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Sample records for caspian sea

  1. The Caspian Sea Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostianoy, Andrey; Kosarev, A.

    The systematic description of the knowledge accumulated on the physical oceanography, marine chemistry and pollution, and marine biology of the Caspian Sea forms the basis of this book. It presents the principal characteristic features of the environmental conditions of the sea and their changes in the second half of the 20th century. At present, the principal problems of the Caspian Sea are related to the interannual sea level changes and their forecast and to the estimation of the intensity of the chemical pollution of the sea and its impact upon the biota.

  2. Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Ardakanian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea level is high and also positive and almost the same for all the stations. But the yearly correlation was negative. It means that the sea level has decreased by the increase in temperature.

  3. Palaeogeography of the Caspian Sea marine Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanina, Tamara; Svitoch, Aleksander; Makshaev, Radik; Khomchenko, Denis

    2016-04-01

    Vertical succession of the fossil molluscs of Didacna genus along the Pleistocene sequence of the Caspian Sea area allows for detailed subdivision of the sediments. Zone, i.e. the Caspian Sea Pleistocene, is the highest stratigraphical unit of the regional Quaternary stratigraphic scale. It corresponds to the biozone of Didacna Eichwald subgenus. Based on the fossil groups of Didacna molluscs, the deposits are subdivided into the Baku, Urundzhik-Singil', lower and upper Khazarian, Khvalinian, and post-Khvalinian horizons. Further subdision is based on the changes in Didacna assemblages. Three big transgressive epochs are distinguished in the Pleistocene history of the Caspian Sea that were separated by deep and long regressions. These are the Baku, early Khazarian and Khvalinian transgressions. In transgressive sea basins, the sea level reached the height of 40-50 m and was regulated by the outflow of the Caspian waters into the Black Sea via the Manych depression. The areas of transgressive basins were similar. At the Caucasian coast, the extent of the Baku and early Khazarian transgressions exceeded that of the Khvalinian transgression, while in the Northern Caspian Sea Region the latter was slightly more extensive than the preceding ones. The Urundzhik, late Khazarian and New Caspian transgressions represented sea-level rise of lower rank. All of them were recorded within big regressive epochs being usually related to warm (interglacial) climatic conditions: Singil' (Likhvin), Mikulino and Holocene, respectively. Like at present, the Pleistocene Caspian Sea represented a self-regulating system. Maximal extent of ancient sea basins was dependent upon the height of the Manych sill (that was the main regulating factor), the amount of precipitation, river runoff, and decrease in evaporation. Minimal extent of the sea basin was dependent upon the area and capacity of its southern and middle depressions. At the same time, the rest states (extents) of the Caspian Sea

  4. Legal Status Of The Caspian Sea: History And Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardak Kapyshev

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At  the  present  stage  one  of  the  unsolved   problems in  interstate relations of  Caspian bordering countries is defining international­legal status of the Caspian Sea. It is noted in the article that this problem is not a new one at all. The history of “division” of the Caspian Sea begins in the ancient age, namely in VIII century. It is underlined that the basic stumbling block  is the position of Iran on the right to use the Caspian Sea, and also occurrence of extra regional players, such as  the USA, China, etc. First of  all, it is connected with rich oil fields and other minerals, and also with convenient geopolitical and geostrategic position. The only way to worry out the international­legal delimitation of the Caspian Sea problem is a negotiating process. By now, despite of  certain disagreements on  legal status of  the Caspian Sea, five Caspian bordering countries managed to achieve certain progress, admitting the possibility of applying the principle of sectorial sectioning on the Caspian Sea.  Clear proof  of  it is the agreements on  division of ground on the northern part of Caspian Sea signed between Kazakhstan, Russia and Azerbaijan. It is important that Kazakhstan, Russia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan clearly stated their positions and agreed to make a compromise in their official statements. More than likely, in the near future Iran will soften its position, considering its present  situation and   strained relations with the USA. It has been alleged that the constructive  dialog  already  started; everything depends on  the mobility,  concurrency and rationality of actions of all Caspian bordering countries.

