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Sample records for cassava endophyte bacillus

  1. Antifungal compound produced by the cassava endophyte Bacillus pumilus MAIIIM4a Composto antifúngico produzido pelo endófito de mandioca Bacillus pumilus MAIIIM4a

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    Flávia Mandolesi Pereira de Melo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the search for new organisms and new secondary metabolites, a study was conducted to evaluate the diversity of endophytic bacteria from ethnovarieties of cassava cultivated by Brazilian Amazon Indian tribes and also to study the secondary metabolites produced by a Bacillus pumilus strain. Sixty seven cassava endophytic bacteria were subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing and FAME analysis. The bacterial profile revealed that 25% of all endophytic isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus. The isolate B. pumilus MAIIIM4a showed a strong inhibitory activity against the fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium aphanidermatum and Sclerotium rolfsii. Secondary metabolites of this strain were extracted using hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate. Extracts were subjected to bioautography and LC/MS analysis, which allowed the identification of pumilacidin, an antifungal compound produced by B. pumilus MAIIIM4a. The bacterial endophytic localization was confirmed by cassava cell tissue examination using scanning electron microscopy.Na busca de novos organismos e novos metabólitos secundários, um estudo foi conduzido visando avaliar a diversidade de bactérias endofíticas de etnovariedades de mandioca cultivadas por tribos indígenas da Amazônia brasileira e também para estudar metabólitos secundários produzidos por Bacillus pumilus. Sessenta e sete bactérias endofíticas de mandioca foram identificadas através do seqüenciamento do gene 16S rRNA e por meio da análise de ácidos graxos (FAME. Essas análises revelaram que 25% de todos os endofíticos pertenciam ao gênero Bacillus. O isolado Bacillus pumilus MAIIIM4a apresentou forte ação inibitória contra os fitopatógenos Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium aphanidermatum e Sclerotium rolfsii. Os metabólitos secundários deste isolado foram extraídos do sobrenadante usando-se hexano, diclorometano e acetato de etila. Esses extratos foram utilizados nas análises de bioautografia e LC-MS, as quais

  2. Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae endophytically colonize cassava roots following soil drench inoculation

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    The fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were investigated to determine if endophytic colonization could be achieved in cassava. An inoculation method based on drenching the soil around cassava stems using conidial suspensions resulted in endophytic colonization of ca...

  3. Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Strain KB1, a Potential Biocontrol Agent against Phytopathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Jo, Sung Hee; Hong, Chi Eun; Park, Jeong Mee

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely known microbial pesticide used in agricultural applications. Herein, we report a draft genome sequence of the endophytic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis strain KB1, which exhibits antagonism against phytopathogens.

  4. Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Strain KB1, a Potential Biocontrol Agent against Phytopathogens.

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    Jeong, Haeyoung; Jo, Sung Hee; Hong, Chi Eun; Park, Jeong Mee

    2016-04-21

    ITALIC! Bacillus thuringiensisis the most widely known microbial pesticide used in agricultural applications. Herein, we report a draft genome sequence of the endophytic bacterium ITALIC! Bacillus thuringiensisstrain KB1, which exhibits antagonism against phytopathogens.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Biocontrol Strain Bacillus velezensis CC09

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    Cai, Xunchao; Kang, Xingxing; Xi, Huan

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus velezensis is a heterotypic synonym of B. methylotrophicus, B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum, and Bacillus oryzicola, and has been used to control plant fungal diseases. In order to fully understand the genetic basis of antimicrobial capacities, we did a complete genome sequencing of the endophytic B. velezensis strain CC09. Genes tightly associated with biocontrol ability, including nonribosomal peptide synthetases, polyketide synthetases, iron acquisition, colonization, and volatile organic compound synthesis were identified in the genome. PMID:27688342

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Biocontrol Strain Bacillus velezensis CC09.

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    Cai, Xunchao; Kang, Xingxing; Xi, Huan; Liu, Changhong; Xue, Yarong

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus velezensis is a heterotypic synonym of B. methylotrophicus, B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum, and Bacillus oryzicola, and has been used to control plant fungal diseases. In order to fully understand the genetic basis of antimicrobial capacities, we did a complete genome sequencing of the endophytic B. velezensis strain CC09. Genes tightly associated with biocontrol ability, including nonribosomal peptide synthetases, polyketide synthetases, iron acquisition, colonization, and volatile organic compound synthesis were identified in the genome. PMID:27688342

  7. Plant genotype-specific archaeal and bacterial endophytes but similar Bacillus antagonists colonize Mediterranean olive trees

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    Henry eMueller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes have an intimate and often symbiotic interaction with their hosts. Less is known about the composition and function of endophytes in trees. In order to evaluate our hypothesis that plant genotype and origin have a strong impact on both, endophytes of leaves from 10 Olea europaea L. cultivars from the Mediterranean basin growing at a single agricultural site in Spain and from nine wild olive trees located in natural habitats in Greece, Cyprus and on Madeira Island were studied. The composition of the bacterial endophytic communities as revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and the subsequent PCoA analysis showed a strong correlation to the plant genotypes. The bacterial distribution patterns were congruent with the plant origins in Eastern and Western areas of the Mediterranean basin. Subsequently, the endophytic microbiome of wild olives was shown to be closely related to those of cultivated olives of the corresponding geographic origins. The olive leaf endosphere harbored mostly Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The detection of a high portion of archaeal taxa belonging to the phyla Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota in the amplicon libraries was an unexpected discovery, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR revealing an archaeal portion of up to 35.8%. Although the function of these Archaea for their host plant remains speculative, this finding suggests a significant relevance of archaeal endophytes for plant-microbe interactions. In addition, the antagonistic potential of culturable endophytes was determined; all isolates with antagonistic activity against the olive-pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. belong to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. In contrast to the specific global structural diversity, BOX-fingerprints of the antagonistic Bacillus isolates were highly similar and independent of the olive genotype from which they were isolated.

  8. Augmenting Iron Accumulation in Cassava by the Beneficial Soil Bacterium Bacillus subtilis (GBO3

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    Monica A Freitas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta, a major staple food in the developing world, provides a basic carbohydrate diet for over half a billion people living in the tropics. Despite the iron abundance in most soils, cassava provides insufficient iron for humans as the edible roots contain 3-12 times less iron than other traditional food crops such as wheat, maize, and rice. With the recent identification that the beneficial soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis (strain GB03 activates iron acquisition machinery to increase metal ion assimilation in Arabidopsis, the question arises as to whether this plant-growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR also augments iron assimilation to increase endogenous iron levels in cassava. Biochemical analyses reveal that shoot-propagated cassava with GB03-inoculation exhibit elevated iron accumulation after 140 days of plant growth as determined by X-ray microanalysis and total foliar iron analysis. Growth promotion and increased photosynthetic efficiency were also observed for greenhouse-grown plants with GB03-exposure. These results demonstrate the potential of microbes to increase iron accumulation in an important agricultural crop and is consistent with idea that microbial signaling can regulate plant photosynthesis.

  9. Occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a systemic endophyte of vanilla orchids.

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    White, James F; Torres, Mónica S; Sullivan, Raymond F; Jabbour, Rabih E; Chen, Qiang; Tadych, Mariusz; Irizarry, Ivelisse; Bergen, Marshall S; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Belanger, Faith C

    2014-11-01

    We report the occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vanilla orchids (Vanilla phaeantha) and cultivated hybrid vanilla (V. planifolia × V. pompona) as a systemic bacterial endophyte. We determined with light microscopy and isolations that tissues of V. phaeantha and the cultivated hybrid were infected by a bacterial endophyte and that shoot meristems and stomatal areas of stems and leaves were densely colonized. We identified the endophyte as B. amyloliquefaciens using DNA sequence data. Since additional endophyte-free plants and seed of this orchid were not available, additional studies were performed on surrogate hosts Amaranthus caudatus, Ipomoea tricolor, and I. purpurea. Plants of A. caudatus inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens demonstrated intracellular colonization of guard cells and other epidermal cells, confirming the pattern observed in the orchids. Isolations and histological studies suggest that the bacterium may penetrate deeply into developing plant tissues in shoot meristems, forming endospores in maturing tissues. B. amyloliquefaciens produced fungal inhibitors in culture. In controlled experiments using morning glory seedlings we showed that the bacterium promoted seedling growth and reduced seedling necrosis due to pathogens. We detected the gene for phosphopantetheinyl transferase (sfp), an enzyme in the pathway for production of antifungal lipopeptides, and purified the lipopeptide "surfactin" from cultures of the bacterium. We hypothesize that B. amyloliquefaciens is a robust endophyte and defensive mutualist of vanilla orchids. Whether the symbiosis between this bacterium and its hosts can be managed to protect vanilla crops from diseases is a question that should be evaluated in future research.

  10. Occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a systemic endophyte of vanilla orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James F; Torres, Mónica S; Sullivan, Raymond F; Jabbour, Rabih E; Chen, Qiang; Tadych, Mariusz; Irizarry, Ivelisse; Bergen, Marshall S; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Belanger, Faith C

    2014-11-01

    We report the occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vanilla orchids (Vanilla phaeantha) and cultivated hybrid vanilla (V. planifolia × V. pompona) as a systemic bacterial endophyte. We determined with light microscopy and isolations that tissues of V. phaeantha and the cultivated hybrid were infected by a bacterial endophyte and that shoot meristems and stomatal areas of stems and leaves were densely colonized. We identified the endophyte as B. amyloliquefaciens using DNA sequence data. Since additional endophyte-free plants and seed of this orchid were not available, additional studies were performed on surrogate hosts Amaranthus caudatus, Ipomoea tricolor, and I. purpurea. Plants of A. caudatus inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens demonstrated intracellular colonization of guard cells and other epidermal cells, confirming the pattern observed in the orchids. Isolations and histological studies suggest that the bacterium may penetrate deeply into developing plant tissues in shoot meristems, forming endospores in maturing tissues. B. amyloliquefaciens produced fungal inhibitors in culture. In controlled experiments using morning glory seedlings we showed that the bacterium promoted seedling growth and reduced seedling necrosis due to pathogens. We detected the gene for phosphopantetheinyl transferase (sfp), an enzyme in the pathway for production of antifungal lipopeptides, and purified the lipopeptide "surfactin" from cultures of the bacterium. We hypothesize that B. amyloliquefaciens is a robust endophyte and defensive mutualist of vanilla orchids. Whether the symbiosis between this bacterium and its hosts can be managed to protect vanilla crops from diseases is a question that should be evaluated in future research. PMID:25060609

  11. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Bacillus mojavensis Strain RRC101, an Endophytic Bacterium Antagonistic to the Mycotoxigenic Endophytic Fungus Fusrium verticillioides

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    Here we report the whole genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus mojavensis strain RRC101, isolated from a maize kernel. This strain is antagonistic to the mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium verticillioides, and grows within maize tissue, suggesting potential as an endophytic biocontrol agent....

  12. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Bacillus mojavensis Strain RRC101, an Endophytic Bacterium Antagonistic to the Mycotoxigenic Endophytic Fungus Fusarium verticillioides

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, S. E.; Blacutt, A. A.; Meinersmann, R. J.; Bacon, C W

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the whole-genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus mojavensis strain RRC101, isolated from a maize kernel. This strain is antagonistic to the mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium verticillioides and grows within maize tissue, suggesting potential as an endophytic biocontrol agent.

  13. Direct detection of toxigenic Bacillus cereus in dietary complement for children and cassava starch

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    Jnnifer A. Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a food contaminant anda known human pathogen that can causeemetic and diarrheal syndromes. In this studywe evaluated the presence of toxigenic B.cereus by multiplex PCR directly in dietarycomplement for children and cassava starchsamples collected on Medellin, Colombia.Of 75 dietary complement for childrensamples evaluated, 70.7% were contaminatedwith toxigenic B. cereus and four differenttoxigenic consortia were detected: I: nheA,hblC, cytK (9.8%, II: nheA, hblC (2%,III: hblC, cytK (41.2%, IV: hblC (47%.Of 75 cassava starch samples, 44% werecontaminated with toxigenic B. cereus andfour different toxigenic consortia weredetermined: I: nheA, hblC, cytK (48.5%,II: nheA, hblC, cytK, cesB (3%, III: hblC,cytK (30.3%, IV: hblC (18.2%. In general,in dietary complement for children onlyenterotoxigenic consortia were detectedwhile in cassava starch the enterotoxigenicconsortia predominated over the emetic.Multiplex PCR was useful to detect toxigenicB. cereus contamination allowing directand simultaneous detection of all toxingenes in foods. This study is the first inColombia to evaluate toxigenic B. cereus,providing information of importance formicrobiological risk evaluation in driedfoods.

  14. Surfactin, Iturin, and Fengycin Biosynthesis by Endophytic Bacillus sp. from Bacopa monnieri.

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    Jasim, B; Sreelakshmi, K S; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2016-07-01

    Endophytic microorganisms which are ubiquitously present in plants may colonize intracellularly or intercellularly without causing any diseases. By living within the unique chemical environment of a host plant, they produce a vast array of compounds with a wide range of biological activities. Because of this, natural products of endophytic origin have been exploited for antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, and antioxidant properties. Also, they can be considered to function as an efficient microbial barrier to protect plants from various pathogens. In the present study, endophytic bacterium BmB 9 with antifungal and antibacterial activity isolated from the stem tissue of Bacopa monnieri was studied for the molecular and chemical basis of its activity. PCR-based genome mining for various biosynthetic gene clusters proved the presence of surfactin, iturin, and type I polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in the isolate. The LC-MS/MS based analysis of the extract further confirmed the production of surfactin derivatives (M + H(+)-1008.6602, 1022.6755), iturin (M + H(+)-1043.5697), and fengycin (M + H(+)-1491.8195, 1477.8055) by the selected bacterial isolate. The 16S rDNA sequence similarity based analysis identified the isolate BmB 9 as Bacillus sp. with 100 % identity to Bacillus sp. LCF1 (KP257289). PMID:27021396

  15. Biogenesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from Garcinia xanthochymus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swetha Sunkar; C Valli Nachiyar

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To synthesize the ecofriendly nanoparticles, which is viewed as an alternative to the chemical method which initiated the use of microbes like bacteria and fungi in their synthesis. Methods: The current study uses the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from the Garcinia xanthochymus to synthesize the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNPs were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate solution by the endophytic bacterium after incubation for 3-5 d at room temperature. The synthesis was initially observed by colour change from pale white to brown which was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The AgNPs were further characterized using FTIR, SEM-EDX and TEM analyses. Results:The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical with the size in the range of 20-40 nm which showed a slight aggregation. The energy-dispersive spectra of the nanoparticle dispersion confirmed the presence of elemental silver. The AgNPs were found to have antibacterial activity against a few pathogenic bacteria like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions:The endophytic bacteria identified as Bacillus cereus was able to synthesize silver nanoparticles with potential antibacterial activity.

  16. The ability of the biological control agent Bacillus subtilis, strain BB, to colonise vegetable brassicas endophytically following seed inoculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulff, E.G.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.; Hockenhull, J.

    2003-01-01

    The ability of Bacillus subtilis, strain BB, to colonise cabbage seedlings endophytically was examined following seed inoculation. Strain BB was recovered from different plant parts including leaves (cotyledons), stem (hypocotyl) and roots. While high bacterial populations persisted in the roots and

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens XK-4-1, a Plant Growth-Promoting Endophyte with Antifungal Activity.

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    Sun, Zhengxiang; Hsiang, Tom; Zhou, Yi; Zhou, Jinglong

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a bacterial plant-growth-promoting endophyte, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens XK-4-1, which consists of one circular chromosome of 3,941,805 bp with 3,702 coding sequences (CDSs). The data presented highlight multiple sets of functional genes associated with its plant-beneficial characteristics. PMID:26564038

  18. Effect of endophytic Bacillus cereus ERBP inoculation into non-native host: Potentials and challenges for airborne formaldehyde removal.

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    Khaksar, Gholamreza; Treesubsuntorn, Chairat; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2016-10-01

    Phytoremediation could be a cost-effective, environmentally friendly approach for the treatment of indoor air. However, some drawbacks still dispute the expediency of phytotechnology. Our objectives were to investigate the competency of plant growth-promoting (PGP) endophytic Bacillus cereus ERBP (endophyte root blue pea), isolated from the root of Clitoria ternatea, to colonize and stabilize within Zamioculcas zamiifolia and Euphorbia milii as non-native hosts without causing any disease or stress symptoms. Moreover, the impact of B. cereus ERBP on the natural shoot endophytic community and for the airborne formaldehyde removal capability of non-native hosts was assessed. Non-native Z. zamiifolia was effectively inoculated with B. cereus ERBP through soil as the most efficient method of endophyte inoculation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling of the shoot endophytic community verified the colonization and stability of B. cereus ERBP within its non-native host during a 20-d fumigation period without interfering with the natural shoot endophytic diversity of Z. zamiifolia. B. cereus ERBP conferred full protection to its non-native host against formaldehyde phytotoxicity and enhanced airborne formaldehyde removal of Z. zamiifolia whereas non-inoculated plants suffered from formaldehyde phytotoxicity because their natural shoot endophytic community was detrimentally affected by formaldehyde. In contrast, B. cereus ERBP inoculation into non-native E. milii deteriorated airborne formaldehyde removal of the non-native host (compared to a non-inoculated one) as B. cereus ERBP interfered with natural shoot endophytic community of E. milii, which caused stress symptoms and stimulated ethylene biosynthesis. Non-native host inoculation with PGP B. cereus ERBP could bear potentials and challenges for airborne formaldehyde removal. PMID:27362296

  19. Antioxidant and DNA Damage Protecting Activity of Exopolysaccharides from the Endophytic Bacterium Bacillus cereus SZ1.

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    Zheng, Li Ping; Zou, Tin; Ma, Yan Jun; Wang, Jian Wen; Zhang, Yu Qing

    2016-01-01

    An endophytic bacterium was isolated from the Chinese medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. The phylogenetic and physiological characterization indicated that the isolate, strain SZ-1, was Bacillus cereus. The endophyte could produce an exopolysaccharide (EPS) at 46 mg/L. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydracyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of the EPS reached more than 50% at 3-5 mg/mL. The EPS was also effective in scavenging superoxide radical in a concentration dependent fashion with an EC50 value of 2.6 mg/mL. The corresponding EC50 for scavenging hydroxyl radical was 3.1 mg/mL. Moreover, phenanthroline-copper complex-mediated chemiluminescent emission of DNA damage was both inhibited and delayed by EPS. The EPS at 0.7-1.7 mg/mL also protected supercoiled DNA strands in plasmid pBR322 against scission induced by Fenton-mediated hydroxyl radical. The preincubation of PC12 cells with the EPS prior to H₂O₂ exposure increased the cell survival and glutathione (GSH) level and catalase (CAT) activities, and decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a pronounced protective effect against H₂O₂-induced cytotoxicity. Our study indicated that the EPS could be useful for preventing oxidative DNA damage and cellular oxidation in pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:26861269

  20. Antioxidant and DNA Damage Protecting Activity of Exopolysaccharides from the Endophytic Bacterium Bacillus cereus SZ1

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    Li Ping Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An endophytic bacterium was isolated from the Chinese medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. The phylogenetic and physiological characterization indicated that the isolate, strain SZ-1, was Bacillus cereus. The endophyte could produce an exopolysaccharide (EPS at 46 mg/L. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydracyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of the EPS reached more than 50% at 3–5 mg/mL. The EPS was also effective in scavenging superoxide radical in a concentration dependent fashion with an EC50 value of 2.6 mg/mL. The corresponding EC50 for scavenging hydroxyl radical was 3.1 mg/mL. Moreover, phenanthroline-copper complex-mediated chemiluminescent emission of DNA damage was both inhibited and delayed by EPS. The EPS at 0.7–1.7 mg/mL also protected supercoiled DNA strands in plasmid pBR322 against scission induced by Fenton-mediated hydroxyl radical. The preincubation of PC12 cells with the EPS prior to H2O2 exposure increased the cell survival and glutathione (GSH level and catalase (CAT activities, and decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a pronounced protective effect against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. Our study indicated that the EPS could be useful for preventing oxidative DNA damage and cellular oxidation in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  1. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus subtilis EB-28, an endophytic bacterium strain displaying biocontrol activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shutong WANG; Tongle HU; Yanling JIAO; Jianjian WEI; Keqiang CAO

    2009-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea Pers. causes severe rotting on tomato fruits during storage and shelf life. As a biological control agent, endophytic bacterium was regarded as an effective alternative to chemical control. Out of 238 endophytic bacterial isolates, three strains (EB-15, EB-28, and EB-122) isolated from Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Speranskia tuberculata (Bge.) Baill, and Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. respectively were found to be strongly antagonistic to the pathogen in vitro and were selected for further in vivo tests. One endophytic bacterium strain, encoded EB-28, was selected from the three in vivo tested isolates. The inhibitive rate of EB-28 reached 71.1% in vitro and 52.4% in vivo. EB-28 was identified as Bacillus subtilis according to its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

  2. A Comparative biochemical study on two marine endophytes, Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS, Isolated from red sea algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Eman Fadl; Hassan, Hossam Mokhtar; Rateb, Mostafa Ezzat; Abdel-Wahab, Noha; Sameer, Somayah; Aly Taie, Hanan Anwar; Abdel-Hameed, Mohammed Sayed; Hammouda, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Two marine endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Red Sea algae; a red alga; Acanthophora dendroides and the brown alga Sargassum sabrepandum. The isolates were identified based on their 16SrRNA sequences as Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential anti-microbial and antioxidant activities of the extracts of the isolated bacteria grown in different nutrient conditions. Compared to amoxicillin (25μg/disk) and erythromycin (15μg/disk), the extracts of Bacterium SRCn min media II, III, IV and V were potent inhibitors of the gram-positive bacterium Sarcina maxima even at low concentrations. Also, the multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) was more sensitive to the metabolites produced in medium (II) of the same endophyte than erythromycin (15μg/disk). A moderate activity of the Bacillus sp. JS extracts of media I and II was obtained against the same pathogen. The total compounds (500ug/ml) of both isolated endophytes showed moderate antioxidant activities (48.9% and 46.1%, respectively). LC/MS analysis of the bacterial extracts was carried out to investigate the likely natural products produced. Cyclo(D-cis-Hyp-L-Leu), dihydrosphingosine and 2-Amino-1,3-hexadecanediol were identified in the fermentation medium of Bacterium SRCnm, whereas cyclo (D-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo (L-Leu-L-Pro) were the suggested compounds of Bacillus sp. JS. PMID:26826831

  3. Endophytic fungi from the Amazonian plant Paullinia cupana and from Olea europaea isolated using cassava as an alternative starch media source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Eliandra de Freitas; Marcon, Joelma; Luvizotto, Danice Mazzer; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Tsui, Sarina; Pereira, José Odair; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida; Azevedo, João Lúcio

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic fungi live inside plants, apparently do not cause any harm to their hosts and may play important roles in defense and growth promotion. Fungal growth is a routine practice at microbiological laboratories, and the Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) is the most frequently used medium because it is a rich source of starch. However, the production of potatoes in some regions of the world can be costly. Aiming the development of a new medium source to tropical countries, in the present study, we used leaves from the guarana (a tropical plant from the Amazon region) and the olive (which grows in subtropical and temperate regions) to isolate endophytic fungi using PDA and Manihot Dextrose Agar (MDA). Cassava (Manihot esculenta) was evaluated as a substitute starch source. For guarana, the endophytic incidence (EI) was 90% and 98% on PDA and MDA media, respectively, and 65% and 70% for olive, respectively. The fungal isolates were sequenced using the ITS- rDNA region. The fungal identification demonstrated that the isolates varied according to the host plant and media source. In the guarana plant, 13 fungal genera were found using MDA and six were found using PDA. In the olive plant, six genera were obtained using PDA and 4 were obtained using MDA. The multivariate analysis results demonstrated the highest fungal diversity from guarana when using MDA medium. Interestingly, some genera were isolated from one specific host or in one specific media, suggesting the importance of these two factors in fungal isolation specificity. Thus, this study indicated that cassava is a feasible starch source that could serve as a potential alternative medium to potato medium. PMID:25674409

  4. Endophytic fungi from the Amazonian plant Paullinia cupana and from Olea europaea isolated using cassava as an alternative starch media source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Eliandra de Freitas; Marcon, Joelma; Luvizotto, Danice Mazzer; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Tsui, Sarina; Pereira, José Odair; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida; Azevedo, João Lúcio

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic fungi live inside plants, apparently do not cause any harm to their hosts and may play important roles in defense and growth promotion. Fungal growth is a routine practice at microbiological laboratories, and the Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) is the most frequently used medium because it is a rich source of starch. However, the production of potatoes in some regions of the world can be costly. Aiming the development of a new medium source to tropical countries, in the present study, we used leaves from the guarana (a tropical plant from the Amazon region) and the olive (which grows in subtropical and temperate regions) to isolate endophytic fungi using PDA and Manihot Dextrose Agar (MDA). Cassava (Manihot esculenta) was evaluated as a substitute starch source. For guarana, the endophytic incidence (EI) was 90% and 98% on PDA and MDA media, respectively, and 65% and 70% for olive, respectively. The fungal isolates were sequenced using the ITS- rDNA region. The fungal identification demonstrated that the isolates varied according to the host plant and media source. In the guarana plant, 13 fungal genera were found using MDA and six were found using PDA. In the olive plant, six genera were obtained using PDA and 4 were obtained using MDA. The multivariate analysis results demonstrated the highest fungal diversity from guarana when using MDA medium. Interestingly, some genera were isolated from one specific host or in one specific media, suggesting the importance of these two factors in fungal isolation specificity. Thus, this study indicated that cassava is a feasible starch source that could serve as a potential alternative medium to potato medium.

  5. Biological Control of Rice Bakanae by an Endophytic Bacillus oryzicola YC7007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Tofajjal; Khan, Ajmal; Chung, Eu Jin; Rashid, Md Harun-Or; Chung, Young Ryun

    2016-06-01

    In our previous study, we reported that a novel endophytic bacterium Bacillus oryzicola YC7007 has suppressed bacterial diseases of rice via induced systemic resistance and antibiotic production. This endophytic strain, B. oryzicola YC7007 was used as a biological control agent against bakanae disease of rice caused by Fusarium fujikuroi, and its mechanism of interaction with the pathogen and the rice was further elucidated. Root drenching with B. oryzicola YC7007 suspension reduced the disease severity of bakanae significantly when compared with the untreated controls. The treatments of B. oryzicola YC7007 suspension (2.0 × 10(7) cfu/ml) to the rice rhizosphere reduced bakanae severity by 46-78% in pots and nursery box tests containing autoclaved and non-autoclaved soils. Moreover, in the detached rice leaves bioassay, the development of necrotic lesion and mycelial expansion of F. fujikuroi were inhibited significantly by spraying the culture filtrate of B. oryzicola YC7007. Drenching of ethyl acetate extracts of the culture filtrate to the rhizosphere of rice seedlings also reduced the bakanae disease severity in the plant culture dish tests. With the root drenching of B. oryzicola YC7007 suspension, the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide was observed at an early stage of rice seedlings, and a hormonal defense was elicited with and without pathogen inoculation. Our results showed that the strain B. oryzicola YC7007 had a good biocontrol activity against the bakanae disease of rice by direct inhibition, and was also capable of inducing systemic resistance against the pathogen via primed induction of the jasmonic acid pathway. PMID:27298598

  6. Biological Control of Rice Bakanae by an Endophytic Bacillus oryzicola YC7007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tofajjal Hossain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In our previous study, we reported that a novel endophytic bacterium Bacillus oryzicola YC7007 has suppressed bacterial diseases of rice via induced systemic resistance and antibiotic production. This endophytic strain, B. oryzicola YC7007 was used as a biological control agent against bakanae disease of rice caused by Fusarium fujikuroi, and its mechanism of interaction with the pathogen and the rice was further elucidated. Root drenching with B. oryzicola YC7007 suspension reduced the disease severity of bakanae significantly when compared with the untreated controls. The treatments of B. oryzicola YC7007 suspension (2.0 × 10⁷ cfu/ml to the rice rhizosphere reduced bakanae severity by 46–78% in pots and nursery box tests containing autoclaved and non-autoclaved soils. Moreover, in the detached rice leaves bioassay, the development of necrotic lesion and mycelial expansion of F. fujikuroi were inhibited significantly by spraying the culture filtrate of B. oryzicola YC7007. Drenching of ethyl acetate extracts of the culture filtrate to the rhizosphere of rice seedlings also reduced the bakanae disease severity in the plant culture dish tests. With the root drenching of B. oryzicola YC7007 suspension, the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide was observed at an early stage of rice seedlings, and a hormonal defense was elicited with and without pathogen inoculation. Our results showed that the strain B. oryzicola YC7007 had a good biocontrol activity against the bakanae disease of rice by direct inhibition, and was also capable of inducing systemic resistance against the pathogen via primed induction of the jasmonic acid pathway.

  7. Functional role of an endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in enhancing growth and disease protection of invasive English ivy (Hedera helix L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcos Antonio; Li, Jai-Yan; Bergen, Marshall; da Silva, Joaquim Manoel; Kowalski, Kurt P.; White, James Francis

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundWe hypothesize that invasive English ivy (Hedera helix) harbors endophytic microbes that promote plant growth and survival. To evaluate this hypothesis, we examined endophytic bacteria in English ivy and evaluated effects on the host plant.MethodsEndophytic bacteria were isolated from multiple populations of English ivy in New Brunswick, NJ. Bacteria were identified as a single species Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. One strain of B. amyloliquefaciens, strain C6c, was characterized for indoleacetic acid (IAA) production, secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, phosphate solubilization, and antibiosis against pathogens. PCR was used to amplify lipopeptide genes and their secretion into culture media was detected by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Capability to promote growth of English ivy was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. The capacity of C6c to protect plants from disease was evaluated by exposing B+ (bacterium inoculated) and B− (non-inoculated) plants to the necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria tenuissima.ResultsB. amyloliquefaciens C6c systemically colonized leaves, petioles, and seeds of English ivy. C6c synthesized IAA and inhibited plant pathogens. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis revealed secretion of antifungal lipopeptides surfactin, iturin, bacillomycin, and fengycin. C6c promoted the growth of English ivy in low and high soil nitrogen conditions. This endophytic bacterium efficiently controlled disease caused by Alternaria tenuissima.ConclusionsThis study suggests that B. amyloliquefaciens plays an important role in enhancing growth and disease protection of English ivy.

  8. Use of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria as a vector to express the cry3A gene from Bacillus thuringiensis

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    Salles Joana Falcão

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria as a vector to express a cry gene from Bacillus thuringiensis, envisaging the control of pests that attack sugarcane plants. The endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strain BR11281 and Herbaspirillum seropedicae strain BR11335 were used as models. The cry3A gene was transferred by conjugation using a suicide plasmid and the recombinant strains were selected by their ability to fix nitrogen in semi-solid N-free medium. The presence of the cry gene was detected by Southern-blot using an internal fragment of 1.0 kb as a probe. The production of delta-endotoxin by the recombinant H. seropedicae strain was detected by dot blot while for G. diazotrophicus the Western-blot technique was used. In both cases, a specific antibody raised against the B. thuringiensis toxin was applied. The delta-endotoxin production showed by the G. diazotrophicus recombinant strain was dependent on the nitrogen fixing conditions since the cry3A gene was fused to a nif promoter. In the case of H. seropedicae the delta-endotoxin expression was not affected by the promoter (rhi used. These results suggest that endophytic diazotrophic bacteria can be used as vectors to express entomopathogenic genes envisaging control of sugarcane pests.

  9. The FTIR spectroscopy investigation of the cellular components of cassava after sensitization with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, [i]Bacillus subtili[/i]s CaSUT007

    OpenAIRE

    Buensateai, Natthiya; Thumanu, Kanjana; Sompong, Mathukorn; Athinuwat, Dusit; Prathuangwong, Sutruedee

    2012-01-01

    Publication Inra prise en compte dans l'analyse bibliométrique des publications scientifiques mondiales sur les Fruits, les Légumes et la Pomme de terre. Période 2000-2012. http://prodinra.inra.fr/record/256699 To evaluate the response of cassava stakes to plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, Bacillus subtilis CaSUT007, the changes in cellular compositions and phytohormone were investigated using the fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) appro...

  10. Seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 produces gibberellins and regulates endogenous phytohormones of Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Raheem; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-09-01

    Some microorganisms are adapted to an endophytic mode, living symbiotically with plants through vertical transmission in seeds. The role of plant growth-promoting endophytes has been well studied, but those of seed-associated endophytic bacteria are less understood. The current study aimed to isolate and identify bacterial endophytes associated with rice (Oryza sativa L. 'Jin so mi') seeds, their potential to produce gibberellins (GAs), and role in improving host-plant physiology. The isolated bacterial endophyte RWL-1 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The pure culture of B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1, supplied with deuterated internal standards, was subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectrometric selected ion monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) for quantification of GAs. Results showed the presence of GAs in various quantities (ng/mL) viz., GA20 (17.88 ± 4.04), GA36 (5.75 ± 2.36), GA24 (5.64 ± 2.46), GA4 (1.02 ± 0.16), GA53 (0.772 ± 0.20), GA9 (0.12 ± 0.09), GA19 (0.093 ± 0.13), GA5 (0.08 ± 0.04), GA12 (0.014 ± 0.34), and GA8 (0.013 ± 0.01). Since endogenous seed GAs are essential for prolonged seed growth and subsequent plant development, we used exogenous GA3 as a positive control and water as a negative control for comparative analysis of the application of B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 to rice plants. The growth parameters of rice plants treated with endophytic bacterial cell application was significantly increased compared to the plants treated with exogenous GA3 and water. This was also revealed by the significant up-regulation of endogenous GA1 (17.54 ± 2.40 ng), GA4 (310 ± 5.41 ng), GA7 (192.60 ± 3.32 ng), and GA9 (19.04 ± 2.49 ng) as compared to results of the positive and negative control treatments. Rice plants inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 exhibited significantly higher endogenous salicylic acid (1615.06 ± 10.81 μg), whereas

  11. Response surface optimisation for acetone-butanol-ethanol production from cassava starch by co-culture of Clostridium butylicum and Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamas Cheirsilp

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE production from cassava starch was enhanced by a syntrophic co-culture of Clostridium butylicum TISTR 1032 and high amylase producing Bacillus subtilis WD 161 without anaerobic pretreatment. The production of amylase and ABE using this co-culture were respectively 16 and 6 times higher than those using the pure culture of C. butylicum TISTR 1032. The effect of the medium components on the performance of the co-culture was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM. Among the investigated components, cassava starch and ammonium nitrate contributed a significant effect on the production of amylase and ABE, while yeast extract had less effect. Based on the optimum strategy using RSM, the ABE production by the co-culture was improved 2.2-fold compared with that obtained from the initial condition and with a minimum requirement of nitrogen source.

  12. Endophyte-assisted promotion of biomass production and metal-uptake of energy crop sweet sorghum by plant-growth-promoting endophyte Bacillus sp. SLS18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shenglian; Xu, Taoying; Chen, Liang [Hunan Univ., Changsha (China). College of Environmental Science and Engineering] [and others

    2012-02-15

    The effects of Bacillus sp. SLS18, a plant-growth-promoting endophyte, on the biomass production and Mn/Cd uptake of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and Solanum nigrum L. were investigated. SLS18 displayed multiple heavy metals and antibiotics resistances. The strain also exhibited the capacity of producing indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. In pot experiments, SLS18 could not only infect plants effectively but also significantly increase the biomass of the three tested plants in the presence of Mn/Cd. The promoting effect order of SLS18 on the biomass of the tested plants was sweet sorghum > P. acinosa > S. nigrum L. In the presence of Mn (2,000 mg kg{sup -1}) and Cd (50 mg kg{sup -1}) in vermiculite, the total Mn/Cd uptakes in the aerial parts of sweet sorghum, P. acinosa, and S. nigrum L. were increased by 65.2%/40.0%, 55.2%/31.1%, and 18.6%/25.6%, respectively, compared to the uninoculated controls. This demonstrates that the symbiont of SLS18 and sweet sorghum has the potential of improving sweet sorghum biomass production and its total metal uptake on heavy metal-polluted marginal land. It offers the potential that heavy metal-polluted marginal land could be utilized in planting sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock for ethanol production, which not only gives a promising phytoremediation strategy but also eases the competition for limited fertile farmland between energy crops and food crops. (orig.)

  13. Propriedades emulsificantes e estabilidade do biossurfactante produzido por Bacillus subtilis em manipueira Studies of emulsifying properties and stability of the biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis in cassava wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fábio Cavalcante Barros

    2008-12-01

    conditions often associated with of such processes and the maintenance of their properties. The aim of this work was to study the stability of the biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis strain LB5a grown in cassava wastewater in a pilot process. Stability studies were carried out by varying the temperature, pH, and salt (NaCl concentration. Another study was the evaluation of their emulsifying index in mixtures of water with hydrocarbons and vegetable oils as well as the stability of the emulsions formed. The results showed that the biosurfactant was stable under all combination of temperature and time tested: 100 °C for 140 minutes and 121 °C for up to 60 minutes. It was also stable in concentrations of NaCl from 2.5 to 20%, and pH from 6 to 10. The biosurfactant showed higher values of emulsion index at 24 hours (EI24 to various cyclical and aliphatic hydrocarbons when compared with SDS. The vegetable oils emulsions were stable despite the fact that the profiles of fatty acid chain in the oils were different. All results described characterize these compounds as potential emulsifiers for different industrial applications.

  14. Characterization of endophytic Bacillus strains from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) displaying antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefi, Asma; Ben Slimene, Imen; Karkouch, Ines; Rihouey, Christophe; Azaeiz, Sana; Bejaoui, Marwa; Belaid, Rania; Cosette, Pascal; Jouenne, Thierry; Limam, Ferid

    2015-12-01

    Eighty endophytic bacteria were isolated from healthy tissues of roots, stems, leaves and fruits of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum). Four strains, named BL1, BT5, BR8 and BF11 were selected for their antagonism against Botrytis cinerea, a phytopathogenic fungus responsible of gray mold in several important crops, with growth inhibitory activity ranging from 27 to 53%. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular parameters as 16S rDNA sequencing demonstrated that the selected bacterial strains were related to Bacillus species which are known to produce and secrete a lot of lipopeptides with strong inhibitory effect against pathogen mycelial growth. Electrospray mass spectrometry analysis showed that these strains produced heterogeneous mixture of antibiotics belonging to fengycin and surfactin for BL1 and BT5, to iturin and surfactin for BR8, to bacillomycin D, fengycin and surfactin for BF11. Furthermore, these bacteria exhibited biocontrol potential by reducing the disease severity when tested on detached leaflets. Based on their antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, these strains could be used for biological control of plant diseases.

  15. Characterization of endophytic Bacillus strains from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) displaying antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefi, Asma; Ben Slimene, Imen; Karkouch, Ines; Rihouey, Christophe; Azaeiz, Sana; Bejaoui, Marwa; Belaid, Rania; Cosette, Pascal; Jouenne, Thierry; Limam, Ferid

    2015-12-01

    Eighty endophytic bacteria were isolated from healthy tissues of roots, stems, leaves and fruits of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum). Four strains, named BL1, BT5, BR8 and BF11 were selected for their antagonism against Botrytis cinerea, a phytopathogenic fungus responsible of gray mold in several important crops, with growth inhibitory activity ranging from 27 to 53%. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular parameters as 16S rDNA sequencing demonstrated that the selected bacterial strains were related to Bacillus species which are known to produce and secrete a lot of lipopeptides with strong inhibitory effect against pathogen mycelial growth. Electrospray mass spectrometry analysis showed that these strains produced heterogeneous mixture of antibiotics belonging to fengycin and surfactin for BL1 and BT5, to iturin and surfactin for BR8, to bacillomycin D, fengycin and surfactin for BF11. Furthermore, these bacteria exhibited biocontrol potential by reducing the disease severity when tested on detached leaflets. Based on their antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, these strains could be used for biological control of plant diseases. PMID:26347324

  16. Lipopeptides from the Banyan Endophyte, Bacillus subtilis K1: Mass Spectrometric Characterization of a Library of Fengycins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Khyati V.; Keharia, Haresh; Gupta, Kallol; Thakur, Suman S.; Balaram, Padmanabhan

    2012-10-01

    Mass spectrometric analysis of a banyan endophyte, Bacillus subtilis K1, extract showing broad spectrum antifungal activity revealed a complex mixture of lipopeptides, iturins, surfactins, and fengycins. Fractionation by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) facilitated a detailed analysis of fengycin microheterogeneity. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometric studies permitted the identification of several new fengycin variants. Four major sites of heterogeneity are identified: (1) N-terminus β-hydroxy fatty acid moiety, where chain length variation and the presence of unsaturation occur, (2) position 6 (Ala/Val/Ile/Leu), (3) position 10 (Val/Ile) within the macrocyclic ring, and (4) Gln to Glu replacement at position 8, resulting in fengycin variants that differ in mass by 1 Da. Diagnostic fragment ions provide a quick method for localizing the sites of variation in the macrocycle or the linear segment. Subsequent establishment of the sequences is achieved by MS/MS analysis of linear fengycin species produced by hydrolysis of the macrocyclic lactone. Unsaturation in the fatty acid chain and the presence of linear precursors in the B. subtilis K1 extract are also established by mass spectrometry. The anomalous distribution of intensities within isotopic multiplets is a diagnostic for Gln/Glu replacements. High resolution mass spectrometry facilitates the identification of fengycin species differing by 1 Da by localizing the variable position (Gln8/Glu8) in the fengycin variants.

  17. Bacillus oryzicola sp. nov., an Endophytic Bacterium Isolated from the Roots of Rice with Antimicrobial, Plant Growth Promoting, and Systemic Resistance Inducing Activities in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eu Jin Chung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of major rice diseases has been attempted in several rice-growing countries in Asia during the last few decades and its application using antagonistic bacteria has proved to be somewhat successful for controlling various fungal diseases in field trials. Two novel endophytic Bacillus species, designated strains YC7007 and YC7010T, with anti-microbial, plant growth-promoting, and systemic resistance-inducing activities were isolated from the roots of rice in paddy fields at Jinju, Korea, and their multifunctional activities were analyzed. Strain YC7007 inhibited mycelial growth of major rice fungal pathogens strongly in vitro. Bacterial blight and panicle blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (KACC 10208 and Burkholderia glumae (KACC 44022, respectively, were also suppressed effectively by drenching a bacterial suspension (10⁷ cfu/ml of strain YC7007 on the rhizosphere of rice. Additionally, strain YC7007 promoted the growth of rice seedlings with higher germination rates and more tillers than the untreated control. The taxonomic position of the strains was also investigated. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that both strains belong to the genus Bacillus, with high similarity to the closely related strains, Bacillus siamensis KACC 15859T (99.67%, Bacillus methylotrophicus KACC 13105T (99.65%, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum KACC 17177T (99.60%, and Bacillus tequilensis KACC 15944T (99.45%. The DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain YC7010T and the most closely related strain, B. siamensis KACC 15859T was 50.4±3.5%, but it was 91.5±11.0% between two strains YC7007 and YC7010T, indicating the same species. The major fatty acids of two strains were anteiso-C15:0 and iso C15:0. Both strains contained MK-7 as a major respiratory quinone system. The G+C contents of the genomic DNA of two strains were 50.5 mol% and 51.2 mol%, respectively. Based on these polyphasic studies, the

  18. Screening and characterization of endophytic Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains from medicinal plant Lonicera japonica for use as potential plant growth promoters

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    Longfei Zhao

    2015-12-01

    endophytic bacterial strains were identified to be Paenibacillus and Bacillus strains based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis and their physiological and biochemical characteristics. Results indicate the promising application of endophytic bacteria to the biological control of pathogenic fungi and the improvement of wheat crop growth.

  19. Screening and characterization of endophytic Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains from medicinal plant Lonicera japonica for use as potential plant growth promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Longfei; Xu, Yajun; Lai, Xin-He; Shan, Changjuan; Deng, Zhenshan; Ji, Yuliang

    2015-01-01

    strains were identified to be Paenibacillus and Bacillus strains based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis and their physiological and biochemical characteristics. Results indicate the promising application of endophytic bacteria to the biological control of pathogenic fungi and the improvement of wheat crop growth. PMID:26691455

  20. Characterization of lead resistant endophytic Bacillus sp. MN3-4 and its potential for promoting lead accumulation in metal hyperaccumulator Alnus firma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Mi-Na; Shim, Jaehong; You, Youngnam [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environmental and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of); Myung, Hyun [Department of Environment Landscape Architecture-Design, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Keuk-Soo [Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Min [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environmental and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan, E-mail: kannan@jbnu.ac.kr [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environmental and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Byung-Taek, E-mail: btoh@jbnu.ac.kr [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environmental and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endophytic Bacillus spp. have reduced the lead toxicity in Alnus firma plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bacteria have sequestered the Pb molecules extracellularly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bacteria have increased the growth rate of plants in the presence of Pb. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria from the roots of the metal hyperaccumulator plant Alnus firma. A total of 14 bacterial endophytes were isolated from root samples and assayed for tolerance to heavy metals. Isolate MN3-4 exhibited maximum bioremoval of Pb and was subsequently identified as Bacillus sp. based on 16S rRNA sequences. The pH and initial metal concentration highly influenced the Pb bioremoval rate. The growth of isolate MN3-4 was moderately altered in the presence of metals. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, biological-transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed that isolate MN3-4 had extracellularly sequestered the Pb molecules with little intracellular accumulation. Isolate MN3-4 did not harbor pbrA and pbrT genes. Moreover, isolate MN3-4 had the capacity to produce siderophores and indoleacetic acid. A root elongation assay demonstrated an increase (46.25%) in the root elongation of inoculated Brassica napus seedlings compared to that of the control plants. Obtained results pointed out that isolate MN3-4 could potentially reduce heavy metal phytotoxicity and increase Pb accumulation in A. firma plants.

  1. Purification and characterization of a highly active chromate reductase from endophytic Bacillus sp. DGV19 of Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth. actively involved in phytoremediation of tannery effluent-contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Muthu; Gopal, Judy; Kumaran, Rangarajulu Senthil; Kannan, Vijayaraghavan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation using timber-yielding tree species is considered to be the most efficient method for chromium/tannery effluent-contaminated sites. In this study, we have chosen Albizzia lebbeck, a chromium hyperaccumulator plant, and studied one of its chromium detoxification processes operated by its endophytic bacterial assemblage. Out of the four different groups of endophytic bacteria comprising Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Bacillus, and Salinicoccus identified from A. lebbeck employed in phytoremediation of tannery effluent-contaminated soil, Bacillus predominated with three species, which exhibited not only remarkable chromium accumulation ability but also high chromium reductase activity. A chromate reductase was purified to homogeneity from the most efficient chromium accumulator, Bacillus sp. DGV 019, and the purified 34.2-kD enzyme was observed to be stable at temperatures from 20°C to 60°C. The enzyme was active over a wide range of pH values (4.0-9.0). Furthermore, the enzyme activity was enhanced with the electron donors NADH, followed by NADPH, not affected by glutathione and ascorbic acid. Cu(2+) enhanced the activity of the purified enzyme but was inhibited by Zn(2+) and etheylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). In conclusion, due to its versatile adaptability the chromate reductase can be used for chromium remediation.

  2. Effects of Dissolved Oxygen Tension and Ammonium Concentration on Polyhydroxybutyrate Synthesis from Cassava Starch by Bacillus cereus IFO 13690

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margono .

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available generated by an Adobe application 11.5606 Attempting to get low price of raw material for producing polyhydroxybutyrate is always studied. Tapioca starch is one of the raw material with low price. The objective of this research was to study the effects of initial ammonium concentration and dissolved oxygen tension (doT on producing PHB by Bacillus cereus IFO 13690 with tapioca starch as the carbon source. This fermentation was carried out in 5 L fementors with a 2 L working volume, temperature of 30 oC, and agitation of 500 rpm. The pH medium was controlled at 5.6 after it came down from the initial pH of 6.8. Meanwhile, the initial doT was 100 % air saturation and also came down to and maintained at doT of experiment, i.e. 1 , 5 , or 10 % air saturation. The best result was obtained when the initial ammonium concentration was 5 g/L and the doT value maintained at 5 % air saturation. By this conditions, the cell growth reached 5,457 g cell dry weight/L containing PHB of 2.42 % cell dry weigh after 29 hours fermentation. Normal 0 36 false false false

  3. Different growth promoting effects of endophytic bacteria on invasive and native clonal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Cong eDai; Wei eFu; Ling-Yun eWan; Hong-Hong eCai; Ning eWang; Shanshan eQi; Daolin eDu

    2016-01-01

    The role of the interactions between endophytes and alien plants has been unclear yet in plant invasion. We used a completely germ-free culture system to quantify the plant growth-promoting (PGP) effects of endophytic bacteria Bacillus sp. on aseptic seedlings of W. trilobata and of its native clonal congener W. chinensis. The endophytic bacteria did not affect the growth of W. chinensis, but they significantly promoted the growth of W. trilobata. With the PGP effects of endophytic bacteria,...

  4. Endophytic bacteria in Coffea arabica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Fernando E; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Posada, Francisco; Buyer, Jeffrey S

    2005-01-01

    Eighty-seven culturable endophytic bacterial isolates in 19 genera were obtained from coffee plants collected in Colombia (n = 67), Hawaii (n = 17), and Mexico (n = 3). Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were isolated, with a greater percentage (68%) being Gram negative. Tissues yielding bacterial endophytes included adult plant leaves, various parts of the berry (e.g., crown, pulp, peduncle and seed), and leaves, stems, and roots of seedlings. Some of the bacteria also occurred as epiphytes. The highest number of bacteria among the berry tissues sampled was isolated from the seed, and includes Bacillus , Burkholderia , Clavibacter , Curtobacterium , Escherichia , Micrococcus , Pantoea , Pseudomonas , Serratia , and Stenotrophomonas . This is the first survey of the endophytic bacteria diversity in various coffee tissues, and the first study reporting endophytic bacteria in coffee seeds. The possible role for these bacteria in the biology of the coffee plant remains unknown.

  5. Endophytic bacteria in Coffea arabica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Fernando E; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Posada, Francisco; Buyer, Jeffrey S

    2005-01-01

    Eighty-seven culturable endophytic bacterial isolates in 19 genera were obtained from coffee plants collected in Colombia (n = 67), Hawaii (n = 17), and Mexico (n = 3). Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were isolated, with a greater percentage (68%) being Gram negative. Tissues yielding bacterial endophytes included adult plant leaves, various parts of the berry (e.g., crown, pulp, peduncle and seed), and leaves, stems, and roots of seedlings. Some of the bacteria also occurred as epiphytes. The highest number of bacteria among the berry tissues sampled was isolated from the seed, and includes Bacillus , Burkholderia , Clavibacter , Curtobacterium , Escherichia , Micrococcus , Pantoea , Pseudomonas , Serratia , and Stenotrophomonas . This is the first survey of the endophytic bacteria diversity in various coffee tissues, and the first study reporting endophytic bacteria in coffee seeds. The possible role for these bacteria in the biology of the coffee plant remains unknown. PMID:16187260

  6. Cassava Commercialization in Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Donovan, Cynthia; Haggblade, Steven; Salegua, Venancio Alexandre; Cuambe, Constantino; Mudema, Joao; Tomo, Alda

    2011-01-01

    Cassava supplies roughly 30% of all calories consumed in Mozambique, making it the country’s most important food security crop. Over the past several decades, growing urbanization and shifting demand patterns have led to growing opportunities for cassava processing and commercialization. This paper examines the commercial dynamics in Mozambique’s cassava value chain as well as the food security implications of growing cassava commercialization.

  7. Linamarase production by some microbial isolates and a comparison of the rate of degradation of cassava cyanide by microbial and cassava linamarases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonnaya Nwokoro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of linamarase and the effects of media composition on enzyme production were studied. A total of eight linamarase-producing bacteria were isolated from fermenting cassava tubers and soil samples. Selection of the isolates was based on their high growth in media containing 800 mg/L potassium cyanide solution. Eight of the isolates which showed very high growth in the growth medium as demonstrated by increase in their optical density readings to at least 0.6 in the cyanide containing media were selected for further studies. The isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis. All the isolates were grown in media containing Tween 80 solution and in control media without the surfactant. Best enzyme activity of 6.82 U/mL was obtained in the medium containing Tween 80 solution and Lactobacillus fermentum as the test bacterium. Comparatively, linamarase production by the isolates in media without Tween 80 showed lower enzyme productivity. Cassava endogenous and microbial enzymes were tested for their abilities to hydrolyze cyanide in cassava flour samples pretreated to either remove the endogenous or microbial enzyme. Residual cyanide in cassava flour samples treated with linamarase of Lactobacillus plantarum was undecteded in 30 h, while in contrast, the residual cyanide in cassava flour samples treated with endogenous linamarase was 0.39 mg/10g cassava flour after 80 h. Residual cyanide in the untreated control sample was 1.98 mg HCN /10g cassava flour after 80 h. The results from this finding demonstrated improved cassava cyanide degradation with microbial linamarase as compared to endogenous cassava linamarase. Massive inoculation of fermenting cassava tubers with the isolates reported in this study would enable better control of the cassava fermentation process and may

  8. Application of extracellular lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by endophytic Bacillus subtilis K1 isolated from aerial roots of banyan (Ficus benghalensis) in microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR)

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Khyati V.; Keharia, Hareshkumar

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis K1 isolated from aerial roots of banyan tree secreted mixture of surfactins, iturins and fengycins with high degree of heterogeneity. The extracellular extract consisting of mixture of these cyclic lipopeptides exhibited very good emulsification activity as well as excellent emulsion stability. The culture accumulated maximum surfactant up to 48 h of growth during batch fermentation in Luria broth. The emulsion of hexane, heptane and octane prepared using 48-h-old culture su...

  9. Nitrogen acquisition in Agave tequilana from degradation of endophytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Garcia, Miguel J; White, James F; Prado, Fernanda M; Prieto, Katia R; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Torres, Monica S; Kato, Massuo J; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Plants form symbiotic associations with endophytic bacteria within tissues of leaves, stems, and roots. It is unclear whether or how plants obtain nitrogen from these endophytic bacteria. Here we present evidence showing nitrogen flow from endophytic bacteria to plants in a process that appears to involve oxidative degradation of bacteria. In our experiments we employed Agave tequilana and its seed-transmitted endophyte Bacillus tequilensis to elucidate organic nitrogen transfer from (15)N-labeled bacteria to plants. Bacillus tequilensis cells grown in a minimal medium with (15)NH4Cl as the nitrogen source were watered onto plants growing in sand. We traced incorporation of (15)N into tryptophan, deoxynucleosides and pheophytin derived from chlorophyll a. Probes for hydrogen peroxide show its presence during degradation of bacteria in plant tissues, supporting involvement of reactive oxygen in the degradation process. In another experiment to assess nitrogen absorbed as a result of endophytic colonization of plants we demonstrated that endophytic bacteria potentially transfer more nitrogen to plants and stimulate greater biomass in plants than heat-killed bacteria that do not colonize plants but instead degrade in the soil. Findings presented here support the hypothesis that some plants under nutrient limitation may degrade and obtain nitrogen from endophytic microbes. PMID:25374146

  10. Endophytic fungi found in association with Bacopa monnieri as potential producers of industrial enzymes and antimicrobial bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Katoch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to screen the endophytic fungal species of ethano-medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri (L. Pennell for their ability to produce antimicrobial substances against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Endophytes were also screened for their ability to produce amylase, cellulase, protease and lipase to evaluate their ecological role within the host plant. Twenty-six endophytes were isolated and seventeen were identified. All the isolated endophytes exhibited amylolytic activity. Lipolytic, cellulolytic, proteolytic activity was shown by 98, 28 and 31% isolates, respectively. Similarly, all the endophytes (100% exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against K. pneumonia, while seventeen endophytes (89.5% were active against S. aureus. Fourteen endophytes (78.9% showed significant antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis and C. albicans. Eleven (57.8%, nine (50%, four (21% endophytes were active against S. typhimurium, E. coli and P. aeruginosa, respectively.

