conservation of cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz submitted to chlorinated water, and stored using

  4. Environmental effects on growth and development of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz). I. Crop development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, B.A.; Evenson, J.P.; Fukai, S.

    1982-01-01

    Morphological development of serial plantings of the cassava cultivar M Aus 10, made over a year and each grown for 1 year duration, were studied with sequential harvests in the relatively high latitude (27 degrees 37'S) environment of SE Queensland, Australia under favourable moisture and nutritional conditions. The extent and timing of storage root initiation was relatively unaffected by the different temperature, solar radiation and photoperiod conditions associated with the different planting dates. Likewise, main stem and lateral branch number showed little variation either between planting dates or with time in any one planting. The time to first flowering and forking was substantially reduced for mid-summer planting dates, an effect being most likely related to the longer photo-periods of these months. Canopy development was also highly seasonal with leaf area indices ranging from above 10.0 in March and April for early planted crops to zero in the cooler months of August and September for all planting dates. (Refs. 26).

  5. Identification of radiation induced mutants of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz using morphological and physicochemical descriptors1

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    Tofino Adriana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For mutants of starch and other desirable traits of interest in cassava, we evaluated the physical-chemical morphology of the root and paste in inbred populations of six M2 families, derived from irradiated seeds. 1,097 plants were established, 829 of Gamma treatment and 268 of neutrons. In the morphological description, most chimeras recorded in M1 were identified except hermaphrodite flowers and bark of different colors on the same plant, new abnormalities in M2 were found, such as root without suberification, no anthesis, early flowering, meristems and changes in the supply-demand relationship. However, mortality, reduced vigor, yield and anthesis loss have also been identified as effects of inbreeding. Simple techniques such as optical microscopy and iodine staining were effective for the identification of mutants of the granule and the results were confirmed with electron microscopy analysis and pulp properties, except in mutant granule hole, in which no abnormalities of the granule were correlated with significant variations in the paste. However, Pearson correlations associated the hot paste viscosity with consistency and reorganization. Variability was found in the granule characteristics and properties of the paste between years, suggesting significant influence of genotype-environment interaction. Similarly, there were differences in paste properties associated with the type of radiation. In addition, promising mutants were identified with post-harvest physiological deterioration tolerance associated mainly to gamma.

  6. Performances and haematological profile of broilers fed fermented dried cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Yudiarti, Turrini; Isroli, Isroli

    2016-10-01

    The effect of feeding fermented dried cassava (gathot) on the performances and haematological profile of broilers was investigated. There were four dietary treatments arranged in a completely randomized design, i.e. control diet and diets containing 25, 50 or 100 g/kg gathot. The birds were provided with the treatment diets ad libitum from 8 to 35 days of age. Body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined weekly. At day 32, the birds were blood sampled, sacrificed and immediately the internal organs and abdominal fat were removed and weighed. Feeding gathot at various levels did not affect (P > 0.05) the growth and FCR, but tended (P = 0.09) to reduce the feed cost per kilogramme live weight gain of broilers. The dietary treatments did not cause toxicological effect on broilers, indicated by the values of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) that were not different from those in the control diet. Dietary inclusion of gathot lowered heterophils to lymphocytes ratio (H/L ratio) (P < 0.05) and albumin to globulin ratio (A/G ratio) (P = 0.14) of broilers as compared to the control diet. Total triglyceride was lower (P < 0.05) in the serum of broilers fed diets containing 5 and 10 % of gathot, when compared with that in the control diet. The treatments resulted in reduced abdominal fat deposition in broilers. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of gathot at up to 10 % had no negative impact on the growth performance of broilers. Feeding gathot has potential to improve the health and physiological stress responses as well as reduce body fat deposition in broilers.

  7. (manihot esculenta) plantain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Past~ng properties (gelatinization temperature, gelatinization time, viscosity, ease of cooking and starch stat;ility) of cassava, plantain and banana flours have been found to be affected by processing. Roasting and boiling, reduced peak viscosities drastically. Boiling reduced the peak viscosity of cassava from 1575 to 65Bu, ...

  8. Comparative analysis of virus-derived small RNAs within cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) infected with cassava brown streak viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwok, Emmanuel; Ilyas, Muhammad; Alicai, Titus; Rey, Marie E C; Taylor, Nigel J

    2016-04-02

    Infection of plant cells by viral pathogens triggers RNA silencing, an innate antiviral defense mechanism. In response to infection, small RNAs (sRNAs) are produced that associate with Argonaute (AGO)-containing silencing complexes which act to inactivate viral genomes by posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Deep sequencing was used to compare virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in cassava genotypes NASE 3, TME 204 and 60444 infected with the positive sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the causal agents of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). An abundance of 21-24nt vsRNAs was detected and mapped, covering the entire CBSV and UCBSV genomes. The 21nt vsRNAs were most predominant, followed by the 22 nt class with a slight bias toward sense compared to antisense polarity, and a bias for adenine and uracil bases present at the 5'-terminus. Distribution and frequency of vsRNAs differed between cassava genotypes and viral genomes. In susceptible genotypes TME 204 and 60444, CBSV-derived sRNAs were seen in greater abundance than UCBSV-derived sRNAs. NASE 3, known to be resistant to UCBSV, accumulated negligible UCBSV-derived sRNAs but high populations of CBSV-derived sRNAs. Transcript levels of cassava homologues of AGO2, DCL2 and DCL4, which are central to the gene-silencing complex, were found to be differentially regulated in CBSV- and UCBSV-infected plants across genotypes, suggesting these proteins play a role in antiviral defense. Irrespective of genotype or viral pathogen, maximum populations of vsRNAs mapped to the cytoplasmic inclusion, P1 and P3 protein-encoding regions. Our results indicate disparity between CBSV and UCBSV host-virus interaction mechanisms, and provide insight into the role of virus-induced gene silencing as a mechanism of resistance to CBSD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A time series transcriptome analysis of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) varieties challenged with Ugandan cassava brown streak virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuge, T; Berger, D K; Katari, M S; Myburg, A A; Goldman, S L; Ferguson, M E

    2017-08-29

    A time-course transcriptome analysis of two cassava varieties that are either resistant or susceptible to cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) was conducted using RNASeq, after graft inoculation with Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). From approximately 1.92 billion short reads, the largest number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was obtained in the resistant (Namikonga) variety at 2 days after grafting (dag) (3887 DEGs) and 5 dag (4911 DEGs). At the same time points, several defense response genes (encoding LRR-containing, NBARC-containing, pathogenesis-related, late embryogenesis abundant, selected transcription factors, chaperones, and heat shock proteins) were highly expressed in Namikonga. Also, defense-related GO terms of 'translational elongation', 'translation factor activity', 'ribosomal subunit' and 'phosphorelay signal transduction', were overrepresented in Namikonga at these time points. More reads corresponding to UCBSV sequences were recovered from the susceptible variety (Albert) (733 and 1660 read counts per million (cpm)) at 45 dag and 54 dag compared to Namikonga (10 and 117 cpm respectively). These findings suggest that Namikonga's resistance involves restriction of multiplication of UCBSV within the host. These findings can be used with other sources of evidence to identify candidate genes and biomarkers that would contribute substantially to knowledge-based resistance breeding.

  10. Energetic analysis of the ethanol production systems of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz); Analise energetica de sistemas de producao de etanol de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salla, Diones A. [Secretaria de Extensao Agroflorestal e Producao Familiar (SEAPROF), Rio Branco, AC (Brazil)], email: diones.salla@gmail.com; Furlaneto, Fernanda P.B.; Kanthack, Ricardo A.D. [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA) Medio Paranapanema, Assis, SP (Brazil)], emails: fernandafurlaneto@apta.sp.gov.br, kanthack@apta.sp.gov.br; Cabello, Claudio [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP/CERAT), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Centro de Raizes e Amidos Topicais], email: dircerat@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    This work aimed to analyze the energetic consumption of the ethanol production system, using the cassava as carbohydrates source. The researches were carried out from the field in the mid region of Paranapanema river, Sao Paulo state, during the period January to December, 2007. The energy consumption referring to the phases of crop production and industrial processing were appraised. It was verified that the total energetic cost of the crop production corresponded to 9,528.33 MJ ha{sup -1}, and the most onerous item was the inputs (35.72%). In the industrial step, the energetic consumption was equivalent to 2,208.28 MJ t{sup -1}. The operations of hydrolysis/saccharification/ treatment of the juice represented 56.72% of the total energetic expenditure. The cassava crop presented an energetic cost of 1.54 MJ L{sup -1} in relation to the ethanol produced in the main agronomic operations crop production, and 11.76 MJ L{sup -1} in the industrial processing. The energy efficiency observed in the cultivation and industrialization of the cassava was of 1.76. (author)

  11. Manihot esculenta crantz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... study was to identify the best improved varieties regarding these characteristics. The physico- chemical, biochemical ... through its processing into various industrial products. (Amani et al., 2005; FAO, 2008). ..... esculenta, Crantz) en vue d'améliorer la qualité alimentaire de l'attiéké et du placali. Thèse de ...

  12. Importance of Abscisic Acid (ABA in the In Vitro Conservation of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Importancia del Ácido Abscísico (ABA en la Conservación In Vitro de la Yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz

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    L. Pedro Barrueto Cid

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The conventional technology for in vitro plant conservation for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz germplasm collections is laborious due to the need for several sub-culturing procedures per year. This practice implies high costs for medium preparation, tissue culture tubes, time-consuming labor, risks of contamination, mislabeling of accession, and the need for large growth chambers. We have developed a new procedure using in vitro cultivated nodal axillary buds treated with different abscisic acid (ABA concentrations to reduce the time for recycling transplants cultivated in a SP basic nutritive medium. Nodal explants were stored for three months with ABA. Plants were obtained after nodal axillary buds were placed in SP medium without ABA. Results indicated that 20 and 30 mM ABA induced bud dormancy and delayed sprouting without affecting subsequent growth of plants after treatment.La tecnología usual para conservación in vitro de colecciones de germoplasma de yuca (Manihotesculenta Crantz es corrientemente laboriosa y emplea varias transferencias por año. Este procedimiento envuelve altos costos en preparación de medios, consumo de tiempo, riesgos de manipulación y necesidad de mucho espacio para la mantención de colecciones en cámaras de cultivos. Se desarrolló un nuevo procedimiento usando yemas axilares nodales cultivadas in vitro con diferentes concentraciones de ácido abscísico (ABA, con el objetivo de reducir los ciclos de transferencia de los cultivos mantenidos en un medio nutritivo básico tal como el SP. Los segmentos nodales fueron almacenados por tres meses en presencia de ABA. Las plantas fueron obtenidas después que los segmentos nodales fueron transferidos al medio SP sin ABA. Los resultados indican que 20 y 30 mM de ABA indujeron una completa dormancia de yemas, sin afectar el desarrollo posterior de las yemas nodales y su consecuente conversión en planta.

  13. Increased expression of native cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase improves tolerance to oxidative and chilling stresses in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Yang, Jun; Duan, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Yueming; Zhang, Peng

    2014-08-05

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical root crop, and is therefore, extremely sensitive to low temperature; its antioxidative response is pivotal for its survival under stress. Timely turnover of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells generated by chilling-induced oxidative damages, and scavenging can be achieved by non-enzymatic and enzymatic reactions in order to maintain ROS homeostasis. Transgenic cassava plants that co-express cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD), MeCu/ZnSOD, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), MeAPX2, were produced and tested for tolerance against oxidative and chilling stresses. The up-regulation of MeCu/ZnSOD and MeAPX2 expression was confirmed by the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and enzymatic activity analyses in the leaves of transgenic cassava plant lines with a single-transgene integration site. Upon exposure to ROS-generating agents, 100 μM ROS-generating reagent methyl viologen and 0.5 M H₂O₂, higher levels of enzymatic activities of SOD and APX were detected in transgenic plants than the wild type. Consequently, the oxidative stress parameters, such as lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll degradation and H₂O₂ synthesis, were lower in the transgenic lines than the wild type. Tolerance to chilling stress at 4°C for 2 d was greater in transgenic cassava, as observed by the higher levels of SOD, catalase, and ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes (e.g., APX, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reducatase and glutathione reductase) and lower levels of malondialdehyde content. These results suggest that the expression of native cytosolic SOD and APX simultaneously activated the antioxidative defense mechanisms via cyclic ROS scavenging, thereby improving its tolerance to cold stress.

  14. Fruit, seed and embryo development of different cassava (Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruit, seed and embryo developments of different cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) genotypes, as well as embryo rescue, were investigated. The fruits of three genotypes after uncontrolled open pollination presented the same progressive development with similar sizes at different stages. There are large differences in ...

  15. Manihot esculenta Crantz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    brevis, L. acidophilus and Bacillus subtilis inhibited the growth of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Inhibition of the pathogenic microorganisms was probably due to the production of organic acids and bacteriocins. Key words: Cassava product microflora, antagonism, bacteriocins, organic acids. INTRODUCTION.

  16. Manihot esculenta Crantz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-30

    Jul 30, 2014 ... xidase, hormones such as absiscic acid and pigments such as chlorophylls and carotenoids. As a result, the cassava plant is enabled not only to recover after the stress (Okogbenin et al., 2010) but also to regain capa- city to restore its normal metabolic activities in a shorter time and produce decent yield.

  17. Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kříbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevič, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard

  18. Hemaglutinina de folhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz: purificação parcial e toxicidade Hemaglutinin of cassava leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz: partial purification and toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystian Araujo Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Um dos componentes da multimistura para suplementação alimentar de populações carentes é a farinha de folhas de mandioca (FFM que possui elevado conteúdo em proteínas, vitaminas e minerais. Todavia, as folhas de mandioca também apresentam substâncias antinutritivas e/ou tóxicas, como cianeto, polifenóis, nitrato, ácido oxálico, hemaglutinina, saponinas e inibidores de tripsina. Objetivou-se neste trabalho extrair as proteínas da FFM, purificando-as em coluna cromatográfica e determinar sua atividade hemaglutinante e toxicidade. Foram testadas várias estratégias de extração e precipitação das proteínas, sendo que o maior teor protéico e atividade hemaglutinante foi obtido na extração com água destilada na proporção 1:20 (p/v seguida da precipitação com sulfato de amônio a 80% de saturação. As proteínas precipitadas foram purificadas em coluna Q-Sepharose. Das quatro frações obtidas na purificação (I, II, III e IV, a I e a II apresentaram maiores atividades hemaglutinantes. As mesmas frações foram injetadas via intraperitoneal em camundongos com doses de 2mg (fração I, 3mg (fração II, 54mg (fração III e 52mg (fração IV para cada animal com 20g de peso médio, não sendo observadas mortes ou quaisquer efeitos adversos após 120h.One of the components of the multimixture to the feed supplementation of low-income populations is cassava leaf flour (FFM, with high content of proteins, vitamins and minerals. However, cassava leaves also present substance regarded as antinutritive and/or toxic, such as cyanide, polyphenols, nitrate, oxalic acid, hemagglutinin, saponins and trypsin inhibitors. The aim of this work was to extract proteins from FFM, purifying them in chromatographic column and determine their hemagglutinating activity and toxicity. A number of strategies of extraction and precipitation of proteins were tested; the highest protein content and hemagglutinating activity were obtained in the

  19. Cianeto na farinha e folhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz Cyanide in the leaves and cassava leaves flour (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Wobeto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a farinha de folhas de mandioca (FFM vem sendo usada no combate à desnutrição, por ser fonte de vitaminas e minerais, além de ser um subproduto de ampla disponibilidade e baixo custo. Porém, a toxicidade, devido à presença de cianeto, pode restringir seu uso na alimentação humana. Determinaram-se os teores de cianeto nas folhas e nas FFM de cinco cultivares (Ouro do Vale, Maracanã, Mantiqueira IAC 24-2, IAC 289-70 e Mocotó, a fim de selecionar a cultivar com menores níveis desse antinutriente. Constatou-se que as cultivares apresentaram diferentes teores de cianeto e percentuais de perdas, destacando-se a IAC 289-70, com os níveis mais baixos e os maiores percentuais de perdas de cianeto. Portanto, antes de se indicar uma cultivar para a inclusão na dieta da população, faz-se necessário avaliar os teores de cianeto.In Brazil, cassava leaves flour (CLF has been used to combat undernourish, because it is a source of vitamins and minerals. Besides that, it is a sub-product of wide availability and low cost material. However, the toxicity, due to the presence of cyanide, can restrict its use for human feeding. The contents of cyanide in leaves and in CLF of five cultivars (Ouro do Vale, Maracanã, Mantiqueira IAC 24-2, IAC 289-70 and Mocotó, were determined, in order to select cultivars with smallest levels of these substance. It was verified that cultivars presented different levels of cyanide and percentile of losses, standing out the IAC 289-70 with the lowest levels and the largest losses of cyanide. Therefore, before indicating a cultivar for the inclusion in the population diet it is necessary to evaluate the contents of cyanide.

  20. A milestone in the doubled haploid pathway of cassava: a milestone in the doubled haploid pathway of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): cellular and molecular assessment of anther-derived structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, P I P; Ordoñez, C A; Lopez-Lavalle, L A Becerra; Dedicova, B

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at inducing androgenesis in cultured anthers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to develop a protocol for the production of doubled haploids. Microspore reprogramming was induced in cassava by cold or heat stress of anthers. Since the anthers contain both haploid microspores and diploid somatic cells, it was essential to verify the origin of anther-derived calli. The origin of anther-derived calli was assessed by morphological screening followed by histological analysis and flow cytometry (FCM). Additionally, simple sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragmented length polymorphism (AFLP) assays were used for the molecular identification of the microspore-derived calli. The study clearly demonstrated the feasibility of producing microspore-derived calli using heat- or cold-pretreated anthers. Histological studies revealed reprogramming of the developmental pathway of microspores by symmetrical division of the nucleus. Flow cytometry analysis revealed different ploidy level cell types including haploids, which confirmed their origin from the microspores. The SSR and AFLP marker assays independently confirmed the histological and FCM results of a haploid origin of the calli at the DNA level. The presence of multicellular microspores in the in vitro system indicated a switch of developmental program, which constitutes a crucial step in the design of protocols for the regeneration of microspore-derived embryos and plants. This is the first detailed report of calli, embryos, and abnormal shoots originated from the haploid cells in cassava, leading to the development of a protocol for the production of doubled haploid plants in cassava.

  1. Características agronômicas e culinárias de clones de mandioca Agronomic and culinary traits of several cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Osmar Lorenzi

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Em Campinas, SP, nos anos agrícolas de 1982/83, 1983/84 e 1984/85, avaliaram-se oito diferentes clones de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz selecionados para mesa quanto à produtividade de raízes e ramas, índice de colheita, cozimento culinário, teor de ácido cianídrico e cor da polpa das raízes. Os experimentos, instalados no início das chuvas (setembro/outubro e colhidos nove meses após o plantio, foram conduzidos em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Entre o material estudado, os clones IAC 59-210, de polpa branca (obtido por autofecundação do cv. IAC Mantiqueira e IAC 289-70, de polpa amarela (originário do cruzamento do cv. SRT 797 - Ouro do Vale, com o cv. SRT 1 - Vassourinha Paulista, mostraram, no conjunto de caracteres avaliados, o melhor comportamento, superando o 'IAC Jaçanã' e o 'IAC 14-18', utilizados como testemunhas. O clone IAC 289-70 destacou-se pela facilidade de cozimento culinário, baixa concentração de HCN, alto índice de colheita, produtividade média de 18,7 t/ha e polpa amarela das raízes, indicando a presença de pigmentos carotenóides. A característica mais relevante do IAC 59-210 foi a maior produtividade média, 20,6 t/ha, em magnitude.Eight cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz clones were evaluated concerning root yields and other traits during three growing seasons (1982/83, 1983/84 and 1984/85, in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Field trials were carried out in completely randomized block designs with four replications. The plants were harvested nine months after planting. The clones IAC 59-210 (derived from self-fertilization of 'IAC Mantiqueira', and IAC 289-70 (obtained from SRT 797 -'Ouro do Vale' x SRT 1 -'Vassourinha Paulista' crossing, were superior for most of the traits studied, when compared to two commercial varieties used as control. IAC 289-70 presented low cooking time, low HCN levels, high harversting index, average yield of 18.7 t/ha and yellow pulp of roots

  2. Use of PCR-DHPLC with fluorescence detection for the characterization of the bacterial diversity during cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, C S; Cuadros-Orellana, S; Bandeira, C H M M; Graças, D A; Santos, A S; Silva, A

    2014-02-28

    Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) has been described as a suitable method to study DNA polymorphisms. Here, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation liquor was examined using DHPLC analysis to characterize the bacterial diversity during the fermentation process. GC-clamped amplicons corresponding to a variable region of the bacterial community 16S rDNA were synthesized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then resolved on a base-composition basis using preparative DHPLC. Eluate fractions were collected at random and used as a source of whole community DNA that could be used to determine the bacterial diversity. As a first approach, GC-clamps were removed from the eluted DNA fragments using PCR to avoid the possible bias these clamps could cause during the construction of clone libraries. As a second approach, a clone library of each eluate sample was constructed, preserving the GC-clamps of the DNA fragments. The first approach generated 132 bacterial rDNA sequences with an average size of 200 bp, 45% of which had similarity to unculturable or non-classified bacteria. The second approach produced 194 sequences identified as Proteobacteria (48%), uncultured or non-classified environmental bacteria (40%) and Firmicutes (12%). We detected a remarkably greater bacterial diversity using the first approach than the second approach. The DHPLC-PCR method allowed for the fast and non-laborious detection of a vast bacterial diversity that was associated with cassava fermentation, and we conclude that it is a promising alternative for the characterization of the overall microbial diversity in complex samples.

  3. Transgenic rice expressing a cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) plasma membrane gene MePMP3-2 exhibits enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y; Cui, Y C; Ren, C; Rocha, P S C F; Peng, M; Xu, G Y; Wang, M L; Xia, X J

    2016-02-05

    Plasma membrane proteolipid 3 (PMP3) is a class of small hydrophobic proteins found in many organisms including higher plants. Some plant PMP3 genes have been shown to respond to abiotic stresses and to participate in the processes of plant stress tolerance. In this study, we isolated the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) MePMP3-2 gene and functionally characterized its role in tolerance to abiotic stress by expressing it in rice (Oryza sativa L.). MePMP3-2 encodes a 77-amino acid protein belonging to a subgroup of plant PMP3s that have long hydrophylic C-terminal tails of unknown function. In silico analysis and co-localization studies indicated that MePMP3-2 is a plasma membrane protein with two transmembrane domains, similar to other PMP3s. In cassava leaves, MePMP3-2 expression was up-regulated by salt and drought stresses. Heterologous constitutive expression of MePMP3-2 in rice did not alter plant growth and development but increased tolerance to salt and drought stresses. In addition, under stress conditions MePMP3-2 transgenic plants accumulated less malondialdehyde, had increased levels of proline, and exhibited greater up-regulation of the stress-related genes OsProT and OsP5CS, but led to only minor changes in OsDREB2A and OsLEA3 expression. These findings indicate that MePMP3-2 may play an important role in salt and drought stress tolerance in transgenic rice.

  4. Heterologous co-expression in E. coli of isoamylase genes from cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz 'KU50' achieves enzyme-active heteromeric complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panpetch, Pawinee; Field, Robert A; Limpaseni, Tipaporn

    2018-01-29

    Cloning of two isoamylase genes, MeISA1 and MeISA2, from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers, accompanied by their co-expression in E. coli demonstrates a requirement for heteromeric complex formation to achieve debranching activity. Starch debranching enzyme (DBE) or isoamylase (ISA) (EC.3.2.1.68), an important enzyme in starch metabolism, catalyses the hydrolysis of α-1,6 glycosidic linkages of amylopectin. Isoforms of ISAs have been reported in higher plants and algae (Fujita et al. in Planta 208:283-293, 1999; Hussain et al. in Plant Cell 15:133-149, 2003; Ishizaki et al. in Agric Biol Chem 47:771-779, 1983; Mouille et al. in Plant Cell 8:1353-1366, 1996). In the current work, cassava ISA genes were isolated from cDNA generated from total RNA from tubers of Manihot esculanta Crantz cultivar KU50. MeISA1 and MeISA2 were successfully amplified and cloned into a pETDuet1 vector. The putative MeISA1 and MeISA2 proteins comprised 763 and 882 amino acids, with substantial similarity to StISA1 and StISA2 from potato (84.4% and 68.9%, respectively). Recombinant MeISA1 and MeISA2 were co-expressed in Escherichia coli SoluBL21 (DE3). Histrap TM -Purified rMeISA1 and rMeISA2 showed approximate molecular weights of 87 and 99 kDa, respectively, by SDS-PAGE. Debranching activity was only detectable in the column fractions where both recombinant ISA isoforms were present. The heteromeric DBE from crude extracts of 4-5 h induced cultures analysed by gel filtration chromatography and western blot showed combinations of rMeISA1 and rMeISA2 at ratios of 1:1 to 4:1. Pooled fractions with DBE activity were used for enzyme characterisation, which showed that the enzyme was specific for amylopectin, with optimum activity at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Enzyme activity was enhanced by Co 2+ , Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ , but was strongly inhibited by Cu 2+ . Debranched amylopectin products showed chain length distributions typical of plant DBE.

  5. Physical localization of molecular markers and assignment of the 15th linkage group to chromosome 11 of the karyotype in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by primed in situ labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Wang, J F; Yin, H; Gao, H Q; Zhuang, N S; Liu, J P

    2015-07-28

    Physical localization of molecular markers and assignment of the 15th linkage group to chromosome 11 of the karyotype in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) were achieved using primed in situ labeling. Amplified signals for both the EST507-1 and SSRY13-5 markers were consistently observed in different stages of cell division. A comparison of the length, arm ratio, and other morphological characteristics of somatic metaphase chromosomes in karyotype analysis indicated that the EST507-1 and SSRY13-5 markers were localized on the short and long arm of cassava chromosome 11 with the relative map positions of 41.67 and 23.07, respectively. The physical localization of the 2 markers on chromosome 11 of the karyotype corresponds to their positions on the 15th linkage group in cassava.

  6. Domestication syndrome in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): Assessing morphological traits and differentially expressed genes associated with genetic diversity of storage root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava is a starchy root crop that provides a staple food source for millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Brazil is considered the major center of diversification for species of the genus Manihot. It is also a center of domestication for the cul...

  7. Quantification of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV-UG) in single and mixed infected Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Saadia; Winter, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of genomic DNA-A and DNA-B of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus Uganda (Uganda variant, EACMV-UG) was analysed using quantitative PCR to assess virus concentrations in plants from susceptible and tolerant cultivars. The concentrations of genome components in absolute and relative quantification experiments in single and mixed viral infections were determined. Virus concentration was much higher in symptomatic leaf tissues compared to non-symptomatic leaves and corresponded with the severity of disease symptoms. In general, higher titres were recorded for EACMV-UG Ca055 compared to ACMV DRC6. The quantitative assessment also showed that the distribution of both viruses in the moderately resistant cassava cv. TMS 30572 was not different from the highly susceptible cv. TME 117. Natural mixed infections with both viruses gave severe disease symptoms. Relative quantification of virus genomes in mixed infections showed higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-A compared to ACMV DNA-A, but a marked reduction of EACMV-UG DNA-B. The higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-B compared to EACMV DNA-A accumulation in single infections were consistent. Since DNA-B is implicated in virus cell-to-cell spread and systemic movement, the abundance of the EACMV-UG DNA-B may be an important factor driving cassava mosaic disease epidemic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Natural poisoning by Manihot esculenta in horses - Case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Barnabé Escodro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Escodro P.B., Silva T.J.F., Notomi M.K., do Nascimento T.G., Mariz T.M. de A. & da Fonseca L.S. [Natural poisoning by Manihot esculenta in horses - Case reports.] Intoxicação natural por Manihot esculenta em equinos - Relato de casos. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:382-386, 2016. Grupo de Pesquisa e Extensão em Equídeos, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Unidade de Ensino Viçosa, Fazenda São Luis s/n, Viçosa, AL 57700-000, Brasil. Email: pierre.escodro@vicosa.ufal.br The cyanogenic plants are responsible for most cases of poisoning in farm animals, mainly cattle and small ruminants, being less frequent in horses due to the high selectivity food and non-use of derivatives of cassava in the feed species. This paper reports with unprecedented intoxication three horses Mangalarga Marchador by Manihot esculenta (manioc offered to the animals under confinement, which after continuous intake, had followed colic syndrome and clinical signs consistent with poisoning by cyanogenic plants, succeeding clinical treatment using support associated with sodium thiosulfate intravenously.

  9. The Paleobiolinguistics of Domesticated Manioc (Manihot esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics is used to identify on maps where and when manioc (Manihot esculenta developed importance for different prehistoric groups of Native Americans. This information indicates, among other things, that significant interest in manioc developed at least a millennium before a village-farming way of life became widespread in the New World.

  10. Effets de l'inclusion de feuilles de manioc ( Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tourteau de soja, faine de feuilles de manioc, gestation, performances de reproduction. English Title: Effects of inclusion of cassava leaf meal (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in the diet on reproductive performances of Cameroonian local guinea pig (Cavia porcellus L.) English Abstract. Seventy two guinea pigs of six months ...

  11. Comparison of three cyanogen assays for total cyanogens in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saka, J.D.K.; Mhone, A.R.K.; Brimer, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity and reproducibility of three methods for determining the total cyanogenic potential (CNp) of 7 fresh and processed cassava varieties were determined and compared. The total cyanogen content of fresh cassava roots and three cassava products (kondowole, makaka, and starch) were...... analysed by the acid hydrolysis, microdiffusion with solid state detection and Cooke's enzymatic assays. The total cyanogen contents of the cassava, obtained by the three methods were not significantly different (p....3+or-0.4 and 20.4+or-1.4 mg HCN eq. kg-1 fresh weight by Cooke's, acid hydrolysis and solid state methods, respectively. However, at very low cyanogen levels, less than 5 mg HCN eq. kg-1 fresh weight, the acid hydrolysis method overestimates by 3-5 times. Otherwise, their coefficients of variations...

  12. Toxicidade de manipueira de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz e erva-de-rato (Palicourea marcgravii St. Hill a adultos de Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy (Homoptera: Aphididae Toxicity of cassava manipueira (Manihot esculenta Crantz and erva-de-rato (Palicourea marcgravii St. Hill to adults of Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Dantas Gonzaga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de extratos de plantas pode ser uma alternativa para o controle de pragas. Dentre as plantas com atividade inseticida, destacam-se a erva-de-rato (Palicourea marcgravii e o subproduto (manipueira da produção de farinha de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, plantas comuns na região Amazônica. Esse trabalho teve, como principal objetivo, investigar o potencial inseticida da manipueira e do extrato de erva-de-rato sobre Toxoptera citricida (pulgão-preto do citros. Os extratos liofilizados de manipueira e de erva-de-rato foram pulverizados sobre plantas de citros contendo pulgões em cinco concentrações (10mg/ml, 20mg/ml, 30mg/ml, 40mg/ml e 50mg/ml. Todas as concentrações analisadas causaram mortalidade dos pulgões superior a 50%, sendo que a maior concentração causou a mortalidade de todos os insetos. O potencial destes extratos demonstrado no experimento coloca os mesmos como uma alternativa ao uso de inseticidas sintéticos no controle do pulgão-preto dos citros.The utilization of plant extracts might be an alternative for the control of crop pests. Between the plants with insecticide potential, stands-out: Erva-de-rato (Palicourea marcgravii and the Cassava, a byproduct of the manipueira (Manihot esculenta,common plants in the amazon region. That work had as main objective , to investigate the insecticide potential of Manihot esculenta (manipueira of cassava and Palicourea marcgravii (erva-de-rato on Toxoptera citricida (brown citrus aphid, in experimental conditions. The freeze dryed Manipueira and and Erva-de-rato extracts, were sprayed on citrus plants infected by brown citros aphid. In laboratory, extracts of these two plants were obtained in five concentrations (10mg/ml, 20mg/ml, 30mg/ml, 40mg/ml and 50mg/ml. All the analyzed concentrations (10 to 50mg/ml caused mortality on T. citricida of above 50%, and the higher concentration of 50mg/ml caused the mortality of all the insects (n = 100% in application processes

  13. Effect of elevated CO2 concentration and nitrate: ammonium ratios on gas exchange and growth of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated how different nitrogen forms affect growth and photosynthetic responses of cassava to CO2 concentration. Cassava was grown in 12-L pots in a greenhouse (30/25o C day / night) at 390 or 750 ppm of CO2. Three nitrogen treatments were applied: (a) 12 mM NO3-, (b) 6 mM NO3- + 6 mM N...

  14. Isolation and partial characterization of a root-specific promoter for stacking multiple traits into cassava (Manihot esculenta CRANTZ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadegesin, M A; Beeching, J R

    2011-06-07

    Cassava can be cultivated on impoverished soils with minimum inputs, and its storage roots are a staple food for millions in Africa. However, these roots are low in bioavailable nutrients and in protein content, contain cyanogenic glycosides, and suffer from a very short post-harvest shelf-life, and the plant is susceptible to viral and bacterial diseases prevalent in Africa. The demand for improvement of cassava with respect to these traits comes from both farmers and national agricultural institutions. Genetic improvement of cassava cultivars by molecular biology techniques requires the availability of appropriate genes, a system to introduce these genes into cassava, and the use of suitable gene promoters. Cassava root-specific promoter for auxin-repressed protein was isolated using the gene walking approach, starting with a cDNA sequence. In silico analysis of promoter sequences revealed putative cis-acting regulatory elements, including root-specific elements, which may be required for gene expression in vascular tissues. Research on the activities of this promoter is continuing, with the development of plant expression cassettes for transformation into major African elite lines and farmers' preferred cassava cultivars to enable testing of tissue-specific expression patterns in the field.

  15. Genetic inheritance of pulp colour and selected traits of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) at early generation selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduwumuremyi, Athanase; Melis, Rob; Shanahan, Paul; Theodore, Asiimwe

    2017-12-12

    The early generation selection of cassava quantitative and qualitative traits saves breeding resources as it can shorten breeding schemes. Inheritance analysis provides important breeding information for developing new improved varieties. This study aimed at developing an F1 segregating cassava population and determining mode of gene action of pulp colour and selected traits at early generation selection (F1 seedling and clones). The 15 families exhibited significant (P < 0.05) phenotypic variation between offspring. The general combining ability (GCA) was significant for all traits except cassava brown streak disease on leaves, whereas specific combining ability (SCA) was significant for all evaluated traits. The Garukansubire and Gitamisi genotypes were the best general combiners for improving fresh storage root yield, while G1 and G2 were the best general combiners for improved carotenoid (yellow/orange pulp colour) and delayed physiological postharvest deterioration. The pulp colour had the highest GCA/SCA ratio and percent sum of squares due to GCA. The 15 F1 families exhibited essential genetic diversity for cassava improvement. The expression of most cassava traits was controlled by both additive and non-additive gene action. The study elucidated the role of dominance effects over the additive effects for the evaluated traits. However, the pulp colour was predominantly controlled by additive gene action. This implies the possibility of improving cassava through conventional breeding using recurrent selection for most traits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Evaluating Changes In Fertility Status Of An Alfisol Under Different Growth Stages Of Cassava Manihot Esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Osundare

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluating changes in soil nutrient status under different growth stages of cassava makes possible determination of the most critical stage in its vegetative growth phase when its demand for nutrients is highest. Determining the most critical stage in cassava vegetative growth phase when its nutrient demand is highest will enhance properly timed fertilizer application in such a way the application will coincide with the most critical stage in cassava vegetative phase when its demand for nutrients is highest. In view of this a two year field experiment was designed to assess changes in nutrient status of an Alfisol under different growth stages of cassava during 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Ekiti State University Ado Ekiti Ekiti State Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The different growth stages of cassava when changes in nutrient status of Alfisol were evaluated included 3 6 9 and 12 months after planting MAP. The results indicated existence of significant P 0.05 differences among the different growth stages of cassava as regards their effects on chemical properties of Alfisol. During 2010 cropping season the significant decreases in soil organic carbon SOC under growth stages of cassava were from 0.96 g kg-1 for ISNSPTC to 0.88 0.80 0.72 and0.64 g kg-1 for ages 3 6 9 and 12 MAP respectively. Similarly during 2011 cropping season the significant decreases in soil organic carbon SOC under growth stages of cassava were from 0.96 g kg-1 for ISNSPTC to 0.80 0.73 0.66 and0.58 g kg-1 for ages 3 6 9 and 12 MAP respectively. During 2010 cropping season the significant decreases in total N under growth stages of cassava were from 0.68 g kg-1 for ISNSPTC to 0.57 0.50 0.43 and0.35 g kg-1 for ages 3 6 9 and 12 MAP respectively. During 2011 cropping season the significant decreases in total N under growth stages of cassava were from 0.68 g kg-1

  17. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain, least (P < 0.05) hydrocyanide (HCN) intake and best (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio. Chicks fed with control and diet containing 100 g/kg peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) had the least (P < 0.05) feed cost per weight gain. Chicks fed with diet containing 100 g/kg cassava root meal had higher (P < 0.05) final liveweight and weight gain and reduced (P < 0.05) HCN intake than chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg cassava root meal. Dietary inclusion of peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) for broiler chicks resulted in increased final liveweight (P < 0.05), weight gain (P < 0.01) and feed intake (P < 0.01) when compared with birds fed with diet containing unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM). The least (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain and worst (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio were obtained with chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM. Increased dietary inclusion levels of cassava root resulted in significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC) count, heterophil count and serum thiocyanate concentration. In comparison with chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P < 0.05) red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and reduced (P < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count and serum

  18. Characteristics of Chemical and Functional Properties of Modified Cassava Flour (Manihot esculenta) by Autoclaving-Cooling Cycles Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecep Erwan Andriansyah, Raden; Rahman, Taufik; Herminiati, Ainia; Rahman, Nurhaidar; Luthfiyanti, Rohmah

    2017-12-01

    The modified cassava flour can be made using the method of the autoclaving cooling cycle (AAC). The stability of the warming can be seen from the decreasing value of breakdown viscosity, while the stability of the stirring process can be seen by the decreasing value of setback viscosity. The stages of research include: (1) the making of cassava flour, (2) the making of modified cassava flour by the method of treatment of ACC with a variety of flour concentration and autoclaving time, (3) chemical analysis of the moisture, ash, fat, protein, carbohydrate; The functional properties of the pasting characteristics to the initial temperature of the pasting, peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, breakdown viscosity, cold paste viscosity and setback viscosity. The result shows that cassava flour modified by treatment of flour concentration 16% and autoclaving time 41 minutes having pasting code and pasting viscosity which is resistant to high temperature. Flour with this character is flour that is expected to maintain the texture of processed products with a paste form that remains stable. Utilization of modified cassava flour by the ACC method can be applied to the pasting product such as noodle and spaghetti, hoping to support for food diversification program to reduce dependence on wheat flour in Indonesia.

  19. Mineral and Nutrient Leaf Composition of Two Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Cultivars Defoliated at Varying Phenological Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeyemi Adigun DADA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of defoliation on mineral and food value of two cassava varieties defoliated at varying phenological phases was studied to ascertain the appropriate phenological phase when harvested leaves would contain the optimum mineral and proximate composition, gross energy and the least cyanide content. Two cassava cultivars were subjected to defoliation at varying phenological stages including logarithmic, vegetative and physiological maturity phases. The mineral content was highest at the logarithmic phase than any other phases. The proximate composition of the cassava leaves showed that crude protein was highest at physiological maturity, while the least HCN was observed in cassava defoliated at logarithmic phase. Analysis of mineral and proximate content showed that leaf of the �TMS30572� cultivar had the highest mineral content, fat, fibre, ash, dry matter and gross energy at the logarithm phase while �Oko-Iyawo� had the highest crude protein and HCN at physiological maturity. This study indicates the high potential of cassava leaf as an unconventional source of protein for both humans and animals when defoliated at logarithmic growth phase.

  20. The Metabolic Effects of Consumption of Yellow Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) on Some Biochemical Parameters in Experimental Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeme, Nelson; Okafor, Polycarp; Eleazu, Chinedum

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of yellow cassava (variety TMS 01/1368) was investigated in male albino rats fed a diet containing yellow cassava for 7 to 28 days. There were significant increases (P 0.05) in the serum total proteins of the experimental rats compared with the control. The experimental rats treated for 7, 14, 21, or 28 days exhibited body weight decreases of 5.11%, 11.10%, 19.16%, and 24.18%, respectively, whereas the control group showed 9.17% gain in body weight. Total and free cyanide concentrations were detected in the liver, kidney, and heart of most of the rats in both the experimental and control groups, except for free cyanide in the control group that was not detected. Metabolism of the yellow cassava variety in experimental rats was capable of exposing the animals to cyanide, underscoring the need for its proper processing before consumption by humans. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Non-hierarchical clustering of Manihot esculenta Crantz germplasm based on quantitative traits

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Eder Jorge de; Aud, Fabiana Ferraz; Morales, Cinara Fernanda Garcia; Oliveira, Saulo Alves Santos de; Santos, Vanderlei da Silva

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The knowledge of the phenotypic variation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) germplasm allows the estimative of the genetic variability to support the selection of contrasting genitors. Therefore, the aim of this work was to define homogeneous groups of cassava germplasm based on yield traits, disease resistance and root quality using K-means as a non-hierarchical method. Breeding values estimated by Best Linear Unbiased Predictor (BLUP) were used for the cluster analysis. The num...

  2. The use of PCR techniques to detect genetic variations in Cassava (Manihot esculenta L. Crantz): minisatellite and RAPD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlicki, N.; Sangwan, R.S.; Sangwan-Norreel, B.; Koffi Konan, N.

    1998-01-01

    Cassava is an important tuber crop grown in the tropical and subtropical regions. Recently, we developed protocols for efficient somatic embryogenesis using zygotic embryos and nodal axillary meristems in order to reduce the genotype effect. Thereafter flow cytophotometry and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to assess the ploidy level and the genetic fidelity of cassava plants regenerated by somatic embryogenesis. No change in the ploidy level of the regenerated plants was observed in comparison with the control plants. In the same way, monomorphic profiles of RAPD were obtained for the different cassava plants regenerated by somatic embryogenesis. The genetic analysis of calli showed only a few differences. Using two pairs of heterologous micro satellite primers developed in a wild African grass, a monomorphic pattern was also detected. Moreover, cultivars of different origins were also analysed using these PCR techniques. Our data from RAPD and materialistic analyses suggested that these techniques can be efficiently used to detect genetic variations in cassava. (author)

  3. Factors influencing somatic embryogenesis, regeneration, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar TME14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaboga, Evans N; Njiru, Joshua M; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Routine production of large numbers of transgenic plants is required to fully exploit advances in cassava biotechnology and support development of improved germplasm for deployment to farmers. This article describes an improved, high-efficiency transformation protocol for recalcitrant cassava cultivar TME14 preferred in Africa. Factors that favor production of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) were found to be use of DKW medium, crushing of organized embryogenic structures (OES) through 1-2 mm sized metal wire mesh, washing of crushed OES tissues and short exposure of tyrosine to somatic embryos; and transformation efficiency was enhanced by use of low Agrobacterium density during co-cultivation, co-centrifugation of FEC with Agrobacterium, germination of paramomycin resistant somatic embryos on medium containing BAP with gradual increase in concentration and variations of the frequency of subculture of cotyledonary-stage embryos on shoot elongation medium. By applying the optimized parameters, FEC were produced for cassava cultivar TME14 and transformed using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA2301. About 70-80 independent transgenic lines per ml settled cell volume (SCV) of FEC were regenerated on selective medium. Histochemical GUS assays confirmed the expression of gusA gene in transformed calli, somatic embryos and transgenic plants. The presence and integration of the gusA gene were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis, respectively. RT-PCR analysis of transgenic plants confirmed the expression of gusA gene. This protocol demonstrates significantly enhanced transformation efficiency over existing cassava transformation protocols and could become a powerful tool for functional genomics and transferring new traits into cassava.

  4. Effect of medium salt concentration on differentiation and maturation of somatic embryos of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, J; Mycock, D J; Gray, V M

    2002-05-01

    Culture of cassava somatic embryos on media with an altered macro- and micro-nutrient salt concentration affected embryo development and germination capability. In the tests, quarter-, half-, full- or double-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) media were compared. The maximum number of somatic embryos differentiated from a proliferative nodular embryogenic callus (NEC) on either half- or full-strength MS medium, and the greatest numbers of cotyledonary stage embryos were formed on full-strength MS medium. Developed somatic embryos were then desiccated above a saturated K2SO4 solution for 10 d. After transfer to germination medium, embryos that had developed on half- and full-strength MS medium yielded 8.3 and 8.6 germinants g(-1) NEC tissue, respectively. For this important but often disregarded culture factor, either half- or full-strength MS medium is recommended for both the differentiation and development of cassava somatic embryos that are capable of germination.

  5. The role of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and polysaccharides in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots under postharvest physiological deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate the role of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), polysaccharides, and protein contents associated with the early events of postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) in cassava roots. Increases in APX and GPX activity, as well as total protein contents occurred from 3 to 5 days of storage and were correlated with the delay of PPD. Cassava samples stained with Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) highlighted the presence of starch and cellulose. Degradation of starch granules during PPD was also detected. Slight metachromatic reaction with toluidine blue is indicative of increasing of acidic polysaccharides and may play an important role in PPD delay. Principal component analysis (PCA) classified samples according to their levels of enzymatic activity based on the decision tree model which showed GPX and total protein amounts to be correlated with PPD. The Oriental (ORI) cultivar was more susceptible to PPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Variations in the chemical composition of cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) leaves and roots as affected by genotypic and environmental variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Anna Elizabeth; Gleadow, Roslyn Margaret; Zacarias, Anabela M; Cuambe, Constantino Estevão; Miller, Rebecca Elizabeth; Cavagnaro, Timothy Richard

    2012-05-16

    The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of cassava cultivars, in terms of cyanogenic potential and composition of macro- and micronutrients, sampled from different locations in rural Mozambique. Total cyanide concentrations in fresh cassava tissues were measured using portable cyanide testing kits, and elemental nutrients were later analyzed from dried plant tissue. Variation in cyanogenic potential and nutrient composition occurred both among cultivars and across locations. The majority of cultivars contained >100 ppm total cyanide, fresh weight, and are therefore considered to be dangerously poisonous unless adequately processed before consumption. Leaf cyanogenic and nutrient content varied with plant water status, estimated using carbon isotope discrimination (δ(13)C). The colonization of roots of all cultivars by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was also quantified and found to be high, indicating that mycorrhizas could play a key role in plant nutrient acquisition in these low-input farming systems.

  7. Effect of Medium Salt Concentration on Differentiation and Maturation of Somatic Embryos of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    GROLL, J.; MYCOCK, D. J.; GRAY, V. M.