  5. The monitoring system of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanova, Luydmila; Khachaturov, Vladimir; Zlotov, Aleksandr

    2010-05-01

    The monitoring system of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea The Caspian Sea is the largest closed reservoir in the world, which washes the western part of Kazakhstan. The area of water territory is 371,000 sq km; the sea level is lower than the level of the ocean on 28.5 m (1971). Maximum depth is 1,025m (in the southern part); the Kazakhstan part is not deep, and the depth of the North Caspian sea is about 15-20 m. The Caspian Sea is divided according to physical and geographical conditions to 3 parts - North Caspian, Middle Caspian and South Caspian Sea. Fauna is represented by 1809 species, 415 of which belong to the vertebrates, 101 species of fish, it also has the majority of the world's sturgeon, freshwater fish - roach, carp, pike, saltwater fish - carp, mullet, sprats, Kutum, bream, salmon, perch, pike, mammal - caspian seal. The plant world is represented by 728 species, of which algae are dominated - blue-green, diatoms, red, brown, Stoneworts and others, from flowering - eelgrass and seagrass. Development of sea oil-and-gas deposits of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian sea entails increase of anthropogenous pressure on the environment. According to preliminary estimates, the volume of recoverable hydrocarbon resources in the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea is about 8.0 billion tons per year. The impact of terrestrial and marine infrastructure, oil and gas facilities on natural systems is reflected in discharges and emissions into the environment of gaseous, solid and liquid pollutants, consumption of natural resources for industrial, farm and household needs, and violation of coastal landscapes. Dangerous influence on the environment is burning natural oil gas on torches. In this regard, there is a need for a system of state monitoring. In a basis of environmental monitoring system of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea has been put an ecosystem approach, creation of an automated system on the basis of GIS technologies and modeling of forecasts of

  6. Culture-driven Mortality in Caspian seal (Pusa caspica at Southern Fringe of Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikta Moghaddamipour

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Caspian seal (Pusa caspica is countered as a unique, endangered species, restricted only to the Caspian Sea. High death rate of Caspian seal has been reported owing to chemical infections, extreme concentration of chemical trace elements, organochlorine pollutants, etc. Among numerous possible reasons for mortality of Caspian seals, the role of culture in mortality has always been less-noticed.Accordingly, the present study was put forth by studying the culture of inhabitants at Southern border of Caspian Sea. For this, the behavior of local communities was interviewed. It was observed that Iranian people were not adequately familiar with real worth of different creatures in environment, and considered them as dangerous enemies, or at least annoying. Therefore, when encounter the animals, they attempt to kill, harass, or scare them away. Usually, unidimensional view of financial gain from seals, and excessive fishing of aquatics fed by seals put them in danger of extinction. Overally,In order to gain more consistent findings on this matter,furthur researches are suggested.

  7. Caspian sea: petroleum challenges; Mer Caspienne: enjeux petroliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Caspian sea is one of the world areas the most promising in terms of investments and petroleum development. This study presents the petroleum challenges generated by this hydrocarbons reserve. The first part discusses the juridical status (sea or lake), the petroleum and the gas reserves, the ecosystem and the today environment (fishing and caviar), the geostrategic situation and the transport of gas and oil. It provides also a chronology from 1729 to 2005, a selection of Internet sites, books and reports on the subject and identity sheets of the countries around the Caspian sea. (A.L.B.)