  11. Cassava Commercialization in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Kambewa, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Malawi continues to rely on maize for household food security. Policies to enhance food security continue to target maize production. Traditionally production and use of cassava was localized in lakeshore areas until the past two decades when maize production was increasingly affected by rainfall variability. Cassava as an alternate food crop has rapidly gained popularity and commercialization of the cassava sector is steadily taking off. Policy and institutional support to diversify the food...

  12. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam S. Zawoznik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  13. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawoznik, Myriam S; Vázquez, Susana C; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M; Groppa, María D

    2014-01-01

    Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  14. Different growth promoting effects of endophytic bacteria on invasive and native clonal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Cong eDai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of the interactions between endophytes and alien plants has been unclear yet in plant invasion. We used a completely germ-free culture system to quantify the plant growth-promoting (PGP effects of endophytic bacteria Bacillus sp. on aseptic seedlings of W. trilobata and of its native clonal congener W. chinensis. The endophytic bacteria did not affect the growth of W. chinensis, but they significantly promoted the growth of W. trilobata. With the PGP effects of endophytic bacteria, relative change ratios of the clonal traits and the ramets' growth traits of W. trilobata were significantly greater than those of W. chinensis. Our results indicate that the growth-promoting effects of endophytes may differ between invasive and native clonal plants, and the endophytes of invasive plant may be host-specific to facilitate plant invasion.

  15. Different Growth Promoting Effects of Endophytic Bacteria on Invasive and Native Clonal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhi-Cong; Fu, Wei; Wan, Ling-Yun; Cai, Hong-Hong; Wang, Ning; Qi, Shan-Shan; Du, Dao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The role of the interactions between endophytes and alien plants has been unclear yet in plant invasion. We used a completely germ-free culture system to quantify the plant growth-promoting (PGP) effects of endophytic bacteria Bacillus sp. on aseptic seedlings of Wedelia trilobata and of its native clonal congener W. chinensis. The endophytic bacteria did not affect the growth of W. chinensis, but they significantly promoted the growth of W. trilobata. With the PGP effects of endophytic bacteria, relative change ratios of the clonal traits and the ramets’ growth traits of W. trilobata were significantly greater than those of W. chinensis. Our results indicate that the growth-promoting effects of endophytes may differ between invasive and native clonal plants, and the endophytes of invasive plant may be host-specific to facilitate plant invasion. PMID:27252722

  16. Postharvest Biological Control of Blue Mold of Apple by Endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ES-2%植物内生菌Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ES-2菌株对苹果青霉病的抑制效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙力军; 王超男; 孙德坤; 吴士云; 孙永康

    2008-01-01

    本文主要研究了不同贮藏温度下植物内生菌Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ES-2菌株对苹果青霉病的抑制效果.ES-2菌株的各处理液在苹果果实和PDA培养基上对苹果青霉病菌均有抑制作用.较低的贮藏温度有利于拮抗菌对病菌的抑制效果;24h后接种病菌孢子的果实其病斑直径一般都高于48h后接种的果实.实验证明,ES-2菌株防治苹果青霉病的机理是由于ES-2产生的抗菌物质的作用.

  17. Development of starter culture for improved processing of Lafun, an African fermented cassava food product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padonou, S.W.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Akissoe, N.H.;

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To select appropriate micro-organisms to be used as starter culture for reliable and reproducible fermentation of Lafun. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 22 cultures consisting of yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bacillus cereus strains predominant in traditionally fermented cassava...... in different combinations as mixed starter cultures to ferment submerged cassava roots. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inoculated singly or combined with B. cereus, gave the softest cassava root after 48 h of fermentation according to determination of compression profile and stress at fracture. Overall, sensory...... quality testing showed that Lafun obtained from S. cerevisiae-fermented cassava gave the most preferred stiff porridge. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22 showed pectinase production in a model system. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that S. cerevisiae 2Y48P22 is the most efficient organism for cassava...

  18. In vitro degradation of linamarin by microorganisms isolated from cassava wastewater treatment lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P Vasconcellos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at isolating and characterizing of microorganisms able to use linamarin as sole carbon source. Thirty one microbial strains were isolated from manipueira, a liquid effluent of cassava processing factories. Among these strains, Bacillus licheniformis (isolate 2_2 and Rhodotorulla glutinis (isolate L1 were able to degrade 71% and 95% of added linamarin, respectively, within 7 days, showing high biodegradation activity and great potential for detoxification of cassava processing wastewaters.

  19. Cassava as a food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okezie, B O; Kosikowski, F V

    1982-01-01

    This review has attempted to examine information pertaining to the role of cassava (Manihot esculenta) as a major food source for a large part of the world population, particularly the countries of South America, Africa, and Asia, where it is primarily a major source of energy for 300 to 500 million people. Its cultivation, usually on small farms with little technology, is estimated to cover on an annual basis about 11 million hectares providing about 105 million tons, more than half of which is consumed by humans. The importance of cassava as an energy source can be seen by its growing demand in the European economic community countries where it forms up to 60% of the balanced diets for swine. Cassava is one of the crops that converts the greatest amount of solar energy into soluble carbohydrates per unit of area, thus 1 kg of moisture-free cassava meal may yield up to about 3750 kcal which would mean that a yearly production of 15 tons of cassava meal per hectare would yield some 56 million kcal. The major limitations of cassava as food appear to be its poor protein content and quality and the rapid post harvest deterioration of its roots which usually prevents their storage in the fresh state for more than a few days. However, in addition to its use for culinary purposes, cassava finds application in industrial products such as an adhesive for laundry purposes, for manufacturing paper, alcohol, butanol, dextrin, adhesive tape, textile sizing, and glue.

  20. Study of cassava starch enzymatic modification for maltodextrins obtention

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Angel Díaz; María Isabel Filella; Velásquez, Mario E.

    2012-01-01

    It was pretended to investigate the effect of the most relevant variables in cassava starch enzymatic hydrolysis process, on laboratory scale, to determine appropriate industrial conditions for the obtention of different kinds of maltodextrins. An a-Amylase enzyme, from genetically modified strain of Bacillus lichenijormis, was used to hydrolize the starch. Once the variables were chosen, an experimental fractioned factorial design was established with two levels. The Dextrose Equivalent (DE)...

  1. Diverse and bioactive endophytic Aspergilli inhabit Cupressaceae plant family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Jalal; Moghaddam, Mahdieh S Hosseyni

    2014-09-01

    Aspergilli are filamentous, cosmopolitan and ubiquitous fungi which have significant impact on human, animal and plant welfare worldwide. Due to their extraordinary metabolic diversity, Aspergillus species are used in biotechnology for the production of a vast array of biomolecules. However, little is known about Aspergillus species that are able to adapt an endophytic lifestyle in Cupressaceae plant family and are capable of producing cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial metabolites. In this work, we report a possible ecological niche for pathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Indeed, our findings indicate that A. fumigatus, A. flavus, Aspergillus niger var. niger and A. niger var. awamori adapt an endophytic lifestyle inside the Cupressaceous plants including Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. fastigiata, Cupressus semipervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis. In addition, we found that extracts of endophytic Aspergilli showed significant growth inhibition and cytotoxicity against the model fungus Pyricularia oryzae and bacteria such as Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora and Pseudomonas syringae. These endophytic Aspergilli also showed in vitro antifungal effects on the cypress fungal phytopathogens including Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, our findings clearly support the endophytic association of Aspergilli with Cupressaceae plants and their possible role in protection of host plants against biotic stresses. Observed bioactivities of such endophytic Aspergilli may represent a significant potential for bioindustry and biocontrol applications. PMID:24912659

  2. Seasonal variation of bacterial endophytes in urban trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yi eShen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endophytes, non-pathogenic bacteria residing within plants, contribute to the growth and development of plants and their ability to adapt to adverse conditions. In order to fully exploit the capabilities of these bacteria, it is necessary to understand the extent to which endophytic communities vary between species and over time. The endophytes of Acer negundo, Ulmus pumila and Ulmus parvifolia were sampled over three seasons and analyzed using culture dependent and independent methods (culture on two media, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and tagged pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal amplicons. The majority of culturable endophytes isolated were Actinobacteria, and all the samples harbored Bacillus, Curtobacterium, Frigoribacterium, Methylobacterium, Paenibacilllus and Sphingomonas species. Regardless of culture medium used, only the culturable communities obtained in the winter for A. negundo could be distinguished from those of Ulmus spp.. In contrast, the nonculturable communities were dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, particularly Erwinia, Ralstonia and Sanguibacter spp.. The presence and abundance of various bacterial classes and phyla changed with the changing seasons. Multivariate analysis on the culture independent data revealed significant community differences between the endophytic communities of A. negundo and Ulmus spp., but overall season was the main determinant of endophytic community structure. This study suggests investigations of the studies ofendophytic populations of urban trees should expect to find significant seasonal and species-specific community differences and sampling should proceed accordingly.

  3. Surfactin production by strains of Bacillus mojavensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus mojavensis, RRC101 is an endophytic bacterium patented for control of fungal diseases in maize and other plants. DNA fingerprint analysis of the rep-PCR fragments of 35 B. mojavensis and 4 B. subtilis strains using the Diversilab genotyping system revealed genotypic distinctive strains alon...

  4. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Simon E

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of plants is an indispensable technique used for fundamental research and crop improvement. Recent advances in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) transformation have facilitated the effective generation of stably transformed cassava plants with favorable traits. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable, embryogenic callus has evolved to become the most widely used approach and has been adopted by research laboratories in Africa. This procedure utilizes axillary meristem tissue (buds) to produce primary and secondary somatic embryos and subsequently friable, embryogenic callus. Agrobacterium harboring a binary expression cassette is used to transform this tissue, which is regenerated via cotyledons and shoot organogenesis to produce rooted in vitro plantlets. This chapter details each step of the procedure using the model cultivar 60444 and provides supplementary notes to successfully produce transgenic cassava.

  5. Cassava For Space Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  6. Production of Enzymes from Agroindustrial Wastes by Biosurfactant-Producing Strains of Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fábio Cavalcante Barros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria in the genus Bacillus are the source of several enzymes of current industrial interest. Hydrolases, such as amylases, proteases, and lipases, are the main enzymes consumed worldwide and have applications in a wide range of products and industrial processes. Fermentation processes by Bacillus subtilis using cassava wastewater as a substrate are reported in the technical literature; however, the same combination of microorganisms and this culture medium is limited or nonexistent. In this paper, the amylase, protease, and lipase production of ten Bacillus subtilis strains previously identified as biosurfactant producers in cassava wastewater was evaluated. The LB1a and LB5a strains were selected for analysis using a synthetic medium and cassava wastewater and were identified as good enzyme producers, especially of amylases and proteases. In addition, the enzymatic activity results indicate that cassava wastewater was better than the synthetic medium for the induction of these enzymes.

  7. Production of Enzymes from Agroindustrial Wastes by Biosurfactant-Producing Strains of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Francisco Fábio Cavalcante; Simiqueli, Ana Paula Resende; de Andrade, Cristiano José; Pastore, Gláucia Maria

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria in the genus Bacillus are the source of several enzymes of current industrial interest. Hydrolases, such as amylases, proteases, and lipases, are the main enzymes consumed worldwide and have applications in a wide range of products and industrial processes. Fermentation processes by Bacillus subtilis using cassava wastewater as a substrate are reported in the technical literature; however, the same combination of microorganisms and this culture medium is limited or nonexistent. In this paper, the amylase, protease, and lipase production of ten Bacillus subtilis strains previously identified as biosurfactant producers in cassava wastewater was evaluated. The LB1a and LB5a strains were selected for analysis using a synthetic medium and cassava wastewater and were identified as good enzyme producers, especially of amylases and proteases. In addition, the enzymatic activity results indicate that cassava wastewater was better than the synthetic medium for the induction of these enzymes. PMID:23533780

  8. Production of Enzymes from Agroindustrial Wastes by Biosurfactant-Producing Strains of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Francisco Fábio Cavalcante; Simiqueli, Ana Paula Resende; de Andrade, Cristiano José; Pastore, Gláucia Maria

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria in the genus Bacillus are the source of several enzymes of current industrial interest. Hydrolases, such as amylases, proteases, and lipases, are the main enzymes consumed worldwide and have applications in a wide range of products and industrial processes. Fermentation processes by Bacillus subtilis using cassava wastewater as a substrate are reported in the technical literature; however, the same combination of microorganisms and this culture medium is limited or nonexistent. In this paper, the amylase, protease, and lipase production of ten Bacillus subtilis strains previously identified as biosurfactant producers in cassava wastewater was evaluated. The LB1a and LB5a strains were selected for analysis using a synthetic medium and cassava wastewater and were identified as good enzyme producers, especially of amylases and proteases. In addition, the enzymatic activity results indicate that cassava wastewater was better than the synthetic medium for the induction of these enzymes.

  9. Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus licheniformis: optimization of production and its properties Cyclodextrina glycosyltransferase de Bacillus licheniformis: otimização da produção e suas propriedades

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Roberto Martins Bonilha; Vivian Menocci; Antonio José Goulart; Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes Polizeli; Rubens Monti

    2006-01-01

    Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.19) is an enzyme that produces cyclodextrins from starch via an intramolecular transglycosylation reaction. An alkalophilic Bacillus strain, isolated from cassava peels, was identified as Bacillus licheniformis. CGTase production by this strain was better when potato starch was used as carbon source, followed by cassava starch and amylopectin. Glucose and amylose, on the other hand, acted as synthesis repressors. When the cultivation was supplemented...

  10. Potential Endophytic Bacteria for Increasing Paddy Var Rojolele Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desriani Desriani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Paddy var Rojoleleis asuperior paddy come from Klaten that released by Department of Agriculture in 2003. Its superior properties are resistant to pests leaf hoppers, fluffier, and fragrant. To increase the productivity of paddy that are of ten used by farmers is to use chemical-based fertilizers. The use of these chemicals will effect to adisruption of ecosystem balancing, reduction the amount of soil microflora which essential forplants. Endophytic bacteria are symbiotic microorganisms living within plant tissues, and does not cause negative effects on the host plant. Endophytic bacteria have a capability increasing crop productivity by producing growth hormone, contributes to plant health, and as bio-control agents. Some endophytic bacteria which contribute to plant growth are: Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp., Staphylococcus sp., Azotobacter sp., And Azospirilum sp., Whereas endophytic bacteria that contribute to the health and plant protection several of them are: Pseudomonas sp., Serratia sp. ,Clavibacter sp., and Bacillus sp. This study was conducted to investigate potential of endophytic bacteria to increase Paddy var Rojolele productivity based on its ability to produce extracellular enzymes and resistance to multiple types of antibiotics. The method were endophytic bacteria isolation from three Paddy varRojolele plants, extracellular enzymes detection and antibiotic resistance testing to chloramfinekol, ampicillin and kanamycin. As the result, 43isolateswere isolated from Paddy var Rojolele. Four isolatesamong them havethe ability to produce extra cellular enzym esandresistant toampicillin, kanamycin, and chloramfinekol. Extra cellular enzyme production capability and resistance to antibiotics makes endophytic bacteria are potentialto improveplant health and also asbio-control agentwhich then willaffect to the productivity of rice. To further ensure its potential to plant, more research is needed.

  11. Recent growth in African cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Nweke, Felix; Haggblade, Steven; Zulu, Ballard

    2004-01-01

    According to the authors, "Cassava serves as a staple food for 200 million Africans, second only to maize in its calorie contribution. In response to a series of devastating attacks by cassava diseases and pests over the past several decades, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and several national agricultural research services have launched successful cassava research programs... " This brief describes some of the programs, their impact and the drivers of change. It c...

  12. Resistant starch in cassava products

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Letícia Buzati Pereira; Magali Leonel

    2014-01-01

    Found in different foods, starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the diet. Some factors present in starchy foods influence the rate at which the starch is hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. Due the importance of cassava products in Brazilian diet, the objective of this study was to analyze total starch, resistant starch, and digestible starch contents in commercial cassava products. Thirty three commercial cassava products from different brands, classifications, and origin were...

  13. Feeding cassava foliage to sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Hue, Khuc Thi

    2012-01-01

    The potential of cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as a protein-rich feed in sheep production in Vietnam was examined by studying cassava foliage yield, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content, toxicity and performance of lambs fed the foliage as a supplement. Cassava foliage fed ad libitum as a protein supplement to a basal diet of urea-treated rice straw gave similar lamb live weight gain (LWG) as diets supplemented with commercial concentrate or protein-rich foliage of stylosanthes (S...

  14. He said, she said: mRNA sequencing identifies specificity in metabolic response to Bacillus mojavensis lipopeptides in Fusarium verticillioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a mycotoxigenic fungus capable of both pathogenic and asymptomatic endophytic lifestyles in maize; such intimate association renders efficient chemical control cost-prohibitive. Bacillus mojavensis RRC101 is a maize endophyte demonstrating both in vitro antagonism of F. v...

  15. Isolation of Endophyte and Screening for Antagonistic Bacteria in Solanaceae%茄类内生菌的分离及拮抗细菌的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰凤; 韩寒冰; 张进凤; 罗添喜; 詹加钦

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to isolate the endophyte of three solanaceae fruits and vegetables such as tomato, pepper and eggplant, to screen and identify the bacterial wilt antagonistic bacteria. [Method] According to the lapping liquid culture method, the endophyte of three plants was isolated by the selective medium and purified by the plate streaking method, so the purified endophyte was screened by the hyphal pieces confront culture method. Furthermore, the screened antagonistic and endophyteic bacteria was identified and classified through culture characteristics of isolates and morphological features of thallus, Gram stain as well as physiological and biochemical reactions. [Result] Fifty-three endophytic bacteria, fifty-three endophytic fungi and forty-four endophytic actinomycetes were separated from the endophyte of three plants. The screened fourteen endophytic bacteria with strong antagonistic effect on the bacterial wilt were classified to Bacillus, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Agromonas, Erwinia and Curto Bacterium respectively. Especially, Bacillus was the dominant species, which had the strongest antagonistic effect on the bacterial wilt. [Conclusion] This study provides an effective way for biological control of the bacterial wilt in solanaceae.

  16. Isolation and Identification of an Endophytic Strain with Antibiosis Ability from Davidia involucrate Brail.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Guo-rong; PAN Xiao-hua; TU Guo-quan; KUANG Fu-yuan; WEI Sai-jin

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to isolate and identify an endophytic bacteria strain with antimicrobial activity from Davidia involucrate Brail.[Method]Endophytic strain with antibiosis ability was isolated from D.involucrate Brail by using cylinder-plate method.Then,it was identified through physiological and biochemical tests,16S rDNA homology analysis as well as some gene-specific sequence analysis.[Result]B221 stain had antimicrobial activity against a variety of rice plant pathogens,and it was identified as Bacillus subtilis.[Conclusion]This study enriches the research on endophyte within D.involucrate Brail,application of Bacillus bio-control,and therefore has laid a good foundation for the development of fungus used in biological control of crop pathogens.

  17. Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; dos Santos, Edna R; Armando U.O. SABAA-SRUR; Moura, Luciana S M

    2012-01-01

    Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to...

  18. Plant Growth Promoting of Endophytic Sporosarcina aquimarina SjAM16103 Isolated from the Pneumatophores of Avicennia marina L.

    OpenAIRE

    S. Rylo Sona Janarthine; Eganathan, P.

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic Sporosarcina aquimarina SjAM16103 was isolated from the inner tissues of pneumatophores of mangrove plant Avicennia marina along with Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter sp. Endophytic S. aquimarina SjAM16103 was Gram variable, and motile bacterium measured 0.6–0.9  μ m wide by 1.7–2.0  μ m long and light orange-brown coloured in 3-day cultures on tryptone broth at 26°C. Nucleotide sequence of this strain has been deposited in the GenBank under accession number GU930359. This endophytic ...

  19. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Julia del C.; la Mora-Amutio, Marcela De; Plascencia-Correa, Luis A.; Audelo-Regalado, Esmeralda; Guardado, Francisco R.; Hernández-Sánchez, Elías; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J.; Escalante, Adelfo; Beltrán-García, Miguel J.; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber var. ‘Azul’ is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost. PMID:25763038

  20. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia del C. Martínez-Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI. Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost.

  1. Cassava as an energy crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Kjeld;

    2014-01-01

    Cassava based bioethanol production is a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuels and commercial production is already well established in several countries. A production based on small holder production may involve a transformation of the existing production system and it is therefore...... imperative to investigate opportunities and barriers for expansion of cassava production. This paper investigates the potential for an expansion of cassava cultivation for bioethanol production in Southern Mali. It is based on a questionnaire survey with 65 households in 2 villages in Loulouni municipality......, which represent two major agro-ecological environments in the Soudan-zone in Mali. The results reveal that farmers are experienced cassava producers and are interested in an expansion of cassava cultivation for bioethanol production and that suitable areas are available, especially for an expansion...

  2. Cassava biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  3. Cassava biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  4. Identification of Endophytic Bacillus BHL3501 from Wild Soybean and its Inhibitory Effect against Soybean Cyst Nematode%野生大豆内生芽孢杆菌BHL3501的鉴定及对大豆胞囊线虫的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱英波; 史凤玉; 李建英; 龙茹; 武云鹏; 乔亚科

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The paper was to identify endophytic bacillus BHL3501 from wild soybean and its inhibitory effect against soybean cyst nematode. [Method] Through morphological characteristic, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA analysis,a strain of endophytic bacteria BHL3501 with nematicidal activity isolated and screened from the root of wild soybean was identified, the effects of BHL3501 metabolite solutions with different dilution multiples on egg hatching and activity of 2nd instar juvenile of soybean cyst nematode were also studied. [Result] BHL3501 strain was preliminarily identified to be Bacillus sp.. The relative inhibition rate of its original fermentation broth on egg hatching of soybean cyst nematode after 24 h was 98.3% ;the relative inhibition rate under 10-time diluted solution treatment was 79.5% ,which had significant difference with sterile water control. The correct mortality rate of 2nd instar juvenile was 93.1 % after treated by original fermentation broth for 24 h,the treatments of all diluted solutions had significant difference with sterile water control. [Conclusion] BHL3501 metabolites had strong inhibitory effect against egg hatching of soybean cyst nematode, which also had strong toxic effect against its 2nd instar juvenile.%[目的] 鉴定野生大豆内生芽孢杆菌BHL3501并研究其对大豆胞囊线虫的抑制作用.[方法] 通过形态学特征、生理生化特征及16S rDNA分析,鉴定了从野生大豆根中分离筛选到的1株具有杀线虫活力的内生细菌BHL3501,并研究了BHL3501菌株代谢物不同倍数稀释液对大豆胞囊线虫卵孵化及2龄幼虫活力的影响.[结果] BHL3501菌株初步鉴定为芽孢杆菌Bacillus sp..其发酵原液处理24h后对大豆胞囊线虫卵孵化的相对抑制率为98.3%;10倍稀释液处理下相对抑制率为79.5%,均与无菌水对照差异显著.发酵原液处理24h后,2龄幼虫的校正死亡率为93.1%,各稀释浓度处理均与

  5. 利用cDNA-AFLP分析内生解淀粉芽胞杆菌Fy11诱导辣椒差异表达基因%cDNA-AFLP Analysis of Differential Gene Expression in Pepper Inoculated with Endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Fy11

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞先; 范晓静; 邱思鑫; 蔡学清; 胡方平

    2013-01-01

    [目的]分析内生解淀粉芽胞杆菌(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens)Fy11诱导辣椒(Capsicum annuum)幼苗差异表达基因,了解辣椒与内生芽胞杆菌互作的分子机制.[方法]利用cDNA-AFLP技术,采用256对引物,分析辣椒幼苗接种内生解淀粉芽胞杆菌Fy11后5个时间点的基因表达谱;利用qRT-PCR分析差异基因表达模式,验证cDNA-AFLP表达谱.[结果]256对引物共产生18620个转录本(TDF),筛选获得353条差异表达条带,占扩增条带总数的1.89%.经克隆、测序分析,最终获得257个差异TDF,聚类分析得到229个独立基因(EST,unigenes),其中144个基因上调表达,85个基因下调表达.经Blastx比对和功能分类分析,其中65条EST(28.38%)未找到同源性匹配,8条(3.49%)与未知功能蛋白同源性较高.其余156条EST主要涉及基础代谢基因(10.92%);与能量和抗病与防御类相关基因,各占8.73%;信号转导基因占7.42%;转运子或转座子基因占6.99%;与细胞结构相关基因占6.55%;参与转录调控基因占5.68%;细胞生长类基因占3.93%;参与蛋白质运输和储存有8个基因,占3.49%;蛋白质合成类基因占2.18%;次生代谢类和胞间运输类基因,其数量相对较少,各占1.75%.选取与抗病防御、转录调控及信号转导类等相关的10个差异基因,qRT-PCR分析结果显示其表达模式符合cDNA-AFLP表达谱.[结论]内生细菌与植物互作的分子机制涉及植物多方面生理生化反应,包括抗病防御、转录调控、蛋白质代谢、信号转导、以及非生物胁迫等多种途径相关基因的协同控制.%[Objective] The objective of this study is to analyze extensive transcription profiling of pepper seedlings inoculated with an endophytic bacterial strain,Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Fyl l,and elucidate the molecular mechanism of endophytic Bacillus and plant interaction.[Method] cDNA-AFLP technique was used to conduct transcription profiling of

  6. Diversity of culturable bacterial endophytes of saffron in Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Tanwi; Kaul, Sanjana; Dhar, Manoj K

    2015-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus) is a medicinally important plant. The Kashmir valley (J&K, India) emblematizes one of the major and quality saffron producing areas in the world. Nonetheless, the area has been experiencing a declining trend in the production of saffron during the last decade. Poor disease management is one of the major reasons for declining saffron production in the area. Endophytes are known to offer control against many diseases of host plant. During the present study, culturable bacterial endophytes were isolated from saffron plant, identified and assessed for plant growth promoting activities. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis grouped the fifty-four bacterial isolates into eleven different taxa, viz. Bacillus licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. humi, B. pumilus, Paenibacillus elgii, B. safensis, Brevibacillus sp., Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus hominis and Enterobacter cloacae. The results were also supported with the identification based on BIOLOG system. B. licheniformis was the dominant endophyte in both leaves and corms of saffron. 81 % isolates showed lipase activity, 57 % cellulase, 48 % protease, 38 % amylase, 33 % chitinase and 29 % showed pectinase activity. 24 % of the isolates were phosphate solublizers, 86 % showed siderophore production and 80 % phytohormone production potential. The present repository of well characterized bacterial endophytes of saffron, have plant growth promoting potential which can be explored further for their respective roles in the biology of the saffron plant.

  7. Isolation and enzyme bioprospection of endophytic bacteria associated with plants of Brazilian mangrove ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Renata A; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Lacava, Paulo T; Batista, Bruna D; Luvizotto, Danice M; Marcon, Joelma; Ferreira, Anderson; Melo, Itamar S; Azevedo, João L

    2014-01-01

    The mangrove ecosystem is a coastal tropical biome located in the transition zone between land and sea that is characterized by periodic flooding, which confers unique and specific environmental conditions on this biome. In these ecosystems, the vegetation is dominated by a particular group of plant species that provide a unique environment harboring diverse groups of microorganisms, including the endophytic microorganisms that are the focus of this study. Because of their intimate association with plants, endophytic microorganisms could be explored for biotechnologically significant products, such as enzymes, proteins, antibiotics and others. Here, we isolated endophytic microorganisms from two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia nitida, that are found in streams in two mangrove systems in Bertioga and Cananéia, Brazil. Bacillus was the most frequently isolated genus, comprising 42% of the species isolated from Cananéia and 28% of the species from Bertioga. However, other common endophytic genera such as Pantoea, Curtobacterium and Enterobacter were also found. After identifying the isolates, the bacterial communities were evaluated for enzyme production. Protease activity was observed in 75% of the isolates, while endoglucanase activity occurred in 62% of the isolates. Bacillus showed the highest activity rates for amylase and esterase and endoglucanase. To our knowledge, this is the first reported diversity analysis performed on endophytic bacteria obtained from the branches of mangrove trees and the first overview of the specific enzymes produced by different bacterial genera. This work contributes to our knowledge of the microorganisms and enzymes present in mangrove ecosystems. PMID:25110630

  8. Endophytes in commercial micropropagation - friend or foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rödel, Philipp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal and aromatic plants are superorganisms like all plant species- naturally colonized by bacteria, fungi and protists. Micropropagated plants are facing different challenges under in vitro and ex vitro conditions: Mixotrophic growth under low light conditions on artificial nutrient media, poor gas exchange in small vessels, abiotic stress, bad rooting, transplanting stress, low survival rate during acclimatization in greenhouse. The use of endophytes in micropropagation can improve plant growth, yield, and health and induce tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress. A tool for the use of competent endophytes in micropropagation under in vitro and ex vitro conditions is “biotization” of plantlets with useful bacterial and fungal inocula. Fungal inocula which are used commercially are e.g. arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in form of spores and extraradical mycelium on different carrier materials like expanded clay, vermiculite, sand or peat. Furthermore representatives of the root fungal genus Trichoderma are applied as spores formulated in powder. Plantgrowth promoting rhizobacteria of the important genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Azospirillum and Azotobacter in form of lyophilised endospores/bacterial cells in powder or liquid formulation are also available on the market.

  9. The effect of microbial starter composition on cassava chips fermentation for the production of fermented cassava flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Listianingrum, Zaenudin, Ahmad; Trihatmoko, Kharisrama

    2015-12-01

    The processing of cassava into fermented cassava flour (fercaf) or the widely known as modified cassava flour (mocaf) presents an alternative solution to improve the competitiveness of local foods and to support national food security. However, the mass production of fercaf is being limited by several problems, among which is the availability of starter cultures. This paper presents the mapping of the effect of microbial starter compositions on the nutritional content of fercaf in order to obtain the suitable nutritional composition. Based on their enzymatic activities, the combination of Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus oryzae were tested during the study. In addition, commercial starter was also tested. During the fermentation, the dynamics in microbial population were measured as well as changes in cyanogenic glucoside content. The microbial starter composition was observed to affect the dynamics in microbial populationcynaogenic glucoside content of the produced fercaf. In general, steady state microbial population was reached within 12 hours of fermentation. Cyanogenic glucoside was observed to decrease along the fermentation.

  10. An Integrated Investment Appraisal of Cassava Starch Production in Rwanda: The Case of Kinazi Cassava Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Nsenkyire; Glenn P. Jenkins; Mikhail Miklyaev; Octave Semwaga

    2015-01-01

    In April 2012, Kinazi Cassava Plant was established as a government initiative to produce high quality cassava flour, and other value added cassava products. After the successful establishment of the cassava flour plant in Ruhango district, KCP now plans to diversify into cassava starch production to feed the emerging manufacturing industries such as the pharmaceuticals, food processing, breweries, textiles etc. both domestically and for exportation. The study assesses the financial and econo...

  11. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Eduardo; Ulf Svanberg; Jorge Oliveira; Lilia Ahrné

    2013-01-01

    Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented) on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w) was evaluated in combination with...

  12. Antiproliferative, antifungal, and antibacterial activities of endophytic alternaria species from cupressaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Jalal; Hosseyni Moghaddam, Mahdieh S

    2014-09-01

    Recent research has shown the bioprospecting of endophytic fungi from Cupressaceae. Here, we further uncover that the healthy cypress plants such as Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis host highly bioactive endophytic Alternaria fungal species. Indeed, endophytic Alternaria alternata, Alternaria pellucida, and Alternaria tangelonis were recovered from healthy Cupressaceous trees. Biodiversity and bioactivity of recovered endophytic Alternaria species were a matter of biogeography and host identity. We further extracted such Alternaria's metabolites and highlighted their significant antiproliferative, growth inhibitory, and antibacterial activities against the model target fungus Pyricularia oryzae and the model pathogenic bacteria Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. In vitro assays also indicated that endophytic Alternaria species significantly inhibited the growth of cypress fungal phytopathogens Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi, and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, since the recovered Alternaria species were originally reported as pathogenic and allergenic fungi, our findings suggest a possible ecological niche for them inside the foliar tissues of Cupressaceous trees. Moreover, in this study, the significant bioactivities of endophytic Alternaria species in association with Cupressaceae plant family are reported. PMID:24801337

  13. Natural incidence of endophytic bacteria in pea cultivars under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira-Recuenco, M; van Vuurde, J W

    2000-11-01

    Pea plants grown in the field were used to study the natural incidence of endophytic bacteria in the stem. Eleven pea cultivars at the flowering stage were screened for the presence of endophytic bacteria using a printing technique with surface disinfested stem cross-sections on 5% Trypticase Soy Agar (TSA). Five cultivars showed colonization. Cultivar Twiggy showed the highest and most consistent colonization and was further investigated. Stems of cv. Twiggy at the pod stage were analyzed for endophytic bacterial types and populations. Cross-sections of surface disinfested stems were printed on 5% TSA. Endophytic bacterial populations decreased from the lower to the upper part of the stem. One section from the third and the fourth internode was surface disinfested, homogenized, and spiral plated on the media 5% TSA, R2A, and SC (Davis et al. 1980). Over a series of 30 samples, 5% TSA gave significantly better recovery of bacterial endophytes compared with R2A and SC media. For most stems, populations ranged from 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/g except in one of the field blocks in which endophyte populations were uniformly higher. Comparison of colony counts by spiral plating and printing showed a positive correlation. The most frequently recovered bacterial types were Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Less frequently isolated were Pseudomonas viridiflava and Bacillus megaterium.

  14. Phenotypic Approaches to Drought in Cassava: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel eOkogbenin; SETTER, TIM L.; Morag eFerguson; Rose eMutegi; Hernan eCeballos; Bunmi eOlasanmi; Martin eFregene

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitativ...

  15. Phenotypic approaches to drought in cassava: review

    OpenAIRE

    Okogbenin, Emmanuel; SETTER, TIM L.; Ferguson, Morag; Mutegi, Rose; Ceballos, Hernan; Olasanmi, Bunmi; Fregene, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative...

  16. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Mottin Demiate; Valesca Kotovicz

    2011-01-01

    Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results ...

  17. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  18. Exploiting the Combination of Natural and Genetically Engineered Resistance to Cassava Mosaic and Cassava Brown Streak Viruses Impacting Cassava Production in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé Vanderschuren; Isabel Moreno; Anjanappa, Ravi B.; Ima M Zainuddin; Wilhelm Gruissem

    2012-01-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD) are currently two major viral diseases that severely reduce cassava production in large areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. Natural resistance has so far only been reported for CMD in cassava. CBSD is caused by two virus species, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). A sequence of the CBSV coat protein (CP) highly conserved between the two virus species was used to demonstrate that a CBSV...

  19. Cassava is not a goitrogen in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the effect of cassava on the thyroid function of mice, the authors fed fresh cassava root to mice and compared this diet with low iodine diet and Purina. Cassava provided a low iodine intake and increased urine thiocyanate excretion and serum thiocyanate levels. Mice on cassava lost weight. The thyroid glands of mice on cassava were not enlarged, even when normalized for body weight. The 4- and 24-hr thyroid uptakes of mice on cassava were similar to those of mice on low iodine diets. Protein-bound [125I]iodine at 24 hr was high in mice on either the cassava or low iodine diets. The thyroid iodide trap (T/M) was similar in mice on cassava and low iodine diets. When thiocyanate was added in vitro to the incubation medium, T/M was reduced in all groups of mice; under these conditions, thiocyanate caused a dose-related inhibition of T/M. The serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations of mice on cassava were reduced compared with mice on Purina diet. Thyroid T4 and T3 contents of mice on cassava were relatively low compared with mice on Purina diet. Hepatic T3 content and T4 5'-monodeiodination in liver homogenates were reduced in mice on cassava compared with other groups. The data show that cassava does not cause goiter in mice. The thiocyanate formed from ingestation of cassava is insufficient to inhibit thyroid iodide transport or organification of iodide. The cassava diet leads to rapid turnover of hormonal iodine because it is a low iodine diet. It also impairs 5'-monodeiodination of T4 which may be related to nutritional deficiency. These data in mice do not support the concept that cassava per se has goitrogenic action in man

  20. A Comparative Study of Some Properties of Cassava and Tree Cassava Starch Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belibi, P. C.; Daou, T. J.; Ndjaka, J. M. B.; Nsom, B.; Michelin, L.; Durand, B.

    Cassava and tree cassava starch films plasticized with glycerol were produced by casting method. Different glycerol contents (30, 35, 40 and 45 wt. % on starch dry basis) were used and the resulting films were fully characterized. Their water barrier and mechanical properties were compared. While increasing glycerol concentration, moisture content, water solubility, water vapour permeability, tensile strength, percent elongation at break and Young's modulus decreased for both cassava and tree cassava films. Tree cassava films presented better values of water vapour permeability, water solubility and percent elongation at break compared to those of cassava films, regardless of the glycerol content.

  1. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w was evaluated in combination with high-methylated pectin (HM-pectin added at levels of 1 to 3% (w/w according to a full factorial design. Addition of pectin to cassava flour made it possible to bake bread with acceptable bread quality even at concentration as high as 40%. In addition to cassava concentration, the type of cassava flour had the biggest effect on bread quality. With high level of cassava, bread with roasted cassava had a higher volume compared with sun-dried and fermented. The pectin level had a significant effect on improving the volume in high level roasted cassava bread. Crumb firmness similar to wheat bread could be obtained with sun-dried and roasted cassava flours. Roasted cassava bread was the only bread with crust colour similar to wheat bread.

  2. Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; Dos Santos, Edna R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U O; Moura, Luciana S M

    2013-09-01

    Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to cassava paste for preparation of flour in three parts 2.5, 5, and 10%. The acceptance test was done by 93 consumers of flour, using hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate characteristics like color, scent, flavor, bitterness, texture, and overall score. By the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), eight trained tasters evaluated the following characteristics: whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness, raw texture, leaf scent, and cassava scent. The acceptability test indicated that flour cassava with 2.5 was preferred. Whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, salty flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness texture, raw texture, and the smell of the leaves and cassava flour were the main descriptors defined for flour cassava with CPML has better characteristics. PMID:24804041

  3. Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; Dos Santos, Edna R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U O; Moura, Luciana S M

    2013-09-01

    Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to cassava paste for preparation of flour in three parts 2.5, 5, and 10%. The acceptance test was done by 93 consumers of flour, using hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate characteristics like color, scent, flavor, bitterness, texture, and overall score. By the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), eight trained tasters evaluated the following characteristics: whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness, raw texture, leaf scent, and cassava scent. The acceptability test indicated that flour cassava with 2.5 was preferred. Whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, salty flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness texture, raw texture, and the smell of the leaves and cassava flour were the main descriptors defined for flour cassava with CPML has better characteristics.

  4. EFFICACY OF ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA IN REDUCING PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODE Pratylenchus brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Harni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pratylenchus brachyurus is a major parasitic nematode on patchouli that reduces plant production up to 85%. The use of endophytic bacteria is promising for controlling nematode and promoting plant growth through production of phytohormones and enhancing the availability of soil nutrients. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of endophytic bacteria to control P. brachyurus on patchouli plant and its influence on plant productions (plant fresh weight and patchouli oil. The study was conducted at Cimanggu Experimental Garden and Laboratory of the Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute (ISMECRI, Bogor, West Java. The experi-ment was designed in a randomized block with seven treatments and eight replications; each replication consisted of 10 plants. The treatments evaluated were five isolates of endophytic bacteria (Achromobacter xylosoxidans TT2, Alcaligenes faecalis NJ16, Pseudomonas putida EH11, Bacillus cereus MSK and Bacillus subtilis NJ57, synthetic nematicide as a reference, and non-treated plant as a control.  Four-week old patchouli plants of cv. Sidikalang were treated by soaking the roots in suspension of endophytic bacteria (109 cfu  ml-1 for one hour before trans-planting to the field. At one month after planting, the plants were drenched with the bacterial suspension as much as 100 ml per plant. The results showed that applications of the endophytic bacteria could suppress the nematode populations (52.8-80% and increased plant weight (23.62-57.48% compared to the control. The isolate of endophytic bacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans TT2 was the best and comparable with carbofuran.

  5. Commercial Dynamics in Zambia’s Cassava Value Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Nyembe, Misheck

    2008-01-01

    Cassava production has grown rapidly in Zambia since the early 1990’s. Available evidence suggests that volumes of traded cassava have been increasing roughly twice as fast as production. Yet this cassava production boom could stall unless commercial markets for it develop. To help accelerate commercial development of cassava and cassava-based products at the national level, Zambia’s Agricultural Consultative Forum (ACF) initiated an Acceleration of Cassava Utilization (ACU) Task Force, begin...

  6. Solid Substrate Fermentation of Cassava Peel for Poultry Feed Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie; Purwadaria T

    2013-01-01

    Cassava peel which is not used during cassava starch extraction is one of potential resources for animal feed. However, cassava peel has low level protein content, high level crude fiber, and high level of toxic cyanogenic compound. These problems limit the utilization of cassava peel as feed. Solid substrate fermentation using mold may be a solution process to increase its nutritional value and decrease toxic level of cassava peel. In this paper, matters that related with cassava peel fermen...

  7. The contribution of endophytic bacteria to Albizia lebbeck-mediated phytoremediation of tannery effluent contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Muthu; Kannan, Vijayaraghavan; Mendoza, Ordetta Hannah; Kanimozhi, Mahalingam; Chun, Sechul; Pašić, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity of chromium often impairs the remediation capacity of plants used in phytoremediation of polluted soils. In this study, we have identified Albizia lebbeck as a prospective chromium hyperaccumulator and examined cultivable diversity of endophytes present in chromium-treated and control saplings. High numbers (22-100%) of endophytic bacteria, isolated from root, stem, and leaf tissues, could tolerate elevated (1-3 mM) concentrations of K2CrO7. 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis showed that the 118 isolates obtained comprised of 17 operational taxonomic units affiliated with the proteobacterial genera Rhizobium (18%), Marinomonas (1%), Pseudomonas (16%), and Xanthomonas (7%) but also with members of Firmicutes genera, such as Bacillus (35%) and Salinococcus (3%). The novel isolates belonging to Salinococcus and Bacillus could tolerate high K2CrO7 concentrations (3 mM) and also showed elevated activity of chromate reductase. In addition, majority (%) of the endophytic isolates also showed production of indole-3-acetic acid. Taken together, our results indicate that the innate endophytic bacterial community assists plants in reducing heavy metal toxicity.

  8. Cassava virus diseases: biology, epidemiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, James P; Lava Kumar, P; Makeshkumar, T; Tripathi, Leena; Ferguson, Morag; Kanju, Edward; Ntawuruhunga, Pheneas; Cuellar, Wilmer

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the most important vegetatively propagated food staple in Africa and a prominent industrial crop in Latin America and Asia. Its vegetative propagation through stem cuttings has many advantages, but deleteriously it means that pathogens are passed from one generation to the next and can easily accumulate, threatening cassava production. Cassava-growing continents are characterized by specific suites of viruses that affect cassava and pose particular threats. Of major concern, causing large and increasing economic impact in Africa and Asia are the cassava mosaic geminiviruses that cause cassava mosaic disease in Africa and Asia and cassava brown streak viruses causing cassava brown streak disease in Africa. Latin America, the center of origin and domestication of the crop, hosts a diverse set of virus species, of which the most economically important give rise to cassava frog skin disease syndrome. Here, we review current knowledge on the biology, epidemiology, and control of the most economically important groups of viruses in relation to both farming and cultural practices. Components of virus control strategies examined include: diagnostics and surveillance, prevention and control of infection using phytosanitation, and control of disease through the breeding and promotion of varieties that inhibit virus replication and/or movement. We highlight areas that need further research attention and conclude by examining the likely future global outlook for virus disease management in cassava.

  9. Production of a raw starch saccharifying amylase byBacillus alvei grown on different agricultural substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achi, O K; Nijoku-Obi, A N

    1992-03-01

    Maximum activity of the amylase ofBacillus alvei was attained after growth of the organism on sorghum starch. Rice, corn, yam, cassava and potato starch gave high enzyme activities as did soluble starch. Glucose, maltose and glycerol were less effective. Optimum conditions for both growth and enzyme production were pH 6.8 at 40°C.

  10. Genetic modification of cassava enhances starch production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Recently, a field test of transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) for enhanced starch production by the Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology & Ecology (SIPPE), the CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, proved successful. Through application of transgenic technologies in cassava, the starch quality of this tropical root crop was largely improved. The new cassava cultivars are believed to have a tremendous potential for industrial application in the future.

  11. Habitat filters in fungal endophyte community assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes can influence host health, and more broadly, can instigate trophic cascades with effects scaling to the ecosystem level. Despite this, biotic mechanisms of endophyte community assembly are largely unknown. We used maize to investigate three potential habitat filters in endophyte co...

  12. Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Indian cassava mosaic virus transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) adults from colonies reared on cassava or sweet potato plants were studied to determine their ability to transmit Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) (Geminiviridae: Begomovirus) from cassava to cassava. Virus acquisition access (feeding) periods (AAP) of 48 h on ICMV-infec...

  13. Distribution of endophytic bacteria in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol and Oxalis corniculata L. from soils contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anping Peng

    Full Text Available The distributions of endophytic bacteria in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol and Oxalis corniculata L. grown in soils contaminated with different levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were investigated with polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technology (PCR-DGGE and cultivation methods. Twelve types of PAHs, at concentrations varying from 0.16 to 180 mg·kg(-1, were observed in the roots and shoots of the two plants. The total PAH concentrations in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol obtained from three different PAH-contaminated stations were 184, 197, and 304 mg·kg(-1, and the total PAH concentrations in Oxalis corniculata L. were 251, 346, and 600 mg·kg(-1, respectively. The PCR-DGGE results showed that the endophytic bacterial communities in the roots and shoots of the two plants were quite different, although most bacteria belonged to Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. A total of 68 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated from different tissues of the two plants and classified into three phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In both plants, Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were the dominant cultivable populations. With an increase in the PAH pollution level, the diversity and distribution of endophytic bacteria in the two plants changed correspondingly, and the number of cultivable endophytic bacterial strains decreased rapidly. Testing of the isolated endophytic bacteria for tolerance to each type of PAH showed that most isolates could grow well on Luria-Bertani media in the presence of different PAHs, and some isolates were able to grow rapidly on a mineral salt medium with a single PAH as the sole carbon and energy source, indicating that these strains may have the potential to degrade PAHs in plants. This research provides the first insight into the characteristics of endophytic bacterial populations under different PAH pollution levels and provides a

  14. Effects of disease control and growth promotion of Polygonum viviparum endophytic bacteria Bacillus mojavensis on potato%珠芽蓼内生菌 ZA1对马铃薯的防病促生研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    畅涛; 杨成德; 薛莉; 杨小利; 冯中红; 郝蓉蓉; 张振粉; 陈秀蓉

    2015-01-01

    This research was to study the effects of disease prevention,growth promotion and defense enzymes induction of Bacillus mojavensis ZA1 on potato,and provide a theoretical basis for microbial fungicide and fer-tilizer use.The abilities of IAA secretion,nitrogen fixation,phosphate solubilization and inhibition enzyme production of ZA1 have been researched qualitatively by general methods.The effects of controlling disease and growth promotion of ZA1 on potatoes were studied under the condition of indoors and fields.The concentration of IAA secreted by ZA1 in the King medium with and without tryptophan were 12.17 and 9.75 mg/L.ZA1 possessed the capacity of nitrogen fixation and extracellular proteases,chitinase and glucanase production,butwithout the ability of phosphate solubilization.The control efficiency of ZA1 was 85.9% by spraying 10 times diluting fermentation broth on potato tubes in storage-period against potato gangrene,and was 26.56% by seed dressing fermentation broth with diluting for 20 times on potato tubes under field condition against potato late blight.In field condition,the production ratios of commodity potato were increased by 36.29% and 33.88%per hectare,respectively.Pot experiments with the seed dressing potatoes showed that the content of roots, stems and chlorophyll were higher than the control group.After treatment by ZA1 20 times fermentation broth on potato tubes,the length of the root and wet and dry weight were increased by 8 cm,0.75 g and 5.07 g,re-spectively.In the same time,the plant height,stem diameter,stem wet and dry weight and the content of chlorophyll were increased by 2.74 cm,0.27 cm,0.52 g,5.73 g and 0.54 mg/g,respectively.The root-shoot ratios of wet and dry weight were increased by 0.214 and 0.094,respectively.When spraying diluting fermen-tation broth of ZA1 on potato leaves,the results indicated that the activity of catalase (CAT),polyphenol oxi-dase (PPO),phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL),SOD and POD of potatoes were

  15. Endophytic bacteria associated with growing shoot tips of banana (Musa sp.) cv. Grand Naine and the affinity of endophytes to the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pious; Soly, Thyvalappil A

    2009-11-01

    A cultivation-based assessment of endophytic bacteria present in deep-seated shoot tips of banana suckers was made with a view to generate information on the associated organisms, potential endophytic contaminants in tissue-cultured bananas and to assess if the endophytes shared a beneficial relationship with the host. Plating the tissue homogenate from the central core of suckers showed colony growth on nutrient agar from just 75% and 42% of the 12 stocks during May and November, respectively (average 58%; 6 x 10(3) colony-forming units per gram), yielding diverse organisms belonging to firmicutes (Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Virgibacillus, Staphylococcus spp.), actinobacteria (Cellulomonas, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Kocuria spp.), alpha-proteobacteria (Paracoccus sp.), and gamma-proteobacteria (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter spp.). Each shoot tip showed one to three different organisms and no specific organism appeared common to different sucker tips. Tissue homogenate from shoot tips including the ones that did not yield culturable bacteria displayed abundant bacterial cells during microscopic examination suggesting that a high proportion of cells were in viable-but-nonculturable state, or their cultivation requirements were not met. Direct application of cultivation-independent approach to study endophytic bacterial community using bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA universal primers resulted in high interference from chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequences. Dislodging the bacterial cells from shoot tips that did not show cultivable bacteria and incubating the tissue crush in dilute-nutrient broth led to the activation of four organisms (Klebsiella, Agrobacterium, Pseudacidovorax spp., and an unidentified isolate). The endophytic organisms in general showed better growth at 30-37 degrees C compared with 25 degrees C, and the growth of endophytes as well as pathogenic Erwinia carotovora were promoted with the supply of host tissue extract (HTE) while

  16. Strategies for developing the cassava industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The centralization of the cassava industry in tropical (and especially African) countries should be considered as a very important part of general strategy directed to the provision of the population with nutritionally balanced cassava foods. The Irish model of the development of dairy industry during the last 45 years had been a classical example of small involved groups in dairy farming getting together to pool their resources and family requirements to make a common objective succeed. This model based on a co-operative concept could be recommended for the cassava producing areas in order to improve this industry. The identification of the research areas required to improve the quality of the cassava fermented food products is another important part of the cassava strategy. These areas should include (i) fundamental studies of the various bacterial groups involved in the fermentation process and identification of the key groups involved at the various stages of fermentation (ii) strain screening programmes of these identified bacteria to select those which are most important to the fermentation of cassava (iii) studies to determine the appropriate methods for the propagation and the storage of these strains and (iv) systems to distribute these strains to the industries/small farmers/local co-operatives in cassava processing. Other technological and research aspects of improvement of the traditional fermentation practice of cassava are discussed in the paper. (author)

  17. Cassava Mutation Breeding: Current Status and Trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important energy source in the diets of millions of people in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, especially the poor. Also its industrial uses are steadily growing for starch, animal feed and bio-ethanol. Although it has high economic and social relevance, few major scientific efforts have been made to improve the crop until the 1970s. With the goals and objectives of cassava improvement through breeding, different strategies have been developed during the last several decades, such as evaluation and selection of the local landraces, introduced germplasm (as clones or segregating F1 population), hybridization (including inbreeding by both recurrent back-cross schemes and double haploids (DH)), interspecific hybridization, polyploidy breeding, genetic transformation, use of molecular markers and mutation breeding. Induced mutation breeding on cassava has been explored in the last several decades with few published papers. Yet, the production of novel genotypes, such as high amylose and small granule mutants and mutants with tolerance to post harvest physiological deterioration (PPD), has been reported. These results suggest that mutagenesis could be an effective alternative for cassava breeding. However, many drawbacks still exist in cassava mutation breeding, such as the occurrence of chimeras. Validated and developing protocols for different biotechnologies, such as TILLING protocol, cassava genome sequencing and cassava somatic embryogenesis, will significantly ameliorate the drawbacks to traditional mutation breeding, and consequently aid the routine application of induced mutation in both cassava improvement and in gene discovery and elucidation. (author)

  18. Fermented cassava waste and its utilization in broiler chickens rations

    OpenAIRE

    Supriyati,

    2003-01-01

    Cassava waste is a by-product of cassava flour industry and its amount is increasing following the increasing of cassava flour industry. Its utilization as a feedstuff, is limited by its low protein content. The cassava waste is only utilized as the energy source. One of the alternative technology in improving the utilization of cassava waste as a feedstuff, by improving the nutritive value through fermentation process. Fermentation was carried out by solid substrate fermentation using Asperg...

  19. Diversity of endophytic fungal and bacterial communities in Ilex paraguariensis grown under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María Laura; Collavino, Mónica Mariana; Sansberro, Pedro Alfonso; Mroginski, Luis Amado; Galdeano, Ernestina

    2016-04-01

    The composition and diversity of the endophytic community associated with yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) was investigated using culture-depending methods. Fungi were identified based on their micromorphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence analysis; for bacteria 16S rDNA sequence analysis was used. Fungal and bacterial diversity did not show significant differences between organ age. The highest fungal diversity was registered during fall season and the lowest in winter. Bacterial diversity was higher in stems and increased from summer to winter, in contrast with leaves, which decreased. The most frequently isolated fungus was Fusarium, followed by Colletotrichum; they were both present in all the sampling seasons and organ types assayed. Actinobacteria represented 57.5 % of all bacterial isolates. The most dominant bacterial taxa were Curtobacterium and Microbacterium. Other bacteria frequently found were Methylobacterium, Sphingomonas, Herbiconiux and Bacillus. Nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization activity, ACC deaminase production and antagonism against plant fungal pathogens were assayed in endophytic bacterial strains. In the case of fungi, strains of Trichoderma, Penicillium and Aspergillus were assayed for antagonism against pathogenic Fusarium sp. All microbial isolates assayed showed at least one growth promoting activity. Strains of Bacillus, Pantoea, Curtobacterium, Methylobacterium, Brevundimonas and Paenibacillus had at least two growth-promoting activities, and Bacillus, Paenibacillus and the three endophytic fungi showed high antagonistic activity against Fusarium sp. In this work we have made a wide study of the culturable endophytic community within yerba mate plants and found that several microbial isolates could be considered as potential inoculants useful for improving yerba mate production. PMID:26925623

  20. Cassava diet--a cause for mucopolysaccharidosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, V G; Leelamma, S

    2002-01-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the changes in glycosaminnoglycan (GAG) metabolism in rats fed cassava with varying cyanoglucoside levels and two levels of protein. Results indicated that there was an enhancement in the level of total and individual GAG with a corresponding reduction in the activity of enzymes involved in the degradation of glycosaminoglycan. These changes were significant for rats given a cassava diet (raw and boiled cassava) and low protein. The changes in total and individual GAG and the decrease in the activity of degrading enzymes was more for high cyanide (raw cassava) groups compared with other groups showing that consumption of untreated cassava is an additive factor for the promotion of mucopolysaccharidosis. PMID:12049146

  1. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results showed that almost all modified starches were resistant to syneresis, produced pastes more stable to stirred cooking, and some of them were difficult to cook. The sour cassava starches presented high acidity and resulted in clear and unstable pastes during stirred cooking, susceptible to syneresis.