    2002-01-01

    Culture of cassava somatic embryos on media with an altered macro‐ and micro‐nutrient salt concentration affected embryo development and germination capability. In the tests, quarter‐, half‐, full‐ or double‐strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) media were compared. The maximum number of somatic embryos differentiated from a proliferative nodular embryogenic callus (NEC) on either half‐ or full‐strength MS medium, and the greatest numbers of cotyledonary stage embryos were formed on full‐strength...

  8. Resilience of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to salinity: implications for food security in low-lying regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleadow, Ros; Pegg, Amelia; Blomstedt, Cecilia K

    2016-10-01

    Rising sea levels are threatening agricultural production in coastal regions due to inundation and contamination of groundwater. The development of more salt-tolerant crops is essential. Cassava is an important staple, particularly among poor subsistence farmers. Its tolerance to drought and elevated temperatures make it highly suitable for meeting global food demands in the face of climate change, but its ability to tolerate salt is unknown. Cassava stores nitrogen in the form of cyanogenic glucosides and can cause cyanide poisoning unless correctly processed. Previous research demonstrated that cyanide levels are higher in droughted plants, possibly as a mechanism for increasing resilience to oxidative stress. We determined the tolerance of cassava to salt at two different stages of development, and tested the hypothesis that cyanide toxicity would be higher in salt-stressed plants. Cassava was grown at a range of concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) at two growth stages: tuber initiation and tuber expansion. Established plants were able to tolerate 100mM NaCl but in younger plants 40mM was sufficient to retard plant growth severely. Nutrient analysis showed that plants were only able to exclude sodium at low concentrations. The foliar cyanogenic glucoside concentration in young plants increased under moderate salinity stress but was lower in plants grown at high salt. Importantly, there was no significant change in the cyanogenic glucoside concentration in the tubers. We propose that the mechanisms for salinity tolerance are age dependent, and that this can be traced to the relative cost of leaves in young and old plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Analysis of Variance, Heritability, Correlation and Selection Character of M1 V3 Generation Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Mutants

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    Rahmi Henda Yani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Information about genetic variability and correlation between qualitative character and yield are important to support a selection program. The objective of this research was to determine genetic variability, heritability, and path analysis of M1 V3 cassava mutants’ characters. This research was conducted at Bogor Agricultural University Experimental Field Research from May 2014 to May 2015. This research used 32 mutants from five cassava parent lines which were Malang-4 and Adira-4 (national varieties, UJ-5 (Introduction variety from Thailand, and two local genotypes from Halmahera which were Jame-jame and Ratim. The results showed that gamma ray irradiation increased variability from five cassava genotypes. Characters that had high heritability were length of leaf lobe, lengthof petiole, stem diameter, and the height of plant. The path correlation analysis showed that number of tubers, number of economic tuber (> 20 cm, height to first branchingand stem diameter had direct correlation with tuber mass per plant. The characters can be used for the selection of M1 V4 generation.

  10. Induction and identification of a small-granule, high-amylose mutant in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Hernán; Sánchez, Teresa; Denyer, Kay; Tofiño, Adriana P; Rosero, Elvia A; Dufour, Dominique; Smith, Alison; Morante, Nelson; Pérez, Juan C; Fahy, Brendan

    2008-08-27

    Only two mutations have been described in the literature, so far, regarding starch and root quality traits in cassava. This article reports on an induced mutation in this crop, first identified in 2006. Botanical seed from five different cassava families were irradiated with gamma rays. Seed was germinated, transplanted to the field (M1 plants), and self-pollinated to produce the M2 generation. Abnormal types regarding starch granule morphology were identified during the single plant evaluation of M2 genotypes. To confirm these characteristics, selected genotypes were cloned and a second evaluation, based on cloned plants obtained from vegetative multiplication, was completed in September 2007. Two M2 genotypes presented small starch granules, but only one could be fully characterized, presenting a granule size of 5.80 +/- 0.33 microm compared with three commercial clones with granule sizes ranging from 13.97 +/- 0.12 to 18.73 +/- 0.10 microm and higher-than-normal amylose content (up to 30.1% in cloned plants harvested in 2007, as compared with the typical values for "normal" cassava starch of around 19.8%). The gels produced by the starch of these plants did not show any viscosity when analyzed with the rapid viscoanalyzers (5% suspension), and the gels had low clarity. Low viscosity could be observed at higher concentrations (8 or 10% suspensions). Preliminary results suggest that the mutation may be due to a lesion in a gene encoding one of the isoforms of isoamylase (probably isa1 or isa2).

  11. Environmental effects on growth and development of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz). II. Crop growth rate and biomass yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, B.A.; Evenson, J.P.; Fukai, S.

    1982-12-01

    Frequent harvests of serial plantings of cassava (cv. M Aus 10) in S.E. Queensland, Australia (latitude 27 degrees 37'S) were used to examine the effect of environment on dry matter growth and biomass yield. Maximum crop growth rates (CGR) calculated from fitted logistic curves ranged from 23.8 to 2.4 g m-2 day-1 for the various planting dates and occurred in late summer to autumn, becoming progressively smaller and later for plantings made later in the growth season. Crop growth rate declined to zero or near zero for all planting dates in late winter. Maximum CGR's were higher than those reported for cassava at lower latitudes but, because of the restricted growing season, annual biomass yields from early planting times were similar and of the order of 30 tons per hectare-1 year-1. Multiple regression models were developed which could account for 89% of the variation in CGR in terms of mean air temperature or solar radiation and leaf area index (LAI). Temperature and solar radiation were highly correlated at this experimental site and it was not possible to distinguish their separate effects on CGR. (Refs. 18).

  12. Alpha-Glucan, Water Dikinase 1 Affects Starch Metabolism and Storage Root Growth in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenzhi; He, Shutao; Naconsie, Maliwan; Ma, Qiuxiang; Zeeman, Samuel C; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Zhang, Peng

    2017-08-29

    Regulation of storage root development by source strength remains largely unknown. The cassava storage root delay (srd) T-DNA mutant postpones storage root development but manifests normal foliage growth as wild-type plants. The SRD gene was identified as an orthologue of α-glucan, water dikinase 1 (GWD1), whose expression is regulated under conditions of light/dark cycles in leaves and is associated with storage root development. The GWD1-RNAi cassava plants showed both retarded plant and storage root growth, as a result of starch excess phenotypes with reduced photosynthetic capacity and decreased levels of soluble saccharides in their leaves. These leaves contained starch granules having greatly increased amylose content and type C semi-crystalline structures with increased short chains that suggested storage starch. In storage roots of GWD1-RNAi lines, maltose content was dramatically decreased and starches with much lower phosphorylation levels showed a drastically reduced β-amylolytic rate. These results suggested that GWD1 regulates transient starch morphogenesis and storage root growth by decreasing photo-assimilation partitioning from the source to the sink and by starch mobilization in root crops.

  13. Study of the microbiological conditions of marketing of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz flour in supply center of Alagoinhas, Bahia Estudo das condições microbiológicas de farinhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz comercializadas no centro de abastecimento de Alagoinhas, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelza Silva Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the city of Alagoinhas, Bahia, and in most Northeastern states, the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz flour is produced in a craft house, most often located in the place of production. This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological conditions of cassava flours marketed Supply Centre in Alagoinhas, Bahia. We collected 30 samples of cassava flour, 100 grams, which were placed in sterile, insulated container. The samples were tested for heterotrophic bacteria using the method of standard plate count, followed by Gram staining, the search for total and fecal coliforms was performed by the Most Probable Number (MPN. The results indicate that the samples that the samples are in accordance with current legislation regarding the analysis of total coliforms and thermotolerant (No município de Alagoinhas, Bahia, e na maioria dos estados do Nordeste, a farinha de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz é produzida de forma artesanal em casas-de-farinha, na maioria das vezes localizadas no próprio local de plantio da mandioca. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as condições microbiológicas de farinhas de mandioca comercializadas no Centro de Abastecimento em Alagoinhas-Bahia. Foram coletadas 100 gramas de 30 amostras de farinha de mandioca, as quais foram acondicionadas em frascos estéreis, em recipiente isotérmico. As amostras foram submetidas à pesquisa de bactérias heterotróficas empregando-se o método de contagem padrão em placas, seguido da coloração de Gram, e a pesquisa para coliformes totais e termotolerantes foi realizada pela técnica do Número Mais Provável (NMP. Os resultados indicam que as amostras estão em conformidade com a legislação vigente em relação à análise de coliformes totais e termotolerantes (<3NMPg-1, na contagem de bactérias heterotróficas algumas amostras mostraram-se fora dos padrões aceitáveis. Na coloração de Gram foram observados bacilos, diplobacilos e estreptobacilos Gram positivos e Gram

  14. Influence of 2,4-D and picloram on embryogenic competence of three cassava (manihot esculenta crantz) accessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elegba, W.

    2008-06-01

    The influence of 2,4-D and picloram on embryogenic competence of three local cassava accessions namely, Nkabom, Wenchi and ADI 001 was studied. Young leaf lobes of cassava cultured on MS medium supplemented with 4 to 20 mg/L 2,4-D or picloram (initiation medium) resulted in 90 to 100% embryogenic calli formation depending on the accession. The transfer of embryogenic calli to an MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L BAP produced primary embryos. The duration and number of primary embryos produced on the maturation medium depended on the auxin as well as the genotype. picloram decreased the number of days to maturation and produced comparatively more embryos at both the primary and cyclic stages than 2,4-D. However, the optimal concentration required for increased embryo production in picloram was higher (16 mg/L) than 2,4-D ( 8 mg/L). Fragmentation of matured primary somatic embryos and reculture on initiation medium led to cyclic embryo production. Cyclic embryogenesis doubled (with 2,4-D) or tripled (with picloram) the number of embryos produced at the primary stage. However, recycling of embryos through three successive cycles resulted in a slight reduction in the number of embryos produced. The presence of lower concentration of ABA (1 mg/L) in the maturation medium enhanced embryo maturation and plantlet regeneration while increased concentration of ABA (2 or 4 mg/L) decreased embryo production and plantlet regeneration indicating inhibition or dormancy effect of the growth regulator on germination of embryos. Desiccation significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved plantlet regeneration from both 2,4-D and picloram-induced somatic embryos in all the accessions. However, comparatively high somatic embryos derived from picloram germinated into plantlets than 2,4-D.This study has shown that all three accessions, are embryogenically competent and picloram is a superior auxin to 2,4-D in somatic embryo production and successful regeneration of plantlets. This holds great

  15. Cloning, 3D Modeling and Expression Analysis of Three Vacuolar Invertase Genes from Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz

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    Yuan Yao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vacuolar invertase is one of the key enzymes in sucrose metabolism that irreversibly catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and fructose in plants. In this research, three vacuolar invertase genes, named MeVINV1-3, and with 653, 660 and 639 amino acids, respectively, were cloned from cassava. The motifs of NDPNG (β-fructosidase motif, RDP and WECVD, which are conserved and essential for catalytic activity in the vacuolar invertase family, were found in MeVINV1 and MeVINV2. Meanwhile, in MeVINV3, instead of NDPNG we found the motif NGPDG, in which the three amino acids GPD are different from those in other vacuolar invertases (DPN that might result in MeVINV3 being an inactivated protein. The N-terminal leader sequence of MeVINVs contains a signal anchor, which is associated with the sorting of vacuolar invertase to vacuole. The overall predicted 3D structure of the MeVINVs consists of a five bladed β-propeller module at N-terminus domain, and forms a β-sandwich module at the C-terminus domain. The active site of the protein is situated in the β-propeller module. MeVINVs are classified in two subfamilies, α and β groups, in which α group members of MeVINV1 and 2 are highly expressed in reproductive organs and tuber roots (considered as sink organs, while β group members of MeVINV3 are highly expressed in leaves (source organs. All MeVINVs are highly expressed in leaves, while only MeVINV1 and 2 are highly expressed in tubers at cassava tuber maturity stage. Thus, MeVINV1 and 2 play an important role in sucrose unloading and starch accumulation, as well in buffering the pools of sucrose, hexoses and sugar phosphates in leaves, specifically at later stages of plant development.

  16. Cloning, 3D modeling and expression analysis of three vacuolar invertase genes from cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Geng, Meng-Ting; Li, Rui-Mei; Liu, Jiao; Hu, Xin-Wen; Guo, Jian-Chun

    2014-05-15

    Vacuolar invertase is one of the key enzymes in sucrose metabolism that irreversibly catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and fructose in plants. In this research, three vacuolar invertase genes, named MeVINV1-3, and with 653, 660 and 639 amino acids, respectively, were cloned from cassava. The motifs of NDPNG (β-fructosidase motif), RDP and WECVD, which are conserved and essential for catalytic activity in the vacuolar invertase family, were found in MeVINV1 and MeVINV2. Meanwhile, in MeVINV3, instead of NDPNG we found the motif NGPDG, in which the three amino acids GPD are different from those in other vacuolar invertases (DPN) that might result in MeVINV3 being an inactivated protein. The N-terminal leader sequence of MeVINVs contains a signal anchor, which is associated with the sorting of vacuolar invertase to vacuole. The overall predicted 3D structure of the MeVINVs consists of a five bladed β-propeller module at N-terminus domain, and forms a β-sandwich module at the C-terminus domain. The active site of the protein is situated in the β-propeller module. MeVINVs are classified in two subfamilies, α and β groups, in which α group members of MeVINV1 and 2 are highly expressed in reproductive organs and tuber roots (considered as sink organs), while β group members of MeVINV3 are highly expressed in leaves (source organs). All MeVINVs are highly expressed in leaves, while only MeVINV1 and 2 are highly expressed in tubers at cassava tuber maturity stage. Thus, MeVINV1 and 2 play an important role in sucrose unloading and starch accumulation, as well in buffering the pools of sucrose, hexoses and sugar phosphates in leaves, specifically at later stages of plant development.

  17. Development of polymorphic markers from expressed sequence tags of Manihot esculenta Crantz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangphatsornruang, S; Sraphet, S; Singh, R; Okogbenin, E; Fregene, M; Triwitayakorn, K

    2008-05-01

    In this study, 49 primers were designed from sequences containing di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotide motifs with a minimum of four repeats and presence of motif size polymorphisms (insertion/deletion) from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) expressed sequence tags deposited in public sequence database. Each locus was subsequently screened on 29 M. esculenta Crantz obtained from 15 different countries. Cross-amplification was tested with M. esculenta Crantz (ssp. flabellifolia) and four different Manihot species, M. chlorosticta, M. carthaginensis, M. filamentosa and M. tristis. Of these, nine loci showed polymorphic profiles within M. esculenta Crantz, which revealed two to four alleles per locus. The average unbiased and direct count heterozygosities were 0.4901 and 0.5674, respectively. © 2007 The Authors.

  18. Phylogeny and expression pattern of starch branching enzyme family genes in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) under diverse environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jinli; Wang, Huijun; Xia, Zhiqiang; Liu, Chen; Chen, Xin; Ma, Pingan; Lu, Cheng; Wang, Wenquan

    2015-08-01

    Starch branching enzyme (SBE) is one of the key enzymes involved in starch biosynthetic metabolism. In this study, six SBE family genes were identified from the cassava genome. Phylogenetic analysis divided the MeSBE family genes into dicot family A, B, C, and the new group. Tissue-specific analysis showed that MeSBE2.2 was strongly expressed in leaves, stems cortex, and root stele, and MeSBE3 had high expression levels in stem cortex and root stele of plants in the rapid growth stage under field condition, whereas the expression levels of MeSBE2.1, MeSBE4, and MeSBE5 were low except for in stems cortex. The transcriptional activity of MeSBE2.2 and MeSBE3 was higher compared with other members and gradually increased in the storage roots during root growth process, while the other MeSBE members normally remained low expression levels. Expression of MeSBE2.2 could be induced by salt, drought, exogenous abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid signals, while MeSBE3 had positive response to drought, salt, exogenous abscisic acid, and salicylic acid in leaves but not in storage root, indicating that they might be more important in starch biosynthesis pathway under diverse environments.

  19. Environmental effects on growth and development of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz). III. Assimilate distribution and storage organ yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, B.A.; Evenson, J.P.; Fukai, S.

    1982-12-01

    Assimilate distribution and storage organ (storage roots plus swollen planting piece) yield of serial plantings of the cassava cultivar M Aus 10, made throughout a year, and grown for one year duration were studied with sequential harvests in S.E. Queensland (latitude 27 degrees 37'S), Australia. Seasonal differences in the proportion of total dry matter assimilation partioned to storage organs over a given time period (referred to as distribution ratio, DR) were observed with low DR over the mid-summer (January to March) period (0.1 to 0.3) when crop growth rate (CGR) was at a maximum compared with 0.4 to 0.5 in November to December and 0.5 to 1.0 in late autumn to winter (April to July). This period of low DR restricted storage organ yields which generally lower (6-9 t DW ha-1 year-1) than those reported for adapted germplasm at lower latitudes. Multiple regression models were developed which accounted for much of the variation in DR in terms of mean air temperature of photoperiod and leaf area index (R2 = 0.73). High temperatures, long photoperiods and high leaf area indices were associated with reduced DR. Mean air temperature and photoperiod are highly correlated in this environment and their separate effects on DR could not be distinguised. This model of distribution ratio was combined with earlier published models of CGR, and storage organ growth rate predicted. (Refs. 20).

  20. Utilization of unpeeled cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal supplemented with or without charcoal by broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oso, A O; Akapo, O; Sanwo, K A; Bamgbose, A M

    2014-06-01

    A 42-day feeding trial was conducted using 480-day-old, male Marshall broilers to study the utilization of unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM) supplemented with or without 6 g/kg charcoal. The experimental design was laid out in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments having three inclusion levels of UCRM (0, 100 and 200 g/kg) with or without 6 g/kg charcoal supplementation. Each treatment consisted of 80 birds replicated eight times with 10 birds per replicate. Main effect of inclusion level of UCRM and supplementation of charcoal showed reduced (p charcoal showed higher (p charcoal. Supplementation of charcoal in diet containing 100 g/kg UCRM resulted in improved (p charcoal. Broilers fed diet containing no UCRM but supplemented with charcoal had the highest overall (p charcoal recorded the poorest (p charcoal resulted in increased (p charcoal. In conclusion, supplementation of diet containing up to 100 g/kg UCRM with 6 g/kg charcoal showed improved weight gain without any deleterious effect on serum metabolites. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Tracking crop varieties using genotyping-by-sequencing markers: a case study using cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, Ismail Y; Kulakow, Peter A; Manu-Aduening, Joseph A; Dankyi, Ansong A; Asibuo, James Y; Parkes, Elizabeth Y; Abdoulaye, Tahirou; Girma, Gezahegn; Gedil, Melaku A; Ramu, Punna; Reyes, Byron; Maredia, Mywish K

    2015-09-23

    Accurate identification of crop cultivars is crucial in assessing the impact of crop improvement research outputs. Two commonly used identification approaches, elicitation of variety names from farmer interviews and morphological plant descriptors, have inherent uncertainty levels. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) was used in a case study as an alternative method to track released varieties in farmers' fields, using cassava, a clonally propagated root crop widely grown in the tropics, and often disseminated through extension services and informal seed systems. A total of 917 accessions collected from 495 farming households across Ghana were genotyped at 56,489 SNP loci along with a "reference library" of 64 accessions of released varieties and popular landraces. Accurate cultivar identification and ancestry estimation was accomplished through two complementary clustering methods: (i) distance-based hierarchical clustering; and (ii) model-based maximum likelihood admixture analysis. Subsequently, 30% of the identified accessions from farmers' fields were matched to specific released varieties represented in the reference library. ADMIXTURE analysis revealed that the optimum number of major varieties was 11 and matched the hierarchical clustering results. The majority of the accessions (69%) belonged purely to one of the 11 groups, while the remaining accessions showed two or more ancestries. Further analysis using subsets of SNP markers reproduced results obtained from the full-set of markers, suggesting that GBS can be done at higher DNA multiplexing, thereby reducing the costs of variety fingerprinting. A large proportion of discrepancy between genetically unique cultivars as identified by markers and variety names as elicited from farmers were observed. Clustering results from ADMIXTURE analysis was validated using the assumption-free Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC) method. We show that genome-wide SNP markers from increasingly affordable GBS

  2. Action of gamma radiation in the physico-chemical and sensorial characteristics of minimally processed cassava (Manihot esculenta CRANTZ);Acao da radiacao gama nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas e sensoriais da mandioca (Manihot esculenta CRANTZ) minimamente processada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simioni, Karime Raya

    2001-07-01

    Nowadays irradiation has been the most studied method of food conservation. The publication of thousand of papers, not just scientific but also technological, economical and social, have proved the technical validity of the irradiation method and showed the ways of how to introduce it in commercial facilities in ali countries of the modem world. Cassava is cultivated almost ali over the world and it is considered one of the most important nutritious sources of calories in human diet. Cassava is a viable food against starving in several poor areas of the world because it is an extremely resistant culture and may reach satisfactory economical yield. Cassava is a quite perishable root, characterized by fast post harvest deterioration. Because of the lack of researches about the effects of radiations in this root, the objective of the present work was to examine the gamma radiation coming from {sup 60}Cobalt as a treatment to prolong the shelflife of the root after harvesting, aiming to increase its period of commercialization and to conserve its sensorial characteristics for a longer period. Samples were washed, peeled, cleaned and diced cassava roots packed in polyethylene bags. The treatments were: control; freezing and storage at 18 deg C for 21 days; and irradiation with the doses of 8 and 10 kGy. The control and the irradiated samples were stored under ambient temperature during 21 days. All samples were analyzed at each 7 days for alterations in the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics. The samples were analyzed for pH, acidity, weight, humidity, texture and color. The irradiation did not affect the chemical characteristics of the cassava. Neither the pH nor the acidity, the most relevant variables to verify deterioration in cassava, presented significant alterations during the period of storage. Comparing the irradiated treatments, the dose of 8 kGy was that less affected the physic-chemical characteristics of the cassava and scored the highest notes

  3. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF PACU (Piaractus mesopotamicus, FED CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta FOLIAGE IN DIETS RESPOSTAS FISIOLÓGICAS DO PACU (Piaractus mesopotamicus, ALIMENTADO COM RAMA DE MANDIOCA (Manihot esculenta NA RAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Teodoro Padua

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the largest world producer of cassava. Leafs and stem of cassava can be a alternative source of protein for omnivorous fish. However, the potential use is limited by the presence of high level of cyanide acid. The present study evaluated physiological responses of juvenile pacu submitted to increasing levels of the final third of the cassava foliage meal in diets. A completely randomized design was used in factorial scheme 4x2, four levels, 0, 12, 24 and 36 % of cassava foliage meal (CFM, and 2 levels of crude protein (CP, 24 % and 30 %, with three replicates. Three hundred twelve fish (55.33±6.19 g were distributed into 24 ponds of 13 m2. Results indicated that the levels of CFM inclusion affected the hemoglobin values (P<0.01, as well as the CP level (P<0.05, with interaction of these factors (P<0.01. Significant interaction among the CFM levels and CP was also observed for hematocrit, plasma protein (P<0.01 and plasma lipid (P<0.05. In the 24 % CP level was observed higher values of Hb in control and 36 % of CFM (3.51 g/dl and 3.25 g/dl respectively while with 30 % CP the control diet and 36 % CFM presented the smallest values (3.29 g/dl and 2.78 g/dl respectively. The higher level of CFM tested, inside of any protein level, had low influence on the pacu metabolism.

    KEY WORDS: Cassava leaf and stem fish metabolism, pacu, P. Mesopotamicus.
    O Brasil é o maior produtor mundial de mandioca, disponibilizando a rama de mandioca como fonte alternativa na alimentação de peixes onívoros. No entanto, o potencial de uso da rama é limitado pela toxidez do ácido cianídrico. Objetivou-se avaliar a resposta fisiológica do pacu alimentado com níveis crescentes da rama de mandioca. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial 4x2, quatro níveis de rama de mandioca (RM (0%, 12%, 24% e 36% e dois níveis de proteína bruta (PB (24% e 30% com três repetições. Trezentos e doze peixes (55,33±6,19 g foram

  4. Análise energética de sistemas de produção de etanol de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz Energetic analysis of the ethanol production systems of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz

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    Diones A. Salla

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se, com este trabalho, analisar energeticamente o sistema de produção de etanol utilizando como fonte de carboidratos, a mandioca. As pesquisas de campo foram realizadas na região do Médio Paranapanema, Estado de São Paulo, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2007. Avaliou-se o consumo energético referente às fases de produção e processamento industrial e se verificou que o custo energético total da produção agrícola correspondeu a 9.528,33 MJ ha-1, sendo que o item mais oneroso foi o de insumos (35,72%. Nas etapas industriais o consumo energético foi equivalente a 2.208,28 MJ t-1. As operações de hidrólise/sacarificação/tratamento do caldo representaram 56,72% do dispêndio energético total. A mandioca apresentou um custo energético de 1,54 MJ L-1 em relação ao etanol produzido nas principais operações agronômicas de produção e 11,76 MJ L-1 nas etapas de processamento industrial. A eficiência energética observada no cultivo e industrialização da mandioca foi de 1,76.This work aimed to analyze the energetic consumption of the etanol production system, using the cassava as carbohidrates source. The researches were carried out from the field in the mid region of Paranapanema river, Sao Paulo state, during the period January to December, 2007. The energy consumption referring to the phases of crop production and industrial processing were appraised. It was verified that the total energetic cost of the crop production corresponded to 9,528.33 MJ ha-1, and the most onerous item was the inputs (35.72%. In the industrial step, the energetic consumption was equivalent to 2,208.28 MJ t-1. The operations of hydrolysis/saccharification/ treatment of the juice represented 56.72% of the total energetic expenditure. The cassava crop presented an energetic cost of 1.54 MJ L-1 in relation to the etanol produced in the main agronomic operations crop production, and 11.76 MJ L-1 in the industrial processing. The energy

  5. Nutrients in the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz leaf meal at three ages of the plant Nutrientes na farinha de folhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz em três idades da planta

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    Carmen Wobeto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The high number of cassava cultivars adapted to many different regions provides a wide variation in the chemical composition of cassava leaves meal (CLM. Therefore, the contents of some nutrients in CLM from five cultivars at three ages of the plant were investigated in order to select the cultivars and ages with superior levels of these nutrients. When the plants were 12 months old, the highest levels of crude protein (CP, beta-carotene, iron, magnesium, phosphorus and sulfur were observed. The IAC 289-70 cv. showed the highest levels of magnesium, as well as considerable contents of CP, beta-carotene, iron, zinc and sulfur, which did not differ statistically from the cultivars showing the highest levels of these nutrients.O número elevado de cultivares de mandioca adaptados às mais diversas regiões confere ampla variação na composição química da farinha de folhas de mandioca (FFM. Portanto, foram investigados os teores de alguns nutrientes nas FFM de cinco cultivares em três idades da planta, a fim de selecionar cultivares e idades com níveis superiores destes nutrientes. Aos 12 meses de idade da planta, observaram-se os maiores níveis de proteína bruta (PB, beta-caroteno, ferro, magnésio, fósforo e enxofre. O cultivar IAC 289-70 apresentou os maiores níveis de magnésio, assim como teores apreciáveis de PB, beta-caroteno, ferro, zinco e enxofre, pois não diferiu estatisticamente dos cultivares com os níveis mais elevados destes nutrientes.

  6. Período de interferência de plantas daninhas em mandioca (Manihot esculenta no noroeste do Paraná Period of weed interference in cassava (Manihot esculenta in northwestern Parana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Biffe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A mandioca é uma exploração agrícola importante no Estado do Paraná. No entanto, há limitadas informações relacionadas à interferência das plantas daninhas nessa cultura. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar o período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI na cultura da mandioca (variedade Fécula Branca, nas condições edafoclimáticas do noroeste do Paraná. O experimento foi dividido em dois grupos de tratamentos: com períodos crescentes na presença de plantas daninhas (PAI; e com períodos crescentes na ausência de plantas daninhas (PTPI. Foram identificadas as espécies de plantas daninhas e densidades de infestação na área e calculada a importância relativa (IR, avaliando-se também o estande da cultura e a produtividade de raízes comerciais. As principais plantas daninhas presentes na área e que apresentaram os maiores valores de IR foram Cenchrus echinatus e Brachiaria decumbens. Aceitando-se uma tolerância de redução de produtividade de 5%, o PAI ajustado foi de 18 dias após o plantio da cultura, e o PTPI, de 100 dias. Concluiu-se que o PCPI da cultura para as condições edafoclimáticas do noroeste do Paraná situa-se entre 18 e 100 dias após o plantio.Although cassava is a major agribusiness crop in Paraná, technical information related to weed interference in this crop is limited. This work aimed to evaluate the critical period of weed interference (PCPI in cassava (var. Fécula Branca, for local climate and soil under northwestern Paraná conditions. The experiment was constituted of two groups: the first with increasing periods of weed interference (PAI and the second with increasing periods without weed interference (PTPI. Main weed species in the area were identified and accounted for densities and relative importance (RI during the cycle; crop stand and commercial root yield were also evaluated. The highest RI values were found for Cenchrus echinatus and Brachiaria decumbens. Considering a

  7. Bagaço de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz na dieta de vacas leiteiras: consumo de nutrientes Cassava bagasse (Manihot esculenta, Crantz in the diet of lactating cows: intake of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Lima

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da inclusão de diferentes níveis (0, 5, 10 e 15% de bagaço de mandioca à dieta de 12 vacas mestiças leiteiras Holandês x Zebu (composição racial com variação de ¼ a ¾ de sangue H x Z com 478,5kg de peso corporal médio e com 100 a 150 dias de lactação, distribuídas em três Quadrados Latinos 4 x 4. Foi avaliado o consumo de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, carboidratos totais (CHT, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT. Forneceu-se silagem de capim-elefante como fonte de volumoso. As relações volumoso:concentrado utilizadas foram de 65,19:34,81; 61,59:38,41; 59,08:40,92 e 54,76:45,24. Formularam-se as dietas isoprotéicas e isoenergéticas. Houve aumento linear do consumo de MS, MO, PB, CHT, CNF e NDT, efeito quadrático do consumo de EE e redução do consumo de FDA com o aumento do BM, enquanto o consumo de FDN não diferiu entre os tratamentos.O bagaço de mandioca pode ser utilizado até o nível de 15% de inclusão na dieta total de vacas mestiças leiteiras sem trazer transtornos fisiológicos ou nutricionais aos animais.The effect of different inclusion levels (0, 5, 10, and 15% of cassava bagasse to the diet of 12 Holstein x Zebu crossbred dairy cows (breed composition varying from ¼ to ¾ H x Z blood, averaging 478.5kg body weight and 100 to 150 days in milk was evaluated. Cows were distributed in three 4 x 4 latin squares. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, total carbohydrates (TC, non fiber carbohydrates (NFC, and total digestible nutrients (TDN were evaluated. Elephant grass silage was provided as roughage source. The roughage:concentrate ratios were 65.19:34.81; 61.59:38.41; 59.08:40.92; and 54.76:45.24. Isonitogen and isoenergetic diets

  8. Antinutrients in the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz leaf powder at three ages of the plant Antinutrientes na farinha de folhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz em três idades da planta

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    Carmen Wobeto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the cassava leaf meal (CLM has been used to strive against undernourishment because it is a high source of vitamins and minerals. However, the wide variation in the chemical composition of the different cultivars, as well as their antinutritional substances may be a restriction to their uses. The levels of some antinutrients in CLM from five cultivars at three ages of the plant (TAP were investigated, in order to select the cultivars and plant ages that would be more appropriate for human consumption. The lowest contents of antinutrients were observed in the 12-month old plants, except for nitrate and hemagglutinin from which the lowest contents were found for the 17 month old ones. The cultivar IAC 289-70 had the lowest antinutrient levels, except for saponin and oxalate. Thus, the cultivar IAC 289-70 at 12 months is the most appropriate for human consumption.No Brasil, a farinha de folhas de mandioca (FFM vem sendo usada no combate à desnutrição por ser fonte de vitaminas e minerais. Todavia, a grande variação na composição química dos diferentes cultivares e a presença de substâncias antinutricionais tem restringido o seu uso. Investigaram-se os níveis de alguns antinutrientes da FFM de cinco cultivares em três idades da planta (TIP, a fim de selecionar cultivares e idades mais adequadas para o consumo humano. Aos 12 meses foram observados os menores teores de antinutrientes, exceto para nitrato e hemaglutinina, os quais foram inferiores aos 17 meses. O cultivar IAC 289-70 destacou-se com os menores níveis dos antinutrientes, exceto para a saponina e oxalato. Portanto, o cultivar IAC 289-70, aos 12 meses, é o mais adequado para o consumo humano.

  9. Efeito de três sistemas de preparo do solo sobre a rentabilidade econômica da mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz = Effects of three tillage systems on economic profitability of cassava crop (Manihot esculenta Crantz

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    Manoel Genildo Pequeno

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a rentabilidade econômica da cultura damandioca em três sistemas de preparo de solo durante os anos agrícolas de 1999/2000 a2002/2003, em Araruna, Estado do Paraná. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o deblocos completos casualizados, com oito repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos deplantio direto; preparo mínimo (escarificação e preparo convencional (aração + gradagemniveladora. A força de tração e o consumo de combustível requeridos nas operações depreparo do solo e de plantio da mandioca foram maiores no sistema de preparoconvencional. Os maiores custos com combustível, preparo do solo e plantio da mandioca, ecusto operacional relativo às culturas de inverno e à cultura da mandioca, bem como a maiorrenda bruta foram observados no sistema de preparo convencional, seguidos pelo preparomínimo e plantio direto. A maior renda líquida e a melhor relação benefício/custo foramobservadas no sistema de preparo convencional que proporcionou maior produtividade deraízes tuberosas em relação aos sistemas de preparo mínimo e de plantio direto.The objective of this paper was to evaluate the economicprofitability of cassava crop submitted to the three soil tillage systems during the years1999/2000 to 2002/2003, in Araruna, state of Parana. The treatments consisted of three soiltillage systems: no-tillage, minimum tillage using chiseling, and conventional tillage withmoldboard plow and disking, arranged in a randomized complete blocks with eightreplications. The traction strength and fuel consumption in the soil tillage and in the cassavasowed operation were more required in the conventional tillage system. The conventionaland the minimum tillage systems showed the highest costs for fuel, soil tillage and cassavasowed. They also presented the highest gross income. The greatest net income and the bestbenefit/cost relation were observed in the conventional tillage system, which

  10. Isolamento, fracionamento e caracterização de paredes celulares de raízes de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz Isolation, fractionation and characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz root cell walls

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    Lara Tschopoko Pedroso Pereira

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante a cocção de mandiocas o amido é gelatinizado e as paredes celulares sofrem alterações físicas e químicas que modificam a coesão das células e causam o amaciamento dos tecidos. Isolar, fracionar e caracterizar paredes celulares durante o envelhecimento de raízes, de duas cultivares, foram os objetivos deste trabalho. O amido foi eliminado por tamização e hidrólise enzimática e o material de paredes celulares foi fracionado em celulose, hemicelulose e pectina. Quantitativamente celulose foi a maior fração constituindo entre 57,2 e 70% do material inicial de paredes celulares isoladas, seguido por pectina e hemicelulose. O material isolado como paredes celulares diminuiu com o tempo de plantio das raízes e a concentração de celulose foi menor no material isolado de raízes mais velhas. A fração pectina diferiu em concentração de açúcares entre raízes de idades diferentes, sendo mais alta em raízes mais velhas enquanto a concentração de ácidos urônicos diferiu entre idades e cultivares.During cooking of cassava tubers starch gelatinizes and there are physical-chemical alterations in cell wall material, reducing intercellular cohesion and softening the tissue, playing an important role in cooking time. Cell wall material from tubers at two harvesting ages of two cultivars were isolated, fractionated and evaluated. Starch was eliminated by wet sieving and enzymatic hydrolysis and the cell wall material was fractionated into cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. Quantitatively cellulose had the highest concentration varying from 57.2 to 70% of the initial isolated cell wall material, followed by pectin and hemicellulose. Cell wall material isolated decreased with the age of the roots and cellulose concentration decreased in the older roots. Pectin fraction differed in sugar concentration between roots of different ages, higher in older roots while for uronic acid content there were differences for age of roots and

  11. Manihot esculenta crantz in crude oil contaminated soil amended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the performance of Manihot esculenta, Crantz (TMS 30572) in a crude oil polluted soil was investigated in the Botanic Garden of University of Port Harcourt. The soil samples were polluted at four different levels (0%, 2%, 4% and 6%) with crude oil and amended with organic supplement (decomposed Centrosem ...

  12. Studies on variation of carotenoid-proteins content in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root reveal implications for breeding and the use of induced mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein content in storage roots of cassava is low but variable and characterization of this variability is lacking. Total buffer extractable proteins (TBEP) content in pigmented cassava landraces varied from 0.9-7.5 (mg/gDWt.) and correlated with total carotenoid content (R2=0.4757). More than 3x T...

  13. Effects of boiling and frying on the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in yellow-fleshed cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. BRS Jari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Suellen; Torres, Alexandre Guedes; Godoy, Ronoel; Pacheco, Sidney; Carvalho, José; Nutti, Marília

    2013-03-01

    The effects of boiling and frying on the bioaccessibility of all-trans-beta-carotene in biofortified BRS Jari cassava roots have not been investigated, although these are conventional methods of cassava preparation. The aims of the present study were to investigate beta-carotene micellarization efficiency of yellow-fleshed BRS Jari cassava roots after boiling and frying, as an indicator of the bioaccessibility of this carotenoid, and to apply fluorescence microscopy to investigate beta-carotene in the emulsified fraction. Uncooked, boiled, and fried cassava roots were digested in vitro for the evaluation, by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), of the efficiency of micellarization of all-trans-beta-carotene in BRS Jari cassava roots. Fluorescence microscopy of the micellar fraction was used to confirm the presence of beta-carotene in the emulsified fraction and to observe the structure of the microemulsion from the boiled and fried cassava samples. Fried cassava roots showed the highest (p < .05) micellarization efficiency for total carotenoids and all-trans-beta-carotene (14.1 +/- 2.25% and 14.37 +/- 2.44%, respectively), compared with boiled and raw samples. Fluorescence microscopy showed that after in vitro digestion there were no carotenoid crystals in the micellar fraction, but rather that this fraction presented a biphasic system compatible with emulsified carotenoids, which was consistent with the expected high bioavailability of beta-carotene in this fraction. Increased emulsification and bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from fried biofortified BRS Jari cassava roots compensates for chemical losses during preparation, indicating that this preparation is suitable for home use of BRS Jari cassava roots and might represent a relatively good food source of bioavailable provitamin A.

  14. The effect of long-term feeding of fresh and ensiled cassava (Manihot esculenta) foliage on gastrointestinal nematode infections in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokerya, S; Waller, P J; Try, P; Höglund, J

    2009-02-01

    The benefit of long-term feeding of fresh or ensiled cassava foliage on gastrointestinal parasite in goats was evaluated. Eighteen male goats (15.15 +/- 2.83 kg and between 4-6 months) were randomly allocated into three treatments supplemented with 200 g of wheat bran head(-1) day(-1). All groups were fed ad-libitum on either grass (CO), fresh cassava (CaF) or ensiled cassava foliage (CaS). At the beginning of the trial, each goat was inoculated with 3000 L3 containing approximately 50% Haemonchus contortus. Individual LWt, FEC and PCV were measured at weekly intervals for 10 weeks. At the termination of the experiment all goats were slaughtered for worm recovery and enumeration. The goats in CaF and CaS had similar weight gains while those in CO lost weight (p ensiled cassava foliage reduced the H. contortus population while the fresh foliage only reduced worm fecundity.

  15. Effects of mulch on soil properties and on the performance of late season cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz on an acid ultisol in Southwestern Zaire

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    Lutaladio, NB.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Mulch effects on soil temperature, soil moisture content, soil chemical properties, growth and development, yield and yield components of late season cassava were investigated for three years on an acid ultisol in the tropical sa vanna zone of Southwestern Zaire. Diurnal soil temperature and soil moisture content were recorded at 30-day intervals during the first 4 months of growth. Cassava growth and development were monitored a t3, 6 and 9 months after planting while yield and yield components were noted at 12 months after planting. After each cropping year, changes in soil chemical constituents were recorded. Mulching significantly reduced soil temperature by about 3.5°C and increased soil moisture content by 6.1 % under late season cassava. Soil pH, soil organic carbon content, total nitrogen, soil available phosphorus and soil exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K increased as a result of increase in organic matter with continuous application of mulch for 3 years. Plant height, leaf area, shoot and root dry weights of cassava plants given mulch were significantly increased as compared to the plants in unmulched plots. Cassava plants given mulch produced more and bigger storage roots than unmulched plants. Storage root yield increased by 16.7, 28.1 and 57.7 % respectively in the first, the second and the third years of mulch application. The beneficiai effect of mulching over no-mulching increased from year to year, irrespective of cassava cultivars.

  16. Expression pattern conferred by a glutamic acid-rich protein gene promoter in field-grown transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, J; Prías, M; Al-Babili, S; Ladino, Y; López, D; Beyer, P; Chavarriaga, P; Tohme, J

    2010-05-01

    A major constraint for incorporating new traits into cassava using biotechnology is the limited list of known/tested promoters that encourage the expression of transgenes in the cassava's starchy roots. Based on a previous report on the glutamic-acid-rich protein Pt2L4, indicating a preferential expression in roots, we cloned the corresponding gene including promoter sequence. A promoter fragment (CP2; 731 bp) was evaluated for its potential to regulate the expression of the reporter gene GUSPlus in transgenic cassava plants grown in the field. Intense GUS staining was observed in storage roots and vascular stem tissues; less intense staining in leaves; and none in the pith. Consistent with determined mRNA levels of the GUSPlus gene, fluorometric analyses revealed equal activities in root pulp and stems, but 3.5 times less in leaves. In a second approach, the activity of a longer promoter fragment (CP1) including an intrinsic intron was evaluated in carrot plants. CP1 exhibited a pronounced tissue preference, conferring high expression in the secondary phloem and vascular cambium of roots, but six times lower expression levels in leaf vascular tissues. Thus, CP1 and CP2 may be useful tools to improve nutritional and agronomical traits of cassava by genetic engineering. To date, this is the first study presenting field data on the specificity and potential of promoters for transgenic cassava.

  17. Metabolomics combined with chemometric tools (PCA, HCA, PLS-DA and SVM) for screening cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots during postharvest physiological deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Coelho, Bianca; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2014-10-15

    Cassava roots are an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates and suffer markedly from postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD). This paper deals with metabolomics combined with chemometric tools for screening the chemical and enzymatic composition in several genotypes of cassava roots during PPD. Metabolome analyses showed increases in carotenoids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolics, reactive scavenging species, and enzymes (superoxide dismutase family, hydrogen peroxide, and catalase) until 3-5days postharvest. PPD correlated negatively with phenolics and carotenoids and positively with anthocyanins and flavonoids. Chemometric tools such as principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis, and support vector machines discriminated well cassava samples and enabled a good prediction of samples. Hierarchical clustering analyses grouped samples according to their levels of PPD and chemical compositions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. KARAKTERISTIK SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA UBI KAYU (Manihot esculenta BERDASARKAN LOKASI PENANAMAN DAN UMUR PANEN BERBEDA

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    Susilawati Susilawati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta is the third primary food in Indonesia after rice and corn. Cassava doesn’t have distinctive harvest period, therefore the harvesting period can be varied and resulting differences physical and chemical properties. Production rate and physical and chemical properties will vary due to soil fertility of cassava plantation. The purpose of this study is to analysis physical and chemical properties at Gunung Agung village Sekampung Udik district and Sinar Baru village Marga Tiga district, at Lampung Timur regency with different harvesting periods. The method used in this study was a descriptive method with two factors : harvesting age and plant location. The results show that Kasetsart variety with ten month of harvesting age at location A (Gunung Agung village Sekampung Udik had better physical and chemical properties, and these can be seen from the fresh cassava water content (60,67%, cassava density (1,15 g/mL, starch content (35,93%, starch yield (18,94%, starch moisture (8,17%, amilose content (18,03% and amylopectin content (81,97% and enzymaticly conversion of starch to glucose (64,92%. Different plan locations and harvesting periods resulted in different physical and chemical properties. These indicated that Kasetsart variety grown at location A is more suitable to be converted to bioethanol compared to those of at location B. Keywords:  Bioethanol, harvesting period, Kasetsart cassava, physical and chemical properties.

  19. Impact of genotype and cooking style on the content, retention, and bioacessibility of β-carotene in biofortified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) conventionally bred in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni, Paulo; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G; De Moura, Fabiana F; Failla, Mark L

    2014-07-16

    Biofortification is a strategy for decreasing micronutrient deficiencies in vulnerable populations by increasing nutrient density in staple food crops. Roots from five varieties of cassava biofortified with β-carotene (βC), three parental accessions, and one variety of commonly consumed white cassava from Brazil were investigated. Roots from biofortified varieties contained up to 23-fold higher βC than white cassava, and the additional complement of βC was primarily the all-trans isomer. At least 68% of βC per gram fresh weight was retained after boiling or boiling and briefly frying. Micellarization of βC during simulated digestion of fried root exceeded that of boiled root. Apical uptake of all-trans-βC from mixed micelles by Caco-2 cells was affected by an interaction between variety and cooking style. These results suggest that Brazilian cassava biofortified with βC has the potential to reduce vitamin A deficiency without requiring major changes in local and ethnic styles of home cooking.

  20. Characterization of carotenoid-protein complexes and gene expression analysis associated with carotenoid sequestration in pigmented cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoid-protein complex separation by size exclusion chromatography, protein fractionation by SDS-PAGE, and shotgun PROTEOMICS technology were used to identify and characterize carotenoid associated proteins (CAPs) of chromoplast-enriched suspensions from cassava intense yellow storage root. A no...

  1. Spatial patterns of diversity and genetic erosion of traditional cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivation in the Peruvian Amazon: an evaluation of socio-economic and environmental indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemen, L.; Scheldeman, X.; Soto Cabellos, V.; Salazar, S.R.; Guarino, L.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates quantitatively the suitability of the use of site-specific socio-economic and environmental data as indicators to rapidly assess patterns of diversity and genetic erosion risk in cassava. Socio-economic data as well as farmers¿ estimation of genetic erosion were collected in the

  2. Effects of Tillage Practices on Growth and Yield of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and some Soil Properties in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndaeyo, NU.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of soil fertility status and optimum crop yield has been a great task in Nigeria. Against this background, studies were conducted in 1994 and 1995 growing seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Nigeria to evaluate the productivity of cassava and soil properties and dynamics under some tillage practices. Randomized block design with four replications was used and the tillage treatments were Heaping [HP], No-Till + Herbicide [NTH], Ridging [RG] and No-Till-Slash and Burn [NSB]. Results revealed that tillage practices had no significant effect on sprouting percentage in 1994 but in 1995, HP treatment was significantly (P < 0.05 higher than others. Tillage had no marked effect on cassava height in both years while number of leaves only differed significantly (P < 0.05 8 months after planting with HP treatment being higher than others. Stem girth showed no marked differences among treatments in both years. Similarly, in both years, cassava fresh root yield and yield components were not significantly affected by tillage practices. NSB showed significantly higher soil bulk density at planting in both years than other treatments. Generally, soil chemical properties were not markedly affected by the tillage practices. The highest cost of production was observed under NSB while RG produced the highest returns. The study suggests that successful growing of cassava under reduced tillage practices is practicable in an Alfisol in this agro-ecological zone.