  8. Temporal habitat suitability modeling of Caspian shad (Alosa spp. in the southern Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Haghi Vayghan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To comprehensively manage an ecosystem such as that of the Caspian Sea, the world’s largest lake, detailed knowledge of the habitat traits of the living organisms in the ecosystem is essential. The present study examined environmental variables and used the Habitat Suitability Index (HSI model to determine the most preferred seasonal habitat and optimal environmental range of Caspian shad (Alosa spp. The fish preferred deep waters with low levels of total organic matter and sea level anomaly in winter and productive areas with a high concentration of chlorophyll-a (Chla and relatively high benthos biomass in spring. The number per unit area (NPUA-based HSI model determined that the geometric mean model (GMM was the optimal model for defining a suitable habitat in winter. For spring, the arithmetic mean model (or GMM in the NPUA-based HSI model most accurately predicted preferred habitat for Caspian shad. The average NPUA in both seasons increased with the HSI; areas with an HSI of between 0.4 and 0.6 in spring and between 0.6 and 0.8 in winter had a high percentage of total catch. Areas with an HSI of more than 0.5 had over 91% and 63% of the total catch in spring and winter, respectively, demonstrating the reliability of the NPUA-based HSI model in predicting Caspian shad habitat. The present study shows that remotely sensed data plus depth are the most critical environmental variables in Caspian shad habitats and that Chla and SLA are the most critical remotely sensed parameters for near real-time prediction of Caspian shad habitat.

  9. Geopolitical Interests in the Black Sea / Caspian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    conquest was focused on reaching step by step the Carpathian Mountains and the Baltic Sea in the west and northwest, the Black Sea and Caspian Sea in...Plain, Ural Mountains and the Barents Sea in the North), determined an offensive and aggressive political stance towards the neighboring countries...the south, then, the Tien Shan and Pamir Mountains range in the south east, and later the Pacific Ocean coast in the Far East (natural boundaries).9

  10. Macrophytobenthos of the Caspian Sea: Diversity, distribution, and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanian, O. V.

    2016-05-01

    In the Russian sector of the northern and middle Caspian Sea, 36 species of macroalgae have been identified. The green and red algae from the mesosaprobic group are dominant. An increase in the number of green algae species is revealed. The distribution of macroalgae is inhomogeneous. It is confined to the solid substrate and epiphyton. The biomass of seaweeds reaches 1.5 kg/m2. Climate change has little influence on the appearance of new species in the northern Caspian Sea, but new invaders can appear in the Middle and Southern Caspian. The distribution of aquatic and coastal hygrophytic vegetation shows considerable spatial dynamics due to fluctuations in the level and salinity of the Caspian Sea. The biomass of aquatic vegetation varies in a wide range from 0.5 to 10.0 kg/m2. Spatially detailed mathematical models adequately reflect the changes in key species of aquatic plants in space and time. It is shown that expansion of the zone of the seagrass Zostera noltii to shallow water areas is occurring at present, as well as shrinkage of the range of the dominant littoral aquatic plant Phragmites australis.

  11. CRUDE OIL TRANSPORT FROM THE CASPIAN SEA REGION TO EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Przybyłowski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world, despite the growing importance and scale of the use of renewable energy , conventional energy resources still play a huge role. The European Union countries are dependent on the oil imports and the their main supplier of crude oil and natural gas has been the Russian Federation. After the collapse of the Soviet Union , the Caspian Sea region has become an alternative to Russian energy resources. The Unit-ed States , European Union, China and many other countries have shown their interest about this region. Despite a relatively large oil and natural gas reserves, the export of the-se commodities to the West is still problematic. Based on the available data and infor-mation, the publication explores the issue of energy resources transport directions with a particular emphasis on the crude oil from the Caspian Sea region to Europe.

  12. Geochemical Changes in the Caspian Salt Marshes Due to the Sea Level Fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasimov, N.S.; Gennadiev, A.N.; Kasatenkova, M.S.; Lychagin, M.Y.; Kroonenberg, S.B.; Koltermann, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Caspian Sea is subject to alternating transgressions and regressions that exert a strong impact on the topography, sediments, vegetation, and soils in coastal zones. The last transgression of the Caspian Sea (1978-1995) caused the development of a marsh-lagoon system along the accumulative seash

  13. Detection and analysis of changes in desertification in the Caspian Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasova, Tahira

    2010-01-01

    The Caspian Region includes the Caspian Sea and five littoral states: Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Russian. 40% of the Caspian coastal zone is arid, 69% of this territory undergone desertification according to international reports. Among the reasons are soil erosion caused by water, wind and irrigation, the salinization of soil, intense bioresources usage, and soil pollution due to oil extraction and production. Desertification is a serious problem, at global, national and ...