  2. Solid Substrate Fermentation of Cassava Peel for Poultry Feed Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassava peel which is not used during cassava starch extraction is one of potential resources for animal feed. However, cassava peel has low level protein content, high level crude fiber, and high level of toxic cyanogenic compound. These problems limit the utilization of cassava peel as feed. Solid substrate fermentation using mold may be a solution process to increase its nutritional value and decrease toxic level of cassava peel. In this paper, matters that related with cassava peel fermentation process are subsequently described, namely: (i problems of cassava peel; (ii biodegradation and detoxification process; (iii solid state fermentation methods on cassava peel; (iv nutritional quality of fermented cassava peel; and (v application of fermented cassava peel in poultry feed. The fermented cassava peel application is compared with those of cassava root and waste (onggok. Addition of nitrogen inorganic in the fermentation process increases the mold growth and protein content of the product, while fiber and cyanogenic contents are decreased due to mold degradation activity. The fermentation process may be carried out using only the cassava peel as the substrate or mixed with wheat flour, using indigenous microbes, Aspergillus niger or a white rot fungus, Panus tigrinus as inoculum. As well as fermented cassava root and waste, fermented cassava peel can be used to substitute maize as poultry feed, although it is reported that the optimum substitution in broiler ration is only 10%.

  3. Bacterial endophyte communities in the foliage of coast redwood and giant sequoia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Ann Carrell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic bacterial microbiome, with an emerging role in plant nutrient acquisition and stress tolerance, is much less studied in natural plant populations than in agricultural crops. In a previous study, we found consistent associations between trees in the pine family and acetic acid bacteria (AAB occurring at high relative abundance inside their needles. Our objective here was to determine if that pattern may be general to conifers, or alternatively, is more likely restricted to pines, or conifers growing in nutrient limited and exposed environments. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to characterize the foliar endophyte communities of two conifers in the Cupressaceae family: Two coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens populations and one giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum population were sampled. Similar to the pines, the endophyte communities of the giant trees were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria. However, although some major OTUs occurred at a high relative abundance of 10-40% in multiple samples, no specific group of bacteria dominated the endophyte community to the extent previously observed in high-elevation pines. Several of the dominating bacterial groups in the coast redwood and giant sequoia foliage (e.g. Bacillus, Burkholderia, Actinomycetes are known for disease- and pest suppression, raising the possibility that the endophytic microbiome protects the giant trees against biotic stress. Many of the most common and abundant OTUs in our dataset were most similar to 16S rRNA sequences from bacteria isolated from lichens or arctic plants. For example, an OTU belonging to the uncultured Rhizobiales LAR1 lineage, which is commonly associated with lichens, was observed at high relative abundance in many of the coast redwood samples. The taxa shared between the giant trees, arctic plants, and lichens may be part of a broadly defined endophyte microbiome common to temperate, boreal, and tundra

  4. Fungal endophytes: modifiers of plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Posy E; Ridout, Mary; Newcombe, George

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have demonstrated that non-pathogenic fungi within plant microbiomes, i.e., endophytes ("endo" = within, "phyte" = plant), can significantly modify the expression of host plant disease. The rapid pace of advancement in endophyte ecology warrants a pause to synthesize our understanding of endophyte disease modification and to discuss future research directions. We reviewed recent literature on fungal endophyte disease modification, and here report on several emergent themes: (1) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease span the full spectrum from pathogen antagonism to pathogen facilitation, with pathogen antagonism most commonly reported. (2) Agricultural plant pathosystems are the focus of research on endophyte disease modification. (3) A taxonomically diverse group of fungal endophytes can influence plant disease severity. And (4) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease severity are context-dependent. Our review highlights the importance of fungal endophytes for plant disease across a broad range of plant pathosystems, yet simultaneously reveals that complexity within plant microbiomes presents a significant challenge to disentangling the biotic environmental factors affecting plant disease severity. Manipulative studies integrating eco-evolutionary approaches with emerging molecular tools will be poised to elucidate the functional importance of endophytes in natural plant pathosystems that are fundamental to biodiversity and conservation. PMID:26646287

  5. Effects of growth stage and fulvic acid on the diversity and dynamics of endophytic bacterial community in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuejian; Yang, Jinshui; Wang, Entao; Li, Baozhen; Yuan, Hongli

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to learn the interactions among the endophytic bacteria, the plant growth, the foliar spray of fulvic acid, and the accumulation of steviol glycosides in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from the Stevia leaves at different growth stages with or without the fulvic acid treatment; and the diversity of endophytic bacteria in Stevia leaves was estimated by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. As results, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes were found to be the dominant phyla despite the growth stages and fulvic acid application. Stevia growth stages strongly regulated composition of endophytic community. The genera Agrobacterium (12.3%) and Erwinia (7.2%) dominated in seedling stage were apparently declined in the vegetable and initial flowering stages, while Sphingomonas and Methylobacterium increased in mature leaves at harvest time, which showed that the mature leaves of Stevia preferred to accumulate some certain endophytic bacteria. Sphingomonas and Methylobacterium constituted an important part of the core endophytic community and were positively correlated with the stevioside content and UGT74G1 gene expression, respectively; while Erwinia, Agrobacterium, and Bacillus were negatively correlated with the stevioside accumulation. Fulvic acid treatment accelerated the variation of endophytes along the growth stages and increased the steviol glycosides content. This is the first study to reveal the community composition of endophytic bacteria in the Stevia leaves, to evidence the strong effects of growth stage and fulvic acid application on the endophytes of Stevia, and to demonstrate the correlation between the endophytic bacteria and the steviol glycosides accumulation.

  6. Effects of growth stage and fulvic acid on the diversity and dynamics of endophytic bacterial community in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuejian; Yang, Jinshui; Wang, Entao; Li, Baozhen; Yuan, Hongli

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to learn the interactions among the endophytic bacteria, the plant growth, the foliar spray of fulvic acid, and the accumulation of steviol glycosides in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from the Stevia leaves at different growth stages with or without the fulvic acid treatment; and the diversity of endophytic bacteria in Stevia leaves was estimated by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. As results, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes were found to be the dominant phyla despite the growth stages and fulvic acid application. Stevia growth stages strongly regulated composition of endophytic community. The genera Agrobacterium (12.3%) and Erwinia (7.2%) dominated in seedling stage were apparently declined in the vegetable and initial flowering stages, while Sphingomonas and Methylobacterium increased in mature leaves at harvest time, which showed that the mature leaves of Stevia preferred to accumulate some certain endophytic bacteria. Sphingomonas and Methylobacterium constituted an important part of the core endophytic community and were positively correlated with the stevioside content and UGT74G1 gene expression, respectively; while Erwinia, Agrobacterium, and Bacillus were negatively correlated with the stevioside accumulation. Fulvic acid treatment accelerated the variation of endophytes along the growth stages and increased the steviol glycosides content. This is the first study to reveal the community composition of endophytic bacteria in the Stevia leaves, to evidence the strong effects of growth stage and fulvic acid application on the endophytes of Stevia, and to demonstrate the correlation between the endophytic bacteria and the steviol glycosides accumulation. PMID:26379644

  7. Morphological and genetic characterization of endophytic bacteria isolated from roots of different maize genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Angela Cristina; Bassani, Luciana Lange; Adamoski, Douglas; Stringari, Danyelle; Cordeiro, Vanessa Kava; Glienke, Chirlei; Steffens, Maria Berenice Reynaud; Hungria, Mariangela; Galli-Terasawa, Lygia Vitoria

    2013-01-01

    Maize is one of the most important crops worldwide, and in Brazil, the state of Paraná stands as its largest producer. The crop demands high inputs of N fertilizers, therefore all strategies aiming to optimize the grain production with lower inputs are very relevant. Endophytic bacteria have a high potential to increment maize grain yield by means of input via biological nitrogen fixation and/or plant growth promotion, in this last case increasing the absorption of water and nutrients by the plants. In this study, we established a collection of 217 endophytic bacteria, isolated from roots of four lineages and three hybrid genotypes of maize, and isolated in four different N-free culture media. Biochemical-comprising growth in different carbon sources, intrinsic tolerance to antibiotics, and biochemical tests for catalase, nitrate reductase, urease, and growth in N-free media in vitro-and genetic characterization by BOX-PCR revealed great variability among the isolates. Both commercial hybrids and homozygous lineages were broadly colonized by endophytes, and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed the presence of bacteria belonging to the genera Pantoea, Bacillus, Burkholderia, and Klebsiella. Qualitative differences in endophytic colonization were detected between lineages and hybrid genotypes.

  8. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of endophytic fungi isolated from Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Puji Astuti; Wahyono; Octavian Ashido Nababan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of endophytic fungi isolated from Piper crocatum Ruiz&Pav (P. crocatum). Methods:Ethyl acetate extracts were obtained by liquid-liquid partition of fermentation broth of endophytes followed by evaporation. The antimicrobial activities were determined by diffusion techniques followed by thin layer chromatography-bioautography. Cytotoxicity studies were conducted using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay. Data generated were used to plot a dose-response curve, of which the concentration of extract required to kill 50%of cell population (IC50) was determined. Results: Two endophytes were isolated from leaves and stem of P. crocatum, designated as DS1 and BS1. Ethyl acetate extracts of BS1 was found to inhibit the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus at minimum dose of 31.25, 125 and 250 µg, respectively. thin layer chromatography-bioautography of this extract resulted in at least two inhibition zones. BS1 extract also inhibited the growth of WiDr and T47D cell lines with IC50 of 120.38 µg/mL and 37.43 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: BS1 extract produced by endophytic fungi of P. crocatum is potential to be developed as source of novel bioactive compounds.

  9. Antifungal and antibacterial activity of endophytic penicillium species isolated from salvadora species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadora persica and S. S.oleoides are facultative holophytic plants, well known as miswak, are traditionally used to ensure oral hygiene among Muslim people in Asian and African counties. Species of Salvadora have a number of proven pharmacological importance. Besides, terrestrial fungi endophytic fungi are also gaining importance for the isolation of bioactive compounds. In this study 74 samples (root, shoot and leaves) from S. persica and S. oleoides were examined for endophytic fungi, 22 samples showed presence of Penicillium spp., 48 were found positive for aspergilli, whereas 10 samples showed infection of Fusarium solani, 4 were found infected with Macrophomina phaseolina and one with Rhizoctonia solani. Most of the Penicillium isolated were identified as P. restrictum, P. citrinum and P. canescens. In dual culture plate assay out of four Penicillium isolates tested, P. citrinum and one isolate of P. restrictum caused growth inhibition of all four test root rotting fungi, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani. Culture filtrates of Penicillium spp., were also evaluated against four common laboratory bacteria namely Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli and above mentioned root rotting fungi. Culture filtrates of endophytic Penicillium spp., also showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. Secondary metabolites of endophytic Penicillium spp., offer an exciting area of research for the discovery of novel antimicrobial compounds. (author)

  10. Cassava; African perspective on space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Looking on African perspective in space agriculture may contribute to increase diversity, and enforce robustness for advanced life support capability. Cassava, Manihot esculentaand, is one of major crop in Africa, and could be a candidate of space food materials. Since resource is limited for space agriculture in many aspects, crop yield should be high in efficiency, and robust as well. The efficiency is measured by farming space and time. Harvest yield of cassava is about 41 MJ/ m2 (70 ton/ha) after 11 months of farming. Among rice, wheat, potato, and sweet potato, cassava is ranked to the first place (40 m2 ) in terms of farming area required to supply energy of 5 MJ/day, which is recommended for one person. Production of cassava could be made under poor condition, such as acidic soil, shortage of fertilizer, draught. Laterite, similar to Martian regolith. Propagation made by stem cutting is an advantage of cassava in space agriculture avoiding entomophilous or anemophilous process to pollinate. Feature of crop storage capability is additional factor that determines the efficiency in the whole process of agriculture. Cassava root tuber can be left in soil until its consumption. Cassava might be an African contribution to space agriculture.

  11. Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from four species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, eight within the Ascomycota and four within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing ...

  12. Antimicrobial activity of Ulva reticulata and its endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, K. I.; Swati, V. I.; Vanka, Kanth Swaroop; Osborne, W. J.

    2016-04-01

    Seaweeds are known to exhibit various antimicrobial properties, since it harbours an enormous range of indigenous bioactive compounds. The emergence of drug resistant strains has directed to the identification of prospective metabolites from seaweed and its endophytes, thereby exploiting the properties in resisting bacterial diseases. The current study was aimed to assess the antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from Ulva reticulate, for which metabolites of Ulva reticulata and its endophytes were extracted and assessed against human pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis. It was observed that the hexane extract of isolate VITDSJ2 was effective against all the tested pathogens but a significant inhibition was observed for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Further, Gas chromatography coupled with Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed the existence of phenol, 3, 5-bis (1, 1-dimethylethyl) in the crude hexane extract which is well-known to possess antibacterial activity. The effective isolate VITDSJ2 was identified to be the closest neighbour of Pseudomonas stutzeri by phenotypic and genotypic methods. The crude extracts of the seaweed Ulva reticulata was also screened for antibacterial activity and the hexane extract was effective in showing inhibition against all the tested pathogens. The compound in the crude extract of Ulva reticulata was identified as hentriacontane using GC-MS. The extracts obtained from dichloromethane did not show significant activity in comparison with the hexane extracts. Hence the metabolites of Ulva reticulata and the bacterial secondary metabolites of the endophytes could be used in the treatment of bacterial infections.

  13. Characterization of endophytic bacteria from cucurbit fruits with potential benefits to agriculture in melons (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassner, Hanoch; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Compant, Stéphane; Sessitsch, Angela; Katzir, Nurit; Portnoy, Vitaly; Yaron, Sima

    2015-07-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that mainly colonize vegetative parts, but are also found in reproductive and disseminating organs, and may have beneficial characteristics. To identify microorganisms associated with the agriculturally important family, Cucurbitaceae, endophytes were initially determined in fruits of Cucumis melo Reticulatus Group 'Dulce' by a cultivation-independent approach based on fluorescence in situ hybridization using double labeling of oligonucleotide probes. Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were localized inside the fruits. Culturable bacteria were further isolated and identified from fruit tissues of 'Dulce', from fruits of other cultivated and wild-field-grown Cucurbitaceae, and from wild fruits growing under natural conditions. Low densities of culturable bacteria were detected in the investigated fruits, especially in four out of the five wild species, regardless of their growing environment. Substantial differences were observed between the wild and cultivated cucurbit taxa in regard to the number of colonized fruits as well as the type of endophytes. Bacillus was the most dominant genus of endophytes colonizing fruits of Cucurbitaceae. The antagonistic effects of isolated endophytes were assessed against cucurbit disease agents in dual-culture assays. Several bacterial isolates exhibited antagonistic properties against the tested plant pathogens. The identified bacteria may be useful for protecting plants not only in the field, but also for post-harvest. PMID:26183916

  14. Cassava based diets for sustainable ruminant production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an annual crop grown widely in the tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. It thrives in sandy-loam soils with low organic matter and in climate with low rainfall and high temperature. Cassava could also response more with manure fertilization. Cassava tubers contain high levels of energy and minimal levels of crude protein, have been used as readily fermentable energy in ruminant rations, and have been used extensively as a feed for livestock. Recent attempts have been made to develop new products using cassava chips as an energy source with urea as non-protein nitrogen (NPN). Two new cassava based products have been developed: cassarea and cassaya. Cassarea was formulated to contain the following ingredients: 57.1% Cassava chips + 9.9% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea I, 30% CP); 83.6% Cassava chips + 13.4% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea II, 40% CP); 80.2% Cassava chips + 16.8% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea III, 50% CP). Cassarea was tested for rumen degradability using the nylon bag technique and was found to have a 46.2 to 56.7% effective DM degradability. Further investigations with Cassarea II (40% CP) showed that it could be used to replace SBM in the rations of lactating cows, but supplementation with a rumen by-pass protein such as cottonseed meal would be recommended. Cassaya (30% CP) is a product formulated using chopped whole cassava crop hay (85%) + soybean meal (5%) + cassava chips (5%) + urea (2%) + tallow (2%) + sulphur (1%), mixing with water, pressed through a pelleting machine and sun-dried to at least 85% DM. The use of Cassaya in lactating dairy cows as a protein source proved to be efficient in promoting rumen fermentation, improved milk yield and composition and providing an increased economical return. Moreover, cassava hay (CH) has been applied in ruminant nutrition as a high-quality protein supplement for dairy cattle, beef and buffalo production. CH consists of whole crop of cassava harvested at

  15. Screening of endophytic bacteria against fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohike, Tatsuya; Makuni, Kohei; Okanami, Masahiro; Ano, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Bacterial endophytes were found from 6 plant leaves among 35 plant leaves screened. Two of the isolated bacteria showed antagonistic activity against fungal plant pathogens. An isolate named KL1 showed the clear inihibition against plant pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani, on PDA as well as TSA plate. Supernatant of the bacterial culture also showed the clear inhibition against the fungal growth on the plate and the antibiotic substance was identified as iturin A by HPLC analysis. KL1 was identified as Bacillus sp. from the 16S rRNA gene analysis. Very thin hyphae of R. solani was miccroscopically observed when the fungus was co-cultivated with KL1. PMID:25078813

  16. In silico analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of endophytic bacteria, isolated from the aerial parts and seeds of important agricultural crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredow, C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A; Mangolin, C A; Rhoden, S A

    2015-01-01

    Because of human population growth, increased food production and alternatives to conventional methods of biocontrol and development of plants such as the use of endophytic bacteria and fungi are required. One of the methods used to study microorganism diversity is sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, which has several advantages, including universality, size, and availability of databases for comparison. The objective of this study was to analyze endophytic bacterial diversity in agricultural crops using published papers, sequence databases, and phylogenetic analysis. Fourteen papers were selected in which the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene was used to identify endophytic bacteria, in important agricultural crops, such as coffee, sugar cane, beans, corn, soybean, tomatoes, and grapes, located in different geographical regions (America, Europe, and Asia). The corresponding 16S rRNA gene sequences were selected from the NCBI database, aligned using the Mega 5.2 program, and phylogenetic analysis was undertaken. The most common orders present in the analyzed cultures were Bacillales, Enterobacteriales, and Actinomycetales and the most frequently observed genera were Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Microbacterium. Phylogenetic analysis showed that only approximately 1.56% of the total sequences were not properly grouped, demonstrating reliability in the identification of microorganisms. This study identified the main genera found in endophytic bacterial cultures from plants, providing data for future studies on improving plant agriculture, biotechnology, endophytic bacterium prospecting, and to help understand relationships between endophytic bacteria and their interactions with plants. PMID:26345903

  17. Effects of growth stage and fulvic acid on the diversity and dynamics of endophytic bacterial community in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejian eYu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to learn the interactions among the endophytic bacteria, the plant growth, the foliar spray of fulvic acid, and the accumulation of steviol glycosides in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from the Stevia leaves at different growth stages with or without the fulvic acid treatment; and the diversity of endophytic bacteria in Stevia leaves was estimated by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. As results, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were found to be the dominant phyla despite the growth stages and fulvic acid application. Stevia growth stages strongly regulated composition of endophytic community. The genera Agrobacterium (12.3 % and Erwinia (7.2 % dominated in seedling stage were apparently declined in the vegetable and initial flowering stages, while Sphingomonas and Methylobacterium increased in mature leaves at harvest time, which showed that the mature leaves of Stevia preferred to accumulate some certain endophytic bacteria. Sphingomonas and Methylobacterium constituted an important part of the core endophytic community and were positively correlated with the stevioside content and UGT74G1 gene expression, respectively; while Erwinia, Agrobacterium and Bacillus were negatively correlated with the stevioside accumulation. Fulvic acid treatment accelerated the variation of endophytes along the growth stages.

  18. Isolation of endophytic bacteria from arboreal species of the Amazon and identification by sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza M. Coêlho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria from three arboreal species native to the Amazon (Carapa guianenses, Ceiba pentandra, and Swietenia macrophylla, were isolated and identified, through partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene. From these, 16 isolates were obtained, although, when compared to sequences deposited in GenBank, only seven had produced identifiable fragments. Bacillus, Pantoea and two non-culturable samples were identified. Results obtained through sequence analysis revealed low genetic diversity across the isolates, even when analyzing different species and plant structures. This is the first report concerning the isolation and identification of endophytic bacteria in these plant species.

  19. RNAi-mediated resistance to Cassava brown streak Uganda virus in transgenic cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Jitender S; Ogwok, Emmanuel; Wagaba, Henry; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Bagewadi, Basavaraj; Alicai, Titus; Gaitan-Solis, Eliana; Taylor, Nigel J; Fauquet, Claude M

    2011-09-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), caused by Cassava brown streak Uganda virus (CBSUV) and Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV), is of new epidemic importance to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) production in East Africa, and an emerging threat to the crop in Central and West Africa. This study demonstrates that at least one of these two ipomoviruses, CBSUV, can be efficiently controlled using RNA interference (RNAi) technology in cassava. An RNAi construct targeting the near full-length coat protein (FL-CP) of CBSUV was expressed constitutively as a hairpin construct in cassava. Transgenic cassava lines expressing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against this sequence showed 100% resistance to CBSUV across replicated graft inoculation experiments. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed the presence of CBSUV in leaves and some tuberous roots from challenged controls, but not in the same tissues from transgenic plants. This is the first demonstration of RNAi-mediated resistance to the ipomovirus CBSUV in cassava.

  20. Electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnsoongnoen, S.; Siritaratiwat, A.

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch at various frequencies using electric impedance spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy, as well as determine the classification of the electrical parameters of both materials using the principle component analysis (PCA) method. All samples were measured at room temperature. The electrical and absorption parameters consisted of dielectric constant, dissipation factor, parallel capacitance, resistance, reactance, impedance and absorbance. It was found that the electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch were a function of frequency, and there were significant differences between the materials. The dielectric constant, parallel capacitance, resistance and impedance of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch had similar dramatic decreases with increasing frequency. However, the reactance of both materials increased with an increasing frequency. The electrical parameters of both materials could be classified into two groups. Moreover, the dissipation factor and phase of impedance were the parameters that could be used in the separation of both materials. According to the absorbance patterns of the fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch, there were significant differences.

  1. Electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to analyze the electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch at various frequencies using electric impedance spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy, as well as determine the classification of the electrical parameters of both materials using the principle component analysis (PCA) method. All samples were measured at room temperature. The electrical and absorption parameters consisted of dielectric constant, dissipation factor, parallel capacitance, resistance, reactance, impedance and absorbance. It was found that the electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch were a function of frequency, and there were significant differences between the materials. The dielectric constant, parallel capacitance, resistance and impedance of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch had similar dramatic decreases with increasing frequency. However, the reactance of both materials increased with an increasing frequency. The electrical parameters of both materials could be classified into two groups. Moreover, the dissipation factor and phase of impedance were the parameters that could be used in the separation of both materials. According to the absorbance patterns of the fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch, there were significant differences

  2. The BioCassava Plus program: Biofortification of cassava for sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 250 million Africans rely on the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) as their staple source of calories. A typical cassava-based diet, however, provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein and only 10-20% of that for iron, zinc, and vitamin A. The BioCassav...

  3. Consumer preferences for table cassava characteristics in Pernambuco, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Carolina; Johnson, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    Cassava is a major source of carbohydrate for populations in the tropics; however, there is little information about the preferences of consumers toward the quality characteristics of this crop. This paper analyzes the demand for different cassava attributes, and applies the hedonic price method to estimate the values that consumers give to implicit attributes of cassava. The results show that ease of peeling, time of cooking and texture of cassava are the most important characteristics consu...

  4. Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The events of 11 September 2001 and the subsequent anthrax outbreaks have shown that the West needs to be prepared for an increasing number of terrorist attacks, which may include the use of biological warfare. Bacillus anthracis has long been considered a potential biological warfare agent, and this review will discuss the history of its use as such. It will also cover the biology of this organism and the clinical features of the three disease forms that it can produce: cutaneous, gastrointe...

  5. Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    BOSERET, GÉRALDINE; Linden, Annick; Mainil, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    The literature describes several methods for detection of Bacillus anthracis based on application of specific bacteriophages. The following methods of pahoinpitely are used to identify the causative agent of anthrax: the reaction of bacteriophage titer growth (RBTG), the reaction of phage adsorption (RPA), fagoterapii method (FTM) and fluorescentserological method (FSM). The essence of RBTG consists in the following: if there is the researchform of bacteria presents in the test material, then...

  6. Bioactive alkaloids in vertically transmitted fungal endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants form mutualistic symbioses with a variety of microorganisms, including endophytic fungi that live inside the plant and cause no symptoms of infection. Some endophytic fungi form defensive mutualisms based on the production of bioactive metabolites that protect the plant from herbivores in exc...

  7. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for endophytic hilar tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Pierro, G B; Tartaglia, N; Aresu, L;

    2014-01-01

    To analyze feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for endophytic hilar tumors in low-intermediate (ASA I-II) risk patients.......To analyze feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for endophytic hilar tumors in low-intermediate (ASA I-II) risk patients....

  8. Phenotypic Approaches to Drought in Cassava: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eOkogbenin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative trait and its multigenic nature makes it very challenging to effectively manipulate and combine genes in breeding for rapid genetic gain and selection process. Cassava has a long growth cycle of 12 - 18 months which invariably contributes to a long breeding scheme for the crop. Modern breeding using advances in genomics and improved genotyping, is facilitating the dissection and genetic analysis of complex traits including drought tolerance, thus helping to better elucidate and understand the genetic basis of such traits. A beneficial goal of new innovative breeding strategies is to shorten the breeding cycle using minimized, efficient or fast phenotyping protocols. While high throughput genotyping have been achieved, this is rarely the case for phenotyping for drought adaptation. Some of the storage root phenotyping in cassava are often done very late in the evaluation cycle making selection process very slow. This paper highlights some modified traits suitable for early-growth phase phenotyping that may be used to reduce drought phenotyping cycle in cassava. Such modified traits can significantly complement the high throughput genotyping procedures to fast track breeding of improved drought tolerant varieties. The need for metabolite profiling, improved phenomics to take advantage of next generation sequencing technologies and high throughput phenotyping are basic steps for future direction to improve genetic gain and maximize speed for drought tolerance

  9. Phenotypic approaches to drought in cassava: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okogbenin, Emmanuel; Setter, Tim L; Ferguson, Morag; Mutegi, Rose; Ceballos, Hernan; Olasanmi, Bunmi; Fregene, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative trait and its multigenic nature makes it very challenging to effectively manipulate and combine genes in breeding for rapid genetic gain and selection process. Cassava has a long growth cycle of 12-18 months which invariably contributes to a long breeding scheme for the crop. Modern breeding using advances in genomics and improved genotyping, is facilitating the dissection and genetic analysis of complex traits including drought tolerance, thus helping to better elucidate and understand the genetic basis of such traits. A beneficial goal of new innovative breeding strategies is to shorten the breeding cycle using minimized, efficient or fast phenotyping protocols. While high throughput genotyping have been achieved, this is rarely the case for phenotyping for drought adaptation. Some of the storage root phenotyping in cassava are often done very late in the evaluation cycle making selection process very slow. This paper highlights some modified traits suitable for early-growth phase phenotyping that may be used to reduce drought phenotyping cycle in cassava. Such modified traits can significantly complement the high throughput genotyping procedures to fast track breeding of improved drought tolerant varieties. The need for metabolite profiling, improved phenomics to take advantage of next generation sequencing technologies and high throughput phenotyping are basic steps for future direction to improve genetic gain and maximize speed for drought tolerance breeding. PMID

  10. An atlas of cassava in Africa : historical, agroecological and demographic aspects of crop distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Fresco, L.O.; Jones, P.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains 6 chapters covering: the dynamics of cassava in Africa; the introduction and diffusion of cassava in Africa; current distribution of cassava in Africa; the relationship of cassava distribution to environment and population; distribution and change in cassava production in Nigeria,

  11. Sequences enhancing cassava mosaic disease symptoms occur in the cassava genome and are associated with South African cassava mosaic virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maredza, A T; Allie, F; Plata, G; Rey, M E C

    2016-06-01

    Cassava is an important food security crop in Sub-Saharan Africa. Two episomal begomovirus-associated sequences, named Sequences Enhancing Geminivirus Symptoms (SEGS1 and SEGS2), were identified in field cassava affected by the devastating cassava mosaic disease (CMD). The sequences reportedly exacerbated CMD symptoms in the tolerant cassava landrace TME3, and the model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana, when biolistically co-inoculated with African cassava mosaic virus-Cameroon (ACMV-CM) or East African cassava mosaic virus-UG2 (EACMV-UG2). Following the identification of small SEGS fragments in the cassava EST database, the intention of this study was to confirm their presence in the genome, and investigate a possible role for these sequences in CMD. We report that multiple copies of varying lengths of both SEGS1 and SEGS2 are widely distributed in the sequenced cassava genome and are present in several other cassava accessions screened by PCR. The endogenous SEGS1 and SEGS2 are in close proximity or overlapping with cassava genes, suggesting a possible role in regulation of specific biological processes. We confirm the expression of SEGS in planta using EST data and RT-PCR. The sequence features of endogenous SEGS (iSEGS) are unique but resemble non-autonomous transposable elements (TEs) such as MITEs and helitrons. Furthermore, many SEGS-associated genes, some involved in virus-host interactions, are differentially expressed in susceptible (T200) and tolerant TME3) cassava landraces infected by South African cassava mosaic virus (SACMV) of susceptible (T200) and tolerant (TME3) cassava landraces. Abundant SEGS-derived small RNAs were also present in mock-inoculated and SACMV-infected T200 and TME3 leaves. Given the known role of TEs and associated genes in gene regulation and plant immune responses, our observations are consistent with a role of these DNA elements in the host's regulatory response to geminiviruses.

  12. Sequences enhancing cassava mosaic disease symptoms occur in the cassava genome and are associated with South African cassava mosaic virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maredza, A T; Allie, F; Plata, G; Rey, M E C

    2016-06-01

    Cassava is an important food security crop in Sub-Saharan Africa. Two episomal begomovirus-associated sequences, named Sequences Enhancing Geminivirus Symptoms (SEGS1 and SEGS2), were identified in field cassava affected by the devastating cassava mosaic disease (CMD). The sequences reportedly exacerbated CMD symptoms in the tolerant cassava landrace TME3, and the model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana, when biolistically co-inoculated with African cassava mosaic virus-Cameroon (ACMV-CM) or East African cassava mosaic virus-UG2 (EACMV-UG2). Following the identification of small SEGS fragments in the cassava EST database, the intention of this study was to confirm their presence in the genome, and investigate a possible role for these sequences in CMD. We report that multiple copies of varying lengths of both SEGS1 and SEGS2 are widely distributed in the sequenced cassava genome and are present in several other cassava accessions screened by PCR. The endogenous SEGS1 and SEGS2 are in close proximity or overlapping with cassava genes, suggesting a possible role in regulation of specific biological processes. We confirm the expression of SEGS in planta using EST data and RT-PCR. The sequence features of endogenous SEGS (iSEGS) are unique but resemble non-autonomous transposable elements (TEs) such as MITEs and helitrons. Furthermore, many SEGS-associated genes, some involved in virus-host interactions, are differentially expressed in susceptible (T200) and tolerant TME3) cassava landraces infected by South African cassava mosaic virus (SACMV) of susceptible (T200) and tolerant (TME3) cassava landraces. Abundant SEGS-derived small RNAs were also present in mock-inoculated and SACMV-infected T200 and TME3 leaves. Given the known role of TEs and associated genes in gene regulation and plant immune responses, our observations are consistent with a role of these DNA elements in the host's regulatory response to geminiviruses. PMID:25920485

  13. Characteristics of raw starch degrading alpha-amylase from Bacillus aquimaris MKSC 6.2 associated with soft coral Sinularia sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puspasari, Fernita; Nurachman, Zeily; Noer, Achmad Saefuddin; Radjasa, Ocky Karna; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Natalia, Dessy

    2011-01-01

    Partially purified alpha-amylase from Bacillus aquimaris MKSC 6.2, a bacterium isolated from a soft coral Sinularia sp., Merak Kecil Island, West Java, Indonesia, showed an ability to degrade raw corn, rice, sago, cassava, and potato starches with adsorption percentage in the range of 65-93%. Corn h

  14. Improvement of cassava for resistance to insect pests and diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The African cassava mosaic virus and cassava mealybug are devastating the cassava crop in Uganda. Because of the severe widespread occurrence of the virus and mealybug, in vitro cultured cassava plantlets instead of stem cuttings will be irradiated. In addition, the project has incorporated sweet potato. Installation of tissue culture laboratory at Namulonge was completed in early 1993. Work is in progress to establish efficient in vitro culture micropropagation techniques for the two crops. Small numbers of cassava plantlets of varieties 'TMS 30337' and 'TMS 4(2)1425' and sweet potato entry 30 are in vitro culture. Mass irradiation of plantlets is planned in future. (author). 4 refs

  15. Gene expression of beta carotene genes in transgenic biofortified cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Telengech, P. K.; Maling’a, J. N.; Nyende, A. B.; Gichuki, S. T.; Wanjala, B. W.

    2014-01-01

    Cassava is an important food for millions of people around the world. However, cassava is deficient in protein, iron, zinc, pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Cassava biofortified with pro-vitamin A can help reduce Vitamin A Deficiency among the undernourished communities that rely upon it for sustenance. BioCassava Plus project has developed transgenic cassava that expresses beta carotene in roots using root specific patatin promoter. This study aimed at confirming expression of nptII, crtB and DX...

  16. Study of Products Distilled Spirits with Cassava Dregs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG le; WANG Jun-gao; LIU Wen-long

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, Cassava dregs are an outgrowth produced during starchy production which uses cassava as raw material. It is usually dropped out or used as cheap feedstuff. In order to make the best use of cassava dregs, increase industries' benefits and reduce castoff this study developed a new technique which used cassava dregs as raw material to produce distilled spirits based on cassava dregs characteristics. The technique adopt solid-ferment procedure. At first, the ferment is processed by solid-state distilling, and then rectification extra care refinement: at last the tequila was produced with characteristics of simple and elegant fragrance and mellow-tasting.

  17. Polyhydroxybutyrate production using agro-industrial residue as substrate by Bacillus sphaericus NCIM 5149

    OpenAIRE

    Nisha V. Ramadas; Sudheer Kumar Singh; Carlos Ricardo Soccol; Ashok Pandey

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) using agro- industrial residues as the carbon source. Seven substrates, viz., wheat bran, potato starch, sesame oil cake, groundnut oil cake, cassava powder, jackfruit seed powder and corn flour were hydrolyzed using commercial enzymes and the hydrolyzates assessed for selecting the best substrate for PHB production. Jackfruit seed powder gave the maximum production of PHB under submerged fermentation using Bacillus...

  18. Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.; Chitundu, M.;

    2011-01-01

    The cassava belt area in Southern Africa is experiencing an unforeseen surge in cassava production, processing and consumption. Little documentation exists on the effects of this surge on processing procedures, the prevailing levels of cyanogenic glucosides of products consumed and the levels...... and perceptions concerning cassava and chemical food safety. Chips, mixed biscuits and flour, procured from households and markets in three regions of Zambia (Luapula-North, Western and Southern) as well as products from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi, were analyzed for total cyanogenic...

  19. A single-tube duplex and multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of four cassava mosaic begomovirus species in cassava plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloyce, R C; Tairo, F; Sseruwagi, P; Rey, M E C; Ndunguru, J

    2013-04-01

    A single-tube duplex and multiplex PCR was developed for the simultaneous detection of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV), East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV), East African cassava mosaic Malawi virus (EACMMV) and East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus (EACMZV), four cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs) affecting cassava in sub-Saharan Africa. Co-occurrence of the CMBs in cassava synergistically enhances disease symptoms and complicates their detection and diagnostics. Four primer pairs were designed to target DNA-A component sequences of cassava begomoviruses in a single tube PCR amplification using DNA extracted from dry-stored cassava leaves. Duplex and multiplex PCR enabled the simultaneous detection and differentiation of the four CMBs, namely ACMV (940bp), EACMCV (435bp), EACMMV (504bp) and EACMZV (260bp) in single and mixed infections, and sequencing results confirmed virus identities according to the respective published sequences of begomovirus species. In addition, we report here a modified Dellapotra et al. (1983) protocol, which was used to extract DNA from dry and fresh cassava leaves with comparable results. Using the duplex and multiplex techniques, time was saved and amount of reagents used were reduced, which translated into reduced cost of the diagnostics. This tool can be used by cassava breeders screening for disease resistance; scientists doing virus diagnostic studies; phytosanitary officers checking movement of diseased planting materials, and seed certification and multipliers for virus indexing.

  20. Screening of bacterial endophytes inhabiting Mimosa pudica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Baker

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on endophytes is burgeoning immense importance since recent years with almost all plants harboring untold number of microorganism as endophytes. Endophytic plethora is reported to secrete unique novel metabolites bearing therapeutic property which are being constantly exploited. The present study uncaps the bacterial endophytes inhabiting stem and roots of Mimosa pudica L located in southern part of India. The screening resulted in isolation of one forty one myriad bacterial endophytes with different morphological characteristics. The endophytes isolated in the present study will be exploited for further research which will be promising enough to extract the novel leads of pharmaceutical importance

  1. Antimicrobial activity of pyrrocidines from Acremonium zeae against endophytes and pathogens of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklow, Donald T; Poling, Stephen M

    2009-01-01

    Acremonium zeae produces pyrrocidines A and B, which are polyketide-amino acid-derived antibiotics, and is recognized as a seedborne protective endophyte of maize which augments host defenses against microbial pathogens causing seedling blights and stalk rots. Pyrrocidine A displayed significant in vitro activity against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides in assays performed using conidia as inoculum, with pyrrocidine A being more active than B. In equivalent assays performed with conidia or hyphal cells as inoculum, pyrrocidine A revealed potent activity against major stalk and ear rot pathogens of maize, including F. graminearum, Nigrospora oryzae, Stenocarpella (Diplodia) maydis, and Rhizoctonia zeae. Pyrrocidine A displayed significant activity against seed-rotting saprophytes A. flavus and Eupenicillium ochrosalmoneum, as well as seed-infecting colonists of the phylloplane Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Curvularia lunata, which produces a damaging leaf spot disease. Protective endophytes, including mycoparasites which grow asymptomatically within healthy maize tissues, show little sensitivity to pyrrocidines. Pyrrocidine A also exhibited potent activity against Clavibacter michiganense subsp. nebraskense, causal agent of Goss's bacterial wilt of maize, and Bacillus mojaviense and Pseudomonas fluorescens, maize endophytes applied as biocontrol agents, but were ineffective against the wilt-producing bacterium Pantoea stewartii. PMID:19055442

  2. Selection and Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria as Biocontrol Agents of Tomato Bacterial Wilt Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDJAD ASIH NAWANGSIH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of bacterial wilt pathogen (Ralstonia solanacearum of tomato using endophytic bacteria is one of the alternative control methods to support sustainable agriculture. This study was conducted to select and characterize endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy tomato stems and to test their ability to promote plant growth and suppress bacterial wilt disease. Among 49 isolates successfully isolated, 41 were non-plant pathogenic. Green house test on six selected isolates based on antagonistic effect on R. solanacearum or ability to suppress R. solanacearum population in dual culture assays obtained BC4 and BL10 isolates as promising biocontrol agents. At six weeks after transplanting, plants treated with BC4 isolate showed significantly lower disease incidence (33% than that of control (83%. Plants height was not significantly affected by endophytic bacterial treatments. Based on 16S rRNA sequence, BC4 isolate had 97% similarity with Staphylococcus epidermidis (accession number EU834240.1, while isolate BL10 had 98% similarity with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain JK-SD002 (accession number AB547229.1.

  3. Antitumor and antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi from medicinal parts of Aquilaria sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-long CUI; Shun-xing GUO; Pei-gen XIAO

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize endophytic fungi from the stem tissue which can produce fragrant ingredients in Aquilaria sinensis (also called agarwood) to determine their antitumor and antimicrobial activities. Twenty-eight fungal endophytes were isolated from agarwood by strict sterile sample preparation and were classified into 14 genera and 4 taxonomic classes (Sordariomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Saccharomycetes, and Zygomycetes) based on molecular identification. Of the 28 isolates, 13 (46.4%) showed antimicrobial activity against at least one of the test strains by the agar well diffusion method, and 23 isolates (82.1%) displayed antitumor activity against at least one of five cancer cell lines by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)assay. The diameters of inhibition zones of YNAS07, YNAS14, HNAS04, HNAS05, HNAS08, and HNAS11 were equal to or higher than 14.0 mm against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, B. subtilis, Aspergillus fumigatus, and B. subtilis, respectively. The inhibition rates of YNAS06, YNAS08, and HNAS06 were not less than 60% to 293-T, 293-T, and SKVO3 cells, respectively. These results suggest that the endophytic fungi associated with agarwood will provide us with not only useful micro-ecological information, but also potential antimicrobial and antitumor agents.

  4. Metagenomics study of endophytic bacteria in Aloe vera using next-generation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinsanya, Mushafau Adewale; Goh, Joo Kheng; Lim, Siew Ping; Ting, Adeline Su Yien

    2015-12-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) enables rapid analysis of the composition and diversity of microbial communities in several habitats. We applied the high throughput techniques of NGS to the metagenomics study of endophytic bacteria in Aloe vera plant, by assessing its PCR amplicon of 16S rDNA sequences (V3-V4 regions) with the Illumina metagenomics technique used to generate a total of 5,199,102 reads from the samples. The analyses revealed Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteriodetes as the predominant genera. The roots have the largest composition with 23% not present in other tissues. The stems have more of the genus-Pseudomonas and the unclassified Pseudomonadaceae. The α-diversity analysis indicated the richness and inverse Simpson diversity index of the bacterial endophyte communities for the leaf, root and stem tissues to be 2.221, 6.603 and 1.491 respectively. In a similar study on culturable endophytic bacteria in the same A. vera plants (unpublished work), the dominance of Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera was similar, with equal proportion of four species each in root, stem and leaf tissues. It is evident that NGS technology captured effectively the metagenomics of microbiota in plant tissues and this can improve our understanding of the microbial-plant host interactions. PMID:26697361

  5. Metagenomics study of endophytic bacteria in Aloe vera using next-generation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushafau Adewale Akinsanya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing (NGS enables rapid analysis of the composition and diversity of microbial communities in several habitats. We applied the high throughput techniques of NGS to the metagenomics study of endophytic bacteria in Aloe vera plant, by assessing its PCR amplicon of 16S rDNA sequences (V3–V4 regions with the Illumina metagenomics technique used to generate a total of 5,199,102 reads from the samples. The analyses revealed Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteriodetes as the predominant genera. The roots have the largest composition with 23% not present in other tissues. The stems have more of the genus—Pseudomonas and the unclassified Pseudomonadaceae. The α-diversity analysis indicated the richness and inverse Simpson diversity index of the bacterial endophyte communities for the leaf, root and stem tissues to be 2.221, 6.603 and 1.491 respectively. In a similar study on culturable endophytic bacteria in the same A. vera plants (unpublished work, the dominance of Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera was similar, with equal proportion of four species each in root, stem and leaf tissues. It is evident that NGS technology captured effectively the metagenomics of microbiota in plant tissues and this can improve our understanding of the microbial–plant host interactions.

  6. Isolation and characterization of culturable seed-associated bacterial endophytes from gnotobiotically grown Marama bean seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimwamurombe, Percy Maruwa; Grönemeyer, Jann Lasse; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Marama bean (Tylosema esculentum) is an indigenous non-nodulating legume to the arid agro-ecological parts of Southern Africa. It is a staple food for the Khoisan and Bantu people from these areas. It is intriguing how it is able to synthesize the high-protein content in the seeds since its natural habitat is nitrogen deficient. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of seed transmittable bacterial endophytes that may have growth promoting effects, which may be particularly important for the harsh conditions. Marama bean seeds were surface sterilized and gnotobiotically grown to 2 weeks old seedlings. From surface-sterilized shoots and roots, 123 distinct bacterial isolates were cultured using three media, and identified by BOX-PCR fingerprinting and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA and nifH genes. Phylogenetic analyses of 73 putative endophytes assigned them to bacterial species from 14 genera including Proteobacteria (Rhizobium, Massilia, Kosakonia, Pseudorhodoferax, Caulobacter, Pantoea, Sphingomonas, Burkholderia, Methylobacterium), Firmicutes (Bacillus), Actinobacteria (Curtobacterium, Microbacterium) and Bacteroidetes (Mucilaginibacter, Chitinophaga). Screening for plant growth-promoting activities revealed that the isolates showed production of IAA, ACC deaminase, siderophores, endoglucanase, protease, AHLs and capacities to solubilize phosphate and fix nitrogen. This is the first report that marama bean seeds may harbor endophytes that can be cultivated from seedlings; in this community of bacteria, physiological characteristics that are potentially plant growth promoting are widespread. PMID:27118727

  7. Study of cassava starch enzymatic modification for maltodextrins obtention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Díaz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available It was pretended to investigate the effect of the most relevant variables in cassava starch enzymatic hydrolysis process, on laboratory scale, to determine appropriate industrial conditions for the obtention of different kinds of maltodextrins. An a-Amylase enzyme, from genetically modified strain of Bacillus lichenijormis, was used to hydrolize the starch. Once the variables were chosen, an experimental fractioned factorial design was established with two levels. The Dextrose Equivalent (DE was taken as the response variable. The variables studied were: temperature (80-90°C, pH (5.5-6.5, dry-weight starch concentration (30-40% w/w, enzyme dosage (0.583-0.833 ul/g starch and calcium concentration (50-70 mgIL of CaClJ Some assays were settle in order to define the rheologic behavior and to determine the most relevant variables that affect the functional properties of the maltodextrin suspensions. Both, temperature and enzyme concentration were the variables that affect the most the initial convertion rate and the characteristics of the product convertion. For the interval of time considered, the highest DE obtained was 30 and the highest initial rate was 21.7 DE/hour. The functional properties of the maltodextrin solutions were affected by temperature and dry-weight starch concentration.

  8. Metabolic potential and community structure of endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria associated with the roots of the halophyte Aster tripolium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Sonia; Płociniczak, Tomasz; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia; Złoch, Michał; Ruppel, Silke; Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The submitted work assumes that the abundance and diversity of endophytic and rhizosphere microorganisms co-existing with the halophytic plant Aster tripolium L. growing in a salty meadow in the vicinity of a soda factory (central Poland) represent unique populations of cultivable bacterial strains. Endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria were (i) isolated and identified based on 16S rDNA sequences; (ii) screened for nifH and acdS genes; and (iii) analyzed based on selected metabolic properties. Moreover, total microbial biomass and community structures of the roots (endophytes), rhizosphere and soil were evaluated using a cultivation-independent technique (PLFA) to characterize plant-microbial interactions under natural salt conditions. The identification of the isolated strains showed domination by Gram-positive bacteria (mostly Bacillus spp.) both in the rhizosphere (90.9%) and roots (72.7%) of A. tripolium. Rhizosphere bacterial strains exhibited broader metabolic capacities, while endophytes exhibited higher specificities for metabolic activity. The PLFA analysis showed that the total bacterial biomass decreased in the following order (rhizospherebacteria in the roots of the halophyte. The described strain collection provides a valuable basis for a subsequent applications of bacteria in improvement of site adaptation of plants in saline soils.

  9. MOISTURE ISOTHERMS OF CASSAVA BAGASSE COMPOSITES IMPREGNATED WITH CASSAVA STARCH ACETATE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia N. MATSUI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The industrial processing of cassava to obtain starch generates a great variety of residues, with bagasse being the main solid residue produced. The improper disposal of this material represents an environmental problem and could be avoided by using this residue as a raw material to obtain biodegradable products. The bagasse produced during the process to obtain starch from cassava was used to prepare composites for disposable trays. Samples of the composites were impregnated with cassava starch acetate at atmospheric pressure and under vacuum condition. Moisture isotherms were determined and adjusted by GAB model. It was observed that the impregnation promoted an important decrease in sample higroscopicity, mainly at high relative humidities. These results suggest that starch acetate impregnation can be an alternative to water proofing biological materials like the composites obtained in this work. KEYWORDS: Cassava; bagasse; starch acetate; impregnation; isotherms.

  10. Emergence of a Latent Indian Cassava Mosaic Virus from Cassava Which Recovered from Infection by a Non-Persistent Sri Lankan Cassava Mosaic Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Chockalingam; Patil, Basavaprabhu L.; Borah, Basanta K.; Resmi, Thulasi R.; Turco, Silvia; Pooggin, Mikhail M.; Hohn, Thomas; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

    2016-01-01

    The major threat for cassava cultivation on the Indian subcontinent is cassava mosaic disease (CMD) caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses which are bipartite begomoviruses with DNA A and DNA B components. Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) and Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV) cause CMD in India. Two isolates of SLCMV infected the cassava cultivar Sengutchi in the fields near Malappuram and Thiruvananthapuram cities of Kerala State, India. The Malappuram isolate was persistent when maintained in the Madurai Kamaraj University (MKU, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India) greenhouse, whereas the Thiruvananthapuram isolate did not persist. The recovered cassava plants with the non-persistent SLCMV, which were maintained vegetative in quarantine in the University of Basel (Basel, Switzerland) greenhouse, displayed re-emergence of CMD after a six-month period. Interestingly, these plants did not carry SLCMV but carried ICMV. It is interpreted that the field-collected, SLCMV-infected cassava plants were co-infected with low levels of ICMV. The loss of SLCMV in recovered cassava plants, under greenhouse conditions, then facilitated the re-emergence of ICMV. The partial dimer clones of the persistent and non-persistent isolates of SLCMV and the re-emerged isolate of ICMV were infective in Nicotiana benthamiana upon agroinoculation. Studies on pseudo-recombination between SLCMV and ICMV in N. benthamiana provided evidence for trans-replication of ICMV DNA B by SLCMV DNA A. PMID:27690084

  11. Hyperglycemic effect of low protein cassava diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, V G; Leelamma, S

    1998-03-01

    Hyperglycemic effect of cassava diet in presence of varying amounts of protein has been carried out. The rats fed a low protein high cyanide diet showed an increase in the blood glucose and a decrease in the liver glycogen. The activity of glycogen phosphorylase, glucose 6-phosphatase and phosphoglucomutase showed higher levels in the liver of low protein high cyanide group compared to the control group. Also, the activity of hexokinase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase activity in the liver of high cyanide low protein were significantly low. The results suggests that cassava diet with the low protein can induce hyperglycemia. PMID:9754064

  12. Microbial degradation and utilization of cassava peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofuya, C O; Nwajiuba, C J

    1990-06-01

    Cassava peel was readily degraded and utilized by a strain ofRhizopus growing in a solid-state fermentation. Growth was maximal at 45°C and was proportional to the degree of hydrolysis of the peel. The yield of biomass, as weight of dry mycellum from the reducing sugars of the peel, was 51%. After 72 h fermentation, the peel contained 76% moisture, 6% cellulose, 7% hemicellulose and 0.4% ash and the protein content had increased from 5.6% to 16%. These results suggest a possible economic value of cassava peel in the production of fungal biomass and feedstock.

  13. SCREENING OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF CRUDE WATER EXTRACT OF DIFFERENT CASSAVA VARIETIES

    OpenAIRE

    Olajumoke Oke FAYINMINNU; Olubunmi Omowunmi FADINA; Alex Adeoluwa ADEDAPO

    2013-01-01

    Chemical composition of three sources of crude cassava water extract (CCWE) was evaluated in different varieties of cassava (MS6 Manihot Selection (local variety), TMS 30555 Tropical Manihot Selection (Improved variety) and Bulk (crude cassava water from cassava processing site). Crude cassava water extract from the pulp of cassava fresh roots was prepared and the chemical composition was determined in the analytical laboratory. The result of the analysis showed that, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) ...

  14. MOISTURE ISOTHERMS OF CASSAVA BAGASSE COMPOSITES IMPREGNATED WITH CASSAVA STARCH ACETATE SOLUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    KáTIA N. MATSUI; FáBIO D. S. LAROTONDA; Alfredo T. N. Pires; JOãO B. LAURINDO

    2009-01-01

    The industrial processing of cassava to obtain starch generates a great variety of residues, with bagasse being the main solid residue produced. The improper disposal of this material represents an environmental problem and could be avoided by using this residue as a raw material to obtain biodegradable products. The bagasse produced during the process to obtain starch from cassava was used to prepare composites for disposable trays. Samples of the composites were imp...

  15. High-resolution mapping of resistance to cassava mosaic geminiviruses in cassava using genotyping-by-sequencing and its implications for breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD), caused by different species of cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs), is the most important disease of cassava in Africa and the Indian sub-continent. The cultivated cassava species is protected from CMD by polygenic resistance introgressed from the wild species Manihot g...

  16. The use of biolistic inoculation of cassava mosaic begomoviruses in screening cassava for resistance to cassava mosaic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyo, O A; Atiri, G I; Dixon, A G O; Winter, S

    2006-10-01

    Inoculation of cassava with infectious clones of cassava mosaic geminiviruses (Geminiviridae: Begomovirus) and total DNA extracts from plants infected with well-characterised viruses was evaluated using the Bio-Rad Helios Gene Gun System. Total DNA extracts from infected plants and cloned viruses were produced for coating gold particles and bombardment onto new cassava genotypes, 96/1089A, 96/1039, 96/0160, 96/0304 and three local landraces TME 117, TME 3 and TME 4. Cloned DNA of a Kenyan isolate of the recombinant variant of East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV-UG2-[Ka]), was only infectious to TME 117 (7/10 plants), 3 weeks post-inoculation with mild infection symptoms in the newly developing leaves. Biolistic inoculation with a chimeric pseudorecombinant virus between DNA A and B components from EACMV-[Ke-Kilifi] and EACMV-UG2-[Ka], respectively, was infectious to TME 117, 96/1039 and 96/0304 and developed very severe and persistent symptoms. TME 3 and TME 4 also developed symptoms, 12 days post-inoculation (d.p.i.). Total DNA extracts of ACMV and EACMV-[Ke-Kilifi] resulted in serious infections with symptoms already evident, 10d.p.i. In general, biolistic inoculation trials with total DNA extracts resulted in a higher number of infected plants expressing symptoms at a much earlier stage (10-12d.p.i.) compared with trials inoculated with virus clones.

  17. Endophytic bacterial diversity in banana 'Prata Anã' (Musa spp. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane A. Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of endophytic bacteria in banana 'Prata Anã' roots was characterized. Two hundred and one endophytic bacteria were isolated, 151 of which were classified as Gram-positive and 50 as Gram-negative. No hypersensitivity response was observed in any of the isolates. The rep-PCR technique generated different molecular profiles for each primer set (REP, ERIC and BOX. Fifty readable loci were obtained and all of the fragments were polymorphic. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA of the isolates based on cleavage with four restriction enzymes yielded 45 polymorphic bands and no monomorphic bands. PCR amplified the nifH gene in 24 isolates. 16S rDNA sequencing of the 201 bacterial isolates yielded 102 high-quality sequences. Sequence analyses revealed that the isolates were distributed among ten bacterial genera (Agrobacterium, Aneurinibacillus, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Paenibacillus, Rhizobium and Sporolactobacillus and included 15 species. The greatest number of isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus. The bacteria identified in this study may be involved in promoting growth, phosphate solubilization, biological control and nitrogen fixation in bananas.

  18. Antioxidants in mangrove plants and endophytic fungal associations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, C.; Naveenan, T.; Varatharajan, G.R.; Rajasabapathy, R.; Meena, R.M.

    ) is also an unresolved issue. Here, we report antioxidant potentials of four different mangroves and their endophytic fungi. We elucidated the possible roles of antioxidants in symbiotic association between mangroves and their endophytic fungi. Four...

  19. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Saikkonen

    Full Text Available Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1 and F(2 generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1 genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2 these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars.