  3. Effects of Tillage Practices on Growth and Yield of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and some Soil Properties in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ndaeyo, NU.; Aiyellari, EA.; Agboola, AA.

    2002-01-01

    Maintenance of soil fertility status and optimum crop yield has been a great task in Nigeria. Against this background, studies were conducted in 1994 and 1995 growing seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Nigeria to evaluate the productivity of cassava and soil properties and dynamics under some tillage practices. Randomized block design with four replications was used and the tillage treatments were Heaping [HP], No-Till + Herbicide [NTH], Ridging [RG] and No-Till-...

  4. Production of glucose and fructose syrups from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) starch using enzymes produced by microorganisms isolated from Brazilian Cerrado soil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Roberto do Nascimento; Quintino,Fábio Pereira; Monteiro,Valdirene Neves; Asquieri,Eduardo Ramirez

    2010-01-01

    The high demands for sugars and the development of enzymatic technology have increased the production of sweeteners, especially for glucose and fructose syrups. This work describe a technology for glucose and fructose syrups from Brazilian cassava starch using enzymes produced by soil microrganisms isolated from the Brazilian Cerrado soil. Firstly, Aspergillus niger and Streptomyces sp. were isolated from the soil and used as glucoamylase (GA) and glucose isomerase (GI) producer sources. Afte...

  5. Acidification and starch behaviour during co-fermentation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and soybean (Glycine max Merr) into gari, an African fermented food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Kongor, Edem John; Annor, George Amponsah; Adjonu, Randy

    2010-08-01

    Changes in acidification and starch behaviour were investigated during co-fermentation of cassava and soybean into gari, an African fermented product. Non-volatile acidity, pH and starch content were evaluated using standard analytical methods. Starch breakdown and pasting characteristics were also analysed using a Brabender viscoamylograph. Fermentation caused significant variations in the pH, non-volatile acidity and starch concentration. The pH decreased with concomitant increases in non-volatile acidity during co-fermentation of the cassava dough. Soy fortification up to 20% caused only minimal effects on the pH, titratable acidity and starch content during the fermentation period. Starch content decreased from 69.8% to 60.4% within the 48 h fermentation time in the unfortified sample, with similar trends noted at all levels of fortification. Starch pasting characteristics showed varied trends in pasting temperature, peak viscosity, viscosity at 95 degrees C and at 50 degrees C-hold with increasing fermentation time and soybean concentration. Cassava could be co-fermented with soybean up to 20% concentration during gari processing without significant effect on its process and product quality characteristics.

  6. Genome-wide identification, 3D modeling, expression and enzymatic activity analysis of cell wall invertase gene family from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Geng, Meng-Ting; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Jiao; Li, Rui-Mei; Hu, Xin-Wen; Guo, Jian-Chun

    2014-04-28

    The cell wall invertases play a crucial role on the sucrose metabolism in plant source and sink organs. In this research, six cell wall invertase genes (MeCWINV1-6) were cloned from cassava. All the MeCWINVs contain a putative signal peptide with a predicted extracellular location. The overall predicted structures of the MeCWINV1-6 are similar to AtcwINV1. Their N-terminus domain forms a β-propeller module and three conserved sequence domains (NDPNG, RDP and WECP(V)D), in which the catalytic residues are situated in these domains; while the C-terminus domain consists of a β-sandwich module. The predicted structure of Pro residue from the WECPD (MeCWINV1, 2, 5, and 6), and Val residue from the WECVD (MeCWINV3 and 4) are different. The activity of MeCWINV1 and 3 were higher than other MeCWINVs in leaves and tubers, which suggested that sucrose was mainly catalyzed by the MeCWINV1 and 3 in the apoplastic space of cassava source and sink organs. The transcriptional levels of all the MeCWINVs and their enzymatic activity were lower in tubers than in leaves at all the stages during the cassava tuber development. It suggested that the major role of the MeCWINVs was on the regulation of carbon exportation from source leaves, and the ratio of sucrose to hexose in the apoplasts; the role of these enzymes on the sucrose unloading to tuber was weaker.

  7. Comparison of methods for phenotypic stability analysis of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz genotypes for yield and storage root dry matter content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Kvitschal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare different phenotypic stability methods by using yield and storage root dry matter content data of eight cassava genotypes, assessed in eight environments in northwest of Paraná State, Brazil. All the methodologies applied showed to be able to study the stability of cassava genotypes, but each with its peculiarities. The methodologies of Eskridge, Annicchiarico and Lin and Binns were the most appropriated on situation with smaller effect of G x E interaction. The AMMI analysis and the Toler and Burrows methodology were the most specific on detailing specific adaptations of cassava genotypes to favorable and unfavorable environments. It could be suggested to use simultaneous AMMI analysis and Toler and Burrows methodology. The clone IAC 190-89 was the most promising.O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar diferentes metodologias de análise de estabilidade fenotípica considerando produção e teor de matéria seca nas raízes tuberosas de oito genótipos de mandioca, avaliados em oito ambientes na região Noroeste do Paraná. Todas as metodologias aplicadas se mostraram aptas no estudo da estabilidade dos genótipos avaliados, cada uma delas com suas particularidades. As metodologias de Eskridge, Annicchiarico e Lin e Binns se mostraram mais adequadas para situações de menor efeito da interação G x A. A análise AMMI e a metodologia de Toler e Burrows propiciaram um melhor detalhamento das adaptações específicas dos genótipos a ambientes favoráveis e desaforáveis. É sugerido o uso simultâneo da análise AMMI e da metodologia de Toler e Burrows. O clone IAC 190-89 mostrou-se mais promissor.

  8. Diversity, Physicochemical and Technological Characterization of Elite Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Cultivars of Bantè, a District of Central Benin

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    Abadjayé Faouziath Sanoussi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one of the staple food crops contributing significantly to food and nutrition security in Benin. This study aimed to assess the diversity of the elite cassava cultivars of Bantè district, determine the physicochemical properties of the most preferred ones as well as the sensory attributes of their major derived products (gari and tapioca, and compare them with the farmers’ and processors’ perception on their technological qualities. The ethnobotanical investigation revealed existence of 40 cultivars including 9 elites that were further classified into three groups based on agronomics and technological and culinary properties. Clustered together, cultivars Idilèrou, Monlèkangan, and Odohoungbo characterized by low fiber content, high yield of gari and tapioca, and good in-ground postmaturity storage were the most preferred ones. Their physicochemical analysis revealed good rate of dry matters (39.8% to 41.13%, starch (24.47% to 25.5% and total sugars (39.46% to 41.13%, low fiber (0.80% to 1.02%, and cyanide (50 mg/kg contents. The sensory analysis of their gari and tapioca revealed very well appreciated (taste, color, and texture products by the consumers. The confirmation by scientific analysis of the farmers’ perception on qualities of the most preferred cultivars indicated that they have good knowledge of their materials.

  9. Diversity, Physicochemical and Technological Characterization of Elite Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Cultivars of Bantè, a District of Central Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanoussi, Abadjayé Faouziath; Loko, Laura Yéyinou; Ahissou, Hyacinthe; Adjahi, Adidjath Koubourath; Orobiyi, Azize; Agré, Angelot Paterne; Azokpota, Paulin; Dansi, Alexandre; Sanni, Ambaliou

    2015-01-01

    Cassava is one of the staple food crops contributing significantly to food and nutrition security in Benin. This study aimed to assess the diversity of the elite cassava cultivars of Bantè district, determine the physicochemical properties of the most preferred ones as well as the sensory attributes of their major derived products (gari and tapioca), and compare them with the farmers' and processors' perception on their technological qualities. The ethnobotanical investigation revealed existence of 40 cultivars including 9 elites that were further classified into three groups based on agronomics and technological and culinary properties. Clustered together, cultivars Idilèrou, Monlèkangan, and Odohoungbo characterized by low fiber content, high yield of gari and tapioca, and good in-ground postmaturity storage were the most preferred ones. Their physicochemical analysis revealed good rate of dry matters (39.8% to 41.13%), starch (24.47% to 25.5%) and total sugars (39.46% to 41.13%), low fiber (0.80% to 1.02%), and cyanide (50 mg/kg) contents. The sensory analysis of their gari and tapioca revealed very well appreciated (taste, color, and texture) products by the consumers. The confirmation by scientific analysis of the farmers' perception on qualities of the most preferred cultivars indicated that they have good knowledge of their materials.

  10. Effect of harvest period on the quality of storage roots and protein content of the leaves in five cassava cultivars (Manihot esculenta, Crantz

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    Sagrilo Edvaldo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of harvest period on the quality of storage roots and leaves of cassava cultivars was determined in an experiment carried out in a randomized complete block design with four replications in a split plot scheme, with five cultivars in the plots and ten harvest times in the subplots. The IAC 13 cultivar had the highest rate of dry matter accumulation in the storage roots and the Mico cultivar the lowest. The period of least dry matter content in the storage roots occurred later for the Fécula Branca, Mico and IAC 14 cultivars, and the minimum starch content in the storage roots occurred later for the Fécula Branca and Mico cultivars. In general, the IAC 13, IAC 14 and Fécula Branca cultivars had higher dry matter content in the storage roots, while higher starch content in the dry and fresh matter were obtained in the Fécula Branca cultivar. The crude protein content in the leaves decreased as the plant aged.

  11. Feeding potential of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels ensiled with Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium assessed with West African dwarf goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduguwa, Bamidele Omonuwa; Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Adesunbola, Julius Olukunle; Sudekum, Karl Heinz

    2013-08-01

    Cassava peels (CaPe) were ensiled in mixtures with Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, and the utilization of the mixed silages by West African dwarf (WAD) goats was assessed. Five silages were composed, comprising of 100% ensiled CaPe (control), CaPe + G. sepium 2:1 (w/w; 2CGS), CaPe + G. sepium 1:1 (w/w; CGS), CaPe + L. leucocephala 2:1 (w/w; 2CLL) and CaPe + L. leucocephala 1:1 (w/w; CLL). All diets were supplemented with molasses (40 g/kg) before ensiling which lasted 3 months. Fifteen WAD goats (8.01 ± 0.12 kg body weight) were fed one of the experimental diets (50 g/kg body weight) for 8 weeks. The control had the lowest hydrocyanic acid content (0.05 mg/kg DM), while others ranged from 6.2 to 81.3 mg/kg. Condensed tannin concentration ranged from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/kg DM, while mimosine levels were 11.6 and 12.4 mg/kg DM in 2CLL and CLL, respectively. After fermentation, all silages showed low pH (Ensiling CaPe with foliages of G. sepium and L. leucocephala can be recommended for feeding WAD goats especially during the dry spells when there is little or no available forage for the animals.

  12. Effect Of Explant Source And Different Medium Culture On Friable Embryogenic Callus Induction Of Four Cultivars Of Cassava Manihot Esculenta Crantz

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    Simplice Prosper Yandia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain Friable Embryogenic Callus FEC for protoplast isolation we have evaluated in this research the competance for Friable Embryogenic Callus FEC of four cassava cultivars M61033 Rendre Yalipe and Six-mois in media containing MS supplemented with 8mgl 24-D MS supplemented with 10 mgl BAP and GD supplemented with 12mgl picloram using apical bud AB and immature leaves lobes ILL as explants. In general in the medium GD12mgl picloram the highest efficiencies of FEC ranged from 58 to 87 and the highest score of FEC ranged from 4.2 to 5.4 with explants AB however we have observed with explants ILL the efficiencies of somatic embryos ranged form 41 to 75 and the score ranged from 4.1 to 4.4. The mediums MS28 mgl 24-D have induced with explants AB the efficiencies of FEC ranged from 43 to 57 and the score ranged from 3.1 to 3.8 however with ILL explants the efficiencies of FEC ranged from 39 to 49 and the score ranged from 2.9 to 3.7. The least FEC were observed in the medium MS210 mgl BAP with BA explants however the efficiencies ranged from 6 to 11 and the score ranged from 1.1 to 1.8. Whereas the efficiencies of FEC with ILL explants ranged from 4 to 7 and the score ranged from 0.5 to 0.8. All of four cultivars showed capability of producing FEC although their efficiency varied according to gonotype donors explants and medium taking into acount. Abbreviations GD Gressoff and Doy MS Murashige and Skoog 24-dichloro phenoxyacetic acid BAP Benzylamino-purin-Acid AB Apical Bud ILL Immature Leaves lobes

  13. Effect of Tamarindus indica L. and Manihot esculenta Extracts on Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Zenon Machado; da Trindade, Lenilson Santos; Santana, Genelane Cruz; Padilha, Francine Ferreira; da Costa Mendonça, Marcelo; da Costa, Luiz Pereira; López, Jorge A.; Macedo, Maria Lucila Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Background: The chemical composition of plants used in traditional medicine exhibits biologically active compounds, such as tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids and becomes a promising approach to treat microbial infections, mainly with drug-resistant bacteria. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hydroethanolic leaf extracts of Tamarindus indica (tamarind) and Manihot esculenta (cassava) as antimicrobial potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolated and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: Hydroethanolic leaf extracts were prepared and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection, Fourier transform infrared, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, and ultraviolet-visible methods. The antimicrobial activity against four strains of clinical relevance was evaluated by the microdilution method at minimum inhibitory concentrations. Results: Phenolic compounds such as flavonoids were detected in the plant extracts. T. indica extract at 500 μg/mL showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa; however, M. esculenta showed only activity against P. aeruginosa in this concentration. Conclusions: Our results suggested that polyphenols and flavonoids present in T. indica leaf extracts are a potential source of antimicrobial compound. The T. indica extract showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa while M. esculenta had effect only on P. aeruginosa meropenem resistant. SUMMARY Antibacterial effect of T. indica and M. esculenta leaf extract was evaluated.T. indica extract displayed activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa strains.M. esculenta showed effect on P. aeruginosa meropenem resistant. Abbreviations Used: BHI: Agar brain heart infusion, CAPES: Coordination for the improvement of higher education personnel, DPPH: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, FAPITEC/SE: Foundation for support to research and technological innovation of the state of

  14. INTEGRATING CASSAVA VARIETIES AND Typhlodramulus aripo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    The cassava green mite (CGM), Mononychellus tanajoa, is a pest that reduces root yield of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by 30-80% in the cassava belts of Africa. The objective of this study was to identify cassava varieties that enhance abundance and persistence of Typhlodramulus aripo on cassava and increase its ...

  15. Evaluation sensorielle du couscous de farine de manioc (Manihot esculenta, Crantz substituée par celle de patate douce (Ipomoea batatas, Lam

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    Amadou, NM.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer Acceptance of Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz flour's fufu substituted by Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas, Lam Flour. This study investigated the consumer acceptance of fufu made by substituting cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz flour with sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, Lam flour at the Food Technology and Post-harvest laboratory of IRAD in Bambui, Cameroon. Four samples of Fufu flour samples F0, F1, F2 and F3 obtained by substituting cassava flour with 0%, 20%, 40% and 50% potato flour respectively were compared. A panel of 30 persons (habitual consumers of Cassava fufu flour carried out a sensory evaluation of the four samples and gave their level of appreciation with regards to taste, aroma, colour, and texture. The study showed that, the substitution of cassava flour with sweet potato flour had no effect on the aroma of the fufu. The sample containing 20% of sweet potato flour (F1 showed no significant difference in texture and aroma compared (p>0.05 to the control (F0. It was also considered as having the best taste (p<0.05 and was the sample preferred by the panelists. In conclusion, an increase in the proportion of sweet potato flour in the cassava flour had a negative influence on the colour, texture, taste and on the acceptance of the fufu.

  16. Morphoagronomic characterization of (Manihot esculenta Crantz clones obtained by in vitro culture

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    Yoel Beovides

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Methods for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz micropropagation have been refined in Cuba; however, few surveys have been carried out on characterization. A set of plants from ‘Señorita’, ‘CEMSA 74-725’ and ‘CMC-76’ clones was characterized. These plants were propagated by traditional methods (cuttings, organogenesis and starting from somatic embryos, so as, to study the genetic stability of the material through morphoagronomic descriptors taking into consideration in vitro culture techniques. 44 descriptors were evaluated and nine quantitative and eight qualitative variables were determined as the most important. Differences (between and within clones were only detected for quantitative variables: width and length of leaf lobules, length of leaf stalk, total height and height of the first branch, stem number, number of marketable roots per plant, weight of commercial roots and stem thickness. These results obtained in this crop for the first time in Cuba are of great importance for a better knowledge of studied clones and constitute a base for further analysis to validate implemented in vitro culture methods. Key words: morphoagronomic descriptors, genetic stability, cassava, organogenesis, embryogenesis

  17. Pertumbuhan Tunas Ubi Kayu (Manihot esculenta Crantz. Genotipe Jame-jame secara In Vitro

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    Candra Catur Nugroho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe continuous supply of true-to-type seedling through in vitro technique is very important for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. as the demand for seedlings is increasing. The research consisted of two experiments and they were conducted from February 2013 to February 2014. The first experiment was in vitro shoot multiplication to evaluate the effect of culture medium and single node position on growth and shoot multiplication of cassava Jame-jame genotype. This experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with two factors and four replications. The first factor was culture medium (MS0 and MSB3 and the second factor was single node positions used as explant (basal, middle, and top section of the stem. The result showed that middle section of the stem cultured on MS0 medium had the highest shoot height, number of leaves, and number of nodes. The second experiment was the acclimatization to evaluate the effect of culture period on the success of the acclimatization. This experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with culture period prior to acclimatization as treatment. The results showed that seedlings from period of 12 and 24 weeks after culture showed higher survival rates (80% than seedling from period of 36 and 48 weeks after culture (50 and 40%. Culture period prior to acclimatization had no significant effect on plant height and number of leaves.Keywords: BAP, culture period, single node position, shoot multiplication

  18. Esterase polymorphism marking cultivars of Manihot esculenta, Crantz

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    Adriana Gazoli Resende

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Esterase isozymes were used to detected substrate-preference polymorphism in twenty cultivars of Manihot esculenta, and to show cultivar-specific variation of this species. A relatively complex extraction solution of proteins from leaves was needed to show a larger number of esterase isozymes. Similarity between cultivars from six groups ranged from 51 to 96%. The cultivars identified by the same name seemed to be biochemically different regarding esterase isozymes. Esterase isozyme electrophoretic patterns could, therefore, be used to discriminate the cultivars identified by the same name, and to monitor the vegetative propagation of cultivars maintained in the germplasm collection. In breeding strategies, isoesterase analysis could be used to avoid intercrossing between the similar genotypes.Isoenzimas esterases foram usadas no presente estudo, para detectar polimorfismos específicos para diferentes substratos em vinte cultivares de Manihot esculenta, e para mostrar variações específicas de cultivares nesta espécie. Os diferentes cultivares de M. esculenta tem sido mantidos na coleção de germoplasma do Departamento de Agronomia da Universidade Estadual de Maringá (Maringá, PR, e foram provenientes de cultivares tradicionais coletados nas regiões sudoeste e noroeste do Estado. Foi necessário a utilização de uma solução de extração de proteínas relativamente mais complexa, para evidenciar um maior número de isoenzimas esterases. A similaridade entre os cultivares variou de 51 a 96%. Cultivares identificados pelo mesmo nome parecem ser bioquimicamente diferentes para as isoenzimas esterases. Os padrões eletroforéticos das isoesterases podem, portanto, serem usados para discriminar os cultivares que são identificados pelo mesmo nome, e para monitorar a propagação vegetativa dos cultivares mantidos na coleção de germoplasma. A análise das isoesterases pode também ser usada para evitar cruzamentos entre genótipos mais

  19. A Process Technology For Conversion Of Dried Cassava Chips Into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Gari”, made from fermented bitter Cassava roots (Manihot esculenta crantz) were successfully processed from already dried Cassava chips at 7% moisture level. Cassava mash at 67% moisture was prepared from dried Cassava chips. This was seeded severally with fresh cassava mash and fermented for 72hours.

  20. Household utilization of Manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Northern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muoki, Penina N; Maziya-Dixon, Bussie

    2010-01-01

    Mozambique is ranked ninth of top manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) producing countries in the world. Manioc roots are a staple to people living in the northern part of the country. Despite this, information on production, utilization, postharvest handling, and marketing is scarce. The purpose of this baseline study was to document selected information on manioc, from the production to marketing stage. To gather this information, 70 focus groups consisting of 1,724 participants purposely sampled from 10 districts were engaged in discussions using a questionnaire. The results show that manioc is the most important crop in terms of contribution to household food security and income in the region. Both men and women participate in the delivery of manioc production chain. Typically, 5 to 15 varieties identified by local language can be found on most farms in the study area. Manioc leaves and roots are the parts of the plant used as human food. Sun dried manioc roots are principally marketed within the locality of production by individual farmers. This baseline study suggests the need for location-targeted interventions as the farmers reported varied challenges along the manioc production chain.

  1. Apomixia em Manihot esculenta e em seus híbridos interespecíficos Apomixis in Manihot esculenta and in its interespecific hybrids

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    Evie dos Santos de Sousa

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a citogenética e a morfologia do saco embrionário dos clones EB1 (Manihot esculenta Crantz e EB12 (geração F3 de M. esculenta x M. glaziovii Muell, dos híbridos F1 e F2 de M. neusana Nassar x M. esculenta e da espécie silvestre M. neusana, para verificar o fenômeno da apomixia. Os óvulos foram analisados pelo método de clarificação. Foi verificada apomixia, do tipo apospórica, no clone EB12, no híbrido F2, e em M. neusana. Foi demonstrada a estrutura embriônica da mandioca; foram observados dois sacos embrionários no mesmo óvulo do híbrido F2.The objective of this work was to study cytogenetic and morphology of the embryonic sac of clones EB1 (Manihot esculenta Crantz and EB12 (F3of M. esculenta x M. glaziovii Muell, of F1 and F2 hybrids of M. neusana Nassar x M. esculenta and of the wild species M. neusana, to verify the phenomenon of apomixis. Ovules were observed by the clarification method. Aposporic apomixis was observed in the EB12 clone, in the F2 hybrid and in M. neusana. The embryonic structure of Manihot was demonstrated and two embryonic sac were observed in the same ovule of F2.

  2. Cassava tissue culture and long-term preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is cultivated mainly for its starchy roots as an important staple food for the tropics. M. esculenta is the only cultivated species in the genus Manihot, which contains 98 species, mostly native to Brazil. In recent years several research groups have reported metho...

  3. Utilization effect of cassava (Manihot esculenta and potatoe (Ipomoea batatas on pigmentation, carotenoids pull on egg yolk and performance yield hens Influencia de harinas de yuca y de batata sobre pigmentación, contenido de carotenoides en la yema y desempeño productivo de aves en postura

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    Ceballos L Hernán

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Utilization effect of cassava (Manihot esculenta and potatoe (Ipomoea batatas on pigmentation, carotenoids pull on egg yolk and performance yield hens. Eight diets (T1:without pigment, T2: commercial pigment, T3: cassava meal 15%, T4: cassava meal 30%, T5: sweet potato meal 15%, T6: sweet potato meal 30%, T7: cassava and sweet potato meal 15% each, T8: cassava and sweet potato meal 25% each in a randomized design using four replicates of three hens each during seven experimental periods were evaluated. Diets were iso-energetics (2.9 kcal/g and iso-proteis (14.5% CP. Carotenoid concentrations (UV-visible chromatography had differences (P<0.01 among diets. Pigmentation (Fan Roche and carotenoid concentration in egg yoks to come from cassava and sweet potato diets did not show differences (P>0.05 A comparison with egg yolk to come from test diets significant differences (P<0.01 were detected. Diet with commercial pigment showed the highest pigmentation and carotenoid concentration in egg yolk. The other hand, there saw not differences (P>0.05. A comparison with egg yolk to come from test diets significant differences (P<0.01 were detected. Diet with commercial pigment showed the highest pigmentation and carotenoid concentration in egg yolk. The other hand, there saw not differences (P>0.05 between egg yolk to come from diet without pigment and cassava and sweet potato diets. Lutein, -carotene, -carotene, and 9-cis-- carotene were the

  4. Diversite génétique du manioc ( Manihot esculenta crants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) est une plante à multiplication végétative, introduite dans les années 1850 par le Nord-Est de la République Centrafricaine (Tisserant, 1953). Des accessions sont mises en collection dans la station du Centre de Recherche Polyvalent Régional du village Boukoko (CRPR-Boukoko).

  5. Resistance to the Whitefly, Aleurotrachelus socialis, in Wild Populations of Cassava, Manihot Tristis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabalí, A.; Bellotti, A. C.; Montoya-Lerma, J.; Fregene, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The levels of resistance in the wild species of cassava, Manihot tristis Muell-Arg. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), to the whitefly, Aleurotrachelus socialis Bondar (Hemiptera: Alelyrodidae), the most important economic pest in cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) crops in South America, were estimated under glasshouse conditions. The parameters of the life history of A. socialis were studied on TST-26 and TST-18 accessions of the wild parent and compared with the susceptible (CMC-40) and resistant (MEcu-72) cultivars. The average longevity on the wild accessions (TST-26, 4.1; TST-18, 4.6 days) and oviposition rates (TST-26, 2.0; TST-18, 1.6 eggs/female/2 days) of the A. socialis females were not significantly different from those of MEcu-72 (5.1 days and 3.4 eggs/female/2days). The longevity and oviposition rates on CMC-40 were highest (11 days and 8.6 eggs/female/2days). Analyses of the demographic parameters (Ro, rm; DT) showed a significant impact of the M. tristis accessions on the potential growth of A. socialis. The average survival time of adults that fed on TST-26, TST-18, and MEcu-72 were significantly different from those recorded on the susceptible genotype. Results from this study revealed important levels of resistance to the whitefly A. socialis on the TST-26 and TST-18 accessions due to the marked differences found for longevity and reproduction, which influenced and were consistent with the differences found in the net reproduction rate (Ro), intrinsic growth rate (rm) and population doubling time (DT). The combined effect of these parameters indicated that M. tristis accessions were inappropriate hosts for A. socialis. PMID:21062208

  6. Tolérance de quelques cultivars de manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz et de l'espèce sauvage (Manihot glaziovii à la mosaïque virale africaine et à la cercosporiose du manioc

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    Ongono, YSB.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance of some Cassava Cultivars (Manihot esculenta Crantz and the Wild Species (M. Glaziovii to Cassava Mosaic Virus Disease and Brown Leaf Spot. A study of the tolerance of three cultivars of Manihot esculenta Crantz (one local cultivar, Alot-Bikon, and two improved: IITA 8034, IITA 8061 and wild cassava (M. glaziovii collected from the Mbam and Kim forest (Cameroon towards the cassava mosaic virus disease (CMVD and brown leaf spot (BLS, was carried out in Yaoundé. CMVD was studied under natural conditions, whereas BLS was inoculated through a solution of Cercospora henningsii in concentration around 20 × 10² conidia/ml. Sixteen weeks after planting the cuttings, M. glaziovii plants were tallest (156 cm, whereas highest number of leaves (113 was obtained on the IITA 8061 cultivar. The lowest infection degrees by CMVD (17.2% and BLS (2.7% were registered on the wild species. Consequently, wild species seem to be more tolerant of the diseases studied. IITA 8061 cultivar is moderately resistant to CMVD (28.9% and rather resistant to BLS (7.8%. Cultivars IITA 8034 and the local variety are more sensitive respectively to CMVD (53.1 and 54.5% and BLS (18.8 and 32.8%. The highest yield in tubers was obtained from cultivar IITA 8061 (34.5 t/ha followed by IITA 8034 (32.1 t/ha and local cultivar, Alot-Bbikon (15.6 t/ha. These results show that the tolerance of cassava cultivars to disease has a large influence on tuber yield.

  7. The effects of dried leaves of Manihot esculenta and Artemisia annua on coccidiosis in organically reared pullets in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of Manihot esculenta and Artemisia annua as natural coccidiostats were investigated as compared to a vaccinated group. The inclusion of Artemisia annua showed poorer performance compared to the vaccinated group whereas dried leaves of M. esculenta presented similar results of a commercia...

  8. Modelos para la estimación no destructiva del área foliar de dos cultivares de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz en la Argentina Models for non-destructive leaf area estimation of two cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz cultivars in Argentina

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    A.M. Burgos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La medición del área foliar (AF en mandioca es difícil de realizar, ya que sus hojas poseen lóbulos particularmente irregulares que precisan procedimientos meticulosos y lentos, y se requieren instrumentos sofisticados y costosos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue ajustar y evaluar modelos estadísticos predictivos para estimar, de manera simple y precisa, el AF de dos cultivares de mandioca cultivados en Corrientes, Argentina. En las diferentes muestras se determinaron las dimensiones lineales y el peso seco de las hojas. Se ajustaron ecuaciones de regresión lineal múltiple para estimar el AF mediante el método de selección de variables stepwise para dos cultivares de mandioca. El modelo seleccionado por su buen ajuste y precisión para estimar el área foliar fue: AF = ß0 + ß1.LP(cm +ß2.SLC(cm² ß3.ΣLL(cm , el cuál está basado en dimensiones no destructivas y de fácil medición. Dicho modelo requiere de diferentes estimaciones de sus parámetros para cada cultivar. Los resultados obtenidos en el presente estudio demuestran que bajo las condiciones de evaluación, el área foliar puede ser estimada usando simples mediciones lineales, como ser la longitud del pecíolo, la sumatoria de la longitud de los lóbulos y la superficie del lóbulo central para ambos cultivares.It is difficult to make the measurement of the cassava leaf area (LA due to the irregular shape of the lobes which need meticulous, time consuming and tedious methods and demand sophisticated and expensive instruments. The aim of this research was to adjust and to evaluate simple and precise statistical predictive models in order to estimate the LA of two cassava cultivars grown in Corrientes, Argentina. In the different samples, leaves linear dimensions and leaf dry weight were determinated. Lineal regression equations for two cassava cultivars were tested to estimate LA though the stepwise variable selection method. The model selected due to its goodness of

  9. Molecular characterization of a cDNA encoding copper/zinc superoxide dismutase from cultured cells of Manihot esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung-Yong; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Kwon, Soon-Tae; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2005-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) cDNA, mSOD2, encoding cytosolic copper/zinc SOD (CuZnSOD) cDNA was isolated from suspension-cultured cells of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by cDNA library screening, and its expression was investigated in relation to environmental stress. mSOD2 is 774 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 152 amino acids, corresponding to a protein of predicted molecular mass 15 kDa and a pI of 5.22. One copy of the mSOD2 gene was found to be present in the cassava genome by Southern analysis using an mSOD2 cDNA-specific probe. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed diverse expression patterns for the mSOD2 gene in various tissues of intact cassava plants, at various stages of the growth in suspension cultures, and in the leaf tissues exposed to different stresses. The mSOD2 gene was highly expressed in suspension-cultured cells and in the stems of intact plants. However, it was expressed at low levels in leaves and roots. During suspension cell growth, the mSOD2 transcript progressively increased during culture. Moreover, the mSOD2 gene in excised cassava leaves responded to various stresses in different ways. In particular, it was highly induced in leaf tissue by several abiotic stresses, including high temperature (37 degrees C), chilling (4 degrees C), methyl viologen (MV) exposure, and wounding treatment. These results indicate that the mSOD2 gene is involved in the antioxidative process triggered by oxidative stress induced by environmental change.

  10. Comparative morphology, biology and histology of reproductive development in three lines of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae: Crotonoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, P I P; Quintero, M; Dedicova, B; Kularatne, J D J S; Ceballos, H

    2013-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta), a major food staple in the tropics and subtropics, thrives even in environments undergoing threatening climate change. To satisfy the increasing demand for crop improvement and overcome the limitations of conventional breeding, the introduction of inbreeding techniques such as the production of doubled haploid lines via androgenesis or gynogenesis offers advantages. However, comprehensive studies on cassava flower bud biology or structural development are lacking and precise structural and biological information is a prerequisite to enhance the efficiency of these techniques. The floral biology of three selected cassava lines was studied, focusing on morphology, phenology and pollen biology (quantity, viability and dimorphism). Histological studies were also conducted on microsporogenesis/microgametogenesis and megasporogenesis/megagameto-genesis to generate precise developmental data for these lines. Male and female cyathia have distinct developmental phases. Pollen viability was high during immature stages of plant development; however, pollen mortality was common at later stages. Pollen trimorphism in male gametophytes towards the larger or smaller pollen size, as compared with normal size, was observed. Ten characteristic events were identified in male gametogenesis and six in female gametogenesis that were correlated with flower bud diameter. Male gametophyte diameter at different developmental stages was also determined. Results indicate that the three lines did not differ significantly, except regarding a few morphological aspects such as plant height, flower colour and number of male cyathia. Pollen grains were initially viable, but viability decreased drastically at later stages of growth. Abnormal meiosis or mitosis triggered pollen trimorphism. The demonstrated sequential events of reproductive development generated valuable information at the cellular level, which will help close the current information gap for cassava

  11. In vitro assessment of the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of boiled juice (tucupi) from Manihot esculenta Crantz roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, L A; Mota, T C; Cardoso, P C S; Alcântara, D D F Á; Burbano, R M R; Guimarães, A C; Khayat, A S; Rocha, C A M; Bahia, M O

    2016-10-05

    The population of Pará (a state in Brazil) has a very characteristic food culture, as a majority of the carbohydrates consumed are obtained from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) derivatives. Tucupi is the boiled juice of cassava roots that plays a major role in the culinary footprint of Pará. Before boiling, this juice is known as manipueira and contains linamarin, a toxic glycoside that can decompose to hydrogen cyanide. In this study, the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of tucupi on cultured human lymphocytes were assessed using the comet assay and detection of apoptosis and necrosis by differential fluorescent staining with acridine orange-ethidium bromide. Tucupi concentrations (v/v) were determined using the methylthiazole tetrazolium biochemical test. Concentrations of tucupi that presented no genotoxic effects (2, 4, 8, and 16%) were used in our experiments. The results showed that under our study conditions, tucupi exerted no genotoxic effects; however, cytotoxic effects were observed with cell death mainly induced by necrosis. These effects may be related to the presence of hydrogen cyanide in the juice.

  12. Substituição do Milho pela Farinha de Varredura (Manihot esculenta, Crantz na Ração de Bezerros Holandeses.: 1. Desempenho e Parâmetros Sangüíneos Replacement of Corn for Cassava Meal (Manihot esculenta, Crantz in the Holstein Calves Diets: 1. Performance and Blood Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Vieira Jorge

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de substituição do milho pela farinha de varredura de mandioca (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100%, base da matéria seca, sobre o consumo e conversão alimentar, ganho médio diário e níveis de hematócrito, glicose e uréia sanguíneos. Utilizaram-se 35 bezerros holandeses puros de origem ou puros por cruzamento, não castrados, com idade aproximada de 80 dias e peso vivo médio de 80 kg, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualizados. Os animais foram alimentados à vontade, até atingir o consumo de 4 kg/dia de concentrado. Como volumoso, foi utilizado feno inteiro de capim tifton 85. Os animais terminaram o experimento, com peso médio de 164 kg. A elevação dos níveis de substituição ocasionou uma resposta linear decrescente no consumo de matéria seca. A conversão alimentar não diferiu entre os tratamentos. Os ganhos diários para os dois primeiros períodos de 28 dias reduziram-se linearmente, com a elevação dos níveis de substituição, mas não diferiram no último período de 28 dias, apresentando valores estimados, variando de 0,93 a 0,68, 1,10 a 0,89 e 1,09 kg/dia, respectivamente. Os níveis de hematócrito, glicose e uréia não foram influenciados pelos níveis de substituição do milho pela farinha de varredura.The objective of this project was to evaluate the effects of different replacement levels of corn for cassava meal (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, dry matter basis on the dry matter intake and feed:gain ratio, daily weight gain and levels of blood hematocrit, glucose and urea. Thirty five intact Holstein calves, averaging 80 days old and initial live weight of 80 kg, were allotted to a randomized block design and fed concentrate, ad libitum, to reach the intake of 4 kg/day. Tifton 85 bermudagrass was fed as roughage. The final average weight was of 164 kg. The dry matter intake showed a linear behavior as the replacement levels increased. The feed

  13. Production of glucose and fructose syrups from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz starch using enzymes produced by microorganisms isolated from Brazilian Cerrado soil Produção de xaropes de glicose e de fructose a partir de amido de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantzusando enzimas produzidas por microorganismos isolados do solo de Cerrado Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto do Nascimento Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The high demands for sugars and the development of enzymatic technology have increased the production of sweeteners, especially for glucose and fructose syrups. This work describe a technology for glucose and fructose syrups from Brazilian cassava starch using enzymes produced by soil microrganisms isolated from the Brazilian Cerrado soil. Firstly, Aspergillus niger and Streptomyces sp. were isolated from the soil and used as glucoamylase (GA and glucose isomerase (GI producer sources. After characterization, GA and GI exhibited optimum pH 4.5 and 8.0, respectively. GA showed maximum activity at 60 ºC and GI at 85 ºC. GA and GI retained 65 and 80%, respectively, of initial activity after 180 minutes of incubation at 60 ºC. The kinetic parameters Km and Vmáx were 0.476 (mg.mL-1 and 8.58 (µmol/minute for GA and 0.082 (M and 48.20 (µmol/minute for GI. The maximum glucose syrups production occurred after 24 hours of reaction with a 98% yield. The production of fructose syrups with 42% (w/v was reached after 96 hours of reaction.A alta demanda por açúcares e o desenvolvimento da tecnologia enzimática têm aumentado a produção de adoçantes, principalmente xaropes de glicose e frutose. Este trabalho descreve uma tecnologia para a produção de xaropes de glicose e frutose a partir de amido de mandioca usando enzimas produzidas por microrganismos isolados do solo do Cerrado Brasileiro. Primeiramente, Aspergillus niger e Strepotmyces sp. foram isolados a partir do solo e usados como fontes produtoras de glicoamilase (GA e glicose isomerase (GI. Após caracterização GA e GI exibiram pH ótimo de 4,5 e 8,0, respectivamente. GA apresentou uma atividade máxima a 60 ºC enquanto que GI a 80 ºC. GA e GI mantiveram 65 e 80%, respectivamente, da atividade inicial, após 180 minutos de incubação a 60 ºC. Os parâmetros cinéticos Km e Vmáx foram 0,476 (mg mL-1 e 8,58 (µmol min-1 para GA e 0,082 (M e 48,20 (µmol min-1 para GI. A máxima produ

  14. Cassava brown streak disease effects on leaf metabolites and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava Brown Streak Disease (CBSD) is a threat to productivity and product quality in East Africa. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of CBSD on the primary photosynthetic apparatus of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Three cassava varieties with varying levels of reaction to infection by CBSD ...

  15. cassava brown streak disease effects on leaf metabolites

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Cassava Brown Streak Disease (CBSD) is a threat to productivity and product quality in East Africa. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of CBSD on the primary photosynthetic apparatus of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Three cassava varieties with varying levels of reaction to infection by CBSD.

  16. Evaluation of cassava foliage as a protein supplement for sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three trials were conducted to evaluate the potential of cassava (Manihot esculenta) foliage (leaves and petioles) as a protein supplement for sheep. In the first trial, nylon bag degradability of cassava foliage was studied. Proximate analysis of cassava foliage was conducted before and after the incubation. Rumen ...

  17. Protein enrichment of cassava peel by submerged fermentation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peel is one of the solid wastes produced as a consequence of cassava processing. It is low in protein but contains a large amount of carbohydrate, causing an environmental problem with disposal. In order to add-value to this major cassava processing waste and also reduce its resultant ...

  18. Changes in scopoletin concentration in cassava chips from four varieties during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnonlonfin, Gbemenou Joselin Benoit; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Gbenou, Joachim D.

    2011-01-01

    The use of the root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is constrained by its rapid deterioration after harvesting. Chemical and spectroscopic examination earlier revealed the accumulation of the four hydroxycoumarins esculetin, esculin, scopolin and scopoletin derived from the phenylpropanoid...

  19. Study on Esterification Reaction of Starch Isolated from Cassava (Manihot esculeta) with Acetic Acid and Isopropyl Myrtistate Using Ultrasonicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wika Amini, Helda; Masruri; Mariyah Ulfa, Siti

    2018-01-01

    Cassava starch is a polysaccharide consists of amylose and amylopectin. This research was purposed to modify the starch isolated from local cassava (Manihot esculenta). Modification was undertaken to study the esterification reaction of cassava starch with acetic acid and with isopropyl myristate. Moreover, morphology observation was also conducted both for original starch and its modification yields. It was found that cassava’s starch was isolated in 16.4% yield as a white powder. Esterification on the starch provided DS value 0.549 for ratio 1:2 of starch-acetic acid. It gave DS value 0.356 for ratio 1:3 of starch-isopropyl myristate. Treatment by ultrasonication from 0 to 60 minutes was significantly improved the DS value to 0.549 for starch-acetic acid. But it gave DS value to 0.413 for 30 minute ultrasonication of starch-isopropyl myristate. In addition, morphology of the starch observed by microscope gave different features with starch ester acetate and starch ester myristate. The original starch consists of granules, but starch ester acetate indicates a non-granules shape (amorf solid). Moreover for starch ester myristate shows a rather bigger size of granules, and all of the granules afforded were round and oval.

  20. Wound healing potential of Nuclea latifolia and Manihot esculenta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study was designed to ascertain this claim and to investigate the possible mechanism of action in relation to their phytochemical contents, using crude extracts of N. latifolia and M. esculenta leaves on topical wound in a rat model of Type 1 diabetes. Methods and Materials: The leaves were air-dried under ...

  1. Etude du caractere cyanogenetique du manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de G.H.

    1971-01-01

    The tuberous roots of cassava can release such quantities of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) that consumption without pretreatment may be very dangerous. Methods to eliminate the poison are known but cases of poisoning, of which some are fatal, still occur; moreover these methods often reduce the food

  2. Cassava haplotype map highlights fixation of deleterious mutations during clonal propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important staple food crop in Africa and South America whose fitness may be severely reduced by ubiquitous deleterious variation. To evaluate these deleterious mutations in cassava genome, we constructed a cassava haplotype map by deep sequencing of 241 diver...

  3. Evaluation of cassava (Manihot esculenta (Crantz) planting methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-01-05

    Jan 5, 2008 ... Tel: 08034608421, 08081828916. make major demands on resources at different times thereby resulting in better temporal use of growth resources (Ile et al., 1996, Mbah and Muoneke, 2007). Soybean is a relatively new grain legume and oilseed crop in Nigeria. It provides cheap dietary protein, infant.

  4. Is the cassava ( Manihot esculenta ) product, garri, an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The difference in the garri eating habits (both in quantity and frequency) between the 16 garri making mothers of the patients and age-matched 16 mothers of healthy babies from the same geographical area selected as control, was in the length of time the garri stayed after processing and frying before consumption.

  5. Adaptability of four cassava ( Manihot esculenta crantz ) cultivars in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The deep water table site at Alabata had the highest growth indices and yield in valley bottom and the lowest in the fringe, while the shallow water table site at Ibadan recorded higher yield and growth indices in the fringe than the other positions. The shallowest water table depths at Ibadan and Alabata were and below ...

  6. Regional heritability mapping provides insights into dry matter (DM) content in African white and yellow cassava populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HarvestPlus program for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fortifies cassava with beta-carotene by breeding for carotene-rich tubers (yellow cassava). However, a negative correlation between yellowness and dry matter (DM) content has been identified. Here, we investigated the genetic control of ...

  7. WEED FLORA OF CASSAVA IN WEST NILE ZONES OF UGANDA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Information on weeds of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in eastern Africa is limited. The objective of this study was to establish the status of weed flora in selected cassava growing regions of Uganda. This study was conducted in 2013 at Abi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute; (AbiZARDI) in Arua, ...

  8. Quality evaluation of 'gari' produced from cassava and sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality evaluation of gari produced from mixes of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) tubers were investigated and reported. This is done to allow for the establishment of the best mixes of cassava and potato tubers to be adopted in the composite gari produced. Gari was produced ...

  9. Development and application of transgenic technologies in cassava

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, N.; Chavarriaga, P.; Raemakers, C.J.J.M.; Sititunga, D.; Zhang, P.

    2004-01-01

    The capacity to integrate transgenes into the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is now established and being utilized to generate plants expressing traits of agronomic interest. The tissue culture and gene transfer systems currently employed to produce these transgenic cassava

  10. Understanding the productivity of cassava in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezui, K.S.

    2017-01-01

    Drought stress and sub-optimal soil fertility management are major constraints to crop production in general and to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in particular in the rain-fed cropping systems in West Africa. Cassava is an important source of calories for millions of smallholder households in

  11. Soaking and drying of cassava roots reduced cyanogenic potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... Key words: Cassava flour, soaking, total hydrogen cyanide. INTRODUCTION. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important food crops ... vision, ataxia of gait, deafness and weakness (Howlett,. 1994; Cardoso et al., 2005). These medical conditions caused by cyanide overload could be ...

  12. Effects of different levels of supplementation with cassava leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different levels of supplementation with cassava leaves ( Manihot esculenta ) on growth, parasite load and some characteristics of blood in the dwarf goat ... Also, supplementations with fresh cassava leaves do not affect red blood cells, white blood cells, haematocrite and sedimentation speed of the blood of Dwarf ...

  13. High throughput multiplex real time PCR assay for the simultaneous quantification of DNA and RNA viruses infecting cassava plants

    OpenAIRE

    Otti, Gerald; Bouvaine, Sophie; Kimata, Bernadetha; Mkamillo, Geoffrey; Kumar, Lava; Tomlins, Keith; Maruthi, M.N.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To develop a multiplex TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay (qPCR) for the simultaneous detection and quantification of both RNA and DNA viruses affecting cassava (Manihot esculenta) in eastern Africa.\\ud \\ud Methods and Results: The diagnostic assay was developed for two RNA viruses; Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Uganda cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) and two predominant DNA viruses; African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV), which cause t...

  14. The effect of different cassava ( Manihot utilissima ) components on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Liver is the main organ in vertebrates that is responsible for metabolism of substances ingested. Cassava is a rich source of carbohydrate that provides calories for many Nigerians. It is grossly deficient in protein, fat, some minerals and vitamins. The effect of consumption of the different cassava components on ...

  15. Processing method influences the effect of Cassava ( Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava is consumed in many tropical countries and is fast becoming the major raw material of many diets, especially in the bakery, brewery and pharmaceutical industries. This study was aimed at determining the effects of various formulations of Cassava feeds on blood lipid profile in rats. Forty adult Wistar rats weighing ...