  14. Mineral composition of sedimentary matter in the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashin, V. N.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Dara, O. M.; Kozina, N. V.; Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Novigatsky, A. N.

    2016-11-01

    Data on the mineral composition of sedimentary matter and its fluxes in the sediment system of the Caspian Sea are presented. River runoff, aerosols, particulate matter from sediment traps, and the upper layer (0-1 cm) of bottom sediments are considered. The contents of detrital minerals (quartz, albite, and K-feldspar), clay minerals (illite, chlorite, and kaolinite), and carbonates (calcite, Mg-calcite, dolomite, aragonite, and rhodochrosite) are determined. Gypsum was found in bottom sediments but is absent in the other object of the sediment system.

  15. Investigation of the seasonal spatial variability of the Caspian Sea level by satellite altimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarov, Elnur; Mammadov, Ramiz; Cretaux, Jean-Francois; Arsen, Adalbert; Safarov, Said; Amrahov, Elvin

    2016-07-01

    Sea level fluctuations are among the most outstanding and debated issues of the Caspian Sea. Precipitation, underground water and river input are consistent parts of the inflow of the Caspian Sea water balance. The river input is also considered to be the main driver of the seasonal level changes of the Caspian Sea. Sufficiently large amount of this input is provided by the Volga. Although there is a good network of sea level stations covering the coastline of the sea, these facilities are not capable to reflect the sea level variations over the all surface. Meanwhile, the Caspian Sea is well observed by satellites Jason 1, Jason 2 and ENVISAT. Altimetric data taken from these satellites covers the surface of the sea much better than the data from the in-situ network stations. In this paper we investigate the spatial variability of the sea level that could provide more insight into the influence of river input (especially the Volga river), precipitation and other hydro-meteorological parameters on the Caspian Sea level.The altimetric data was averaged per every 10 square kilometers through all the tracks by means of the pre-prepared program made especially for this work. Also new maps of seasonal spatial variability of amplitude and phase of the annual signal of the Caspian Sea level for each investigated satellite were created by employing ARCGIS software. Moreover, these peaks of sea level amplitude and phase of annual signal results were comparatively analyzed with the corresponding river discharge of the Volga.

  16. Biogeographic classification of the Caspian Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fendereski, F.; Vogt, M.; Payne, Mark

    2014-01-01

    using the Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering (HAC) method. From an initial set of 12 potential physical variables, 6 independent variables were selected for the classification algorithm, i.e., sea surface temperature (SST), bathymetry, sea ice, seasonal variation of sea surface salinity (DSSS), total...... suspended matter (TSM) and its seasonal variation (DTSM). The classification results reveal a robust separation between the northern and the middle/southern basins as well as a separation of the shallow near-shore waters from those off-shore. The observed patterns in ecoregions can be attributed...... in phytoplankton phenology, with differences in the date of bloom initiation, its duration and amplitude between ecoregions. A first qualitative evaluation of differences in community composition based on recorded presence-absence patterns of 27 different species of plankton, fish and benthic invertebrate also...

  17. Caspian Sea level changes during the last millennium: historical and geological evidences from the south Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Naderi Beni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical literature may constitute a valuable source of information to reconstruct sea level changes. Here, historical documents and geological records have been combined to reconstruct Caspian sea-level (CSL changes during the last millennium. In addition to a literature survey, new data from two short sediment cores were obtained from the south-eastern Caspian coast to identify coastal change driven by water-level changes. Two articulated bivalve shells from the marine facies were radiocarbon dated and calibrated to establish a chronology and to compare them with historical findings. The overall results indicate a high-stand during the Little Ice Age, up to −19 m, with a −28 m low-stand during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, while presently the CSL stands at −26.5 m. A comparison of the CSL curve with other lake systems and proxy records suggests that the main sea-level oscillations are essentially paced by solar irradiance. Although the major controller of the long-term CSL changes is driven by climatological factors, the seismicity of the basin could create locally changes in base level. These local base-level changes should be considered in any CSL reconstruction.