  20. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikkonen, Kari; Wäli, Piippa R; Helander, Marjo

    2010-01-01

    Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds) transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1) and F(2) generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1) genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2) these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars. PMID:20614034

  1. The Cassava Genome: Current Progress, Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochnik, Simon; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Desany, Brian; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Rodriguez, Fausto; Fauquet, Claude; Tohme, Joseph; Harkins, Timothy; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Rounsley, Steve

    2012-03-01

    The starchy swollen roots of cassava provide an essential food source for nearly a billion people, as well as possibilities for bioenergy, yet improvements to nutritional content and resistance to threatening diseases are currently impeded. A 454-based whole genome shotgun sequence has been assembled, which covers 69% of the predicted genome size and 96% of protein-coding gene space, with genome finishing underway. The predicted 30,666 genes and 3,485 alternate splice forms are supported by 1.4 M expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Maps based on simple sequence repeat (SSR)-, and EST-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) already exist. Thanks to the genome sequence, a high-density linkage map is currently being developed from a cross between two diverse cassava cultivars: one susceptible to cassava brown streak disease; the other resistant. An efficient genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach is being developed to catalog SNPs both within the mapping population and among diverse African farmer-preferred varieties of cassava. These resources will accelerate marker-assisted breeding programs, allowing improvements in disease-resistance and nutrition, and will help us understand the genetic basis for disease resistance. PMID:22523606

  2. Recent advances in cassava pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, A C; Smith, L; Lapointe, S L

    1999-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) occupies a uniquely important position as a food security crop for smallholder farmers in ares of the tropics where climate, soils, or societal stresses constrain production. Given its reliability and productivity, cassava is the most important locally produced food in a third of the world's low-income, food-deficit countries. It is the fourth most important source of carbohydrates for human consumption in the tropics, after rice, sugar, and maize. World production of cassava from 1994-1996 averaged 166 million tons/year grown on 16.6 million hectares (ha), for an average yield of 9.9 tons/ha. Approximately 57% is used for human consumption, 32% for animal feed and industrial purposes, and 11% is waste. Africa accounts for 51.3% of the production; Asia, 29.4%; and Latin America, 19.3%. The area planted to cassava in Africa, Asia, and Latin America is 10.3, 3.7, and 2.6 million ha, respectively.

  3. The Post-Genomic Era of Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genomics era revolutionized our efficiency at gathering and disseminating scientific information required for advancing our understanding of plant biology. In the case of cassava, the genomics revolution has not kept pace with other staple food and fiber crops important to global economies. As a...

  4. Economic Analysis of Cassava Production in Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.U. Odoemenem

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to analyze the economics of cassava production in Benue State. Data for this study were collected from a sample of one hundred and sixteen small-scale cassava farmers randomly selected. The objectives of the study were to determine and rank the cost elements of cassava production in the study area; determine the returns to cassava production; and evaluate the profitability of cassava production in the study area. Socio-economic factors include age, educational background, marital status, sex, sources of labour, awareness of extension services, method of weed control, and method of farm land acquisition were identified. Data collected for the study were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The coefficient of determination (R2 is 0.616, suggesting that the used model has a high goodness of fit. Furthermore, the result of the statistical analysis shows that investing in cassava production enterprise is profitable.

  5. Public attitudes towards genetically modified provitamin A Cassava in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Rojas, María Carolina

    2010-01-01

    Cassava is a basic staple food crop with worldwide distribution, mainly in developing countries. A fundamental source of energy for the poor, cassava grows well on marginal soils and resists pests and drought. In Latin America, Brazil is the largest cassava producer and consumer. The crop is especially important in the northeastern (NE) part of the country, where poverty and malnutrition rates are higher than in the rest of the country. However, despite the crop?s dietary importance, relative...

  6. New challenges in the cassava transformation in Nigeria and Ghana:

    OpenAIRE

    Nweke, Felix

    2004-01-01

    "This paper describes the dramatic cassava transformation that has taken place in Nigeria and Ghana over the past 50 years. From a rural subsistence crop, cassava has become a major cash crop sold in urban markets, a source of livestock feed, industrial starch and urban convenience foods. This paper documents the key factors driving the cassava transformation in Nigeria and Ghana. Differences in timing, promotional efforts and performance provide an instructive contrast which helps to identif...

  7. The hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola harbors metal-resistant endophytic bacteria that improve its phytoextraction capacity in multi-metal contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Oliveira, Rui S; Nai, Fengjiao; Rajkumar, Mani; Luo, Yongming; Rocha, Inês; Freitas, Helena

    2015-06-01

    Endophyte-assisted phytoremediation has recently been suggested as a successful approach for ecological restoration of metal contaminated soils, however little information is available on the influence of endophytic bacteria on the phytoextraction capacity of metal hyperaccumulating plants in multi-metal polluted soils. The aims of our study were to isolate and characterize metal-resistant and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) utilizing endophytic bacteria from tissues of the newly discovered Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola and to examine if these endophytic bacterial strains could improve the efficiency of phytoextraction of multi-metal contaminated soils. Among a collection of 42 metal resistant bacterial strains isolated from the tissues of S. plumbizincicola grown on Pb/Zn mine tailings, five plant growth promoting endophytic bacterial strains (PGPE) were selected due to their ability to promote plant growth and to utilize ACC as the sole nitrogen source. The five isolates were identified as Bacillus pumilus E2S2, Bacillus sp. E1S2, Bacillus sp. E4S1, Achromobacter sp. E4L5 and Stenotrophomonas sp. E1L and subsequent testing revealed that they all exhibited traits associated with plant growth promotion, such as production of indole-3-acetic acid and siderophores and solubilization of phosphorus. These five strains showed high resistance to heavy metals (Cd, Zn and Pb) and various antibiotics. Further, inoculation of these ACC utilizing strains significantly increased the concentrations of water extractable Cd and Zn in soil. Moreover, a pot experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of inoculating metal-resistant ACC utilizing strains on the growth of S. plumbizincicola and its uptake of Cd, Zn and Pb in multi-metal contaminated soils. Out of the five strains, B. pumilus E2S2 significantly increased root (146%) and shoot (17%) length, fresh (37%) and dry biomass (32%) of S. plumbizincicola as well as plant Cd uptake (43%), whereas

  8. Selenium hyperaccumulators harbor a diverse endophytic bacterial community characterized by high selenium resistance and plant growth promoting properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eSura - de Jong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se-rich plants may be used to provide dietary Se to humans and livestock, and also to clean up Se-polluted soils or waters. This study focused on endophytic bacteria of plants that hyperaccumulate selenium (Se to 0.5-1% of dry weight. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis was used to compare the diversity of endophytic bacteria of hyperaccumulators Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaceae and Astragalus bisulcatus (Fabaceae with those from related non-accumulators Physaria bellii (Brassicaceae and Medicago sativa (Fabaceae collected on the same, seleniferous site. Hyperaccumulators and non-accumulators showed equal T-RF diversity. Parsimony analysis showed that T-RFs from individuals of the same species were more similar to each other than to those from other species, regardless of plant Se content or spatial proximity. Cultivable endophytes from hyperaccumulators S. pinnata and A. bisulcatus were further identified and characterized. The 66 bacterial morphotypes were shown by MS MALDI-TOF Biotyper analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to include strains of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Staphylococcus, Paenibacillus, Advenella, Arthrobacter and Variovorax. Most isolates were highly resistant to selenate and selenite (up to 200 mM and all could reduce selenite to red elemental Se, reduce nitrite and produce siderophores. Seven isolates were selected for plant inoculation and found to have plant growth promoting properties, both in pure culture and when co-cultivated with crop species Brassica juncea (Brassicaceae or M. sativa. There were no effects on plant Se accumulation. We conclude that Se hyperaccumulators harbor an endophytic bacterial community in their natural seleniferous habitat that is equally diverse to that of comparable non-accumulators. The hyperaccumulator endophytes are characterized by high Se resistance, capacity to produce elemental Se and plant growth promoting properties.

  9. Effect of chemical and mechanical weed control on cassava yield, soil quality and erosion under cassava cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Titiek; Wisnubroto, Erwin; Utomo, Wani

    2016-04-01

    Three years field experiments were conducted to study the effect of chemical and mechanical weed control on soil quality and erosion under cassava cropping system. The experiment were conducted at University Brawijaya field experimental station, Jatikerto, Malang, Indonesia. The experiments were carried out from 2011 - 2014. The treatments consist of three cropping system (cassava mono culture; cassava + maize intercropping and cassava + peanut intercropping), and two weed control method (chemical and mechanical methods). The experimental result showed that the yield of cassava first year and second year did not influenced by weed control method and cropping system. However, the third year yield of cassava was influence by weed control method and cropping system. The cassava yield planted in cassava + maize intercropping system with chemical weed control methods was only 24 t/ha, which lower compared to other treatments, even with that of the same cropping system used mechanical weed control. The highest cassava yield in third year was obtained by cassava + peanuts cropping system with mechanical weed control method. After three years experiment, the soil of cassava monoculture system with chemical weed control method possessed the lowest soil organic matter, and soil aggregate stability. During three years of cropping soil erosion in chemical weed control method, especially on cassava monoculture, was higher compared to mechanical weed control method. The soil loss from chemical control method were 40 t/ha, 44 t/ha and 54 t/ha for the first, second and third year crop. The soil loss from mechanical weed control method for the same years was: 36 t/ha, 36 t/ha and 38 t/ha. Key words: herbicide, intercropping, soil organic matter, aggregate stability.

  10. 黄花蒿内生菌的分离与初步鉴定%Isolation and Preliminary Identification of Endophytes from Artemisia Annua Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金花; 吴玲芳; 章华伟

    2011-01-01

    利用平板分离法从药用植物黄花蒿(Artemisia annua Linn.)的根、茎和叶中共分离内生菌80株,其中内生真菌37株、细菌40株、放线菌3株.经菌种形态观察和染色等,初步鉴定了黄花蒿内生真菌具有5个属,包括囊孢菌(Capsule)、头孢霉(Cephalosporium)、弯孢霉(Curvularia)、曲霉(Aspergillus)和毛霉(Mucor),内生细菌有7个属,包括泛菌(Pantoea)、土壤杆菌(Agrobacterium)、假单胞菌(Pesudomonas)、芽孢杆菌(Bacillus)、巴斯德氏菌(Pasteurella)、葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus)、黄杆菌(Flavobacterium),内生放线菌有2个属,包括诺卡氏菌(Nocardia)和链霉菌(Streptomyces).黄花蒿内生菌具有丰富多样性,但不同部位内生菌的数量、种类及分布存在差异.%Eighty strains were isolated from roots,stems and leaves of Artemisia annua using solidified plates,including 37 fungi,40 bacteria and 3 actinomycetes. The endophytic fungi belonged to 5 genera through morphological observation and staining,which were Capsule,Cephalosporium,Curvularia,Aspergillus and Mucor. The bacterial endophytes had 7 genera,including Pantoea,Agrobacterium,Pesudomonas,Bacillus, Pasteurella, Staphylococcus and Flavobacterium. The endophytic actinomycetes belonged to 2 genera, Nocardia and Streptomyces. Endophytes associated with Artemisia annua. Had abundant biodiversity. However,different quantity and species of endophytes existed in roots,stems and leaves of A. annua Linn.

  11. Molecular analysis of differentially expressed genes during postharvest deterioration in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tuberous roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Bachem, C.W.B.; Jacobsen, E.; Visser, R.

    2001-01-01

    One of the major problems for cassava is the rapid deterioration after harvesting cassava tuberous roots, which limits the possibilities for production and distribution of cassava in the world. Postharvest deterioration is an inherent problem for cassava since wounding and mechanical damage of the t

  12. Extrusion of blends of cassava leaves and cassava flour: physical characteristics of extrudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane da Cunha Salata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A cassava-based puffed snack was produced using a single screw extruder to determine the effect of the raw material composition (cassava leaf flour and moisture and the process parameters (extrusion temperature and screw speed on the physical characteristics of an extruded-expanded snack. A central composite rotational design, including four factors with 30 treatments, was used with the following as dependent variables: expansion index, specific volume, water solubility index, water absorption index, color (L*, a*, b*, and hardness. Under conditions of low moisture content (12 to 14%, low percentage of cassava leaf flour (2 to 4%, and intermediate conditions of extrusion temperature (100°C and screw speed (230rpm, it was possible to obtain puffed snack products with desirable characteristics.

  13. Comparative petiole anatomy of cassava (Manihot) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciano-Ribeiro, D; Hashimoto-Freitas, D Y; Nassar, N M A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we describe the petiole anatomy of six wild cassava (Manihot) species, one hybrid, and two cultivars of Manihot esculenta, in order to identify their dominant anatomical patterns and relate them to possible adaptations to abiotic factors in the Cerrado biome. The median parts of several petiole samples were transversally and longitudinally sectioned and stained. The results include data for the taxonomic classification of the genus, including distinctive anatomical characteristics of hybrid varieties of cassava and wild species, such as the presence/absence of trichomes and a hypodermis, layer type and number in the cortex, number of vascular bundles, cell types in the pith, and type of organization. Morphological analysis revealed differences in length and shape of the petiole insertion. The presence of trichomes, a hypodermis, the amount and type of supporting tissue in the cortex, as well as gelatinous fibers, may be related to drought tolerance. PMID:26909917

  14. Rehydration characteristics and modeling of cassava chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajala, A.S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava chips with dimension 4x2x0.2cm were re-hydrated in distilled water at 200C, 300C and 400C in a laboratory water bath. Kinetics of re-hydration was investigated using three different re-hydration models namely Peleg, exponential and Weibull. The pattern of water absorption was observed to be faster at the initial period of soaking. Higher temperature induces faster moisture absorption in the chips. Non linear regression analysis was used to fit in the experimental data and the coefficient of determination was found to be greater than 0.72 for all the models. The values of R2 , RMSE, MBE and reduced chi square showed that Weibull model best described the re-hydrating behaviour of the cassava chips.

  15. Anaerobic digestion of cassava starch factory effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilal, V B; Narayanan, C S; Balagopalan, C

    1990-06-01

    Biomethanation of cassava starch factory effluent in a batch digester produced 130 l biogas/kg dry matter with an average melthane content of 59%. About 63% COD was removed during 60 days. In semicontinuous digesters, gas production was 3251/kg dry matter with a retention time of 33,3 days giving a COD reduction of 50%. Size of starter inoculum was important for good biogasification of the effluent.

  16. Properties of thermoplastic starch from cassave bagasse and cassava starch and their blends with poly (lactic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava bagasse is an inexpensive and broadly available waste byproduct from cassava starch production. It contains roughly 50% cassava starch along with mostly fiber and could be a valuable feedstock for various bioproducts. Cassava bagasse and cassava starch were used in this study to make fiber-r...

  17. Physiological causes of yield variation in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltkamp, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important crop in many parts of the tropics, being mainly cultivated for its storage roots. Farmers' yields are low and one of the constraints to higher yields is the lack of adequate clones. At the beginning of the 1970s an extensive cassava research program

  18. Fermented cassava waste and its utilization in broiler chickens rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava waste is a by-product of cassava flour industry and its amount is increasing following the increasing of cassava flour industry. Its utilization as a feedstuff, is limited by its low protein content. The cassava waste is only utilized as the energy source. One of the alternative technology in improving the utilization of cassava waste as a feedstuff, by improving the nutritive value through fermentation process. Fermentation was carried out by solid substrate fermentation using Aspergillus niger as an inoculant and mixing with urea and ammonium sulphate as inorganic nitrogen sources. The nutritive value of the product was evaluated by feeding trial using 144 “Shaver Stabro” strain 3 days old chicks with 3 treatments i.e. 0 (control, 5.0 and 10.0% fermented cassava waste. The results showed that the true protein content of fermented cassava increased from 2.2 to 18.4%. The inclusion of fermented cassava waste up to 10% in chicken broiler ration for 4 weeks feeding did not affect the feed consumption, bodyweight gain, FCR, weight of liver and gibblets. All parameter results from 10% inclusion were not significantly different (P>0.05 with the control (0% inclusion.

  19. Primary and cyclic somatic embryogenesis in cassava (Manihot esculente Crantz).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, C.J.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Cassava is one of the major food crops in the tropics. Several of the major problems in cassava can probably only be solved by breeding with cellular and molecular techniques, e.g., the introduction of specific genes (virus resistance, protein content, quality aspects and so on). These genes can be

  20. Cassava leaves as protein source for pigs in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to evaluate the use of cassava leaves as protein sources for pigs when used at high levels in the diet, either in fresh form or with simplified methods of processing. In twenty cassava varieties taken from the upper part of the plant at the root

  1. Biofortified yellow cassava and Vitamin A status of Kenyan children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, E.F.; Brouwer, I.D.; Verhoef, Hans; Mbera, G.N.K.; Mwangi, A.M.; Demir, A.Y.; Maziya-Dixon, B.; Boy, Erick; Zimmermann, M.B.; Melse-Boonstra, Alida

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas conventional white cassava roots are devoid of provitamin A, biofortified yellow varieties are naturally rich in b-carotene, the primary provitamin A carotenoid. Objective: We assessed the effect of consuming yellow cassava on serum retinol concentration in Kenyan schoolchildr

  2. Development and application of transgenic technologies in cassava

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, N.; Chavarriaga, P.; Raemakers, C.J.J.M.; Sititunga, D.; Zhang, P.

    2004-01-01

    The capacity to integrate transgenes into the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is now established and being utilized to generate plants expressing traits of agronomic interest. The tissue culture and gene transfer systems currently employed to produce these transgenic cassava ha

  3. Evaluation of cryogenic procedures for cryopreservation of Cassava genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculent Crantz) is a perennial plant widely grown in many tropical countries as one of the most important commercial crops. The global cassava production in 2009 was at 242 million tons. Because of its economic importance to a large number of developing world, the application of ad...

  4. Examining cassava's potential to enhance food security under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in the biofortification of cassava, a substantial yield gap and cassava's potential for increased productivity and its inherent potential to respond positively to globally increasing CO2 are synergistic and encouraging in an otherwise bleak global view of the future of food security ...

  5. Socio-economic Analysis of Cassava Marketing in Benue State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin C. Asogwa; J. A. C. Ezihe; Ater, P.I.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the socio-economics of cassava marketing in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 107 cassava marketers in Benue State, using a structured questionnaire. The study revealed that most of the cassava marketers had secondary education (72.9%). The study also revealed that marketing of cassava is mostly undertaken by females (57%). The result showed that married people (59.8%) were mostly involved in the marketing of cassava. The s...

  6. Modelling potential β-carotene intake and cyanide exposure from consumption of biofortified cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Josh M.; Michael R La Frano; Winter, Carl K.; Burri, Betty J.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency causes disability and mortality. Cassava can be crossbred to improve its β-carotene (BC) content; typical white cassava contains negligible amounts of BC. However, cassava contains cyanide and its continued consumption may lead to chronic disability. Our objective was to estimate the risk–benefit of consuming BC-enhanced cassava to increase VA intake. A total of ten American women were fed white and BC-enhanced cassava. BC and cyanide data from the feeding study were...

  7. Expanding the Application of Cassava Value Chain Technologies Through UPoCA Project

    OpenAIRE

    Braima Dama James; P. Bramel; E. Witte; R. Asiedu; D. Watson; R. Okechuckwu.

    2013-01-01

    Cassava can play a key role in rural economic growth in Africa, but are we there yet? Cassava varieties with 50% more yielding potential and technologies to boost processing and marketing of cassava are available. However, the sub-sector is constrained by low productivity and marketing difficulties. In 2008, USAID and IITA initiated the project “Unleashing the Power of Cassava in Response to Food Price Crisis (UPOCA) as a multi-country and inter-institutional partnership enabling cassava sub-...

  8. CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta crantz): AN AFFORDABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN DAIRY RATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    F.R., ANJOS; L. TIVANA; J. DA CRUZ FRANCISCO; S. M. KAGANDE

    2014-01-01

    The current paper explores the evidence that exists on the potential use of cassava plant (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as an energy source for dairy cattle. Several studies have proven cassava roots, leaves and processing residues to be an important ruminant animal feed resource. Cassava root chip and meal are a potentially good rumen fermentable energy for dairy cows in the tropics. The vegetative parts of cassava are considered to be wastes since human beings grow cassava for its tubers. Feed...

  9. Diversity of endophytic fungi in Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Elio Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; da Silva, Cynthia Cânedo; Bento, Claudia Braga Pereira; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic fungi are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing disease during part of their life cycle. With the isolation and identification of these fungi, new species are being discovered, and ecological relationships with their hosts have also been studied. In Glycine max, limited studies have investigated the isolation and distribution of endophytic fungi throughout leaves and roots. The distribution of these fungi in various plant organs differs in diversity and abundance, even when analyzed using molecular techniques that can evaluate fungal communities in different parts of the plants, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results show there is greater species richness of culturable endophytic filamentous fungi in the leaves G. max as compared to roots. Additionally, the leaves had high values for diversity indices, i.e. Simpsons, Shannon and Equitability. Conversely, dominance index was higher in roots as compared to leaves. The fungi Ampelomyces sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Diaporthe helianthi, Guignardia mangiferae and Phoma sp. were more frequently isolated from the leaves, whereas the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium sp. were prevalent in the roots. However, by evaluating the two communities by DGGE, we concluded that the species richness was higher in the roots than in the leaves. UPGMA analysis showed consistent clustering of isolates; however, the fungus Leptospora rubella, which belongs to the order Dothideales, was grouped among species of the order Pleosporales. The presence of endophytic Fusarium species in G. max roots is unsurprising, since Fusarium spp. isolates have been previously described as endophyte in other reports. However, it remains to be determined whether the G. max Fusarium endophytes are latent pathogens or non-pathogenic forms that benefit the plant. This study provides a broader knowledge of the distribution of the fungal

  10. Modification of cell wall polysaccharides during retting of cassava roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngolong Ngea, Guillaume Legrand; Guillon, Fabienne; Essia Ngang, Jean Justin; Bonnin, Estelle; Bouchet, Brigitte; Saulnier, Luc

    2016-12-15

    Retting is an important step in traditional cassava processing that involves tissue softening of the roots to transform the cassava into flour and various food products. The tissue softening that occurs during retting was attributed to the degradation of cell wall pectins through the action of pectin-methylesterase and pectate-lyase that possibly originated from a microbial source or the cassava plant itself. Changes in cell wall composition were investigated during retting using chemical analysis, specific glycanase degradation and immuno-labelling of cell wall polysaccharides. Pectic 1,4-β-d-galactan was the main cell wall polysaccharide affected during the retting of cassava roots. This result suggested that better control of pectic galactan degradation and a better understanding of the degradation mechanism by endogenous endo-galactanase and/or exogenous microbial enzymes might contribute to improve the texture properties of cassava products. PMID:27451197

  11. Cassava Genetic Transformation and its Application in Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Liu; Qijie Zheng; Qiuxiang Ma; Kranthi Kumar Gadidasu; Peng Zhang

    2011-01-01

    As a major source of food, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important root crop in the tropics and subtropics of Africa and Latin America, and serves as raw material for the production of starches and bioethanol in tropical Asia. Cassava improvement through genetic engineering not only overcomes the high heterozygosity and serious trait separation that occurs in its traditional breeding, but also quickly achieves improved target traits. Since the first report on genetic transformation in cassava in 1996, the technology has gradually matured over almost 15 years of development and has overcome cassava genotype constraints, changing from mode cultivars to farmer-preferred ones.Significant progress has been made in terms of an increased resistance to pests and diseases, biofortification, and improved starch quality,building on the fundamental knowledge and technologies related to planting, nutrition, and the processing of this important food crop that has often been neglected. Therefore, cassava has great potential in food security and bioenergy development worldwide.

  12. Study on the Rheological Property of Cassava Starch Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to use cassava starch in the production of environmentally sound adhesives. ‘Three-formaldehyde glue’ pollutes the environment and harms to human health strongly, which widely used for wood-based panels preparation. Environment-friendly cassava starch adhesives were prepared using method of oxidation-gelatinization, insteading of the three formaldehyde glue. The effects of the quality ratio of starch and water, temperature and shear rate on the apparent viscosity of the adhesive were studied. The rheological eigenvalue of apparent viscosity was studied through nonlinear regression. The results showed that the apparent viscosity of cassava starch adhesives decreased with the increasing of temperature; the apparent viscosity decreased slowly with the increasing of rotor speed; the phenomenon of shear thinning appeared within cassava starch adhesives which was pseudo-plastic fluids. Cassava starch adhesives with characteristics of non-toxic, no smell and pollution could be applied in interior and upscale packaging.

  13. Metabolites from mangrove endophytic fungus Dothiorella sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUQingyan; WANGJianfeng; HUANGYaojian; ZHENGZhonghui; SONGSiyang; ZHANGYongmin; SUWenjin

    2004-01-01

    Mangroves are special woody plant communities in the intertidal zone of tropical and subtropical coasts. They prove to be a natural microorganisms and new metabolites storage. In the study of mangrove endophytic fungi metabolites, four new compounds, Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4, as well as a known octaketide, cytosporone B (5), are isolated from an endophytic fungus, Dothiorella sp., HTF3. They all show cytotoxic activities. The elucidation of these structures is mainly based on 1D/2D NMR and ESI-MS spectral analyses.

  14. Yellow cassava: efficacy of provitamin A rich cassava on improvement of vitamin A status in Kenyan schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, E.F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Biofortified yellow cassava has great potential to alleviate vitamin A deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa and can be used as a complementary approach to other interventions. However, direct evidence whether yellow cassava can significantly contribute to the vitamin A intak

  15. Effect of cassava mosaic disease, soil fertility, plant spacing and their interactions on cassava yields in Zanzibar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spittel, M.C.; Huis, van A.

    2000-01-01

    Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) and low soil fertility are limiting factors for the production of the preferred cassava varWiety Kibiriti mwekundu on the northern part of the island of Pemba in Zanzibar. Because CMD severity, assessed 7 months after planting in shifting cultivation fields at wide spaci

  16. Unveiling the Micronome of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogans, Sarah Jane; Rey, Chrissie

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of endogenous non-coding single-stranded small RNAs (21-24 nt in length), which serve as post-transcriptional negative regulators of gene expression in plants. Despite the economic importance of Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) only 153 putative cassava miRNAs (from multiple germplasm) are available to date in miRBase (Version 21), and identification of a number of miRNAs from the cassava EST database have been limited to comparisons with Arabidopsis. In this study, mature sequences of all known plant miRNAs were used as a query for homologous searches against cassava EST and GSS databases, and additional identification of novel and conserved miRNAs were gleaned from next generation sequencing (NGS) of two cassava landraces (T200 from southern Africa and TME3 from West Africa) at three different stages post explant transplantation and acclimatization. EST and GSS derived data revealed 259 and 32 miRNAs in cassava, and one of the miRNA families (miR2118) from previous studies has not been reported in cassava. NGS data collectively displayed expression of 289 conserved miRNAs in leaf tissue, of which 230 had not been reported previously. Of the 289 conserved miRNAs identified in T200 and TME3, 208 were isomiRs. Thirty-nine novel cassava-specific miRNAs of low abundance, belonging to 29 families, were identified. Thirty-eight (98.6%) of the putative new miRNAs identified by NGS have not been previously reported in cassava. Several miRNA targets were identified in T200 and TME3, highlighting differential temporal miRNA expression between the two cassava landraces. This study contributes to the expanding knowledge base of the micronome of this important crop. PMID:26799216

  17. Unveiling the Micronome of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogans, Sarah Jane; Rey, Chrissie

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of endogenous non-coding single-stranded small RNAs (21-24 nt in length), which serve as post-transcriptional negative regulators of gene expression in plants. Despite the economic importance of Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) only 153 putative cassava miRNAs (from multiple germplasm) are available to date in miRBase (Version 21), and identification of a number of miRNAs from the cassava EST database have been limited to comparisons with Arabidopsis. In this study, mature sequences of all known plant miRNAs were used as a query for homologous searches against cassava EST and GSS databases, and additional identification of novel and conserved miRNAs were gleaned from next generation sequencing (NGS) of two cassava landraces (T200 from southern Africa and TME3 from West Africa) at three different stages post explant transplantation and acclimatization. EST and GSS derived data revealed 259 and 32 miRNAs in cassava, and one of the miRNA families (miR2118) from previous studies has not been reported in cassava. NGS data collectively displayed expression of 289 conserved miRNAs in leaf tissue, of which 230 had not been reported previously. Of the 289 conserved miRNAs identified in T200 and TME3, 208 were isomiRs. Thirty-nine novel cassava-specific miRNAs of low abundance, belonging to 29 families, were identified. Thirty-eight (98.6%) of the putative new miRNAs identified by NGS have not been previously reported in cassava. Several miRNA targets were identified in T200 and TME3, highlighting differential temporal miRNA expression between the two cassava landraces. This study contributes to the expanding knowledge base of the micronome of this important crop.

  18. "Omics" tools for better understanding the plant-endophyte interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjana eKaul

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes, which mostly include bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, are the endosymbionts that reside asymptomatically in plants for at least a part of their life cycle. They have emerged as a valuable source of novel metabolites, industrially important enzymes and as stress relievers of host plant, but still many aspects of endophytic biology are unknown. Functions of individual endophytes are the result of their continuous and complex interactions with the host plant as well as other members of the host microbiome. Understanding plant microbiomes as a system allows analysis and integration of these complex interactions. Modern genomic studies involving metaomics and comparative studies can prove to be helpful in unravelling the grey areas of endophytism. A deeper knowledge of the mechanism of host infestation and role of endophytes could be exploited to improve the agricultural management in terms of plant growth promotion, biocontrol and bioremediation. Genome sequencing, comparative genomics, microarray, next gen sequencing, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics are some of the techniques that are being used or can be used to unravel plant endophyte relationship.The modern techniques and approaches need to be explored to study endophytes and their putative role in host plant ecology. This review highlights omics tools that can be explored for understanding the role of endophytes in the plant microbiome. Keywords: Endophytism, microbiome, endophytes, genomics, metagenomics

  19. Endophytic bacteria from Piper tuberculatum Jacq.: isolation, molecular characterization, and in vitro screening for the control of Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of root rot disease in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, S B; Lima, A M; Borges, B N; de Souza, C R B

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria have been found to colonize internal tissues in many different plants, where they can have several beneficial effects, including defense against pathogens. In this study, we aimed to identify endophytic bacteria associated with roots of the tropical piperaceae Piper tuberculatum, which is known for its resistance to infection by Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of black pepper (Piper nigrum) root rot disease in the Amazon region. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we isolated endophytes belonging to 13 genera: Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ralstonia, Serratia, Cupriavidus, Mitsuaria, Pantoea, and Staphylococcus. The results showed that 56.52% of isolates were associated with the phylum Proteobacteria, which comprised α, β, and γ classes. Other bacteria were related to the phylum Firmicutes, including Bacillus, which was the most abundant genus among all isolates. Antagonistic assays revealed that Pt12 and Pt13 isolates, identified as Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp, respectively, were able to inhibit F. solani f. sp piperis growth in vitro. We describe, for the first time, the molecular identification of 23 endophytic bacteria from P. tuberculatum, among which two Pseudomonas species have the potential to control the pathogen responsible for root rot disease in black pepper in the Amazon region. PMID:26214435

  20. Endophytic bacteria from Piper tuberculatum Jacq.: isolation, molecular characterization, and in vitro screening for the control of Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of root rot disease in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, S B; Lima, A M; Borges, B N; de Souza, C R B

    2015-07-06

    Endophytic bacteria have been found to colonize internal tissues in many different plants, where they can have several beneficial effects, including defense against pathogens. In this study, we aimed to identify endophytic bacteria associated with roots of the tropical piperaceae Piper tuberculatum, which is known for its resistance to infection by Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of black pepper (Piper nigrum) root rot disease in the Amazon region. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we isolated endophytes belonging to 13 genera: Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ralstonia, Serratia, Cupriavidus, Mitsuaria, Pantoea, and Staphylococcus. The results showed that 56.52% of isolates were associated with the phylum Proteobacteria, which comprised α, β, and γ classes. Other bacteria were related to the phylum Firmicutes, including Bacillus, which was the most abundant genus among all isolates. Antagonistic assays revealed that Pt12 and Pt13 isolates, identified as Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp, respectively, were able to inhibit F. solani f. sp piperis growth in vitro. We describe, for the first time, the molecular identification of 23 endophytic bacteria from P. tuberculatum, among which two Pseudomonas species have the potential to control the pathogen responsible for root rot disease in black pepper in the Amazon region.

  1. Fungal endophytes of sorghum in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, E P; Thio, I G; Néya, B J;

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the natural occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in sorghum in relation to plant performance in two distinct agro-ecological zones in Burkina Faso. Sorghum farm-saved seeds were sown in 48 farmers’ fields in Sahelian and North Sudanian zones to produce...

  2. Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Weiss

    Full Text Available Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae, which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems.

  3. Phyllosticta capitalensis, a widespread endophyte of plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wikee, S.; Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.; Nakashima, C.; Motohashi, K.; Chukeatirote, E.; Alias, S.A.; McKenzie, E.H.C.; Hyde, K.D.

    2013-01-01

    Phyllosticta capitalensis is an endophyte and weak plant pathogen with a worldwide distribution presently known from 70 plant families. This study isolated P. capitalensis from different host plants in northern Thailand, and determined their different life modes. Thirty strains of P. capitalensis we

  4. Identification of arsenic resistant endophytic bacteria from Pteris vittata roots and characterization for arsenic remediation application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sarita; Sarangi, Bijaya Ketan; Thul, Sanjog T

    2016-09-15

    Mitigation of arsenic (As) pollution is a topical environmental issue of high R&D priority. The present investigation was carried out to isolate As resistant endophytes from the roots of Indian ecotype Pteris vittata and characterize their As transformation and tolerance ability, plant growth promoting characteristics and their role to facilitate As uptake by the plant. A total of 8 root endophytes were isolated from plants grown in As amended soil (25 mg As kg(-1)). These isolates were studied for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), arsenite As(III) - arsenate As(V) transformation ability, plant growth promoting (PGP) characteristics through siderophore, indole acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphatase, ACC deaminase activity, and presence of arsenite oxidase (aox) and arsenite transporter (arsB) genes. On the basis of 16S rDNA sequence analysis, these isolates belong to Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes families under the genera Bacillus, Enterobacter, Stenotrophomonas and Rhizobium. All isolates were found As tolerant, of which one isolates showed highest tolerance up to 1000 mg L(-1) concentration in SLP medium. Five isolates were IAA positive with highest IAA production up to 60 mg/L and two isolates exhibited siderophore activity. Phosphatase activity was shown by only one isolate while ACC deaminase activity was absent in all the isolates. The As transformation study by silver nitrate test showed that only two strains had dual characteristics of As(III) oxidation and As (V) reduction, four strains exhibited either of the characteristics while other two didn't confirmed any of the two characteristics. Presence of aox gene was detected in two strains and arsB gene in six isolates. The strain with highest As tolerance also showed highest IAA production and occurrence of arsB gene. Present investigation may open up further scope of utilizing these endophytes for up gradation of phytoextraction process. PMID:27257820

  5. Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Plata, Germán; Ayling, Sarah; Rodríguez-Zapata, Fausto; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Duitama, Jorge; Tohme, Joe

    2013-01-01

    The study of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60 miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants. PMID:24328029

  6. An EST resource for cassava and other species of Euphorbiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James V; Delseny, Michel; Fregene, Martin A; Jorge, Veronique; Mba, Chikelu; Lopez, Camilo; Restrepo, Silvia; Soto, Mauricio; Piegu, Benoit; Verdier, Valerie; Cooke, Richard; Tohme, Joe; Horvath, David P

    2004-11-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food staple for nearly 600 million people in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Major losses in yield result from biotic and abiotic stresses that include diseases such as Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) and Cassava Bacterial Blight (CBB), drought, and acid soils. Additional losses also occur from deterioration during the post-harvest storage of roots. To help cassava breeders overcome these obstacles, the scientific community has turned to modern genomics approaches to identify key genetic characteristics associated with resistance to these yield-limiting factors. One approach for developing a genomics program requires the development of ESTs (expressed sequence tags). To date, nearly 23,000 ESTs have been developed from various cassava tissues, and genotypes. Preliminary analysis indicates existing EST resources contain at least 6000-7000 unigenes. Data presented in this report indicate that the cassava ESTs will be a valuable resource for the study of genetic diversity, stress resistance, and growth and development, not only in cassava, but also other members of the Euphorbiaceae family. PMID:15630617

  7. Vertical Differentiation of Cassava Marketing Channels in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa are inherently risky because they are fundamentally dependent on vagaries of weather. Sub-Saharan Africa is also a region in crises; poverty, civil strife and HIV/AIDS. Attention must therefore be focused on improving the production and marketing of crops that could thrive under these circumstances. Because of its tolerance of extreme drought and low input use conditions, Cassava is perhaps the best candidate in this regard. And cassava is a basic food staple and a major source of farm income for the people of the region. Efficiency in cassava marketing is a very important determinant of both consumers' living cost and producers' income in Africa. Vertical differentiation of marketing channels improves marketing efficiency. Identified in this paper are factors that drive vertical differentiation of cassava marketing channels. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework of the Collaborative Study of Cassava in Africa. High population density, good market access conditions, availability of mechanized cassava processing technology and cassava price information stimulate vertical differentiation of the marketing channels.

  8. Melatonin attenuates postharvest physiological deterioration of cassava storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2016-05-01

    Melatonin reportedly increases abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in plants, but information on its in vivo effects during postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) in cassava is limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of melatonin in regulating cassava PPD. Treatment with 500 mg/L melatonin significantly delayed cassava PPD and reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) while increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR), but not ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Transcript analysis further showed that expression of copper/zinc SOD (MeCu/ZnSOD), MeCAT1, glutathione peroxidase (MeGPX), peroxidase 3 (MePX3), and glutathione S-transferases (MeGST) was higher in cassava roots sliced treated with 500 mg/L melatonin than in those not exposed to exogenous melatonin. These data demonstrate that melatonin delays cassava PPD by directly or indirectly maintaining homoeostasis of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that accumulation of endogenous melatonin and the transcript levels of melatonin biosynthesis genes changed dynamically during the PPD process. This finding suggested that endogenous melatonin acts as a signal modulator for maintaining cassava PPD progression and that manipulation of melatonin biosynthesis genes through genetic engineering might prevent cassava root deterioration. PMID:26989849

  9. Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ballén-Taborda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of microRNAs (miRNAs in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60 miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants.

  10. Middlemen and Smallholder Farmers in Cassava Marketing in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a basic food staple and a major source of farm income in Africa. Efficiency in cassava marketing is therefore a very important determinant of consumers living cost and producers' income. Exploitation of one marketing agent by another in the course of product distribution could contribute to increased marketing costs and hence inefficiency. The paper examines the extent to which the widely held view that middlemen exploit farmers through monopsony purchases and usury apply to cassava farmers. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework of the collaborative study of cassava in Africa (COSCA. The result of the analysis fails to support the view that middlemen generally engage in monopsony purchases of cassava products, because farmers had on average, higher volume of cassava products for sale in the market than middlemen. Prices of cassava products appeared more stable in Nigeria than in the other countries, because of the more elaborate involvement of middlemen, which encouraged competition. The intermediaries between the farmer and the consumer were at most three in each of the countries – the processor, the semi-wholesaler and the retailer. Cassava farmers and traders combined the role of the processor apparently because of the low development stage of mechanized processing technology. For both farmers and middlemen, transactions in cash were the predominant practice, followed by delayed payments. Advanced payment was non-existent except in Uganda. Marketing margins, though generally high, decline with good market access conditions. And the margins for granules were substantially lower than those of dried roots not only because of substantial differences in processing resource demand but also because of differences in marketing costs. This suggests that investments towards improving market access conditions, and in cost saving processing technologies for the production of granules are needed for the improvement

  11. Developmental Peculiarities and Seed-Borne Endophytes in Quinoa: Omnipresent, Robust Bacilli Contribute to Plant Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzschke, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Among potential climate change-adapted crops for future agriculture, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a facultative halophyte plant with exceptional nutritional properties, stands out as a prime candidate. This work examined how quinoa deals with extreme situations during seed rehydration. Quinoa distinguishes itself from other plants in multiple ways. It germinates within minutes, even under extremely hostile conditions. Broken seeds/split embryos are able to regenerate. Furthermore, quinoa seedlings are resurrection-competent. These peculiarities became in part explainable upon discovery of seed-borne microorganisms. 100% of quinoa seeds, from different sources, are inhabited by diverse members of the genus Bacillus. These endophytes are motile and reside in all seedling organs, indicating vertical transmission. Owing to their high catalase activities and superoxide contents the bacteria potentially manipulate the host's redox status. Superoxide-driven cell expansion enables quinoa to overcome a critical period in development, seedling establishment. Quinoa's immediate confrontation with "foreign" reactive oxygen species and bacterial elicitors likely induces a naturally primed state, enabling plants to withstand extreme situations. The endophytic bacteria, which are cultivable and highly robust themselves, have high potential for application in agriculture, food (amylase) and cosmetics (catalase) industry. This work also discusses the potential of transferring quinoa's microbiome to improve stress resistance in other plant species. PMID:26834724

  12. [Screening and identification of indoleacetic acid producing endophytic bacterium in Panax ginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun; Tian, Lei; Chen, Chang-qing; Zhang, Guan-jun; Li, Tong; Chen, Jing-xiu; Wang, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria which was producing indoleacetic acid was screened from Panax ginseng by using the Salkowski method. The active strain was also tested for its ability of nitrogen fixation by using the Ashby agar plates, the PKV plates and quantitative analysis of Mo-Sb-Ascrobiology acid colorimetry was used to measure its ability of phosphate solubilization, for its ability of potassium solubilization the silicate medium and flame spectrophotometry was used, for its ability of producing siderophores the method detecting CAS was used, for its ability of producing ACC deaminase the Alpha ketone butyric acid method was applied. And the effect on promoting growth of seed by active strain was tested. The results showed that the indoleacetic acid producing strain of JJ5-2 was obtained from 118 endophytes, which the content of indoleacetic acid was 10.2 mg x L(-1). The JJ5-2 strain also had characteristics of phosphate and potassium solubilization, nitrogen fixation, producing siderophores traits, and the promoting germination of ginseng seeds. The JJ5-2 strain was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis by analyzing morphology, physiological and biochemical properties and 16S rRNA gene sequences. PMID:26080547

  13. New phenyl derivatives from endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavipes AIL8 derived of mangrove plant Acanthus ilicifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhi-Qiang; Lin, Xiuping; Wang, Yizhu; Wang, Junfeng; Zhou, Xuefeng; Yang, Bin; Liu, Juan; Yang, Xianwen; Wang, Yi; Liu, Yonghong

    2014-06-01

    Two new aromatic butyrolactones, flavipesins A (1) and B (2), two new natural products (3 and 4), and a known phenyl dioxolanone (5) were isolated from marine-derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavipes. The structures of compounds 1-5 were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS analysis, the absolute configurations were assigned by optical rotation and CD data, and the stereochemistry of 1 was determined by X-ray crystallography analysis. 1 demonstrated lower MIC values against Staphylococcus aureus (8.0 μg/mL) and Bacillus subtillis (0.25 μg/mL). 1 also showed the unique antibiofilm activity of penetration through the biofilm matrix and kills live bacteria inside mature S. aureus biofilm. PMID:24704337

  14. Mathematical Modelling of Cassava Wastewater Treatment Using Anaerobic Baffled Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    A.O. Ibeje

    2013-01-01

    The performance of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) was evaluated in the treatment of cassava wastewater as a pollutant residue. An ABR divided in four equal volume compartments (total volume 4L) and operated at 35°C was used in cassava wastewater treatment. Feed tank chemical oxygen demand (COD) was varied from 2000 to 7000mg L-1. The objective of the study was to formulate an improved mathematical model to describe cassava wastewater treatment without taking into account its inhibition ch...

  15. Identification of genetic components involved in Lotus-endophyte interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal Lukasz

    bacterial strain aimed at obtaining a reliable and easy to handle system for plant-microsymbiont interaction research. Two different methods were tested for their usefulness in identification of genetic components involved in plant-endophyte interactions. The first method was based on measuring growth...... promotion effects resulting from endophytic inoculation of Lotus plants. It proved to be difficult to handle due to large variations in plant growth and was discontinued. In the second, presence or lack of interactions between plants and endophytes was assessed based on the frequency of endophytic...

  16. Poplar and its bacterial endophytes: coexistence and harmony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Monchy, S.; Schwender, J.; Miller, L.; Ferrieri, R.; Rogers, A.; Zhu, W.; Weyens, N.; Vangronsveld, J.; Newman, L.

    2009-09-01

    Associations between plants and microorganisms are very complex and are the subject of an increasing number of studies. Here, we specifically address the relationship between poplar and its endophytic bacteria. The role and importance of endophytic bacteria in growth and development of their host plants is still underestimated. However, since many endophytes have a beneficial effect on their host, an improved understanding of the interaction between poplar and its endophytic bacteria has the potential to provide major breakthroughs that will improve the productivity of poplar. Endophytic bacteria can improve plant growth and development in a direct or indirect way. Direct plant growth promoting mechanisms may involve nitrogen fixation, production of plant growth regulators such as auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins, and suppression of stress ethylene synthesis by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. Endophytic bacteria can indirectly benefit the plant by preventing the growth or activity of plant pathogens through competition for space and nutrients, antibiosis, production of hydrolytic enzymes, inhibition of pathogen-produced enzymes or toxins, and through systemic induction of plant defense mechanisms. Examples of applications for custom endophyte-host partnerships include improved productivity and establishment of poplar trees on marginal soils and the phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. A systems biology approach to understand the synergistic interactions between poplar and its beneficial endophytic bacteria represents an important field of research, which is facilitated by the recent sequencing of the genomes of poplar and several of its endophytic bacteria.

  17. Polyhydroxybutyrate production using agro-industrial residue as substrate by Bacillus sphaericus NCIM 5149

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha V. Ramadas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB using agro- industrial residues as the carbon source. Seven substrates, viz., wheat bran, potato starch, sesame oil cake, groundnut oil cake, cassava powder, jackfruit seed powder and corn flour were hydrolyzed using commercial enzymes and the hydrolyzates assessed for selecting the best substrate for PHB production. Jackfruit seed powder gave the maximum production of PHB under submerged fermentation using Bacillus sphaericus (19% at the initial pH of 7.5.

  18. Utilization of cassava waste through fermentation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 400 isolates of molds were screened for raw starch digesting enzymes and aspergillus J8 ad Rhizopus N37 were selected for further investigations. Crude enzymes obtained from wheat bran was higher than from rice bran. Crude enzymes from Aspergillus is active at pH 4.0, whereas that from Rhizopus is active at pH 5.0. Aspergillus J8 gave higher yield of silage fermentation. Selection of yeast strain was accomplished, it was found that Saccharomyces cerevisiae SC90, the local commercial strain (non-flocculent) performed best in fermentation of cassava mash. Another strain AM12, a flocculent fusant strain derived from fusion between flocculent strain and sake brewing strain was comparable to that of commercial strain at normal temperature but performed better at higher temperature up to 40 deg C. It is unlikely that fuel alcohol produced from raw cassava will be able to compete with petroleum fuel at this moment. However, silage fermentation to increase nutritional quality of the silage through selected strains of microorganisms has a good prospect to pursue. (author)

  19. CHARACTERISATION OF CASSAVA FIBRE FOR USE AS A BIOMATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois Larbie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the cytotoxicity of de-starched cassava fibre granules and fine powder using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and examine changes in the composition of Simulated Body Fluid (SBF resulting from immersion of cassava fibre samples. The purpose of the study was to characterise cassavafibre for possible biomaterial applications. Preliminary results indicate insignificant cytotoxic effects on PBMCs with cassava sample concentrations of 0.1g/ml, 0.025g/ml and 0.00625g/ml. Additionally there was little or no significant change in Na, K, Mg, Cl, Ca, Mn, and Cu concentrations upon immersion in SBF as observed over a one week period at a temperature of 37°C. These initial results suggest cassava fibre may be considered for biomaterial applications following more extensive characterisation.

  20. Mathematical Modelling Of Cyanide Inhibition on Cassava Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    E. Onukwugha

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic Baffled Reactors (ABR) is used to evaluate the extent of cyanide inhibition of cassava wastewater treatment. The reactor has aspect ratio of 4:1:1. Kinetic analyses of specific growth rate μmax and half saturation constant

  1. Physical properties of snacks made from cassava leaf flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Ferrari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The food industry is continually growing with new products becoming available every year. Extrusion combines a number of unit operations in one energy efficient rapid continuous process and can be used to produce a wide variety of snacks foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, and amount of cassava leaf flour mixed with cassava starch on the physical properties of extruded snacks processed using a single screw extruder. A central composite rotational design, including three factors with 20 treatments, was used in the experimental design. Dependent variables included the expansion index, specific volume, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index. Among the parameters examined, the amount of cassava leaf flour and extrusion temperature showed significant effects on extruded snack characteristics. Mixtures containing 10% of cassava leaf flour extruded at 100°C and 255 rpm shows favorable levels of expansion, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index.

  2. Properties of baked foams from citric acid modified cassava starch and native cassava starch blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornsuksomboon, Kanlaya; Holló, Berta Barta; Szécsényi, Katalin Mészáros; Kaewtatip, Kaewta

    2016-01-20

    Starch foams from native cassava starch (NS) and citric acid modified cassava starch (CNS) were prepared using baking processes with blend ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80. The density, thickness, morphology, thermal stability and water absorption of the NS, CNS and blended starch foams were determined. The ratio of the two starch components had a significant influence on the density and thickness of the blended starch foams. All blended starch foams showed good water resistance. Moreover, the morphology of the blended starch foam with the NS/CNS ratio of 50/50 showed a more ordered distribution of cell sizes with thicker cell walls than for the NS and CNS foams. The thermal stability of the blended starch foams was somewhat lower than the stability of the NS foam but not to the extent that it affected any potential practical applications.

  3. Properties of baked foams from citric acid modified cassava starch and native cassava starch blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornsuksomboon, Kanlaya; Holló, Berta Barta; Szécsényi, Katalin Mészáros; Kaewtatip, Kaewta

    2016-01-20

    Starch foams from native cassava starch (NS) and citric acid modified cassava starch (CNS) were prepared using baking processes with blend ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80. The density, thickness, morphology, thermal stability and water absorption of the NS, CNS and blended starch foams were determined. The ratio of the two starch components had a significant influence on the density and thickness of the blended starch foams. All blended starch foams showed good water resistance. Moreover, the morphology of the blended starch foam with the NS/CNS ratio of 50/50 showed a more ordered distribution of cell sizes with thicker cell walls than for the NS and CNS foams. The thermal stability of the blended starch foams was somewhat lower than the stability of the NS foam but not to the extent that it affected any potential practical applications. PMID:26572335

  4. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    OpenAIRE

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, todefinedesign/retro...

  5. Cassava crop improvement through in vitro mutation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava is of great economic significance in Zambia due to its increasing role as a food security crop in drought prone areas of the country.Studies to improve the quality of the cassava tuber and the quality and quantity of the planting material using in vitro techniques is being conducted in several areas of Zambia. The preliminary results are encouraging from the field trials conducted so far

  6. Biogas Production From Cassava Starch Effluent Using Microalgae As Biostabilisator

    OpenAIRE

    B. Budiyono; Tutuk Djoko Kusworo

    2011-01-01

    The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environ...

  7. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Colehour, Alese M.; Meadow, James F.; Liebert, Melissa A.; Tara J. Cepon-Robins; Theresa E. Gildner; Urlacher, Samuel S.; Bohannan, Brendan J.M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Lawrence S. Sugiyama

    2014-01-01

    Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chic...

  8. The Symptom and Genetic Diversity of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses Infecting Cassava in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. U. Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic and symptom diversity of six virus isolates causing cassava brown streak disease (CBSD in the endemic (Kenya, Mozambique, and Tanzania and the recently affected epidemic areas (Uganda of eastern Africa was studied. Five cassava varieties; Albert, Colombian, Ebwanateraka, TMS60444 (all susceptible and Kiroba (tolerant were graft inoculated with each isolate. Based on a number of parameters including the severity of leaf and root symptoms, and the extent of virus transmission by grafting, the viruses were classified as either severe or relatively mild. These results were further confirmed by the mechanical inoculation of 13 herbaceous hosts in which the virulent isolates caused plant death in Nicotiana clevelandii and N. benthamiana whereas the milder isolates did not. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coat protein gene sequences of these isolates together with sequences obtained from 14 other field-collected samples from Kenya and Zanzibar, and reference sequences grouped them into two distinct clusters, representing the two species of cassava brown streak viruses. Put together, these results did not suggest the association of a hypervirulent form of the virus with the current CBSD epidemic in Uganda. Identification of the severe and milder isolates, however, has further implications for disease management and quarantine requirements.

  9. A unigene catalogue of 5700 expressed genes in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Camilo; Jorge, Véronique; Piégu, Benoît; Mba, Chickelu; Cortes, Diego; Restrepo, Silvia; Soto, Mauricio; Laudié, Michèle; Berger, Christel; Cooke, Richard; Delseny, Michel; Tohme, Joe; Verdier, Valérie

    2004-11-01

    Two economically important characters, starch content and cassava bacterial blight resistance, were targeted to generate a large collection of cassava ESTs. Two libraries were constructed from cassava root tissues of varieties with high and low starch contents. Other libraries were constructed from plant tissues challenged by the pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv.manihotis. We report here the single pass sequencing of 11,954 cDNA clones from the 5' ends, including 111 from the 3' ends. Cluster analysis permitted the identification of a unigene set of 5,700 sequences. Sequence analyses permitted the assignment of a putative functional category for 37% of sequences whereas approximately 16% sequences did not show any significant similarity with other proteins present in the database and therefore can be considered as cassava specific genes. A group of genes belonging to a large multigene family was identified. We characterize a set of genes detected only in infected libraries putatively involved in the defense response to pathogen infection. By comparing two libraries obtained from cultivars contrasting in their starch content a group of genes associated to starch biosynthesis and differentially expressed was identified. This is the first large cassava EST resource developed today and publicly available thus making a significant contribution to genomic knowledge of cassava. PMID:15630618

  10. Cassava root membrane proteome reveals activities during storage root maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naconsie, Maliwan; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Viboonjun, Unchera; Netrphan, Supatcharee; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Ogasawara, Naotake; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crops of Thailand. Its storage roots are used as food, feed, starch production, and be the important source for biofuel and biodegradable plastic production. Despite the importance of cassava storage roots, little is known about the mechanisms involved in their formation. This present study has focused on comparison of the expression profiles of cassava root proteome at various developmental stages using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Based on an anatomical study using Toluidine Blue, the secondary growth was confirmed to be essential during the development of cassava storage root. To investigate biochemical processes occurring during storage root maturation, soluble and membrane proteins were isolated from storage roots harvested from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-old cassava plants. The proteins with differential expression pattern were analysed and identified to be associated with 8 functional groups: protein folding and degradation, energy, metabolism, secondary metabolism, stress response, transport facilitation, cytoskeleton, and unclassified function. The expression profiling of membrane proteins revealed the proteins involved in protein folding and degradation, energy, and cell structure were highly expressed during early stages of development. Integration of these data along with the information available in genome and transcriptome databases is critical to expand knowledge obtained solely from the field of proteomics. Possible role of identified proteins were discussed in relation with the activities during storage root maturation in cassava.

  11. Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwadare, G. O.; Agbaje, O.

    The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2♦, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice) and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The cyanide in cassava juice does not attack the steel but it provides an environment of lower pH around the steel in the concrete which leads to breakdown of the passivating film provided by hydroxyl ions from cement. Other factors such as the curing time of the concrete also affect the corrosion rates of the steel in the concrete. The corrosion rate of the steel directly exposed to cassava juice i.e., steel not embedded in concrete is about twice that in concrete. Long exposure of concrete structure to cassava processing effluent might result in deterioration of such structures. Careful attention should therefore be paid to disposal of cassava processing effluents, especially in a country like Nigeria where such processing is now on the increase.