  16. Selection and in-vitro propagation of five cassava ( Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirteen cassava cultivars were collected from farmers in the Greater Accra Region using a structured questionanire. Five cultivars namely, Ankrah, Bosom nsia, Biafra, Santom and Afisiafi were selected based on popularity, duration to maturity and tolerance to African Cassava Mosaic Virus (ACMV) disease. The cultivars ...

  17. Manihot esculenta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-10-15

    Oct 15, 2014 ... (2) dried pounded in a tunnel solar dryer, filled in high density polyethylene material, sealed and placed into opaque cartons. The packing ... crop plants and one of the priority crops that are being promoted for economic ... temperature, oxygen and light, is very important to post- pone rotting and spoilage of ...

  18. Manihot esculenta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-30

    Nov 30, 2011 ... DNA quantification and PCR amplification. The quality of a subset of 724 extracted DNA samples was examined by loading 2 µl of each sample on 0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis. Samples were randomly selected for accurate quantification using a NANODROP® spectrophotometer (Thermo.

  19. Weed flora of cassava in west Nile zones of Uganda | Kawooya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on weeds of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in eastern Africa is limited. The objective of this study was to establish the status of weed flora in selected cassava growing regions of Uganda. This study was conducted in 2013 at Abi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute; (AbiZARDI) in Arua, ...

  20. Effect of canker size on availability of cassava planting materials in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) production is highly limited by cassava anthracnose disease (CAD) which causes significant losses in planting materials. An experiment was laid out at Ihiagwa, Owern in Nigeria with eighteen treatments replicated three times. Disease severity was scored on a scale of 1-5, and disease ...

  1. Effects of Plant Growth Regulators on Shoot Multiplication and Root Induction of Cassava Varieties Culture in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    SUKMADJAJA, DEDEN; WIDHIASTUTI, HERNI

    2011-01-01

    A study on propagation of three superior cassava Manihot esculenta( Crant) varieties i.e.Darul Hidayah, Malang-6 and Adira-4 through tissue culture technique was conducted at theTissue Culture Lab of SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor. The objective of the experiment was tostudy effect of plant growth regulators on Manihot esculenta propagation, which can be used in cassavamicropropagation protocol. Plant materials used were auxiliary shoots of a stem node. Theexperiment consisted of (i) shoot multiplicat...

  2. Farelo de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crants em substituição ao milho (Zea mays L. em rações para alevinos de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1228 Replacement of corn Zea mays L. by cassava Manihot esculenta crants meal in grass-carp Ctenopharyngodon idella fingerlings diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1228

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rogério Boscolo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição do milho pelo farelo de mandioca em rações para alevinos de Carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella. Foram utilizados 120 alevinos de Carpa-capim, com peso vivo inicial de 2,51+ 0,05 g, distribuídos em 24 tanques-rede, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições, cada bloco correspondendo a uma caixa de fibrocimento com 1.000 L de capacidade, com seis tanques-rede (120 L em seu interior. Cada tanque-rede com cinco alevinos foi considerado uma unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiam em rações (32% de proteína bruta e 3000 kcal/kg de energia digestível com diferentes níveis de inclusão de farelo de mandioca (0.00; 5.99; 11.98; 17.97; 23.95; 29.94, correspondendo a substituição de 0.0%; 20.0%; 40.0%; 60.0%; 80.0% e 100.0% do milho na ração. Não foram observados efeitos dos níveis de inclusão do farelo de mandioca sobre o peso final, comprimento final, conversão alimentar, fator de condição e sobrevivência dos alevinos. Os parâmetros físico-químicos médios da água foram 22,92oC, 24,54oC, 6,38 mg/L, 7,47; 0,16 mS/cm, respectivamente para temperatura matutina, temperatura vespertina, oxigênio dissolvido, pH e condutividade. Conclui-se que e farelo de varredura de mandioca pode substituir o milho em até 100% nas rações para alevinos de carpa-capimThe experiment was carried out aiming to evaluate different substitution levels of corn by cassava meal in grass carp ctenopharyngodon idella fingerlings diets. It was used 120 fingerlings with initial live weigh of 2.51+0.05 g, distributed in 24 net ponds at a randomized blocks design with six treatments and four replications, each block corresponding to a fiber-ciment 1000 L tank with six net ponds (120 L inside. Each net ponds with five fingerlings was considered an experimental unit. The treatments consisted in rations (32% crude protein and 3000 kcal

  3. Prospects for genomic selection in cassava breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a clonally propagated staple food crop in the tropics. Genomic selection (GS) has been implemented at three breeding institutions in Africa in order to reduce cycle times. Initial studies provided promising estimates of predictive abilities. Here, we expand on p...

  4. Evaluation of Cassava ( Manihot Esculentum Crantz) Genotypes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted during the 2008 and 2009 cropping seasons to evaluate 15 new cassava genotypes and one local check (Okwoko) for adaptation to Nsukka agro-ecology in the face of global climate change. The experiments were sited at the research farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of ...

  5. Effects zero tillage on cassava ( Manihot esculentsa crantz ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field study was conducted on a sandy clay loamy soil (Alfisol) at Owo, Southwest Nigeria to evaluate the effects of four tillage methods on soil physical and chemical properties and cassava performance. Tillage treatments were: zero tillage, Conventional tillage, manual mounding and manual ridging. Zero tillage had ...

  6. Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahekar, Satish E; Kale, Ranjana S

    2015-01-01

    Use of Manihot esculenta Crantz (MEC) plant has been mentioned in literature of Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute and many others. It is also known commonly as tapioca, continues to be a crop of food security for the millions of people, especially in the developing countries of the globe including India. Medicinal uses of this plant including diarrhea have been mentioned in literature, but scientific evidence is lacking. The objective was to study antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of MEC in Wistar rats. Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg were used in Wistar rats of either sex. Experimental models used were castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation and charcoal passage test. Loperamide and atropine sulfate were the standard drugs used in these models respectively. MEC extracts decreased intestinal fluid volume in dose dependent manner no extract group was comparable with standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg). MEC extracts also significantly inhibited gastrointestinal motility in dose dependent manner. MEC (100 mg/kg) and MEC (200 mg/kg) were comparable with standard drug atropine sulfate (5 mg/kg) in this aspect. <0.05 were considered to be significant. Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves exhibited significant antidiarrheal activity by decreasing intestinal fluid accumulation and the gastrointestinal motility in Wistar rats.

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Manihot esculenta Crantz in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahekar, Satish Eknath; Kale, Ranjana Sushil

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the antioxidant activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves (MEC) in wistar rats. Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg were used in wistar rats of either sex. The oxidative stress was produced by overdose of acetaminophen and estimation of serum concentration of various enzymes such as malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT) were measured by standard biochemical methods. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as a standard drug for assessment of antioxidant status. Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Student's unpaired t-test. When compared with the standard antioxidant silymarin, MEC extract did not exhibit antioxidant activity in terms of MDA level reduction. However, it significantly increased serum levels of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH, and CAT) exerting a potent antioxidant effect in a graded manner. The observed results suggest that MEC could be a potential source of antioxidants. However, further studies are required to explore this therapeutic property of plant.

  8. A novel biochar from Manihot esculenta Crantz waste: application for the removal of Malachite Green from wastewater and optimization of the adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beakou, Buscotin Horax; El Hassani, Kaoutar; Houssaini, Mohammed Amine; Belbahloul, Mounir; Oukani, Elhassan; Anouar, Abdellah

    2017-09-01

    The adsorptive removal of Malachite Green (MG) by a novel biochar namely Cassava Rind Carbon (CRC) was studied in a batch system. Moreover, Box-Behnken Response Surface Methodology was used to optimize operating conditions of the adsorption process. Characterization was done by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and pH zero charge point (pH ZCP ). The pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir model provided the best fit for kinetic and isotherm, respectively. The maximum capacity of dye adsorbed was 932.98 mg/g at 25 °C. The influence of temperature, the mass of adsorbent and the concentration of dye was studied. The optimal amount of adsorbed MG was 1,363.58 mg/g corresponding to 50 °C, 5 mg of CRC and 150 mg/L of dye. According to the high performance exhibited by CRC in this study, Manihot esculenta Crantz waste can be used as a better and low-cost biomass for wastewater decolourization.

  9. DESEMPENHO VEGETATIVO E PRODUTIVO DE CULTIVARES DE MANDIOCA (Manihot esculenta Crantz A PARTIR DE MANIVAS COM DIFERENTES DIÂMETROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M.S. CÂMARA

    1998-05-01

    .This research deals with the viability study of using stem cuttings with three different diameters, related to three different positions in the cassava plant (Manihot esculenta Crantz, and evaluating the effects of such stem cuttings on the emergence, velocity, number and weight of tuberous roots per plant and yield of three cassava cultivars. The field research was conducted in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, during two years, from September 23, 1980 to July 23, 1981, and September 1, 1981 to July 20, 1982. The mature and healthy stem cuttings were obtained from 12 month old plants of the Mantiqueira, Jaçanã and Pirassununga cultivars. These cuttings (20 cm long were divided into three diameter size classes: 2.6 ± .2 cm, 2.0 ± .2 cm and 1.4 ± .2 cm, representing stem cuttings taken from the main stem, the primary and the secondary ramification of the mother plants, respectively. The experimental design was a 3 x 3 factorial in randomized blocks with nine treatments in five blocks. The following conclusions are based on the results obtained: 1. The stem cutting vigor is more significantly shown in the stage of plant emergence. 2. Refering to the initial phases of the development, stem cuttings with 2.0 ± .2 cm or 2.6 ± .2 cm of diameters are prefered. 3. A smaller number of tuberous root yield per plant is compensated by a major tuberous root weight. 4. Neither stem cutting diameter nor stem cutting position influenced on root production per area. 5. The three cultivars used in the experiment showed a high root yield, and the cultivar Mantiqueira was the most productive.

  10. Desempenho produtivo de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 alimentados com rações contendo farinha de crueira de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz em substituição ao milho (Zea mays Performance of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 fed diets containing crueira manioc flour (Manihot esculenta, Crantz in replacement of corn (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Pereira Pereira Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, alimentados com níveis crescentes de farinha de crueira de mandioca, Manihot esculenta (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100%, como substituto do milho (Zea mays. Os peixes (peso médio inicial de 6,6 ± 0,1 g foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em 24 grupos (20 peixes/grupo e alimentados com as dietas experimentais em quatro repetições para avaliação da performance de crescimento, eficiência alimentar, composição corporal e os custos de produção. As performances de crescimento não foram afetados pelos tratamentos. O teor de lipídio no músculo foi diferentemente significativo em peixes alimentados com 40% e 100% em relação aos outros tratamentos. O custo de produção de milho diminuiu linearmente com a substituição. O valor da dieta diminuiu de R $ 1,43 kg-1 a R $ 1,21 kg-1 e o peixe de R $ 1,54 kg-1 a R $ 1,30 peixe kg-1. Concluiu-se que o milho pode ser totalmente substituído por farinha de crueira de mandioca na dieta de juvenil de tambaqui, sem prejudicar o seu desempenho.The main objective of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of young tambaqui (Colossoma macropum, fed with increasing levels of cassava flour, Manihot esculenta (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100%, as corn (Zea mays replacement. Fish (initial body weight 6.6 ± 0.1 g were randomly distributed in 24 groups (20 fish/group with four replications. They were fed with the experimental diets for evaluation of growth performances, feed utilization, body composition and production costs. Growth performances were not affected by the dietary treatments. Lipid content in muscle were significant different in fish fed 40% and 100% substitution when compared to the other treatments. The production cost decreased linearly with corn substitution. Diet decreased from R$ 1.43 kg-1 to R$ 1.21 kg-1 and fish production cost from R$ 1.54 kg-1 to R$ 1.30 kg-1 fish. It was

  11. Absorbtion Activity of Cassava Peel (Manihot utilissima as Chromium (VI Metal Biosorbent in Electroplating Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iin Candrawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Electroplating is a process of metal veneering with another metal using the electric energy. The water waste of electroplating industry contains many kinds of heavy metal ions, especially chromium (Cr6+ which might cause pollutions if it's not processed and it presents above the threshold allowed . The use of cellulose can be a solution, because it has the functional groups which form bonding with the metal ions. Cassava peel is one of the sources of cellulose which contains 80-85% of cellulose. This proves that cassava peel (Manihot utilissimaI has the potential as the heavy metal biosorbent of chromium metal in electroplating waste. The methodology of the research is conducted in a series including analysis of heavy metal concentrations of chromium (VI in electroplating waste, biosorption treatment of cassava peel (Manihot utilissimaI biosorbent activated by HNO3 1.5 M in electroplating waste with batch method, and analysis of heavy metal concentrations of chromium (VI in electroplating waste after biosorbtion process. Variation of biosorbent’s mass are (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 grams, and variation of biosorbent’s contact time are (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 minutes. The result of the AAS (Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometry shows that the level of total chromium in electroplating waste reaches 2.0777 ± 0.2785 ppm, so the chromium test solution used in this research is 2 ppm to know the optimum conditions of % chromium (VI absorbed with variation of mass and contact time. From the results of this research, the optimum mass and contact time of cassava peel biosorbent activated by HNO3 1.5 M in % chromium (VI absorbed are 0.1 gram and 40 minute. Finally, the optimum mass and contact time of cassava peel biosorbent activated by HNO3 1.5 M is applied to electroplating waste. The average of % chromium absorbed in electroplating waste with the addition of cassava peel biosorbent activated by HNO3 1.5 M is 61.72%.

  12. AVALIAÇÃO DE COMPONENTES NUTRICIONAIS DE CULTIVARES DE MANDIOCA (MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Cristina CENI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O número elevado de cultivares de mandioca adaptados às mais diversas regiões confere ampla variação na composição química da mandioca. Portanto, foram investigadas a composição química (composição centesimal, cálcio, cobre, ferro, magnésio, manganês, potássio, sódio e nitrogênio de cinco cultivares (BRS Rosada, Casca Roxa, BRS Dourada, BRS Gema de Ovo e Saracura de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz in natura. As cultivares BRS Rosada, Casca Roxa e BRS Dourada apresentaram teores menores de amido e diferiram signifi cativamente (p<0,05 das cultivares BRS Gema de ovo e Saracura. A cultivar Casca Roxa e BRS Gema de ovo apresentaram teores de fi bra-bruta signifi cativamente (p<0,05 superiores das demais cultivares. O teor de proteína variou entre 1,19 e 1,83 g/100 g, sendo que a BRS Gema de Ovo e BRS Rosada apresentaram valores superiores. A mandioca pode ser considerada como fonte apreciável de potássio (808 a 1319 mg/100 g, b.s. A cultivar BRS Rosada destacouse nos teores de magnésio (126 mg/100 g, b.s e ferro (5 mg/100 g, b.s. Com base nos resultados verifi cou-se que a composição química é específi ca não somente para a cultivar, como também depende principalmente de fatores genéticos associados.

  13. Influência de sistemas de preparo do solo na produtividade da mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. A. P. Oliveira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este estudo no noroeste do estado do Paraná, durante os anos agrícolas de 1994/95 e 1996/97, para avaliar os efeitos de sistemas de preparo em algumas propriedades físicas e químicas de um Nitossolo Vermelho distrófico latossólico e na cultura da mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz. Os tratamentos utilizados constituíram-se de três sistemas de preparo de solo: plantio direto; preparo mínimo (escarificação + gradagem niveladora e preparo convencional (arado de aiveca + gradagem niveladora. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos completos casualizados, com seis repetições. Na camada de 0-0,10 m, os maiores valores de macroporosidade foram obtidos com os sistemas de preparo mínimo e preparo convencional, enquanto o plantio direto apresentou os maiores valores de densidade do solo. O preparo mínimo propiciou as maiores concentrações de P disponível, de K+ e de Ca2+, bem como menor concentração de Mg2+, na camada de 0-0,05 m do solo. O teor de matéria orgânica do solo não sofreu influência dos sistemas de preparo. O preparo mínimo e o convencional propiciaram maior altura de plantas e maior produção de raízes tuberosas, nos dois anos de avaliação. Comparado aos outros sistemas de preparo, o plantio direto propiciou menores produtividades de parte aérea e de raízes tuberosas.

  14. (manihot esculenta crantz parte I: respuesta a la compresión unidireccional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HECTOR JOSÉ CIRO VELÁSQUEZ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de una investigación experimental del comportamiento reológico de los productos agrícolas a través de la determinación y análisis de las curvas de flujo de la yuca (Manihot esculenta crantz variedad chirosa obtenidas en compresión unidireccional. Las propiedades reológicas evaluadas fueron la resistencia mecánica del producto hasta el punto de falla (esfuerzo y deformación unitaria, tenacidad y módulo de deformabilidad . Los tubérculos fueron sometidos a pruebas de compresión unidireccional hasta la fractura a una velocidad de deformación de 1 mm/s, condiciones de temperatura y humedad relativa de 21ºC y 65% respectivamente. Los ensayo reológicos fueron evaluados en dos sentidos de carga de acuerdo a las fibras (longitudinal y transversal y dos niveles de contenido de humedad (producto fresco y producto deshidratado. Los análisis estadísticos mostraron que el comportamiento reológico del producto depende del contenido de humedad del producto y el sentido de carga, indicando que el material vegetal presenta una resistencia mecánica a la falla (esfuerzo de falla y tenacidad mas alta en sentido longitudinal que transversal. Además la rigidez del producto expresada por el modulo de deformabilidad indica que el producto es menos rígido a medida que se diminuye el contenido de humedad del producto.

  15. CRECIMIENTO IN-VITRO DE RAICES DE MANIHOT ESCULENTA EN DISTINTAS CONDICIONES DE ILUMINACION Y TEMPERATURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J D Portuguez Arias

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el crecimiento in-vitro de raíces de Manihot esculenta en condiciones de iluminación y temperatura diferentes.Se utilizaron raíces obtenidas de ápices cultivados in-vitro en medio de Torrey (sólido, en cuartos, invernáculos y estufas, haciendo tres variantes: 1- Luz contínua durante las 24 hs.; 2- Día natural (de 11 hs. de luz y 13 hs. de oscuridad; 3- Oscuridad durante las 24 hs. En cada variante se estudiaron dos subvariantes: a- con temperaturas elevadas día y noche yb- temperatura alta de día y baja de noche. La fuente de iluminación en la variante de luz contínua fue el sol durante el día y luz artificial de noche.Se encontró que la composición del medio nutritivo influye en el crecimiento de los ápices y en la rizogénesis, dando mejor resultado el medio de Torrey que el de White; que la temperatura Alta de día y Alta de noche con luz contínua o natural, coayudan al crecimiento de las raíces cultivadas invitro. Además se encontró una coloración verde en las raíces, posiblemente debido a la formación de clorofila por efecto de la iluminación.

  16. A purely green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Carica papaya, Manihot esculenta, and Morinda citrifolia: synthesis and antibacterial evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafiuddin, Achmad; Salmiati; Hadibarata, Tony; Salim, Mohd Razman; Kueh, Ahmad Beng Hong; Sari, Ajeng Arum

    2017-09-01

    Green procedure for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is currently considered due to its economy and toxic-free effects. Several existing works on synthesizing AgNPs using leaves extract still involve the use of physical or mechanical treatment such as heating or stirring, which consume a lot of energy. To extend and explore the green extraction philosophy, we report here the synthesis and antibacterial evaluations of a purely green procedure to synthesize AgNPs using Carica papaya, Manihot esculenta, and Morinda citrifolia leaves extract without the aforementioned additional treatment. The produced AgNPs were characterized using the ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and antibacterial investigations. For antibacterial tests, two bacteria namely Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus were selected. The presently employed method has successfully produced spherical AgNPs having sizes ranging from 9 to 69 nm, with plasmonic characteristics ranging from 356 to 485 nm, and energy-dispersive X-ray peak at approximately 3 keV. In addition, the smallest particles can be produced when Manihot esculenta leaves extract was applied. Moreover, this study also confirmed that both the leaves and synthesized AgNPs exhibit the antibacterial capability, depending on their concentration and the bacteria type.

  17. Variasi morfologi dan pola pita protein uni kayu (Manihot esculenta varietas Adira1 dan Cabak makao di Ngawi, Jawa Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIBADI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Tribadi, Suranto, Sajidan. 2010. Variasi morfologi dan pola pita protein uni kayu (Manihot esculenta varietas Adira1 dan Cabak makao di Ngawi, Jawa Timur. Bioteknologi 7: 73-84. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui variasi morfologi dan anatomi serta pola pita protein ubi kayu (Manihot esculenta Crantz yang tumbuh pada tiga daerah ketinggian berbeda. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan metode sampel acak sederhana (simple random sampling pada tiga ketinggian tempat yang berbeda yaitu 50,300,1000 m dpl di Kabupaten Ngawi, Jawa Timur serta analisis pola pita protein dilakukan dengan metode SDS-PAGE. Hasil penelitian morfologi dan anatomi diuraikan secara deskriptip dan disajikan dalam bentuk tabel, histogram dan gambar. Analisis pola pita protein dilakukan dengan menggunakan analisis kuantitatif dan kualitatif yaitu berdasarkan muncul tidaknya pola pita protein pada gel dengan menghitung berat molekul berdasarkan marker kode S 8445 dan metode kualitatif berdasarkan kualitas pita yang terbentuk.Pola pita yang terbentuk diestimasikan dan disajikan dalam bentuk zimogram. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa ketinggian habitat berpengaruh terhadap variasi morfologi akar, batang, dan daun. Umbi akar terpanjang pada ketinggian 50 m dpl (Cabak makao, diameter batang terlebar pada ketinggian 50 m dpl (Cabak makao, panjang daun dan tangkai terpanjang pada ketinggian 300 m (Cabak makao dan1000 m dpl (Cabak makao.Tidak ada perbedaan anatomi pada akar, batang dan daun serta tidak ada perbedaan pola pita protein baik pada varietas Adira-1 maupun Cabak makao.

  18. A rapid and non-destructive method to assess leaf injury caused by the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar) (Acarina: Tetranychidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Skovgård, Henrik; Nachman, Gösta

    1993-01-01

    A relative scale of Leaf Damage Indices (LDI) from 0 to 5 describes the visible injury to leaves of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz caused by the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar). As the scale is ordinal and thus not quantitative, the observed LDIs are converted individually...

  19. SSR markers reveal genetic variation between improved cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-03

    Dec 3, 2007 ... Afr. J. Biotechnol. 4(9): 873-881. Mba REC, Stephenson P, Edwards K, Melzer S, Mkumbira J, Gullberg. U. Apel K, Gale M, Tohme J, Fregene M (2000). Simple Sequence. Repeats (SSR) Markers Survey of the Cassava (Manihot esculenta. Crantz) genome: Towards an SSR-based molecular genetic map of.

  20. Genetic diversity and population structure of sweet cassava using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the population structure and genetic diversity among 66 sweet cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) traditional accessions collected in Maringa, Parana, Brazil, using microsatellite molecular markers. Population structure was analyzed by means of genetic distances and ...

  1. Cassava and sweetpotato yield assessment in Malawi | Moyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) are important food and cash crops in Malawi. However, key information regarding varieties grown, sources of planting materials, post-harvest handling, utilisation and tuber yields is lacking. A study was, therefore, conducted to source this ...

  2. Biochemical factors associated with cassava resistance to whitefly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) an important food security crop, is inflicted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) worldwide, causing direct damage of up to 80% of yield loss. Although resistance to the pest has been associated with antibiosis, changes that occur in metabolite activity, and their effect on the pest have not been ...

  3. Composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with cassava

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-02-29

    Feb 29, 2016 ... Composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars as influenced by chemical fertilization and tillage in Cameroon. Didier Aime Boyogueno BEGOUDE2, Papa Saliou SARR1*, Tatiana Laure Yondi MPON3, Didier Alexis. OWONA2, Miraine Ndacnou ...

  4. Biochemical factors associated with cassava resistance to whitefly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-08-17

    Aug 17, 2017 ... Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) an important food security crop, is inflicted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) worldwide, causing direct damage of up to 80% of yield loss. Although resistance to the pest has been associated with antibiosis, changes that occur in metabolite activity, and their effect on the pest ...

  5. The influence of root rot incidence on cassava genotype on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Key words: Manihot esculenta Crantz., Botryodiplodia theobromae, sensory evaluation, Fusarium spp.,. Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Even though, cassava as a major food crop in the deve- loping countries of Africa has the potentials of addressing the increasing food demand of the growing African population ...

  6. Phytochemical, nutritive and anti-nutritive composition of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical, nutritive and antinutritive composition of Cassava (Manihot esculenta L) tubers and leaves were investigated. The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinone, phlobatinnins, saponins and anthrocyanosides in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of raw tubers and leaves ...

  7. EXPLORATION UNDER SHADE PLANTS OF CASSAVA AND IT’S POTENTIAL AS FORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Novia Qomariyah; M. Agus Setiana; Iwan Prihantoro

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of forage plants growing among cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is not optimal. Potential for development of integration of both very large and mutually beneficial. Purpose of this study is to explore and identify types of forage that grows in shade of the cassava plant and potential for development as a source of forage. This study took place in March 2014 Month held at IPB Sinar Sari Complex Dramaga. This research method to define area of cassava plants as treat...

  8. BIOCOMBUSTIBLES Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA: LA YUCA (Manihot esculenta COMO MODELO DE INVESTIGACIÓN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Cortes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los combustibles obtenidos a partir de materia vegetal, como el etanol y el biodiesel, están tomando importancia en la dinámica energética mundial, gracias principalmente a que son más económicos y menos contaminantes del medio ambiente que los combustibles fósiles. El mercado de biocombustibles ha producido un incremento en las áreas de cultivo tanto de plantas regularmente usadas como materia prima para su obtención como de aquellas con potencial de ser nuevas fuentes de producción, al igual que ha impulsado la investigación básica orientada hacia el incremento en calidad y producción de diferentes cultivos. Las plantas que almacenan cantidades importantes de almidón, azúcares simples o aceites son el blanco principal para la producción de biocombustibles, aunque nuevas tecnologías están permitiendo la utilización de celulosa como materia prima. El cultivo de yuca (Manihot esculenta está ampliamente distribuido en toda la zona tropical y es la base alimenticia de cerca del 10% de la población mundial. El alto contenido de almidón en las raíces almacenadoras de la yuca hace de este cultivo una opción para la obtención de etanol. El uso de técnicas de mejoramiento no convencional de variedades de yuca permitirá la generación de plantas más aptas para la industria de biocombustibles. En este artículo de reflexión se revisa el estado actual de los biocombustibles a nivel mundial y nacional, y se comentan los beneficios y retos a afrontar en cuanto a las implicaciones respecto al medio ambiente y la alimentación humana. Finalmente se discute el potencial de la yuca como fuente eficiente de materia prima para la obtención de biocombustibles en Colombia.

  9. System for continuous production of cassava (Manihot sculenta Crantz. in the municipality of Trinidad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osdany de la Caridad Pérez González

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Sancti Spiritus province there are limitations in the potential of cassava (Manihot sculenta Crantz. with the yield that doesn´t guarantee the alimentary supply to the population, this is reflected with more dimension in the municipality of Trinidad, one of the edges that can solve this problem is a handling of clones that will guarantee a self sufficiency of the municipality, so the objective of this work is to establish a staggered sowing system in the cultivation of cassava, using different existent clones in the city, having in mind its cycles and its agro production characteristic that will allow to elevate yields for hectare and to elevate the production volumes in correspondence with the population in the municipality of Trinidad. As a result was obtained a production in tons for hectares of the satisfactory tuber using four clones: CMC 40 of 6 to 8 months of consumption, belonging to plantations of short cycle, INIVIT AND-93-4 and it INIVIT Y-93-4 CENSA 74-725 of the 8 months of having sowed until the 11 months, belonging to plantations of short cycle and half respectively and the miss of consumption from 10 until the 11 months of having sowed of late cycle, this satisfied in different times of the year yucca´s production for the population's consumption in the Cooperative CPA of Agricultural Production "Pedro Lantigua."

  10. Physicochemical Characteristics of Artificial Rice from Composite Flour: Modified Cassava Starch, Canavalia ensiformis and Dioscorea esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumardiono Siswo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the third largest country on the global paddy rice production and also considered as a rice importer. Even, Indonesia has the biggest per capita consumption of paddy rice (140 kg of paddy rice per person per year. Product diversification using local commodities. Artificial rice is potential to be developed as a new value product using different types of grains. It is one of appropriate solutions for reducing imported rice rate. Artificial rice was produced using high nutrition composite flours (modified cassava starch, corn, Canavalian ensiformis, and Dioscorea esculenta. This study consists of three main stages, preparation of composite flour, formulation, and artificial rice production using hot extruder capacity 10 kg/day. The objectives of this studies were to investigate some formulation in compare with commercial paddy rice. Artificial rice has been successfully conducted using prototype of hot extruder with the temperature 95°C. Physical analyses (color and water absorption were carried out to artificial rice product and commercial paddy rice. Chemical analyses (nutrition and amylose content of product will be also presented in this study. The best formulation of artificial rice was achieved in 80% modified cassava starch, 10% Canavalian ensiformis, and 10% Dioscorea esculenta, respectively.

  11. Physicochemical Characteristics of Artificial Rice from Composite Flour: Modified Cassava Starch, Canavalia ensiformis and Dioscorea esculenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumardiono, Siswo; Pudjihastuti, Isti; Handayani, Noer Abyor; Kusumayanti, Heny

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is the third largest country on the global paddy rice production and also considered as a rice importer. Even, Indonesia has the biggest per capita consumption of paddy rice (140 kg of paddy rice per person per year). Product diversification using local commodities. Artificial rice is potential to be developed as a new value product using different types of grains. It is one of appropriate solutions for reducing imported rice rate. Artificial rice was produced using high nutrition composite flours (modified cassava starch, corn, Canavalian ensiformis, and Dioscorea esculenta). This study consists of three main stages, preparation of composite flour, formulation, and artificial rice production using hot extruder capacity 10 kg/day. The objectives of this studies were to investigate some formulation in compare with commercial paddy rice. Artificial rice has been successfully conducted using prototype of hot extruder with the temperature 95°C. Physical analyses (color and water absorption) were carried out to artificial rice product and commercial paddy rice. Chemical analyses (nutrition and amylose content) of product will be also presented in this study. The best formulation of artificial rice was achieved in 80% modified cassava starch, 10% Canavalian ensiformis, and 10% Dioscorea esculenta, respectively.

  12. Allocative Efficiency Analysys Production Function Of Cassava Farming (Manihot, Sp.) In Tenayan Raya Sub-District Of Pekanbaru City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, Rini; Nurwati, Niken; Amalia

    2017-12-01

    Cassava (Manihot sp) has long been known and cultivated by Indonesian farmers. The economic and social potential of cassava aside from foodstuffs can also be used as raw materials for industrial use and animal feed. In Riau Province, Cassva has the potential to be developed considering Cassva is a plant that can easily grow on low altitude to high altitude lands. Cassava does not need a complex maintenance. Conventionally, this plant can be planted and left alone by itself. Cassava roots can be developed to be a processed products that society needs as main foodstuffs ingredients. This research is done in three months and the purpose is to know the influence of input use (pesticide, seeds, fertilizers and labor) on cassava farming to cassava farming by the model of cobb-douglas. Other than that is also the effect on economical efficiency. The method used in this research is a quantitative research by using Cobb-Douglas Function Model. This research was done in the Tenayan Raya sub-district with 55 farmer samples. This research shows Cobb-Douglas Production Function can be used as the predictor for Cassava production function in Tenayan Raya Sub-district of Pekanbaru City. Altogether the production factor used by farmers influence production. Partially only usage of organic fertilizer that does not affect production, while other production factor such as, seeds, pesticides, an-organic fertilizer (urea) and labor affect production by quite a bit. Usage of production factor seeds, urea and pesticides is not yet efficient while usage of organic fertilizer is not efficient and usage of labor on cassava agriculture by respondent farmers is relatively efficient

  13. Iron biofortification and homeostasis in transgenic cassava roots expressing an algal iron assimilatory protein, FEA1

    OpenAIRE

    Uzoma eIhemere; Narayanan eNarayanan; Richard eSayre

    2012-01-01

    We have engineered the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory protein, FEA1, in roots to enhance its nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36 ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500 gm meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 protein did not alter iron levels in l...

  14. Senescence-Inducible Expression of Isopentenyl Transferase Extends Leaf Life, Increases Drought Stress Resistance and Alters Cytokinin Metabolism in Cassava

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, P.; Wang, W.Q.; Zhang, G.L.; Kamínek, Miroslav; Dobrev, Petre

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 7 (2010), s. 653-669 ISSN 1672-9072 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030; GA AV ČR IAA600380805 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : MANIHOT-ESCULENTA CRANTZ * TRANSGENIC CASSAVA * AGROBACTERIUM -TUMEFACIENS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.603, year: 2010

  15. Molecular determination of the predator community of a cassava whitefly in Colombia: Pest-specific primer development and field validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In South America, the whitefly Aleurotrachelus socialis is one of the principal pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), reaching high population levels throughout the Andean region. Management of this species is primarily based upon the use of insecticides, while biological control has received...

  16. Potential of tannin-rich plants, Leucaena leucocephala, Glyricidia sepium and Manihot esculenta, to reduce enteric methane emissions in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archimède, H; Rira, M; Barde, D J; Labirin, F; Marie-Magdeleine, C; Calif, B; Periacarpin, F; Fleury, J; Rochette, Y; Morgavi, D P; Doreau, M

    2016-12-01

    An in vivo trial was conducted in sheep to investigate the effect of three tropical tannin-rich plants (TRP) on methane emission, intake and digestibility. The TRP used were leaves of Glyricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Manihot esculenta that contained, respectively, 39, 75 and 92 g condensed tannins/kg DM. Methane was determined with the sulphur hexafluoride tracer technique. Eight rumen-cannulated sheep of two breeds (four Texel, four Blackbelly) were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Four experimental diets were tested. They consisted in a tropical natural grassland hay based on Dichanthium spp. fed alone (C) or in association with G. sepium (G), L. leucocephala (L) or M. esculenta (M) given as pellets at 44% of the daily ration. Daily organic matter intake was higher in TRP diets (686, 984, 1054 and 1186 g/day for C, G, L and M respectively; p  0.05). Methane emission was 47.1, 44.9, 33.3 and 33.5 g/kg digestible organic matter intake for C, G, L and M, respectively, and was significantly lower (p < 0.05) for L and M than for G and C. Our results confirm the potential of some TRP to reduce methane production. The strong decrease in methane and the increase in intake with TRPs may be due to their presentation as pellets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI LINAMARASE HASIL ISOLASI DARI UMBI SINGKONG (MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askur Rahman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to know the optimum condition of linamarase enzymatic reaction from bitter cassava. These studies are designed in several stages of interrelated. Starting with the determination of cyanide content of cassava tubers, Isolation andcharacterization linamarase on cassava tuber. The research result showed that linamarase had optimum condition in some activities; pH for about 6, temperature for about 40OC, incubation period for about 3 hours, and Km for about 0.012% and Vmaks for about 0.296 unit.

  18. CaCl2 enhanced somatic embryogenesis in Manihot esculenta Crantz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui-Mei; Hu, Xin-Wen; Li, Kai-Mian; Fu, Shao-Ping; Guo, Jian-Chun

    2009-11-01

    Primary cassava somatic embryos were induced on a medium without CaCl(2), however, no or only a few secondary somatic embryos were formed from them. With 15 mM CaCl(2) in the medium for induction of cassava primary embryos, more secondary somatic embryos were produced from them, and they were much effective in maintaining their embryogenic capacity than the controls of embryos which were induced without CaCl(2).

  19. Diversidad genética y contenido de carotenos totales en accesiones de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cruz Morillo C.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz es un arbusto perenne cultivado en África, América Latina y el Sureste asiático, cuya raíz constituye una fuente importante de energía en la dieta humana en países tropicales. Los carotenoides son pigmentos naturales que se encuentran ampliamente distribuidos en la naturaleza. Se reconoce que aproximadamente cincuenta de ellos tienen actividad provitamina A, siendo b-caroteno el de mayor eficiencia para su conversión en vitamina A. El estudio de la variabilidad genética es un procedimiento útil para fortificar, enriquecer o incrementar el contenido de nutrientes de los alimentos o cultivos, entre ellos los carotenos en raíz de yuca mediante procesos de selección y recombinación en programas de mejoramiento que permitan identificar genotipos superiores. En el presente estudio, a partir de la evaluación de la diversidad genética, se generó un dendrograma de accesiones de yuca en el cual se formaron seis grupos con 68% de similitud. La heterocigosidad promedio observada fue de Ht = 0.559. Los análisis de regresión y correlación entre el contenido de carotenos totales y los datos moleculares mostraron que los marcadores que se encuentran correlacionados con altos contenidos de carotenos pertenecen al grupo de ligamiento D del mapa molecular de yuca.

  20. SIMBIOSIS MICORRIZICA ARBUSCULAR Y ACUMULACIÓN DE ALUMINIO EN Brachiaria decumbens Y Manihot esculenta SIMBIOSE MICORRIZICA ARBUSCULAR E ACUMULAÇÃO DE ALUMÍNIO EM Brachiaria decumbens E Manihot esculenta ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL SYMBIOSIS AND ACUMULATION OF ALUMINUM Brachiaria decumbens AND Manihot esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATRIZ ELENA GUERRA S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Suelos dedicados al monocultivo de Elaeis guineensis Jacq en Puerto Wilches-Santander-Colombia, presentan baja fertilidad, altas saturaciones de aluminio y baja densidad de esporas de hongos micorrizicos. Se evaluó el comportamiento de la simbiosis micorrizica utilizando suelos nativos con micorrizas (MA+ y sin micorrizas (MA-, en Brachiaria decumbens y Manihot esculenta, quienes poseen alta micotrofia y capacidad de retención del ión aluminio. Se consideraron las variables densidad de esporas, porcentaje de colonización micorrizica, biomasa seca y longitud radicular, concentración de aluminio foliar y radicular. Se realizó una (ANOVA de dos vías con un modelo lineal general. Se observaron porcentajes de colonización micorrizica superiores al 70% en B. decumbens en suelos con concentraciones de 0,6 y 1,4 meq/100 g de Aluminio. M. esculenta presento 50 % de simbiosis micorrizica, en todos los tipos de suelo. Se incrementaron las esporas nativas de palma aceitera hasta un 200% en las dos plantas huespéd. Las concentraciones de aluminio a nivel radicular fueron mayores en plantas micorrizadas, mientras que a nivel foliar los valores fueron más bajos.Solos dedicados à monocultura de Elaeis guineensis Jacq em Puerto Wilches-Santander apresentam baixa fertilidade, alta saturação de alumínio e baixa densidade de esporos de fungos micorrízicos. Avaliaram-se o comportamento da simbiose micorrízica usando solos nativos com fungos micorrízicos (MA+ e sem fungos micorrízicos (MA-, na Brachiaria decumbens e Manihot esculenta, plantas com alto grau de micotrofia e capacidade de retenção de íons de alumínio. Considerou-se as variáveis: densidade de esporos, porcentagem de colonização micorrízica, biomassa seca, longo da raiz e concentração de alumínio nas folhas e raízes. Realizou-se uma (ANOVA de duas vias com o modelo linear geral. Observou-se porcentagens de colonização micorrízica acima de 70% na B. decumbens em solos com

  1. Pendugaan Masa Kadaluarsa Ubi Kayu (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Instan pada Beberapa Bahan Kemasan

    OpenAIRE

    Pande Elza Fitriani

    2015-01-01

    The shelf life estimating of instant cassava were determined by analyzing the moisture sorption of it. The instant cassava was made into cube form with dimension of 0,5 cm x 0,5 cm x 0,5 cm and used as samples to analyzing the moisture sorption isotherm characteristic. Moisture sorption isotherms of it were determined at 28±2°C using standard gravimetric static method over a range of equilibrium relative humidity (ERH) from 6.90%-97.90%. The experimental data were fitted by Henderson model an...

  2. Identificación de harinas de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) con alto contenido proteico mediante espectroscopia de infrarrojo cercano (NIRS)

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Torres, Paola Andrea

    2007-01-01

    La espectroscopia de reflectancia en el infrarrojo cercano (NIRS) fue usada para predecir el contenido de proteína cruda en harina de raíces de clones pertenecientes al banco de germoplasma de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) del CIAT. Se usaron 166 muestras para la calibración, las cuales fueron analizadas por el método de referencia para proteína cruda (Kjeldahl) y sus espectros fueron también colectados usando un instrumento monocromador (FOSS NIRsystem 6500) en reflectancia (400-2500 nm). ...

  3. Ileal and total tract apparent crude protein and amino acid digestibility of ensiled and dried cassava leaves and sweet potato vines in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.H.L.; Ngoan, L.D.; Bosch, G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the ileal and total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in ensiled and dried cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaves (CL) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines (SPV) as a single ingredient or in a 50:50 mixture of CL +

  4. microARNs conservados en Yuca (Manihot esculenta identificados con secuenciación de nueva generación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Luis Pérez-Quintero

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Los microARNs son moléculas pequeñas de ARN utilizadas por los eucariotas como un mecanismo de control de la expresión génica. En plantas los microRNAs están implicados en la regulación de distintos aspectos del crecimiento y desarrollo, así como en la tolerancia a estrés biótico y abiótico. Muchos microRNAs de plantas se encuentran conservados desde musgos a dicotiledóneas, sin embargo aun existen muchas plantas para las que no se conoce el reportorio de microRNAs, asimismo se desconoce el papel que algunos microRNAs pueden tener en procesos como defensa contra patógenos. En este trabajo se construyó una librería de ARNs pequeños a partir de muestras de tejidos de Manihot esculenta (yuca inoculados con la bacteria fitopatógena Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam, y se secuenciaron utilizando técnicas de secuenciación de nueva generación (Illumina o Solexa. Se identificaron en la librería 47 familias de microARNs de yuca conservados en otras plantas. Se cuantificó la expresión de éstos microARNs, encontrándose similitudes con perfiles de expresión en otras plantas obtenidos por las mismas técnicas. Se encontró la secuencia de los precursores para algunas de las familias en secuencias de ESTs y GSSs de yuca. Asimismo se predijeron los blancos de estos microRNAs en el set de ESTs encontrándose que muchos microARNs están dirigidos contra factores de transcripción, y que existe un gran porcentaje de posibles blancos con función desconocida. Este trabajo es el primer paso hacia entender cómo la vía de microARNs puede estar implicada en la interacción planta-patógeno en el sistema M.esculenta-Xam.

  5. Cassava as a food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okezie, B O; Kosikowski, F V

    1982-01-01

    This review has attempted to examine information pertaining to the role of cassava (Manihot esculenta) as a major food source for a large part of the world population, particularly the countries of South America, Africa, and Asia, where it is primarily a major source of energy for 300 to 500 million people. Its cultivation, usually on small farms with little technology, is estimated to cover on an annual basis about 11 million hectares providing about 105 million tons, more than half of which is consumed by humans. The importance of cassava as an energy source can be seen by its growing demand in the European economic community countries where it forms up to 60% of the balanced diets for swine. Cassava is one of the crops that converts the greatest amount of solar energy into soluble carbohydrates per unit of area, thus 1 kg of moisture-free cassava meal may yield up to about 3750 kcal which would mean that a yearly production of 15 tons of cassava meal per hectare would yield some 56 million kcal. The major limitations of cassava as food appear to be its poor protein content and quality and the rapid post harvest deterioration of its roots which usually prevents their storage in the fresh state for more than a few days. However, in addition to its use for culinary purposes, cassava finds application in industrial products such as an adhesive for laundry purposes, for manufacturing paper, alcohol, butanol, dextrin, adhesive tape, textile sizing, and glue.

  6. Pendugaan Masa Kadaluarsa Ubi Kayu (Manihot esculenta Crantz Instan pada Beberapa Bahan Kemasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pande Elza Fitriani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The shelf life estimating of instant cassava were determined by analyzing the moisture sorption of it. The instant cassava was made into cube form with dimension of 0,5 cm x 0,5 cm x 0,5 cm and used as samples to analyzing the moisture sorption isotherm characteristic. Moisture sorption isotherms of it were determined at 28±2°C using standard gravimetric static method over a range of equilibrium relative humidity (ERH from 6.90%-97.90%. The experimental data were fitted by Henderson model and well predicted almost at each point of aw. The data of instant cassava’s moisture sorption isotherm followed type II behavior. The shelf life of it were calculated using Labuza equation with three different packaging materials: low density polyethylene (LDPE of 0.03 mm thickness, polypropylene (PP of 0.03 mm thickness and retort pouch. The shelf life of instant cassava using those three packaging materials were obtained for 103, 88 and 3502 days, respectively.

  7. PENGARUH PROSES PENGOLAHAN DAUN SINGKONG (Manihot esculenta Crantz DENGAN BERBAGAI PERLAKUAN TERHADAP KADAR β-KAROTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiliana Liem

    2014-07-01

    sebaiknya direbus dengan air garam untuk memperoleh manfaat β-karoten secara optimal. Kata Kunci: β-karoten, daun singkong, pengolahan, kadar Abstract In many developing countries, vitamin A deficiency is a serious public health problem. Vegetables become the main source of vitamin A to solve the problem. Cassava leaves are rich of β-carotene and easily obtained by Indonesians. This study aimed to determine the effect of processing practices of cassava leaves on the β-carotene content. This study used an experimental method completely randomized design (CRD with an experimental unit of 100 grams of cassava leaves, which are similar to the variation Adira 4, fresh, bright green, no defects or stains on the leaf surface, and the shoots of plants (3-5 stacks. Cassava leaves were divided into 4 treatment groups of processing (fresh, boiling with salt water, boiling with salt water followed by boiling coconut milk, and boiling with salt water followed by sauteing with cooking oil with 5 replications. β-carotene content of processed cassava leaves was measured by spectrophotometry method. The results are differed significantly in all groups (p = 0.001. One with another treatment from all couples treatments also had significant differences. β-carotene content of processed cassava leaves from the highest was obtained from the processing of boiling with salt water (79.534 ± 5.784 µg/g, boiling with salt water followed by sauteing with cooking oil (65.926 ± 6.244 µg/g, fresh cassava leaves (43.530 ± 11.062 µg/g, and boiling with salt water followed by boiling with coconut milk (19.022 ± 3.509 µg/g. Variation of processing practices affected β-carotene in cassava leaves due to the processing factors, such as temperature, pH, time, food matrix, and the use of palm oil. The best preparation method for cassava leaves is boiling with salt water to obtain the benefits of β-carotene optimally. Keywords: β-carotene, cassava leaves, processing practices, content

  8. Respuesta fotosintética de la yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz en dos ambientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkawy Mabrouk El-

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Field work was carried out two locations of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, namely Riohacha, in the Guajira Department, and Santo Tomás, in the Atlantic Department. The former is a semi-arid zone and the latter a sub-humid zone. Ten Cassava cultivars were evaluated for their photosynthetic response to relative humidity by means of an open system photosynthesis recorder. Evaluations were done from 8:00 a.m. through 1:00 p.m. in plots of randomized block trials with four replications. In each plot, two plants were selected for readings, which were performed on a healthy and well formed leaf among the first expended leaves in the upper part of the plant. For each location, data were significant between cassava clones for the photosynthesis, conductance and transpiration variables. The T-test was highly significant between locations, and for all variables tested, Plants in the sub-humid zone showed the highest photosynthetic rate; this indicates that cassava production is higher in areas where air relative humidity is high, independent of the plant response to soil water content. Leaves saturate at light intensities of around 1000 µmolm-1 s1- . Considering the soil deficit that affected plants at the time of the evaluation, this relatively high value indicates that CO2 fixation rate in cassava leaves is high even under water stress conditions.