  18. Caspian sea-level changes during the last millennium: historical and geological evidence from the south Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Naderi Beni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Historical literature may constitute a valuable source of information to reconstruct sea-level changes. Here, historical documents and geological records have been combined to reconstruct Caspian sea-level (CSL changes during the last millennium. In addition to a comprehensive literature review, new data from two short sediment cores were obtained from the south-eastern Caspian coast to identify coastal change driven by water-level changes and to compare the results with other geological and historical findings. The overall results indicate a high-stand during the Little Ice Age, up to −21 m (and extra rises due to manmade river avulsion, with a −28 m low-stand during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, while presently the CSL stands at −26.5 m. A comparison of the CSL curve with other lake systems and proxy records suggests that the main sea-level oscillations are essentially paced by solar irradiance. Although the major controller of the long-term CSL changes is driven by climatological factors, the seismicity of the basin creates local changes in base level. These local base-level changes should be considered in any CSL reconstruction.

  19. INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STATUS OF THE CASPIAN SEA: ISSUES OF THEORY AND PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    MAMEDOV, Rustam

    2001-01-01

    Since the collapse of the USSR, long established stability of compromise around the Caspian has left its place to competition and confrontation. While the USSR and Iran were the only coastal states in theCaspian basin during the Cold War, five states came to share the controlover the Caspian Sea in the Post-Soviet period, and they were quick to decIare their rights to the particular parts of the Sea in a unilateral manner, which led to controversies. Consequently, since 1992, there is a searc...

  20. Satellite Survey of Inner Seas: Oil Pollution in the Black and Caspian Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mityagina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses our studies of oil pollution in the Black and Caspian Seas. The research was based on a multi-sensor approach on satellite survey data. A combined analysis of oil film signatures in satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR and optical imagery was performed. Maps of oil spills detected in satellite imagery of the whole aquatic area of the Black Sea and the Middle and the Southern Caspian Sea are created. Areas of the heaviest pollution are outlined. It is shown that the main types of sea surface oil pollution are ship discharges and natural marine hydrocarbon seepages. For each type of pollution and each sea, regions of regular pollution occurrence were determined, polluted areas were estimated, and specific manifestation features were revealed. Long-term observations demonstrate that in recent years, illegal wastewater discharges into the Black Sea have become very common, which raises serious environmental issues. Manifestations of seabed hydrocarbon seepages were also detected in the Black Sea, primarily in its eastern part. The patterns of surface oil pollution of the Caspian Sea differ considerably from those observed in the Black Sea. They are largely determined by presence of big seabed oil and gas deposits. The dependence of surface oil SAR signatures on wind/wave conditions is discussed. The impact of dynamic and circulation processes on oil films drift and spread is investigated. A large amount of the data available allowed us to make some generalizations and obtain statistically significant results on spatial and temporal variability of various surface film manifestations.The examples and numerical data we provide on ship spills and seabed seepages reflect the influence of the pollution on the sea environment.

  1. A case study of the Maersk Caspian Sea modularized semi-submersible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holck, J. [Maersk Contractors, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    A semi-submersible is one type of drilling rig used for offshore drilling operations for water depths of 75 to 1000 metres. This presentation provided background information on the planning and construction of the Maersk Caspian Sea modularized semi-submersible. The design of the fast track rig construction and the anchoring system was described along with the challenges that were overcome and the lessons learned. There is a large resource potential in the Caspian Sea. There are currently 6 rigs in operation in the Caspian Sea which has proven reserves of 17 billion bbl. In comparison, the North Sea, with the same number of proven reserves, has 69 rigs in operation. The main challenge facing offshore operations in the Caspian Sea is that it is landlocked with limited access. Other challenges include the complex geology, cultural differences, service, support and legislation of the former Soviet Republic. This paper presented schematics of the modular rig design and the main drilling features. The rig was built in the KeppelFELS shipping yard in Singapore and transported to Baku on the Caspian Sea. Schematics representing the ocean mobilization and assembly effort were included. figs.