  12. Microbial population, chemical composition and silage fermentation of cassava residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napasirth, Viengsakoun; Napasirth, Pattaya; Sulinthone, Tue; Phommachanh, Kham; Cai, Yimin

    2015-09-01

    In order to effectively use the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) residues, including cassava leaves, peel and pulp for livestock diets, the chemical and microbiological composition, silage preparation and the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on silage fermentation of cassava residues were studied. These residues contained 10(4) to 10(5) LAB and yeasts, 10(3) to 10(4) coliform bacteria and 10(4) aerobic bacteria in colony forming units (cfu) on a fresh matter (FM) basis. The molds were consistently at or below the detectable level (10(2) cfu of FM) in three kinds of cassava residues. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of cassava residues were 17.50-30.95%, 1.30-16.41% and 25.40-52.90% on a DM basis, respectively. The silage treatments were designed as control silage without additive (CO) or with LAB inoculants Chikuso-1 (CH, Lactobacillus plantarum) and Snow Lacto (SN, Lactobacillus rhamnosus) at a rate of 5 mg/kg of FM basis. All silages were well preserved with a low pH (below 4.0) value and when cassava residues silage treated with inoculants CH and SN improved fermentation quality with a lower pH, butyric acid and higher lactic acid than control silage.

  13. "Omics" Tools for Better Understanding the Plant-Endophyte Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Sanjana; Sharma, Tanwi; K Dhar, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes, which mostly include bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, are the endosymbionts that reside asymptomatically in plants for at least a part of their life cycle. They have emerged as a valuable source of novel metabolites, industrially important enzymes and as stress relievers of host plant, but still many aspects of endophytic biology are unknown. Functions of individual endophytes are the result of their continuous and complex interactions with the host plant as well as other members of the host microbiome. Understanding plant microbiomes as a system allows analysis and integration of these complex interactions. Modern genomic studies involving metaomics and comparative studies can prove to be helpful in unraveling the gray areas of endophytism. A deeper knowledge of the mechanism of host infestation and role of endophytes could be exploited to improve the agricultural management in terms of plant growth promotion, biocontrol and bioremediation. Genome sequencing, comparative genomics, microarray, next gen sequencing, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics are some of the techniques that are being used or can be used to unravel plant-endophyte relationship. The modern techniques and approaches need to be explored to study endophytes and their putative role in host plant ecology. This review highlights "omics" tools that can be explored for understanding the role of endophytes in the plant microbiome. PMID:27446181

  14. Enhanced resistance to Spodoptera litura in endophyte infected cauliflower plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Abhinay; Kaur, Sanehdeep; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Varinder

    2013-04-01

    Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of disease, are important mediators of plant-herbivore interactions. These endophytes enhance resistance of host plant against insect herbivores mainly by productions of various alkaloid based defensive compounds in the plant tissue or through alterations of plant nutritional quality. Two endophytic fungi, i.e., Nigrospora sp. and Cladosporium sp., were isolated from Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, a traditional indian medicinal plant. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) plants were inoculated with these two endophytic fungi. The effect of endophyte infected and uninfected cauliflower plants were measured on the survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Fab.), a polyphagous pest. Endophyte infected cauliflower plants showed resistance to S. litura in the form of significant increase in larval and pupal mortality in both the fungi. Inhibitory effects of endophytic fungi also were observed on adult emergence, longevity, reproductive potential, as well as hatchability of eggs. Thus, it is concluded that antibiosis to S. litura could be imparted by artificial inoculation of endophytes and this could be used to develop alternative ecologically safe control strategies. PMID:23575013

  15. Endophytic bacterial community of a Mediterranean marine angiosperm (Posidonia oceanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus eGarcias-Bonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endophytes are crucial for the survival of many terrestrial plants, but little is known about the presence and importance of bacterial endophytes of marine plants. We conducted a survey of the endophytic bacterial community of the long-living Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica in surface-sterilized tissues (roots, rhizomes and leaves by DGGE. A total of 26 Posidonia oceanica meadows around the Balearic Islands were sampled, and the band patterns obtained for each meadow were compared for the three sampled tissues. Endophytic bacterial sequences were detected in most of the samples analyzed. A total of 34 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units were detected. The main OTUs of endophytic bacteria present in P. oceanica tissues belonged primarily to Proteobacteria (α, γ and δ subclasses and Bacteroidetes. The OTUs found in roots significantly differed from those of rhizomes and leaves. Moreover, some OTUs were found to be associated to each type of tissue. Bipartite network analysis revealed differences in the bacterial endophyte communities present on different islands. The results of this study provide a pioneering step toward the characterization of the endophytic bacterial community associated with tissues of a marine angiosperm and reveal the presence of bacterial endophytes that differed among locations and tissue types.

  16. Physiological characterization of sugarcane's endophytic microbial community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anar Janet Rodríguez Cheang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Excessive application of chemical nitrogen fertilisers and pesticides has badly affected the environment. This has led to great interest being shown in studying a crop's native microbial community and its benefit for plants. This paper was thus aimed at characterising sugarcane's endophytic microbial community. 5 sugar cane strains and 50 isolates were used. Gas chromatography was used for measuring nitrogenase activity and the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources and pH on cultures. Indol acetic (IAA production was detected by Dot-Immunobinding and Salkowski's method. These results show that 19 strains and isolates had nitrogenase activity, values ranging from 100 to SOOO/zg/mL; 6 of them produced IAA (values ranging from 1,7 to 2,5 //g/mL: Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAl-5, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus 1-05, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus 4-02,17,30 and 305. It was demonstrated that culture medium nutrient sources and pH affected the nitrogenase activity of the strains representing the endophytic community. Key words: endophytic community, sugarcane, nitrogenase activity, indolacetic acid.

  17. A native plant growth promoting bacterium, Bacillus megaterium B55, rescues growth performance of an ethylene insensitive plant genotype in nature

    OpenAIRE

    Dorothea Gertrud Meldau; Hoang Hoa Long; Ian Thomas Baldwin

    2012-01-01

    Many plants have intimate relationships with soil microbes that through a variety of mechanisms improve the plant’s growth and fitness. Bacillus megaterium is a natural endophyte isolated from Nicotiana attenuata plant roots growing in native soils. A particular isolate (B55), was found to have dramatic plant growth promoting (PGP) effects on wild type (WT) and transgenic plants impaired in ethylene (ET) perception (35S-etr1), the genotype from which this bacteria was first isolated. B55 not ...

  18. Whole genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TF28, a biocontrol entophytic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shumei; Jiang, Wei; Li, Jing; Meng, Liqiang; Cao, Xu; Hu, Jihua; Liu, Yushuai; Chen, Jingyu; Sha, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TF28 is a biocontrol endophytic bacterium that is capable of inhibition of a broad range of plant pathogenic fungi. The strain has the potential to be developed into a biocontrol agent for use in agriculture. Here we report the whole-genome shotgun sequence of the strain. The genome size of B. amyloliquefaciens TF28 is 3,987,635 bp which consists of 3754 protein-coding genes, 65 tandem repeat sequences, 47 minisatellite DNA, 2 microsatellite DNA, 63 tRNA, 7rRNA, 6 sRNA, 3 prophage and CRISPR domains. PMID:27688836

  19. Comparison of three cyanogen assays for total cyanogens in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saka, J.D.K.; Mhone, A.R.K.; Brimer, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity and reproducibility of three methods for determining the total cyanogenic potential (CNp) of 7 fresh and processed cassava varieties were determined and compared. The total cyanogen content of fresh cassava roots and three cassava products (kondowole, makaka, and starch) were...... analysed by the acid hydrolysis, microdiffusion with solid state detection and Cooke's enzymatic assays. The total cyanogen contents of the cassava, obtained by the three methods were not significantly different (p

  20. Exploring the potential of cassava in promoting agricultural growth in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Sanzidur Rahman; Brodrick O. Awerije

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is one of the major food crops in Nigeria, with multiple uses from human consumption to industrial applications. This study explores the potential of cassava in Nigerian agriculture based on a review of cassava development policies; performs a trend analysis of the cultivation area, production, productivity, and real price of cassava and other competing crops for the period 1961–2013; identifies the sources of growth in production; and examines the production constraints at the local ...

  1. Yield and Properties of Ethanol Biofuel Produced from Different Whole Cassava Flours

    OpenAIRE

    Ademiluyi, F. T.; Mepba, H. D.

    2013-01-01

    The yield and properties of ethanol biofuel produced from five different whole cassava flours were investigated. Ethanol was produced from five different whole cassava flours. The effect of quantity of yeast on ethanol yield, effect of whole cassava flour to acid and mineralized media ratio on the yield of ethanol produced, and the physical properties of ethanol produced from different cassava were investigated. Physical properties such as distillation range, density, viscosity, and flash poi...

  2. EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON THE CYANIDE CONTENT OF CASSAVA PRODUCTS IN FIJI

    OpenAIRE

    Chand Bandna

    2012-01-01

    In Fiji cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most important root crops. According to the 2004 National Nutrition Survey, 59.2% of the Fijian population consumes cassava on a daily basis while 31% of the Indian population consumes cassava on a weekly basis. Substantial quantity of anti-nutrient factor cyanogenic glucoside, linamarine and a small amount of lotaustralin is also present in cassava that interferes with digestion and uptake of nutrients. This study was ai...

  3. Cost benefit analysis of cassava production in Sherpur district of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Afreen, N.; Haque, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to analyze the cost, benefit and profitability of cassava production in selected areas of Sherpur district in Bangladesh. Data were collected by interviewing a representative sample of 100 practicing cassava farmers, taking each 50 sample from traditional farmers of Jhinaigati and commercial cassava farmers of Sreebardi Upazila. Analyses showed that per hectare cost incurred for cassava was BDT 41,417.22 in Jhinaigati whereas BDT 53,642.59 in Sreebardi Upazila. ...

  4. Correlation of Chemical Compositions of Cassava Varieties to Their Resistance to Prostephanus truncatus Horn (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Osipitan, Adebola A.; Sangowusi, Victoria T.; Lawal, Omoniyi I.; Popoola, Kehinde O.

    2015-01-01

    The preference of cassava as a major host by Prostephanus truncatus Horn is a major constraint to ample production of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz and storage. This study analyzed the nutritional and secondary metabolite compositions in 15 cassava varieties, evaluated levels of damage and reproduction by P. truncatus, and assessed their resistance to attack. One hundred grams of dried cassava chips in 250-ml Kilner jars were infested with 10 adult larger grain borerof 0–10 days old and h...

  5. PROCESSORS’ PERCEPTION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SOME CASSAVA PROCESSING INNOVATIONS IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayo, K.; Sangosina, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The current drive towards higher levels of commercialisation of cassava processing under the Presidential Initiative on Cassava requires that the scale of cassava processing be increased in Nigeria. Primary data obtained from 112 respondents selected from the 4 extension zones of Ogun State was used to examine the perception of effectiveness of innovations by cassava processors and the factors responsible for adoption of these innovations. The processors’ perception of effectiveness of cassav...

  6. Robust transformation procedure for the production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces

    OpenAIRE

    Zainuddin Ima M; Schlegel Kim; Gruissem Wilhelm; Vanderschuren Hervé

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Recent progress in cassava transformation has allowed the robust production of transgenic cassava even under suboptimal plant tissue culture conditions. The transformation protocol has so far been used mostly for the cassava model cultivar 60444 because of its good regeneration capacity of embryogenic tissues. However, for deployment and adoption of transgenic cassava in the field it is important to develop robust transformation methods for farmer- and industry-preferred landraces an...

  7. Rethinking production of Taxol® (paclitaxel) using endophyte biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusari, Souvik; Singh, Satpal; Jayabaskaran, Chelliah

    2014-06-01

    Taxol® (generic name paclitaxel) represents one of the most clinically valuable natural products known to mankind in the recent past. More than two decades have elapsed since the notable discovery of the first Taxol®-producing endophytic fungus, which was followed by a plethora of reports on other endophytes possessing similar biosynthetic potential. However, industrial-scale Taxol® production using fungal endophytes, although seemingly promising, has not seen the light of the day. In this opinion article, we embark on the current state of knowledge on Taxol® biosynthesis focusing on the chemical ecology of its producers, and ask whether it is actually possible to produce Taxol® using endophyte biotechnology. The key problems that have prevented the exploitation of potent endophytic fungi by industrial bioprocesses for sustained production of Taxol® are discussed.

  8. Endophytes: exploitation as a tool in plant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanushi Dutta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes are symptomless fungal or bacterial microorganisms found in almost all living plant species reported so far. They are the plant-associated microbes that form symbiotic association with their host plants by colonizing the internal tissues, which has made them valuable for agriculture as a tool in improving crop performance. Many fungal endophytes produce secondary metabolites such as auxin, gibberellin etc that helps in growth and development of the host plant. Some of these compounds are antibiotics having antifungal, antibacterial and insecticidal properties, which strongly inhibit the growth of other microorganisms, including plant pathogens. This article reviews the endophyte isolated from different plants, mode of endophytic infection and benefits derived by the host plant as a result of endophytism.

  9. Phytoremediation: plant-endophyte partnerships take the challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2009-04-01

    A promising field to exploit plant-endophyte partnerships is the remediation of contaminated soils and (ground) water. Many plant growth promoting endophytes can assist their host plant to overcome contaminant-induced stress responses, thus providing improved plant growth. During phytoremediation of organic contaminants, plants can further benefit from endophytes possessing appropriate degradation pathways and metabolic capabilities, leading to more efficient contaminant degradation and reduction of both phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration of volatile contaminants. For phytoremediation of toxic metals, endophytes possessing a metal-resistance/sequestration system can lower metal phytotoxicity and affect metal translocation to the above-ground plant parts. Furthermore, endophytes that can degrade organic contaminants and deal with or, even better, improve extraction of the metals offer promising ways to improve phytoremediation of mixed pollution.

  10. Production of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase by immobilized Bacillus sp. on chitosan matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eş, Ismail; Ribeiro, Maycon Carvalho; Dos Santos Júnior, Samuel Rodrigues; Khaneghah, Amin Mousavi; Rodriguez, Armando Garcia; Amaral, André Corrêa

    2016-10-01

    The whole-cell immobilization on chitosan matrix was evaluated. Bacillus sp., as producer of CGTase, was grown in solid-state and batch cultivation using three types of starches (cassava, potato and cornstarch). Biomass growth and substrate consumption were assessed by flow cytometry and modified phenol-sulfuric acid assays, respectively. Qualitative analysis of CGTase production was determined by colorless area formation on solid culture containing phenolphthalein. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis demonstrated that bacterial cells were immobilized on chitosan matrix efficiently. Free cells reached very high numbers during batch culture while immobilized cells maintained initial inoculum concentration. The maximum enzyme activity achieved by free cells was 58.15 U ml(-1) (36 h), 47.50 U ml(-1) (36 h) and 68.36 U ml(-1) (36 h) on cassava, potato and cornstarch, respectively. CGTase activities for immobilized cells were 82.15 U ml(-1) (18 h) on cassava, 79.17 U ml(-1) (12 h) on potato and 55.37 U ml(-1) (in 6 h and max 77.75 U ml(-1) in 36 h) on cornstarch. Application of immobilization technique increased CGTase activity significantly. The immobilized cells produced CGTase with higher activity in a shorter fermentation time comparing to free cells. PMID:27194141

  11. Distribution, incidence and abundance of the cassava brown root scale insect, Stictococcus vayssierei, in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tchuanyo, M.; Huis, van A.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2000-01-01

    A new scale insect, Stictococcus vayssierei, has been found attacking all the underground parts of cassava. From surveys in all the cassava-growing areas of Cameroon, the insect seems to be limited to the southern part of the country, where it is a major pest of cassava. This is the semi-humid zone

  12. Developing GM super cassava for improved health and food security: future challenges in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenle Ademola A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to solve the problem of micronutrient malnutrition that is prevalent among young children and women in Africa. Genetically modified (GM biofortified cassava has great potential to solve part of this problem, but controversy surrounding GM technology and lack of awareness, limited facilities, biased news and other factors may hinder the adoption of GM cassava in the future. Method Using semi-structured interviews in Ghana and Nigeria, this paper examines the perspectives of scientists, including the BioCassava Plus (BC+ team, on the potential adoption of GM cassava for improving health and food security in Africa. The article also examines issues around the regulatory system and transfer and acceptance of GM cassava among scientists. Results and discussion The result suggests that an overwhelming majority of scientists agree that GM biofortified cassava will benefit the health of millions in Africa, and that GM cassava conferred with disease and pest resistance will increase cassava production as it is currently plagued by cassava mosaic diseases (CMD. However, respondents are wary of long-term effects of GM cassava on the environment and lack of a regulatory framework to facilitate the adoption of GM cassava. Even though scientists expressed little or no concern about health risks of GM cassava, they were concerned that consumers may express such concerns given limited understanding of GM technology. Conclusion The article concludes with a summary of priorities for policy development with regard to adopting biofortified food products.

  13. Diversity in oil content and fatty acid profile in seeds of wild cassava germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the only commercial species of the Manihot genus, cultivated for its starchy tuber roots. However, cassava seeds are known to be rich in oils and fats, there are scant reports on the content and properties of oil from cassava seeds and its wild relatives. Wild Manihot ...

  14. VIGOR OF PLANTLET FROM MICROPLANTLET TREATED BY FILTRATE AND CELL SUSPENSION OF SOME ISOLATES OF BACILLUS AND RESISTANCE TO BANANA WILT PATHOGEN AFTER ACCLIMATIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi wiyono

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood Disease Bacterium (BDB and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (FOC is a couple wilt pathogen  of  banana.  These pathogens are the most important constraint in cultivation of banana in Indonesia.  In the integrated control strategy of the disease, the use of healthy seedlings produced from tissue culture technique is recommended.  The seedling produced by tissue culture technique however leads to lower vigor and susceptibility to the disease due to the aseptic work in vitro causing the beneficial bacterial endophytic to be eliminated. Therefore, the utility of the beneficial endophytic bacteria should be studied for recovering the vigor and resistance of the seedling.     Three isolates of endophytic Bacillus (B04, B05, B10 have been effective as growth promoter of microplantlet and antagonist of BDB and FOC in vitro.   Here then, this article reports the study results of the vigor of the plantlet (treated microplantlet by filtrate or cell suspension of the Bacillus after 3 months in acclimatization. The results were similar to the previous results on microplantlet in vitro, that Bacillus isolates B04, B05, and B10 were capable of promoting the growth and inducing the resistance to wilt pathogens on banana plantlets.  The treatments with bacterial cell inoculums were more effective than those bacterial filtrate. Isolate B10 was most potential followed by B05 and B04 respectively.

  15. PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ (CASSAVA

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    Bahekar S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant kingdom has been the best source of remedies for curing a variety of diseases since ancient times. Plants continue to serve as possible sources for new drugs and chemicals derived from various parts of plants. Manihot esculenta Crantz, popularly known as cassava is one of the most neglected medicinal herbs found all over the world. It is not so commonly used in herbal medicine because of some of its potentially toxic components, but still various literatures have mentioned that this plant has numerous medicinal indications. Generally roots and leaves of this plant have been used in various parts of world for dietary as well as medicinal purposes. Though neglected, this is one of the most useful medicinal plants. In this review, we have tried to highlight various phytochemicals found and medicinal uses of this neglected plant.

  16. Slow Pyrolysis of Cassava Wastes for Biochar Production and Characterization

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    Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of biochar from slow pyrolysis of biomass is a promising carbon negative procedure since it removes the net carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and produce recalcitrant carbon suitable for sequestration in soil. Biochar production can vary significantly with the pyrolysis parameter. This study investigated the impact of temperature and heating rate on the yield and properties of biochar derived from cassava plantations residues which are cassava stem (CS and cassava rhizome (CR. The pyrolysis temperatures ranged from 400°C to 600°C while the heating rate parameter was varied from 5°C/min to 25°C/min. The experiment was conducted using the lab scale slow pyrolysis system. The increment of temperature and heating rate of slow pyrolysis for both cassava wastes had raised the fixed carbon content of the biochar but decreased the biochar yield. More biochar was produced at lower temperature and lower heating rate. Temperature gave more influence on the biochar yield as compared to the heating rate parameter. The highest biochar yield of more than 35 mf wt. % can be obtained from both CS and CR at 400°C and heating rate of 5°C/min. From the proximate analysis, the results showed that cassava wastes contain high percentage of volatile matter which is more than 80 mf wt. %. Meanwhile, the biochar produced from cassava wastes contain high percentage of fixed carbon which is about 5−8 times higher than their raw samples. This suggested that, it is a good step to convert CS and CR into high carbon biochar via slow pyrolysis process that can substantially yield more biochar, up to 37 mf wt. % in this study. Since the fixed carbon content for both CS and CR biochar produced in any studied parameter were found to be more than 75 mf wt. %, it is suggested that biochar from cassava wastes is suitable for carbon sequestration.

  17. Characterization of Brown Streak Virus-Resistant Cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjanappa, Ravi B; Mehta, Devang; Maruthi, M N; Kanju, Edward; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2016-07-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has become a major constraint to cassava production in East and Central Africa. The identification of new sources of CBSD resistance is essential to deploy CBSD mitigation strategies, as the disease is progressing westwards to new geographical areas. A stringent infection method based on top cleft-grafting combined with precise virus titer quantitation was utilized to screen 14 cassava cultivars and elite breeding lines. When inoculated with mixed infections of Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the scions of elite breeding lines KBH 2006/18 and KBH 2006/26 remained symptom-free during a 16-week period of virus graft inoculation, while susceptible varieties displayed typical CBSD infection symptoms at 4 weeks after grafting. The identified CBSD resistance was stable under the coinoculation of CBSV and UCBSV with cassava geminiviruses. Double-grafting experiments revealed that transmission of CBSV and UCBSV to CBSD-susceptible top scions was delayed when using intermediate scions of elite breeding lines KBH 2006/18 and KBH 2006/26. Nonetheless, comparison of virus systemic movement using scions from KBH2006/18 and a transgenic CBSD resistant 60444 line (60444-Hp9 line) showed that both CBSV and UCBSV move at undetectable levels through the stems. Further, protoplast-based assays of virus titers showed that the replication of CBSV is inhibited in the resistant line KBH2006/18, suggesting that the identified CBSD resistance is at least partially based on inhibition of virus replication. Our molecular characterization of CBSD resistance in cassava offers a robust virus-host system to further investigate the molecular determinants of CBSD resistance. PMID:27070326

  18. Characterization of Brown Streak Virus-Resistant Cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjanappa, Ravi B; Mehta, Devang; Maruthi, M N; Kanju, Edward; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2016-07-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has become a major constraint to cassava production in East and Central Africa. The identification of new sources of CBSD resistance is essential to deploy CBSD mitigation strategies, as the disease is progressing westwards to new geographical areas. A stringent infection method based on top cleft-grafting combined with precise virus titer quantitation was utilized to screen 14 cassava cultivars and elite breeding lines. When inoculated with mixed infections of Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the scions of elite breeding lines KBH 2006/18 and KBH 2006/26 remained symptom-free during a 16-week period of virus graft inoculation, while susceptible varieties displayed typical CBSD infection symptoms at 4 weeks after grafting. The identified CBSD resistance was stable under the coinoculation of CBSV and UCBSV with cassava geminiviruses. Double-grafting experiments revealed that transmission of CBSV and UCBSV to CBSD-susceptible top scions was delayed when using intermediate scions of elite breeding lines KBH 2006/18 and KBH 2006/26. Nonetheless, comparison of virus systemic movement using scions from KBH2006/18 and a transgenic CBSD resistant 60444 line (60444-Hp9 line) showed that both CBSV and UCBSV move at undetectable levels through the stems. Further, protoplast-based assays of virus titers showed that the replication of CBSV is inhibited in the resistant line KBH2006/18, suggesting that the identified CBSD resistance is at least partially based on inhibition of virus replication. Our molecular characterization of CBSD resistance in cassava offers a robust virus-host system to further investigate the molecular determinants of CBSD resistance.

  19. TOXICITY OF CULTURFILTRATE OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI Trichoderma sp. IN DIFFERENT MEDIA AGAINST ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE Meloidogyne spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are fungi that live within their host plant tissues without causing any symptoms on the host. A host plant and endophytic fungi living on it have a mutulistic relathionship. The host provides substrate and space for the endophytes to grow while the fungal endophytes promote plant growth and protect the plant hosts from pests and diseases. Endophytic fungi have proven to be rich sources of bioactive natural products. One of the mode of action of endophytic fungi against plant...

  20. Effects of endophytic fungi on the ash dieback pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Markus; Dubach, Vivanne; von Buol, Larissa; Sieber, Thomas N

    2016-09-01

    While Hymenoscyphus fraxineus causes dieback of the European ash (Fraxinus excelsior), flowering ash (F. ornus) appears resistant to the pathogen. To date, contributions of endophytic fungi to host resistance are unknown. The following hypotheses were tested: (i) endophytic fungi enhance the resistance of F. excelsior to the pathogen; (ii) resistance of F. ornus relies on its community of endophytic fungi. Two experiments were performed. (i) The effect of exudates of ash endophytes on the germination rate of H. fraxineus ascospores was studied in vitro Isolates of abundant Fraxinus leaf endophytes, such as Venturia fraxini, Paraconiothyrium sp., Boeremia exigua, Kretzschmaria deusta and Neofabraea alba inhibited ascospore germination. (ii) Ash seedlings inoculated in a climate chamber, with fungi sporulating on the previous year's leaf litter, were exposed to natural infections by the pathogen present in the forest. Non-inoculated seedlings were used as controls. Venturia spp. dominated the inoculated endophyte 'communities'. Subsequent exposure to H. fraxineus led to infection of F. excelsior leaves by the pathogen, but no differences in health status between pre-inoculated and non-inoculated seedlings were detected. Fraxinus ornus leaves experienced a low infection rate, independent of their colonization by endophytic fungi. These results did not support either hypothesis. PMID:27364360

  1. Endophytic Fungal Diversity in Medicinal Plants of Western Ghats, India

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    Monnanda Somaiah Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes constitute an important component of microbial diversity, and in the present investigation, seven plant species with rich ethnobotanical uses representing six families were analyzed for the presence of endophytic fungi from their natural habitats during monsoon (May/June and winter (November/December seasons of 2007. Fungal endophytes were isolated from healthy plant parts such as stem, root, rhizome, and inflorescence employing standard isolation methods. One thousand five hundred and twenty-nine fungal isolates were obtained from 5200 fragments. Stem fragments harbored more endophytes (80.37% than roots (19.22%. 31 fungal taxa comprised of coelomycetes (65%, hyphomycetes (32%, and ascomycetes (3%. Fusarium, Acremonium, Colletotrichum, Chaetomium, Myrothecium, Phomopsis, and Pestalotiopsis spp. were commonly isolated. Diversity indices differed significantly between the seasons (P<0.001. Species richness was greater for monsoon isolations than winter. Host specificity was observed for few fungal endophytes. UPGMA cluster analysis grouped the endophytes into distinct clusters on the basis of genetic distance. This study is the first report on the diversity and host-specificity of endophytic fungal taxa were from the semi evergreen forest type in Talacauvery subcluster of Western Ghats.

  2. Engineering cyanogen synthesis and turnover in cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard

    2004-11-01

    Cassava is the major root crop for a quarter billion subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. It is valued for its ability to grow in adverse environments and the food security it provides. Cassava contains potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glycosides (linamarin) which protect the plant from herbivory and theft. The cyanogens, including linamarin and its deglycosylated product, acetone cyanohydrin, can be efficiently removed from the root by various processing procedures. Short-cuts in processing, which may occur during famines, can result in only partial removal of cyanogens. Residual cyanogens in cassava foods may cause neurological disorders or paralysis, particularly in nutritionally compromised individuals. To address this problem and to further understand the function of cyanogenic glycosides in cassava, we have generated transgenic cassava in which cyanogenic glycoside synthesis has been selectively inhibited in leaves and roots by antisense expression of CYP79D1/D2 gene fragments. The CYP79D1/D2 genes encode two highly similar cytochrome P450s that catalyze the first-dedicated step in cyanogenic glycoside synthesis. Transgenic plants in which the expression of these genes was selectively inhibited in leaves had substantially reduced (60- 94% reduction) linamarin leaf levels. Surprisingly, these plants also had a greater than a 99% reduction in root linamarin content. In contrast, transgenic plants in which the CYP79D1/D2 transcripts were reduced to non-detectable levels in roots had normal root linamarin levels. These results demonstrate that linamarin synthesized in leaves is transported to the roots and accounts for nearly all of the root linamarin content. Importantly, transgenic plants having reduced leaf and root linamarin content were unable to grow in the absence of reduced nitrogen (NH3) . Cassava roots have previously been demonstrated to have an active cyanide assimilation pathway leading to the synthesis of amino acids. We propose that

  3. Cassava physiological responses to the application of herbicides

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    Evander Alves Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence has been used to improve the understanding of the mechanisms of photosynthesis, as well as in the evaluation of plant photosynthetic capacity altered by biotic or abiotic stresses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of cassava plants to herbicides with different mechanisms of action, as well as the damage caused by the application of herbicides on the photosynthetic apparatus of these plants. An experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replications. The treatments were constituted of the application of the following post- emergence herbicides in cassava: bentazon, clomazone, fomesafen, fluazifop-p-buthyl, glyphosate, nicosulfuron, chlorimuron, fluazifop-p-buthyl + fomesafen, sulfentrazone, besides a control without application. The visual intoxication and chlorophyll a fluorescence assessments were performed at 2, 9, 16 and 23 days after herbicide application. The herbicides evaluated affected differently the cassava plants. Sulfentrazone and glyphosate promoted plant death. Herbicides clomazone, fomesafen, fluazifop-p-buthyl and chlorimuron-ehtyl caused low toxicity to cassava plants and did not affect the ratio Fv / Fm and ETR. However, for the mixture nicossulfuron and fluazifop-p-buthyl + fomesafen values of Fv / Fm were suboptimal in the first evaluation times but plants treated with these herbicides had recovered. Physiological evaluations can be used as a way to evaluate the selectivity of herbicides in cassava crop as presented similar answers to those observed for visual intoxication symptoms.

  4. Use of irradiation to extend shelf life of cassava tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh cassava tubers (manihot esculenta crantz) were gamma irradiated at 0, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 KGy doses using cobalt-60 source. A portion of the irradiated cassava tubers was stored at room temperature (25-30 degree C) and the rest was packed in polyethylene bags and stored in refrigerator (5 1 degree C). Samples were analyzed for moisture, crude protein, starch and fibers percentages. Rotting ratio and weight loss percentages were also determined. The results indicated that the irradiation with gamma-rays followed by refrigeration extended the shelf-life of cassava tubers being more than 21 days. The lowest value of weight loss of cassava tubers during storage was observed by gamma irradiation and cold storage. Moreover, the irradiation treatments had no effect on protein content of cassava tubers, while it decreased moisture, starch and fiber contents especially those subjected to 1 kGy. As for the interaction between gamma-irradiation doses and periods of storage the crude protein slightly increased while the moisture, starch and fibers showed a gradual decrease up to the end of storage period as compared to unirradiated ones. 4 tabs

  5. CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta crantz: AN AFFORDABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN DAIRY RATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R., ANJOS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper explores the evidence that exists on the potential use of cassava plant (Manihot esculenta Crantz as an energy source for dairy cattle. Several studies have proven cassava roots, leaves and processing residues to be an important ruminant animal feed resource. Cassava root chip and meal are a potentially good rumen fermentable energy for dairy cows in the tropics. The vegetative parts of cassava are considered to be wastes since human beings grow cassava for its tubers. Feeding trials with cattle have shown cassava hay to have a dry matter intake levels DMI of around 3.2% of BW and a digestibility (71%. The hay also contains tannin-protein complexes that may be a good source of rumen un-degradable protein that will be available to the animal post-ruminally. It has also be shown that supplementing 1-2 kg/head/day of cassava to dairy cattle may go a long way in reducing feeding costs and significantly increasing milk quality and quantity produced. Cassava hay was also noted to be anthelminthic and therapeutic since it contains condensed tannins. Condensed tannins have been proven to reduce gastrointestinal nematodes. Use of cassava as a substitute of maize in dairy rations can significantly lower the feed costs in smallholder dairy farms in cassava producing countries like Mozambique. It was concluded that cassava is potentially an affordable substitute for conventional energy source for small scale dairy farmers.

  6. Expression of Cry1Aa in cassava improves its insect resistance against Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoguang; Xu, Jia; Ling, Erjun; Zhang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    Lepidopteran insects affect cassava production globally, especially in intercropping system. The expression of Cry toxins in transgenic crops has contributed to an efficient control of insect pests, leading to a significant reduction in chemical insecticide usage. Helicoverpa armigera is a Lepidopteran pest that feeds on a wide range of plants like cotton and cassava. In the present study, transgenic cassava plants over-expressing Cry1Aa, which we named as Bt cassava, were developed and used to evaluate its efficacy against H. armigera as a model. Insect feeding assays were carried out to test the effects of Bt cassava leaves on the development and survival of H. armigera. Significant reduction (P cassava leaves in comparison with those fed with wild-type cassava leaves. The higher expression of Cry1Aa in transgenic cassava caused the lethal effect in larvae, in contrast to the normal growth and development of adults and pupation observed when fed with wild-type leaves. Morphological observation on the larval midguts showed that the consumption of Bt cassava affected the gut integrity of H. armigera. The columnar cells of the midgut epithelium were dramatically damaged and showed loose or disordered structure. Their cytoplasms become highly vacuolated and contained disorganized microvilli. Our study demonstrated that the transgenic cassava expressing the Cry1Aa is effective in controlling H. armigera. Our Bt transgenic cassava plant would provide a long-term beneficial effect on all crops in intercropping system, which in-turn, will be profitable to the farmers.

  7. Promoting Cassava as an Industrial Crop in Ghana: Effects on Soil Fertility and Farming System Sustainability

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    S. Adjei-Nsiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is an important starchy staple crop in Ghana with per capita consumption of 152.9 kg/year. Besides being a staple food crop, cassava can be used as raw material for the production of industrial starch and ethanol. The potential of cassava as an industrial commercial crop has not been exploited to a large extent because of perceptions that cassava depletes soils. Recent finding from field studies in the forest/savannah transitional agroecological zone of Ghana indicates that when integrated in the cropping system as a form of rotation, cassava contributes significantly to maintenance of soil fertility, and thus large scale production of cassava for industrial use can contribute to poverty reduction in an environmentally responsive way. This paper discusses the role of cassava cultivation in soil fertility management and its implication for farming system sustainability and industrialization.

  8. Cassava for food and energy: exploring potential benefits of processing of cassava into cassava flour and bioenergy at farmstead and community levels in rural Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvinavashe, E.; Elbersen, H.W.; Slingerland, M.A.; Kolijn, S.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    As in most of sub-Sahara Africa, rural people in Mozambique use firewood as their main source of energy. The use of firewood is associated with several health problems, and the time spent collecting it reduces time for other activities. Cassava is grown as a reserve crop in Mozambique where it is co

  9. Quantification of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV-UG) in single and mixed infected Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Saadia; Winter, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of genomic DNA-A and DNA-B of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus Uganda (Uganda variant, EACMV-UG) was analysed using quantitative PCR to assess virus concentrations in plants from susceptible and tolerant cultivars. The concentrations of genome components in absolute and relative quantification experiments in single and mixed viral infections were determined. Virus concentration was much higher in symptomatic leaf tissues compared to non-symptomatic leaves and corresponded with the severity of disease symptoms. In general, higher titres were recorded for EACMV-UG Ca055 compared to ACMV DRC6. The quantitative assessment also showed that the distribution of both viruses in the moderately resistant cassava cv. TMS 30572 was not different from the highly susceptible cv. TME 117. Natural mixed infections with both viruses gave severe disease symptoms. Relative quantification of virus genomes in mixed infections showed higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-A compared to ACMV DNA-A, but a marked reduction of EACMV-UG DNA-B. The higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-B compared to EACMV DNA-A accumulation in single infections were consistent. Since DNA-B is implicated in virus cell-to-cell spread and systemic movement, the abundance of the EACMV-UG DNA-B may be an important factor driving cassava mosaic disease epidemic.

  10. Do foliar endophytic bacteria fix nitrogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, L. M.; Moyes, A. B.; Frank, C.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Carper, D.; Vandehey, N.; O'Neil, J.; Dekas, A.

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic microorganisms - bacteria and fungi that live inside healthy plant tissue - are a relatively unexplored source of functional diversity in natural ecosystems. Prior to modern sequencing technology, detecting uncultured endophytic bacteria and assessing their putative functions was challenging. However, recent work has revealed a remarkable diversity of as yet non-culturable endophytic taxa and is beginning to identify functional roles within plant microbiomes. We recently examined bacterial communities in the foliage of a long-lived, high-elevation conifer species, limber pine (Pinus flexilis), and discovered a community strongly dominated by acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacteraceae), with several taxa closely related to known nitrogen fixers. Given limber pine's status as a pioneer species that is able to grow in low fertility soils, we hypothesized that this bacterial community has a potential functional role in fixing atmospheric nitrogen, providing a source of this limiting nutrient to the host tree. We used the radioisotope 13N2 to confirm that N2 rapidly diffuses into pine needles, where it could potentially be fixed. With an acetylene reduction assay we confirmed nitrogenase enzyme activity inside excised twigs 4 times over a growing season, and estimate potential rates of N2 fixation at 0.1 nmol N2 g needle-1 hr-1. Scaled to the stand level, this N input could be on the order of ~20 mg N m-2 d-1 over a growing season. While these rates are low, the long lifespan of individual trees (~1000 years) makes them biologically meaningful. Still, measured rates of acetylene reduction and bulk 15N2 incorporation are quite variable in space and time. Much work remains to better characterize the plant-microbial interactions in this system, including the rates of nitrogen fixation and their variability over the growing season, across edaphic conditions, among host species, and through plant development; and to determine which community members are responsible

  11. Endophytic fungi associated with endogenous Boswellia sacra

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    SAIFELDIN A.F. EL-NAGERABI1,♥,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi associated with leaves and stem tissues of Boswellia sacra growing in Dhofar Mountains of Oman were investigated from May 2008 through October 2011. The biological diversity, tissue-preference and seasonal variations of fungi were evaluated. Forty-three species and 3 varieties of fungi were recovered as new records from this plant. Of these isolates, 35 species are new reports to the mycoflora of Oman, whereas 12 species were added to the list of fungal flora of the Arabian Peninsula. The genus Alternaria (12 species is the most prevalent genus recovered from 12.5-83.3% of the screened leaves and stem samples, followed by Aspergillus (5 species, 3 varieties, 6.9-86.1%, Mycelia sterilia (76.4%, Rhizopus stolonifer (62.5%, Drechslera (3 species, 40.3-54.2%, Cladosporium (3 species, 20.8-52.8%, Curvularia lunata (38.8%, Chaetomium (2 species, 15.3-26.3%, Penicillim spp. (9.8-27.8%, Fusarium (9 species, 6.9-27.8%, Ulocladium consortiale (27.8%, Mucor hiemalis (19.5%, and the remaining species (Scytalidium thermophilum, Phoma solani, Taeniolella exilis, and Botryodiplodia theobromae exhibited very low levels of incidence (4.2-11.1%. Endophytic colonization of the leaf tissues was greater (43 species, 3 varieties comparable to stem tissues (25 species. This indicates heterogeneity and tissue-preference, with no evidence of seasonal variation. Therefore, the isolation of many fungal species and sterile mycelia supports the biodiversity of the endophytic fungi invading B. sacra and the high possibility of isolating more fungal species using advanced molecular techniques.

  12. Molecular biodiversity of cassava begomoviruses in Tanzania: evolution of cassava geminiviruses in Africa and evidence for East Africa being a center of diversity of cassava geminiviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveling TAS

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cassava is infected by numerous geminiviruses in Africa and India that cause devastating losses to poor farmers. We here describe the molecular diversity of seven representative cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs infecting cassava from multiple locations in Tanzania. We report for the first time the presence of two isolates in East Africa: (EACMCV-[TZ1] and EACMCV-[TZ7] of the species East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus, originally described in West Africa. The complete nucleotide sequence of EACMCV-[TZ1] DNA-A and DNA-B components shared a high overall sequence identity to EACMCV-[CM] components (92% and 84%. The EACMCV-[TZ1] and -[TZ7] genomic components have recombinations in the same genome regions reported in EACMCV-[CM], but they also have additional recombinations in both components. Evidence from sequence analysis suggests that the two strains have the same ancient origin and are not recent introductions. EACMCV-[TZ1] occurred widely in the southern part of the country. Four other CMG isolates were identified: two were close to the EACMV-Kenya strain (named EACMV-[KE/TZT] and EACMV-[KE/TZM] with 96% sequence identity; one isolate, TZ10, had 98% homology to EACMV-UG2Svr and was named EACMV-UG2 [TZ10]; and finally one isolate was 95% identical to EACMV-[TZ] and named EACMV-[TZ/YV]. One isolate of African cassava mosaic virus with 97% sequence identity with other isolates of ACMV was named ACMV-[TZ]. It represents the first ACMV isolate from Tanzania to be sequenced. The molecular variability of CMGs was also evaluated using partial B component nucleotide sequences of 13 EACMV isolates from Tanzania. Using the sequences of all CMGs currently available, we have shown the presence of a number of putative recombination fragments that are more prominent in all components of EACMV than in ACMV. This new knowledge about the molecular CMG diversity in East Africa, and in Tanzania in particular, has led us to hypothesize about the

  13. Diversity of bacterial endophytes in 3 and 15 year-old grapevines of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina and their potential for plant growth promotion and phytopathogen control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic group number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome. PMID:26805617

  14. Diversity of bacterial endophytes in 3 and 15 year-old grapevines of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina and their potential for plant growth promotion and phytopathogen control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic group number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome.

  15. Quorum quenching activity in cell-free lysate of endophytic bacteria isolated from Pterocarpus santalinus Linn., and its effect on quorum sensing regulated biofilm in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, P S; Ravishankar Rai, V

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing mechanism allows the microorganisms to resist the antibiotic treatment by forming biofilms. Quorum quenching is one of the mechanisms to control the development of drug resistance in microbes. Endophyte bacteria are beneficial to plant growth as they support the immune system against the pathogen attack. The endophytic bacteria present in Pterocarpus santalinus were screened for the presence of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) degrading bacteria using biosensor strains and further confirmed by quantifying the violacein production. Cell-free lysate of endophytic bacteria, Bacillus firmus PT18 and Enterobacter asburiae PT39 exhibited potent AHL degrading ability by inhibiting about 80% violacein production in biosensor strain. Furthermore, when the cell-free lysate was applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAO1-JP2 biofilm it resulted in significant (p<0.01) inhibition of biofilm formation. The biofilm inhibition was confirmed by visualization of biofilm slides under fluorescence microscopy, which showed decrease in total biomass formation in treated slides. Isolation and amplification of the gene (aiiA) indicated that the presence of AHL lactonase in cell-free lysate and sequence alignment indicated that AiiA contains a "HXHXDH" zinc-binding motif that is being conserved in several groups of metallohydrolases. Therefore, the study shows the potential of AHLs degradation by AHL lactonase present in cell-free lysate of isolated endophytic bacteria and inhibition of quorum sensing regulated biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1. PMID:24268182

  16. Transcriptional response of virus-infected cassava and identification of putative sources of resistance for cassava brown streak disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthi, M N; Bouvaine, Sophie; Tufan, Hale A; Mohammed, Ibrahim U; Hillocks, Rory J

    2014-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food staple in sub-Saharan Africa, which is severely affected by cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). The aim of this study was to identify resistance for CBSD as well as to understand the mechanism of putative resistance for providing effective control for the disease. Three cassava varieties; Kaleso, Kiroba and Albert were inoculated with cassava brown streak viruses by grafting and also using the natural insect vector the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Kaleso expressed mild or no disease symptoms and supported low concentrations of viruses, which is a characteristic of resistant plants. In comparison, Kiroba expressed severe leaf but milder root symptoms, while Albert was susceptible with severe symptoms both on leaves and roots. Real-time PCR was used to estimate virus concentrations in cassava varieties. Virus quantities were higher in Kiroba and Albert compared to Kaleso. The Illumina RNA-sequencing was used to further understand the genetic basis of resistance. More than 700 genes were uniquely overexpressed in Kaleso in response to virus infection compared to Albert. Surprisingly, none of them were similar to known resistant gene orthologs. Some of the overexpressed genes, however, belonged to the hormone signalling pathways and secondary metabolites, both of which are linked to plant resistance. These genes should be further characterised before confirming their role in resistance to CBSD.

  17. Analyses of Twelve New Whole Genome Sequences of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses and Ugandan Cassava Brown Streak Viruses from East Africa: Diversity, Supercomputing and Evidence for Further Speciation

    OpenAIRE

    Ndunguru, Joseph; Sseruwagi, Peter; Tairo, Fred; Stomeo, Francesca; Maina, Solomon; Djinkeng, Appolinaire; Kehoe, Monica; Boykin, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    Cassava brown streak disease is caused by two devastating viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) which are frequently found infecting cassava, one of sub-Saharan Africa’s most important staple food crops. Each year these viruses cause losses of up to $100 million USD and can leave entire families without their primary food source, for an entire year. Twelve new whole genomes, including seven of CBSV and five of UCBSV were uncovered in this re...

  18. Transcriptional response to petiole heat girdling in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Ding, Zehong; Ma, Fangfang; Chauhan, Raj Deepika; Allen, Doug K; Brutnell, Thomas P; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Li, Pinghua

    2015-01-01

    To examine the interactions of starch and sugar metabolism on photosynthesis in cassava, a heat-girdling treatment was applied to petioles of cassava leaves at the end of the light cycle to inhibit starch remobilization during the night. The inhibition of starch remobilization caused significant starch accumulation at the beginning of the light cycle, inhibited photosynthesis, and affected intracellular sugar levels. RNA-seq analysis of heat-treated and control plants revealed significantly decreased expression of genes related to photosynthesis, as well as N-metabolism and chlorophyll biosynthesis. However, expression of genes encoding TCA cycle enzymes and mitochondria electron transport components, and flavonoid biosynthetic pathway enzymes were induced. These studies reveal a dynamic transcriptional response to perturbation of sink demand in a single leaf, and provide useful information for understanding the regulations of cassava under sink or source limitation.

  19. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design...... of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, to definedesign/retrofit targets for process improvements. Economic analysis is performed to evaluate the profitability of the process...... in order to identify the most sustainable design for the production of ethanol. The capacity for ethanol production from cassava rhizome is set to 150,000 liters/day, which is about 1.3 % of the total demand of ethanol in Thailand. LCA on the base case design pointed to large amounts of CO2 and CO...

  20. Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom K.;

    The high quality cassava flour (HQCF) industry has just started to evolve in Africa and elsewhere. The sustainability of the growing industry, the profitability of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) that are active in the industry and good-health of consumers can best be guaranteed through...... the adoption of proper quality and food safety procedures. Cassava processing enterprises involved in the productionof HQCF must therefore be commited to the quality and food safety of the HQCF. They must have the right technology, appropriate processing machhinery, standard testing instruments...... and the necessary technical expertise. This quality manual was therefore developed to guide small- to medium-scale cassava in the design and implematation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and Good manufacturing Practices (GMP) plans for HQCF production. It describes the HQCF production...

  1. Biogas Production From Cassava Starch Effluent Using Microalgae As Biostabilisator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Budiyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environmental problems to the nearby rural population. The possible alternative to solve the problem is by converting waste to energy biogas in the biodigester. The main problem of the biogas production of cassava starch effluent is acid forming-bacteria quickly produced acid resulting significantly in declining pH below the neutral pH and diminishing growth of methane bacteria. Hence, the only one of the method to cover this problem is by adding microalgae as biostabilisator of pH. Microalgae can also be used as purifier agent to absorb CO2.The general objective of this research project was to develop an integrated process of biogas production and purification from cassava starch effluent by using biostabilisator agent microalgae. This study has been focused on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production. The result can be concluded as follows: i The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added, ii Biogas production with microalgae and cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid, iii Biogas production without  microalgae was 189 ml/g total solid.

  2. Biocontrol potential of endophytes harbored in Radula marginata (liverwort) from the New Zealand ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusari, Parijat; Kusari, Souvik; Spiteller, Michael; Kayser, Oliver

    2014-10-01

    Radula marginata and Cannabis sativa L. are two phylogenetically unrelated plant species containing structurally similar secondary metabolites like cannabinoids. The major objective of our work was the isolation, identification, biocontrol efficacies, biofilm forming potential and anti-biofilm ability of endophytic microbial community of the liverwort R. marginata, as compared to bacterial endophytic isolates harbored in C. sativa plants. A total of 15 endophytic fungal and 4 endophytic bacterial isolates were identified, including the presence of a bacterial endosymbiont within an endophytic fungal isolate. The endosymbiont was visible only when the fungus containing it was challenged with two phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea and Trichothecium roseum, highlighting a tripartite microbe-microbe interaction and biocontrol potency of endophytes under biotic stress. We also observed sixteen types of endophytic fungal-pathogen and twelve types of endophytic bacterial-pathogen interactions coupled to varying degree of growth inhibitions of either the pathogen or endophyte or both. This showed the magnitude of biocontrol efficacies of endophytes in aiding plant fitness benefits under different media (environmental) conditions. Additionally, it was ecologically noteworthy to find the presence of similar endophytic bacterial genera in both Radula and Cannabis plants, which exhibited similar functional traits like biofilm formation and general anti-biofilm activities. Thus far, our work underlines the biocontrol potency and defensive functional traits (in terms of antagonism and biofilm formation) of endophytes harbored in liverwort R. marginata as compared to the endophytic community of phylogenetically unrelated but phytochemically similar plant C. sativa. PMID:25100187

  3. Optimizing the culture conditions and determining the stability of antibiotic secretion by Polygonum viviparum of the endophytic bacteria Bacillus mojavensis%珠芽蓼内生细菌 ZA1的抑菌物质产生条件的优化及其稳定性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成德; 畅涛; 薛莉; 冯中红; 姚玉玲; 李婷; 陈秀蓉

    2015-01-01

    One strain of Bacillus mojavensis (ZA1 )is known to have a strong antibacterial effect against the pathogen of potato gangrene (Phomafoveata ).In this study,P .foveata was isolated as a fungal pathogen and the method of petri dish confrontation was used to determine culture conditions for optimizing and stabilizing production of the antibiotic secreted by ZA1.The results showed that the optimum culture medium for ZA1 consisted of 200 g potato,10 g peptone,20 g sucrose and 1000 mL distilled water.The optimum fermentation temperature of ZA1 was 17.8℃.The optimum pH value of ZA1’s culture medium was 6.9.The optimum 150 mL triangle bottle volume of ZA1 was 20 mL.The optimum culture mode of ZA1 was shaking cultivation in the dark for 96 hours.Results showed that the EC50 =0.1228 μL/mL against P .foveata after optimization was 37 times higher than the EC50 =4.5888 μL/mL against P .foveata before optimization.Crude extracting of bac-teriostatic from ZA1 showed that the characteristics of high temperature resistance and relative activity could reach 76.62% after it was treated at 90℃ for 2 hours.Relative activity was stable and could not be destroyed under UV irradiation for 30 minutes.The bacteriostatic extract of ZA1 had good acid and alkali resistance. When it was treated by pH=3 and pH=11,the relative activity was 92.87% and 85.11% respectively.It was not sensitive to protease and heavy metal ions such as Ag+ ,Cu2 + ,Zn2 + and Fe3 + .Relative activity remained at 86.93% after Ag+ treatment.%从珠芽蓼中分离的内生细菌 ZA1对马铃薯坏疽病菌具有良好的抑菌效果,鉴定为莫海威芽孢杆菌。本文通过平板对峙法对 ZA1分泌物抑制马铃薯坏疽病菌的培养条件进行了优化,并对 ZA1抑菌粗提物的稳定性进行了测定。结果表明,ZA1的最佳培养基为 B 培养液,最佳发酵温度为17.8℃,培养基的最佳 pH 是6.9,150 mL 三角瓶的最佳装液量为20 mL,最佳培养

  4. Developmental peculiarities and seed-borne endophytes in quinoa: Omnipresent, robust bacilli contribute to plant fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea ePitzschke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among potential climate change-adapted crops for future agriculture, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, a facultative halophyte plant with exceptional nutritional properties, stands out as a prime candidate. This work examined how quinoa deals with extreme situations during seed rehydration. A seed-borne microbiome was discovered and its potential role in early development and stress resistance investigated.Methods involved germination and drought exposure assays, histochemical detection of reactive oxygen species, and diverse tests with seed(ling material to assess microbial occurrence, release and proliferation. Quinoa´s microbial partners were biochemically, microscopically and taxonomically characterized.Quinoa distinguishes itself from other plants in multiple ways. It germinates within minutes, even under extremely hostile conditions. Broken seeds/split embryos are able to regenerate. Furthermore, quinoa seedlings are resurrection-competent. These peculiarities became in part explainable upon discovery of seed-borne microorganisms. 100% of quinoa seeds, from different sources, are inhabited by bacteria of the genus Bacillus. These endophytes are mobile and reside in all seedling organs, indicating vertical transmission. Owing to their strong catalase activity and high superoxide contents they can modify host redox properties. One outcome is cell expansion, enabling quinoa to overcome a critical period in development, seedling establishment.Quinoa´s immediate confrontation with foreign ROS and bacterial elicitors likely induces a naturally primed state, enabling plants to withstand extreme situations. The endophytic bacteria, which are cultivable and highly robust themselves, have high potential for application in agriculture, food (amylase and cosmetics (catalase industry. An exciting question arising from this work is: Can quinoa´s microbiome be transferred to improve stress resistance in other plant species?

  5. Rare actinomycetes Nocardia caishijiensis and Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans as endophytes, their bioactivity and metabolites evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida; Kulik, Andreas; Grond, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Two strains identified as Nocardia caishijiensis (SORS 64b) and Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans (AGLS 2) were isolated as endophytes from Sonchus oleraceus and Ageratum conyzoides respectively. The analysis of their extracts revealed them to be strongly bioactive. The N. caishijiensis extract gave an LC50 of 570 μg/ml(-1) in the brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay and an EC50 of 0.552 μg/ml(-1) in the DPPH antioxidant assay. Antimicrobial activity was observed against Methicillin resistant Staphlococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (14 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 706003 (13 mm), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (11 mm) and Candida tropicalis (20 mm). For the extract of P. carboxydivorans the EC50 was 0.670 μg/ml(-1) and it was observed to be more bioactive against Bacillus subtilis DSM 10 ATCC 6051 (21 mm), C. tropicalis (20 mm), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (17 mm), MRSA (17 mm), E. coli K12 (W1130) (16 mm) and Chlorella vulgaris (10 mm). The genotoxicity testing revealed a 20 mm zone of inhibition against the polA mutant strain E. coli K-12 AB 3027 suggesting damage to the DNA and polA genes. The TLC and bioautography screening revealed a diversity of active bands of medium polar and nonpolar compounds. Metabolite analysis by HPLC-DAD via UV/vis spectral screening suggested the possibility of stenothricin and bagremycin A in the mycelium extract of N. caishijiensis respectively. In the broth and mycelium extract of P. carboxydivorans borrelidin was suggested along with α-pyrone. The HPLC-MS revealed bioactive long chained amide derivatives such as 7-Octadecenamide, 9, 12 octadecandienamide. This study reports the rare actinomycetes N. caishijiensis and P. carboxydivorans as endophytes and evaluates their bioactive metabolites. PMID:26946375

  6. Inactivation of Spores of Bacillus anthracis Sterne, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis by Chlorination

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, E W; Adcock, N. J.; Sivaganesan, M; Rose, L. J.

    2005-01-01

    Three species of Bacillus were evaluated as potential surrogates for Bacillus anthracis for determining the sporicidal activity of chlorination as commonly used in drinking water treatment. Spores of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis were found to be an appropriate surrogate for spores of B. anthracis for use in chlorine inactivation studies.