    El trabajo de campo se llevó a cabo en dos localidades de la costa Atlántica Colombiana, Riohacha en la Guajira, considerada como zona semi-arida y Santo Tomás Atlántico, como zona sub-húmeda. La respuesta a la humedad relativa se evaluó en diez cultivares, entre las 8 y las 13 horas empleando un equipo de fotosíntesis portátil de sistema abierto; en ensayos diseñados en bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones; las lecturas se realizaron en la primera hoja expandida, sana y bien formada de parte superior de dos plantas de cada parcela. Se encontraron diferencias

  9. PREDIKSI KADAR PATI UBI KAYU (Manihot esculenta PADA BERBAGAI UMUR PANEN MENGGUNAKAN PENETROMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurdjanah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, determination of starch content by the buyers on the field is performed based on the difference between cassava’s weight on the air and that of in the water, then counted based on the formula designed by International Starch Institute (ISI. This method has been proven to be highly correlated with the starch content determined chemically such as acid hydrolysis. However, this method is less practical due to the need of a large amount of water which is rarely found on cassava plantation. The aims of this study were : 1 to find alternative way to measure cassava’s starch content on the field using penetrometer, 2 to find correlation between starch content measurement using penetrometer and weighing method as described by ISI; correlation between hardness measured using penetrometer and acid hydrolysis. The experiment was arranged as a single treatment harvesting period consisted of 7, 8, 9 and 10 month in a complete randomized  design  with three replications. Data were analyzed using linier regression to find correlation between hardness and starch content analyzed using acid hydrolysis ; correlation between starch yield and starch content analyzed using acid hydrolysis; correlation of starch content analyzed using acid hydrolysis and that of using ISI method. The result shows that there is a high positive correlation between cassava’s hardness using penetrometer and cassava’s starch content using acid hydrolysis method. This implies that penetrometer is a potential tool for predicting cassava’s starch content. Keywords : cassava, penetrometer, hardness, starch content

  10. Inhibition of chemically induced inflammation and pain by orally and topically administered leaf extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Olufunmilayo O; Yemitan, Omoniyi K; Afolabi, Lateef

    2008-09-02

    The aqueous leaf extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz (MELE) is being used orally and topically in traditional African medicine for the treatment of inflammation and pain, and claimed to be safe. The anti-inflammatory effects of MELE (100-400 mg/kg, p.o. or 1-4%, w/w in petroleum jelly, topically) were tested against carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats as well as against xylene-induced ear oedema in mice. The analgesic effect of MELE (100-400 mg/kg, p.o. or 1-4%, w/w in petroleum jelly, topically) was tested against acetic acid-induced (20 microl, 0.6%, v/v in normal saline, i.p.) and acetylcholine-induced (8.3 mg/kg, i.p.) mouse writhing models. At 100-400 mg/kg, p.o. and 1-4% (w/w), topically, MELE produced significant inhibitions of carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema and xylene-induced ear swelling in mice. Effects produced by MELE were significantly higher than those produced by indomethacin (10 mg/kg, s.c. or 1%, w/w in petroleum jelly) in the anti-inflammatory models. For the analgesic effect, MELE (100-400 mg/kg, orally) and (1-4%, w/w, topically), like aspirin (100 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited significant (P<0.05) inhibition of acetic acid- and acetylcholine-induced mouse writhing tests, compared to untreated control. Effects produced by MELE were significantly lower than those produced by aspirin (100 mg/kg, i.p.) in the analgesic models, except for the topically administered extract on acetylcholine-induced pain. Acute oral administration up to 10 g/kg did not cause death within 14 days, but mortalities were produced in i.p. administered extract with LD(50) of 2.5+/-0.3 g/kg. Based on these, the extract may contain orally safe, topically and orally effective anti-inflammatory and analgesic principles, which justify its use in traditional African medicine.

  11. Análisis de ESTs de yuca (Manihot esculenta: una herramienta para el descubrimiento de genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Zapata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La yuca (Manihot esculenta constituye la base de la alimentación para más de 1.000 millones de personas en el mundo, consolidándose como el cuarto cultivo más importante en el mundo después del arroz, el maíz y el trigo. La yuca es considerada como un cultivo relativamente tolerante a condiciones de estrés abiótico y biótico, sin embargo estas características se encuentran principalmente en variedades no comerciales. Las estrategias de mejoramiento genético convencional o mediadas por transformación genética representan una alternativa para introducir las características deseadas dentro de las variedades comerciales. Un paso fundamental con miras a acelerar los procesos de mejoramiento genético en yuca requiere el descubrimiento de los respectivos genes relacionados con las características buscadas, para lo cual los ESTs (del inglés Expressed Sequence Tags son una vía rápida para este fin. En este estudio se realizó un análisis de la colección completa de ESTs disponibles en yuca, representada por 80.459 secuencias, los cuales fueron ensamblados en un conjunto de de 29.231 genes únicos (unigen, representado por 10.945 contigs y 18.286 singletones. Estos 29.231 genes únicos pueden representar cerca del 80% de los genes del genoma de yuca. Entre el 5 y 10% de los unigenes de yuca no presentaron similitud con las secuencias presentes en las bases de datos de NCBI y pueden constituir genes específicos de yuca. A un grupo de secuencias del set unigen (29% fue posible asignarles una categoría funcionales de acuerdo al vocabulario Gene Ontology. El componente función molecular es el mejor representado con 43% de las secuencias, seguido por el componente proceso biológico (38% y finalmente el componente celular (19%. Dentro de la colección de ESTs de yuca se identificaron 3.709 microsatélites que podrán ser empleados como marcadores moleculares. Este estudio representa una contribución importante al conocimiento de la

  12. Tractor Effects on Soil Properties and the Consequences on Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Yield in Ultisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Edem

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Physical degradation of the soil could be said to mean the loss of soil’s structural quality. It is observed both on the surface where thin crust may be seen and also below th e surface in or below the ploughed horizon where compacted layers may be formed, particularly in conditions of excess moisture. The experiment assessed the influence of the weight of tractor passage on soil failure and compaction. The study of resistance to penetration is produced on three worked soils; unploughed, single ploughed and double ploughed at 0-30 and 30-60 cm depths. This study showed that the number of passage of the tractor affects resistance to penetration by 44 % compared to the initial state (passage 0 and the second pass makes accentuation of 11% relative to the first pass; which shows that the first pass performs compaction most important and most severe. Thus, after sometimes, it was noticed that there's a decrease compaction at 30-60cm depth which shows that the ground based of the ploughed soil experienced a decreasing compaction function..DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12190International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, Page: 210-223    

  13. Novel activated carbon from Manihot esculenta Crantz for removal of Methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buscotin Horax Beakou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The adsorptive removal of Methylene Blue by a novel bio char namely Cassava Rind Carbon was studied in a batch system. Moreover, several experiments were performed to optimize operating conditions of the adsorption process. Thermo gravimetric analysis investigates the thermal behaviour of the raw material. The surface functional groups were identified with Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy. The carbon surface was also characterised by BET surface area, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and zero charge point of pH. Among the three kinetic models used to calculate the adsorption rate constants, the pseudo-second order was the most accurate. The experimental isotherms were analysed and Redlich-Peterson's model provided the best fit. The maximum capacity according to Langmuir model was 565 mg g−1 at 25 °C. The thermodynamic study revealed that the adsorption is endothermic, physical and random. The temperature, the mass of adsorbent and the concentration of dye were the three factors optimized in a Box Behnken Response Surface Methodology, with an optimal amount of adsorbed MB of 771 mg g−1.

  14. Cost-effective nutrient sources for tissue culture of cassava (Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shawgi ali

    2012-08-16

    Aug 16, 2012 ... Key words: Tissue culture, cassava, nutrient sources, micropropagation, low cost medium, acclimatization. INTRODUCTION. Cassava ... This situation is exacerbated by lack of healthy planting materials. Farmers often ... a channel for transmission of systemic infections from one generation to other, leading.

  15. MODEL KINETIKA PERUBAHAN WARNA LABEL INDIKATOR DARI KLOROFIL DAUN SINGKONG (MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddwina Aidila Fitria

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Time Temperature Indicators (TTI is a smart packaging that important for consumers to know the appropriateness of product through an indicator colour change. Currently, there is no development of the kinetics models at TTI to give information for users about the relationship between colour change indicator and time storage. The objective of this research was to develop a kinetic model of smart label. This label was made from chitosan and PVA were added by chlorophyll extracted from cassava leaves. Indicator label stored at five storage temperatures to check the label performance at temperatures of freezer (-10±2°C, refrigerator (2±3oC, air conditioning (17±2oC, room (25±2oC, and hot temperature (50oC. Parameter was observed in the colour change at the label is the value of ohue which show the real colour.The results showed that label indicator changed colour from green to brown. The changes of colour indicator label wouldldarker when stored at high temperatures.The kinetic model of chlorophyll discolouration was developed by Arrhenius equation using ordo 0 and ordo 1. The plot of ln k value and 1/T has resulted on the equation for kinetic model discolouration label the values of k = 9.22.1010 e -15294,7/T with activation energy of 15.2947 kkal/mol for ordo 0 and k = 1.81.1012 e -19891,9/T with activation energy of 19.8919 kkal/mol for ordo 1. The model could predict the quality change of some product accordance with the kinetic model.

  16. An overview of protein identification studies in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista de Souza, Cláudia R; dos Reis, Sávio P; Castelo Branco Carvalho, Luiz J

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family and is originated from the Southern Amazon basin. The storage root is the most important product of cassava as food for more than 800 million people in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In this review, we present a retrospective of studies aiming the identification of cassava proteins, starting from the first investigations using SDS-PAGE and classical two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to recent studies with advanced technologies such as high-resolution 2DE, mass spectrometry, and iTRAQ-based analysis that have contributed for characterization of cassava proteome. Several cassava proteins have been identified, including those involved in the storage root formation and post-harvest physiological deterioration processes.

  17. Cassava: an appraisal of its phytochemistry and its biotechnological prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagbrough, Ian S; Bayoumi, Soad A L; Rowan, Michael G; Beeching, John R

    2010-12-01

    The present state of knowledge of the phytochemistry of small molecules isolated from the roots and leaves of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), is reviewed. Cassava roots are an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates, mainly eaten as a source of starch, forming the staple food to over 500 million; additionally, the roots have value as a raw material for industrial starch production and for animal feed giving the crop high economic value, but it suffers markedly from post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD). The hydroxycoumarins scopoletin and its glucoside scopolin as well as trace quantities of esculetin and its glucoside esculin are identified from cassava roots during PPD. The biotechnological prospects for cassava are also reviewed including a critical appraisal of transgenic approaches for crop improvement, together with its use for bioethanol production, due to cassava's efficient ability to fix carbon dioxide into carbohydrate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fertilidad del suelo y calidad nutricional de estacas de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López F. Yamel

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the changes in nutritional content of cassava stems as a result of different soil fertilization levels, and on the effect of the stakes obtained from these stems on the subsequent crop. Results showed that the mother plants had different height and vigor depending on the 9 different nutritional levels of fertilizer application to the soils where they were grown. Stems of each of the 9 treatments produced stakes with different weights. Both the concentration ami the N-P-K content varied considerably depending on the fertilization treatment. These two parameters were lower when the amount of nutrient applied to the soil was lower. Germination percentage was strongly influenced by the level of K application as well as by its balance with N and P. The lowest germination percentage was registered by the treatment that received no K, but which had received a high level of N and P, which caused an disequilibrium in absorption of the elements. Germination potential was not affected by having planted the stakes in soils with or without fertilizer application, since what is important for this process was the amount of nutritional reserves that the stakes already brought with them, Stakes coming from plots with the highest level of N-PK application became plants with greater production of foliage and stems that were apt to be used as vegetative seed. These stakes also resulted in plants with greater total rood yield and greater production of commercial size roots.

    Se estudió el cambio en el contenido nutricional de los tallos de yuca ocasionado por diferentes niveles de fertilización al suelo y el efecto de las estacas obtenidas de esos tallos sobre el cultivo subsiguiente. Los 9 niveles nutricionales del suelo incidieron en la altura y vigor de las plantas madres. Tanto la concentración como el contenido de N-P-K variaron notablemente según el nivel de fertilización utilizado, siendo más bajos entre más baja fuera la

  19. Cost-effective nutrient sources for tissue culture of cassava ( Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of tissue culture technology is constrained by high costs making seedlings unaffordable. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using locally available fertilizers as alternative nutrient sources for cassava micropropagation. A Low Cost Medium (LCM) whereby the conventional sources of four ...

  20. Manihot esculenta Crantz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HTP), diamètre au collet (DCO), longueur du pétiole. (LPE), longueur du lobe central (LLC). Les modalités des variables ont été codifiées. Analyse statistique des données. La matrice des données morphologiques composées des moyennes des.

  1. Manihot esculenta Crantz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 janv. 2013 ... 1 Université Jean Lorougnon Guède, Département des Sciences de la Terre, 02 BP 150 Daloa 02, Côte d'Ivoire. 2 Centre Suisse ..... Plate-forme. Espèces tropicales et méditerranéennes, http://www.brg.prd.fr/brg/ecrans/rgvPi_manioc.ht m. Rossignol J-L, 1992. Génétique. MASSON (Edition),. France, Paris ...

  2. Manihot esculenta Crantz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... Key words: Media design, biotechnological transference, canonical biplot analysis. INTRODUCTION. Plant tissue culture methodologies were ... Agriculture Applications Grade x x. Plant Tissue Grade x x x x x x. Vitamins ... and diseases or to environmental constrains. However, to reach a technological ...

  3. Manihot esculenta Crantz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... Potential retroviruses in plants: Tat1 is related to a group of arabidopsis thaliana ty3/gypsy retrotransposons that encode envelope-like proteins. Genetics, 149: 703-715. Wright DA, Voytas DF (2002). Athila4 of arabidopsis and calypso of soybean define a lineage of endogenous plant retroviruses. Genome.

  4. The Utilization of Additional Cassava Starch (Manihot Utilisima) for Alginate Dental Impression Material

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Noerdin; Bambang Irawan; Mirna Febriani

    2003-01-01

    In Indonesia alginate which is a common impression material used in dentistry is still imported. Since the economic crisis in 1998 the alginate price becoming four times more expensive. This situation resulted in efforts to modify the commercial alginate as had been conducted by a dentist in South Sumatera province in Indonesia. He who had added cassava starch into the commercial alginate used to make partial denture impression. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of additio...

  5. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae Leaves and Other Selected Tropical Green Vegetables Investigated on Lipoperoxidation and Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA Activated Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ange Mouithys-Mickalad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae, Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N′-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD. The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in “inflammation like” conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration.

  6. Antioxidant and antiradical activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) leaves and other selected tropical green vegetables investigated on lipoperoxidation and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) activated monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumbu, Cesar N; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Franck, Thierry; Serteyn, Didier; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange

    2011-09-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae), Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N'-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD). The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in "inflammation like" conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells) activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration.

  7. Pengaruh Berbagai Konsentrasi Benzil Adenin dan Asam Naftalen Asetat pada Kultur In Vitro Singkong (Manihot Esculenta Crantz.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ardian, Ardian; Kresna, Kresna; Agustiansyah, Agustiansyah

    2012-01-01

    Propagation of cassava through in vitro culture is needed by farmers and agro industries to fulfill the need of the best and the newest clone as soon as after it is released by government. The objective of this research was to know the effects of the application of some concentrations of benzyl adenine and naphthalene acetic acid on in vitro growth and multiplication of micro-shoot of cassava. Explants used were one-node green cuttings of cassava, which were derived from cutting seedling. Thi...

  8. Isotope studies on rainfed rooting characteristics and efficient use of applied fertilizer on cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiwanakupt, S.

    1981-11-01

    Soil injection of 32 P was used to determine the root activity pattern of rainfed Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) in Thailand. Root activity decreased with depth so that 57, 38 and 5 percent of the total activity was noted at the 15, 30 and 50 cm depths, respectively. The root activity increased with distance from the plant. Twenty two, 28 and 50 percent of the root activity was obtained at the 10, 20 and 30 cm distances, respectively. It was thus concluded that phosphorus fertilizer should be mixed with the surface 15 cm soil 30 cm from Cassava rows to maximize fertilizer uptake

  9. Optimization of the fermentation time and bacteria cell concentration in the starter culture for cyanide acid removal from wild cassava (Manihot glaziovii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawashi Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one of the most widespread starchy tuberous roots in Indonesia, being one of the typical plants used in the starch market. However, due to the high cyanide content (338.41 ppm, these roots become a poison if they are unsuitably processed. Therefore, a detoxification process is needed to reduce the cyanide level to the safe level for human consumption (10 ppm. This study was focused on (i the investigation of the detoxification potential of fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum on the cyanide level of wild cassava tubers (Manihot glaziovii and (ii the optimization of the fermentation time and bacteria cell number in the starter culture. The fermentation was performed for different periods of time (12, 24 and 36 h and various initial bacteria cell number (7x1010, 7x1011, 1.05x1012, and 3.5x1012 L. plantarum cells. The results showed a significant decrease of the cyanide level, 97 % of cyanide degradation being noticed after 36 h of fermentation for an initial bacterial cell number of 3.5x1012 cells. Hence, the strong point of the study consists of a noteworthy reduction of the cyanide content in wild cassava in short periods, whereas the protein content was increased (from 1.5% to 3.5% in Modified Cassava Flour (MOCAF.

  10. Novel allergens from ancient foods: Man e 5 from manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cross reacts with Hev b 5 from latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Keity Souza; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Vejvar, Eva; Arcuri, Helen Andrade; Galvão, Clovis Eduardo; Yang, Ariana Campos; Resende, Virgínia Maria Ferreira; Martins, Carlo de Oliveira; Himly, Martin; Mari, Adriano; Liso, Marina; Pomponi, Debora; Breiteneder, Heimo; Wagner, Stefan; Kalil, Jorge; Ferreira, Fátima; Castro, Fábio Fernandes Morato

    2013-06-01

    Manioc (Manihot esculenta) is a tuber mainly consumed in the Southern Hemisphere and used worldwide by food and chemistry industry. We aimed to recombinantly produce and characterize the first manioc allergen and evaluate its IgE reactivity in sera of Brazilian and Italian patients. The molecule, termed Man e5, was expressed in E. coli, characterized by amino acid analysis, mass spectrometry, circular dichroism, HPLC, and dynamic light scattering. A tertiary structural model of the protein was produced using bioinformatics and susceptibility to pepsin digestion was analyzed in vitro. Based on its high content of charged residues, heat stability, flexibility and lack of secondary structure elements, the allergen was determined a member of the intrinsically disordered protein family. Brazilian patients were selected based on manioc allergy and Italians based on latex allergy and sensitization to Hev b 5.71% of Brazilians and 40% of Italians were in vitro IgE positive to Man e5. Cross-inhibition assays suggest a possible involvement of this allergen in the latex-fruit syndrome. Man e5, the first purified allergen from manioc demonstrates IgE cross-reactivity with Hev b 5. Data suggest Hev b 5 might act as primary sensitizer and could therefore lead to allergic manifestations upon manioc consumption without prior exposition. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Comparative expression of wild-type and highly soluble mutant His103Leu of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashipour, Mohammad; Fukuta, Yasuhisa; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2011-05-01

    Low protein solubility and inclusion body formation represent big challenges in production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. We have recently reported functional expression of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta, MeHNL, in E. coli with high in vivo solubility and activity using directed evolution. As a part of attempts to clarify the mechanism of this phenomenon, we have described the possibility of expression of the highly active and soluble mutant MeHNL-His103Leu as well as wild-type enzyme in several expression systems. Methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, protozoan host Leishmania tarentolae and two cell-free translations, including an E. coli lysate (WakoPURE system) and wheat germ translation system were used to compare expression profiles of the genes. Two distinguishable protein expression patterns were observed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic-based systems. The wild-type and mutant enzyme showed high activity for both genes (up to 10 U/ml) in eukaryotic hosts P. pastoris and L. tarentolae, while those of E. coli exhibited about 1 and 15 U/ml, respectively. The different activity level in prokaryotic systems but the same level among the eukaryotic hosts indicate the phenomenon is specific to the E. coli system. Both the wild-type and mutant enzymes were functionally expressed in eukaryotic systems, probably using the folding assistants such as chaperones. Properties of expression systems used in this study were precisely compared, too. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The industrial applications of cassava: current status, opportunities and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shubo; Cui, Yanyan; Zhou, Yuan; Luo, Zhiting; Liu, Jidong; Zhao, Mouming

    2017-06-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a drought-tolerant, staple food crop that is grown in tropical and subtropical areas. As an important raw material, cassava is a valuable food source in developing countries and is also extensively employed for producing starch, bioethanol and other bio-based products (e.g. feed, medicine, cosmetics and biopolymers). These cassava-based industries also generate large quantities of wastes/residues rich in organic matter and suspended solids, providing great potential for conversion into value-added products through biorefinery. However, the community of cassava researchers is relatively small and there is very limited information on cassava. Therefore this review summarizes current knowledge on the system biology, economic value, nutritional quality and industrial applications of cassava and its wastes in an attempt to accelerate understanding of the basic biology of cassava. The review also discusses future perspectives with respect to integrating and utilizing cassava information resources for increasing the economic and environmental sustainability of cassava industries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. REKAYASA PROSES HIDROLISIS PATI DAN SERAT UBI KAYU (Manihot utilissima UNTUK PRODUKSI BIOETANOL Hydrolysis Process Design of Starch and Cassava (Manihot utilissima Fibers for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuana Susmiati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production from cassava (Manihot utilissima usually uses enzymatic process for starch hydrolysis. Enzymatichydrolysis by α-amylase and amyloglucosidase enzymes are not able to convert cassava fibers into sugars. Dilute acid hydrolysis is applied to convert both starch and fibers, which will increase the yield of simple sugars as fermentable sugars and resulting in high ethanol production. In this research there are two steps of dilute acid hydrolysis, first for starch hydrolysis at H SO concentration of 0.1-0.5 M, 5-15 minutes and second for fiber hydrolysis at 0.5-1.0 2 4M H SO , 10-20 minutes, at the same temperature of 121-127 oC and pressure of 1.0-1.5 atm. The disadvantage of acid hydrolysis is the formation of toxic compounds such as hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF which is inhibited yeast fermentation. Therefore, acid hydrolyzates were detoxified with NH OH before use as fermentation substrate. The best starch hydrolysis condition was obtained at 0.4 M H SO  for 10 minutes which gave 257.37 g/l of total sugars, 2 4229.38 g/l of reducing sugars, 89.59 of dextrose equivalent (DE and 0.57 g/l of HMF. While the best fiber hydrolysis performed at 1.0 M H SO  solution for 20 minutes which gave 79.74 g/l of total sugars, 70.88 g/l of reducing sugars, 2 488.99 of DE and 0.0142 g/l of HMF. Single direct acid hydrolysis was the most suitable substrate for yeast fermentationwith the ethanol concentration of 5.7 % (w/v and 30.5 % (w/w of ethanol yield. This result is comparable with enzymatic hydrolysis which gave ethanol yield of 30 % (w/w. ABSTRAK Produksi etanol dari ubi kayu biasanya menggunakan enzim untuk menghidrolisis pati. Hidrolisis secara enzimatismenggunakan enzim α-amilase dan amiloglukosidase tidak mampu mengkonversi serat menjadi gula. Hidrolisis asam  berkonsentrasi  rendah  dilakukan  untuk  mengkonversi  pati  dan  serat,  sehingga  gula-gula  sederhana  yang dapat difermentasi meningkat dan menghasilkan

  14. Cassava For Space Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  15. Caracterização molecular e análise filogenética do fitoplasma associado à plantas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta) com sintomas da doença "couro de sapo" no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Adriana Neves

    2012-01-01

    Doenças causadas por fitoplasmas têm emergido em diversas culturas nas últimas décadas tornando-se responsáveis por perdas econômicas significativas. Dentre os fitoplasmas causadores de doenças na cultura da mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz), se destaca o causador da doença do “Couro de Sapo da mandioca” (DCSM), o qual é responsável por grandes perdas na cultura em alguns países da América do Sul. Com o objetivo de detectar e caracterizar o fitoplasma causador da DCSM no Brasil, 30 plantas ...

  16. Cassava biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  17. Development and application of transgenic technologies in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel; Chavarriaga, Paul; Raemakers, Krit; Siritunga, Dimuth; Zhang, Peng

    2004-11-01

    The capacity to integrate transgenes into the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is now established and being utilized to generate plants expressing traits of agronomic interest. The tissue culture and gene transfer systems currently employed to produce these transgenic cassava have improved significantly over the past 5 years and are assessed and compared in this review. Programs are underway to develop cassava with enhanced resistance to viral diseases and insects pests, improved nutritional content, modified and increased starch metabolism and reduced cyanogenic content of processed roots. Each of these is described individually for the underlying biology the molecular strategies being employed and progress achieved towards the desired product. Important advances have occurred, with transgenic plants from several laboratories being prepared for field trails.

  18. Cinética de adsorción de agua en purés deshidratados de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Brousse

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El puré deshidratado de mandioca es un producto obtenido a partir de la raíz de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, mediante un proceso tecnológico sobre raíces limpias y peladas. Será utilizado como tal o como materia prima para la producción de pastas alimenticias o mezclas para pastas. El conocimiento de las propiedades, fisicoquímicas y funcionales del puré deshidratado de mandioca y del producto reconstituido constituye información fundamental para poder analizar las actuales y futuras aplicaciones tecnológicas. En este trabajo se estudió la influencia de la temperatura sobre el proceso de rehidratación y el efecto del tamaño de partícula sobre la cinética adsorción de agua de purés deshidratados de dos variedades de mandioca, "Pomberi" y "Concepción". El efecto de la temperatura fue evaluado mediante los Índices de Adsorción de Agua a tres temperaturas (30, 40 y 50 ºC. La cinética de adsorción de agua fue estudiada con los modelos de Pilosof y Exponencial. El Índice de Adsorción de Agua aumentó con el incremento de la temperatura en los purés de las dos variedades de mandioca. Los modelos de Pilosof y Exponencial describieron adecuadamente la cinética de adsorción de agua. La velocidad de adsorción de agua fue mayor en el puré con las partículas de menor tamaño.

  19. Cinética de adsorción de agua en purés deshidratados de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Brousse

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El puré deshidratado de mandioca es un producto obtenido a partir de la raíz de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, mediante un proceso tecnológico sobre raíces limpias y peladas. Será utilizado como tal o como materia prima para la producción de pastas alimenticias o mezclas para pastas. El conocimiento de las propiedades, fisicoquímicas y funcionales del puré deshidratado de mandioca y del producto reconstituido constituye información fundamental para poder analizar las actuales y futuras aplicaciones tecnológicas. En este trabajo se estudió la influencia de la temperatura sobre el proceso de rehidratación y el efecto del tamaño de partícula sobre la cinética adsorción de agua de purés deshidratados de dos variedades de mandioca, ‘Pomberi’ y ‘Concepción’. El efecto de la temperatura fue evaluado mediante los Índices de Adsorción de Agua a tres temperaturas (30, 40 y 50 ºC. La cinética de adsorción de agua fue estudiada con los modelos de Pilosof y Exponencial. El Índice de Adsorción de Agua aumentó con el incremento de la temperatura en los purés de las dos variedades de mandioca. Los modelos de Pilosof y Exponencial describieron adecuadamente la cinética de adsorción de agua. La velocidad de adsorción de agua fue mayor en el puré con las partículas de menor tamaño.

  20. Identificação e quantificação do cristal violeta em aguardentes de mandioca (tiquira) Identification and characterization of crystal violet in cassava spirits (tiquira)

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldino da Silva Santos; Edmar Pereira Marques; Hildo Antônio dos Santos Silva; Cícero Wellington Brito Bezerra; Aldaléa Brandes Marques

    2005-01-01

    Tiquira is a traditional homemade alcoholic distillate produced in the Maranhão State (Brazil), gotten from cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz.). It can be normally found on street markets. Due to the addition of tangerine leaves, the original tiquira has a bluish color. Samples of this beverage were acquired in the local trade and analyzed from the spectroanalytical point of view. The results indicated that these drinks had been adulterated by the addition of crystal violet, a potencialy haz...

  1. QTL Mapping for Pest and Disease Resistance in Cassava and Coincidence of Some QTL with Introgression Regions Derived from Manihot glaziovii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inosters Nzuki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance to cassava brown streak disease (CBSD, cassava mosaic disease (CMD, and cassava green mite (CGM was performed using an F1 cross developed between the Tanzanian landrace, Kiroba, and a breeding line, AR37-80. The population was evaluated for two consecutive years in two sites in Tanzania. A genetic linkage map was derived from 106 F1 progeny and 1,974 SNP markers and spanned 18 chromosomes covering a distance of 1,698 cM. Fifteen significant QTL were identified; two are associated with CBSD root necrosis only, and were detected on chromosomes V and XII, while seven were associated with CBSD foliar symptoms only and were detected on chromosomes IV, VI, XVII, and XVIII. QTL on chromosomes 11 and 15 were associated with both CBSD foliar and root necrosis symptoms. Two QTL were found to be associated with CMD and were detected on chromosomes XII and XIV, while two were associated with CGM and were identified on chromosomes V and X. There are large Manihot glaziovii introgression regions in Kiroba on chromosomes I, XVII, and XVIII. The introgression segments on chromosomes XVII and XVIII overlap with QTL associated with CBSD foliar symptoms. The introgression region on chromosome I is of a different haplotype to the characteristic “Amani haplotype” found in the landrace Namikonga and others, and unlike some other genotypes, Kiroba does not have a large introgression block on chromosome IV. Kiroba is closely related to a sampled Tanzanian “tree cassava.” This supports the observation that some of the QTL associated with CBSD resistance in Kiroba are different to those observed in another variety, Namikonga.

  2. Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ballén-Taborda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of microRNAs (miRNAs in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60 miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants.

  3. Generation of cyanogen-free transgenic cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard T

    2003-07-01

    Cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the major source of calories for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. Cassava, however, contains potentially toxic levels of the cyanogenic glucoside, linamarin. The cyanogen content of cassava foods can be reduced to safe levels by maceration, soaking, rinsing and baking; however, short-cut processing techniques can yield toxic food products. Our objective was to eliminate cyanogens from cassava so as to eliminate the need for food processing. To achieve this goal we generated transgenic acyanogenic cassava plants in which the expression of the cytochrome P450 genes ( CYP79D1 and CYP79D2), that catalyze the first-dedicated step in linamarin synthesis, was inhibited. Using a leaf-specific promoter to drive the antisense expression of the CYP79D1/ CYP79D2 genes we observed up to a 94% reduction in leaf linamarin content associated with an inhibition of CYP79D1 and CYP79D2 expression. Importantly, the linamarin content of roots also was reduced by 99% in transgenic plants having between 60 and 94% reduction in leaf linamarin content. Analysis of CYP79D1/ CYP79D2 transcript levels in transgenic roots indicated they were unchanged relative to wild-type plants. These results suggest that linamarin is transported from leaves to roots and that a threshold level of leaf linamarin production is required for transport.

  4. Production of ethanol from cassava pulp via fermentation with a surface-engineered yeast strain displaying glucoamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosugi, Akihiko; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Mori, Yutaka [Post-harvest Science and Technology Division, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), 1-1 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Kondo, Akihiko [Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kobe University, Nada-ku, Kobe, 657-8501 (Japan); Ueda, Mitsuyoshi [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Vaithanomsat, Pilanee; Thanapase, Warunee [Nanotechnology and Biotechnology Division, Kasetsart Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Product Improvement Institute (KAPI), Kasetsart University, 50 Chatuchak, Ladyao, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2009-05-15

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) pulp, produced in large amounts as a by-product of starch manufacturing, is a major biomass resource in Southeast Asian countries. It contains abundant starch (approximately 60%) and cellulose fiber (approximately 20%). To effectively utilize the cassava pulp, an attempt was made to convert its components to ethanol using a sake-brewing yeast displaying glucoamylase on the cell surface. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no. 7 (strain K7) displaying Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase, designated strain K7G, was constructed using the C-terminal-half region of {alpha}-agglutinin. A sample of cassava pulp was pretreated with a hydrothermal reaction (140 C for 1 h), followed by treatment with a Trichoderma reesei cellulase to hydrolyze the cellulose in the sample. The K7G strain fermented starch and glucose in pretreated samples without addition of amylolytic enzymes, and produced ethanol in 91% and 80% of theoretical yield from 5% and 10% cassava pulp, respectively. (author)

  5. Sensory evaluation of different preparations of cassava leaves from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aikay Shaikh

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... Cassava leaves are largely consumed in Africa and are among the top three African indigenous vegetables rich in nutrients. Leaves from bitter (Manihot utilissima), sweet (Manihot dulcis) and wild. (Manihot glaziovii) species of cassava were cooked by boiling in salted (sodium bicarbonate and table.

  6. Sensory evaluation of different preparations of cassava leaves from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava leaves are largely consumed in Africa and are among the top three African indigenous vegetables rich in nutrients. Leaves from bitter (Manihot utilissima), sweet (Manihot dulcis) and wild (Manihot glaziovii) species of cassava were cooked by boiling in salted (sodium bicarbonate and table salt) water with the ...

  7. Genome-Wide Discovery and Information Resource Development of DNA Polymorphisms in Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takuhiro; Akiyama, Kenji; Ishitani, Manabu; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important crop that provides food security and income generation in many tropical countries, and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. Its draft genome sequence and many expressed sequence tags are now publicly available, allowing the development of cassava polymorphism information. Here, we describe the genome-wide discovery of cassava DNA polymorphisms. Using the alignment of predicted transcribed sequences from the cassava draft genome sequence and ESTs from GenBank, we discovered 10,546 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 647 insertions and deletions. To facilitate molecular marker development for cassava, we designed 9,316 PCR primer pairs to amplify the genomic region around each DNA polymorphism. Of the discovered SNPs, 62.7% occurred in protein-coding regions. Disease-resistance genes were found to have a significantly higher ratio of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions. We identified 24 read-through (changes of a stop codon to a coding codon) and 38 premature stop (changes of a coding codon to a stop codon) single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and found that the 5 gene ontology terms in biological process were significantly different in genes with read-through single-nucleotide polymorphisms compared with all cassava genes. All data on the discovered DNA polymorphisms were organized into the Cassava Online Archive database, which is available at http://cassava.psc.riken.jp/. PMID:24040164

  8. EXPLORATION UNDER SHADE PLANTS OF CASSAVA AND IT’S POTENTIAL AS FORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novia Qomariyah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of forage plants growing among cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is not optimal. Potential for development of integration of both very large and mutually beneficial. Purpose of this study is to explore and identify types of forage that grows in shade of the cassava plant and potential for development as a source of forage. This study took place in March 2014 Month held at IPB Sinar Sari Complex Dramaga. This research method to define area of cassava plants as treatments that cassava plants were planted separately with another crop (monoculture and cassava crops are planted among crops and horticultural crops such as pariah plants, beans, squash and corn (polyculture. Furthermore, observed and forage samples taken were grown in both location and made herbarium and identified its kind. Results: forage crops are grown between cassava monoculture is more diverse than polyculture. Types of forage crops grown on cassava monoculture is Echinochloa colona, Setaria barbata, Family Juncaceae, Cyperus sp., Conjugatum paspalum, Cynodon dactylon, Stenotaphrum secundatum, Axonophus compressus (Swartz P. Beauv, Eleusine indica and Panicum maximum. Types of forage crops grown on cassava polyculture is colona Echinochloa, Setaria barbata, Family Juncaceae, Cyperus sp., Stenotaphrum secundatum, Eleusine indica and Leucaena leucephala.

  9. Evaluation of cookies produced from blends of wheat, cassava and cowpea flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Adekunle Olapade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp were processed into flours and used to substitute wheat flour for preparation of cookies. The chemical, including proximate composition and anti-nutritional factors, and functional and pasting properties of the blends were determined. Cookies were produced from the blends with 100% wheat flour as a control. The anti-nutritional factors, physical properties and organoleptic attributes of the cookies were evaluated. An increase in the level of cassava flour substitution resulted in a decrease in the protein content of the composite flour. However, addition of cowpea flour resulted in an increase in the protein content. There were significant (p<0.05 reductions in the studied anti-nutritional factors after baking. Cookies from composite flours were not significantly (p>0.05 different from the control in overall acceptability. This indicates the feasibility of producing nutritious cookies with desirable organoleptic qualities from cassava, wheat and cowpea composite flour.

  10. Improvement of cassava for high dry matter, starch and low cyanogenic glucoside content by mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwachukwu, E.C.; Mbanaso, E.N.A.; Ene, L.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food in Nigeria. One drawback in its use as a staple food is the presence of cyanogenic glucosides which on hydrolysis produce the very toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). To reduce the cyanogenic levels by mutation induction, three locally adopted and high yielding varieties of cassava, TMS 30572, NR 8817 and NR 84111 were irradiated with 20, 25 and 30 Gy gamma rays. There were a wide variation in HCN, dry matter and starch content of irradiated cassava plants, screened in the MV 2 propagation. Fourteen cassavavariant lines were selected for low HCN content, and 22 lines for high dry matter content. These will be further tested for yield in replicated field trials. (author). 7 refs, 3 tabs

  11. Effects of leaf compounds, climate and natural enemies on the incidence of thrips in cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite Germano Leão Demolin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rainfall, temperature, sunlight and relative humidity, as well as predators and parasitoids, leaf chemical composition and levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium on the intensity of Scirtothrips manihoti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae attack on cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz var. Cacau. The leaf compounds (E-farnesene/trans-farnesol and D-friedoolean-14-en-3-one correlated significantly with the population of S. manihoti. Insect population decreased in the dry and cold season probably due to leaf senescence. Significative correlation was observed between Syrphidae with S. manihoti populations.

  12. High-throughput multiplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous quantification of DNA and RNA viruses infecting cassava plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otti, G; Bouvaine, S; Kimata, B; Mkamillo, G; Kumar, P L; Tomlins, K; Maruthi, M N

    2016-05-01

    To develop a multiplex TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay (qPCR) for the simultaneous detection and quantification of both RNA and DNA viruses affecting cassava (Manihot esculenta) in eastern Africa. The diagnostic assay was developed for two RNA viruses; Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Uganda cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) and two predominant DNA viruses; African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV), which cause the economically important cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD) respectively. Our method, developed by analysing PCR products of viruses, was highly sensitive to detect target viruses from very low quantities of 4-10 femtograms. Multiplexing did not diminish sensitivity or accuracy compared to uniplex alternatives. The assay reliably detected and quantified four cassava viruses in field samples where CBSV and UCBSV synergy was observed in majority of mixed-infected varieties. We have developed a high-throughput qPCR diagnostic assay capable of specific and sensitive quantification of predominant DNA and RNA viruses of cassava in eastern Africa. The qPCR methods are a great improvement on the existing methods and can be used for monitoring virus spread as well as for accurate evaluation of the cassava varieties for virus resistance. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Two Novel DNAs That Enhance Symptoms and Overcome CMD2 Resistance to Cassava Mosaic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León, Leandro; Doyle, Catherine D.; Sseruwagi, Peter; Plata, German; Legg, James P.; Thompson, Graham; Tohme, Joe; Aveling, Theresa; Ascencio-Ibáñez, Jose T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs) cause cassava mosaic disease (CMD) across Africa and the Indian subcontinent. Like all members of the geminivirus family, CMBs have small, circular single-stranded DNA genomes. We report here the discovery of two novel DNA sequences, designated SEGS-1 and SEGS-2 (for sequences enhancing geminivirus symptoms), that enhance symptoms and break resistance to CMD. The SEGS are characterized by GC-rich regions and the absence of long open reading frames. Both SEGS enhanced CMD symptoms in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) when coinoculated with African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV), East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV), or East African cassava mosaic virus-Uganda (EACMV-UG). SEGS-1 also overcame resistance of a cassava landrace carrying the CMD2 resistance locus when coinoculated with EACMV-UG. Episomal forms of both SEGS were detected in CMB-infected cassava but not in healthy cassava. SEGS-2 episomes were also found in virions and whiteflies. SEGS-1 has no homology to geminiviruses or their associated satellites, but the cassava genome contains a sequence that is 99% identical to full-length SEGS-1. The cassava genome also includes three sequences with 84 to 89% identity to SEGS-2 that together encompass all of SEGS-2 except for a 52-bp region, which includes the episomal junction and a 26-bp sequence related to alphasatellite replication origins. These results suggest that SEGS-1 is derived from the cassava genome and facilitates CMB infection as an integrated copy and/or an episome, while SEGS-2 was originally from the cassava genome but now is encapsidated into virions and transmitted as an episome by whiteflies. IMPORTANCE Cassava is a major crop in the developing world, with its production in Africa being second only to maize. CMD is one of the most important diseases of cassava and a serious constraint to production across Africa. CMD2 is a major CMD resistance locus that has been deployed in many cassava

  14. Effect of feeding cassava and/or Stylosanthes foliage on the performance of crossbred growing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, C M; Ledin, I; Bertilsson, J

    2010-01-01

    The effect of feeding different levels of cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and/or Stylosanthes guianensis foliage on the growth and digestibility was studied using twenty eight 6-month-old crossbred growing cattle (50% local Yellow cattle and 50% Sindhi) (both Bos indicus) weighing on average 114 kg at start. All animals were fed a basal diet consisting of urea treated rice straw (URTRS) fed ad libitum, 0.87 kg concentrate and 0.22 kg molasses on dry matter (DM) basis. The treatments were four supplements: soybean meal, cassava foliage, stylosanthes foliage or a mix of stylosanthes foliage and cassava foliage all giving the same nitrogen intake. The consumption of tannins and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were significantly higher in groups fed a mixture of foliages compared with only cassava foliage, respectively. There were 30% and 19%, respectively, higher live weight gain in the group fed a mixture of foliages as compared to the groups fed only cassava or stylosanthes. The factors of low organic matter and high level of HCN in the diet when feeding only cassava foliage might explain the negative effects on intake, neutral detergent fibre digestibility and nitrogen retention, and resulted in lower growth rates.

  15. A study of the super-abundant Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) species complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in cassava Mosaic disease pandemic areas in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tajebe, Lensa Sefera

    (Manihot esculenta Crantz) – one of the most important food security crops in sub-Saharan Africa. After the outbreak and spread of a severe form of CMD from Uganda to several East and African countries, the production of cassava has been impaired causing severe yield loss resulting in food shortages...... were collected from cassava plants, intercrops and weeds in and surrounding cassava fields. Insects collected in this way were subjected to molecular analyses using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. The four B. tabaci putative species found to be present in the study area, based on mitochondrial data...... are conferred with increased fitness. Only by understanding the vector better can we design integrated pest management strategies to stop the spread of the severe CMD pandemic that continues to threaten the food security of several millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa. This work was the first study...

  16. Evaluación de pretratamientos químicos para la hidrólisis enzimática de residuos lignocelulósicos de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilibeth Niño López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de diferentes pretratamientos químicos con ácido sulfúrico (H2SO4, hidróxido de sodio (NaOH y peróxido de hidrogeno (H2O2, fueron evaluados mediante la cuantificación de azucares reductores totales producidos durante la etapa de hidrólisis enzimática de los residuos lignocelulósicos de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz y el porcentaje (% de remoción de lignina después del pretratamiento. La cantidad de residuos utilizados (1 y 5% (w/v a diferentes tamaños de partícula (1,18 y 0,6mm fueron pretratados por separado (hojas y tallos con H2SO4, NaOH y H2O2 a diferentes concentraciones (1 y 5% (w/v. Los residuos vegetales fueron hidrolizados con la enzima accellerase 1500 a 50°C, pH 5 y 140 rpm. El pretratamiento con NaOH permite la mayor liberación de azucares reductores totales durante la hidrólisis enzimática (3,7g/L en hojas seguido del pretratamiento con H2SO4 (2,11g/L y H2O2 (1,54g/L. En tallos las concentraciones de azúcares son menores.

  17. Microbial control of the invasive spiraling whitefly on cassava with entomopathogenic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathi, Thangavel; Karuppuchamy, Palaniappan; Singh, Soibam B.; Kalyanasundaram, Manickavasagam; Mohankumar, S.; Ravi, Madhaiyan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Lecanicillium lecanii and Isaria fumosorosea were tested for their efficacy in managing the exotic spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) on cassava (Manihot esculenta) during 2 seasons (2011-2012 and 2012-2013). The fungi I. fumosorosea and L. lecanii exhibited promising levels of control (> 70% mortality of the A. dispersus population). The percent mortality increased over time in both seasons. Application of I. fumosorosea was highly pathogenic to A. dispersus in both seasons compared to the other entomopathogenic fungi. Analysis of the percent mortality in both seasons revealed differences in efficacy between 3 and 15 days after treatment. The season also influenced the effects of the fungi on the A. dispersus population. Thus, entomopathogenic fungi have the potential to manage A. dispersus infestation of cassava. PMID:26691465

  18. Microbial control of the invasive spiraling whitefly on cassava with entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathi, Thangavel; Karuppuchamy, Palaniappan; Singh, Soibam B; Kalyanasundaram, Manickavasagam; Mohankumar, S; Ravi, Madhaiyan

    2015-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Lecanicillium lecanii and Isaria fumosorosea were tested for their efficacy in managing the exotic spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) on cassava (Manihot esculenta) during 2 seasons (2011-2012 and 2012-2013). The fungi I. fumosorosea and L. lecanii exhibited promising levels of control (> 70% mortality of the A. dispersus population). The percent mortality increased over time in both seasons. Application of I. fumosorosea was highly pathogenic to A. dispersus in both seasons compared to the other entomopathogenic fungi. Analysis of the percent mortality in both seasons revealed differences in efficacy between 3 and 15 days after treatment. The season also influenced the effects of the fungi on the A. dispersus population. Thus, entomopathogenic fungi have the potential to manage A. dispersus infestation of cassava.