  2. Promise for oil and gas presence in the southern segment of the Caspian Sea megasyneclise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabukhin, G. Ye.; Ivanov, Yu. A.

    1984-01-01

    Geophysical coastal operations establish the full stratigraphic section from the Paleozoic to the Paleogene and Neogene rocks. Two major oil and gas bearing complexes are identified in the aquatorial part of the Caspian Sea basin: the subsalt and the persalt. The thickness of the subsalt complex is 4 to 9 kilometers. The Astrakhan dome with a gas condensate deposit is west of the water area, while the Karaton Tengiskiy zone of oil and gas accumulation with the Tengiz oil deposit and the Tazhigali gas and oil deposit is east of it. The high promise of oil and gas presence in the subsalt complex in the northern part of the water area of the Caspian Sea are determined by the confinement of the territory to the southern priorogenic flank zone of the basin and by the position of the region between the Astrakhan and Karaton Tengizskiy zones of oil and gas accumulation with identified deposits of gas condensate and oil and the two zones of possible oil and gas accumulation, the Novobogatinskiy and Shukatskiy zones. In the persalt complex of the Caspian Sea megasyneclise the deposits are concentrated in regions which frame the water area of the Caspian Sea, in the land between the Ural and Volga rivers and in the Southern Emba oil and gas bearing oblast. Geological materials make it possible to assume several types of zones of oil and gas accumulation on the southern boundary of the Caspian Sea megasyneclise. Favorable lithological and facial and structural features of the structure of the subsalt and persalt complexes, their regional oil and gas presence, identified along the entire perimeter of the northern part of the Caspian Sea water area justify the proposed high promise for oil and gas prospecting. The shallow bedding depths of the productive levels, the shallow waters of the Northern Caspian and the arrangement of the adjacent regions are also favorable.

  3. A comparative study of some blood factors in male and female Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) broodstock from the southern basin of the Caspian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    FIROUZBAKHSH, Farid; ABEDI, Zeynab; RAHMANI, Hossain; Khalesi, Mohammad K

    2013-01-01

    In this study, some serum factors in male and female Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) broodstocks were investigated. The estimated values were compared between male and female fish of various age groups. A total of 80 mature fish (40 males and 40 females) were randomly caught from the Shirood and Tajen rivers (southern Caspian Sea) during spawning season. Blood samples were then taken from the caudal peduncles and the serum biochemical parameters were measured according to common laborato...

  4. Solar-forced 2600 BP and Little Ice Age highstands of the Caspian Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroonenberg, S.B.; van der Borg, K.

    2007-01-01

    The level of the Caspian Sea, the largest inland sea in the world, has fluctuated capriciously in history, with amplitudes up to 3 m in the last century, to 25 m in the last millennium, and to over 150 m since the Last Glacial. There is little consensus about the causes, and forecasts are contradict

  5. MNEMIOPSIS LEIDYI IMPACT ON SOME TROPHICAL CHAINS OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. KAMAKIN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of monitoring investigations over the past 10 years are presented concerning the distribution of a new species-invader in the Caspian Sea, Mnemiopsis leidyi. The spatial distribution of its population is shown during the period of its maximal development in August-September. The influence of that gelatinous invader on different levels of the trophic pyramid is described to show the cause of qualitative and quantitative decline in the nutritive base both of plankton feeders (Caspian kilka, shads and mollusk-eating fish (roach, sea bream and common carp, to estimate the level and reveal the trend of ecosystem development in the Caspian Sea in the near future.

  6. CURRENT STATE OF WATER BIORESOURCES OF THE VOLGA AND CASPIAN SEA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Vasileva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of current degraded state of aquatic biological resources of the Volga-Caspian Sea basin and provides specific data on commercial stocks of fish. The main reasons for decrease in natural stocks of ichthyofauna are regulation and pollution of the spawning rivers, adverse hydrological conditions, injudicious hunting, poaching pressure. To improve the state of natural stocks of fish it is necessary to increase their reproduction and implement measures to restore and rational exploitation of aquatic bioresources of the Volga- Caspian Sea basin.