  7. Effect of protein supplemented cassava diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, V G; Leelamma, S

    1996-04-01

    The effect of feeding rats with cassava diet (tapioca) has been investigated with respect to the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and levels of TBARS. By varying the levels of protein in the diet and cyanide content of cassava, the possible role of a high protein diet in the prevention of oxidant stress has been shown. Rhodanese which detoxifes cyanide is also found to be inhibited in rats fed low protein diet while the inhibition was only marginal in the high protein fed groups. PMID:8754627

  8. Cassava leaves as protein source for pigs in Central Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to evaluate the use of cassava leaves as protein sources for pigs when used at high levels in the diet, either in fresh form or with simplified methods of processing. In twenty cassava varieties taken from the upper part of the plant at the root harvesting, the crude protein varied from 23.7 to 29.5 % in DM and the HCN from 610 to 1840 mg/kg DM. Chopping, washing and wilting the leaves are simple ways to process the. There was a 58% reductio...

  9. Anatomic changes due to interspecific grafting in cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfim, N; Ribeiro, D G; Nassar, N M A

    2011-05-31

    Cassava rootstocks of varieties UnB 201 and UnB 122 grafted with scions of Manihot fortalezensis were prepared for anatomic study. The roots were cut, stained with safranin and alcian blue, and examined microscopically, comparing them with sections taken from ungrafted roots. There was a significant decrease in number of pericyclic fibers, vascular vessels and tyloses in rootstocks. They exhibited significant larger vessels. These changes in anatomic structure are a consequence of genetic effects caused by transference of genetic material from scion to rootstock. The same ungrafted species was compared. This is the first report on anatomic changes due to grafting in cassava.

  10. Life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorapipatana, Chumnong; Yoosin, Suthamma [Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Pracha-Uthit Rd., Tungkru, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Center for Energy Technology and Environment, Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-02-15

    To increase the security of energy supply, lessen dependence on crude oil import and buffer against the impacts of large change in crude oil prices, the Thai government initiated and officially announced the national ethanol fuel program in year 2000. Since then, domestic ethanol demand has grown rapidly. Presently, all commercial ethanol in Thailand is produced from molasses as Thai law prohibits producing it from sugar cane directly. This is likely to limit ethanol supply in the near future. One possible solution is to supply more ethanol from cassava which is widely cultivated in this country. However, its production cost has not yet been known for certain. The objective of this study is to estimate the life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava and to assess its economic competitiveness with gasoline in the Thai fuel market. Based on the record of cassava prices during the years 2002-2005, it was found that using it as feedstock would share more than 50% of the ethanol from cassava total production cost. It was also found that a bio-ethanol plant, with a capacity of 150,000 l/day, can produce ethanol from cassava in a range of ex-factory costs from 16.42 to 20.83 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (excluding all taxes), with an average cost of 18.15 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (41, 52 and 45 US cents/l gasoline equivalent respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate). In the same years, the range of 95-octane gasoline prices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to 20.86 baht/l, with an average price of 11.50 baht/l (15, 52 and 29 US cents/l respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate) which were much cheaper than the costs of ethanol made from cassava. Thus, we conclude that under the scenario of low to normal crude oil price, ethanol from cassava is not competitive with gasoline. The gasoline price has to rise consistently above 18.15 baht (45 US cents)/l before ethanol made from cassava can be commercially competitive with gasoline. (author)

  11. Life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To increase the security of energy supply, lessen dependence on crude oil import and buffer against the impacts of large change in crude oil prices, the Thai government initiated and officially announced the national ethanol fuel program in year 2000. Since then, domestic ethanol demand has grown rapidly. Presently, all commercial ethanol in Thailand is produced from molasses as Thai law prohibits producing it from sugar cane directly. This is likely to limit ethanol supply in the near future. One possible solution is to supply more ethanol from cassava which is widely cultivated in this country. However, its production cost has not yet been known for certain. The objective of this study is to estimate the life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava and to assess its economic competitiveness with gasoline in the Thai fuel market. Based on the record of cassava prices during the years 2002-2005, it was found that using it as feedstock would share more than 50% of the ethanol from cassava total production cost. It was also found that a bio-ethanol plant, with a capacity of 150,000 l/day, can produce ethanol from cassava in a range of ex-factory costs from 16.42 to 20.83 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (excluding all taxes), with an average cost of 18.15 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (41, 52 and 45 US cents/l gasoline equivalent respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate). In the same years, the range of 95-octane gasoline prices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to 20.86 baht/l, with an average price of 11.50 baht/l (15, 52 and 29 US cents/l respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate) which were much cheaper than the costs of ethanol made from cassava. Thus, we conclude that under the scenario of low to normal crude oil price, ethanol from cassava is not competitive with gasoline. The gasoline price has to rise consistently above 18.15 baht (45 US cents)/l before ethanol made from cassava can be commercially competitive with gasoline. (author)

  12. Isolation of Endophytic Streptomyces Strains from Surface-Sterilized Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Sardi, P.; Saracchi, M.; Quaroni, S.; Petrolini, B.; Borgonovi, G. E.; Merli, S.

    1992-01-01

    When the roots of 28 plant species were surface sterilized and incubated on agar medium, endophytic actinomycetes in the root cortex were observed by direct microscopic observation and pure culture techniques.

  13. Endophytic degrader bacteria for improving phytoremediation of organic xenobiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, U.; Trapp, Stefan; Lelie, D, van der;

    2003-01-01

    by improving their degradation during transport in the plant vascular system. Introducing endophytic degrader bacteria into the plants’ vascular system was proposed as a tool to achieve this goal. As a scientific necessity, the project comprised the thorough ecological and genetic investigation of endophytic....... Another potential spin-off of the project was the unexpected generation of constitutive TCE degraders, i.e., bacteria that do not require toluene or phenol for induction of cometabolic TCE degradation. Genetic engineering methods were not involved in the generation of this metabolic trait. The business...... bacteria, and the isolation of a large number of natural endophytic strains. The project delivered on this goal by providing a large collection of 150 novel characterized endophytic bacteria from poplar and willow, two plant species commonly used for phytoremediation, and from Flag Iris, a plant used...

  14. Some endophytes of Juncus trifidus from Tatra Mts. in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chlebicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a first part of work devoted highland rush endophytes: Penicillium expansum, Cladosporium oxysporum, Arthrinium state of Apiospora montagnei and Aureobasidium pullulans. The basidiomycete strain, possibly Lagarobasidium detriticum was also isolated.

  15. Antimicrobial chemical constituents from endophytic fungus Phomasp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidayat Hussain; Siegfried Draeger; Barbara Schulz; Karsten Krohn; Ines Kock; Ahmed Al-Harrasi; Ahmed Al-Rawahi; Ghulam Abbas; Ivan R Green; Afzal Shah; Amin Badshah; Muhammad Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of different extracts of the endophytic fungus Phomasp. and the tentative identification of their active constituents.Methods:The extract and compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using theAgarWellDiffusionMethod. Four compounds were purified using column chromatography and their structures were assigned using1H and13CNMR spectra,DEPT,2DCOSY,HMQC andHMBC experiments.Results:The ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp. showed good antifungal, antibacterial, and algicidal properties.One new dihydrofuran derivative, named phomafuranol(1), together with three known compounds, phomalacton(2),(3R)-5-hydroxymellein(3) and emodin(4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp.Preliminary studies indicated that phomalacton(2) displayed strong antibacterial, good antifungal and antialgal activities.Similarly(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (3) and emodin(4) showed good antifungal, antibacterial and algicidal properties.Conclusions:Antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of the endophytic fungusPhomasp. and isolated compounds clearly demonstrate thatPhomasp. and its active compounds represent a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  16. Polyketide and benzopyran compounds of an endophytic fungus isolated from Cinnamomum mollissimum:biological activity and structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carolina Santiago; Lin Sun; Murray Herbert Gibson Munro; Jacinta Santhanam

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study bioactivity and compounds produced by an endophytic Phoma sp. fungus isolated from the medicinal plant Cinnamomum mollissimum. Methods: Compounds produced by the fungus were extracted from fungal broth culture with ethyl acetate. This was followed by bioactivity profiling of the crude extract fractions obtained via high performance liquid chromatography. The fractions were tested for cytotoxicity to P388 murine leukemic cells and antimicrobial activity against bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Compounds purified from active fractions which showed antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities were identified using capillary nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, mass spectrometry and admission to AntiMarin database. Results: Three known compounds, namely 4-hydroxymellein, 4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one and 1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone, were isolated from the fungus. The polyketide compound 4-hydroxymellein showed high inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells (94.6%) and the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (97.3%). Meanwhile, 4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one, a benzopyran compound, demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells (48.8%) and the fungus Aspergillus niger (56.1%). The second polyketide compound, 1 (2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone was inactive against the tested targets. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the potential of endophytes as producers of pharmacologically important compounds, including polyketides which are major secondary metabolites in fungi.

  17. Diversity of endophytic bacteria associated with nodules of two indigenous legumes at different altitudes of the Qilian Mountains in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Li; Chen, Weimin; Wei, Gehong

    2014-09-01

    A total of 201 endophytic root nodule-associated bacteria collected from two legumes indigenous to different Qilian Mountain altitudes (Hexi Corridor) were characterized through 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR clustering. The isolates phylogenetically belonged to 35 species in the Phyllobacterium, Ensifer, Rhizobium, Microvirga, Sphingomonas, Paracoccus, Mycobacterium, Paenibacillus, Cohnella, Sporosarcina, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Brevibacterium, Xenophilus, Erwinia, Leclercia, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas genera. Phylogenetic nodA sequence analysis showed higher similarity to Sinorhizobium meliloti with strains related to the Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, and Acinetobacter genera. Sequence analysis of the nifH gene revealed that the strains belonging to Xenophilus, Acinetobacter, Phyllobacterium, and Rhizobium had genes similar to those of Mesorhizobium and Sinorhizobium. The results indicated that horizontal gene transfer could have occurred between rhizobia and non-rhizobial endophytes. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that altitude and host plant species contributed more to the bacterial endosymbiont separation than other ecological factors. This study provided valuable information on the interactions between symbiotic bacteria, non-symbiotic bacteria and their habitats, and thus provided knowledge on their genetic diversity and ecology. PMID:24985194

  18. Biosynthesis of Anti-Proliferative Gold Nanoparticles Using Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Strain Isolated from Neem (A. indica) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ejaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Absar; Julius, Anju; Syed, Asad; Khan, Shadab; Kharat, Mahesh; Pai, Kalpana; Kadoo, Narendra; Gupta, Vidya

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a simple, rapid, environment friendly approach for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) fungal endophyte, which based upon morphological and cultural characteristics was eventually identified as Fusarium oxysporum. The aqueous precursor (HAuCl4) solution when reacted with endophytic fungus resulted in the biosynthesis of abundant amounts of well dispersed gold nanoparticles of 10-40 nm with an average size of 22nm. These biosynthesized gold nanoparticles were then characterized by standard analytical techniques such as UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Cytotoxic activity of these nanoparticles was checked against three different cell types including breast cancer (ZR-75-1), Daudi (Human Burkitt's lymphoma cancer) and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), where it was found that our gold nanoparticles are anti-proliferative against cancer cells but completely safe toward normal cells. In addition to this, assessment of toxicity toward human RBC revealed less than 0.1 % hemolysis as compared to Triton X-100 suggesting safe nature of our biosynthesized gold nanoparticles on human cells. Also, our nanoparticles exhibited no anti-fungal (against Aspergillus niger) or anti-bacterial [against Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis & Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli & Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria] activity thus suggesting their non-toxic, biocompatible nature. The present investigation opens up avenues for ecofriendly, biocompatible nanomaterials to be used in a wide variety of application such as drug delivery, therapeutics, theranostics and so on.

  19. Radiation processing of cassava starch hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper consists of two topics on cassava starch (CS). The first paper deals with radiation-induced graft polymerization of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (VP) onto CS. The results from PVP -grafted-starch were subsequently compared with those of PVP hydrogels and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels. It was found that the PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels, with gel fraction higher than 80%, could be prepared at the dose of 20 kGy, while PVP and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels require at least 30 kGy to obtain gels with more than 80% gel fraction. And at the same dose used for irradiation, the gel strength of the PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels is significantly higher than that of the PVP and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels. Radiation crosslinking of carboxymethyl CS is the second topic. CS was chemically modified by sodium monochloroacetate (SMCA) to yield carboxymethyl starch (CMS). The aqueous solution of CMS was irradiated and underwent radiation-induced crosslinking, resulting in a crosslinked CMS (XLCMS) hydrogel. The optimum condition for obtaining hydrogels with desirable properties is irradiation at low dose, 2 kGy. At higher doses, the gel fraction tends to diminish, due to the domination of degradation over crosslinking. (author)

  20. Interactions among endophytic bacteria and fungi: effects and potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W M M S Bandara; Gamini Seneviratne; S A Kulasooriya

    2006-12-01

    Plants benefit extensively by harbouring endophytic microbes. They promote plant growth and confer enhanced resistance to various pathogens. However, the way the interactions among endophytes influence the plant productivity has not been explained. Present study experimentally showed that endophytes isolated from rice (Oryza sativa) used as the test plant produced two types of interactions; biofilms (bacteria attached to mycelia) and mixed cultures with no such attachments. Acidity, as measured by pH in cultures with biofilms was higher than that of fungi alone, bacteria alone or the mixed cultures. Production of indoleacetic acid like substances (IAAS) of biofilms was higher than that of mixed cultures, fungi or bacteria. Bacteria and fungi produced higher quantities of IAAS than mixed cultures. In mixed cultures, the potential of IAAS production of resident microbes was reduced considerably. There was a negative relationship between IAAS and pH of the biofilms, indicating that IAAS was the main contributor to the acidity. However, such a relationship was not observed in mixed cultures. Microbial acid production is important for suppressing plant pathogens. Thus the biofilm formation in endophytic environment seems to be very important for healthy and improved plant growth. However, it is unlikely that an interaction among endophytes takes place naturally in the endophytic environment, due to physical barriers of plant tissues. Further, critical cell density dependant quorum sensing that leads to biofilm formation may not occur in the endophytic environment as there is a limited space. As such in vitro production and application of beneficial biofilmed inocula of endophytes are important for improved plant production in any agro-ecosystem. The conventional practice of plant inoculation with monocultures or mixed cultures of effective microbes may not give the highest microbial effect, which may only be achieved by biofilm formation.

  1. Bioprospecting endophytic bacteria for biological control of coffee leaf rust

    OpenAIRE

    Shiomi Humberto Franco; Silva Harllen Sandro Alves; Melo Itamar Soares de; Nunes Flávia Vieira; Bettiol Wagner

    2006-01-01

    Suppression of plant diseases due to the action of endophytic microorganisms has been demonstrated in several pathosystems. Experiments under controlled conditions involving endophytic bacteria isolated from leaves and branches of Coffea arabica L and Coffea robusta L were conducted with the objective of evaluating the inhibition of germination of Hemileia vastatrix Berk. & Br., race II, urediniospores and the control of coffee leaf rust development in tests with leaf discs, detached leaves, ...

  2. Comparative analysis of virus-derived small RNAs within cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) infected with cassava brown streak viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwok, Emmanuel; Ilyas, Muhammad; Alicai, Titus; Rey, Marie E C; Taylor, Nigel J

    2016-04-01

    Infection of plant cells by viral pathogens triggers RNA silencing, an innate antiviral defense mechanism. In response to infection, small RNAs (sRNAs) are produced that associate with Argonaute (AGO)-containing silencing complexes which act to inactivate viral genomes by posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Deep sequencing was used to compare virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in cassava genotypes NASE 3, TME 204 and 60444 infected with the positive sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the causal agents of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). An abundance of 21-24nt vsRNAs was detected and mapped, covering the entire CBSV and UCBSV genomes. The 21nt vsRNAs were most predominant, followed by the 22 nt class with a slight bias toward sense compared to antisense polarity, and a bias for adenine and uracil bases present at the 5'-terminus. Distribution and frequency of vsRNAs differed between cassava genotypes and viral genomes. In susceptible genotypes TME 204 and 60444, CBSV-derived sRNAs were seen in greater abundance than UCBSV-derived sRNAs. NASE 3, known to be resistant to UCBSV, accumulated negligible UCBSV-derived sRNAs but high populations of CBSV-derived sRNAs. Transcript levels of cassava homologues of AGO2, DCL2 and DCL4, which are central to the gene-silencing complex, were found to be differentially regulated in CBSV- and UCBSV-infected plants across genotypes, suggesting these proteins play a role in antiviral defense. Irrespective of genotype or viral pathogen, maximum populations of vsRNAs mapped to the cytoplasmic inclusion, P1 and P3 protein-encoding regions. Our results indicate disparity between CBSV and UCBSV host-virus interaction mechanisms, and provide insight into the role of virus-induced gene silencing as a mechanism of resistance to CBSD.

  3. Comparative analysis of virus-derived small RNAs within cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) infected with cassava brown streak viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwok, Emmanuel; Ilyas, Muhammad; Alicai, Titus; Rey, Marie E C; Taylor, Nigel J

    2016-04-01

    Infection of plant cells by viral pathogens triggers RNA silencing, an innate antiviral defense mechanism. In response to infection, small RNAs (sRNAs) are produced that associate with Argonaute (AGO)-containing silencing complexes which act to inactivate viral genomes by posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Deep sequencing was used to compare virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in cassava genotypes NASE 3, TME 204 and 60444 infected with the positive sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the causal agents of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). An abundance of 21-24nt vsRNAs was detected and mapped, covering the entire CBSV and UCBSV genomes. The 21nt vsRNAs were most predominant, followed by the 22 nt class with a slight bias toward sense compared to antisense polarity, and a bias for adenine and uracil bases present at the 5'-terminus. Distribution and frequency of vsRNAs differed between cassava genotypes and viral genomes. In susceptible genotypes TME 204 and 60444, CBSV-derived sRNAs were seen in greater abundance than UCBSV-derived sRNAs. NASE 3, known to be resistant to UCBSV, accumulated negligible UCBSV-derived sRNAs but high populations of CBSV-derived sRNAs. Transcript levels of cassava homologues of AGO2, DCL2 and DCL4, which are central to the gene-silencing complex, were found to be differentially regulated in CBSV- and UCBSV-infected plants across genotypes, suggesting these proteins play a role in antiviral defense. Irrespective of genotype or viral pathogen, maximum populations of vsRNAs mapped to the cytoplasmic inclusion, P1 and P3 protein-encoding regions. Our results indicate disparity between CBSV and UCBSV host-virus interaction mechanisms, and provide insight into the role of virus-induced gene silencing as a mechanism of resistance to CBSD. PMID:26811902

  4. Comparison of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis are closely related, spore forming soil bacteria. B. thuringiensis produces insecticidal crystal proteins during sporulation and these toxins are the most important biopesticides in the world today. Genomes of the B. thuringiensis and B. cereus strains were analysed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis after treatment of the DNA with the restriction enzyme NotI. The NotI fingerprint patterns varied both within the B. thuringiensis and the B. cereus strains. The size of the fragments varied between 15 and 1350 kb. When physical maps of the B. thuringiensis and B. cereus strains were compared, B. thuringiensis appeared to be as closely related to B. cereus as the B. cereus strains were to each other. Nine out of 12 B. thuringiensis strains and 18 out of 25 B. cereus strains produced enterotoxins. The close relationship between B. thuringiensis and B. cereus should be taken into consideration when B. thuringiensis is used as a biopesticide. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  5. Effects of supplementing cassava peels with cassava leaves and cowpea haulms on the performance, intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization of West African Dwarf goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abatan, Oluwayemisi; Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Adebayo, Kolawole; Iposu, Shamusideen; Sowande, Olusiji Sunday; Onwuka, Chryss Friday Ijeoma

    2015-01-01

    A 16-week experiment was conducted to determine the utilization of ratios of cassava leaf meal, cassava peel and cowpea haulms by West African Dwarf (WAD) goats. Thirty WAD bucks aged 8 ± 1.3 months with body weights of 6-6.5 ± 0.12 kg were divided into five groups of six animals and each group randomly assigned to one of the treatments in a completely randomized design. The five dietary treatments were formulated to contain cassava peels, leaves and cowpea haulms at different proportions of 700:100:175 (T1), 500:200:275 (T2), 300:300:375 (T3) and 100:400:475 (T4) g/kg dry matter (DM), respectively. A standard diet formulated to meet the nutrient requirement of the animals with no cassava and cowpea haulms was used as the control diet (T5). DM intake ranged from 316.16 to 458.73 g/day and significantly increased (linear (L), quadratic (Q), cubic (C): P cassava peels reduced and cassava leaves and cowpea haulms increased in the diets. The crude protein (CP) intake significantly increased (L, Q, C: P cassava peels reduced and cassava leaves and cowpea haulms increased in the diets. Growth rate values significantly (L: P cassava leaves and cowpea haulms increased and reduced cassava peels in the diets. The highest N intake of 14.75 g/day obtained in T4 was significantly (L: P cassava peels, leaves and cowpea haulms in the proportion of 100:400:475 g/kg DM improved the growth and digestibility of WAD goats and can therefore be used to sustain animal performance during the dry season in a total mixed ration.

  6. Symbiotic grasses: A review of basic biology of forage grass fungal endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungal endophytes associated with grasses are the fundamental reason for the basic successes of several pasture grasses, notable tall fescues, and perennial ryegrass. Tall fescue and perennial ryegrass fungal endophytes, Neotyphodium coenophialum and N. lolii, respectively, and their relatives ...

  7. Dynamics of Seed-Borne Rice Endophytes on Early Plant Growth Stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardoim, P.R.; Hardoim, C.C.P.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes are ubiquitous to virtually all terrestrial plants. With the increasing appreciation of studies that unravel the mutualistic interactions between plant and microbes, we increasingly value the beneficial functions of endophytes that improve plant growth and development. However,

  8. Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) infestation on cassava genotypes grown at different ecozones in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyo, O A; Dixon, A G O; Atiri, G I

    2005-04-01

    Large-scale screening of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, genotypes for resistance to infestation by whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, the vector of cassava mosaic geminiviruses, is limited. A range of new cassava elite clones were therefore assessed for the whitefly infestation in the 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 cropping seasons in experimental fields of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. On each scoring day, between 0600 and 0800 hours when the whiteflies were relatively immobile, adult whitefly populations on the five topmost expanded leaves of cassava cultivars were counted. All through the 6-mo scoring period, there was a highly significant difference in whitefly infestation among the new cassava elite clones. Vector population buildup was observed in Ibadan (forest-savanna transition zone) and Onne (humid forest), 2 mo after planting (MAP). Mean infestation across cassava genotypes was significantly highest (16.6 whiteflies per plant) in Ibadan and lowest in Zaria (0.2). Generally, whitefly infestation was very low in all locations at 5 and 6 MAP. During this period, cassava genotypes 96/1439 and 91/02324 significantly supported higher infestations than other genotypes. Plants of 96/1089A and TMS 30572 supported the lowest whitefly infestation across cassava genotypes in all locations. The preferential whitefly visitation, the differences between locations in relation to whitefly population, cassava mosaic disease, and the fresh root yield of cassava genotypes are discussed.

  9. Characterization of Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands LM; Dufrenne JB; Leusden FM; MGB

    2002-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitary microorganism that may cause food borne disease. Pathogenicity, however, depends on various characteristics such as the ability to form (entero)-toxin(s) that can not be detected by microbiological methods. Further characterization of pathogenic properties is not only

  10. Biodiversity in Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielaat A; Fricker M; Nauta MJ; Leusden FM van; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Experiments have been performed by different partners to identify variability in properties of Bacillus cereus strains that contribute to the extent of their virulence as part of an EU project. To this end, 100 B. cereus strains were selected and screened for biological properties, such as toxin pro

  11. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S.D.; Albertini, A.;

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximate to4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes we...

  12. Fungal root endophytes of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliam, Richard S; Jones, David L

    2010-06-01

    As carnivorous plants acquire substantial amounts of nutrients from the digestion of their prey, mycorrhizal associations are considered to be redundant; however, fungal root endophytes have rarely been examined. As endophytic fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities, we aim to determine the extent of fungal root colonisation of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia at two points in the growing season (spring and summer). We have used a culture-dependent method to isolate fungal endophytes and diagnostic polymerase chain reaction methods to determine arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation. All of the roots sampled contained culturable fungal root endophytes; additionally, we have provided molecular evidence that they also host arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Colonisation showed seasonal differences: Roots in the spring were colonised by Articulospora tetracladia, two isolates of uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungi, an unidentified species of fungal endophyte and Trichoderma viride, which was present in every plant sampled. In contrast, roots in the summer were colonised by Alatospora acuminata, an uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungus, Penicillium pinophilum and an uncultured fungal clone. Although the functional roles of fungal endophytes of D. rotundifolia are unknown, colonisation may (a) confer abiotic stress tolerance, (b) facilitate the acquisition of scarce nutrients particularly at the beginning of the growing season or (c) play a role in nutrient signalling between root and shoot. PMID:20012108

  13. ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM JATROPHA CURCUS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes are ubiquitously reported from the living tissues of healthy plant parts from every host studied so far. These microbes attributed significantly in upraising the caliber of the host to counteract against the different stresses and herbivores, and also some times to improve the host fitness. This study presenting here the endophytic mycoflora of Jatropha curcus, which remain less explored. A total of eighteen species of fungi were isolated from leaf, stem, and roots of Jatropha curcus. The root was heavily colonized by the genera like Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Aspergillus spp. The leaf tissues however showed somewhat greater diversity of endophytic colonization. Drechslera, Curvularia, Bipolaris, Alternaria, and Aspergillus sp. were dominant in to the leaf tissues with strong presence of an unidentified genus. The species richness as well as frequency of colonization of endophytic fungi was more pronounced in the leaf tissues rather than the root and stem. This study reaffirms the fact that endophytes are host and tissues specific. In this regard, the endophytic fungi received in this study, may represent a unique source of one or more of the interesting and useful bioactive compounds similar to those of vinca alkaloid group.

  14. Characterization of an endophytic bacterial community associated with Eucalyptus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, R E L; Araújo, W L; Maccheroni, W; Azevedo, J L

    2009-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria were isolated from stems of Eucalyptus spp (Eucalyptus citriodora, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis, E. torelliana, E. pellita, and a hybrid of E. grandis and E. urophylla) cultivated at two sites; they were characterized by RAPD and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). Endophytic bacteria were more frequently isolated from E. grandis and E. pellita. The 76 isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Erwinia/Pantoea (45%), Agrobacterium sp (21%), Curtobacterium sp (9%), Brevibacillus sp (8%), Pseudomonas sp (8%), Acinetobacter sp (4%), Burkholderia cepacia (2.6%), and Lactococcus lactis (2.6%). Genetic characterization of these endophytic bacteria isolates showed at least eight ARDRA haplotypes. The genetic diversity of 32 Erwinia/Pantoea and 16 Agrobacterium sp isolates was assessed with the RAPD technique. There was a high level of genetic polymorphism among all the isolates and there was positive correlation between the clusters and the geographic origin of the strains. These endophytic bacteria were further analyzed for in vitro interaction with endophytic fungi from Eucalyptus spp. We found that metabolites secreted by Erwinia/Pantoea and B. cepacia isolates had an inhibitory growth effect on some endophytic fungi, suggesting that these metabolites play a role in bacterial-fungal interactions inside the host plant. Apparently, these bacteria could have an important role in plant development; in the future they may be useful for biological control of diseases and plant growth promotion, as well as for the production of new metabolites and enzymes. PMID:19937585

  15. Exploring Arabidopsis thaliana Root Endophytes via Single-Cell Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, Derek; Woyke, Tanja; Tringe, Susannah; Dangl, Jeff

    2014-03-19

    Land plants grow in association with microbial communities both on their surfaces and inside the plant (endophytes). The relationships between microbes and their host can vary from pathogenic to mutualistic. Colonization of the endophyte compartment occurs in the presence of a sophisticated plant immune system, implying finely tuned discrimination of pathogens from mutualists and commensals. Despite the importance of the microbiome to the plant, relatively little is known about the specific interactions between plants and microbes, especially in the case of endophytes. The vast majority of microbes have not been grown in the lab, and thus one of the few ways of studying them is by examining their DNA. Although metagenomics is a powerful tool for examining microbial communities, its application to endophyte samples is technically difficult due to the presence of large amounts of host plant DNA in the sample. One method to address these difficulties is single-cell genomics where a single microbial cell is isolated from a sample, lysed, and its genome amplified by multiple displacement amplification (MDA) to produce enough DNA for genome sequencing. This produces a single-cell amplified genome (SAG). We have applied this technology to study the endophytic microbes in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Extensive 16S gene profiling of the microbial communities in the roots of multiple inbred A. thaliana strains has identified 164 OTUs as being significantly enriched in all the root endophyte samples compared to their presence in bulk soil.

  16. Socio-economic Analysis of Cassava Marketing in Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Asogwa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the socio-economics of cassava marketing in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 107 cassava marketers in Benue State, using a structured questionnaire. The study revealed that most of the cassava marketers had secondary education (72.9%. The study also revealed that marketing of cassava is mostly undertaken by females (57%. The result showed that married people (59.8% were mostly involved in the marketing of cassava. The study revealed that cassava marketing is operated in a competitive market environment and the marketing margin obtained by an average cassava marketer is 31%. Cassava marketing is a profitable venture in the study area. It was also revealed that greater percentage of cassava traded in the study area was primarily obtained from the farmers. Majority of the respondents (92.5% belong to cassava marketing association. The most pressing problem (46.73% faced by the marketers is high taxes during transportation. Majority of the cassava marketers use the revenue generated from cassava business to train their children in schools and buildings of modern houses (57.0.There is the need to: open centralized cassava market in the study area; construct good network of feeder roads; establish processing companies/facilities; restructure the entire marketing system. Traders should be encouraged to form agricultural marketing cooperatives in order to eliminate the exploitative activities of the middlemen. Marketing agencies should be enforced by government to take care of the marketing problems that are associated with the speculative activities of the middlemen.

  17. Diversity and species composition of fungal endophytes in Avenella flexuosa under different sheep grazing regimes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Fungal endophytes have been shown to be extremely widespread and abundant in terrestrial plants. It is also known that fungal endophytes may affect the grazing intensity of the host plant. In this study the occurrence of fungal endophytes in the perennial grass Avenella flexuosa was investigated under different grazing regimes in a field site in Norway. The main aim was to reveal to what degree the grazing influenced the fungal diversity and species composition. The fungal endophytes were ana...

  18. Age-dependent Distribution of Fungal Endophytes in Panax ginseng Roots Cultivated in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Young-Hwan; Kim, Young-Chang; Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Kim, Joon Bum; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Bae, Hanhong

    2012-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old ginseng roots (Panax ginseng Meyer) cultivated in Korea. The isolated fungal endophytes were identified based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer and morphological characterization by microscopic observations. A total of 81 fungal endophytes were isolated from 24 ginseng roots. Fungal endophytes were classified into 9 different fungal species and 2 unknown species. Ginseng roots that were 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-yea...

  19. Determinants Of Export-Led Cassava Production Intensification Among Small-Holder Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achoja, F. O.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinants of export-led cassava production intensification among small-holder farmers were investigated. Primary data collected with structured questionnaire from randomly selected 60 respondents, were analysed using appropriate statistics. The result showed a slow increasing trend in response to export opportunities. Farm size, credit availability, cassava product domestic prices, labour and frequency of extension contact had positive effect on cassava output while existence of efficient marketing system has negative effect on cassava output. Inadequate finance and high cost of labour were the problems facing cassava production intensification. Policy instrument on cassava production intensification should capture the significant determinants identified in the study.

  20. Bioactivity of fungal endophytes as a function of endophyte taxonomy and the taxonomy and distribution of their host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Higginbotham

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes--fungi that grow within plant tissues without causing immediate signs of disease--are abundant and diverse producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Endophytes associated with leaves of tropical plants are an especially exciting and relatively untapped source of novel compounds. However, one major challenge in drug discovery lies in developing strategies to efficiently recover highly bioactive strains. As part of a 15-year drug discovery project, foliar endophytes were isolated from 3198 plant samples (51 orders, 105 families and at least 232 genera of angiosperms and ferns collected in nine geographically distinct regions of Panama. Extracts from culture supernatants of >2700 isolates were tested for bioactivity (in vitro percent inhibition of growth, % IG against a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 and the causative agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, and Chagas' disease. Overall, 32.7% of endophyte isolates were highly active in at least one bioassay, including representatives of diverse fungal lineages, host lineages, and collection sites. Up to 17% of isolates tested per assay were highly active. Most bioactive strains were active in only one assay. Fungal lineages differed in the incidence and degree of bioactivity, as did fungi from particular plant taxa, and greater bioactivity was observed in endophytes isolated from plants in cloud forests vs. lowland forests. Our results suggest that using host taxonomy and forest type to tailor plant collections, and selecting endophytes from specific orders or families for cultivation, will markedly increase the efficiency and efficacy of discovering bioactive metabolites for particular pharmaceutical targets.

  1. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

  2. Isolation and identification of fungal endophytes from grasses on the Oregon coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes have been shown to improve abiotic and biotic stress response in plants. Grasses growing along the Oregon coast are exposed to harsh conditions and may harbor endophytes that enable them to survive and grow under these conditions. Endophytic fungi were isolated from thirty-four gra...

  3. Leaf endophyte load and fungal garden development in leaf-cutting ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous work has shown that leaf-cutting ants prefer to cut leaf material that is relatively low in fungal endophyte content. Such a preference suggests that fungal endophytes exact a cost on the ants or on the development of their colonies. We hypothesized that endophytes may play a role in thei...

  4. Properties of bacterial endophytes and their proposed role in plant growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardoim, Pablo R.; van Overbeek, Leo S.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes live inside plants for at least part of their life cycle. Studies of the interaction of endophytes with their host plants and their function within their hosts are important to address the ecological relevance of endophytes. The modulation of ethylene levels in plants by bacteri

  5. Genome-wide association and prediction analysis in African cassava (Manihot esculenta) reveals the genetic architecture of resistance to cassava mosaic disease and prospects for rapid genetic improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a crucial, under-researched crop feeding millions worldwide, especially in Africa. Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) has plagued production in Africa for over a century. Bi-parental mapping studies suggest primarily a single major gene mediates resistance. To be certain and...

  6. The microbiota of Lafun, an african traditional cassava food product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padonou, Sègla Wilfrid; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Hounhouigan, Joseph D.;

    2009-01-01

    Lafun is a fermented cassava food product consumed in parts of West Africa. In the present work the microorganisms (aerobic bacteria (AB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts) associated with the fermentation of Lafun under traditional conditions have for the first time been studied using...

  7. Development of comprehensive medium for micropropagation of cultivated Cassava accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava is one of the most important foods in the human diet in the tropics, where it ranks fifth as a source of energy, after rice, sugar cane, and maize. Since it is a vegetative propagated crop, the use of in vitro propagation is very important to preserve germplasm free of pest and diseases. M...

  8. Determination of aflatoxin in processed dried cassava root

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnonlonfin, Gbemenou Joselin Benoit; Katerere, David R.; Adjovi, Yann;

    2010-01-01

    A new method that uses HPLC with a photochemical reactor for enhanced detection was developed and validated for the determination of aflatoxins in cassava flour. Samples were spiked with a mixture of four aflatoxins at 5, 10, and 20 microg/kg mixed with either 1 or 5 g NaCI and extracted with met...

  9. Energy and greenhouse gas balances of cassava-based ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, Le L.; Ierland, van E.C.; Zhu, X.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Biofuel production has been promoted to save fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there have been concerns about the potential of biofuel to improve energy efficiency and mitigate climate change. This paper investigates energy efficiency and GHG emission saving of cassava

  10. Mathematical Modelling Of Cyanide Inhibition on Cassava Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Onukwugha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic Baffled Reactors (ABR is used to evaluate the extent of cyanide inhibition of cassava wastewater treatment. The reactor has aspect ratio of 4:1:1. Kinetic analyses of specific growth rate μmax and half saturation constant

  11. Transcriptome response of cassava leaves under natural shade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zehong; Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Yi; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Minghui; Zhu, Xinguang; Liu, Peng; Sun, Qi; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Brutnell, Tom; Li, Pinghua

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is an important staple crop in tropical and sub-tropical areas. As a common farming practice, cassava is usually cultivated intercropping with other crops and subjected to various degrees of shading, which causes reduced productivity. Herein, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed on a series of developmental cassava leaves under both full sunlight and natural shade conditions. Gene expression profiles of these two conditions exhibited similar developmental transitions, e.g. genes related to cell wall and basic cellular metabolism were highly expressed in immature leaves, genes involved in lipid metabolism and tetrapyrrole synthesis were highly expressed during the transition stages, and genes related to photosynthesis and carbohydrates metabolism were highly expressed in mature leaves. Compared with the control, shade significantly induced the expression of genes involved in light reaction of photosynthesis, light signaling and DNA synthesis/chromatin structure; however, the genes related to anthocyanins biosynthesis, heat shock, calvin cycle, glycolysis, TCA cycle, mitochondrial electron transport, and starch and sucrose metabolisms were dramatically depressed. Moreover, the shade also influenced the expression of hormone-related genes and transcriptional factors. The findings would improve our understanding of molecular mechanisms of shade response, and shed light on pathways associated with shade-avoidance syndrome for cassava improvement. PMID:27539510

  12. Transcriptome response of cassava leaves under natural shade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zehong; Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Yi; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Minghui; Zhu, Xinguang; Liu, Peng; Sun, Qi; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Brutnell, Tom; Li, Pinghua

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is an important staple crop in tropical and sub-tropical areas. As a common farming practice, cassava is usually cultivated intercropping with other crops and subjected to various degrees of shading, which causes reduced productivity. Herein, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed on a series of developmental cassava leaves under both full sunlight and natural shade conditions. Gene expression profiles of these two conditions exhibited similar developmental transitions, e.g. genes related to cell wall and basic cellular metabolism were highly expressed in immature leaves, genes involved in lipid metabolism and tetrapyrrole synthesis were highly expressed during the transition stages, and genes related to photosynthesis and carbohydrates metabolism were highly expressed in mature leaves. Compared with the control, shade significantly induced the expression of genes involved in light reaction of photosynthesis, light signaling and DNA synthesis/chromatin structure; however, the genes related to anthocyanins biosynthesis, heat shock, calvin cycle, glycolysis, TCA cycle, mitochondrial electron transport, and starch and sucrose metabolisms were dramatically depressed. Moreover, the shade also influenced the expression of hormone-related genes and transcriptional factors. The findings would improve our understanding of molecular mechanisms of shade response, and shed light on pathways associated with shade-avoidance syndrome for cassava improvement.

  13. Extracellular enzyme activities during cassava fermentation for 'fufu' production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewole, O B; Odunfa, S A

    1992-01-01

    Amylase and pectin methyl esterase activities increased rapidly during the early period of the fermentation of cassava for 'fufu' production, attaining their peak activities after 12 and 24h, respectively. Cellulase activity was lower and approximately constant for most of the fermentation period.

  14. Transcriptional response to petiole heat girdling in cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    The heat-girdling technique, which is known to inhibit photoassimilate translocation, was performed on the petiole of cassava leaves at the end of the light cycle to inhibit starch remobilization during the night. The inhibition of starch remobilization caused significant starch accumulation at the ...

  15. Cassava tissue culture and long-term preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is cultivated mainly for its starchy roots as an important staple food for the tropics. M. esculenta is the only cultivated species in the genus Manihot, which contains 98 species, mostly native to Brazil. In recent years several research groups have reported metho...

  16. Sino-Swiss center for cassava technology launched in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Under the joint sponsorship of the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences (SIBS) and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich), the Shanghai Center for Cassava Biotechnology (SCCB) has been established at the Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology(SIPE), SIBS.

  17. Field experiment on transgenic cassava proves successful in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A pioneer study on field tests of transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by a Sino-Swiss research consortium has proved successful. The experiment was carried out in 2006 at an experimental station in Haikou, capital of south China's Hainan Province.

  18. Functional genomic analysis of cassava proteins with TIR domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteins containing a TIR domain (toll interleukin receptor) are involved in plant and animal immunity. The aim of this work was to carry out an overall genomic analysis of cassava proteins with a TIR domain and discern their possible role in resistance to cassava bacterial blight. In total 46 proteins with a TIR domain were identified in the cassava proteome and were classed in four categories according the presence or absence of other domains: TIR (T), TIR -NB (TN), TIR - lRR (TL) and TIR - NB - lRR (TNL). 56.6 % of these 46 proteins have TIR, NB and lRR domains. Using multiple alignments it was possible to demonstrate that not all cassava TIR domains contain the AE region, involved in dimerization and activation of immune responses. Three of the four proteins categories (T, TNL and TN) presented a higher number of synonymous substitutions suggesting that they are not involved in recognition process. two TIR domains not presenting the ae region were analyzed by yeast two hybrid assays and by agro-infiltration, finding that both are able to form homo and heterodimers, but they do not trigger defense responses. With this study it was possible to conclude that TIR domains can function as adaptors in the signal transduction with other resistance proteins. In addition, it became clear that not always the AE region is important for TIR dimerization but it seems necessary to activate defense responses signals.

  19. Ethanol production of banana shell and cassava starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms saccharomyces cerevisiae nrrl y-2034 and zymomonas mobilis cp4. The banana shell has been characterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicelluloses that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to ph 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with saccharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92± 0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with zymomonas mobilis

  20. Properties of Cassava Starch Modified by Amylomaltase from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyakul Na Ayudhaya, Pitcha; Pongsawasdi, Piamsook; Laohasongkram, Kalaya; Chaiwanichsiri, Saiwarun

    2016-06-01

    Amylomaltase (α-1,4-glucanotransferase, AM; EC 2.4.1.25) from Corynebacterium glutamicum expressed in Escherichia coli was used to prepare the enzyme-modified cassava starch for food application. About 5% to 15% (w/v) of cassava starch slurries were incubated with 1, 3, or 5 units of amylomaltase/g starch. Apparent amylose, amylopectin chain length distribution, thermal properties, freeze-thaw stability, thermo-reversibility, and gel strength of the obtained modified starches were measured. The apparent amylose content and retrogradation enthalpy were lower, whereas the retrogradation temperatures, freeze-thaw stability, and thermo-reversibility were higher than those of the native cassava starch. However, when amylomaltase content was increased to 20 units of amylomaltase/g starch and for 24 h, the modified starch showed an improvement in the thermo-reversibility property. When used in panna cotta, the gel strength of the sample using the 20 units/24 h modified cassava starch was similar to that of using gelatin. PMID:27105125

  1. Response of cassava genotypes to different micropropagation media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava is one of the most important staple foods in the human diet in the tropics, where it ranks fourth as a source of energy, after rice, sugar cane and maize. Since it is a vegetative propagated crop, the use of in vitro propagation is very important to preserve the germplasm free of pest and di...

  2. Uncertainty in life cycle economical analysis of cassava-based ethanol fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Ru-bo; DAI Du; CHEN Xiao-jun; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    Biomass ethanol fuel is not only renewable but also environmental-friendly. Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region is developing the cassava-based ethanol fuel. Economical performance of the project is the key issue.The traditional life cycle economical analysis is just a static calculation process. Uncertainty is the character of cassava yield, cost of cassava plant, cassava price, tax rate and gasoline price, and the economical performance of the project is determined by these aspects. This study proposes an economical model of cassava-based ethanol fuel. The method of Monte Carol is used to simulate the economical performance. This method conquers the shortage of the traditional way. The results show that cassava-based ethanol fuel can get survived when the tax is exempted. Finally, the study also evaluates the potential of the economical performance.

  3. Analyses of Twelve New Whole Genome Sequences of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses and Ugandan Cassava Brown Streak Viruses from East Africa: Diversity, Supercomputing and Evidence for Further Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunguru, Joseph; Sseruwagi, Peter; Tairo, Fred; Stomeo, Francesca; Maina, Solomon; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Djinkeng, Appolinaire; Kehoe, Monica; Boykin, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    Cassava brown streak disease is caused by two devastating viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) which are frequently found infecting cassava, one of sub-Saharan Africa's most important staple food crops. Each year these viruses cause losses of up to $100 million USD and can leave entire families without their primary food source, for an entire year. Twelve new whole genomes, including seven of CBSV and five of UCBSV were uncovered in this research, doubling the genomic sequences available in the public domain for these viruses. These new sequences disprove the assumption that the viruses are limited by agro-ecological zones, show that current diagnostic primers are insufficient to provide confident diagnosis of these viruses and give rise to the possibility that there may be as many as four distinct species of virus. Utilizing NGS sequencing technologies and proper phylogenetic practices will rapidly increase the solution to sustainable cassava production. PMID:26439260

  4. Analyses of Twelve New Whole Genome Sequences of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses and Ugandan Cassava Brown Streak Viruses from East Africa: Diversity, Supercomputing and Evidence for Further Speciation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ndunguru

    Full Text Available Cassava brown streak disease is caused by two devastating viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV which are frequently found infecting cassava, one of sub-Saharan Africa's most important staple food crops. Each year these viruses cause losses of up to $100 million USD and can leave entire families without their primary food source, for an entire year. Twelve new whole genomes, including seven of CBSV and five of UCBSV were uncovered in this research, doubling the genomic sequences available in the public domain for these viruses. These new sequences disprove the assumption that the viruses are limited by agro-ecological zones, show that current diagnostic primers are insufficient to provide confident diagnosis of these viruses and give rise to the possibility that there may be as many as four distinct species of virus. Utilizing NGS sequencing technologies and proper phylogenetic practices will rapidly increase the solution to sustainable cassava production.

  5. Nitrogen requirements of cassava in selected soils of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakchaiwat Kaweewong

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta is one of the most important export crops in Thailand, yet the nitrogen requirement is unknown and not considered by growers and producers. Cassava requirements for N were determined in field experiments during a period of four years and four sites on the Satuk (Suk, Don Chedi (Dc, Pak Chong (Pc,and Ban Beung (BBg soil series in Lopburi, Supanburi, Nakhon Ratchasima, and Chonburi sites, respectively. The fertilizer treatment structure comprised 0, 62.5, 125, 187.5, 250 and 312.5 kg N ha^(-1 as urea. At each site cassava was harvested at nine months and yield parameters and the minimum datasets were taken. The fertilizer rate which resulted in maximum yield ranged from 187.5 kg N ha^(-1 in Supanburi and Chonburi (fresh weight yield of 47,500 and 30,000 kg ha^(-1 respectively to 250 kg N ha^(-1 in Lopburi and Nakhon Ratchasima (fresh weight yield of 64,100 and 46,700 kg ha^(-1 respectively. Yield appeared to decrease at the higher, 312 kg ha^(-1, at Supanburi and Lopburi, and 250 kg ha^(-1 (Chonburi fertilizer N rates. Net revenue was 70.4 and 72.9 % higher than where no N was appliedLopburi and Nakhon Ratchasima sites. Net revenue at the Supanburi and Chonburi sites were 53.8 and 211.0 % higher than that where no N was applied. This study suggests that at all sites improved cassava production and net revenue could be obtained with the judicious application of higher quantities of N. The results provide needed guidance to nitrogen fertilization of the important industrial crop cassava in Thailand.

  6. Labour Arrangements in Cassava Production in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abila, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of labour arrangements on the profitability of cassava enterprises in Oyo North Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted for data collection, while data were analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary analysis. The results show that the prevalent labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are: a combination of Family, Hired and Contract labour (38.9%; Family-Hired labour (27.8%; Family-Contract labour (31.1%. The gross margin per hectares across labour arrangements are N279481.99 (all-labour, N286044.24 (family-hired, N216940.10 (familycontract, and N235000.00 (family only. The returns on a naira invested on variable costs across different labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are N2.04 (all-labour, N3.66 (family-hired, N2.37 (familycontract, and N2.61 (family only. This implies that a unit (N1 variable cost in the various labour arrangements of all-labour, family/hired, family/contract and family only in cassava production will yield a marginal return of N3.04, N3.66, N2.37 and N2.61 respectively. Family-hired labour arrangement yields higher marginal return per unit of manday and one naira spent than all other arrangements. The study recommends among others the application of laboursaving technologies and an optimum combination of various labour arrangements to reduce the cost of labour used in cassava production.

  7. Reprogramming of cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores towards sporophytic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, P I P; Ordoñez, C A; Dedicova, B; Ortega, P E M

    2014-05-21

    Gametes have the unique potential to enter the sporophytic pathway, called androgenesis. The plants produced are usually haploid and recombinant due to the preceding meiosis and they can double their chromosome number to form doubled haploids, which are completely homozygous. Availability of the doubled haploids facilitates mapping the genes of agronomically important traits, shortening the time of the breeding process required to produce new hybrids and homozygous varieties, and saving the time and cost for inbreeding. This study aimed to test the feasibility of using isolated and in vitro cultured immature cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores to reprogramme and initiate sporophytic development. Different culture media and different concentrations of two ion components (Cu(2+) and Fe(2+)) were tested in two genotypes of cassava. External structural changes, nuclear divisions and cellular changes during reprogramming were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, by staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and through classical histology and transmission electron microscopy. In two cassava genotypes, different developmental stages of microspores were found to initiate sporophytic cell divisions, that is, with tetrads of TMS 60444 and with mid or late uni-nucleate microspores of SM 1219-9. In the modified NLN medium (NLNS), microspore enlargements were observed. The medium supplemented with either sodium ferrous ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) or CuSO4·5H2O induced sporophytic cell division in both genotypes. A low frequency of the reprogramming and the presence of non-responsive microspores among the responsive ones in tetrads were found to be related to the viability and exine formation of the microspores. The present study clearly demonstrated that reprogramming occurs much faster in isolated microspore culture than in anther culture. This paves the way for the development of an efficient technique for the production of homozygous lines in

  8. Endophytic fungi: a reservoir of antibacterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Sunil K; Verekar, Shilpa A; Bhave, Sarita V

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug drug resistant bacteria are becoming increasingly problematic particularly in the under developed countries of the world. The most important microorganisms that have seen a geometric rise in numbers are Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium, Penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumonia and multiple drug resistant tubercule bacteria to name a just few. New drug scaffolds are essential to tackle this every increasing problem. These scaffolds can be sourced from nature itself. Endophytic fungi are an important reservoir of therapeutically active compounds. This review attempts to present some data relevant to the problem. New, very specific and effective antibiotics are needed but also at an affordable price! A Herculean task for researchers all over the world! In the Asian subcontinent indigenous therapeutics that has been practiced over the centuries such as Ayurveda have been effective as "handed down data" in family generations. May need a second, third and more "in-depth investigations?" PMID:25620957

  9. Endophytic Fungi: A Reservoir of Antibacterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Deshmukh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug drug resistant bacteria are becoming increasingly problematic particularly in the undeveloped countries of the world. The most important microorganisms that have seen a geometric rise in are Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium, Penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumonia and multiple drug resistant tubercule bacteria to name a just few. New drug scaffolds are essential to tackle this every increasing problem. These scaffolds can be sourced from nature itself. Endophytic fungi are an important reservoir of therapeutically active compounds. This review attempts to present some data relavent to the problem. New, very specific and effective antibiotics are needed but also at the affordable price!!!. Herculean task for researcher all over the world. In the Asian subcontinent indigenous therapeutics that has been practiced over the centuries such as Ayurveda that has been effective as ‘handed down data’ in family generations. May need a second, third and more in-depth investigations?

  10. Cassava about-FACE: Greater than expected yield stimulation of cassava (Manihot esculenta) by future CO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for tuber crops such as cassava, yams and potatoes to enhance food security in the future is underestimated. In tuber crops there is the potential for a much higher ratio of edible to non-edible components than in above ground grain and bean crops such as rice, wheat, maize or soybean....

  11. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

  12. Cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid as external carbon sources in biological nutrient removal*

    OpenAIRE

    Bu, Fan; Hu, Xiang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of one kind of food industry effluent, cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, on biological nutrient removal (BNR) from municipal wastewater in anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Experiments were carried out with cassava stillage supernatant and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, and one pure compound (sodium acetate) served as an external carbon source. Cyclic studies indicated that the cassava by-p...

  13. Influence of cassava genotype and composite flours’ substitution level on rheological behaviour during bread-making

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Henao Osorio; Johanna Aristizábal Galvis

    2010-01-01

    Given increasing dependence on imported wheat, studies have been carried out in Colombia regarding the use of composite wheat-cassava flour in bread-making. A project was carried out from 1986-1991 in which different cassava genotypes, harvest ages, substitution levels and bread acceptability were evaluated. However, these studies did not have any effect on the baking sector because a constant supply of high quality, high volume and reasonably-priced cassava flour was lacking. Based on these ...

  14. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose concentration on physical properties of biodegradable cassava starch-based films

    OpenAIRE

    Sriburi Pensiri; Wongruong Sasitorn; Mauer Lisa J; Tongdeesoontorn Wirongrong; Rachtanapun Pornchai

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cassava starch, the economically important agricultural commodity in Thailand, can readily be cast into films. However, the cassava starch film is brittle and weak, leading to inadequate mechanical properties. The properties of starch film can be improved by adding plasticizers and blending with the other biopolymers. Results Cassava starch (5%w/v) based films plasticized with glycerol (30 g/100 g starch) were characterized with respect to the effect of carboxymethyl cellu...

  15. Thermoanalytical and starch content evaluation of cassava bagasse as agro-industrial residue

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Gustavo Lacerda; Rafael Ramires Almeida; Ivo Mottin Demiate; Marco Aurélio Silva Carvalho Filho; Eliane Carvalho Vasconcelos; Adenise Lorenci Woiciechowski; Gilbert Bannach; Egon Schnitzler; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

    2009-01-01

    Starch nutritional fractions as well as thermal properties and other analysis are essential for food and industrial application. Cassava bagasse is an important agro-industrial residue and its starch content was evaluated using two alternative methods. Thermal characterization and microscopy analyses helped to understand how hydrolysis digests starchy fraction of cassava bagasse. The melting point of cassava starch occurred at 169.2ºC. Regarding TG analyses, after moisture content, there were...

  16. Physiological and molecular characterization of drought responses and identification of candidate tolerance genes in cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Turyagyenda, Laban F.; Kizito, Elizabeth B.; Ferguson, Morag; Baguma, Yona; Agaba, Morris; Jagger J W Harvey; Osiru, David S. O.

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is an important root crop to resource-poor farmers in marginal areas, where its production faces drought stress constraints. Given the difficulties associated with cassava breeding, a molecular understanding of drought tolerance in cassava will help in the identification of markers for use in marker-assisted selection and genes for transgenic improvement of drought tolerance. This study was carried out to identify candidate drought-tolerance genes and expression-based markers of droug...

  17. Correlation of chemical compositions of cassava varieties to their resistance to Prostephanus truncatus Horn (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipitan, Adebola A; Sangowusi, Victoria T; Lawal, Omoniyi I; Popoola, Kehinde O

    2015-01-01

    The preference of cassava as a major host by Prostephanus truncatus Horn is a major constraint to ample production of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz and storage. This study analyzed the nutritional and secondary metabolite compositions in 15 cassava varieties, evaluated levels of damage and reproduction by P. truncatus, and assessed their resistance to attack. One hundred grams of dried cassava chips in 250-ml Kilner jars were infested with 10 adult larger grain borerof 0-10 days old and held for 3 months. The nutritional and secondary metabolites compositions of the dry cassava chips were determined using the method of Association of Analytical Chemists . Chip perforation rates in the cassava varieties ranged from 17.7 to 71.6%. The weight of cassava powder varied by about threefold. The final number of larger grain borer in the cassava varieties varied by about sixfold with 63 in 01/0040 and 379 in 01/1368. Hydrocyanic acid content content varied by over 10-fold and correlated negatively with number of larger grain borer. Flavonoid content varied by ∼10%. Tannins and saponin content of the cassava negatively correlated with number of adult P. truncatus. The cassava varieties 95/0166, 92/0326, 01/0040, 05/0024, and 34 91934 had selection index 0.8 were classified as susceptible. The resistance to high damage in the resistant varieties was conferred by secondary metabolites such as tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and hydrocyanic acid content. The genetic variation in cassava varieties could be explored to breed resistant cassava varieties for use in larger grain borer-endemic areas.