  19. Densidade e distribuição estomática em mandioca Manihot esculenta Crantz cultivar IAC 576-70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Carlos de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn cassava the variation in stomata characteristics, such as density, polar diameter and functionality undergochanges due to the stomata frequency distributed in different regions of the leaf blade. This study aimed todetermine the density, diameters anddistribution of stomata in different regions of cassava leaf. We analyzedthe apices, median and basal expanded leaves of IAC 576-70. The experimental design was completelyrandomized with three regions sampled twenty replications, each leaf region observed in five microscopicfields. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and the averages compared by Tukey test. We evaluateddata on the number, polar and equatorial diameter of the stomata and calculations of stomata density andfunctionality. There is no difference between stomata density, equatorial diameter and functionality of stomatain different regions of cassava leaf cultivar IAC 576-70, while the polar diameter of the stomata is smaller inthe apical and median regions of leaves.

  20. Genotype × environment interaction effects on early fresh storage root yield and related traits in cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robooni Tumuhimbise

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is an important root crop worldwide. It exhibits substantial differential genotypic responses to varying environmental conditions, a phenomenon termed genotype × environment interaction (GEI. A significant GEI presents challenges in the selection of superior genotypes. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of genotype, environment and GEI on early fresh storage root yield (FSRY and related traits in cassava. Accordingly, 12 cassava genotypes were evaluated in a randomised complete block design at three contrasting locations (Jinja, Nakasongola and Namulonge in Uganda. Trials were harvested nine months after planting and the data collected were analysed using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI model. The AMMI analysis of variance showed significant variation among genotypes for early FSRY and all other traits assessed. Locations were significantly different for all traits except for cassava brown streak disease root necrosis. The GEI effect was non-significant for early FSRY, but significant for other traits. For early FSRY, 48.5% of the treatment sum of squares was attributable to genotypes, 27.3% to environments, and 24.1% to GEI, indicating a predominance of genotypic variation for this trait. Predominance of genotypic variation was also observed for all the other traits. A majority of the genotypes (67% had low interaction effects with locations for early FSRY, with Akena, CT2, CT4 and NASE14 being the most stable genotypes for the trait. Significant negative correlation was observed between cassava mosaic disease severity and early FSRY and storage root number, indicating significant negative effects of cassava mosaic disease on early FSRY and stability in cassava. The information generated will inform future selection initiatives for superior early-yielding cassava genotypes combining resistance to cassava mosaic and brown streak diseases in Uganda.

  1. Cassava production and consumption: Health implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr A. O. Akinpelu

    The paper examined health issues on production and consumption of cassava. It was revealed that production of ... cassava is both conservable and transportable over long distances. Cassava (Manihot .... A farmer loses on the average 22 working days when incapacitated by one sickness or the other per time (Ugwu,.

  2. Allele exchange at the EPSPS locus confers glyphosate tolerance in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Aaron W; Chauhan, Raj Deepika; Cermak, Tomas; Mutka, Andrew M; Vijayaraghavan, Anupama; Boyher, Adam; Starker, Colby G; Bart, Rebecca; Voytas, Daniel F; Taylor, Nigel J

    2017-12-09

    Effective weed control can protect yields of cassava (Manihot esculenta) storage roots. Farmers could benefit from using herbicide with a tolerant cultivar. We applied traditional transgenesis and gene editing to generate robust glyphosate tolerance in cassava. By comparing promoters regulating expression of transformed 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) genes with various paired amino acid substitutions, we found that strong constitutive expression is required to achieve glyphosate tolerance during in vitro selection and in whole cassava plants. Using strategies that exploit homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair pathways, we precisely introduced the best-performing allele into the cassava genome, simultaneously creating a promoter swap and dual amino acid substitutions at the endogenous EPSPS locus. Primary EPSPS-edited plants were phenotypically normal, tolerant to high doses of glyphosate, with some free of detectable T-DNA integrations. Our methods demonstrate an editing strategy for creating glyphosate tolerance in crop plants and demonstrate the potential of gene editing for further improvement of cassava. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Strategy of gene silencing in cassava for validation of resistance genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, Simon; Lopez, Camilo

    2010-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major source of food for more than 1000 million people in the world and constitutes an important staple crop. Cassava bacterial blight, caused by the gram negative bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis, is one of the most important constraints for this crop. A candidate resistance gene against cassava bacterial blight, named RXam1, has been identified previously. In this work, we employed the gene silencing approach using the African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) to validate the function of the RXam1 gene. We used as positive control the su gen, which produce photo blanching in leaves when is silenced. Plants from the SG10735 variety were bombardment with the ACMV-A-SU+ACMV-B y ACMV-A-RXam1+ACMV-B constructions. The silencing efficiency employing the su gene was low, only one of seven plants showed photo blanching. In the putative silenced plants for the RXam1 gene, no presence of siRNAs corresponding to RXam1 was observed; although a low diminution of the RXam1 gene expression was obtained. The growth curves for the Xam strain CIO136 in cassava plants inoculated showing a little but no significance difference in the susceptibility in the silenced plants compared to not silenced

  4. Over-expression of hydroxynitrile lyase in transgenic cassava roots accelerates cyanogenesis and food detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Arias-Garzon, Diana; White, Wanda; Sayre, Richard T

    2004-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) roots are the primary source of calories for more than 500 million people, the majority of whom live in the developing countries of Africa. Cassava leaves and roots contain potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glycosides. Consumption of residual cyanogens (linamarin or acetone cyanohydrin) in incompletely processed cassava roots can cause cyanide poisoning. Hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL), which catalyses the conversion of acetone cyanohydrin to cyanide, is expressed predominantly in the cell walls and laticifers of leaves. In contrast, roots have very low levels of HNL expression. We have over-expressed HNL in transgenic cassava plants under the control of a double 35S CaMV promoter. We show that HNL activity increased more than twofold in leaves and 13-fold in roots of transgenic plants relative to wild-type plants. Elevated HNL levels were correlated with substantially reduced acetone cyanohydrin levels and increased cyanide volatilization in processed or homogenized roots. Unlike acyanogenic cassava, transgenic plants over-expressing HNL in roots retain the herbivore deterrence of cyanogens while providing a safer food product.

  5. Zonificación agroecológica y estimación del rendimiento potencial del cultivo de la yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz en el estado de Tabasco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rivera-Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El estado de Tabasco es el principal productor de yuca (Manihote esculenta Crantz en México, mismo que ha perdido en los últimos cinco años cerca del 45% de la superficie dedicada a este cultivo. Razón por la cual, las políticas actuales de desarrollo rural se enfocan a dirigir todo tipo de apoyos, especialmente los económicos, hacia las áreas con mayor potencial productivo para diferentes cultivos, entre ellos, la yuca. Derivado de esta política y del interés del gobierno del estado de Tabasco, se realizó el presente estudio, con los objetivos de conocer las áreas con mayor potencial productivo en el estado y estimar el rendimiento potencial esperado del cultivo de la yuca. Para ello, se utilizó el procedimiento de zonificación agro-ecológica (zae propuesto por la Fao para áreas muy aptas y para una situación de alta inversión en condiciones de agricultura de temporal. Se analizaron cuatro variables climáticas y seis propiedades edafológicas. El análisis de las variables climáticas y edafológicas (físicas y químicas y su posterior representación cartográfica mostraron que en el estado de Tabasco existen 476,617 hectáreas con alto potencial edafoclimático para cultivar yuca, con rendimientos potenciales de 42.3 t ha-1.

  6. Cinética de secado de la yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz variedad CORPOICA M-tai en función de la temperatura y de la velocidad de aire

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    Jairo Salcedo Mendoza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El secado de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz variedad CORPOICA M-tai, fue realizado en un secador de bandejas a escala de laboratorio. Muestras de yuca con espesor de 0,2cm y diámetro de 0,4cm fueron colocadas en el equipo en contacto directo con aire caliente, bajo distintas condiciones de operación. Se evaluó el efecto de la temperatura (35, 45 y 55ºC y la velocidad del aire (1,0, 2,0 y 3,0m/s sobre el tiempo de secado y la difusividad efectiva. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron que a una temperatura y flujo de aire de 55°C y 3,0 m/s respectivamente, el tiempo de secado fue de 4,5h, alcanzándose una humedad de 4,87%. Los datos derivados de las curvas de secado fueron ajustados a los modelos de Newton, el de Dos términos exponencial, el de Wang y Singh, el de Henderson y Pabis modificado y el Difusión aproximal. De acuerdo con los resultados el modelo matemático que describió mejor el comportamiento cinético de las curvas de secado fue el modelo Difusión aproximal con una regresión lineal (0,958 ≤ R2 ≤ 0,993. La difusividad efectiva (Df de la yuca varió entre 1,26 x 10-10 y 4,14 x 10-10m2/s y la energía de activación (Ea varió entre 33,66 a 16,16KJ /mol.

  7. KEMAMPUAN REPRODUKSI TUNGAU PREDATOR FAMILI PHYTOSEIIDAE PADA BERBAGAI KEPADATAN TETRANYCHUS URTICAE DAN POLEN TANAMAN DI SEKITAR TANAMAN SINGKONG (MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ

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    Bambang Heru Budianto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The predatory mite of Phytoseiidae family have extensive cruising range that is not only found in cassava, but also a variety of weeds in cassava plants, such as Ageratum conyzoides and Cyperus cyperus. Extensive cruising range is also well explain the survival rate of the Phytoseiidae family at the time of the density of T. urticae decreased. The research objective is to determine the development period, fecundity and survival rate of Phytoseiidae predatory mite populations at different relative densities T. urticae and pollen. The research method used is an experimental laboratory. The procedure include the provision of A. conyzoides and C. rotundus pollen, the multiplication of predatory mite families Phytoseiidae, the determination of the development period, fecundity and survival rate of predatory mite families Phytoseiidae. The results showed that the length of time the development of predatory mites Amblyseius sp. and Phytoseius sp. faster one day of feeding on egg T. urticae feeding compared to the two types of pollen. Predatory mites survival rate Phytoseius sp. higher than the predatory mites Amblyseius sp. eggs fed T. urticae and both types of pollen. Similarly, the fecundity Phytoseius sp. higher than the mites Amblyseius sp. either fed eggs T. urticae as well as to two types of pollen.

  8. Informal "seed" systems and the management of gene flow in traditional agroecosystems: the case of cassava in Cauca, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, George A; González, Carolina; Lopera, Diana Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Our ability to manage gene flow within traditional agroecosystems and their repercussions requires understanding the biology of crops, including farming practices' role in crop ecology. That these practices' effects on crop population genetics have not been quantified bespeaks lack of an appropriate analytical framework. We use a model that construes seed-management practices as part of a crop's demography to describe the dynamics of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Cauca, Colombia. We quantify several management practices for cassava--the first estimates of their kind for a vegetatively-propagated crop--describe their demographic repercussions, and compare them to those of maize, a sexually-reproduced grain crop. We discuss the implications for gene flow, the conservation of cassava diversity, and the biosafety of vegetatively-propagated crops in centers of diversity. Cassava populations are surprisingly open and dynamic: farmers exchange germplasm across localities, particularly improved varieties, and distribute it among neighbors at extremely high rates vis-à-vis maize. This implies that a large portion of cassava populations consists of non-local germplasm, often grown in mixed stands with local varieties. Gene flow from this germplasm into local seed banks and gene pools via pollen has been documented, but its extent remains uncertain. In sum, cassava's biology and vegetative propagation might facilitate pre-release confinement of genetically-modified varieties, as expected, but simultaneously contribute to their diffusion across traditional agroecosystems if released. Genetically-modified cassava is unlikely to displace landraces or compromise their diversity; but rapid diffusion of improved germplasm and subsequent incorporation into cassava landraces, seed banks or wild populations could obstruct the tracking and eradication of deleterious transgenes. Attempts to regulate traditional farming practices to reduce the risks could compromise cassava

  9. Expression patterns of members of the ethylene signaling-related gene families in response to dehydration stresses in cassava.

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    Meng Yun Ren

    Full Text Available Drought is the one of the most important environment stresses that restricts crop yield worldwide. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is an important food and energy crop that has many desirable traits such as drought, heat and low nutrients tolerance. However, the mechanisms underlying drought tolerance in cassava are unclear. Ethylene signaling pathway, from the upstream receptors to the downstream transcription factors, plays important roles in environmental stress responses during plant growth and development. In this study, we used bioinformatics approaches to identify and characterize candidate Manihot esculenta ethylene receptor genes and transcription factor genes. Using computational methods, we localized these genes on cassava chromosomes, constructed phylogenetic trees and identified stress-responsive cis-elements within their 5' upstream regions. Additionally, we measured the trehalose and proline contents in cassava fresh leaves after drought, osmotic, and salt stress treatments, and then it was found that the regulation patterns of contents of proline and trehalose in response to various dehydration stresses were differential, or even the opposite, which shows that plant may take different coping strategies to deal with different stresses, when stresses come. Furthermore, expression profiles of these genes in different organs and tissues under non-stress and abiotic stress were investigated through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analyses in cassava. Expression profiles exhibited clear differences among different tissues under non-stress and various dehydration stress conditions. We found that the leaf and tuberous root tissues had the greatest and least responses, respectively, to drought stress through the ethylene signaling pathway in cassava. Moreover, tuber and root tissues had the greatest and least reponses to osmotic and salt stresses through ethylene signaling in cassava, respectively. These results show that these

  10. Expression patterns of members of the ethylene signaling–related gene families in response to dehydration stresses in cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hou Rui; Lu, Li Fang; Yun, Tian Yan; Peng, Ming; Guan, Xiao; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Jing Yi; Zhang, Xi Yan; Li, Cheng Liang; Chen, Yan Jun; He, Peng; Zhang, Yin Dong; Xie, Jiang Hui

    2017-01-01

    Drought is the one of the most important environment stresses that restricts crop yield worldwide. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food and energy crop that has many desirable traits such as drought, heat and low nutrients tolerance. However, the mechanisms underlying drought tolerance in cassava are unclear. Ethylene signaling pathway, from the upstream receptors to the downstream transcription factors, plays important roles in environmental stress responses during plant growth and development. In this study, we used bioinformatics approaches to identify and characterize candidate Manihot esculenta ethylene receptor genes and transcription factor genes. Using computational methods, we localized these genes on cassava chromosomes, constructed phylogenetic trees and identified stress-responsive cis-elements within their 5’ upstream regions. Additionally, we measured the trehalose and proline contents in cassava fresh leaves after drought, osmotic, and salt stress treatments, and then it was found that the regulation patterns of contents of proline and trehalose in response to various dehydration stresses were differential, or even the opposite, which shows that plant may take different coping strategies to deal with different stresses, when stresses come. Furthermore, expression profiles of these genes in different organs and tissues under non-stress and abiotic stress were investigated through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses in cassava. Expression profiles exhibited clear differences among different tissues under non-stress and various dehydration stress conditions. We found that the leaf and tuberous root tissues had the greatest and least responses, respectively, to drought stress through the ethylene signaling pathway in cassava. Moreover, tuber and root tissues had the greatest and least reponses to osmotic and salt stresses through ethylene signaling in cassava, respectively. These results show that these plant tissues had

  11. Distribuição da diversidade isoenzimática e morfológica da mandioca na agricultura autóctone de Ubatuba Distribution of the isozyme and morphological diversity of cassava in the autochthonous agriculture of Ubatuba

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    Julianno Bergoch Monteiro Sambatti

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A diversidade fenotípica de quatro sistemas isoenzimáticos e doze caracteres morfológicos em mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz foi quantificada através do índice de Shannon-Weaver para quatro roças de mandioca pertencentes a dois agricultores autóctones no município de Ubatuba-SP. A diversidade total foi repartida entre diversidade dentro de roças e diversidade entre roças, mostrando que a maior parte da diversidade se concentra dentro de roças para a maioria dos caracteres. Entrevistas foram realizadas para verificar se os agricultores reconhecem a existência de plantas de mandioca originadas por semente e a existência de bancos de semente.Phenotypic diversity of four isozymes systems and twelve morphological traits of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz were quantified using the Shannon-Weaver diversity index for four cassava gardens of two traditional farmers of Ubatuba,SP, Brazil. The total diversity was partitioned within and among gardens, showing that most of the diversity is concentrated within gardens. Interviews were carried out in order to verify if farmers recognize the existance of cassava plants originated from seeds and seed banks with the surveyed farmers in order to identify, in the present case, mechanisms of genetic diversity amplification.

  12. Agrobiodiversity and ethnoknowledge in Gleba Nova Olinda I, Pará: social interactions and sharing of manioc's germplasm (Manihot Esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae

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    Pedro Glécio Costa Lima

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A major concern of ethnobiology is to understand the social relations that favor the occurrence and expansion of biological diversity in the Neotropic. This article evaluates the richness of ethnovarieties of cassava cultivated in communities located in public forest lands named Gleba Nova Olinda I, Pará State, Brazil. Data were obtained in workshops with 46 informants, and were analyzed by qualitative and quantitative methods. There are at least 52 manioc ethnovarieties on this site and germplasm sharing occurs both inside and outside the community. The knowledge improvement on this agrobiological resource by community members shows the important role that the inhabitants play in biological conservation of Gleba Nova Olinda I. Thus, support to local development should be grounded on ethnoknowledge.

  13. AGROECOSYSTEMS SUSTAINABILITY OF CASSAVA PRODUCTION OF PARAÍBA RURAL AREA FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF BIOGRAM

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    Valdenildo Pedro da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture modernization resulting from green revolution occurred through means of diverse technological innovations as soluble fertilizers, pesticides, agricultural machinery and genetically modified seeds, aimed at increasing food production. However, the indiscriminate use of these innovations by farmers has been highlighted numerous environmental problems, affecting the productive agricultural system. This technological innovations reality and environmental obstacles, is also been experienced by cassava production in Paraíba rural area. Therefore, this study tried to assess the agroecosystems sustainability of cassava production (Manihot esculenta Crantz of Paraíba Rural Mesoregion, using Sustainable Development Index (S³ method, and its graphical representation, the Biogram. The results showed sustainability differences between the agroecosystems of investigated municipalities, of which Araçagi showed stable levels of sustainability, Araruna and Bananeiras demonstrated unstable levels, and Puxinanã showed the most critical sustainably level. It was concluded that, even the agroecosystems of Araçagi municipality showing better levels of sustainability, when compared with other municipalities assessed, cassava production showed unsustainability situations regarding its technological innovation levels, average yield of cassava production, land in erosion process, water scarcity and lack of social participation.

  14. Data supporting the role of enzymes and polysaccharides during cassava postharvest physiological deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; da Costa Nunes, Eduardo; de Oliveira Neubert, Enilto; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    This data article is referred to the research article entitled The role of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and polysaccharides in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots under postharvest physiological deterioration by Uarrota et al. (2015). Food Chemistry 197, Part A, 737-746. The stress duo to PPD of cassava roots leads to the formation of ROS which are extremely harmful and accelerates cassava spoiling. To prevent or alleviate injuries from ROS, plants have evolved antioxidant systems that include non-enzymatic and enzymatic defence systems such as ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase and polysaccharides. In this data article can be found a dataset called "newdata", in RData format, with 60 observations and 06 variables. The first 02 variables (Samples and Cultivars) and the last 04, spectrophotometric data of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, tocopherol, total proteins and arcsined data of cassava PPD scoring. For further interpretation and analysis in R software, a report is also provided. Means of all variables and standard deviations are also provided in the Supplementary tables ("data.long3.RData, data.long4.RData and meansEnzymes.RData"), raw data of PPD scoring without transformation (PPDmeans.RData) and days of storage (days.RData) are also provided for data analysis reproducibility in R software.

  15. Iron biofortification and homeostasis in transgenic cassava roots expressing an algal iron assimilatory protein, FEA1

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    Uzoma eIhemere

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We have engineered the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory protein, FEA1, in roots to enhance its nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36 ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500 gm meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 protein did not alter iron levels in leaves. Transgenic plants also had normal levels of zinc in leaves and roots consistent with the specific uptake of iron mediated by the FEA1 protein. Relative to wild-type plants, FEA1 expressing plants had reduced Fe(III chelate reductase activity and gene expression levels consistent with the more efficient uptake of iron in FEA1 transgenic plants. We also show that genes involved in iron homeostasis in cassava have altered tissue-specific patterns of expression in transgenic plants. Steady state transcript levels of the metal-chelate transporter MeYSL1, and the iron storage proteins, MeFER2 and MeFER6, were elevated in various tissues of FEA1 transgenic plants compared to wild-type plants. These results suggest that these gene products play a role in iron translocation and homeostasis in FEA1 transgenic cassava plants. These results are discussed in terms of enhanced strategies for the iron biofortification of plants.

  16. Removal of Cu (II and Zn (II from water with natural adsorbents from cassava agroindustry residues

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    Daniel Schwantes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Current study employs solid residues from the processing industry of the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz (bark, bagasse and bark + bagasse as natural adsorbents for the removal of metal ions Cu(II and Zn(II from contaminated water. The first stage comprised surface morphological characterization (SEM, determination of functional groups (IR, point of zero charge and the composition of naturally existent minerals in the biomass. Further, tests were carried out to evaluate the sorption process by kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. The adsorbents showed a surface with favorable adsorption characteristics, with adsorption sites possibly derived from lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. The dynamic equilibrium time for adsorption was 60 min. Results followed pseudo-second-order, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich models, suggesting a chemisorption monolayer. The thermodynamic parameters suggested that the biosorption process of Cu and Zn was endothermic, spontaneous or independent according to conditions. Results showed that the studied materials were potential biosorbents in the decontamination of water contaminated by Cu(II and Zn(II. Thus, the above practice complements the final stages of the cassava production chain of cassava, with a new disposal of solid residues from the cassava agroindustry activity.

  17. UTILIZAÇÃO DA MANDIOCA (Manihot utilissima, Pohl CRUA NUM ESTUDO COMPARATIVO DE TRÊS DIETAS PARA SUÍNOS EM CRESCIMENTO-ENGORDA USE OF RAW CASSAVA ROOTS (Manihot utilissima POHL IN A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THREE SWINE GROWING AND FATTENING DIETS

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    Francisco Eduardo Galvão

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente experimento foi conduzido na Escola Média de Agricultura de Florestal, Minas Gerais, com o fim de verificar a viabilidade do uso da mandioca (Manihot utilissima Pohl “in natura” em dietas de suínos em crescimento e engorda. Foram usados três tratamentos constituídos de mistura comercial para crescimento mais mandioca "in natura" (A, mistura comercial para engorda (B, fubá de milho (C recebendo todos verde à vontade. Em cada tratamento foram usados 10 animais mestiços com 133, 5 dias de idade e peso médio inicial de aproximadamente 26,1Kg. O experimento teve duração de 210 dias e os ganhos diários em peso foram de 0,451; 0,452 e 0,178 Kg, para os tratamentos A, B e C respectivamente. As análises de variância revelaram, que para ganhos em peso e espessura de toucinho, não houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre leitegadas e os tratamentos A e B, havendo porém (p < 0,01 entre tratamento C contra A e B. O tratamento contendo mandioca "in natura” revelou ser o mais econômico.

    An experiment was carried out at the Escola Média de Agricultura de Florestal, Minas Gerais, in order to verify the viability of cassava roots use (Manihot utilissima, Pohl ";in natura"; in growing and fattening swine diets. Three treatments were used, containing commercial mixture for fatteningswine (B, ground corn (C and all receiving para grass (Brachiaria mutica Stapf ";ad libitum";. In each treatment were used ten crossbred animals of 133,5 days and gains were 0,451; 0,452 and 0,178 kg for treatments A, B and C, respectively. The analysis of

  18. EVALUACIÓN DE ABONOS VERDES EN EL CULTIVO DE YUCA Manihot sculenta Krantz EN UN INCEPTISOL DE LA ZONA DE LADERA DEL DEPARTAMENTO DEL CAUCA, COLOMBIA EVALUATION OF GREEN FERTILIZERS IN CULTIVATION OF CASSAVA Manihot Sculenta Krantz IN AN INCEPTISOL IN A HILLSIDE ZONE OF THE DEPARTMENT OF CAUCA, COLOMBIA

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    Mary Adriana Salazar Rosero

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el corte y la distribución en el campo de varios abonos verdes, entre ellos: maíz - fríjol; mucuna; sorgo; millo - fríjol; millo, en un cultivo de yuca ( Manihot sculenta Krantz en un inceptisol de las laderas del Departamento del Cauca (Colombia, analizando los efectos de ellos sobre las propiedades del suelo, su capacidad para interferir la vegetación espontánea no deseable para el cultivo. Respecto a la incidencia sobre las propiedades físico-químicas del suelo, se observó que la porosidad presentó diferencias significativas por efecto de los diferentes abonos verdes evaluados; sobresaliendo la asociación maíz - fríjol. En las propiedades químicas, calcio y magnesio presentaron diferencias significativas, siendo sus contenidos más altos cuando se empleó el abono verde mucuna, sobresaliendo por su capacidad de reciclar estos nutrientes. El sorgo fue el abono verde donde hubo la menor influencia de la vegetación espontánea por su lenta descomposición y también con el cual se obtuvo la mejor productividad del cultivo de yuca (17 t/ha. En general, todos los abonos verdes presentaron adecuadas cualidades para su empleo, como parte de una estrategia de manejo sostenible de este tipo de suelo.The cut and distribution in the field of various green fertilizers, including corn-red beans, mucuna, sorghum, mille- red beans, and mille, in the cultivation of cassava (Manihot sculenta Krantz, was evaluated in an inceptisol in a hillside zone of the Department of Cauca (Colombia, analyzing their effects on the properties of the soil and their capability to inhibit spontaneous vegetation undesirable for the crop. With respect to the physical-chemical properties of the soil, porosity varied significantly due to the effects of the different green fertilizers evaluated, with the corn-red beans mixture excelling. In terms of chemical properties, calcium and magnesium showed significant differences with their concentrations higher

  19. Gamma radiation use to avoid enzymatic browning of cassava root (Manihot utilissima Pohl) in natura, peeled; Uso da radiacao gama na inibicao do escurecimento de mandioca (Manihot utilissima Pohl) in natura, sem casca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Neto, Pedro Ramos da [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana (CEFET), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Biologia; Spoto, Marta Helena Fille; Domarco, Rachel Elizabeth [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1997-01-01

    Cassava root was treated with gamma radiation at doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy to avoid enzymatic browning. The irradiated samples were kept for 9 days at room temperature and evaluated for color and sensorial analysis. Two days after harvest, the control sample showed black spots and alterations of organoleptic characteristics. The irradiated sample with 2 to 6 kGy showed good appearance and acceptability. However, after 9 days of storage, the control and the irradiated (2 to 6 kGy) samples were not safe to eat, only the irradiated cassava with doses of 8 and 10 kGy did not show enzymatic browning and kept the good sensorial characteristics. (author) 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Cassava brown streak disease in Rwanda, the associated viruses and disease phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munganyinka, E; Ateka, E M; Kihurani, A W; Kanyange, M C; Tairo, F; Sseruwagi, P; Ndunguru, J

    2018-02-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) was first observed on cassava ( Manihot esculenta ) in Rwanda in 2009. In 2014 eight major cassava-growing districts in the country were surveyed to determine the distribution and variability of symptom phenotypes associated with CBSD, and the genetic diversity of cassava brown streak viruses. Distribution of the CBSD symptom phenotypes and their combinations varied greatly between districts, cultivars and their associated viruses. The symptoms on leaf alone recorded the highest (32.2%) incidence, followed by roots (25.7%), leaf + stem (20.3%), leaf + root (10.4%), leaf + stem + root (5.2%), stem + root (3.7%), and stem (2.5%) symptoms. Analysis by RT-PCR showed that single infections of Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) were most common (74.2% of total infections) and associated with all the seven phenotypes studied. Single infections of Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) were predominant (15.3% of total infections) in CBSD-affected plants showing symptoms on stems alone. Mixed infections (CBSV + UCBSV) comprised 10.5% of total infections and predominated in the combinations of leaf + stem + root phenotypes. Phylogenetic analysis and the estimates of evolutionary divergence, using partial sequences (210 nt) of the coat protein gene, revealed that in Rwanda there is one type of CBSV and an indication of diverse UCBSV. This study is the first to report the occurrence and distribution of both CBSV and UCBSV based on molecular techniques in Rwanda.

  1. A standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba prevents locomotion impairment induced by cassava juice in Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Eduardo; Vázquez-Luna, Alma; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan F.; Díaz-Sobac, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The long-term consumption of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) juice produce neurotoxic effects in the rat, characterized by an increased motor activity in the open field test and presence of uncoordinated swim (i.e., lateral swimming), in the swim test; which has been associated with damage in the hippocampus (CA1). On the other hand, flavonoids content in the Ginkgo biloba extract has been reported to produces neuroprotective effects at experimental level; therefore we hypothesized that G. biloba extract may prevents the motor alterations produced by cassava juice and reduce cellular damage in hippocampal neurons of the rat. In present study the effect of vehicle, cassava juice (linamarin, 0.30 mg/kg), G. biloba extract (dry extract, 160 mg/kg), and combination of treatment were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor and hippocampal alterations in adult male Wistar rats. All treatments were administered once per day, every 24 h, for 28 days, by oral rout. The effect was evaluated at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of treatment. The results show that cassava group from day 14 of treatment increase crossing and rearing in the open field test, as compared with the vehicle group; while in the swim test produces an uncoordinated swim characterized by the lateral swim. In this same group an increase in the number of damage neurons in the hippocampus (CA1) was identified. Interestingly, both behavioral and neuronal alterations produced by cassava juice administration were prevented by treatment with G. biloba extract. The results shown that G. biloba extract exert a protective effect against behavioral and neuronal damage associated with consumption of cassava juice in the rat. These effects are possibly related with flavonoid content in the G. biloba extract. PMID:25309441

  2. Rooting for cassava: insights into photosynthesis and associated physiology as a route to improve yield potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Amanda P; Massenburg, Lynnicia N; Jaiswal, Deepak; Cheng, Siyuan; Shekar, Rachel; Long, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Contents 50 I. 50 II. 52 III. 54 IV. 55 V. 57 VI. 57 VII. 59 60 References 61 SUMMARY: As a consequence of an increase in world population, food demand is expected to grow by up to 110% in the next 30-35 yr. The population of sub-Saharan Africa is projected to increase by > 120%. In this region, cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the second most important source of calories and contributes c. 30% of the daily calorie requirements per person. Despite its importance, the average yield of cassava in Africa has not increased significantly since 1961. An evaluation of modern cultivars of cassava showed that the interception efficiency (ɛ i ) of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the efficiency of conversion of that intercepted PAR (ɛ c ) are major opportunities for genetic improvement of the yield potential. This review examines what is known of the physiological processes underlying productivity in cassava and seeks to provide some strategies and directions toward yield improvement through genetic alterations to physiology to increase ɛ i and ɛ c . Possible physiological limitations, as well as environmental constraints, are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Reduction of cyanide levels in sweet cassava leaves grown in Busia County, Kenya based on different processing methods

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    Ojiambo, O.C.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, is the third most important carbohydrate food source around the world and in particular in sub-Sahara Africa. Both the roots and leaves have dual antagonistic contribution of which; one being nutritional value and secondly, contain cyanogenic glycosides. The latter when hydrolyzed by linamarase produces poisonous hydrogen cyanide attributed to among other factors, the methods of processing. Little has been reported on processing methods and information downstream will be great given the toxicity. This report assessed the variation of cyanide levels following different processing methods of leaves of sweet cassava varieties. A number of conditions were varied to mimic affordable and as well sustainable processing methods. Processing prior to boiling for up to 25 minutes involved leaves being pounded and pounded then soaked in water. Determination of cyanide was done using picrate papers and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The cyanide levels ranged from 576.30 ± 0.32 - 128.34 ± 0.34 mg HCN Equivalence/Kg in raw cassava leaves that significantly reduced up to 88.45% with the processing’s (P< 0.001. Longer duration of boiling cassava leaves with prior processings’ of pounding and that of pounding and soaking is promoted to minimize the risks associated with cyanide poisoning.

  4. Reactive oxygen species regulate leaf pulvinus abscission zone cell separation in response to water-deficit stress in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenbin; Wang, Gan; Li, Yayun; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Peng; Peng, Ming

    2016-02-22

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) plant resists water-deficit stress by shedding leaves leading to adaptive water-deficit condition. Transcriptomic, physiological, cellular, molecular, metabolic, and transgenic methods were used to study the mechanism of cassava abscission zone (AZ) cell separation under water-deficit stress. Microscopic observation indicated that AZ cell separation initiated at the later stages during water-deficit stress. Transcriptome profiling of AZ suggested that differential expression genes of AZ under stress mainly participate in reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathway. The key genes involved in hydrogen peroxide biosynthesis and metabolism showed significantly higher expression levels in AZ than non-separating tissues adjacent to the AZ under stress. Significantly higher levels of hydrogen peroxide correlated with hydrogen peroxide biosynthesis related genes and AZ cell separation was detected by microscopic observation, colorimetric detection and GC-MS analyses under stress. Co-overexpression of the ROS-scavenging proteins SOD and CAT1 in cassava decreased the levels of hydrogen peroxide in AZ under water-deficit stress. The cell separation of the pulvinus AZ also delayed in co-overexpression of the ROS-scavenging proteins SOD and CAT1 plants both in vitro and at the plant level. Together, the results indicated that ROS play an important regulatory role in the process of cassava leaf abscission under water-deficit stress.

  5. Optimization of thermostable α- amylase production by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 in solid-state fermentation using cassava fibrous residue

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    Kar Shaktimay

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of α- amylase under solid state fermentation by Streptomyces erumpens MTCC 7317 was investigated using cassava fibrous residue, one of the major solid waste released during extraction of starch from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to evaluate the effect of the main variables, i.e., incubation period (60 h, moisture holding capacity (60% and temperature (50(0C on enzyme production by applying a full factorial Central Composite Design. Varying the inoculum concentration (5-25% of S. erumpens showed that 15% inoculum (v/w, 2.5 x 10(6 CFU/ml was the optimum for α- amylase production. Among the different nitrogen sources supplemented, beef extract was most suitable for enzyme production. The application of S. erumpens enzyme in liquefaction of soluble starch and cassava starch was studied. The maximum hydrolysis of soluble starch (85% and cassava starch (70% was obtained with the application of 5 ml crude enzyme (17185 units after 5 h of incubation.

  6. Bioinformatic identification of cassava miRNAs differentially expressed in response to infection by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background microRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA molecules that control gene expression by silencing complementary mRNA. They play a crucial role in stress response in plants, including biotic stress. Some miRNAs are known to respond to bacterial infection in Arabidopsis thaliana but it is currently unknown whether these responses are conserved in other plants and whether novel species-specific miRNAs could have a role in defense. Results This work addresses the role of miRNAs in the Manihot esculenta (cassava)-Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam) interaction. Next-generation sequencing was used for analyzing small RNA libraries from cassava tissue infected and non-infected with Xam. A full repertoire of cassava miRNAs was characterized, which included 56 conserved families and 12 novel cassava-specific families. Endogenous targets were predicted in the cassava genome for many miRNA families. Some miRNA families' expression was increased in response to bacterial infection, including miRNAs known to mediate defense by targeting auxin-responding factors as well as some cassava-specific miRNAs. Some bacteria-repressed miRNAs included families involved in copper regulation as well as families targeting disease resistance genes. Putative transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) were identified in the MIRNA genes promoter region and compared to promoter regions in miRNA target genes and protein coding genes, revealing differences between MIRNA gene transcriptional regulation and other genes. Conclusions Taken together these results suggest that miRNAs in cassava play a role in defense against Xam, and that the mechanism is similar to what's known in Arabidopsis and involves some of the same families. PMID:22361011

  7. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation

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    Alese M. Colehour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal.

  8. Improving Genomic Prediction in Cassava Field Experiments Using Spatial Analysis

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    Ani A. Elias

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is an important staple food in sub-Saharan Africa. Breeding experiments were conducted at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture in cassava to select elite parents. Taking into account the heterogeneity in the field while evaluating these trials can increase the accuracy in estimation of breeding values. We used an exploratory approach using the parametric spatial kernels Power, Spherical, and Gaussian to determine the best kernel for a given scenario. The spatial kernel was fit simultaneously with a genomic kernel in a genomic selection model. Predictability of these models was tested through a 10-fold cross-validation method repeated five times. The best model was chosen as the one with the lowest prediction root mean squared error compared to that of the base model having no spatial kernel. Results from our real and simulated data studies indicated that predictability can be increased by accounting for spatial variation irrespective of the heritability of the trait. In real data scenarios we observed that the accuracy can be increased by a median value of 3.4%. Through simulations, we showed that a 21% increase in accuracy can be achieved. We also found that Range (row directional spatial kernels, mostly Gaussian, explained the spatial variance in 71% of the scenarios when spatial correlation was significant.

  9. Improving Genomic Prediction in Cassava Field Experiments Using Spatial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Ani A; Rabbi, Ismail; Kulakow, Peter; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2018-01-04

    Cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important staple food in sub-Saharan Africa. Breeding experiments were conducted at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture in cassava to select elite parents. Taking into account the heterogeneity in the field while evaluating these trials can increase the accuracy in estimation of breeding values. We used an exploratory approach using the parametric spatial kernels Power, Spherical, and Gaussian to determine the best kernel for a given scenario. The spatial kernel was fit simultaneously with a genomic kernel in a genomic selection model. Predictability of these models was tested through a 10-fold cross-validation method repeated five times. The best model was chosen as the one with the lowest prediction root mean squared error compared to that of the base model having no spatial kernel. Results from our real and simulated data studies indicated that predictability can be increased by accounting for spatial variation irrespective of the heritability of the trait. In real data scenarios we observed that the accuracy can be increased by a median value of 3.4%. Through simulations, we showed that a 21% increase in accuracy can be achieved. We also found that Range (row) directional spatial kernels, mostly Gaussian, explained the spatial variance in 71% of the scenarios when spatial correlation was significant. Copyright © 2018 Elias et al.

  10. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colehour, Alese M; Meadow, James F; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2014-01-01

    Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal.

  11. Experimental poisoning by cassava wastewater in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir C. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The processing of Manihot esculenta (cassava tubers yield different by-products, including cassava wastewater, which is the liquid pressed out of the tuber after it has been mechanically crushed. Cyanide poisoning after ingestion of cassava wastewater has been reported in ruminants and pigs in Northeastern Brazil. With the aim of studying its toxicity, cassava wastewater was administered orally to six sheep at doses of 0.99, 0.75, 0.70, 0.63, and 0.5 mg of hydrocyanic acid kg-1 body weight, which corresponded to 14.2, 10.6, 9.8, 8.89, and 7.1 mL of wastewater kg-1. On the second day, the sheep received a volume of wastewater which corresponded to 0.46, 0.34, 0.31, 0.28, and 0.23 mg of HCN kg-1. A sheep used as control received 9.9 mL of water kg-1 BW. Sheep that received from 0.75 to 0.99 mg kg-1 of HCN on the first day exhibited severe clinical signs of poisoning, and the sheep that received 0.63 and 0.5 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs. All sheep were successfully treated with sodium thiosulfate. On the second day, only the sheep that received 0.46 mg kg-1 and 0.34 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs and recovered spontaneously. The concentration of HCN in the wastewater was 71.69±2.19 μg mL-1 immediately after production, 30.56±2.45 μg mL-1 after 24 hours, and 24.25±1.28 μg mL-1 after 48 hours. The picric acid paper test was strongly positive 5 minutes after production; moderately positive 24 hours after production, and negative 48 hours after production. We conclude that cassava wastewater is highly toxic to sheep if ingested immediately after production, but rapidly loses toxicity in 24-48 hours.

  12. Effect of explant density and medium culture volumes on cassava micropropagation in Temporal Immersion System

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    Milagros Basail

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the need of producing high quality planting material available to cassava growers, it has been necessary to look for alternatives in order to increase the efficiancy of in vitro propagation methods and their automation, such as the use of the Temporal Immersion Systems (RITA®. This work was carried out to increase the multiplication coefficient for cassava mass propagation through out Temporal Immersion Systems. The clone ‘CMC-40’ was used. Different medium volumes per explant, and material density per unit at a given Immersion frequency were tested. The highest results were obtained in the 2.8 multiplication coefficient with 20 ml culture medium volume and 3.2 using a density of 40 explants/flask. When the Temporal Immersion System is used with these results, a more efficient method for cassava micropropagation is established and also higher quality vitroplants for the rooting stage and further acclimatization in field conditions are produced. Key Words: Tissue Culture, liquid culture medium, Manihot esculenta Crantz

  13. Linamarase Expression in Cassava Cultivars with Roots of Low- and High-Cyanide Content1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, María Angélica; Vásquez, Valeria; Matehus, Juan; Aldao, Rafael Rangel

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the expression and localization of linamarase in roots of two cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars of low and high cyanide. Two different patterns of linamarase activity were observed. In the low-cyanide type, young leaves displayed very high enzyme activity during the early plant growing stage (3 months), whereas in root peel, the activity increased progressively to reach a peak in 11-month-old plants. Conversely, in the high-cyanide cultivar (HCV), root peel linamarase activity decreased during the growth cycle, whereas in expanded leaves linamarase activity peaked in 11-month-old plants. The accumulation of linamarin showed a similar pattern in both cultivars, although a higher concentration was always found in the HCV. Linamarase was found mainly in laticifer cells of petioles and roots of both cultivars with no significant differences between them. At the subcellular level, there were sharp differences because linamarase was found mainly in the cell walls of the HCV, whereas in the low-cyanide cultivar, the enzyme was present in vacuoles and cell wall of laticifer cells. Reverse transcriptase-PCR on cassava tissues showed no expression of linamarase in cassava roots, thus, the transport of linamarase from shoots to roots through laticifers is proposed. PMID:12177481

  14. Iron Biofortification and Homeostasis in Transgenic Cassava Roots Expressing the Algal Iron Assimilatory Gene, FEA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihemere, Uzoma E.; Narayanan, Narayanan N.; Sayre, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    We have engineered the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory gene, FEA1, in its storage roots with the objective of enhancing the root nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36 ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500 g meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 gene in storage roots did not alter iron levels in leaves. Transgenic plants also had normal levels of zinc in leaves and roots consistent with the specific uptake of ferrous iron mediated by the FEA1 protein. Relative to wild-type plants, fibrous roots of FEA1 expressing plants had reduced Fe (III) chelate reductase activity consistent with the more efficient uptake of iron in the transgenic plants. We also show that multiple cassava genes involved in iron homeostasis have altered tissue-specific patterns of expression in leaves, stems, and roots of transgenic plants consistent with increased iron sink strength in transgenic roots. These results are discussed in terms of strategies for the iron biofortification of plants. PMID:22993514

  15. CG gene body DNA methylation changes and evolution of duplicated genes in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Beyene, Getu; Zhai, Jixian; Feng, Suhua; Fahlgren, Noah; Taylor, Nigel J; Bart, Rebecca; Carrington, James C; Jacobsen, Steven E; Ausin, Israel

    2015-11-03

    DNA methylation is important for the regulation of gene expression and the silencing of transposons in plants. Here we present genome-wide methylation patterns at single-base pair resolution for cassava (Manihot esculenta, cultivar TME 7), a crop with a substantial impact in the agriculture of subtropical and tropical regions. On average, DNA methylation levels were higher in all three DNA sequence contexts (CG, CHG, and CHH, where H equals A, T, or C) than those of the most well-studied model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. As in other plants, DNA methylation was found both on transposons and in the transcribed regions (bodies) of many genes. Consistent with these patterns, at least one cassava gene copy of all of the known components of Arabidopsis DNA methylation pathways was identified. Methylation of LTR transposons (GYPSY and COPIA) was found to be unusually high compared with other types of transposons, suggesting that the control of the activity of these two types of transposons may be especially important. Analysis of duplicated gene pairs resulting from whole-genome duplication showed that gene body DNA methylation and gene expression levels have coevolved over short evolutionary time scales, reinforcing the positive relationship between gene body methylation and high levels of gene expression. Duplicated genes with the most divergent gene body methylation and expression patterns were found to have distinct biological functions and may have been under natural or human selection for cassava traits.

  16. On-farm testing of selected cassava clones | Saleh | African Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers prefered clones ZNZ/98/036, ZNZ/98/034 and ZNZ/98/084 due to sweetness, disease resistance, root yields and dry matter content. Key Words: Diseases, Manihot esculenta, pests. RÉSUMÉ Plusieurs variétés locales de manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) plantées au Zanzibar sont sucrées et acceptables pour les ...

  17. Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of liquid waste, press water and pond water, produced in the cassava flour industry, and of antitoxic sodium thiosulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Lilian Ávila; Düsman, Elisângela; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2014-02-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a plant used as food and an ingredient in industry, contains cyanogenic glycosides. The cassava root contains wastewater, popularly known as manipueira, which is a toxic substance. Its ingestion by animals causes poisoning although they react positively to treatment with sodium thiosulfate. The present research evaluates the cytotoxicity and the mutagenicity of liquid waste produced in the process of industrialization of the bitter cassava, olho-junto variety. The liquid wastes are characterized as press water, which is obtained when the cassava roots are pressed; pond water, which is press water stored in impounded ponds; and a solution of sodium thiosulfate, pure and with other waste. The system tests comprised root meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. and bone marrow cells of Rattus norvegicus. Treatment with saline solution was cytotoxic for Allium cepa L. and significantly reduced cell division rate. Although no treatment was cytotoxic in any of the tests with rats, the thiosulfate solution was clastogenic for the chromosomal aberrations test. Since it is harmful to the genetic material submitted within the conditions of current research, sodium thiosulfate should only be used in emergency conditions in which the benefits exceed the risks. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Empowering biotechnology in southern Africa: establishment of a robust transformation platform for the production of transgenic industry-preferred cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, C C; Rossin, C B; Gruissem, W; Vanderschuren, H; Rey, M E C

    2013-01-25

    Knowledge and technology transfer to African laboratories and farmers is an important objective for achieving food security and sustainable crop production on the sub-Saharan African continent. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a vital source of calories for more than a billion people in developing countries, and its potential industrial use for starch and bioethanol in the tropics is increasingly being recognized. However, cassava production remains constrained by the susceptibility of the crop to several biotic and abiotic stresses. For more than a decade, biotechnology has been considered an attractive tool to improve cassava as it substantially circumvents the limitations of traditional breeding, which is particularly time-consuming and tedious because of the high heterozygosity of the crop. A major constraint to the development of biotechnological approaches for cassava improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. Despite some success achieved in genetic modification of the model cassava cultivar Tropical Manihot Series (TMS), TMS 60444, in some European and U.S. laboratories, the lack of a reproducible and robust protocol has not allowed the establishment of a routine transformation system in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we optimized a robust and efficient protocol developed at ETH Zurich to successfully establish transformation of a commercially cultivated South African landrace, T200, and compared this with the benchmark model cultivar TMS 60444. Results from our study demonstrated high transformation rates for both T200 (23 transgenic lines from 100 friable embryogenic callus (FEC) clusters) compared with TMS 60444 (32 transgenic lines from 100 FEC clusters). The success in transforming landraces or farmer-preferred cultivars has been limited, and the high transformation rate of an industry-preferred landrace in this study is encouraging for a feasible transformation program for cassava

  19. Isozyme-based genetic fingerprinting of Manihot sp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    1973-06-22

    Jun 22, 1973 ... Isozyme-based genetic fingerprinting of Manihot sp. Efisue, A. A.. Development of Crop & Soil Science, University of Port Harcourt P.M.B. 5323 Choba, Port Harcourt,. Rivers State, Nigeria. (Received 29:10:13, Accepted 20:12:13). Abstract. Many cassava varieties have been released into farmers' fields in ...