  18. False beliefs on the socio-economic drivers of cassava cropping

    OpenAIRE

    Fermont, van, A.M.; Babirye, A.; Obiero, H.M.; Abele, S; Giller, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    General belief has it that cassava is (i) a subsistence crop, grown to avoid hunger (ii) by poor farmers, (iii) predominantly as an intercrop, (iv) requiring less labour than other crops and (v) no inputs. These beliefs influence policy, project development and implementation, and if wrong, may have far-reaching consequences for the success and sustainability of interventions. This study examines five beliefs about cassava and discusses consequences for interventions targeting cassava. From 2...

  19. A crop of one's own? Women’s experiences of cassava commercialization in Nigeria and Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Forsythe, Lora; Posthumus, Helena; Martin, Adrienne

    2016-01-01

    Improving the effectiveness of agricultural markets for economic growth and poverty reduction has been a central focus for development initiatives, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Staple crops with low input requirements and drought tolerance, such as cassava, are being promoted for market development due to their accessibility for poor smallholder farmers. Narratives often equate commercialization of cassava to benefits for women, as cassava is commonly labelled a ‘women’s crop’. However...

  20. The retail market for fresh cassava root tubers in the European Union (EU)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind-Hansen, Lotte; Brimer, Leon

    2010-01-01

    A number of retail shops in Copenhagen sell fresh cassava roots. Cassava roots contain the toxic cyanogenic glucoside linamarin. A survey was made of the shop characteristics, origin of the roots, buyers, shop owner's knowledge of toxicity levels, and actual toxicity levels.......A number of retail shops in Copenhagen sell fresh cassava roots. Cassava roots contain the toxic cyanogenic glucoside linamarin. A survey was made of the shop characteristics, origin of the roots, buyers, shop owner's knowledge of toxicity levels, and actual toxicity levels....

  1. Effects of Processing on the Chemical and Anti-nutritional Properties of Cassava Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Omosuli SV

    2014-01-01

    The nutritive and antinutritive composition of cassava roots (raw and boiled) was investigated. The proximate composition of raw and boiled cassava tubers was not significantly different (P> 0.05), except in moisture, fat, carbohydrate and Energy value. High levels of the antinutrients in raw cassava tubers (20.56mg/100g Tannins; 1,16mg/100g oxalate and 3.36mg/100g phytate) make them unsafe and unsuitable for human consumption except after processing. Mineral contents of cassava tubers were n...

  2. The Potency and Utilization of Cassava and Sweet Potato Leaves as Feed Resources for Small Ruminant

    OpenAIRE

    Juniar Sirait; K Simanihuruk

    2010-01-01

    Cassava and sweet potato leaves are agricultural byproducts which are potential to be utilized as feed for small ruminants. In year 2009, it is assumed that dry matter productions of cassava and sweet potato leaves are 2,590,929 and 348,008 tons, respectively. Cassava and sweet potato leaves, both contain high level of protein (> 20%) so that they are good protein sources for goats. Cassava leaves, however, contain cyanide acid (HCN) that varied depended on the age and require wilting process...

  3. Unraveling complex viral infections in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Yepes, Monica; Olaya, Cristian; Lozano, Ivan; Cuervo, Maritza; Castaño, Mauricio; Cuellar, Wilmer J

    2014-06-24

    In the Americas, different disease symptoms have been reported in cassava including leaf mosaics, vein clearings, mottles, ring spots, leaf distortions and undeveloped and deformed storage roots. Some viruses have been identified and associated with these symptoms while others have been reported in symptomless plants or latent infections. We observed that reoviruses associated with severe root symptoms (RS) of Cassava Frogskin Disease (CFSD) are not associated with leaf symptoms (LS) observed in the cassava indicator plant 'Secundina'. Neither were these LS associated with the previously characterized Cassava common mosaic virus, Cassava virus X, Cassava vein mosaic virus or phytoplasma, suggesting the presence of additional pathogens. In order to explain LS observed in cassava we used a combination of biological, serological and molecular tests. Here, we report three newly described viruses belonging to the families Secoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae and Luteoviridae found in cassava plants showing severe RS associated with CFSD. All tested plants were infected by a mix of viruses that induced distinct LS in 'Secundina'. Out of the three newly described viruses, a member of family Secoviridae could experimentally induce LS in single infection. Our results confirm the common occurrence of complex viral infections in cassava field-collected since the 1980s.

  4. Promoting Cassava as an Industrial Crop in Ghana: Effects on Soil Fertility and Farming System Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Owuraku Sakyi-Dawson

    2012-01-01

    Cassava is an important starchy staple crop in Ghana with per capita consumption of 152.9 kg/year. Besides being a staple food crop, cassava can be used as raw material for the production of industrial starch and ethanol. The potential of cassava as an industrial commercial crop has not been exploited to a large extent because of perceptions that cassava depletes soils. Recent finding from field studies in the forest/savannah transitional agroecological zone of Ghana indicates that when integ...

  5. Molecular Evidence for the Association of a Strain of Uganda Variant of East African Cassava Mosaic Virus to Symptom Severity in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Fields in Togo

    OpenAIRE

    K. D. Adjata; Muller, E; Peterschmitt, M.; Traore, O; Y. M.D. Gumedzoe

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study was carried out to demonstrate that the severity of Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) in Togo, is not only influenced by synergism between cassava Begomoviruses in presence, but essentially by recombination between the different Begomoviruses infecting cassava. Approach: Foliar samples presenting typical biological features of Begomoviruses infection were collected from cassava and wild infected plants from different regions of Togo and analysed by PCR targeting the C...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Bacillus subtilis [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g Bacillus_subtilis_S.png Bacillus_subtilis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus...+subtilis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=214 ...

  7. Natural variation in expression of genes associated with biosynthesis and accumulation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several groups have reported on massive accumulation of total carotenoids in cassava storage root (CSR). Naturally occurring color variation associated with carotenoid accumulation was observed in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root of landraces from Amazon. Here carotenoid profiles from...

  8. Isolation of endophytic fungi from Coscinium fenestratum- a red listed endangered medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Wilson Goveas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Enumeration of the endophytic fungi from the red listed, critically endangered medicinal plant, Coscinium fenestratum was investigated for the first time. The ubiquitous presence of 41 endophytic fungi belonging to sixteen different taxa was identified from 195 samples of healthy leaves and stem using traditional morphological methods. The overall colonization rate of endophytes in both the leaf and the stem was found to be 21.02%.The stem showed low percentage frequency of colonization of the endophytic fungi when compared to leaf segments. Among the endophytic flora, Phomopsis jacquiniana was found to be the core-group fungus with a colonization frequency of 4.6%.

  9. Cloning of a peroxidase gene from cassava with potential as a molecular marker for resistance to bacterial blight

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Filipe Pereira; Goodwin, Paul H.; Larry Erickson

    2003-01-01

    Cassava bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis, is considered one of the most important bacterial diseases of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). In order to characterize the cassava genes involved in resistance to this disease, a genomic clone of a cationic peroxidase gene, MEPX1, was isolated by PCR from cassava cultivar MCOL 22. The DNA sequence of MEPX1 showed high homology with other plant peroxidase genes and contained a large intron typical of peroxidase...

  10. Transcriptome Analysis Using a High-Density Oligomicroarray under Drought Stress in Various Genotypes of Cassava: An Important Tropical Crop

    OpenAIRE

    Utsumi, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Maho; Morosawa, Taeko; Kurotani, Atsushi; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Mochida, Keiichi; Matsui, Akihiro; Umemura, Yoshimi; Ishitani, Manabu; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Seki, Motoaki

    2012-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop that provides food security and income generation in many tropical countries and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. Despite its global importance, the development of cassava microarray tools has not been well established. Here, we describe the development of a 60-mer oligonucleotide Agilent microarray representing ∼20 000 cassava genes and how it can be applied to expression profiling under drought stress using three cassava genotyp...

  11. RESOURCE UTILIZATION BEHAVIOUR OF CASSAVA PRODUCERS IN EPE AREA OF LAGOS STATE: STOCHASTIC FRONTIER PRODUCTION FUNCTION APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunbameru, A.; Okeowo, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Stochastic frontier production function was used to assess the technical efficiency of cassava production in Epe Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Results show that cassava farmers in the study area experienced increasing positive return-to-scale (2.2675. The study also reveals that a significant relationship exists between farm size, labour, planting materials, cost of other input and cassava output in the study area. Cassava farmers with large farmers are found to have higher net farm incom...

  12. Epichloë grass endophytes in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Miia; Saikkonen, Kari; Helander, Marjo; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Wäli, Piippa R

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to create new solutions for sustainable agricultural practices that circumvent the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides and increase the resilience of agricultural systems to environmental change. Beneficial microbial symbionts of plants are expected to play an important role in integrated pest management schemes over the coming decades. Epichloë endophytes, symbiotic fungi of many grass species, can protect plants against several stressors, and could therefore help to increase the productivity of forage grasses and the hardiness of turf grasses while reducing the use of synthetic pesticides. Indeed, Epichloë endophytes have successfully been developed and commercialized for agricultural use in the USA, Australia and New Zealand. Many of the host grass species originate from Europe, which is a biodiversity hotspot for both grasses and endophytes. However, intentional use of endophyte-enhanced grasses in Europe is virtually non-existent. We suggest that the diversity of European Epichloë endophytes and their host grasses should be exploited for the development of sustainable agricultural, horticultural and landscaping practices, and potentially for bioremediation and bioenergy purposes, and for environmental improvement. PMID:27249195

  13. Antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from Ophiopogon japonicus (Liliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hanqiao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistance in bacteria has become a global concern and the search for new antibacterial agents is urgent and ongoing. Endophytes provide an abundant reservoir of bioactive metabolites for medicinal exploitation, and an increasing number of novel compounds are being isolated from endophytic fungi. Ophiopogon japonicus, containing compounds with antibacterial activity, is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant used for eliminating phlegm, relieving coughs, latent heat in the lungs, and alleviating diabetes mellitus. We investigated the antimicrobial activities of 30 strains of O. japonicus. Methods Fungal endophytes were isolated from roots and stems of O. japonicus collected from Chongqing City, southwestern China. Mycelial extracts (MC and fermentation broth (FB were tested for antimicrobial activity using peptide deformylase (PDF inhibition fluorescence assays and MTT cell proliferation assays. Results A total of 30 endophytic strains were isolated from O. japonicus; 22 from roots and eight from stems. 53.33% of the mycelial extracts (MC and 33.33% of the fermentation broths (FB displayed potent inhibition of PDF. 80% of MC and 33.33% of FB significantly inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. 70% of MC and 36.67% of FB showed strong activities against Cryptococcus neoformans. None showed influence on Escherichia coli. Conclusion The secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi from O. japonicus are potential antimicrobial agents.

  14. Epichloë grass endophytes in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Miia; Saikkonen, Kari; Helander, Marjo; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Wäli, Piippa R

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to create new solutions for sustainable agricultural practices that circumvent the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides and increase the resilience of agricultural systems to environmental change. Beneficial microbial symbionts of plants are expected to play an important role in integrated pest management schemes over the coming decades. Epichloë endophytes, symbiotic fungi of many grass species, can protect plants against several stressors, and could therefore help to increase the productivity of forage grasses and the hardiness of turf grasses while reducing the use of synthetic pesticides. Indeed, Epichloë endophytes have successfully been developed and commercialized for agricultural use in the USA, Australia and New Zealand. Many of the host grass species originate from Europe, which is a biodiversity hotspot for both grasses and endophytes. However, intentional use of endophyte-enhanced grasses in Europe is virtually non-existent. We suggest that the diversity of European Epichloë endophytes and their host grasses should be exploited for the development of sustainable agricultural, horticultural and landscaping practices, and potentially for bioremediation and bioenergy purposes, and for environmental improvement.

  15. Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Karen K.; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Okinaka, Richard T.; Asay, Michelle; Blair, Heather; Bliss, Katherine A.; Laker, Mariam; Pardington, Paige E.; Richardson, Amber P.; Tonks, Melinda; Beecher, Douglas J.; Kemp, John D.; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Wong, Amy C. Lee; Keim, Paul

    2004-01-01

    DNA from over 300 Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus anthracis isolates was analyzed by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). B. thuringiensis and B. cereus isolates were from diverse sources and locations, including soil, clinical isolates and food products causing diarrheal and emetic outbreaks, and type strains from the American Type Culture Collection, and over 200 B. thuringiensis isolates representing 36 serovars or subspecies were from the U.S. D...

  16. Endophytic fungi in Scots pine needles: Spatial variation and consequences of simulated acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helander, M.L.; Neuvonen, S. (Turku Univ., Turku (F)); Sieber, T.N.; Petrini, O. (Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland))

    1994-01-01

    Within- and among-tree variation in assemblages of endophytic fungi in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles were studied in a subarctic area where background pollution values are low; the effects of tree density and prolonged simulated acid rain on the occurrence of endophytic fungi were investigated. The needle endophyte most frequently isolated was Cenangium ferruginosum, accounting for 64% of all fungal individuals, followed by Cyclaneusma minus (12% of all individuals). Old needles were colonized more frequently by endophytes than young ones. In young needles the colonization by endophytes increased during the summer, whereas in old ones no seasonal variation was detected. Endophyte colonization was positively correlated with stand density and was reduced on pines treated with spring water acidified with either sulphuric acid alone or in combination with nitric acid. In contrast, nitric acid alone did not affect endophyte colonization. 37 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Bioprospecting endophytic bacteria for biological control of coffee leaf rust Bioprospecção de bactérias endofíticas como agentes de biocontrole da ferrugem do cafeeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Franco Shiomi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Suppression of plant diseases due to the action of endophytic microorganisms has been demonstrated in several pathosystems. Experiments under controlled conditions involving endophytic bacteria isolated from leaves and branches of Coffea arabica L and Coffea robusta L were conducted with the objective of evaluating the inhibition of germination of Hemileia vastatrix Berk. & Br., race II, urediniospores and the control of coffee leaf rust development in tests with leaf discs, detached leaves, and on potted seedling of cv. Mundo Novo. The endophytic bacterial isolates tested proved to be effective in inhibiting urediniospore germination and/or rust development, with values above 50%, although the results obtained in urediniospore germination tests were inferior to the treatment with fungicide propiconazole. Endophytic isolates TG4-Ia, TF2-IIc, TF9-Ia, TG11-IIa, and TF7-IIa, demonstrated better coffee leaf rust control in leaf discs, detached leaves, and coffee plant tests. The endophytic isolates TG4-Ia and TF9-Ia were identified as Bacillus lentimorbus Dutky and Bacillus cereus Frank. & Frank., respectively. Some endophytic bacterial isolates were effective in controlling the coffee leaf rust, although some increased the severity of the disease. Even though a relatively small number of endophytic bacteria were tested, promising results were obtained regarding the efficiency of coffee leaf rust biocontrol. These selected agents appears to be an alternative for future replacement of chemical fungicide.Supressão de doenças de plantas por microrganismos endofíticos tem sido demonstrada em diversos patossistemas. Neste trabalho foram selecionados isolados de bactérias endofíticas de folhas e ramos de cafeeiro com potencial para o controle biológico da ferrugem do cafeeiro, pois é conhecido que esses microrganismos podem possuir essa característica. Bactérias endofíticas isoladas previamente de folhas e ramos de Coffea arabica L e Coffea

  18. Study of the anti-sapstain fungus activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CGMCC 5569 associated with Ginkgo biloba and identification of its active components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Wang, Zhe; Qin, Sheng; Zhao, Gui-Hua; Feng, You-Jian; Wei, Li-Hui; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2012-06-01

    An endophytic bacterium, designated strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CGMCC 5569 was isolated from Chinese medicinal Ginkgo biloba collected from Xuzhou, China. Both the filtrate and the ethyl acetate extract of strain CGMCC 5569 showed growth inhibition activity against the sapstain fungi Lasiodiplodia rubropurpurea, L. crassispora, and L. theobromae obviously (>65%) based on the comparison of the length of zones on the petri dish. From the ethyl acetate extract of the filtrate, the antifungal compounds were obtained as a series of lipopeptides, which including series of fengycin, surfactin and bacillomycin. It showed strong growth inhibition activity in vitro against the L. rubropurpurea, L. crassispora and L. theobromae by about 70.22%, 69.53% and 78.76%, respectively. The strong anti-sapstain fungus activity indicated that the endophytic B. amyloliquefaciens CGMCC 5569 and its bioactive components might provide an alternative bio-resource for the bio-control of sapstain. PMID:22520222

  19. Factors Influencing Rural Women Cassava Processors' Intention to Participate in an Agricultural Extension Education Program. Summary of Research 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojomo, Christian O.; McCaslin, N. L.

    A study examined factors influencing female cassava processors' intentions regarding participation in an extension education program on cassava processing in rural Nigeria. Interviews were conducted with 224 women who were purposely selected from areas of zone 3 of Ondo State, Nigeria, which has large concentrations of cassava processors.…

  20. Assessing the potential of biofortified cassava for improving indices of vitamin A status: Update on human studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava usually contains essentially no beta-carotene (BC). However, cassava is being bred to increase its BC content. Our objective was to test how effective biofortified cassava is at increasing serum BC and vitamin A (VA) concentrations in healthy adult women. Ten American women participated in ...

  1. Violet diode laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: a tool for assessing mosaic disease severity in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin; Eghan, Moses J; Asare-Bediako, Elvis; Buah-Bassuah, Paul K

    2012-01-01

    Violet diode laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence was used in agronomical assessment (disease severity and average yield per plant). Because cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is of economic importance, improved cultivars with various levels of affinity for cassava mosaic disease were investigated. Fluorescence data correlated with cassava mosaic disease severity levels and with the average yield per plant.

  2. Why mosaic? Gene expression profiling of African cassava mosaic virus-infected cassava reveals the effect of chlorophyll degradation on symptom development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiao; Yang, Jun; Bi, Huiping; Zhang, Peng

    2014-02-01

    Cassava mosaic disease, caused by cassava begomoviruses, is the most serious disease for cassava in Africa. However, the pathogenesis of this disease is poorly understood. We employed high throughput digital gene expression profiling based on the Illumina Solexa sequencing technology to investigate the global transcriptional response of cassava to African cassava mosaic virus infection. We found that 3,210 genes were differentially expressed in virus-infected cassava leaves. Gene ontology term and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis indicated that genes implicated in photosynthesis were most affected, consistent with the chlorotic symptoms observed in infected leaves. The upregulation of chlorophyll degradation genes, including the genes encoding chlorophyllase, pheophytinase, and pheophorbide a oxygenase, and downregulation of genes encoding the major apoproteins in light-harvesting complex II were confirmed by qRT-PCR. These findings, together with the reduction of chlorophyll b content and fewer grana stacks in the infected leaf cells, reveal that the degradation of chlorophyll plays an important role in African cassava mosaic virus symptom development. This study will provide a road map for future investigations into viral pathogenesis.

  3. Complete genome sequencing of two causative viruses of cassava mosaic disease in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteng-Frimpong, R; Levy, Y; Torkpo, S K; Danquah, E Y; Offei, S K; Gafni, Y

    2012-01-01

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMV), caused by one or a combination of cassava mosaic geminiviruses, is ranked among the most important constraints to profitable and efficient production of cassava. Effective control measures require in-depth knowledge of the viral causative agent. Using rolling-circle amplification and unique enzymes, the full genome of two species of cassava mosaic geminivirus isolated from infected cassava plants in Ghana were cloned into pCambia 1300 and pET-28b. The sequences of the genome were determined on an ABI sequencer and a pairwise comparison was performed with other cassava-infecting geminiviruses from different countries. It was revealed that cassava grown in Ghana is attacked by two species of geminivirus in either single or mixed infections. These are the African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and the East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV)-like, with high sequence similarity of 94% and 80%, respectively, between the DNA-A and DNA-B components of each virus, and 66% and 41% similarity of the common region (CR) (for A and B accordingly). The DNA-A of ACMV and EACMV-like contained 2781 and 2800 nucleotides, respectively, while their DNA-B components had 2725 and 2734 nucleotides, respectively. ACMV DNA-A was over 97% similar to those of other ACMVs from the continent. In contrast, EACMV-like DNA-A was over 98% similar to the isolates from Cameroon and other West African countries, and less than 88% similar to other EACMV species. Thus ACMV and EACMV-like were named African cassava mosaic virus-Ghana and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus-Ghana. Computer analysis revealed that their genome arrangement follows the typical old world bipartite begomovirus genome. The association of these two species and their interaction might account for the severe symptoms observed on infected plants in the field and in the greenhouse.

  4. Analysis of cassava (Manihot esculenta) ESTs: A tool for the discovery of genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the main source of calories for more than 1,000 millions of people around the world and has been consolidated as the fourth most important crop after rice, corn and wheat. Cassava is considered tolerant to abiotic and biotic stress conditions; nevertheless these characteristics are mainly present in non-commercial varieties. Genetic breeding strategies represent an alternative to introduce the desirable characteristics into commercial varieties. A fundamental step for accelerating the genetic breeding process in cassava requires the identification of genes associated to these characteristics. One rapid strategy for the identification of genes is the possibility to have a large collection of ESTs (expressed sequence tag). In this study, a complete analysis of cassava ESTs was done. The cassava ESTs represent 80,459 sequences which were assembled in a set of 29,231 unique genes (unigen), comprising 10,945 contigs and 18,286 singletones. These 29,231 unique genes represent about 80% of the genes of the cassava's genome. Between 5% and 10% of the unigenes of cassava not show similarity to any sequences present in the NCBI database and could be consider as cassava specific genes. a functional category was assigned to a group of sequences of the unigen set (29%) following the Gene Ontology Vocabulary. the molecular function component was the best represented with 43% of the sequences, followed by the biological process component (38%) and finally the cellular component with 19%. in the cassava ESTs collection, 3,709 microsatellites were identified and they could be used as molecular markers. this study represents an important contribution to the knowledge of the functional genomic structure of cassava and constitutes an important tool for the identification of genes associated to agricultural characteristics of interest that could be employed in cassava breeding programs.

  5. Endophytes: A Treasure House of Bioactive Compounds of Medicinal Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda, Sushanto; Das, Gitishree; Sen, Sandeep K.; Shin, Han-Seung; Patra, Jayanta Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes are an endosymbiotic group of microorganisms that colonize in plants and microbes that can be readily isolated from any microbial or plant growth medium. They act as reservoirs of novel bioactive secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, phenolic acids, quinones, steroids, saponins, tannins, and terpenoids that serve as a potential candidate for antimicrobial, anti-insect, anticancer and many more properties. While plant sources are being extensively explored for new chemical entities for therapeutic purposes, endophytic microbes also constitute an important source for drug discovery. This review aims to comprehend the contribution and uses of endophytes as an impending source of drugs against various forms of diseases and other possible medicinal use. PMID:27746767

  6. Fungal endophytes characterization from four species of Diplazium Swartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affina-Eliya, A. A.; Noraini, T.; Nazlina, I.; Ruzi, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    Four species on genus Diplazium namely Diplazium tomentosum, D. sorzogonense, D. asperum and D. accedens of Peninsular Malaysia were studied for presence of fungal endophyte. The objective of this study is to characterize fungal endophytes in the rhizome of four Diplazium species. The rhizome was surface sterilized and incubated to isolate fungal endophytes. Characterization of the colonies was performed by macroscopic morphological, microscopic identification, types of hyphae and mycelium, and spore structure. For isolation that produces spores, the structure of conidiophores and conidia were identified. From this study, four fungal have been isolated and determined as Aspergillus sp. (isolates AE 1), Aspergillus fumigatus (isolates AE 2), Aspergillus versicolor (isolates AE 3) and Verticillium sp. (isolates AE 4). The fungal isolates from this study were classified from the same family Moniliaceae.

  7. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Bowman, Michael J; Schisler, David A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618T. Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that while Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis are synonymous with each other, they are not synonymous with Bacillus mojavensis. In addition, a draft genome was completed for Brevibacterium halotolerans, a strain long suspected of being a Bacillus subtilis group member based on 16S rRNA similarities (99.8 % with Bacillus mojavensis). Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that Brevibacterium halotolerans is synonymous with Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis. The pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the three conspecific strains were all greater than 92 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. While the pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons of the three conspecific strains with Bacillus mojavensis were all less than 65 %. The combined results of our genotype and phenotype studies showed that Bacillus axarquiensis, Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans are conspecific and distinct from Bacillus mojavensis. Because the valid publication of the name Bacillus axarquiensis predates the publication of the name Bacillus malacitensis, we propose that Bacillus malacitensis be reclassified as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. In addition, we propose to reclassify Brevibacterium halotolerans as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. An amended description of Bacillus axarquiensis is provided.

  8. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Bowman, Michael J; Schisler, David A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618T. Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that while Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis are synonymous with each other, they are not synonymous with Bacillus mojavensis. In addition, a draft genome was completed for Brevibacterium halotolerans, a strain long suspected of being a Bacillus subtilis group member based on 16S rRNA similarities (99.8 % with Bacillus mojavensis). Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that Brevibacterium halotolerans is synonymous with Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis. The pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the three conspecific strains were all greater than 92 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. While the pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons of the three conspecific strains with Bacillus mojavensis were all less than 65 %. The combined results of our genotype and phenotype studies showed that Bacillus axarquiensis, Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans are conspecific and distinct from Bacillus mojavensis. Because the valid publication of the name Bacillus axarquiensis predates the publication of the name Bacillus malacitensis, we propose that Bacillus malacitensis be reclassified as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. In addition, we propose to reclassify Brevibacterium halotolerans as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. An amended description of Bacillus axarquiensis is provided. PMID:27030978

  9. Endophytic colonization of plant roots by nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are able to enter into roots from the rhizosphere, particularly at the base of emerging lateral roots, between epidermal cells and through root hairs. In the rhizosphere growing root hairs play an important role in symbiotic recognition in legume crops. Nodulated legumes in endosymbiosis with rhizobia are amongst the most prominent nitrogen-fixing systems in agriculture. The inoculation of non-legumes, especially cereals, with various non-rhizobial diazotrophic bacteria has been undertaken with the expectation that they would establish themselves intercellularly within the root system, fixing nitrogen endophytic ally and providing combined nitrogen for enhanced crop production. However, in most instances bacteria colonize only the surface of the roots and remain vulnerable to competition from other rhizosphere micro-organisms, even when the nitrogen-fixing bacteria are endophytic, benefits to the plant may result from better uptake of soil nutrients rather than from endophytic nitrogen fixation. Azorhizobium caulinodans is known to enter the root system of cereals, other nonlegume crops and Arabidopsis, by intercellular invasion between epidermal cells and to internally colonize the plant intercellularly, including the xylem. This raises the possibility that xylem colonization might provide a nonnodular niche for endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation in rice, wheat, maize, sorghum and other non-legume crops. A particularly interesting, naturally occurring, non-qodular xylem colonising endophytic diazotrophic interaction with evidence for endophytic nitrogen fixation is that of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in sugarcane. Could this beneficial endophytic colonization of sugarcane by G. diazotrophicus be extended to other members of the Gramineae, including the major cereals, and to other major non-legume crops of the World? (author)

  10. Improvement of cassava cooking quality through mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many high-yielding cassava varieties do not have the desired cooking quality. The objective of this project was to induce mutations to produce varieties with improved cooking quality while maintaining the disease-resistance and high-yielding characteristics. A cassava mutant (ISU-W) was obtained after irradiation of a variety from IITA with gamma rays and selection. Cuttings of the mutant were grown for 12 months in a field trial and investigated for tuber yield and cooking quality. Pest and disease incidence were monitored during the entire growth period. The results showed that the mutant retained the high-yield and disease resistant characters of the parent, and had improved cooking quality based on increased smoothness, mealiness and elasticity of the flour. (author). 7 refs, 5 tabs

  11. NOTE - Genetic variability among cassava accessions based on SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Nazaré Oliveira Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize and estimate the genetic similarity among 93 cassava accessions. The DNAamplification was performed with 14 microsatellite primers. The amplification products were separated by a polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis, showing a polymorphism formation, through which the accessions were discriminated against. The genetic similarityamong accessions of cassava was estimated by the Dice coefficient. Cluster analysis was carried out using the UPGMA method. Thepolymorphic primers amplified a total of 26 alleles with 2-4 alleles per loci. The genetic similarity ranged from 0.16 to 0.96. Theaverage values for observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.18 and 0.46, respectively. Twenty genetic similarity clusters weredetermined, demonstrating diversity among accessions, suggesting the possibility of heterotic hybrid generation.

  12. Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds of Cassava (Manihot esculenta from Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haofu Dai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to isolate antioxidant components from cassava stems produced in Hainan. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed greater DPPH˙and ABTS·+ scavenging activities than other fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield ten phenolic compounds: Coniferaldehyde (1, isovanillin (2, 6-deoxyjacareubin (3, scopoletin (4, syringaldehyde (5, pinoresinol (6, p-coumaric acid (7, ficusol (8, balanophonin (9 and ethamivan (10, which possess significant antioxidant activities. The relative order of DPPH· scavenging capacity for these compounds was ascorbic acid (reference > 6 > 1 > 8 > 10 > 9 > 3 > 4 > 7 > 5 > 2, and that of ABTS·+ scavenging capacity was 5 > 7 > 1 > 10 > 4 > 6 > 8 > 2 > Trolox (reference compound > 3 > 9. The results showed that these phenolic compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of cassava.

  13. Antioxidant phenolic compounds of cassava (Manihot esculenta) from Hainan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Bo; Hu, Lifei; Mei, Wenli; Zhou, Kaibing; Wang, Hui; Luo, Ying; Wei, Xiaoyi; Dai, Haofu

    2011-12-07

    An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to isolate antioxidant components from cassava stems produced in Hainan. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed greater DPPH˙and ABTS·+ scavenging activities than other fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield ten phenolic compounds: Coniferaldehyde (1), isovanillin (2), 6-deoxyjacareubin (3), scopoletin (4), syringaldehyde (5), pinoresinol (6), p-coumaric acid (7), ficusol (8), balanophonin (9) and ethamivan (10), which possess significant antioxidant activities. The relative order of DPPH· scavenging capacity for these compounds was ascorbic acid (reference) > 6 > 1 > 8 > 10 > 9 > 3 > 4 > 7 > 5 > 2, and that of ABTS·+ scavenging capacity was 5 > 7 > 1 > 10 > 4 > 6 > 8 > 2 > Trolox (reference compound) > 3 > 9. The results showed that these phenolic compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of cassava.

  14. Fermentation protocols for the nutritive upgrading and detoxification of cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper outlines common recommended procedures to be followed by those working in the area to facilitate the comparison of the results obtained. The report contains the wide spectrum of recommendations towards (i) the methods of preliminary preparation fo the cassava root for further fermentation reprocessing; (ii) optimization of the environmental parameters of the fermentation process, including pretreatment manipulations, moisture content, pH, temperature, aeration, form/size of inoculum, etc., (iii) optimization of the incubation time and selecting the fermentation systems and (iv) the analytical and quality control aspects. Some problems connected with the use of exogenous nitrogen sources to enhance the protein/aminoacid synthesis (supplementation of the fermenting mash with inorganic nitrogen salts, yeast extracts, indigenous sources of vegetable/animal nature, nitrogen fixing bacteria, etc.) are discussed and considered depending on their cost and effectiveness. Concerns about the safety aspects possibly arising from the alteration of the traditional practice of the cassava fermentation are also reported. (author)

  15. Antioxident activity of the mangrove endophytic fungus (Trichoderma sp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saravanakumar Kandasamy; Kathiresan Kandasamy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test antioxidant property of the endophytic Trichoderma species isolated from the leaves of 12 mangroves of Andaman Nicobar Islands. Methods: Eight strains of Trichoderma species were found predominant and their crude extracts were assessed for antioxidant activity by using seven assays.Results:EMFCAS8 and other strains also showed considerable activity. Total antioxidant activity varied with the strains and it was maximum in Trichoderma Conclusions: This work concluded that mangroves are rich in endophytic Trichoderma species with potential for antioxidant activity.

  16. Isolation and Characterisation of Endophytic Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria in Sugarcane

    OpenAIRE

    Muangthong, Ampiga; Youpensuk, Somchit; Rerkasem, Benjavan

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic nitrogen fixing bacteria were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of industrial variety (cv. U-Thong 3; UT3), wild and chewing sugarcane plants grown for 6 weeks in nitrogen (N)-free sand. Eighty nine isolates of endophytic bacteria were obtained on N-free agar. An acetylene reduction assay (ARA) detected nitrogenase activity in all 89 isolates. Three isolates from the chewing (C2HL2, C7HL1 and C34MR1) sugarcane and one isolate from the industrial sugarcane (UT3R1) varieties ...

  17. Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) from Hainan

    OpenAIRE

    Haofu Dai; Ying Luo; Hui Wang; Kaibing Zhou; Wenli Mei; Bo Yi; Lifei Hu; Xiaoyi Wei

    2011-01-01

    An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to isolate antioxidant components from cassava stems produced in Hainan. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed greater DPPH˙and ABTS·+ scavenging activities than other fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield ten phenolic compounds: Coniferaldehyde (1), isovanillin (2), 6-deoxyjacareubin (3), scopoletin (4), syringaldehyde (5), pinoresinol (6), p-coumaric acid (7), fic...

  18. Cassava starch effluent treatment with concomitant SCP production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilal, V B; Narayanan, C S; Balagopalan, C

    1991-03-01

    Yeasts and yeast-like organisms were chosen for the aerobic treatment of cassava starch factory effluent. A mixed culture of Candida utills and Endomycopsis fibuliger efficiently and rapidly utilized both starch and free sugars. After 28 h fermentation the protein content of the biomass was 22% (w/w), which remained unchanged during the remainder of the fermentation (60 h). This treatment removed 94% of the COD and 91% of the BOD.

  19. The role of the Oregon State University Endophyte Service Laboratory in diagnosing clinical cases of endophyte toxicoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, A Morrie; Blythe, Linda L; Duringer, Jennifer M

    2014-07-30

    The Oregon State University Colleges of Veterinary Medicine and Agricultural Sciences instituted the Endophyte Service Laboratory to aid in diagnosing toxicity problems associated with cool-season grasses in livestock. The endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophalum) present in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) produces ergopeptine alkaloids, of which ergovaline is the molecule used to determine exposure and toxicity thresholds for the vasoconstrictive conditions "fescue foot" and "summer slump". Another vasoconstrictive syndrome, "ergotism," is caused by a parasitic fungus, Claviceps purpurea, and its primary toxin, ergotamine. "Ryegrass staggers" is a neurological condition that affects livestock consuming endophyte (Neotyphodium lolii)-infected perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) with high levels of lolitrem B. HPLC-fluorescent analytical methods for these mycotoxins are described and were used to determine threshold levels of toxicity for ergovaline and lolitrem B in cattle, sheep, horses, and camels. In addition, six clinical cases in cattle are presented to illustrate diagnosis of these three diseases. PMID:25017309

  20. Gene-based Microsatellites for Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): Prevalence, Polymorphisms, and Cross-taxa Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a large...

  1. Cassava and soil fertility in intensifying smallholder farming systems of East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermont, van A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Cost-benefits, Crop management, Farming systems, Fertilizer, Food security, Generalizations, Income, Labour, Land pressure, Niche, Rainfall, Sub-Saharan Africa, System analysis, Yield gap. Cassava is an important crop in Africa. This thesis focuses on cassava production in the mid altitud

  2. Sustaining World Food Security with Improved Cassava Processing Technology: The Nigeria Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter O. Kolawole

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a very important food crop that is capable of providing food security. However, a lot of problems prevent the development and use of modern equipment for its production. Most of the cassava produced still comes from peasant farmers who depend on manual tools for their field operations and these farmers have made Nigeria the world’s largest producer of the crop. An increase in production of cassava to sustain the world food security needs improved machinery to allow its continuous cultivation and processing. Reasons for the low success recorded in the mechanization of cassava harvesting and processing were traced, and the attempts that have been made in the recent past by various engineers in Nigeria researching towards achieving mechanized harvesting and processing of cassava are well explained. The machinery required for cassava production in Africa, the development of new machines, and the need for more research and development in harvesting and processing machineries, which can reduce poverty worldwide and make food available and accessible for all, are also discussed. Research efforts made and the challenges facing the engineers, farmers, scientists and food processors towards achieving mechanical harvesting and processing of cassava are presented. Breeding a cassava variety with a regular shape for easy mechanization is one solution that could help the engineers worldwide.

  3. Closing the cassava yield gap: an analysis from small-holder farms in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermont, van A.M.; Asten, van P.J.A.; Tittonell, P.A.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    Cassava yields in Africa are small and it remains unclear which factors most limit yields. Using a series of farm surveys and on-farm and on-station trials in Uganda and western Kenya, we evaluated the importance of abiotic, biotic and associated crop management constraints for cassava production in

  4. Cloning and characterization of a tuberous root-specific promoter from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehorst-van Putten, H.J.J.; Wolters, A.M.A.; Pereira-Bertram, I.J.; Berg, H.; Krol, van der A.R.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain a tuberous root-specific promoter to be used in the transformation of cassava, a 1,728 bp sequence containing the cassava granule-bound starch synthase (GBSSI) promoter was isolated. The sequence proved to contain light- and sugar-responsive cis elements. Part of this sequence (1,

  5. Infochemical use by predatory mites of the cassava green mite in a multitrophic context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnanvossou, D.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes research on multitrophic interactions in a system consisting of (1) cassava plants ( Manihot esculenta ), (2) three herbivorous mites, i.e. the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa, the red spider mite Oligonychus gossypii and the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae

  6. Isolation and characterisation of starch biosynthesis genes from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munyikwa, T.R.I.

    1997-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical crop grown for its starchy thickened roots, mainly by peasant farmers, in the tropics, for whom it is a staple food. There is an increasing demand for the use of cassava in processed food and feed products, and in the paper and textile industries amon

  7. Analysis of heterogeneity of Copia-like retrotransposons in the genome of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadegesin, Micheal A; Beeching, John R

    2011-12-20

    Retrotransposons are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes and now proving to be useful genetic tools for genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses, especially in plants. In order to assess the diversity of Ty1/Copia-like retrotransposons of cassava, we used PCR primers anchored on the conserved domains of reverse transcriptases (RTs) to amplify cassava Ty1/Copia-like RT. The PCR product was cloned and sequenced. Sequences analysis of the clones revealed the presence of 69 families of Ty1/Copia-like retrotransposon in the genome of cassava. Comparative analyses of the predicted amino acid sequences of these clones with those of other plants showed that retroelements of this class are very heterogeneous in cassava. Cassava is widely grown for its edible roots in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Cassava roots, though poor in protein, are rich in starch (makes up about 80% of the dry matter), vitamin C, carotenes, calcium and potassium. It has a great commercial importance as a source of starch and starch based products. Realizing the importance of cassava, it stands out as a crop to benefit from biotechnology development. Heterogeneity of Mecops (Manihot esculenta copia-like Retrotransposons) showed that they may be useful for genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses of cassava germplasm.

  8. Optimization of biohydrogen and methane recovery within a cassava ethanol wastewater/waste integrated management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Xie, Li; Luo, Gang;

    2012-01-01

    Thermophilic co-fermentation of cassava stillage (CS) and cassava excess sludge (CES) were investigated for hydrogen and methane production. The highest hydrogen yield (37.1 ml/g-total-VS added) was obtained at VSCS/VSCES of 7:1, 17% higher than that with CS digestion alone. The CES recycle...

  9. Computational identification of microRNAs and their targets in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanun, Onsaya; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Sojikul, Punchapat; Viboonjun, Unchera; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly discovered class of noncoding endogenous small RNAs involved in plant growth and development as well as response to environmental stresses. miRNAs have been extensively studied in various plant species, however, only few information are available in cassava, which serves as one of the staple food crops, a biofuel crop, animal feed and industrial raw materials. In this study, the 169 potential cassava miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified by computational approach. Interestingly, mes-miR319b was represented as the first putative mirtron demonstrated in cassava. A total of 15 miRNA clusters involving 7 miRNA families, and 12 pairs of sense and antisense strand cassava miRNAs belonging to six different miRNA families were discovered. Prediction of potential miRNA target genes revealed their functions involved in various important plant biological processes. The cis-regulatory elements relevant to drought stress and plant hormone response were identified in the promoter regions of those miRNA genes. The results provided a foundation for further investigation of the functional role of known transcription factors in the regulation of cassava miRNAs. The better understandings of the complexity of miRNA-mediated genes network in cassava would unravel cassava complex biology in storage root development and in coping with environmental stresses, thus providing more insights for future exploitation in cassava improvement.

  10. Genetic mapping using genotyping-by-sequencing in the clonally-propagated cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) is one of the most important food crops in the tropics, but yields are far below their potential. The gene-pool of cassava contains natural genetic diversity relevant to many important breeding goals, but breeding progress has been slow, partly due to insufficient geno...

  11. Exploring the potential of cassava in promoting agricultural growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanzidur Rahman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one of the major food crops in Nigeria, with multiple uses from human consumption to industrial applications. This study explores the potential of cassava in Nigerian agriculture based on a review of cassava development policies; performs a trend analysis of the cultivation area, production, productivity, and real price of cassava and other competing crops for the period 1961–2013; identifies the sources of growth in production; and examines the production constraints at the local level based on a survey of 315 farmers/processors and 105 marketers from Delta State. The results revealed that several policies and programmes were implemented to develop the cassava sector with mixed outcomes. Although cassava productivity grew at 1.5% per annum (p.a. during the post-structural adjustment programme period (1993–2013, its real price declined at a rate of 3.5% p.a. The effect of yield is the main source of growth in production, contributing 76.4% of the total growth followed by the area effect (28.2%. The cassava sector is constrained by inadequate market infrastructure, processing facilities, and lack of information and unstable prices at the local level. The widespread diffusion of improved tropical manioc selection technologies and investments in market and marketing infrastructure, processing technologies, irrigation/water provision and information dissemination are recommended to enhance the potential of the cassava sector to support agricultural growth in Nigeria.

  12. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava to obtain fermentable sugars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renata M. COLLARES; Luiza V. S. MIKLASEVICIUS; Mariana M. BASSACO; Nina P. G. SALAU; Marcio A. MAZUTTI; Dilson A. BISOGNIN; Lisiane M. TERRA

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluates the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch from cassava using pectinase,α-amylase,and amyloglucosidase.A central composite rotational design (CCRD) was carried out to evaluate the effects of amyloglucosidase,pectinase,reaction time,and solid to liquid ratio.All the experiments were carried out in a bioreactor with working volume of 2 L.Approximately 98% efficiency hydrolysis was obtained,resulting in a concentration of total reducing sugar released of 160 g/L.It was concluded that pectinase improved the hydrolysis of starch from cassava.Reaction time was found to be significant until 7 h of reaction.A solid to liquid ratio of 1.0 was considered suitable for hydrolysis of starch from cassava.Amyloglucosidase was a significant variable in the process:after its addition to the reaction media,a 30%-50% increase in the amount of total reducing sugar released was observed.At optimal conditions the maximum productivity obtained was 22.9 g/(L·h).

  13. Classification of cassava genotypes based on qualitative and quantitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, E J; Oliveira Filho, O S; Santos, V S

    2015-02-02

    We evaluated the genetic variation of cassava accessions based on qualitative (binomial and multicategorical) and quantitative traits (continuous). We characterized 95 accessions obtained from the Cassava Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura; we evaluated these accessions for 13 continuous, 10 binary, and 25 multicategorical traits. First, we analyzed the accessions based only on quantitative traits; next, we conducted joint analysis (qualitative and quantitative traits) based on the Ward-MLM method, which performs clustering in two stages. According to the pseudo-F, pseudo-t2, and maximum likelihood criteria, we identified five and four groups based on quantitative trait and joint analysis, respectively. The smaller number of groups identified based on joint analysis may be related to the nature of the data. On the other hand, quantitative data are more subject to environmental effects in the phenotype expression; this results in the absence of genetic differences, thereby contributing to greater differentiation among accessions. For most of the accessions, the maximum probability of classification was >0.90, independent of the trait analyzed, indicating a good fit of the clustering method. Differences in clustering according to the type of data implied that analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits in cassava germplasm might explore different genomic regions. On the other hand, when joint analysis was used, the means and ranges of genetic distances were high, indicating that the Ward-MLM method is very useful for clustering genotypes when there are several phenotypic traits, such as in the case of genetic resources and breeding programs.

  14. Stability of cassava flour-based food bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Caroline da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of Brazilian cassava has been reduced due to a lack of adjustment to the modern lifestyle. To reverse this trend, new products could be developed specifically targeted to high-value niche markets. Cereal bars stand out as fast food high in nutritional value. A bar formula mimicking cereal bars was prepared using a mixture of Brazilian cassava flour, hydrogenated vegetable fat, dried bananas, ground cashew nuts, and glucose syrup. After being pressed, the bars were dried for 1 hour at 65 °C, packaged in films, and stored under ambient conditions. Its stability was continuously monitored for 210 days in order to ensure its safety and enable its introduction to the market. Texture loss was observed in the packed bars after 90 days of storage, but the sensory characteristics allowed the testers to perceive this tendency after only 30 days of storage. However, chemical, physical, and microbial analyses confirmed that the bars were safe for consumption for 180 days. The results showed that a 45 g cassava flour-based bar enriched with nuts and dried fruits can meet 6% of the recommended daily fiber intake with a caloric value between that of the common cereal bar and that of an energy bar. Adapting the formula with ingredients (fruits, nuts from different regions of Brazil may add value to this traditional product as a fast food.

  15. Effect of plant-biostimulant on cassava initial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Emílio de Souza Magalhães

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biostimulants are complex substances that promote hormonal balance in plants, favor the genetic potential expression, and enhance growth of shoots and root system. The use of these plant growth promoters in crops can increase quantitatively and qualitatively crop production. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a commercial biostimulant on the initial growth of cassava. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 5 factorial design, corresponding to two cassava cultivars (Cacau-UFV and Coimbra and five biostimulant concentrations (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 mL L-1. At 90 days after planting, the characteristics leaf area, plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, total dry matter and dry matter of roots, stems and leaves were evaluated. The biostimulant promoted linear increases in plant height, leaf number, leaf area, total dry matter, dry matter of stems, leaves and roots. The cultivar Cacau-UFV had a higher growth rate than the cultivar Coimbra. The growth promoter stimulated the early growth of the cassava crop.

  16. Cassava Market Participation Decisions of Producing Households in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a basic staple and a major source of farm income for the people of sub-Saharan Africa. Efficiency in cassava marketing therefore becomes a very important determinant of both consumer's living cost and producer's income. At the farmer's level, which is the beginning of the marketing chain, food must produced in reasonable quantity to attract enough market participants that will make for efficient distribution. The use of food price policy to stimulate short-run marketed surplus of producing households has often been questioned. This is because some households are deficit producers who purchase crops they also produce. Increasing producer prices will therefore have adverse distributional effects on food buying, while bypassing autarkic households. An alternative would therefore be to find non-price strategic variables that motivate farm households to participate in commodity markets. This is the objective of this paper. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework by the collaborative study of cassava in Africa (COSCA. Good market access conditions, improved market information especially on prices, the production of granules instead of dried roots or pastes increased market participation for sellers, while rising grain prices, younger and less educated heads of households encouraged participation for buyers.

  17. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed.

  18. Emergy analysis of cassava-based fuel ethanol in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hui; Chen, Li; Yan, Zongcheng; Wang, Honglin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Emergy analysis considers both energy quality and energy used in the past, and compensates for the inability of money to value non-market inputs in an objective manner. Its common unit allows all resources to be compared on a fair basis. As feedstock for fuel ethanol, cassava has some advantages over other feedstocks. The production system of cassava-based fuel ethanol (CFE) was evaluated by emergy analysis. The emergy indices for the system of cassava-based fuel ethanol (CFE) are as follows: transformity is 1.10 E + 5 sej/J, EYR is 1.07, ELR is 2.55, RER is 0.28, and ESI is 0.42. Compared with the emergy indices of wheat ethanol and corn ethanol, CFE is the most sustainable. CFE is a good alternative to substitute for oil in China. Non-renewable purchased emergy accounts for 71.15% of the whole input emergy. The dependence on non-renewable energy increases environmental degradation, making the system less sustainable relative to systems more dependent on renewable energies. For sustainable development, it is vital to reduce the consumption of non-renewable energy in the production of CFE. (author)

  19. Emergy analysis of cassava-based fuel ethanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergy analysis considers both energy quality and energy used in the past, and compensates for the inability of money to value non-market inputs in an objective manner. Its common unit allows all resources to be compared on a fair basis. As feedstock for fuel ethanol, cassava has some advantages over other feedstocks. The production system of cassava-based fuel ethanol (CFE) was evaluated by emergy analysis. The emergy indices for the system of cassava-based fuel ethanol (CFE) are as follows: transformity is 1.10 E + 5 sej/J, EYR is 1.07, ELR is 2.55, RER is 0.28, and ESI is 0.42. Compared with the emergy indices of wheat ethanol and corn ethanol, CFE is the most sustainable. CFE is a good alternative to substitute for oil in China. Non-renewable purchased emergy accounts for 71.15% of the whole input emergy. The dependence on non-renewable energy increases environmental degradation, making the system less sustainable relative to systems more dependent on renewable energies. For sustainable development, it is vital to reduce the consumption of non-renewable energy in the production of CFE. (author)

  20. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed. PMID:26892156

  1. Characterization of different cassava samples by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is grown in all Brazilian states, being an important product in the diet of Brazilians. For many families of the North and Northeast states, it may represent the main energy source. The cassava root flour has high levels of starch, in addition to containing fiber, lipids and some minerals. There is, however, great genetic variability, which results in differentiation in its chemical composition and structural aspect. Motivated by the economic, nutritional and pharmacological importance of this product, this work is aimed at characterizing six cassava flour samples by NMR spectroscopy. The spectra revealed the main chemical groups. Furthermore, the results confirmed differences on chemical and structural aspect of the samples. For instance, the F1 sample is richer in carbohydrates, while the F4 sample has higher proportion of glycolipids, the F2 sample has higher amylose content and the F6 sample exhibits a greater diversity of glycolipid types. Regarding the molecular structure, the NMR spectra indicated that the F1 sample is more organized at the molecular level, while the F3 and F5 samples are similar in amorphicity and in the molecular packing. (author)

  2. Alleviation of Drought Stress and Metabolic Changes in Timothy (Phleum pratense L.) Colonized with Bacillus subtilis B26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné-Bourque, François; Bertrand, Annick; Claessens, Annie; Aliferis, Konstantinos A.; Jabaji, Suha

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a major limiting factor of crop productivity worldwide and its incidence is predicted to increase under climate change. Drought adaptation of cool-season grasses is thus a major challenge to secure the agricultural productivity under current and future climate conditions. Endophytes are non-pathogenic plant-associated bacteria that can play an important role in conferring resistance and improving plant tolerance to drought. In this study, the effect of inoculation of the bacterial endophyte Bacillus subtilis strain B26 on growth, water status, photosynthetic activity and metabolism of timothy (Phleum pratense L.) subjected to drought stress was investigated under controlled conditions. Under both drought-stress and non-stressed conditions, strain B26 successfully colonized the internal tissues of timothy and had a positive impact on plant growth. Exposure of inoculated plant to a 8-week drought-stress led to significant increase in shoot and root biomass by 26.6 and 63.8%, and in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance by 55.2 and 214.9% respectively, compared to non-inoculated plants grown under similar conditions. There was a significant effect of the endophyte on plant metabolism; higher levels of several sugars, notably sucrose and fructans and an increase of key amino acids such as, asparagine, glutamic acid and glutamine were recorded in shoots and roots of colonized plants compared to non-colonized ones. The accumulation of the non-protein amino acid GABA in shoots of stressed plants and in roots of stressed and unstressed plants was increased in the presence of the endophyte. Taken together, our results indicate that B. subtilis B26 improves timothy growth under drought stress through the modification of osmolyte accumulation in roots and shoots. These results will contribute to the development of a microbial agent to improve the yield of grass species including forage crops and cereals exposed to environmental stresses. PMID:27200057

  3. Pervasive Effects of Wildfire on Foliar Endophyte Communities in Montane Forest Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ling; Devan, M M Nandi; U'Ren, Jana M; Furr, Susan H; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    Plants in all terrestrial ecosystems form symbioses with endophytic fungi that inhabit their healthy tissues. How these foliar endophytes respond to wildfires has not been studied previously, but is important given the increasing frequency and intensity of severe wildfires in many ecosystems, and because endophytes can influence plant growth and responses to stress. The goal of this study was to examine effects of severe wildfires on endophyte communities in forest trees, with a focus on traditionally fire-dominated, montane ecosystems in the southwestern USA. We evaluated the abundance, diversity, and composition of endophytes in foliage of Juniperus deppeana (Cupressaceae) and Quercus spp. (Fagaceae) collected contemporaneously from areas affected by recent wildfire and paired areas not affected by recent fire. Study sites spanned four mountain ranges in central and southern Arizona. Our results revealed significant effects of fires on endophyte communities, including decreases in isolation frequency, increases in diversity, and shifts in community structure and taxonomic composition among endophytes of trees affected by recent fires. Responses to fire were similar in endophytes of each host in these fire-dominated ecosystems and reflect regional fire-return intervals, with endophytes after fire representing subsets of the regional mycoflora. Together, these findings contribute to an emerging perspective on the responses of diverse communities to severe fire, and highlight the importance of considering fire history when estimating endophyte diversity and community structure for focal biomes.

  4. The sustainability of cassava-based bioethanol production in southern Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Bruun, Thilde Bech;

    2015-01-01

    of cassava-based bioethanol production in southern Mali, assessing its environmental, economic and social sustainability. Results demonstrate that environmental sustainability of cassava-based bioethanol production depends on the ‘baseline’ chosen: Compared to the situation before the decline in cotton...... production 10 years ago, the carbon stocks will increase. However, if compared to the current situation, where considerable carbon stocks have accumulated in fallow fields, the loss of carbon will be substantial. Increased cassava production will create greater incomes and better temporal distribution...... of labour input. Analysis of the significance of current cassava production for food security shows that bioethanol production should be based on the attiéké variety of cassava, thereby avoiding interference with the important role of the bonouma in assuring food security in northern Mali. The key factor...

  5. Biorefinery approach for cassava-based industrial wastes: Current status and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Xie, Li; Yin, Zhixuan; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Zhou, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Cassava, an important food crop, has been extensively employed as raw materials for various agri-industries to produce starch, bioethanol and other biobased products/chemicals. These cassava-based industries also generate large quantities of wastes/residues, rich in organic matter and suspended solids, and pose significant environmental issues. Their complex biochemical composition with high organic content endows them with a great potential for bioconversion into value-added products via biorefinery thereby providing economic and environmental sustainability to cassava industries. This state-of-the-art review covers the source, composition and characteristics of cassava industrial wastes and residues, and their bioconversion into value-added products, mainly biofuels (ethanol and butanol), biogas, biosurfactant, organic acids and other valuable biochemicals among others. This paper also outlines future perspectives with respect to developing more effective and efficient bioconversion processes for converting the cassava wastes and residues into high-value products. PMID:27117291

  6. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava to succinic acid by Escherichia coli NZN111.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cuixia; Ding, Shaopeng; Wang, Dezheng; Li, Zhimin; Ye, Qin

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the production of succinic acid from cassava starch and raw cassava instead of glucose by Escherichia coli NZN111 was investigated. During the two-stage fermentation, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was applied in the anaerobic stage. The results showed that both the productivity and specific productivity in the process conducted at 40°C were higher than those in the cultivation conducted at 37°C. The yield of succinic acid based on the amount of added starch reached the highest level 0.86 g/g and cassava starch was almost totally hydrolyzed in the SSF process. With the improved cell density, 127.13 g/L of succinic acid was obtained. When the liquefied crude cassava powder was used directly in SSF, 106.17 g/L of succinic acid was formed. The result showed that crude cassava powder could be another cheap raw material for succinic acid formation. PMID:24787322

  7. Bioconversion of industrial solid waste--cassava bagasse for pullulan production in solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, K R; Jothi, P; Ponnusami, V

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to produce commercially important pullulan using industrial solid waste namely cassava bagasse in solid state fermentation and minimize the solid waste disposal problem. First, influence of initial pH on cell morphology and pullulan yield was studied. Effect of various factors like fermentation time, moisture ratio, nitrogen sources and particle size on pullulan yield was investigated. Various supplementary carbon sources (3%, w/w) namely glucose, sucrose, fructose, maltose, mannose and xylose with cassava bagasse was also studied to improve the pullulan yield. After screening the suitable supplement, effect of supplement concentration on pullulan production was investigated. The pullulan from cassava bagasse was characterized by FTIR, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR. Molecular weight of pullulan from cassava bagasse was determined by gel permeation chromatography. Thus, cassava bagasse emerged to be a cheap and novel substrate for pullulan production.