  20. Genetic modification of cassava for enhanced starch production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihemere, Uzoma; Arias-Garzon, Diana; Lawrence, Susan; Sayre, Richard

    2006-07-01

    To date, transgenic approaches to biofortify subsistence crops have been rather limited. This is particularly true for the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Cassava has one of the highest rates of CO(2) fixation and sucrose synthesis for any C3 plant, but rarely reaches its yield potentials in the field. It was our hypothesis that starch production in cassava tuberous roots could be increased substantially by increasing the sink strength for carbohydrate. To test this hypothesis, we generated transgenic plants with enhanced tuberous root ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) activity. This was achieved by expressing a modified form of the bacterial glgC gene under the control of a Class I patatin promoter. AGPase catalyses the rate-limiting step in starch biosynthesis, and therefore the expression of a more active bacterial form of the enzyme was expected to lead to increased starch production. To facilitate maximal AGPase activity, we modified the Escherichia coli glgC gene (encoding AGPase) by site-directed mutagenesis (G336D) to reduce allosteric feedback regulation by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Transgenic plants (three) expressing the glgC gene had up to 70% higher AGPase activity than control plants when assayed under conditions optimal for plant and not bacterial AGPase activity. Plants having the highest AGPase activities had up to a 2.6-fold increase in total tuberous root biomass when grown under glasshouse conditions. In addition, plants with the highest tuberous root AGPase activity had significant increases in above-ground biomass, consistent with a possible reduction in feedback inhibition on photosynthetic carbon fixation. These results demonstrate that targeted modification of enzymes regulating source-sink relationships in crop plants having high carbohydrate source strengths is an effective strategy for increasing carbohydrate yields in sink tissues.

  1. A geographic distribution database of the Neotropical cassava whitefly complex (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Hazzi, Nicolas A; Escobar-Prieto, David; Paz-Jojoa, Dario; Parsa, Soroush

    2015-01-01

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) are represented by more than 1,500 herbivorous species around the world. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta), a primary food crop in the tropics. Particularly destructive is a complex of Neotropical cassava whiteflies whose distribution remains restricted to their native range. Despite their importance, neither their distribution, nor that of their associated parasitoids, is well documented. This paper therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence records of Neotropical cassava whiteflies and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. The dataset consists of 1,311 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT's Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC, Cali, Colombia). Eleven species of whiteflies, 14 species of parasitoids and one species of hyperparasitoids are reported. Approximately 66% of the whitefly records belong to Aleurotrachelus socialis and 16% to Bemisia tuberculata. The parasitoids with most records are Encarsia hispida, Amitus macgowni and Encarsia bellottii for Aleurotrachelus socialis; and Encarsia sophia for Bemisia tuberculata. The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).

  2. Evaluation of the Disintegrant Properties of Native Starches of Five New Cassava Varieties in Paracetamol Tablet Formulations

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    Frank Kumah Adjei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The disintegrant potential of native starches of five new cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. varieties developed by the Crops Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG was studied in paracetamol tablet formulations. The yield of the starches ranged from 8.0 to 26.7%. The starches were basic (pH: 8.1–9.9, with satisfactory moisture content (≤15%, swelling capacity (≥20%, ash values (0.05 to those containing maize starch BP. The disintegration times of the tablets decreased with increase in concentration of the cassava starches. The tablets passed the disintegration test (DT ≤ 15 min and exhibited faster disintegration times (p>0.05 than those containing maize starch BP. The disintegration efficiency ratio (DER and the disintegration parameter DERc of the tablets showed that cassava starches V20, V40, and V50 had better disintegrant activity than maize starch BP. The tablets passed the dissolution test for immediate release tablets (≥70% release in 45 min with dissolution rates similar to those containing maize starch BP.

  3. Alternate hosts of African cassava mosaic virus and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Ogbe, Francis O; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Lava Kumar, P; Dixon, Alfred G O; Hughes, Jaqueline d'A; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2008-01-01

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) caused by African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV) is the major constraint to cassava production in Nigeria. Sequences of the DNA-A component of ACMV and EACMCV isolates from leguminous plant species (Senna occidentalis, Leucana leucocephala and Glycine max), castor oil plant (Ricinus communis), a weed host (Combretum confertum) and a wild species of cassava (Manihot glaziovii) were determined. All ACMV isolates from these hosts showed 96-98% nucleotide sequence identity with cassava isolates from West Africa. EACMCV was found only in four hosts (S. occidentalis, L. leucocephala, C. confertum, M. glaziovii), and sequences of these isolates showed 96-99% identity with cassava isolates from West Africa. These results provide definitive evidence for the natural occurrence of ACMV and EACMCV in plant species besides cassava.

  4. Weeds and their control in cassava | Melifonwu | African Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate weed control methods for resource-limited cassava farmers, namely, cultural and biological, as well as an integrated system which combines two or more weed control methods at low input levels are suggested as ways of ensuring sustained production of cassava in developing countries. Key Words: Manihot ...

  5. Interspecies and Intraspecies Analysis of Trehalose Contents and the Biosynthesis Pathway Gene Family Reveals Crucial Roles of Trehalose in Osmotic-Stress Tolerance in Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bingying; Fu, Lili; Zhang, Dan; He, Xiuquan; Chen, Qiang; Peng, Ming; Zhang, Jiaming

    2016-01-01

    Trehalose is a nonreducing α,α-1,1-disaccharide in a wide range of organisms, and has diverse biological functions that range from serving as an energy source to acting as a protective/signal sugar. However, significant amounts of trehalose have rarely been detected in higher plants, and the function of trehalose in the drought-tolerant crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is unclear. We measured soluble sugar concentrations of nine plant species with differing levels of drought tolerance and 41 cassava varieties using high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD). Significantly high amounts of trehalose were identified in drought-tolerant crops cassava, Jatropha curcas, and castor bean (Ricinus communis). All cassava varieties tested contained high amounts of trehalose, although their concentrations varied from 0.23 to 1.29 mg·g−1 fresh weight (FW), and the trehalose level was highly correlated with dehydration stress tolerance of detached leaves of the varieties. Moreover, the trehalose concentrations in cassava leaves increased 2.3–5.5 folds in response to osmotic stress simulated by 20% PEG 6000. Through database mining, 24 trehalose pathway genes, including 12 trehalose-6-phosphate synthases (TPS), 10 trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatases (TPP), and two trehalases were identified in cassava. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that there were four cassava TPS genes (MeTPS1–4) that were orthologous to the solely active TPS gene (AtTPS1 and OsTPS1) in Arabidopsis and rice, and a new TPP subfamily was identified in cassava, suggesting that the trehalose biosynthesis activities in cassava had potentially been enhanced in evolutionary history. RNA-seq analysis indicated that MeTPS1 was expressed at constitutionally high level before and after osmotic stress, while other trehalose pathway genes were either up-regulated or down-regulated, which may explain why cassava accumulated high level of trehalose under

  6. Interspecies and Intraspecies Analysis of Trehalose Contents and the Biosynthesis Pathway Gene Family Reveals Crucial Roles of Trehalose in Osmotic-Stress Tolerance in Cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingying Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose is a nonreducing α,α-1,1-disaccharide in a wide range of organisms, and has diverse biological functions that range from serving as an energy source to acting as a protective/signal sugar. However, significant amounts of trehalose have rarely been detected in higher plants, and the function of trehalose in the drought-tolerant crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is unclear. We measured soluble sugar concentrations of nine plant species with differing levels of drought tolerance and 41 cassava varieties using high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD. Significantly high amounts of trehalose were identified in drought-tolerant crops cassava, Jatropha curcas, and castor bean (Ricinus communis. All cassava varieties tested contained high amounts of trehalose, although their concentrations varied from 0.23 to 1.29 mg·g−1 fresh weight (FW, and the trehalose level was highly correlated with dehydration stress tolerance of detached leaves of the varieties. Moreover, the trehalose concentrations in cassava leaves increased 2.3–5.5 folds in response to osmotic stress simulated by 20% PEG 6000. Through database mining, 24 trehalose pathway genes, including 12 trehalose-6-phosphate synthases (TPS, 10 trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatases (TPP, and two trehalases were identified in cassava. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that there were four cassava TPS genes (MeTPS1–4 that were orthologous to the solely active TPS gene (AtTPS1 and OsTPS1 in Arabidopsis and rice, and a new TPP subfamily was identified in cassava, suggesting that the trehalose biosynthesis activities in cassava had potentially been enhanced in evolutionary history. RNA-seq analysis indicated that MeTPS1 was expressed at constitutionally high level before and after osmotic stress, while other trehalose pathway genes were either up-regulated or down-regulated, which may explain why cassava accumulated high level of trehalose

  7. Status of cassava mosaic begomoviruses in farmers’ fields in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K. Torkpo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey for cassava mosaic disease (CMD was carried out in Ghana from 2007−2008 to determine the status of cassava mosaic begomoviruses in farmers’ fields. The survey covered cassava growing areas in five major cassava producing regions of Ghana. Out of 136 fields visited, the plants in 5% were not affected by CMD, 18% contained plants with mild symptoms, whereas 77% had cassava with moderately severe or severe symptoms. A total of 412 cassava leaf samples and a symptomatic Manihot glaziovii sample were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction. African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV alone was detected in 42.0% of symptomatic cassava leaves with the remaining 58% being mixed infected by ACMV and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV. Mixed ACMV and EACMV infections were detected in symptomatic M. glaziovii, two non-symptomatic cassava samples and in individual whitefly vectors. EACMV was not detected alone in any cassava or whitefly sample. South African cassava mosaic virus (SACMV, Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV, East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus (EACMZV and the Uganda strain of EACMV were not detected in any cassava or whitefly sample. The occurrence of high proportion of mixed infections of cassava by cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs, which could lead to emergence of new species or variants in the country, require concerted effort to mitigate the CMD problem.

  8. Biofortification of essential nutritional compounds and trace elements in rice and cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, C; Poletti, S; Zhang, P; Gruissem, W

    2006-05-01

    Plant biotechnology can make important contributions to food security and nutritional improvement. For example, the development of 'Golden Rice' by Professor Ingo Potrykus was a milestone in the application of gene technology to deliver both increased nutritional qualities and health improvement to wide sections of the human population. Mineral nutrient and protein deficiency as well as food security remain the most important challenges for developing countries. Current projects are addressing these issues in two major staple crops, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and rice. The tropical root crop cassava is a major source of food for approximately 600 million of the population worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa >200 million of the population rely on cassava as their major source of dietary energy. The nutritional quality of the cassava root is not sufficient to meet all dietary needs. Rice is the staple food for half the world population, providing approximately 20% of the per capita energy and 13% of the protein for human consumption worldwide. In many developing countries the dietary contributions of rice are substantially greater (29.3% dietary energy and 29.1% dietary protein). The current six most popular 'mega' rice varieties (in terms of popularity and acreage), including Chinese hybrid rice, have an incomplete amino acid profile and contain limited amounts of essential micronutrients. Rice lines with improved Fe contents have been developed using genes that have functions in Fe absorption, translocation and accumulation in the plant, as well as improved Fe bioavailability in the human intestine. Current developments in biotechnology-assisted plant improvement are reviewed and the potential of the technology in addressing human nutrition and health are discussed.

  9. Two transcriptional activators of N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase 2 and melatonin biosynthesis in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Guoyin; Bai, Yujing; Xia, Feiyu; He, Chaozu; Shi, Haitao; Foyer, Christine

    2017-10-13

    Similar to the situation in animals, melatonin biosynthesis is regulated by four sequential enzymatic steps in plants. Although the melatonin synthesis genes have been identified in various plants, the upstream transcription factors of them remain unknown. In this study on cassava (Manihot esculenta), we found that MeWRKY79 and heat-shock transcription factor 20 (MeHsf20) targeted the W-box and the heat-stress elements (HSEs) in the promoter of N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase 2 (MeASMT2), respectively. The interaction between MeWRKY79, MeHsf20, and the MeASMT2 promoter was evidenced by the activation of promoter activity and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in cassava protoplasts, and by an in vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The transcripts of MeWRKY79, MeHsf20, and MeASMT2 were all regulated by a 22-amino acid flagellin peptide (flg22) and by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv manihotis (Xam). In common with the phenotype of MeASMT2, transient expression of MeWRKY79 and MeHsf20 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves conferred improved disease resistance. Through virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in cassava, we found that MeWRKY79- and MeHsf20-silenced plants showed lower transcripts of MeASMT2 and less accumulation of melatonin, which resulted in disease sensitivity that could be reversed by exogenous melatonin. Taken together, these results indicate that MeASMT2 is a target of MeWRKY79 and MeHsf20 in plant disease resistance. This study identifies novel upstream transcription factors of melatonin synthesis genes in cassava, thus extending our knowledge of the complex modulation of melatonin synthesis in plant defense. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the WRKY gene family in cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxie eWei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The WRKY family, a large family of transcription factors (TFs found in higher plants, plays central roles in many aspects of physiological processes and adaption to environment. However, little information is available regarding the WRKY family in cassava (Manihot esculenta. In the present study, 85 WRKY genes were identified from the cassava genome and classified into three groups according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc-finger structure. Conserved motif analysis showed that all of the identified MeWRKYs had the conserved WRKY domain. Gene structure analysis suggested that the number of introns in MeWRKY genes varied from 1 to 5, with the majority of MeWRKY genes containing 3 exons. Expression profiles of MeWRKY genes in different tissues and in response to drought stress were analyzed using the RNA-seq technique. The results showed that 72 MeWRKY genes had differential expression in their transcript abundance and 78 MeWRKY genes were differentially expressed in response to drought stresses in different accessions, indicating their contribution to plant developmental processes and drought stress resistance in cassava. Finally, the expression of 9 WRKY genes was analyzed by qRT-PCR under osmotic, salt, ABA, H2O2, and cold treatments, indicating that MeWRKYs may be involved in different signaling pathways. Taken together, this systematic analysis identifies some tissue-specific and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MeWRKY genes for further functional assays in planta, and provides a solid foundation for understanding of abiotic stress responses and signal transduction mediated by WRKYs in cassava.

  11. Development of cassava plants and its mycorrhizal association in soil supplemented with sugarcane agroindustrial residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Messias Leal Nascimento

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of organic agroindustrial residues on agriculture can be one way to improve the development and chemical composition of plants, reducing the cost with chemical fertilizers and impacts generated by the excessive use of them. Sugarcane agroindustrial residue has been generated in high quantity in Brazilian semiarid region and can be applied to cassava crop to improve its growth. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of application of sugarcane agroindustrial residue on the vegetative development, chemical composition and mycorrhizal association of cassava plants (Manihot esculenta var. Engana ladrão. It was performed an experiment in greenhouse with completely randomized design with four treatments of addition of sugarcane agroindustrial residue (0, 5, 10 and 15% with nine replicates. The addition of sugarcane agroindustrial residue increased fresh dry root biomass, leaf area, crude protein and mineral matter, without reducing the mycorrhizal colonization and glomerospores number. This type of residue can be one alternative to improve the nutritional value of these fodder.

  12. Study of culture media for in vitro storage of cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymé Rayas

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant tissue culture constitutes an alternative for germplasm conservation in case of vegetatively propagated species. This approach permits to maintain collections in small places free from attach of diseases and catastrophes. Eleven variants from MS culture media were tested. Variants consist of different sucrose (20, 30 and 40 g.l-1 and manitol (0, 10, 20 y 30 g.l-1 concentrations in order to decrease the subculture number in the in vitro storage of ‘Señorita’ and ‘CEMSA 74-725’ clones. Evaluations were carried out nine months after in vitro implantation based on: height (cm, internode number by plant, number of active leave, number of active roots and surviving percentage. After storage, explants were incubated for recovery in the described culture medium for in vitro cassava growing. A culture medium with the addition of 40 g.l-1 sucrose, 0.02 mg.l-1 BAP, 0.1 mg.l-1 de GA3 and 0.01 mg.l-1 ANA is recommended. Key Words: Manihot esculenta, micropropagation, genetics resourses

  13. Marker-assisted selection in common beans and cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, M.W.; Fregene, M.A.; Beebe, S.E.; Ceballos, H.

    2007-01-01

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) is reviewed in relation to the breeding system of each crop and the breeding goals of International Agricultural Research Centres (IARCs) and National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS). The importance of each crop is highlighted and examples of successful use of molecular markers within selection cycles and breeding programmes are given for each. For common beans, examples are given of gene tagging for several traits that are important for bean breeding for tropical environments and aspects considered that contribute to successful application of MAS. Simple traits that are tagged with easy-to-use markers are discussed first as they were the first traits prioritized for breeding at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) and with NARS partners in Central America, Colombia and eastern Africa. The specific genes for MAS selection were the bgm-1 gene for bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) resistance and the bc-3 gene for bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) resistance. MAS was efficient for reducing breeding costs under both circumstances as land and labour savings resulted from eliminating susceptible individuals. The use of markers for other simply inherited traits in marker-assisted backcrossing and introgression across Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools is suggested. The possibility of using MAS for quantitative traits such as low soil phosphorus adaptation is also discussed as are the advantages and disadvantages of MAS in a breeding programme. For cassava, the use of multiple flanking markers for selection of a dominant gene, CMD2 for cassava mosaic virus (CMV) resistance at CIAT and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) as well as with NARS partners in the United Republic of Tanzania using a participatory plant breeding scheme are reviewed. MAS for the same gene is important during introgression of cassava green mite

  14. Characterization of different cassava samples by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Caracterizacao de diferentes amostras de mandioca por espectroscopia de ressonancia magnetica nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iulianelli, Gisele C.V.; Tavares, Maria I.B., E-mail: gisele@ima.ufrj.br [Centro de Tecnologia, Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is grown in all Brazilian states, being an important product in the diet of Brazilians. For many families of the North and Northeast states, it may represent the main energy source. The cassava root flour has high levels of starch, in addition to containing fiber, lipids and some minerals. There is, however, great genetic variability, which results in differentiation in its chemical composition and structural aspect. Motivated by the economic, nutritional and pharmacological importance of this product, this work is aimed at characterizing six cassava flour samples by NMR spectroscopy. The spectra revealed the main chemical groups. Furthermore, the results confirmed differences on chemical and structural aspect of the samples. For instance, the F1 sample is richer in carbohydrates, while the F4 sample has higher proportion of glycolipids, the F2 sample has higher amylose content and the F6 sample exhibits a greater diversity of glycolipid types. Regarding the molecular structure, the NMR spectra indicated that the F1 sample is more organized at the molecular level, while the F3 and F5 samples are similar in amorphicity and in the molecular packing. (author)

  15. Spatial distribution of mercury and arsenic levels in water, soil and cassava plants in a community with long history of gold mining in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyanza, Elias C; Dewey, Deborah; Thomas, Deborah S K; Davey, Mark; Ngallaba, Sospatro E

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the spatial distribution of total mercury (THg) and total arsenic (TAs) in water, soil and cassava (Manihot esculenta) (leaves and roots) samples taken from areas in Rwamagasa village in northwestern Tanzania where daily living activities occur in close proximity to extensive artisanal and small scale gold mining. Results indicated that 33.3 % of the water sources had THg levels above the WHO guideline of 1.0 µg/L for safe drinking water, and 12.5 % had TAs levels above 10 µg/L. Cassava leaves were found to have higher THg (ranging from 8.3 to 167 µg/kg) and TAs (ranging from 60 to 1,120 µg/kg) levels than cassava roots, which ranged between 1.2-8.3 µg/kg for THg and 25-310 µg/kg for TAs. Concentrations of THg and TAs in soil samples ranged between 5.8-1,759 and 183-20,298 µg/kg, respectively. Both THg and TAs were found to be distributed throughout Rwamagasa village.

  16. Produção de xaropes de glicose e de fructose a partir de amido de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz)usando enzimas produzidas por microorganismos isolados do solo de Cerrado Brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Roberto do Nascimento; Quintino, Fábio Pereira; Monteiro, Valdirene Neves; Asquieri, Eduardo Ramirez

    2010-01-01

    The high demands for sugars and the development of enzymatic technology have increased the production of sweeteners, especially for glucose and fructose syrups. This work describe a technology for glucose and fructose syrups from Brazilian cassava starch using enzymes produced by soil microrganisms isolated from the Brazilian Cerrado soil. Firstly, Aspergillus niger and Streptomyces sp. were isolated from the soil and used as glucoamylase (GA) and glucose isomerase (GI) producer sources. Afte...

  17. Organic polyculture of passion fruit, pineapple, corn and cassava: the influence of green manure and distance between espaliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Elviro de Araújo Neto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The organic fruit crop should incorporate the principles of sustainable agriculture, with a guarantee of productivity coupled with ecological diversity, using techniques of policultive with regional species. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the green manure crops [Canavalia ensiformis (jack beans, Crotalaria spectabilis (sunn hemp, Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu, Arachis pintoi (peanut forage and spontaneous plants] and distance between espaliers on the yields of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (passion fruit, Ananas comosus (pineapple, Zea mays (maize, Manihot esculenta (cassava and biomass in organic polyculture in the state of Acre, Brazil. The randomized block design experiment comprised plots encompassing the space between the rows of passion fruits (espaliers located 3 m or 4 m apart, and subplots that contained the green manure crops. Green biomass yield by jack beans, sunn hemp and tropical kudzu was greater than that provided by peanut forage and spontaneous plants. The polyculture of passion fruit, pineapple, maize and cassava presented a high overall yield (44462 kg ha-1. The land-use efficiency of the polyculture system was between 2.45 (with sunn hemp and 2.77 (with tropical kudzu times greater than that achieved by individual monocultures. The yields of passion fruit (with tropical kudzu as cover crop and pineapple (with spontaneous plants as green manure were enhanced by some 72 and 34%, respectively, when cultivated in plots comprising 3 m-spaced espaliers in comparison with plots containing 4 m-spaced espaliers.

  18. The thermal, rheological and structural properties of cassava starch granules modified with hydrochloric acid at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beninca, Cleoci; Colman, Tiago Andre Denck [State University of Ponta Grossa - UEPG, Av. Carlos Cavalcanti, 4748, ZIP 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Lacerda, Luiz Gustavo; Filho, Marco Aurelio Silva Carvalho [Positivo University, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Bannach, Gilbert [Paulista State University - UNESP, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Schnitzler, Egon, E-mail: egons@uepg.br [State University of Ponta Grossa - UEPG, Av. Carlos Cavalcanti, 4748, ZIP 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil)

    2013-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Untreated cassava starch was modified with standard hydrochloric acid at 20 and 50 Degree-Sign C by 8 h. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSC curves allowed to verify increase in the gelatinization enthalpy in agreement with high temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pasting properties of the studied starches were inversely proportional to the acid treatment and increased temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology of granules as well as average size and average roughness were calculated by NC-AFM. - Abstract: Starch is arguably one of the most actively investigated biopolymer in the world. In this study, the native (untreated) cassava starch granules (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) were hydrolyzed by standard hydrochloric acid solution at different temperatures (30 Degree-Sign C and 50 Degree-Sign C) and the hydrolytic transformations were investigated by the following techniques: simultaneous thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), as well as non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) powder patterns, and rapid viscoamylographic analysis (RVA). After the treatment with hydrochloric acid at different temperatures, the thermal stability, a gradual loss of pasting properties (viscosity), alterations in the gelatinization enthalpy ({Delta}H{sub gel}), were observed. The use of NC-AFM and XRD allowed the observation of the surface morphology and topography of the starch granules and changes in crystallinity of the granules, respectively.

  19. Induction of cassava somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium associated to floating membrane rafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Keiko Takahashi

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effect of two culture systems, liquid medium associated to floating membranes and solid medium, both supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-D, in the induction of somatic embryogenesis of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. Only 28% of the young leaf lobes (with 9 µM 2,4-D were induced to form organized embryogenic structures (OES with membrane rafts, compared to 50% of the explants presenting this type of tissue in solid medium with 36 µM of 2,4-D. Despite the lower response observed in liquid medium with membrane, the amount of OES/explant in all 2,4-D concentrations was higher than solid medium. Based on the results and considering the high cost of the membrane rafts, this system was not distinctly superior than solid medium for inducing somatic embryogenesis in cassava.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a indução de embriogênese somática em mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz utilizando o sistema de cultivo em meio líquido associado com membranas flutuantes com meio sólido, ambos suplementados com diferentes doses de 2,4-D. Utilizando membranas flutuantes, o melhor resultado foi obtido na concentração de 9 µM 2,4-D, onde apenas 28% dos explantes foliares apresentaram estruturas embriogênicas organizadas (OES. Por outro lado, em explantes cultivados em meio sólido suplementado com 36 µM de 2,4-D a frequência de OES foi de 50%. Embora a frequência de indução embriogênica tenha sido inferior em meio líquido associado com membranas flutuantes, a quantidade de OES por explante foi igual ou superior ao do meio sólido em todas as concentrações de 2,4-D testadas. Baseado nestes resultados, e considerando o elevado custo das membranas, este sistema de cultura não apresentou vantagens significativas para indução de embriogênese somática em mandioca em relação ao meio sólido.

  20. Manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura da mandioca Weed management in cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A mandioca (Manihot esculenta é cultivada em vários países, sendo de grande importância como fonte de energia para alimentação humana e animal e na geração de empregos e renda. No Brasil, apesar de essa cultura apresentar alto potencial produtivo - em alguns estudos alcançando valores superiores a 100 t ha-1 de raízes - , a produtividade nacional é baixa, atribuída em grande parte ao manejo inadequado das plantas daninhas. A interferência dessas plantas resulta em competição pelos recursos essenciais, como nutrientes, água e luz. Além disso, o controle realizado de maneira incorreta das plantas daninhas nos mandiocais dificulta outros tratos culturais e aumenta os custos de produção. Nesta revisão são abordados os aspectos relativos ao manejo das plantas daninhas na cultura, descrevendo, de forma detalhada, os principais componentes de interferência. Discute-se, em várias situações, o período crítico de competição. Por fim, são apresentados os principais métodos de controle visando à utilização do manejo integrado como forma sustentável do controle de plantas daninhas nessa cultura.Cassava (Manihot esculenta is grown in many countries, being of great importance as an energy source for food, generating jobs and income. Although this crop has been proved to have high yield potential in some studies, reaching values above 100 t ha-1 roots, its national productivity in Brazil is low, being largely attributed to inadequate weed management. The interference of weeds results in competition for essential resources, such as nutrients, water, and light. In addition, incorrectly performed control of weeds in cassava can complicate management and increase production costs. In this review, aspects related to weed management in the culture are described, detailing the main components of interference. The critical period of competition, in many situations, is also discussed. Finally, the main methods of control aimed at the

  1. Chemical Modifications of Cassava Peel as Adsorbent Material for Metals Ions from Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schwantes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Residues from the processing of cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz, or cassava peels, are evaluated as chemically modified adsorbents with H2O2, H2SO4, and NaOH, in the removal of metal ions Cd(II, Pb(II, and Cr(III from contaminated water. Modified adsorbents were chemically characterized for their chemical composition and pHPZC (point of zero charge, while adsorption tests determined the best conditions of pH, adsorbent mass, and contact time between adsorbent and adsorbate in the process of removal of the metal ions. Isotherms obtained from the preliminary results were linearized by Langmuir’s and Freudlich’s models. The thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔH, ΔG, and ΔS, were also evaluated. The modifying solutions proposed were effective in the modification of adsorbents and resulted in high capacity sorption materials. Equilibrium time between adsorbent and adsorbate for the solutions contaminated with metals is about 40 minutes. The Langmuir model adjusted to most results, indicating monolayers adsorption of Cd(II, Pb(II, and Cr(III. The values obtained for Langmuir Qm show a higher adsorption capacity caused by chemical modifications, with values such as 19.54 mg Cd(II per g of M. NaOH, 42.46 mg of Pb(II per g of M. NaOH, and 43.97 mg of Cr(III per g of M H2O2. Results showed that modified cassava peels are excellent adsorbent, renewable, high availability, and low-cost materials and a feasible alternative in the removal of metals in industries.

  2. Process optimization for bioethanol production from cassava starch using novel eco-friendly enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanavas, S.; Padmaja, G.; Moorthy, S.N.; Sajeev, M.S.; Sheriff, J.T. [Division of Crop Utilization, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 017 Kerala (India)

    2011-02-15

    Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a potential bioethanol crop, high operational costs resulted in a negative energy balance in the earlier processes. The present study aimed at optimizing the bioethanol production from cassava starch using new enzymes like Spezyme {sup registered} Xtra and Stargen trademark 001. The liquefying enzyme Spezyme was optimally active at 90 C and pH 5.5 on a 10% (w/v) starch slurry at levels of 20.0 mg (280 Amylase Activity Units) for 30 min. Stargen levels of 100 mg (45.6 Granular Starch Hydrolyzing Units) were sufficient to almost completely hydrolyze 10% (w/v) starch at room temperature (30 {+-} 1 C). Ethanol yield and fermentation efficiency were very high (533 g/kg and 94.0% respectively) in the Stargen + yeast process with 10% (w/v) starch for 48 h. Raising Spezyme and Stargen levels to 560 AAU and 91.2 GSHU respectively for a two step loading [initial 20% (w/v) followed by 20% starch after Spezyme thinning]/initial higher loading of starch (40% w/v) resulted in poor fermentation efficiency. Upscaling experiments using 1.0 kg starch showed that Stargen to starch ratio of 1:100 (w/w) could yield around 558 g ethanol/kg starch, with a high fermentation efficiency of 98.4%. The study showed that Spezyme level beyond 20.0 mg for a 10% (w/v) starch slurry was not critical for optimizing bioethanol yield from cassava starch, although an initial thinning of starch for 30 min by Spezyme facilitated rapid saccharification-fermentation by Stargen + yeast system. The specific advantage of the new process was that the reaction could be completed within 48.5 h at 30 {+-} 1 C. (author)

  3. A Comparative Study of the Use of Cassava Species and Alum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted to study the performance of two varieties of cassava as coagulants in waste water treatment and compare them with alum. Heavy metals composition of the two varieties of cassava used were also studied. The results showed that, the acid treated portion of specie A (Manihot palmate) recorded ...

  4. Assessment of Attractiveness of Cassava as a Roosting Plant for the Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and the Oriental Fruit Fly, B. dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T.

    2011-01-01

    Application of bait spray to crop borders is a standard approach for suppression of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations and may also be of value for suppression of oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) populations. Establishment of preferred roosting hosts as crop borders may help to improve suppression of both fruit fly species by providing sites for bait spray applications. In an area-wide B. cucurbitae suppression trial, the question was raised as to whether cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), could be used as a B. cucurbitae roosting host. M. esculenta was of interest as a roosting host because, in contrast to many other identified preferred roosting hosts, it would also be a crop potentially increasing the productivity of the crop production system overall. As a short-lived and shrubby perennial, M. esculenta potentially constitutes a crop with more persistent roosting foliage than an annual crop such as corn, Zea mays L. (Cyperales: Poaceae), that has often been planted as a roosting host for B. cucurbitae control. Using protein-baited traps set amidst potted plants placed adjacent to a papaya Carica papaya L. (Violales: Caricaceae) orchard known to have established populations of B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis, the effectiveness of M. esculenta as a roosting host was assessed by comparing its attractiveness to that of castor bean, Ricinus communis L (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), previously identified as one of the most attractive roosting hosts for B. cucurbitae, and to corn, a crop which has been planted as a roosting host for help in B. cucurbitae control. The results showed that use of M. esculenta as a roosting host is comparable to use of R. communis by both B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis. These results provide encouragement to incorporate M. esculenta on a farm as a trap crop (i.e. site for bait spray application). This has the advantage of having the trap crop be a crop on its

  5. Novel Bioengineered Cassava Expressing an Archaeal Starch Degradation System and a Bacterial ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase for Starch Self-Digestibility and Yield Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayalew Ligaba-Osena

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To address national and global low-carbon fuel targets, there is great interest in alternative plant species such as cassava (Manihot esculenta, which are high-yielding, resilient, and are easily converted to fuels using the existing technology. In this study the genes encoding hyperthermophilic archaeal starch-hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and amylopullulanase from Pyrococcus furiosus and glucoamylase from Sulfolobus solfataricus, together with the gene encoding a modified ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (glgC from Escherichia coli, were simultaneously expressed in cassava roots to enhance starch accumulation and its subsequent hydrolysis to sugar. A total of 13 multigene expressing transgenic lines were generated and characterized phenotypically and genotypically. Gene expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR showed that the microbial genes are expressed in the transgenic roots. Multigene-expressing transgenic lines produced up to 60% more storage root yield than the non-transgenic control, likely due to glgC expression. Total protein extracted from the transgenic roots showed up to 10-fold higher starch-degrading activity in vitro than the protein extracted from the non-transgenic control. Interestingly, transgenic tubers released threefold more glucose than the non-transgenic control when incubated at 85°C for 21-h without exogenous application of thermostable enzymes, suggesting that the archaeal enzymes produced in planta maintain their activity and thermostability.

  6. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from kantong, a condiment produced from the fermentation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) seeds and cassava (Manihot esculentum) flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Glover, Richard L.K.; Dzogbefia, Victoria Pearl

    2010-01-01

    Kantong, a traditional food condiment of the people of Northern Ghana, is produced by fermentation of Ceiba pentandra seeds and cassava flour. Knowledge of the microbiology of the fermentation process will be useful in its technological improvement and starter culture development. There was a dro...

  7. Leaf Chlorophyll Content and Tuberous Root Yield of Cassava in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field trials were established in 1996 and 1997 to assess genotypic variability of four cassava (Manihot esculanta) cultivars for adaptability in the inland valley in terms of leaf chlorophyll content and tuberous root yield, using a 4 x 4 Latin square design with four replications arranged along the toposequence.

  8. Improving Genomic Prediction in Cassava Field Experiments by Accounting for Interplot Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Ani A; Rabbi, Ismail; Kulakow, Peter; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2018-03-02

    Plants competing for available resources is an unavoidable phenomenon in a field. We conducted studies in cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) in order to understand the pattern of this competition. Taking into account the competitive ability of genotypes while selecting parents for breeding advancement or commercialization can be very useful. We assumed that competition could occur at two levels: (i) the genotypic level, which we call interclonal, and (ii) the plot level irrespective of the type of genotype, which we call interplot competition or competition error. Modification in incidence matrices was applied in order to relate neighboring genotype/plot to the performance of a target genotype/plot with respect to its competitive ability. This was added into a genomic selection (GS) model to simultaneously predict the direct and competitive ability of a genotype. Predictability of the models was tested through a 10-fold cross-validation method repeated five times. The best model was chosen as the one with the lowest prediction root mean squared error (pRMSE) compared to that of the base model having no competitive component. Results from our real data studies indicated that <10% increase in accuracy was achieved with GS-interclonal competition model, but this value reached up to 25% with a GS-competition error model. We also found that the competitive influence of a cassava clone is not just limited to the adjacent neighbors but spreads beyond them. Through simulations, we found that a 26% increase of accuracy in estimating trait genotypic effect can be achieved even in the presence of high competitive variance. Copyright © 2018 Elias et al.

  9. Isolation of Resistance Gene Candidates (RGCs) and characterization of an RGC cluster in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, C E; Zuluaga, A P; Cooke, R; Delseny, M; Tohme, J; Verdier, V

    2003-08-01

    Plant disease resistance genes (R genes) show significant similarity amongst themselves in terms of both their DNA sequences and structural motifs present in their protein products. Oligonucleotide primers designed from NBS (Nucleotide Binding Site) domains encoded by several R-genes have been used to amplify NBS sequences from the genomic DNA of various plant species, which have been called Resistance Gene Analogues (RGAs) or Resistance Gene Candidates (RGCs). Using specific primers from the NBS and TIR (Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor) regions, we identified twelve classes of RGCs in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Two classes were obtained from the PCR-amplification of the TIR domain. The other 10 classes correspond to the NBS sequences and were grouped into two subfamilies. Classes RCa1 to RCa5 are part of the first subfamily and were linked to a TIR domain in the N terminus. Classes RCa6 to RCa10 corresponded to non-TIR NBS-LRR encoding sequences. BAC library screening with the 12 RGC classes as probes allowed the identification of 42 BAC clones that were assembled into 10 contigs and 19 singletons. Members of the two TIR and non-TIR NBS-LRR subfamilies occurred together within individual BAC clones. The BAC screening and Southern hybridization analyses showed that all RGCs were single copy sequences except RCa6 that represented a large and diverse gene family. One BAC contained five NBS sequences and sequence analysis allowed the identification of two complete RGCs encoding two highly similar proteins. This BAC was located on linkage group J with three other RGC-containing BACs. At least one of these genes, RGC2, is expressed constitutively in cassava tissues.

  10. Wasswa 235-241.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    CBSV), is an economically important disease of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in East Africa. The objective of this study was to optimise in vitrotechniques for CBSV elimination from infected Ugandan cassava cultivars. Using semi-solid ...

  11. Transport costs component of retail prices of foodstuffs in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dioscorea spp.), maize (Zea mays) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) in Kumasi markets have been studied. The commodities were transported from the hinterlands over distances ranging between 120 km (for plantain and cassava) to 220 km (for ...

  12. Microrganismos endofíticos de mandioca de áreas comerciais e etnovariedades em três estados brasileiros Cassava endophytic microorganisms of commercial plantings and ethnovarieties in three Brazilian states

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    Manoel Araújo Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um levantamento da diversidade de microrganismos endofíticos, em plantas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz coletadas de áreas comerciais, no Estado de São Paulo, e de etnovariedades dos estados do Amazonas e Bahia e, também, avaliar seu potencial para fixar N atmosférico e para produzir ácido indolacético. Nos três estados, foram identificadas 47 espécies de microrganismos pertencentes a 27 gêneros. Bacillus spp. foi o mais freqüente em todas as regiões. O maior número de gêneros foi encontrado em plantas provenientes do Estado do Amazonas, que apresenta a maior diversidade de microrganismos endofíticos. Amplificações por PCR do gene nifH foram avaliadas em espécies bacterianas pertencentes às gama-Proteobacteria. Isolados AIA positivos foram obtidos de material coletado em todos os estados, e foram representados por microrganismos pertencentes aos subgrupos gama-Proteobacteria, beta-Proteobacteria, Bacilli e Actinobacteria. A ocorrência de bactérias endofíticas em plantas de mandioca, com capacidade para fixar N atmosférico e produzir AIA in vitro, indica potencial para promover o crescimento da planta.The aim of this work was to perform a survey of the diversity of endophytic microorganisms in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz collected from commercial plantings, in the State of São Paulo, and in ethnovarieties collected in the States of Amazonas and Bahia, and also, to evaluate its potential of biological nitrogen fixation, and to produce indolacetic acid. In those States, 47 species of 27 genera were identified. Bacillus spp. was the most frequently found in all sampled regions. In Amazonas State, it was found the higher diversity of endophytic microorganisms. PCR amplifications of the nifH gene were evaluated in species of gamma-Proteobacteria subgroup. IAA production was found in microorganisms isolated in cassava grown in all sampled States and belonged to the following

  13. Variabilidade genética de etnovariedades de mandioca em regiões geográficas do Brasil Genetic variability of landraces of cassava in geographical regions of Brazil

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    Maria Inez Fernandes Faraldo

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available O manejo empregado nas roças de agricultura autóctone, utilizando etnovariedades de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, apresenta papel de destaque na conservação in situ dos recursos genéticos. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a distribuição da variabilidade genética de 141 etnovariedades de mandioca coletadas em roças de diferentes regiões geográficas do Brasil, através de marcadores isoenzimáticos, revelados a partir de eletroforese em gel de amido. Foram avaliados 11 sistemas isoenzimáticos. Dos 15 locos polimórficos analisados a heterozigosidade média observada foi de 0,354. A estimativa coeficiente de diferenciação genética G ST apresentou valor médio de 8,80% da variabilidade genética entre as regiões. Na análise de agrupamento, observou-se a formação de 3 grupos distintos; o primeiro formado pelas roças originadas da Região Amazônica; o segundo constituído pelas roças do Estado de São Paulo; e o terceiro composto pelas roças originadas da Reserva Indígena do Xingu. A maior parte da variabilidade genética das etnovariedades de mandioca revelou-se concentrada dentro das regiões geográficas, confirmando as pressuposições existentes no modelo de dinâmica evolutiva para a espécie.The management practices used in authoctonous agriculture with landraces of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz play an important role in the in situ conservation of genetic resources. The objective of this work was to analyze the genetic variability present in 141 landraces of cassava, collected in gardens of different geographical regions of Brazil using isozyme techniques visualized by starch gel electrophoresis. Eleven enzymatic systems were analised. Of the 15 polymorphic loci evaluated the observed mean heterozigosity was 0.354. G STestimates presented a value of 8.80% for the genetic variability between regions. In cluster analysis, three distinct groups were observed: the first group was formed by the

  14. Teor de ácido cianídrico em variedades de mandioca cultivadas em quintais do estado de São Paulo Cyanide contents in cassava cultivars used for "in natura" consumption in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    José Osmar Lorenzi

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available No Estado de São Paulo, além das culturas comerciais que destinam sua produção às indústrias de transformação ou aos mercados hortifrutigranjeiros, a mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz é muito difundida em culturas denominadas de "fundo de quintal". Nesse caso, muitas variedades são cultivadas e utilizadas precipuamente para consumo doméstico, tendo o presente trabalho por objetivo avaliar a amplitude de variação do seu teor de ácido cianídrico (HCN. Foram analisadas raízes de 206 variedades originárias de uma coleta sistemática realizada em 126 municípios paulistas, utilizando-se o método de Liebig, com maceração por 24 horas. Os resultados mostraram que a amplitude máxima de variação do ácido cianídrico foi de 16 a 482 mg.kg-1 na polpa crua das raízes. A maioria das variedades (67,0% apresentou até 100 mg.kg-1 de HCN, que, apesar de alto em relação aos citados na literatura, sugere que possa ser considerado o limite superior de segurança para variedades de mesa.Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is widely cultivated in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, mostly as raw material for industrial purposes (production of cassava flour, starch, etc.. A small proportion of cassava production is destinated to "in natura" consumption, obtained essentially from backyard plantations. In this case, many varieties are used, with unknown cyanide contents, which can cause severe human intoxication. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the cyanide content range of these varieties. Roots of 206 varieties, collected at 126 sites in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed as to their cyanide contents, using the Liebig method, with maceration for a 24-hour period. Results showed a cyanide content variation from 16 to 482 mg.kg-1 of HCN in the tuber root fresh pulps. On the other hand, most of the varieties (67% under testing presented root cyanide contents below 100 mg.kg-1. So, this cyanide content may be considered as

  15. Efficient CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing of Phytoene desaturase in Cassava

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    John Odipio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available CRISPR/Cas9 has become a powerful genome-editing tool for introducing genetic changes into crop species. In order to develop capacity for CRISPR/Cas9 technology in the tropical staple cassava (Manihot esculenta, the Phytoene desaturase (MePDS gene was targeted in two cultivars using constructs carrying gRNAs targeting two sequences within MePDS exon 13. After Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 reagents into cassava cells, both constructs induced visible albino phenotypes within cotyledon-stage somatic embryos regenerating on selection medium and the plants regenerated therefrom. A total of 58 (cv. 60444 and 25 (cv. TME 204 plant lines were recovered, of which 38 plant lines (19 from each cultivar were analyzed for mutagenesis. The frequency of plant lines showing albino phenotype was high, ranging from 90 to 100% in cv. TME 204. Observed albino phenotypes were comprised of full albinos devoid of green tissue and chimeras containing a mixture of white and green tissues. Sequence analysis revealed that 38/38 (100% of the plant lines examined carried mutations at the targeted MePDS site, with insertions, deletions, and substitutions recorded. One putatively mono-allelic homozygous line (1/19 was found from cv. 60444, while 1 (1/19 and 4 (4/19 putatively bi-allelic homozygous lines were found in 60444 and TME204, respectively. The remaining plant lines, comprised mostly of the chimeras, were found to be putatively heterozygous. We observed minor (1 bp nucleotide substitutions and or deletions upstream of the 5′ and or downstream of the 3′ targeted MePDS region. The data reported demonstrates that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing of cassava is highly efficient and relatively simple, generating multi-allelic mutations in both cultivars studied. Modification of MePDS described here generates visually detectable mutated events in a relatively short time frame of 6–8 weeks, and does not require sequencing to confirm editing at the

  16. Cassava; African perspective on space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Looking on African perspective in space agriculture may contribute to increase diversity, and enforce robustness for advanced life support capability. Cassava, Manihot esculentaand, is one of major crop in Africa, and could be a candidate of space food materials. Since resource is limited for space agriculture in many aspects, crop yield should be high in efficiency, and robust as well. The efficiency is measured by farming space and time. Harvest yield of cassava is about 41 MJ/ m2 (70 ton/ha) after 11 months of farming. Among rice, wheat, potato, and sweet potato, cassava is ranked to the first place (40 m2 ) in terms of farming area required to supply energy of 5 MJ/day, which is recommended for one person. Production of cassava could be made under poor condition, such as acidic soil, shortage of fertilizer, draught. Laterite, similar to Martian regolith. Propagation made by stem cutting is an advantage of cassava in space agriculture avoiding entomophilous or anemophilous process to pollinate. Feature of crop storage capability is additional factor that determines the efficiency in the whole process of agriculture. Cassava root tuber can be left in soil until its consumption. Cassava might be an African contribution to space agriculture.

  17. East African cassava mosaic-like viruses from Africa to Indian ocean islands: molecular diversity, evolutionary history and geographical dissemination of a bipartite begomovirus

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    De Bruyn Alexandre

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta is a major food source for over 200 million sub-Saharan Africans. Unfortunately, its cultivation is severely hampered by cassava mosaic disease (CMD. Caused by a complex of bipartite cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMG species (Family: Geminivirideae; Genus: Begomovirus CMD has been widely described throughout Africa and it is apparent that CMG's are expanding their geographical distribution. Determining where and when CMG movements have occurred could help curtail its spread and reveal the ecological and anthropic factors associated with similar viral invasions. We applied Bayesian phylogeographic inference and recombination analyses to available and newly described CMG sequences to reconstruct a plausible history of CMG diversification and migration between Africa and South West Indian Ocean (SWIO islands. Results The isolation and analysis of 114 DNA-A and 41 DNA-B sequences demonstrated the presence of three CMG species circulating in the Comoros and Seychelles archipelagos (East African cassava mosaic virus, EACMV; East African cassava mosaic Kenya virus, EACMKV; and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus, EACMCV. Phylogeographic analyses suggest that CMG’s presence on these SWIO islands is probably the result of at least four independent introduction events from mainland Africa occurring between 1988 and 2009. Amongst the islands of the Comoros archipelago, two major migration pathways were inferred: One from Grande Comore to Mohéli and the second from Mayotte to Anjouan. While only two recombination events characteristic of SWIO islands isolates were identified, numerous re-assortments events were detected between EACMV and EACMKV, which seem to almost freely interchange their genome components. Conclusions Rapid and extensive virus spread within the SWIO islands was demonstrated for three CMG complex species. Strong evolutionary or ecological interaction between CMG species may explain

  18. Caracterização físico-química de farinhas de mandioca de diferentes localidades do Brasil Phisico-chemical characteristics of cassava flours from different regions of Brazil

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    Larissa Tavares Dias

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A farinha de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz é produzida em diferentes regiões do Brasil e faz parte do hábito alimentar do brasileiro. Caracteriza-se num alimento de alto valor energético, possui teor elevado de amido, contém fibras e alguns minerais como potássio, cálcio, fósforo, sódio e ferro. Entre os diferentes estados, os do Norte e Nordeste consomem quantidades de farinha de mandioca bem maiores que os demais. Frente à importância econômica e nutricional deste produto, com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se caracterizar farinhas de mandioca de diferentes estados do País, esperando com isso fornecer informações referentes à composição e às características físico-químicas do produto, tanto para as indústrias produtoras quanto aos consumidores. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que, quanto à composição centesimal, as farinhas analisadas diferem entre si e entre as regiões produtoras, inclusive para classificações de mesmo grupo e subgrupo. Para proteínas e acidez, as farinhas não estão de acordo com os limites da legislação. As farinhas apresentam teores baixos a moderados de fibras, contudo, devido ao seu amplo consumo, contribui como importante fornecedor de fibras na alimentação. A classificação de algumas farinhas quanto à cor não está de acordo com as análises de seus componentes de cromaticidade.Cassava flours (Manihot esculenta Crantz are produced in all Brazilian states and it is part of Brazilian alimentary habit. Cassava flour is characterized as high-energy food, with high level of starch, and it contains fibers and some minerals as potassium, calcium, match, sodium and iron. In the North and Northeast regions the consumption of this flour is larger than the others. Due the economical and nutritional importance of the cassava flour the present work had as objective to characterize cassava flours from different Brazilian states aiming to supply industries and consumer with important

  19. AVALIAÇÃO DA DIVERSIDADE GENÉTICA ATRAVÉS DE RAPD DE ACESSOS DE MANIÇOBA (Manihot pseudoglaziovii PAX & HOFFM. E DE DUAS ESPÉCIES AFINS DE INTERESSE FORRAGEIRO

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    Fabiana Augusta Santiago Beltrão

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to analyze the genetc variability in natural populations, 14 accesses of Manihot had been studied pseudglaziovii, collected in the state of the Paraíba, in the microregion Curimataú Paraibano, beyond an access of M. esculenta Cranz (cassava and a natural hybrid between these two species. Five plants of each access had been multiplied through statue and after that cultivated in an experimental area in standardized conditions, to have a homogeneous exteriorizacion of each genotype. The otimizaçãocion of the protocol of extraction of the DNA of some accesses of maniçoba and of two similar species of forager interest and to verify the genetic variability through the amplification with molecular markers RAPD saw PCR. Two methods of extraction of the DNA had been tested. The extraction protocol using detergent CTAB made possible to get clean products, less viscous and oxidized. In the analysis of genetic variability they had been used in a total of 10 starters (primers, and only 3 had produced bands, starter OPD2, OPD3 and OPD8 presented greater percentage of polymorphism followed of the OPD2, with values of 30,7% and 42,8%, respectively. These primers can discriminate molecular differences between the accesses of maniçoba and two similar species.

  20. Efeitos da farinha de folhas de mandioca sobre a peroxidação lipídica, o perfil lipídico sangüíneo e o peso do fígado de ratos Effects of cassava leaf flour on lipidic peroxidation, blood lipidic profile and liver weight of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Séfora de Melo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Sabe-se que polifenóis e saponinas apresentam efeitos antioxidante e hipolipidêmico, respectivamente. Como folhas de mandioca contêm estas substâncias, foi investigado o efeito de dietas contendo a farinha de folhas de mandioca (FFM sobre a peroxidação lipídica, o perfil lipídico sangüíneo e o peso do fígado de ratos. Para isto, folhas maduras de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. Cacao foram secas em estufa ventilada a 30-35 ºC e trituradas sem os pecíolos. Um ensaio biológico, com 32 ratos machos Wistar, foi conduzido por um período de 7 semanas com quatro tratamentos: dieta controle e dietas contendo 5%, 10% e 15% de FFM, sendo todas suplementadas com 1% de colesterol. As dietas se apresentaram isoenergéticas e contendo os mesmos níveis de proteína digestível e fibras. Foi observado que dietas contendo FFM não apresentaram efeitos significativos sobre o perfil lipídico sangüíneo e sobre as variáveis de desempenho, mas contribuiram para o aumento no peso do fígado. Já as dietas contendo 10% e 15% de FFM foram associadas à redução nos teores plasmáticos de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico.It is well known that polyphenols and saponins present antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects, respectively. As cassava leaves contains these substances, the effects of diets supplemented with cassava leaf flour (CLF on lipidic peroxidation, blood lipid profile and liver weight of rats were investigated. Therefore, ripe cassava leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. Cacao were dried in a ventilated oven at 30-35 ºC and ground without the petioles. A biological assay was conducted during 7 weeks with 32 Wistar male rats submitted to four treatments: control diet and diets containing 5%, 10% and 15% CLF, all supplemented with 1% cholesterol. Diets were isoenergetic and contained the same levels of digestible protein, and fibers. It was observed that diets containing CLF presented no significant effect on blood

  1. Etude de la culture en couloirs de manioc ( Manihot esculenta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif de l'étude est de recommander aux paysans un système de production de manioc à la fois rentable et préservatrice de l'environnement. Pour atteindre cet objectif, deux systèmes améliorés de culture en couloirs (manioc amélioré Yavo/soja vert (Mung bean)/Gliricidia sepium avec un apport de fumure de fond ...

  2. pmker 24(3)\\KIMULUNGUI BS.xps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP Pro 2000

    ISOLATION OF MICROORGANISMS RESPONSIBLE FOR CASSAVA ROOT ROT (Manihot esculentaCRANTZ) IN GABON. Soft and dry root rot are mainly ... absent in savannas. Key words : Manihot esculenta, microorganisms, dry rot, soft rot, ecosystem. ..... Culturelle et Technique,. Presses universitaires de France, 172 p.

  3. SCREENING OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF CRUDE WATER EXTRACT OF DIFFERENT CASSAVA VARIETIES

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    Olajumoke Oke FAYINMINNU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of three sources of crude cassava water extract (CCWE was evaluated in different varieties of cassava (MS6 Manihot Selection (local variety, TMS 30555 Tropical Manihot Selection (Improved variety and Bulk (crude cassava water from cassava processing site. Crude cassava water extract from the pulp of cassava fresh roots was prepared and the chemical composition was determined in the analytical laboratory. The result of the analysis showed that, hydrocyanic acid (HCN and with elements such as Magnesium (Mg, Manganese (Mn, Iron (Fe, Sulphur (S, Copper (Cu and Zinc (Zn. Nitrogen (N, Phosphorous (P and Potassium (K were found in the extract. The study showed that due to the presence of hydrocyanic acid in the extract, this waste found around the cassava processing sites possesses phytotoxic effects on weeds/vegetation in form of leaf decoloration (yellowing, wilting and eventually death. Crude cassava water extract showed a probable natural herbicide which can be used by the peasant farmers because it is environmental friendly and easily biodegradable into harmless compounds in the environment

  4. Thin- layer drying of diced cassava roots | Kajuna | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fresh cassava (Manihot spp) roots were obtained from a farm and used in this study. They were peeled and diced using a special dicing machine into cubes of side 0.5 cm. The cubes were dried in thin layers (one to three layers) in a drier that was specifically designed and fabricated in the Department of Agricultural ...

  5. Volume 10 No. 7 July 2010 2837 EFFECT OF CASSAVA STARCH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-07-07

    Jul 7, 2010 ... This study was carried out to determine the effect of cassava (Manihot cranzt) starch substitution on ... the cooking water. They were dried at 60 o. C for 48 hrs, milled, sieved and packaged. Functional and sensory properties of the flour samples were determined. Statistical ... The proteins are, however, more.

  6. Isolation and characterization of two soil derived yeasts for bioethanol production on Cassava starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Gi-Wook; Kim, Yule; Kang, Hyun-Woo [Changhae Institute of Cassava and Ethanol Research, Changhae Ethanol Co., Ltd, Palbok-Dong 829, Dukjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-203 (Korea); Um, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Mina; Kim, Yang-Hoon [Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-Ro, Heungduk-Gu, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea); Chung, Bong-Woo [Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, 1-Ga, Duckjin-Dong, Duckjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-156 (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    Two ethanol-producing yeast strains, CHY1011 and CHFY0901 were isolated from soil in South Korea using an enrichment technique in a yeast peptone dextrose medium supplemented with 5% (w v{sup -1}) ethanol at 30 C. The phenotypic and physiological characteristics, as well as molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene and the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 + 2 regions suggested that they were novel strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. During shaking flask cultivation, the highest ethanol productivity and theoretical yield of S. cerevisiae CHY1011 in YPD media containing 9.5% total sugars was 1.06 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 95.5 {+-} 1.2%, respectively, while those for S. cerevisiae CHFY0901 were 0.97 {+-} 0.03 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 91.81 {+-} 2.2%, respectively. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production was carried out using liquefied cassava (Manihot esculenta) starch in a 5 l lab-scale jar fermenter at 32 C for 66 h with an agitation speed of 2 Hz. Under these conditions, S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 yielded a final ethanol concentration of 89.1 {+-} 0.87 g l{sup -1} and 83.8 {+-} 1.11 g l{sup -1}, a maximum ethanol productivity of 2.10 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 1.88 {+-} 0.01 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and a theoretical yield of 93.5 {+-} 1.4% and 91.3 {+-} 1.1%, respectively. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 have potential use in industrial bioethanol fermentation processes. (author)

  7. Prospects of using cassava as temporary shade for cocoa in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is being contended that the provision of optimal shade could maximise cocoa production. Four cassava varieties (Manihot spp.) were planted as temporary shade tree in September 1995 at three spacing (1.2 m x 0.6 m; x 1.2 m and 1.2 m x 2.4 m) at Akumadan. The level of shade provided by the canopies and the control ...

  8. CUANTIFICACIÓN DE MERCURIO EN TERMOFORMADOS Y PELÍCULAS FLEXIBLES BIODEGRADABLES ELABORADAS A PARTIR DE YUCA (Manihot esculenta Crantz POR ESPECTROMETRÍA DE ABSORCIÓN ATÓMICA QUANTIFICAÇÃO DE MERCÚRIO EM TERMOFORMADOS E PELÍCULAS FLEXÍVEIS BIODEGRADÁVEIS ELABORADAS A PARTIR DE MANDIOCA (Manihot esculenta Crantz POR ESPECTROMETRIA DE ABSORÇÃO ATÔMICA QUANTIFICATION OF MERCURY IN THERMOFORMED AND FLEXIBLE FILMS BIODEGRADABLE MADE FROM CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta Crantz BY ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY

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    ROBERTO JULIÁN DEL CASTILLO R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se cuantificó el contenido de mercurio en siete muestras de termoformados y seis de películas flexibles biodegradables, por espectrometría de absorción atómica con vapor frío; previamente a ésta cuantificación, se realizó la implementación y estandarización del método analítico, en el cual se determinaron los parámetros de calidad estadística (Límite de detección y de cuantificación, intérvalo lineal, sensibilidad de calibración, precisión y exactitud, que establecieron el rendimiento del método. Los termoformados se digestaron con una mezcla HNO3:HClO4, relación 3:1, durante 3 horas a 70°C y las películas flexibles por 45 minutos a 50°C. Las muestras se cuantificaron por el método de curva de calibración a 253,7 nm, obteniéndose concentraciones de mercurio en el rango de no detectable a 60 µg/L en termoformados y de no detectable a 6 µg/L en las películas flexibles.Quantificamos o teor de mercúrio em sete amostras de termoformados e seis películas flexíveis biodegradáveis por espectrometria de absorção atômica com vapor frio; antes de esta medida, realizamos a implementação e padronização do método analítico, na qual os parâmetros de qualidade estatística foram determinados (limite de detecção e quantificação, faixa linear, sensibilidade de calibração, precisão e exatidão, que estabeleceu o desempenho do método. O digestor é termoformado com uma mistura HNO3:HClO4, uma proporção de 3:1 durante 3 horas a 70°C e filmes flexíveis por 45 min a 50°C. As amostras foram quantificadas pelo método da curva de calibração 253,7 nm, resultando em concentrações de mercúrio na faixa de não detectável a 60 mg/L em termoformados e não detectável a 6mg/L em filmes flexíveis.The mercury content of seven thermoformed and six biodegradable flexible films samples were evaluated by atomic absorption spectrometry with cold vapor; before the experiments, the statistical quality parameters were implemented and standardized (Detection and quantification limit, linear range, calibration sensitivity, precision and accuracy, who established the performance of the method. The thermoformed were digested with a mixture HNO3:HClO4, ratio 3:1, by 3 hours at 70°C and the flexible films by 45 minutes at 50°C. The calibration curve at 253.7 nm was the quantification method, obtaining concentrations of mercury in the range from not detectable to 60 µg/L in thermoformed and not detectable to 6 µg/L in the flexible films.

  9. CUANTIFICACIÓN DE MERCURIO EN TERMOFORMADOS Y PELÍCULAS FLEXIBLES BIODEGRADABLES ELABORADAS A PARTIR DE YUCA (Manihot esculenta Crantz) POR ESPECTROMETRÍA DE ABSORCIÓN ATÓMICA QUANTIFICAÇÃO DE MERCÚRIO EM TERMOFORMADOS E PELÍCULAS FLEXÍVEIS BIODEGRADÁVEIS ELABORADAS A PARTIR DE MANDIOCA (Manihot esculenta Crantz) POR ESPECTROMETRIA DE ABSORÇÃO ATÔMICA QUANTIFICATION OF MERCURY IN THERMOFORMED AND FLEXIBLE FILMS BIODEGRADABLE MADE FROM CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta Crantz) BY ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    ROBERTO JULIÁN DEL CASTILLO R; MAITE DEL PILAR RADA-MENDOZA; OLGA LUCIA HOYOS S; HECTOR SAMUEL VILLADA C

    2012-01-01

    Se cuantificó el contenido de mercurio en siete muestras de termoformados y seis de películas flexibles biodegradables, por espectrometría de absorción atómica con vapor frío; previamente a ésta cuantificación, se realizó la implementación y estandarización del método analítico, en el cual se determinaron los parámetros de calidad estadística (Límite de detección y de cuantificación, intérvalo lineal, sensibilidad de calibración, precisión y exactitud), que establecieron el rendimiento del mé...

  10. Effect of the gamma radiation in the conservation of pre-cooked cassava wrapped to vacuum it is stored under cooling; Efeitos das radiacoes gama na conservacao de mandioca pre-cozida embalada a vacuo e armazenada sob refrigeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Germano, Romilda M.A. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia]. E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G.; Spoto, Marta H.F. [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Agroindustria Alimentos e Nutricao]. E-mail: slgcbraza@esalq.usp.br; mhfspoto@esalq.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The cassava represents a source of energy of great importance for the Brazilian population, especially in the north and northeast area where is consumed in the flour form being very also used in the cooked form or bragged. Due to need of having at the market a product that is of easy consumption, since the consumer's profile is altering, with the preference of the acquisition for products semi-ready or ready for consumption this research had as objective evaluates the effects of the gamma radiation in semi-ready cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz, variety IAC-567-70 for the consumption easiness. For that the cassava roots were washed, peeled and cut in uniform pieces, being despised the finest tips and the final portion of the root. After this procedure the pieces were separate in 12 treatments, with approximately 250 g of cassava, and was accomplished the combination of distilled water and deionized water, cooked by 15 minutes and for 20 minutes, with and without vacuum in the packing, irradiated and stored under of refrigeration. The cooking to 15 minutes presented better appearance that the of 20 minutes. All the twelve treatments were irradiated with doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy, also a control treatment was accomplished without irradiation. Already in the first week of evaluation all of the treatments of the control presented points of contamination for mushrooms, in this same period the treatments with doses of radiation of 1 kGy and 3 kGy presented smaller amounts of points of contamination than the control, however much larger than in the treatment with the dose of 5 kGy. Therefore the gamma radiation of the Cobalt-60 was efficient reducing the emergence of points of contamination considerably for mushrooms. The treatments that were used packing with vacuum presented smaller points of contamination. Therefore, the best results were obtained by the treatment of cooking of the cassava by 15 minutes, conditioned to vacuous and irradiated with the dose of 5 k

  11. characterisation and role of isoamylase1 (meisa1) gene in cassava

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    soluble de synthase (SS), l'amidon branchant les enzymes (BE) et celui débranchant les enzymes (DBE). Nous avons isolé un clone d'ADNc du gène Isoamylase1, un membre de la famille de DBE de la racine de stockage du manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Un clone d'ADNc de gène Isoamylase1 a été isolé à partir de ...

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Three Cassava Elongation Factor 1 Alpha (MeEF1A) Promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhandono, Sony; Apriyanto, Ardha; Ihsani, Nisa

    2014-01-01

    In plant genetic engineering, the identification of gene promoters leading to particular expression patterns is crucial for the development of new genetically modified plant generations. This research was conducted in order to isolate and characterize several new promoters from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A) gene family. Three promoters MeEF1A3, MeEF1A4 and MeEF1A5 were successfully isolated. Sequence analyses showed that all of the promoters contain three conserved putative cis-acting elements which are located upstream of the transcription start site. These elements are included a TEF1, a TELO and TATA boxes. In addition, all of the promoters also have the 5′UTR intron but with a different lengths. These promoters were constructed translationally with gusA reporter gene (promoter::gusA fusion) in pBI-121 binary vector to build a new binary vector using Overlap Extension PCR Cloning (OEPC) technique. Transient expression assay that was done by using agroinfiltration method was used to show functionality of these promoters. Qualitative and quantitative analysis from GUS assay showed that these promoters were functional and conferred a specific activity in tobacco seedlings (Nicotiana tabacum), tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and banana fruits (Musa acuminata). We hypothesized that MeEF1A6 could be categorized as a constitutive promoter because it was able to drive the gene expression in all transformed tissue described in here and also comparable to CaMV35S. On the other hand, MeEF1A3 drove specific expression in the aerial parts of seedlings such as hypocotyl and cotyledon thus MeEF1A5 drove specific expression in fruit tissue. The results obtained from transient analysis showed that these promoters had a distinct activity although they came from same gene family. The DNA sequences identified here are new promoters potentially use for genetic engineering in cassava or other plants. PMID:24404183

  13. Isolation and characterization of three cassava elongation factor 1 alpha (MeEF1A promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sony Suhandono

    Full Text Available In plant genetic engineering, the identification of gene promoters leading to particular expression patterns is crucial for the development of new genetically modified plant generations. This research was conducted in order to isolate and characterize several new promoters from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A gene family.Three promoters MeEF1A3, MeEF1A5 and MeEF1A6 were successfully isolated [corrected]. Sequence analyses showed that all of the promoters contain three conserved putative cis-acting elements which are located upstream of the transcription start site. These elements are included a TEF1, a TELO and TATA boxes. In addition, all of the promoters also have the 5'UTR intron but with a different lengths. These promoters were constructed translationally with gusA reporter gene (promoter::gusA fusion in pBI-121 binary vector to build a new binary vector using Overlap Extension PCR Cloning (OEPC technique. Transient expression assay that was done by using agroinfiltration method was used to show functionality of these promoters. Qualitative and quantitative analysis from GUS assay showed that these promoters were functional and conferred a specific activity in tobacco seedlings (Nicotiana tabacum, tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum and banana fruits (Musa acuminata. We hypothesized that MeEF1A6 could be categorized as a constitutive promoter because it was able to drive the gene expression in all transformed tissue described in here and also comparable to CaMV35S. On the other hand, MeEF1A3 drove specific expression in the aerial parts of seedlings such as hypocotyl and cotyledon thus MeEF1A5 drove specific expression in fruit tissue. The results obtained from transient analysis showed that these promoters had a distinct activity although they came from same gene family. The DNA sequences identified here are new promoters potentially use for genetic engineering in cassava or other plants.

  14. Vertebrate pests of cassava in Africa and their control | Cudjoe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... les symptômes liés aux dégâts et le statut des principales espèces soot discutés et les mesures de contrôle, utilisées par les agriculteurs, les chasseurs et les chercbeurs, soot passées en revue. Mots Clés: Manihot esculenta, ravageurs vertébrés, primates, rongeurs, ongulés, les oiseaux, mesures de régulation ...

  15. Thermal and pasting properties of cassava starch-dehydrated orange pulp blends Propriedades térmicas e de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Leonel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Instant mixtures are easy to prepare and frequently present functional appeals. A quality parameter for instant mixtures is their rheological behavior. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of extrusion parameters on the pasting properties of cassava (Manihot esculenta L. starch and dehydrated orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck pulp mixtures. The variable parameters were moisture of mixtures (12.5 to 19%, barrel temperature (40 to 90ºC and screw rotation (170 to 266 rpm. The extruded mixtures did not show gelatinization enthalpy. Moisture had the greatest effect on paste properties. The initial pasting viscosity (before heating of RVA (Rapid visco analyzer is the most relevant parameter to instant mixtures. The highest cold viscosity values were obtained when mixtures were extruded under high moisture and high screw speed. High moisture (19.5%, intermediate temperature (65ºC and screw speed (218 rpm led to extruded mixtures production with low component degradation.Misturas instantâneas apresentam-se como produtos de fácil preparo e muitas vezes com apelos funcionais. Um parâmetro de qualidade nestas misturas é o comportamento reológico. Avaliou-se o efeito de parâmetros de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca (Manihot esculenta L. e polpa de laranja (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck desidratada. A umidade das misturas (12.5 a 19%, a temperatura de extrusão (40 a 90ºC e a rotação da rosca (170 a 266 rpm foram considerados parâmetros variáveis. As misturas extrusadas não apresentaram entalpia de gelatinização. A umidade foi o fator de maior efeito sobre as propriedades de pasta. A viscosidade inicial (antes do aquecimento no RVA (Rapid visco analyzer é um dos parâmetros mais importantes para misturas instantâneas. Nas condições de elevada umidade e rotação da rosca são observadas as maiores viscosidades a frio. Condições de elevada umidade das misturas (19,5%, temperatura (65ºC e

  16. Microbial population, chemical composition and silage fermentation of cassava residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napasirth, Viengsakoun; Napasirth, Pattaya; Sulinthone, Tue; Phommachanh, Kham; Cai, Yimin

    2015-09-01

    In order to effectively use the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) residues, including cassava leaves, peel and pulp for livestock diets, the chemical and microbiological composition, silage preparation and the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on silage fermentation of cassava residues were studied. These residues contained 10(4) to 10(5) LAB and yeasts, 10(3) to 10(4) coliform bacteria and 10(4) aerobic bacteria in colony forming units (cfu) on a fresh matter (FM) basis. The molds were consistently at or below the detectable level (10(2) cfu of FM) in three kinds of cassava residues. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of cassava residues were 17.50-30.95%, 1.30-16.41% and 25.40-52.90% on a DM basis, respectively. The silage treatments were designed as control silage without additive (CO) or with LAB inoculants Chikuso-1 (CH, Lactobacillus plantarum) and Snow Lacto (SN, Lactobacillus rhamnosus) at a rate of 5 mg/kg of FM basis. All silages were well preserved with a low pH (below 4.0) value and when cassava residues silage treated with inoculants CH and SN improved fermentation quality with a lower pH, butyric acid and higher lactic acid than control silage. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Fruit, seed and embryo development of different cassava (Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-24

    Mar 24, 2014 ... interspecific hybridization (Clarke et al., 2011; Cisneros et al., 2013); (3) shorten the breeding cycle by recovering the plantlets from younger seeds, replace germinating the seeds harvested after breaking the dormancy (Kagithoju et al., 2013; Gbadamosi, 2013). But initial work required considerable amount ...

  18. Growth and Biochemical performance of Cassava-Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    physico-chemical analysis such as Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Total Organic Matter (TOM), pH, available phosphorus, Total Nitrogen and heavy metals analysis were determined in the soil before and after pollution and after amelioration. There were significant (P=0.05) increases in plant height, leaf number, leaf area, dry ...

  19. Studies on the fungal flora of Garri, processed cassava ( Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fungal isolates occurred at varying frequencies, with A. foetidus being the most frequently isolated in both white and yellow garri while A. niger had the least occurrence in both white and yellow garri. Comparatively, white garri had higher frequency of occurrence of fungal organisms than yellow garri. Food processors ...

  20. [Poisoning by Geromitra esculenta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, D

    1989-01-01

    Gyromitra esculenta (Persoon ex Fries) mushrooms have been responsible for severe intoxications and even deaths. Clinical data are characterized primarily by vomiting and diarrhoea, and, afterwhile, by jaundice, convulsions and coma. The species of concern are mainly G. esculenta, G. fastigiata and G. gigas; nevertheless, recent advances in chromatography, biochemistry and toxicology have established that other species within the Ascomycetes may prove also toxic. The toxins, i.e. gyromitrin (N-methyl-N-formyl-N-acetyl-hydrazone) and its higher homologues, are converted in vivo into MFH (N-methyl-N-formyl-hydrazine), then into MMH (N-Methylhydrazine). The toxicity of these latter chemicals, which are chiefly hepatotoxic and even carcinogenic, has been established through in vivo, and, in vitro experiments with monocelled cultures and biochemical systems. Considering the chemical structure and the reactivity of these natural compounds, chemical and biochemical mechanisms are suggested in order to explain their intrinsic biological activity.

  1. Características fotosintéticas de la yuca Manihot esculenta Crantz., anatomía foliar, ultraestructura de cloroplastos, tasas fotosintéticas y productos iniciales de la fijación del CO2 con 14C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López F. Yamel

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Se alimentaron hojas de yuca, fríjol y maíz con 14 C02 en luz y los productos primarios de la fotosíntesis se identificaron 5 y 10 segundos después de la asimilación. En maíz, aproximadamente tres cuartas partes del carbón marcado se incorporó en los ácidos C4, en fríjol alrededor de las dos terceras partes en PGA, en yuca aproximadamente el 40-60 % en ácidos C3 con 30- 50 % en PGA. Estos datos indican que la yuca posee el ciclo fotosintético C4. La planta presenta una corona alrededor del haz vascular y diferenciación entre cloroplastos, pero la anatomía no es perfecta, por consiguiente una asimilación apreciable del carbono tiene lugar directamente a través de el ciclo de Calvin-Benson-Bassham.Cassava, bean and maize leaves were fed with 14C02 in light and the primary products of photosynthesis identified 5 and 10 seconds after assimilation. In maize, approximately three quarters of the labelled carbon was incorporated in C4 acids, in bean about two thirds in PGA, and in cassava approximately 40-60 % in C3 acids with 30 . 50 % in PGA. These data indicate that cassava possesses the C4 photosynthetic cycle. Plant present vascular bundle sheath and differentiation between chloroplast, but the anatomy is not perfect, consequently appreciable carbon assimilation takes place directly through the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle.

  2. Effect of plant populations on the productivity of plantain and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth, crop yields and productivity of plantain (Musa paradisiacal) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) were observed. The two intercrop populations for plantain were planted at 3 x 3m and 3 x 2m spacing. The two populations for cassava were planted at 1 x 1 and 1 x 0.5m spacing. In Experiment I, cassava was intercropped ...

  3. Identification of genes that have undergone adaptive evolution in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a vital food security crop and staple in Africa, yet cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease result in substantial yield losses. The aim of this study was to identify genes that have undergone positive selection during adaptive evolution, from CBSD resistant, tolerant ...

  4. Processamentos de amêndoa e torta de castanha-do-Brasil e farinha de mandioca: parâmetros de qualidade Processing of Brazil nut and meal and cassava flour: quality parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luzenira de Souza

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A castanha-do-Brasil (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K. e mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz são matérias-primas importantes que constituem a base de subsistência para os povos da região Amazônica. Devido à falta de incentivo às suas utilizações pela indústria de alimentos no mercado interno, buscou-se processar a castanha-do-Brasil para obtenção de amêndoa e torta, e de mandioca para obtenção de farinha, objetivando identificar parâmetros de qualidade que justificassem e incentivassem o apelo aos seus aproveitamentos. Os resultados mostraram que a negatividade de aflatoxinas na amêndoa e torta apontaram a alta qualidade do lote da castanha-do-Brasil em relação a segurança alimentar. Os teores encontrados de selênio 2,04mg/kg na amêndoa e 7,13mg/kg na torta, os percentuais de fibra alimentar de 8,02 na amêndoa, de 15,72 na torta e de 5,68 na farinha, proteína bruta de 40,23% na torta e carboidratos 79,33% na farinha, permitiram caracterizar o produto a base de castanha como protéico, rico em selênio e fibras; e o de mandioca como rico em carboidratos e fibras. A proteína bruta da amêndoa é completa, rica em aminoácidos sulfurados, estando uns aminoácidos em quantidades superiores e outros equivalentes aos do padrão da FAO, podendo a castanha e derivados - devido a estes aminoácidos, ao selênio e fibras - serem considerados um apelo ao seu consumo, pelas funções de grande relevância que desempenham à manutenção da saúde do ser humano.Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K. and cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz are important raw materials, which constitute the basis of subsistence for those who live in the Amazon region. Due to a total lack of incentive for their use by the national food industry, this study aimed at processing Brazil nuts to obtain the nuts and the meal and at processing cassava to obtain the flour, studying the quality parameters which could justify and encourage their use. The absence of

  5. Caracterização de diferentes amostras de mandioca por espectroscopia de ressonância magnética nuclear Characterization of different cassava samples by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele C. V Iulianelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A raiz de mandioca (Manihot esculenta crantz é cultivada nas mais diversas regiões do Brasil e desempenha importante papel na dieta alimentar dos brasileiros, representando para muitas famílias do Norte e Nordeste a principal fonte energética. A farinha de mandioca constitui-se num alimento com alto teor de amido, além de conter fibras, lipídeos e alguns minerais, entretanto apresenta grande variabilidade genética, o que resulta em diferenciação na sua constituição química e estrutural. Frente à importância econômica, nutricional e farmacológica deste produto, o presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar seis diferentes amostras de farinha de mandioca por meio da espectroscopia de RMN. Além de estabelecer o assinalamento dos principais grupamentos químicos, os resultados confirmaram diferenças no aspecto químico e estrutural das amostras de mandioca. Foi visto que a amostra F1 é mais rica em carboidratos, a amostra F4 é mais rica em glicolipídeos, a amostra F2 apresenta alto teor de amilose, e a amostra F6 apresenta maior diversidade de glicolipídeos. Em relação à estrutura molecular, os espectros de RMN indicaram que a amostra F1 apresenta maior organização molecular e que as amostras F3 e F5 apresentam similaridade na amorficidade e também no arranjo e empacotamento molecular.Cassava root (Manihot esculenta crantz is grown in all Brazilian states, being an important product in the diet of Brazilians. For many families of the North and Northeast states, it may represent the main energy source. The cassava root flour has high levels of starch, in addition to containing fiber, lipids and some minerals. There is, however, great genetic variability, which results in differentiation in its chemical composition and structural aspect. Motivated by the economic, nutritional and pharmacological importance of this product, this work is aimed at characterizing six cassava flour samples by NMR spectroscopy. The spectra revealed

  6. Mesquite bean and cassava leaf bran in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia kept in water with salinity Farelos da vagem da algaroba e da folha da mandioca em rações para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo mantidos em água salobra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Sérgio Oliveira Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the inclusion of the mesquite bean (Prosopis juliflora and cassava leaf bran (Manihot esculenta in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (2.89±0.43g. 225 fish were used, distributed in 15 tanks (120L in a completely randomized design in a 2x2 factorial design, two sources and three levels of bran (10 and 20%, and a control treatment free of by-products (n=3. After 60 days, it was evaluated the growth performance (daily feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion and survival rate and corporal composition of fish. The performance and corporal composition, except the crude protein content, were not affected by the source or level of bran inclusion. The brans evaluated may be applicable in diets of Nile tilapia including up to 20% without decreasing performance.Avaliou-se a inclusão dos farelos da vagem da algaroba (Prosopis juliflora e folha da mandioca (Manihot esculenta em rações para tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus (2,89±0,43g. Foram utilizados 225 peixes, distribuídos em 15 tanques (120L, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2, duas fontes e dois níveis de farelo (10 e 20%, além de um tratamento controle isento dos coprodutos (n=3. Ao final de 60 dias, foram avaliados o desempenho zootécnico (consumo de ração, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar aparente e taxa de sobrevivência e a composição corporal dos peixes. O desempenho zootécnico e a composição corporal, exceto quanto ao teor de proteína bruta, não foram afetados pela fonte ou nível de inclusão do farelo. Os farelos estudados podem ser utilizados em rações de tilápias do Nilo até 20% de inclusão, sem comprometer o desempenho zootécnico.

  7. Nutritional and toxicological composition analysis of selected cassava processed products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuda Dewage Supun Charuni Nilangeka Rajapaksha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculanta Crantz is an important food source in tropical countries where it can withstand environmentally stressed conditions. Cassava and its processed products have a high demand in both local and export market of Sri Lanka. MU51 cassava variety is one of the more common varieties and boiling is the main consumption pattern of cassava among Sri Lankans. The less utilization of cassava is due to the presence of cyanide which is a toxic substance. This research was designed to analyse the nutritional composition and toxicological (cyanide content of Cassava MU51 variety and selected processed products of cassava MU51 (boiled, starch, flour, chips, two chips varieties purchased from market to identify the effect of processing on cassava MU51 variety. Nutritional composition was analysed by AOAC (2012 methods with modifications and cyanide content was determined following picric acid method of spectrophotometric determination. The Flesh of MU51 variety and different processed products of cassava had an average range of moisture content (3.18 - 61.94%, total fat (0.31 - 23.30%, crude fiber (0.94 - 2.15%, protein (1.67 - 3.71% and carbohydrates (32.68 - 84.20% and where they varied significantly in between products and the variety MU51, where no significance difference (p >0.05 observed in between MU51 flesh and processed products' ash content where it ranged (1.02 - 1.91%. However, boiled product and MU51 flesh had more similar results in their nutritional composition where they showed no significant difference at any of the nutrient that was analysed. Thus, there could be no significant effect on the nutrient composition of raw cassava once it boiled. Cyanide content of the MU51 flesh and selected products (boiled, starch, flour and chips prepared using MU51 variety, showed wide variation ranging from 4.68 mg.kg-1 to 33.92 mg.kg-1 in dry basis. But except boiled cassava all processed products had cyanide content <10 mg.kg-1, which

  8. Biologia reprodutiva de etnovariedades de mandioca Reproductive biology of cassava landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainério Meireles da Silva

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da biologia reprodutiva da mandioca é essencial para o desenvolvimento de programas de melhoramento genético e compreensão do processo de domesticação. Este trabalho avalia aspectos que influenciam a reprodução sexuada, tais como morfologia floral, ecologia da polinização, produção e viabilidade dos grãos de pólen, apomixia, produção e germinação de sementes de etnovariedades de mandioca coletadas em roças de caboclos e índios da Região Amazônica e do Estado de São Paulo. Os aspectos da biologia reprodutiva foram estudados a partir de avaliações de campo e coleta de botões florais e sementes. Os experimentos foram realizados em Piracicaba, SP. Constatou-se alteração na morfologia floral da etnovariedade DG-55, a qual possui flores hermafroditas, e DG-65 e variedade Mantiqueira, que apresentaram menor número de óvulos por ovário. A abelha (Apis mellifera foi o principal polinizador da mandioca. Houve variação significativa no número e viabilidade de grãos de pólen, constatando-se que as anteras do verticilo superior da flor masculina apresentaram, significativamente, maior número de grãos de pólen. Não foi constatada apomixia. Foi detectado maior número de frutos com duas ou três sementes. No entanto, sementes originadas de fruto com semente única apresentaram maior porcentagem de germinação. As alterações morfológicas na estrutura floral influenciaram a produção e viabilidade das sementes. A variação constatada nos aspectos da biologia reprodutiva, provavelmente, ocorreu devido à pressão seletiva diferenciada a que as etnovariedades foram submetidas ao longo do processo de domesticação.The knowledge of the reproductive biology of cassava (Manihot esculenta is essential for the development of genetic improvement programs and understanding the domestication process. This study evaluates aspects of sexual reproduction, such as floral morphology, pollination ecology, production

  9. Physicochemical and Rheological Properties of Optimised Cocoyam-Based Composite Flour Comprising Cassava Starch

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    Awolu Olugbenga Olufemi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite flour comprising cocoyam (Colocassia esculenta, bambara groundnut and cassava starch was produced. The proximate and minerals compositions and functional properties were optimized using optimal mixture design of response surface methodology. The antinutritional, pasting and farinograph analyses of the optimum blends were evaluated. Bambara groundnut improved protein, fibre, ash and minerals contents; cassava starch improved swelling capacity, least gelation and pasting characteristics. The optimum blends CBC1 (70% cocoyam flour, 18.33% bambara groundnut flour, 11.67% cassava starch and CBC2 (69.17% cocoyam flour, 16.67% bambara groundnut flour, 14.17% cassava starch. were comparable to wheat–based flour samples (60% wheat, 30% cocoyam, 10% bambara groundnut flours and (72% wheat, 19% cocoyam, 9% bambara groundnut flours in terms of pasting and farinograph analyses.

  10. Efek ekstrak daun singkong (Manihot utilissima terhadap ekspresi COX-2 pada monosit yang dipapar LPS E.coli (The effect of Manihot utilissima extracts on COX-2 expression of monocytes induced by LPS E. coli

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    Zahara Meilawaty

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is a common and widespread disease in the community. Gram negative bacteria have a role inperiodontitis. These bacteria secrete a variety of products such as endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS, which causes the occurrenceof inflammation or infection. The body defense responses are neutrophils and mononuclear cells (monocytes and macrophages. Inresponse to defense mechanism, the body will be expressed enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX which functions convert arachidonic acidto prostaglandins. Cassava leaf cells known to play a role in reducing inflammation, but the mechanism for inhibiting COX-2, is notknown. Purpose: The study was aimed to determine the effect of cassava leaf extract (Manihot utilissima on expression of enzyme COX-2 in monocytes which were exposed by LPS E. coli. Methods: This study was in vitro experimental studies with the design of posttestonly control group design. The sample was the cassava leaves extract (Manihot utilissima at concentration of 12.5 % and 25 %. Theexpression of COX-2 was determined by immunocytochemistry method. Isolated monocytes were incubated in cassava leaf extract, andthen exposed to LPS, after washing imunostaning procedure was performed using a monoclonal antibody (MAb anti-human COX-2.The research data was the number of monocytes that express COX-2. Results: Expression of COX-2 in the group cassava leaf extractwas higher than the group that induced by LPS E. coli only. Conclusion: Cassava leaf extract did not inhibit the expression of COX-2in monocytes which were exposed by LPS E. coli.Latar belakang: Penyakit periodontal merupakan penyakit umum dan tersebar luas di masyarakat. Bakteri yang banyak berperanpada periodontitis adalah Gram negatif. Bakteri ini mengeluarkan berbagai produk antara lain endotoksin lipopolisakarida (LPS yangmenyebabkan inflamasi atau infeksi. Respon pertahanan tubuh pertama adalah netrofil dan sel mononuklear (monosit dan makrofag.Pada respon

  11. Competição de clones de mandioca selecionados para mesa e indústria Competition among cassava clones selected for table and industry

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    Omar Vieira Villela

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta clones de mandioca, oriundos de diversos cruzamentos intervarietais, foram avaliados quanto à produção de raízes e outras características, em Campinas e Pindamonhangaba (SP, no período de 1981 a 1984. Originalmente, foram plantados quatro ensaios em Campinas e quatro em Pindamonhangaba, em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Cada ensaio teve 13 tratamentos, dentre os quais três testemunhas comuns. Os resultados obtidos permitiram a seleção de 13 clones mais promissores, que foram novamente testados com a instalação de mais um experimento em cada localidade, utilizando a mesma metodologia. Embora nenhum clone se destacasse significativamente quanto à produção de raízes, em relação às testemunhas SRT 59 - Branca de Santa Catarina, IAC 12-829 e IAC-Mantiqueira, o IAC 576-70, oriundo do cruzamento SRT 797 - Ouro do Vale x IAC 14-18, evidenciou uma série de características favoráveis como mandioca de mesa. Assim, novo experimento foi conduzido em 1983/84, em Campinas, comparando-o com outras variedades de mesa, tendo como testemunha a SRT 454 - Guaxupé. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho permitem concluir que o clone IAC 576-70 apresenta uma série de vantagens agronômicas e culinárias, em relação às tradicionais variedades de mesa em cultivo, como arquitetura da parte aérea, maior produtividade, razoável resistência de campo à bacteriose, bom aspecto das raízes, bom tempo de cozimento e cor amarela da polpa.Forty cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz clones, derived froco several intervarietal crossings, were evaluated, concerning root yields and other characteristics, from 1981 to 1984. Originally, four trials were carried out at Campinas and other four trials in Pindamonhangaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in completely randomized block designs with four replications. Each trial had 13 treatments, three of them as checks. From these experiments it was possible to select the thirteen more promissing

  12. Efeitos da farinha de folhas de mandioca sobre a atividade das enzimas AST, ALT, FA e lipídios hepáticos de ratos Wistar Effects of cassava leaves flour on the AST, ALT, ALP enzymes activity and hepatic lipids of Wistar rats

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    Daniela Séfora de Melo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de mandioca possuem substâncias como ligninas e saponinas que podem apresentar efeito hipolipidêmico. Todavia, um estudo recente relatou aumento no peso do fígado de ratos alimentados com dietas contendo farinha de folhas de mandioca (FFM - Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. Cacao, tornando-se necessário um estudo mais aprofundado dos efeitos desta farinha sobre os parâmetros hepáticos. Para este estudo, um ensaio biológico com 32 ratos machos Wistar foi conduzido por um período de 7 semanas, sendo os tratamentos: dieta controle e dietas contendo 5, 10 e 15% de FFM. As dietas contendo FFM não apresentaram efeitos sobre as atividades das enzimas Aspartato Aminotransferase (AST e Fosfatase Alcalina (FA, mas aumentaram significativamente a atividade da enzima alanina aminotransferase (ALT. O estudo histopatológico revelou vacuolização do citoplasma dos hepatócitos para todos os grupos. No entanto, a freqüência de animais com vacuolização acentuada foi superior nos grupos que receberam dietas com FFM, apresentando também maiores teores de lipídios e colesterol total hepáticos e maior relação peso fígado/peso corporal. Estes resultados indicam que os antinutrientes presentes nas folhas de mandioca, como taninos, cianeto e saponinas, podem ser responsáveis pela redução da função hepática nos animais alimentados com FFM.Cassava leaves contain substances such as lignins and saponins that can present the hypolipidemic effect. However, a recent study has reported an increase in liver weight of rats fed diet containing cassava leaves flour (CLF - Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. Cacao. Thus, a further study of the effect of this flour on the hepatic parameters is necessary. For the development of this study, a biological assay with 32 male Wistar rats was conducted for a period of 7 weeks with the following treatments: control diet and diets containing 5, 10, and 15% of CLF. The diets containing CLF showed no effects on the

  13. 471 Soil Characterization and Land Use of Arondizogu Inland Valley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-16

    Oct 16, 2010 ... crop, cassava Manihot esculenta, cocoyam Colocasia esculenta, maize Zea mays, and vegetables such as melon ... Soil taxonomy. A basic system to classification for making and interpreting soil survey. Agricultural handbook No. 436. Government Printing Office Washington. Soil Survey Staff. (1951).

  14. optimisation of a somatic embryogenesis and transformation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    plateforme pour la production de matériels de culture propres, mais aussi servira d'outil dans les programmes d'amélioration génétique visant la lutte contre les maladies virales. Mots Clés: Cytokinine, Manihot esculenta, protocole de génération. INTRODUCTION. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a woody perennial ...

  15. Producción de forraje de yuca HMC-1 en un Haplustoll Éntico con diferentes regímenes de humedad Cassava Forage Production (HMC-1 in an Entic Haplustol whit different moisture

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    Claudia Maricel Ipaz Cuastumal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la relación entre la producción de forraje fresco y la materia seca en dos cortes de Manihot esculenta Crantz HMC 1 y el régimen de humedad (RHS de un Haplustoll éntico fragmental francoso a francoso fragmental isohipertérmico mezclado superactivo 0 - 1%. La humedad en el suelo se registró tres veces por semana, en un sistema de producción experimental en el municipio de El Cerrito (departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Se evaluaron las densidades de siembra de 40.000; 71.429 y 100.000 plantas/ha en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Se presentaron diferencias (P 0.05 la producción de materia seca y forraje verde.The relationship among Moisture Regime in an Entic Haplustoll loamy fragmental over fragmental loamy isohiperthermic mixed super active 0-1% ( evaluated three times per week and forage production ( evaluated during two harvest was investigated in a cassava forage crop production system in the Cauca Valley department, Colombia. A sowing rate of 40,000, 71,429 and 100,000 plants ha-1, under a complete randomized block design was used. Significant differences (P < 0.05 on the effect of the amazement of the soil particle size over the available soil moisture were observed. Soil mesopores and soil available water were determinant on forage yield in the first harvest at 0-10 cm depth and in the second harvest at 25-40 depth. The sowing rate did not have significant effect on dry matter production or in the green forage under the environmental conditions of the experimental site.

  16. Avaliação de um sistema de micropropagação massal de variedades de mandioca Evaluation of a mass micropropagation system of cassava varieties

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    ROBERTO PEDROSO DE OLIVEIRA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar um sistema de micropropagação massal de variedades de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz. Foram utilizadas as variedades Aipim-Rosa, Aipim-Maranhão, Cangaíba, Caravela, Cravela e Pretinha. Para o isolamento dos meristemas, multiplicação e aclimatização das plântulas, empregaram-se métodos desenvolvidos na Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical. Após 30 dias, obteve-se desenvolvimento e formação de plântulas em 78% dos meristemas. Independentemente da variedade e do subcultivo, a taxa média de multiplicação foi de 2,9, permitindo, assim, a obtenção de 231,2 plântulas por matriz, ao final de cinco subcultivos. Embora a porcentagem de formação de calos tenha sido elevada (22%, não afetou negativamente a taxa de multiplicação. Praticamente não houve estiolamento, e as folhas das plântulas apresentaram dese