  8. Optimizing The Use of Cassava Plant and its Byproduct as Ruminant Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Antari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An alternative to overcome the lack of feed is to use local feed resources. Cassava (Manihot utilissima is a tropical plant that grows easily in all types of soil. At the time of harvest, the price is relatively cheap. Cassava has a low nutritive value, especially in crude protein, but it is a potential source of energy. The research to optimize the use of cassava as feed is by enrichment of its nutritional value, production of single cell protein or supplementation with other feed ingredient. Cassava leaves or hay contain high protein level so that it can be used as protein source. However, its utilization is limited by anti nutritive compounds, such as cyanide acid and linamarin. It can be overcome by physical, chemical and biological treatments as detoxification. The use of cassava in livestock feed requires a formulation strategy to obtain the optimal productivity.

  9. Characterisation of Cassava Bagasse and Composites Prepared by Blending with Low-Density Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Oliveira Farias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to characterise the cassava bagasse and to evaluate its addition in composites. Two cassava bagasse samples were characterised using physicochemical, thermal and microscopic techniques, and by obtaining their spectra in the mid-infrared region and analysing them by using x-ray diffraction. Utilising sorption isotherms, it was possible to establish the acceptable conditions of temperature and relative humidity for the storage of the cassava bagasse. The incorporation of cassava bagasse in a low-density polyethylene (LDP matrix was positive, increasing the elasticity modulus values from 131.90 for LDP to 186.2 for 70% LDP with 30% SP bagasse. These results were encouraging because cassava bagasse could serve as a structural reinforcement, as well as having environmental advantages for its application in packaging, construction and automotive parts.

  10. Food safety: importance of composition for assessing genetically modified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijssen, Fredrika W Jansen; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2013-09-01

    The importance of food composition in safety assessments of genetically modified (GM) food is described for cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) that naturally contains significantly high levels of cyanogenic glycoside (CG) toxicants in roots and leaves. The assessment of the safety of GM cassava would logically require comparison with a non-GM crop with a proven "history of safe use". This study investigates this statement for cassava. A non-GM comparator that qualifies would be a processed product with CG level below the approved maximum level in food and that also satisfies a "worst case" of total dietary consumption. Although acute and chronic toxicity benchmark CG values for humans have been determined, intake data are scarce. Therefore, the non-GM cassava comparator is defined on the "best available knowledge". We consider nutritional values for cassava and conclude that CG residues in food should be a priority topic for research.

  11. Microbiological and Biochemical Characterization of Cassava Retting, a Traditional Lactic Acid Fermentation for Foo-Foo (Cassava Flour) Production

    OpenAIRE

    Brauman, A.; Keleke, S.; Malonga, M.; Miambi, E.; Ampe, F

    1996-01-01

    The overall kinetics of retting, a spontaneous fermentation of cassava roots performed in central Africa, was investigated in terms of microbial-population evolution and biochemical and physicochemical parameters. During the traditional process, endogenous cyanogens were almost totally degraded, plant cell walls were lysed by the simultaneous action of pectin methylesterase and pectate lysate, and organic acids (C2 to C4) were produced. Most microorganisms identified were found to be facultat...

  12. Chemical composition, functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinma, Chiemela Enyinnaya; Ariahu, Charles Chukwuma; Abu, Joseph Oneh

    2013-12-01

    The chemical, functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate blends intended for biofilm processing were studied. Cassava starch and soy protein concentrates were prepared and mixed at different proportions (100: 0%; 90 : 10%; 80 : 20%; 70 : 30%; 60;40% and 50: 50%). Addition of varying levels of soy protein concentrates to cassava starch led to increases in moisture (from 7.10 to 9.17%), protein ( from 0.32 to 79.03%), ash (from 0.45 to 2.67%) and fat (from 0.17 to 0.98%) contents while crude fiber, carbohydrate and amylose contents decreased from ( 1.19 to 0.38%, 90.77 to 57.01% and 29.45 to 23.04%) respectively . Water absorption capacity and swelling power of cassava starch were improved as a result of soy protein concentrate addition while syneresis and solubility value of composite blends were lower than 100% cassava starch. In general, cassava-soy protein concentrate blends formed firmer gels than cassava starch alone. There were significant (p ≤ 0.05) increases in peak viscosity (from 160.12 to 268.32RVU), final viscosity (from 140.41 to 211.08RVU) and pasting temperature (from 71.00 to 72.32 °C ) of cassava starch due to addition of soy protein concentrate. These results suggest that the addition of soy protein concentrate to cassava starch affected the studied functional properties of cassava starch as evidenced by changes such as reduced syneresis, and solubility that are desirable when considering this biopolymer as an edible biofilm.

  13. Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin levels in stored cassava chips as affected by processing practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essono, G.; Ayodele, M.; Akoa, A.;

    2009-01-01

    Cassava chips (cassava balls, and cassava pellets) are derived cassava products traditionally produced by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa following fermentation, and drying of fresh roots of cassava, and are widely consumed in Cameroon. Once produced, this food commodity can be stored for more than...... two months and contaminated by a wide array of harmful microbes. In order to assess persistence of toxigenic fungi in cassava chips, aflatoxin-producing fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nomius, and Aspergillus parasiticus) and aflatoxins were contrasted at regular intervals in home......-stored cassava chips collected in two locations of southern Cameroon throughout a two-month monitoring period. Three hundred and forty-six isolates of aflatoxin-producing fungi were found to be associated with all samples. A. flavus contaminated more samples in both types of chips (267 isolates in 53 samples...

  14. Marker-assisted selection in common beans and cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) is reviewed in relation to the breeding system of each crop and the breeding goals of International Agricultural Research Centres (IARCs) and National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS). The importance of each crop is highlighted and examples of successful use of molecular markers within selection cycles and breeding programmes are given for each. For common beans, examples are given of gene tagging for several traits that are important for bean breeding for tropical environments and aspects considered that contribute to successful application of MAS. Simple traits that are tagged with easy-to-use markers are discussed first as they were the first traits prioritized for breeding at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) and with NARS partners in Central America, Colombia and eastern Africa. The specific genes for MAS selection were the bgm-1 gene for bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) resistance and the bc-3 gene for bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) resistance. MAS was efficient for reducing breeding costs under both circumstances as land and labour savings resulted from eliminating susceptible individuals. The use of markers for other simply inherited traits in marker-assisted backcrossing and introgression across Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools is suggested. The possibility of using MAS for quantitative traits such as low soil phosphorus adaptation is also discussed as are the advantages and disadvantages of MAS in a breeding programme. For cassava, the use of multiple flanking markers for selection of a dominant gene, CMD2 for cassava mosaic virus (CMV) resistance at CIAT and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) as well as with NARS partners in the United Republic of Tanzania using a participatory plant breeding scheme are reviewed. MAS for the same gene is important during introgression of cassava green mite

  15. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of endophytic bacteria in Davidia involucrate%珙桐内生细菌的分离鉴定及系统发育分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋培勇; 李凤华; 马莉莉

    2011-01-01

    A total of 56 endophytic bacteria were isolated from the stem, leaves and petioles of Davidia involucrate with tradational cultural methods.Of which, 17 endophytic bateria were selected to carry out succedent molecular studies.About 1 500 bp fragments of 16S rDNA were amplified by PCR method using the extracted genomic DNA as the templet.According to sequences analysis and comparison with the data of GenBank by BLAST, eleven endophytic bacreia were classed to Bacillus genera, the identities are from 95% to 98%, two were classed to Lysinibacillus genera, the identities are 97% and 99%, one were classed to Bordetella genus, the identity was 95%, and one was similar to a reported uncultured bacterium, the identity was 96%.Bacillus was the dominant genus among the endophytic bacteria in Davidia involucrate.The phylogenic tree showed that the 15 endophytic bacteria clustered two main branches.%用微生物学传统分离培养方法从珙桐茎、叶及叶柄中分离到内生细菌56株,选取17株内生菌,提取其基因组DNA,并以此为模板,PCR扩增其16S rDNA,扩增出约1 500 bp大小的DNA条带,对15株内生菌16S rDNA 测序,用BLAST 软件对测序结果进行相似性比对,发现11株为Bacillus属,相似性为95%-98%;2株为Lysinibacillus属,相似性为97%和99%;1株为Bordetella属,相似性为95%;1株为非培养细菌的同源菌,相似性96%.芽孢杆菌为珙桐内生细菌优势菌属.通过构建系统发育树发现这15株内生菌明显聚为2大支.

  16. Beneficial role of bacterial endophytes in heavy metal phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Zhang, Chang; Freitas, Helena

    2016-06-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants and their associated microbes to clean up pollutants from the soil, water and air. In recent years, phytoremediation assisted by bacterial endophytes has been highly recommended for cleaning up of metal polluted soils since endophytic bacteria can alleviate metal toxicity in plant through their own metal resistance system and facilitate plant growth under metal stress. Endophytic bacteria improve plant growth in metal polluted soils in two different ways: 1) directly by producing plant growth beneficial substances including solubilization/transformation of mineral nutrients (phosphate, nitrogen and potassium), production of phytohormones, siderophores and specific enzymes; and 2) indirectly through controlling plant pathogens or by inducing a systemic resistance of plants against pathogens. Besides, they also alter metal accumulation capacity in plants by excreting metal immobilizing extracellular polymeric substances, as well as metal mobilizing organic acids and biosurfactants. The present work aims to review the progress of recent research on the isolation, identification and diversity of metal resistant endophytic bacteria and illustrate various mechanisms responsible for plant growth promotion and heavy metal detoxification/phytoaccumulation/translocation in plants. PMID:26989941

  17. Bioaugmentation with engineered endophytic bacteria improves contaminant fate in phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Artois, T.; Smeets, K.; Taghavi, S.; Newman, L.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2009-12-01

    Phytoremediation of volatile organic contaminants often proves not ideal because plants and their rhizosphere microbes only partially degrade these compounds. Consequently, plants undergo evapotranspiration that contaminates the ambient air and, thus, undermines the merits of phytoremediation. Under laboratory conditions, endophytic bacteria equipped with the appropriate degradation pathways can improve in plant degradation of volatile organic contaminants. However, several obstacles must be overcome before engineered endophytes will be successful in field-scale phytoremediation projects. Here we report the first in situ inoculation of poplar trees, growing on a TCE-contaminated site, with the TCE-degrading strain Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE. In situ bioaugmentation with strain W619-TCE reduced TCE evapotranspiration by 90% under field conditions. This encouraging result was achieved after the establishment and enrichment of P. putida W619-TCE as a poplar root endophyte and by further horizontal gene transfer of TCE metabolic activity to members of the poplar's endogenous endophytic population. Since P. putida W619-TCE was engineered via horizontal gene transfer, its deliberate release is not restricted under European genetically modified organisms (GMO) regulations.

  18. Extracellular Hemicellulolytic Enzymes from the Maize Endophyte Acremonium zeae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maize endophyte Acremonium zeae was examined for production of extracellular enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose. The most prominent enzyme activity in cell-free culture media from A. zeae NRRL 6415 was xylanase, with a specific activity of 60 U/mg from cultures grown on crude co...

  19. 7 CFR 201.58d - Fungal endophyte test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... compound microscope at 100-400x magnification, scoring a seed as positive if any identifiable hyphae are... thoroughly in running tap water. (4) De-glume seeds and place on a microscope slide in a drop of endophyte... sheath approximately 3-5 mm in width. (5) Place the section on a microscope slide with the epidermis...

  20. Plant Growth Promotion Induced by Phosphate Solubilizing Endophytic Pseudomonas Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas eOtieno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant growth promoting bacterial inoculants as live microbial biofertilisers provides a promising alternative to chemical fertilisers and pesticides. Inorganic phosphate solubilisation is one of the major mechanisms of plant growth promotion by plant associated bacteria. This involves bacteria releasing organic acids into the soil which solubilise the phosphate complexes converting them into ortho-phosphate which is available for plant up-take and utilisation. The study presented here describes the ability of endophytic bacterial isolates to produce gluconic acid, solubilise insoluble phosphate and stimulate the growth of Pea plants (Pisum sativum. This study also describes the genetic systems within three of these endophyte isolates thought to be responsible for their effective phosphate solubilising abilities. The results showed that many of the endophytic isolates produced gluconic acid (14-169 mM and have moderate to high phosphate solubilisation capacities (~ 400-1300 mg L-1. When inoculated to Pea plants grown in sand/soil under soluble phosphate limiting conditions, the endophyte isolates that produced medium to high levels of gluconic acid also displayed enhanced plant growth promotion effects.

  1. Endophytic microorganisms--promising applications in bioremediation of greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępniewska, Z; Kuźniar, A

    2013-11-01

    Bioremediation is a technique that uses microbial metabolism to remove pollutants. Various techniques and strategies of bioremediation (e.g., phytoremediation enhanced by endophytic microorganisms, rhizoremediation) can mainly be used to remove hazardous waste from the biosphere. During the last decade, this specific technique has emerged as a potential cleanup tool only for metal pollutants. This situation has changed recently as a possibility has appeared for bioremediation of other pollutants, for instance, volatile organic compounds, crude oils, and radionuclides. The mechanisms of bioremediation depend on the mobility, solubility, degradability, and bioavailability of contaminants. Biodegradation of pollutions is associated with microbial growth and metabolism, i.e., factors that have an impact on the process. Moreover, these factors have a great influence on degradation. As a result, recognition of natural microbial processes is indispensable for understanding the mechanisms of effective bioremediation. In this review, we have emphasized the occurrence of endophytic microorganisms and colonization of plants by endophytes. In addition, the role of enhanced bioremediation by endophytic bacteria and especially of phytoremediation is presented.

  2. Relationship between plant lipid bodies and fungal endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipid bodies are universal components of plant cells and provide a mobilized carbon source for essential biological processes. Plant oils harvested for food and fuel often reside in these lipid bodies. Plants also host diverse populations of endophytic fungi, which easily escape microscopic detect...

  3. Impact of Endophytic Microorganisms on Plants, Environment and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya N. Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes are microorganisms (bacteria or fungi or actinomycetes that dwell within robust plant tissues by having a symbiotic association. They are ubiquitously associated with almost all plants studied till date. Some commonly found endophytes are those belonging to the genera Enterobacter sp., Colletotrichum sp., Phomopsis sp., Phyllosticta sp., Cladosporium sp., and so forth. Endophytic population is greatly affected by climatic conditions and location where the host plant grows. They produce a wide range of compounds useful for plants for their growth, protection to environmental conditions, and sustainability, in favour of a good dwelling place within the hosts. They protect plants from herbivory by producing certain compounds which will prevent animals from further grazing on the same plant and sometimes act as biocontrol agents. A large amount of bioactive compounds produced by them not only are useful for plants but also are of economical importance to humans. They serve as antibiotics, drugs or medicines, or the compounds of high relevance in research or as compounds useful to food industry. They are also found to have some important role in nutrient cycling, biodegradation, and bioremediation. In this review, we have tried to comprehend different roles of endophytes in plants and their significance and impacts on man and environment.

  4. Cytosporones O, P and Q from an endophytic Cytospora sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abreu, L.M.; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Pfenning, L.H.;

    2010-01-01

    Cytosporones O, P and Q, together with the known compounds cytosporones B, C, D, E and dothiorelones A, 13, C. and H were isolated from the ascomycete fungus Cytospora sp. during a chemotaxonomic study Of fungal endophytes belonging to the related genera Cytospora and Phomopsis from Brazil...

  5. Dark septate endophytic pleosporalean genera from semiarid areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapp, D.G.; Kovács, G.M.; Zajta, E.; Groenwald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are distributed worldwide as root-colonising fungi, and frequent in environments with strong abiotic stress. DSE is not a taxon, but constitutes numerous fungal taxa belonging to several orders of Ascomycota. In this study we investigate three unidentified DSE lineages b

  6. Dark septate endophytic pleosporalean genera from semiarid areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapp, D G; Kovács, G M; Zajta, E; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2015-01-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are distributed worldwide as root-colonising fungi, and frequent in environments with strong abiotic stress. DSE is not a taxon, but constitutes numerous fungal taxa belonging to several orders of Ascomycota. In this study we investigate three unidentified DSE lineages

  7. Identification of lead- resistant endophytic bacteria isolated from rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pérez-Cordero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available   The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the endophytic bacteria resistance to different lead concentrations. The sampling was undertaken in the first half of 2013, when tissue samples of commercial varieties of rice at tillering stage were collected in Montería, Cordoba, Colombia. Each tissue was subjected to surface cleaning. Endophytic bacteria in agar R2A medium were isolated. Population density (CFU/g tissue was determined from each tissue, by direct counting of R2A medium surface. morphotypes were classified by shape, color, size, and appearance. A total of 168 morphotypes were isolated from root, tillers, and leaf of different commercial varieties of rice. The lead resistance test was performed in vitro, to do that, suspensions of endophytic bacteria in log phase were prepared and inoculated in minimal medium with five concentrations of lead as Pb(NO32. The experiment was incubated at 32 °C and agitated at 150 rpm, for five days. Every hour afterstarting the test, turbidimetry measuring at 600 nm was conducted. Results showed the ability of endophytic bacteria to grow at concentrations of 100% of Pb as Pb(NO32. The results of the identification with kit API20E confirmed the presence of Burkholderia cepacia and Pseudomonas putida, which showed resistance to different lead concentrations.

  8. Antifungal metabolites from fungal endophytes of Pinus strobus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumarah, Mark W; Kesting, Julie R; Sørensen, Dan;

    2011-01-01

    The extracts of five foliar fungal endophytes isolated from Pinus strobus (eastern white pine) that showed antifungal activity in disc diffusion assays were selected for further study. From these strains, the aliphatic polyketide compound 1 and three related sesquiterpenes 2-4 were isolated...

  9. Integrative Cloning, Expression, and Stability of the cryIA(c) Gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in a Recombinant Strain of Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis

    OpenAIRE

    Lampel, Jay S.; Canter, Gayle L.; Dimock, Michael B.; Kelly, Jeffrey L.; Anderson, James J.; Uratani, Brenda B.; Foulke, James S.; Turner, John T.

    1994-01-01

    A bacterial endophyte was engineered for insecticidal activity against the European corn borer. The cryIA(c) gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki was introduced into the chromosome of Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis by using an integrative plasmid vector. The integration vectors pCG740 and pCG741 included the replicon pGEM5Zf(+), which is maintained in Escherichia coli but not in C. xyli subsp. cynodontis; tetM as a marker for selection in C. xyli subsp. cynodontis; and a chrom...

  10. Are nematodes a missing link in the confounded ecology of the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Lifang; Crickmore, Neil; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis, which is well known as an entomopathogen, has been accepted by the public as a safe bioinsecticide. The natural ecology of this bacterium has never been particularly clear, with views ranging from it being an obligate pathogen to an opportunist pathogen that can otherwise exist as a soil saprophyte or a plant endophyte. This confusion has recently led to it being considered as an environmental pathogen that has evolved to occupy a diverse set of environmental niches in which it can thrive without needing a host. A significant driving force behind this classification is the fact that B. thuringiensis is found in high numbers in environments that are not occupied by the insect hosts to which it is pathogenic. It is our opinion that the ubiquitous presence of this bacterium in the environment is the result of a variety of vectoring systems, particularly those that include nematodes.

  11. ISOLATION OF ENDOPHYTIC ACTINOMYCETES FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS AND ITS MUTATIONAL EFFECT IN BIOCONTROL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Shenpagam N.*, D. Kanchana Devi ** and Sinduja G.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the endophytic actinomycetes were collected from three medicinal plants Azadiracta indica, Ocimum sanctum and Phyllanthus amarus. Endophytic actinomycetes were isolated using different media like Starch casein agar, Starch casein nitrate agar, Actinomycetes isolation agar and Soyabean agar, while it showed more colonies in Starch casein agar. The endophytic actinomycetes were stained and biochemical tests were performed. Antimicrobial compound was purified from the filtrate by ethanol extraction method. Antagonistic activities of endophytic actinomycetes isolates were tested against bacterial pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungi Rhizopus. For the selected isolates antibiotic resistance was checked using various antibiotic discs like Amoxycillin, Penicillin, Rifampicin and Ampicillin. The strains which showed efficient antibacterial activity were selected to study the effect of mutation by physical and chemical method. In this study, UV mutated endophytic actinomycetes increase antibiotic production than non-mutated endophytic Actinomycetes, whereas in chemical mutation it does not increase the antibiotic production.

  12. polyketide and benzopyran compounds of an endophytic fungus isolated from Cinnamomum mollissimum:biological activity and structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carolina; Santiago; Lin; Sun; Murray; Herbert; Gibson; Munro; Jacinta; Santhanam

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study bioactivity and compounds produced by an endophytic Phoma sp.fungus isolated from the medicinal plant Cinnamomum mollissimum.Methods:Compounds produced by the fungus were extracted from fungal broth culture with ethyl acetate.This was followed by hioaclivity profiling of the crude extract fractions obtained via high performance liquid chromatography.The fractions were tested for cytotoxicity to P388 murine leukemic cells and antimicrobial activity against bacteria and pathogenic fungi.Compounds purified from active fractions which showed antibacterial,antifungal and cytotoxic activities were identified using capillary nuclear magnetic resonance analysis,mass spectrometry and admission to AntiMarin database.Results:Three known compounds,namely 4—hydroxymellein,4,8—dihydroxy—6—melhoxy—3—methyl—3,4-dihydro—1H-isochromen-1—one and 1—(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone,were isolated from the fungus.The polyketide compound 4—hydroxymellein showed high inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells(94.6%) and the bacteria Bacillus sublilis(97.3%).Meanwhile.4,8—dihydroxy-6—melhoxy—3—meth) 1—3,4-dihydro—1H—isochromen—1-one,a benzopyran compound,demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells(48.8%)and the fungus Aspergillus niger(56.1%).The second polyketide compound.1(2,6—dihydroxyphenyl)ethanone was inactive against the tested targets.Conclusions:These findings demonstrate the potential of endophytes as producers ol pharmacologically important compounds,including polyketides which are major secondary metabolites in fungi.

  13. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a natural bacteria found all over the Earth, has a fairly novel way of getting rid of unwanted insects. Bt forms a protein substance (shown on the right) that is not harmful to humans, birds, fish or other vertebrates. When eaten by insect larvae the protein causes a fatal loss of appetite. For over 25 years agricultural chemical companies have relied heavily upon safe Bt pesticides. New space based research promises to give the insecticide a new dimension in effectiveness and applicability. Researchers from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space along with industrial affiliates such as Abott Labs and Pern State University flew Bt on a Space Shuttle mission in the fall of 1996. Researchers expect that the Shuttle's microgravity environment will reveal new information about the protein that will make it more effective against a wider variety of pests.

  14. Epichloe endophytes alter inducible indirect defences in host grasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    Full Text Available Epichloë endophytes are common symbionts living asymptomatically in pooid grasses and may provide chemical defences against herbivorous insects. While the mechanisms underlying these fungal defences have been well studied, it remains unknown whether endophyte presence affects the host's own defences. We addressed this issue by examining variation in the impact of Epichloë on constitutive and herbivore-induced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC, a well-known indirect plant defence, between two grass species, Schedonorus phoenix (ex. Festuca arundinacea; tall fescue and Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue. We found that feeding by a generalist aphid species, Rhopalosiphum padi, induced VOC emissions by uninfected plants of both grass species but to varying extents, while mechanical wounding failed to do so in both species after one day of damage. Interestingly, regardless of damage treatment, Epichloë uncinata-infected F. pratensis emitted significantly lower quantities of VOCs than their uninfected counterparts. In contrast, Epichloë coenophiala-infected S. phoenix did not differ from their uninfected counterparts in constitutive VOC emissions but tended to increase VOC emissions under intense aphid feeding. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status imposed stronger differences in VOC profiles of F. pratensis than damage treatment, while the reverse was true for S. phoenix. Additionally, both endophytes inhibited R. padi population growth as measured by aphid dry biomass, with the inhibition appearing greater in E. uncinata-infected F. pratensis. Our results suggest, not only that Epichloë endophytes may play important roles in mediating host VOC responses to herbivory, but also that the magnitude and direction of such responses may vary with the identity of the Epichloë-grass symbiosis. Whether Epichloë-mediated host VOC responses will eventually translate into effects on higher trophic levels merits future investigation.

  15. Biodegradation of Mixed PAHs by PAH-Degrading Endophytic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuezhu; Ni, Xue; Waigi, Michael Gatheru; Liu, Juan; Sun, Kai; Gao, Yanzheng

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, induce plant defence mechanisms, and increase plant resistance to organic contaminants. The aims of the present study were to isolate highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants growing at PAH-contaminated sites and to evaluate the capabilities of these bacteria to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vitro, which will be beneficial for re-colonizing target plants and reducing plant PAH residues through the inoculation of plants with endophytic bacteria. Two endophytic bacterial strains P₁ (Stenotrophomonas sp.) and P₃ (Pseudomonas sp.), which degraded more than 90% of phenanthrene (PHE) within 7 days, were isolated from Conyza canadensis and Trifolium pretense L., respectively. Both strains could use naphthalene (NAP), PHE, fluorene (FLR), pyrene (PYR), and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Moreover, these bacteria reduced the contamination of mixed PAHs at high levels after inoculation for 7 days; strain P₁ degraded 98.0% NAP, 83.1% FLR, 87.8% PHE, 14.4% PYR, and 1.6% B(a)P, and strain P₃ degraded 95.3% NAP, 87.9% FLR, 90.4% PHE, 6.9% PYR, and negligible B(a)P. Notably, the biodegradation of PAHs could be promoted through additional carbon and nitrogen nutrients; therein, beef extract was suggested as the optimal co-substrate for the degradation of PAHs by these two strains (99.1% PHE was degraded within 7 days). Compared with strain P₁, strain P₃ has more potential for the use in the removal of PAHs from plant tissues. These results provide a novel perspective in the reduction of plant PAH residues in PAH-contaminated sites through inoculating plants with highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria. PMID:27517944

  16. Biodegradation of Mixed PAHs by PAH-Degrading Endophytic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhu Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, induce plant defence mechanisms, and increase plant resistance to organic contaminants. The aims of the present study were to isolate highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants growing at PAH-contaminated sites and to evaluate the capabilities of these bacteria to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in vitro, which will be beneficial for re-colonizing target plants and reducing plant PAH residues through the inoculation of plants with endophytic bacteria. Two endophytic bacterial strains P1 (Stenotrophomonas sp. and P3 (Pseudomonas sp., which degraded more than 90% of phenanthrene (PHE within 7 days, were isolated from Conyza canadensis and Trifolium pretense L., respectively. Both strains could use naphthalene (NAP, PHE, fluorene (FLR, pyrene (PYR, and benzo(apyrene (B(aP as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Moreover, these bacteria reduced the contamination of mixed PAHs at high levels after inoculation for 7 days; strain P1 degraded 98.0% NAP, 83.1% FLR, 87.8% PHE, 14.4% PYR, and 1.6% B(aP, and strain P3 degraded 95.3% NAP, 87.9% FLR, 90.4% PHE, 6.9% PYR, and negligible B(aP. Notably, the biodegradation of PAHs could be promoted through additional carbon and nitrogen nutrients; therein, beef extract was suggested as the optimal co-substrate for the degradation of PAHs by these two strains (99.1% PHE was degraded within 7 days. Compared with strain P1, strain P3 has more potential for the use in the removal of PAHs from plant tissues. These results provide a novel perspective in the reduction of plant PAH residues in PAH-contaminated sites through inoculating plants with highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria.

  17. Isolation and characterization of endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria from date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and their potential role in salinity tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaish, Mahmoud W; Antony, Irin; Glick, Bernard R

    2015-06-01

    Endophytic bacteria were isolated from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seedling roots, characterized and tested for their ability to help plants grow under saline conditions. Molecular characterization showed that the majority of these strains belonged to the genera Bacillus and Enterobacter and had different degrees of resistance to various antibiotics. Some of these strains were able to produce the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase and the plant growth regulatory hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Some strains were also able to chelate ferric iron (Fe(3+)) and solubilize potassium (K(+)), phosphorus (PO 4 (3-) ) and zinc (Zn(2+)), and produce ammonia. The results also showed that ACC deaminase activity and IAA production was slightly increased in some strains in response to an increase in NaCl concentration in the growth media. Consistent with these results, selected strains such as PD-R6 (Paenibacillus xylanexedens) and PD-P6 (Enterobacter cloacae) were able to enhance canola root elongation when grown under normal and saline conditions as demonstrated by a gnotobiotic root elongation assay. These results suggest that the isolated and characterized endophytic bacteria can alter ethylene and IAA levels and also facilitate nutrient uptake in roots and therefore have the potential role to promote the growth and development of date palm trees growing under salinity stress. PMID:25860542

  18. Endophytic Phoma sp. isolated from medicinal plants promote the growth of Zea mays

    OpenAIRE

    ASHWINI KEDAR; DNYANESHWAR RATHOD; ALKA YADAV; GAURAVI AGARKAR; MAHENDRA RAI

    2014-01-01

    Kedar A, Rathod D, Yadav A, Agarkar G, Rai M. 2014. Endophytic Phoma sp. isolated from medicinal plants promote the growth of Zea mays. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 132-139. Fungal endophytes are reported as rich sources of valuable secondary metabolites and could be used as bio-fertilizers. In the present study, we report growth promotion potential of two Phoma species isolated from Tinospora cordifolia and Calotropis procera on maize. The fungal endophytes enhanced growth in inoculated maize pla...

  19. Conservation and Diversity of Seed Associated Endophytes in Zea across Boundaries of Evolution, Ethnography and Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    David Johnston-Monje; Raizada, Manish N

    2011-01-01

    Endophytes are non-pathogenic microbes living inside plants. We asked whether endophytic species were conserved in the agriculturally important plant genus Zea as it became domesticated from its wild ancestors (teosinte) to modern maize (corn) and moved from Mexico to Canada. Kernels from populations of four different teosintes and 10 different maize varieties were screened for endophytic bacteria by culturing, cloning and DNA fingerprinting using terminal restriction fragment length polymorp...

  20. A Friendly Relationship between Endophytic Fungi and Medicinal Plants: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Min; Chen, Ling; Xin, Hai-Liang; Zheng, Cheng-Jian; Rahman, Khalid; Han, Ting; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi or endophytes exist widely inside the healthy tissues of living plants, and are important components of plant micro-ecosystems. Over the long period of evolution, some co-existing endophytes and their host plants have established a special relationship with one and another, which can significantly influence the formation of metabolic products in plants, then affect quality and quantity of crude drugs derived from medicinal plants. This paper will focus on the increasing knowl...

  1. Fungal Endophytes from Three Cultivars of Panax ginseng Meyer Cultivated in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Park, Kee-Choon; Park, Young-Hwan; Bae, Hanhong

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the diversity of endophytes, fungal endophytes in Panax ginseng Meyer cultivated in Korea were isolated and identified using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of ribosomal DNA. Three cultivars of 3-year-old ginseng roots (Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong) were used to isolate fungal endophytes. Surface sterilized ginseng roots were placed on potato dextrose agar plates supplemented with ampicilin and streptomycin to inhibit bacterial growth. Overall, 38 fung...

  2. Data on litter quality of host grass plants with and without fungal endophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Gundel, P.E.; Helander, M.; Garibaldi, L.A.; Vázquez-de-Aldana, B.R.; Zabalgogeazcoa, I.; Saikkonen, K.

    2016-01-01

    Certain Pooideae species form persistent symbiosis with fungal endophytes of Epichloë genus. Although endophytes are known to impact the ecology and evolution of host species, their effects on parameters related with quality of plant biomass has been elusive. This article provides information about parameters related with the quality of plant litter biomass of two important grass species (Schedonorus phoenix and Schedonorus pratensis) affected by the symbiosis with fungal endophytes (Epichloë...

  3. Genome sequencing and analysis of the paclitaxel-producing endophytic fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yanfang; Zhao, Hainan; Barrero, Roberto A; Zhang, Baohong; Sun, Guiling; Iain W Wilson; Xie, Fuliang; Walker, Kevin D; Parks, Joshua W.; Bruce, Robert; Guo, Guangwu; Li CHEN; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Xin; Tang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Background Paclitaxel (Taxol™) is an important anticancer drug with a unique mode of action. The biosynthesis of paclitaxel had been considered restricted to the Taxus species until it was discovered in Taxomyces andreanae, an endophytic fungus of T. brevifolia. Subsequently, paclitaxel was found in hazel (Corylus avellana L.) and in several other endophytic fungi. The distribution of paclitaxel in plants and endophytic fungi and the reported sequence homology of key genes in paclitaxel biosy...

  4. Leaf endophyte load influences fungal garden development in leaf-cutting ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Bael Sunshine A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work has shown that leaf-cutting ants prefer to cut leaf material with relatively low fungal endophyte content. This preference suggests that fungal endophytes exact a cost on the ants or on the development of their colonies. We hypothesized that endophytes may play a role in their host plants’ defense against leaf-cutting ants. To measure the long-term cost to the ant colony of fungal endophytes in their forage material, we conducted a 20-week laboratory experiment to measure fungal garden development for colonies that foraged on leaves with low or high endophyte content. Results Colony mass and the fungal garden dry mass did not differ significantly between the low and high endophyte feeding treatments. There was, however, a marginally significant trend toward greater mass of fungal garden per ant worker in the low relative to the high endophyte treatment. This trend was driven by differences in the fungal garden mass per worker from the earliest samples, when leaf-cutting ants had been foraging on low or high endophyte leaf material for only 2 weeks. At two weeks of foraging, the mean fungal garden mass per worker was 77% greater for colonies foraging on leaves with low relative to high endophyte loads. Conclusions Our data suggest that the cost of endophyte presence in ant forage material may be greatest to fungal colony development in its earliest stages, when there are few workers available to forage and to clean leaf material. This coincides with a period of high mortality for incipient colonies in the field. We discuss how the endophyte-leaf-cutter ant interaction may parallel constitutive defenses in plants, whereby endophytes reduce the rate of colony development when its risk of mortality is greatest.

  5. Isolation, Screening and Phylogenetic Analysis of Antagonistic Endophytic Bacteria Against Phytophthora Parasitica var.Nicotianae from Flue-cured Tobacco Variety K326%烤烟品种K326内生细菌分离、抗黑胫病菌株筛选及种群组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚家勤; 冯云利; 薛超群; 尹启生; 莫明和; 方敦煌; 王广山; 郭建华

    2013-01-01

    从烤烟品种K326的不同生长时期分离内生细菌1000株,以烟草黑胫病菌(Phytophthora parasitica var.nicotianae)为靶标,共筛选出168株拮抗菌,这些内生细菌对黑胫病菌的抑菌率在12.54%~50.14%之间.苗期和团棵期的内生菌含量较高,但在开花和成熟期时降低了一个数量级,而拮抗菌数量呈上升趋势.对168株拮抗菌的16SrRNA基因序列进行RFLP分析,共产生10种带型.根据RFLP带型选取39株进行16S rRNA基因序列测定和系统发育分析.结果表明,这168株生防内生细菌归于2大类群:Firmicutes和Actinobacteria.Firmicutes类群中的芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)是优势属,共6种RFLP带型,150个菌株,包括Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp,plantarum,Bacillus tequilensis,Bacillus methylotrophicus,Bacillus cereus,Bacillus thuringiensis和Bacillus aryabhattai. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp,plantarum和Bacillus methylotrophicus的出现频率最高,共126株,占该属总菌株数的78.75%.其余18个菌株分属于4个种:即Brevibacillus formosus,Brevibacillus parabrevis,Pseudomonas umsongensis和Pseudomonas aeruginosa.%A total of 168 isolates with antagonistic effects against Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae (P. parasitica var.) were screened from 1000 endophytic bacteria isolated from flue-cured tobacco variety K326 at different growing stages, and bioassay results indicated that the inhibitory activities of these antagonists ranged from 12.54% to 50.14%. The biomass of endophytic bacteria was higher during the stages of seedling and rosette, which reduced by one order of magnitude during the stages of flowering and maturity; however, the number of antagonists kept an increasing trend. The RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA sequence on the 168 antagonists produced 10 RFLP patterns. Based on their RFLP patterns, 39 isolates were selected for 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results showed that the 168 antagonists belonged to two groups of bacteria

  6. The defensive role of foliar endophytic fungi for a South American tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Fungal endophytes colonize living internal plant tissues without causing any visible symptoms of disease. Endophytic fungi associated with healthy leaves may play an important role in the protection of hosts against herbivores and pathogens. In this study, the diversity of foliar endophytic fungi (FEF) of the southern temperate tree Embothrium coccineum (Proteaceae), as well as their role in plant protection in nature was determined. Fungal endophytes were isolated from 40 asymptomatic leaves by the culture method for molecular identification of the 18S rRNA gene. A relationship between FEF frequency and plant protection was evaluated in juveniles of E. coccineum. Fungal endophyte frequency was estimated using real-time PCR analyses to determine endophyte DNA content per plant. A total of 178 fungal isolates were identified, with sequence data revealing 34 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A few common taxa dominated the fungal endophyte community, whereas most taxa qualified as rare. A significant positive correlation between plant protection (evaluated in terms of percentage of leaf damage) and FEF frequency was found. Furthermore, in vitro confrontation assays indicated that FEF were able to inhibit the growth of fungal pathogens. The data showed a relatively high diversity of fungal endophytes associated with leaves of E. coccineum, and suggest a positive relationship between fungal endophyte frequencies in leaves and host protection in nature. PMID:27339046

  7. Host associations and beta diversity of fungal endophyte communities in New Guinea rainforest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, J B; Weiblen, G D; May, G

    2016-02-01

    Processes shaping the distribution of foliar fungal endophyte species remain poorly understood. Despite increasing evidence that these cryptic fungal symbionts of plants mediate interactions with pathogens and herbivores, there remain basic questions regarding the extent to which dispersal limitation and host specificity might shape fungal endophyte community composition in rainforests. To assess the relative importance of spatial pattern and host specificity, we isolated fungi from a sample of mapped trees in lowland Papua New Guinea. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were obtained for 2079 fungal endophytes from three sites and clustered into molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) at 95% similarity. Multivariate analyses suggest that host affinity plays a significant role in structuring endophyte community composition whereas there was no evidence of endophyte spatial pattern at the scale of tens to hundreds of metres. Differences in endophyte communities between sampled trees were weakly correlated with variation in foliar traits but not with tree species relatedness. The dominance of relatively few generalist endophytes and the presence of a large number of rare MOTUs was a consistent observation at three sites separated by hundreds of kilometres and regional turnover was low. Host specificity appears to play a relatively weak but more important role than dispersal limitation in shaping the distribution of fungal endophyte communities in New Guinea forests. Our results suggest that in the absence of strong ecological gradients and host turnover, beta diversity of endophyte communities could be low in large areas of contiguous forest.

  8. The defensive role of foliar endophytic fungi for a South American tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Fungal endophytes colonize living internal plant tissues without causing any visible symptoms of disease. Endophytic fungi associated with healthy leaves may play an important role in the protection of hosts against herbivores and pathogens. In this study, the diversity of foliar endophytic fungi (FEF) of the southern temperate tree Embothrium coccineum (Proteaceae), as well as their role in plant protection in nature was determined. Fungal endophytes were isolated from 40 asymptomatic leaves by the culture method for molecular identification of the 18S rRNA gene. A relationship between FEF frequency and plant protection was evaluated in juveniles of E. coccineum Fungal endophyte frequency was estimated using real-time PCR analyses to determine endophyte DNA content per plant. A total of 178 fungal isolates were identified, with sequence data revealing 34 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A few common taxa dominated the fungal endophyte community, whereas most taxa qualified as rare. A significant positive correlation between plant protection (evaluated in terms of percentage of leaf damage) and FEF frequency was found. Furthermore, in vitro confrontation assays indicated that FEF were able to inhibit the growth of fungal pathogens. The data showed a relatively high diversity of fungal endophytes associated with leaves of E. coccineum, and suggest a positive relationship between fungal endophyte frequencies in leaves and host protection in nature. PMID:27339046

  9. The Hidden World within Plants: Ecological and Evolutionary Considerations for Defining Functioning of Microbial Endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardoim, Pablo R; van Overbeek, Leonard S; Berg, Gabriele; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Compant, Stéphane; Campisano, Andrea; Döring, Matthias; Sessitsch, Angela

    2015-09-01

    All plants are inhabited internally by diverse microbial communities comprising bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protistic taxa. These microorganisms showing endophytic lifestyles play crucial roles in plant development, growth, fitness, and diversification. The increasing awareness of and information on endophytes provide insight into the complexity of the plant microbiome. The nature of plant-endophyte interactions ranges from mutualism to pathogenicity. This depends on a set of abiotic and biotic factors, including the genotypes of plants and microbes, environmental conditions, and the dynamic network of interactions within the plant biome. In this review, we address the concept of endophytism, considering the latest insights into evolution, plant ecosystem functioning, and multipartite interactions.

  10. Evaluating Susceptibility to Commercial Fungicide of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Roses (Rosa hybrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Carolina Corredor Perilla

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes have shown their potential as biocontrol agents; however, their application in commercial fields remains limited. Continuously applying fungicides to crops (specifically to roses may have harmful effects on endophyte growth. Endophytic fungi were isolated from R. hybrida and their susceptibility to fungicides regularly used for controlling important pathogens was analysed. This was performed in vitro, mixing several fungicide concentrations with standard medium for fungal endophytes; growth inhibition was then measured. The susceptibility of Botrytis cinerea (3015 strain, one of the most important pathogens affecting roses in Colombia, was also assessed using the same protocols. Active ingredients, such as boscalid, captan, iprodione and pyrimethanyl, showed susceptibility ranging from not sensitive (³73.75% to regularly sensitive (³48.75% - <61.25% for 45.45% of the fungal endophytes assessed. Endophytic fungi were highly susceptible to fungicides such as pyrimethanyl, carboxin plus thiram, fludioxonyl plus ciprodinyl and prochloraz. B. cinerea (3015 strain presented high susceptibility (<23.75% to fungicides such as pyrimethanyl, carboxin and thiram, fludioxonil and ciprodinyl, prochloraz. Although B. cinerea showed the greatest growth in controls, the endophytic fungi being assessed grew better in different media with fungicides. The results revealed some of these fungal endophytes’ potential for integrated pest management (IPM in roses in Colombia (3002, 3003, 3004, 3005 and 3006 strains, taking into account correct application time, application frequency and both fungal endophyte and fungicide dosage which may greatly limit fungal endophyte growth.

  11. Biodiversity, Phylogeny, and Antifungal Functions of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Zanthoxylum bungeanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiqin; Wu, Zhou; Liu, Tao; Wang, Yanan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the biodiversity, phylogeny, and antifungal activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Zanthoxylum bungeanum. A total of 940 isolates obtained were grouped into 93 morphotypes, 43 species, and 23 genera, which were authenticated by molecular identification based on rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. A high diversity of endophytic fungi from Z. bungeanum are observed with high species richness S (43), Margalef index D' (6.1351), Shannon-Wiener index H' (3.2743), Simpson diversity index Ds (0.9476), PIE index (0.9486), and evenness Pielou index J (0.8705) but a low dominant index λ (0.0524). Significant tissue specificity of the endophytic fungi was observed in Z. bungeanum, and the highest species richness and diversity indexes were obtained in the stem. Phylogenetic analyses of the 93 endophytic isolates were carried out by the neighbor-joining (NJ) method to demonstrate their evolutionary processes. Antifungal activities of endophytic fungi were assayed and eight endophytic isolates showed strong and long-lasting inhibition against host pathogenic fungi Fusarium sambucinum and Pseudocercospora zanthoxyli. Here, for the first time, we systematically demonstrate the biodiversity, phylogeny, and antifungal activity of endophytic fungi associated with Z. bungeanum and reveal the value of sampling different tissues of a given plant to obtain the greatest endophyte species diversity, which might offer a framework for further investigation and utilization of endophytic fungi as aunique source of interesting and useful bioactive compounds. PMID:27649145

  12. Cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid as external carbon sources in biological nutrient removal*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Fan; Hu, Xiang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of one kind of food industry effluent, cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, on biological nutrient removal (BNR) from municipal wastewater in anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Experiments were carried out with cassava stillage supernatant and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, and one pure compound (sodium acetate) served as an external carbon source. Cyclic studies indicated that the cassava by-products not only affected the transformation of nitrogen, phosphorus, poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), and glycogen in the BNR process, but also resulted in higher removal efficiencies for phosphorus and nitrogen compared with sodium acetate. Furthermore, assays for phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) and denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) demonstrated that the proportion of DPAOs to PAOs reached 62.6% (Day 86) and 61.8% (Day 65) when using cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, respectively, as the external carbon source. In addition, the nitrate utilization rates (NURs) of the cassava by-products were in the range of 5.49–5.99 g N/(kg MLVSS∙h) (MLVSS is mixed liquor volatile suspended solids) and 6.63–6.81 g N/(kg MLVSS∙h), respectively. The improvement in BNR performance and the reduction in the amount of cassava stillage to be treated in-situ make cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid attractive alternatives to sodium acetate as external carbon sources for BNR processes. PMID:25845364

  13. Evaluation of synergistic effect in vacuum pack, refrigeration and irradiated treatments of minimally processed cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava is cultivated almost all over the world and it is considered one of the most important nutritious sources of calories in the human diet. Cassava is a viable food against starvation in several poor areas of the world because it is an extremely resistant culture and may reach satisfactory economical yield. We utilized vacuum packed industrialized cassava irradiated with 0,1 kGy, 3kGy and 5kGy and stored under refrigeration for 1, 21, 30 and 50 days. Our objective was to analyse the synergistic effect of vacuum packing, irradiation and refrigeration on the preservation of minimally processed cassava. The samples were analyzed for pH, acidity, weight, humidity, texture and color. The irradiation did not affect the chemical characteristics of the cassava. Neither the pH nor the acidity, the most relevant variables to verify deterioration in cassava, presented significant alterations during the period of storage. Comparing the irradiated treatments, the dose of 1kGy and 3kGy affected the physic-chemical characteristics of the cassava the least during the period of storage and refrigeration for 50 days; the doses of 1kGy,3kGy and 5kGy scored the highest rates the sensorial analysis during the period of storage for 21 days. (author)

  14. Milk production and economic assessment of cassava bagasse in the feed of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Pereira Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The addition of 0; 5; 10 and 15% cassava bagasse, based on the dry matter of the total diet of crossbred Holstein v. Zebu cows, was evaluated on milk production and composition and on the impacts of diet costs. The animals, weighing an average of 478.5 kg, were in the middle third lactation period. Diet with 15% cassava bagasse provided a 13.2% increase in production when compared to control. Feed conversion had a quadratic effect with minimum point at 4.2% of cassava bagasse inclusion. Crude protein, the only milk component that changed, increased linearly with the inclusion of cassava bagasse levels. Treatment with 15% cassava bagasse caused a more effective operational cost (42.8% higher when compared to control and the highest leveling point for milk production and price. The lowest leveling points were treatments with 5 and 10% inclusion of cassava bagasse, which had the best economic results. Concentrates caused cost increase, particularly when roughage : concentrate ratio decreased due to higher cassava bagasse inclusion levels.

  15. Cassava: The Drought, War and Famine Crop in a Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Burns

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is the sixth most important crop, in terms of global annual production. Cassava is grown primarily for its starchy tuberous roots, which are an important staple for more than 800 million people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, but also in other parts of Africa, Asia, the Pacific and South America. Cassava is important for both small-scale farmers and larger-scale plantations due to its low requirement for nutrients, ability to tolerate dry conditions and easy low-cost propagation. It is sometimes referred to as the “drought, war and famine crop of the developing world” and reliance upon this crop is expected to increase in the coming years as the global climate changes. As with all crops, cassava presents some challenges which need to be addressed, especially if its production is to continue to expand. We highlight here a number of key issues around the continued and increased reliance upon cassava as a staple food crop. Cassava contains cyanogenic glycosides that release hydrogen cyanide and many cultivars are toxic if not processed before consumption. The degree of toxicity is altered by plant breeding, agricultural practice, environmental conditions and methods of food preparation. We conclude that use of cassava has the potential to help many countries achieve food security in a sustainable manner, in the face of significant environmental change, but that its introduction should be accompanied by appropriate education about its toxicity.

  16. Molecular evolution and functional divergence of soluble starch synthase genes in cassava (manihot esculenta crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zefeng; Wang, Yifan; Xu, Shuhui; Xu, Chenwu; Yan, Changjie

    2013-01-01

    Soluble starch synthases (SSs) are major enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis in plants. Cassava starch has many remarkable characteristics, which should be influenced by the evolution of SS genes in this starchy root crop. In this work, we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis of the soluble starch synthases in cassava. Genome-wide identification showed that there are 9 genes encoding soluble starch synthases in cassava. All of the soluble starch synthases encoded by these genes contain both Glyco_transf_5 and Glycos_transf_1 domains, and a correlation analysis showed evidence of coevolution between these 2 domains in cassava SS genes. The SS genes in land plants can be divided into 6 subfamilies that were formed before the origin of seed plants, and species-specific expansion has contributed to the evolution of this family in cassava. A functional divergence analysis for this family provided statistical evidence for shifted evolutionary rates between the subfamilies of land plant soluble starch synthases. Although the main selective pressure acting on land plant SS genes was purifying selection, our results also revealed that point mutation with positive selection contributed to the evolution of 2 SS genes in cassava. The remarkable cassava starch characteristics might be the result of both the duplication and adaptive selection of SS genes.

  17. Sequencing wild and cultivated cassava and related species reveals extensive interspecific hybridization and genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeson, Jessen V; Lyons, Jessica B; Prochnik, Simon E; Wu, G Albert; Ha, Cindy M; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Rabbi, Ismail Y; Egesi, Chiedozie; Nauluvula, Poasa; Lebot, Vincent; Ndunguru, Joseph; Mkamilo, Geoffrey; Bart, Rebecca S; Setter, Tim L; Gleadow, Roslyn M; Kulakow, Peter; Ferguson, Morag E; Rounsley, Steve; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2016-05-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) provides calories and nutrition for more than half a billion people. It was domesticated by native Amazonian peoples through cultivation of the wild progenitor M. esculenta ssp. flabellifolia and is now grown in tropical regions worldwide. Here we provide a high-quality genome assembly for cassava with improved contiguity, linkage, and completeness; almost 97% of genes are anchored to chromosomes. We find that paleotetraploidy in cassava is shared with the related rubber tree Hevea, providing a resource for comparative studies. We also sequence a global collection of 58 Manihot accessions, including cultivated and wild cassava accessions and related species such as Ceará or India rubber (M. glaziovii), and genotype 268 African cassava varieties. We find widespread interspecific admixture, and detect the genetic signature of past cassava breeding programs. As a clonally propagated crop, cassava is especially vulnerable to pathogens and abiotic stresses. This genomic resource will inform future genome-enabled breeding efforts to improve this staple crop. PMID:27088722

  18. Improvement of the nutrient qualities of cassava fermented end-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yeast strains Saccharomycopsis fibuliger NRRL (Y-2388), Saccharomyces diastaticus NRRL (Y-2416 and Y-4238), Schwaniomyces occidentalis NRRLY-2477 as well as nor-leucine resistant and amylase-overproducing mutants of NRRL-Y-2338 (obtained with the help of NTG-mutagenesis) were used to study their abilities to increase the yield of protein into the cassava fermenting pulp. Their growth kinetics, amylase activity and biomass production initially studied on 2% MYPS medium. S. fibuliger (Y-2388) gave the highest biomass concentration (13,4 g/e) and was found to be superior to other wild strains for protein enrichment of cassava through fermentation. The optimization of the condition for fermentation revealed that 5% w/v of the cassava pulp at pH 6 with an addition of the yeast extract increased the protein content of cassava from 2.8% to 5.6%. The use of amylase overproducing mutants of S. fibuliger Y-2388 inoculated singly or in combination with others did not promote the enrichment of cassava, whereas nor-leucine resistant mutants considerable increased the protein content in the cassava pulp and no supplementation of the pulp with any nutrients is required. Hence, both S. fibuligera Y-2388 wild and its nor-leucine resistant mutant should be considered as a potential inocula with respect to protein enrichment of the cassava fermented end-product. (author). 3 figs, 9 tabs

  19. [Degradation of cassava residue by the cellulose degradation composite microbial system MC1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Wang, Xiao-Fen; Zhu, Wan-Bin; Cheng, Xu; Cui, Zong-Jun

    2008-03-01

    The lignocelluloses of cassava residue are good biomass resources. They are mainly used to produce feeds and alcohol. It is a promising approach to utilize them to produce methane. But it is difficult to use cassava residue for producing methane because of its dispersive solid matter and much water. A cellulose degradation composite microbial system MC1 was applied to degrade cassava residue discarded from cassava starch manufactory, and the composition of the lignocelluloses and the soluble ingredients of cassava residue were analyzed. After 18 days' cultivation, the total weight of the cassava residue was reduced by 47.3%, the cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin of the cassava residue were reduced by 22.7%, 90.4% and 11.3%, respectively, and 85% of the whole weight relief was made by MC1 within 6 days. The soluble ingredients of the cassava residue were increased from the incipient 18% to 33% in the third day which was the peak value in the process. The total amount of the volatile products, analyzed by GC-MS, came to a maximum in the sixth day. Twelve kinds of volatile products in the fermentation broth were determined, in which ethanol, acetic acid, 1, 2-ethanediol, butanoic acid and glycerine were the major compounds, and they can be utilized by methanogenic organism directly or be changed into compounds that can be utilized by methanogens organism directly. Accordingly, it is very hopeful to use MC1 to degrade cassava residue as a method of prefermentation in methane fermentation.

  20. Genotype × environment interaction effects on early fresh storage root yield and related traits in cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robooni Tumuhimbise

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is an important root crop worldwide. It exhibits substantial differential genotypic responses to varying environmental conditions, a phenomenon termed genotype × environment interaction (GEI. A significant GEI presents challenges in the selection of superior genotypes. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of genotype, environment and GEI on early fresh storage root yield (FSRY and related traits in cassava. Accordingly, 12 cassava genotypes were evaluated in a randomised complete block design at three contrasting locations (Jinja, Nakasongola and Namulonge in Uganda. Trials were harvested nine months after planting and the data collected were analysed using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI model. The AMMI analysis of variance showed significant variation among genotypes for early FSRY and all other traits assessed. Locations were significantly different for all traits except for cassava brown streak disease root necrosis. The GEI effect was non-significant for early FSRY, but significant for other traits. For early FSRY, 48.5% of the treatment sum of squares was attributable to genotypes, 27.3% to environments, and 24.1% to GEI, indicating a predominance of genotypic variation for this trait. Predominance of genotypic variation was also observed for all the other traits. A majority of the genotypes (67% had low interaction effects with locations for early FSRY, with Akena, CT2, CT4 and NASE14 being the most stable genotypes for the trait. Significant negative correlation was observed between cassava mosaic disease severity and early FSRY and storage root number, indicating significant negative effects of cassava mosaic disease on early FSRY and stability in cassava. The information generated will inform future selection initiatives for superior early-yielding cassava genotypes combining resistance to cassava mosaic and brown streak diseases in Uganda.