  7. Towards a militarization of the Caspian sea? The CASFOR project; Vers une militarisation de la mer Caspienne? Le projet de la CASFOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafalian, A

    2005-10-15

    The CASFOR ('Caspian Force') is a project of joint military force between all Caspian surrounding states proposed by Russia to secure the Caspian sea area and to preserve Russia's influence in this fragmented and opened geopolitical space. The Caspian sea is a strategic area because of its oil resources but also because of important traffics in arms and drugs. (J.S.)

  8. Study on the helminthiasis of Rutilus frisii katum from the South Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, A; Kohneshahri, M

    1978-02-01

    Four different species of helminths: Anisakis spp. Diplozoon paradoxum, Aspidogaster limacoides and Asymphylodera kubanicum were found in 1.4%, 28%, 15% and 5% of 140 Rutilus frisii katum from the south Caspian Sea respectively. Generally, the number of worms collected was low and cannot be considered pathogenic to examined fish.

  9. Impacts of Freshwater on the Seasonal Variations of Surface Salinity and Circulation in the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Author’s personal copy Impacts of freshwater on the seasonal variations of surface salinity and circulation in the Caspian Sea A. Birol Kara a, Alan ...circulation. Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 44, 236–249. Large, W.G., Danabasoglu, G., Doney, S.C., McWilliams , J.C., 1997. Sensitivity to surface forcing and

  10. A fully-coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave model of the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Nicolas; Toumi, Ralf

    2016-11-01

    Located in the mid-latitudes, the Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed basin in the world. A fully-coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave model of the Caspian Sea at high resolution (8 km) for a period of three years is presented. After validating each component of the modelling platform, the wave state of the Caspian Sea is studied. Results show very different wave regimes between the three different basins, a strong seasonality and an almost swell-free state. It is shown here that waves modify the horizontal eddy viscosity and vertical heat diffusion. However, due to a reasonably weak annual wave state, these effects are restricted to the upper-ocean layer (cooling of the SST accompanied with a deepening of the MLD is modelled during autumn and winter. The results also show a significant improvement of the model skill in the representation of the dynamics when ROMS is coupled to WRF. Finally, as ocean surface waves imply feedback at the interface atmosphere-ocean through the transfer of momentum, mass and heat, we investigate their potential effects on the Caspian Sea dynamics. Results are mixed and show a reasonably weak impact of wave-induced processes. While waves have a negligible effect during the winter as wave-induced mixing is confined to the MLD, the summer global SST are less accurately modelled due to the enhancement of mixing in shallow MLDs. However the SST bias, temperature at a subsurface location are improved.

  11. Fluctuations of Phytoplankton Community in the Coastal Waters of Caspian Sea in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Bagheri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Caspian Sea ecosystem has been suffered with many problems since 1980s. Aanthropogenic pollution from heavy metals, hydrocarbons, pesticides, changes in the quantity of nutrient inputs by rivers, are significant threats to biodiversity and biological resources such as plankton structure in the Caspian Sea. According to the significant of phytoplankton community in marine system. The state of the fluctuations of phytoplankton communities of the southwestern Caspian Sea was investigated and compared with the findings of before 2006. Approach: Phytoplankton abundance and species composition of the Caspian Sea were evaluated by using samples collected at 12 stations along three transects. Samplings were conducted seasonal in 2006 at 5, 10, 20 and 50 m depth were fixed for each transect in the southwestern Caspian Sea. Results: A total of 39 species phytoplankton species were distinguished during 2006, the annual phytoplankton abundance were calculated as 57, 300±15,550 cells.l-1, which ranged from 89, 250±35, 062 cells.l-1 in September to 16, 200±6,664 cells.l-1 in February. The diatoms formed more than half of the total abundance (61% while cyanophytes were the second important group in view of contribution to total phytoplankton (26% in 2006. The study showed that diatoms Thalassionema nitzschioides, Cyclotella meneghiniana and cyanophyte Osillatoria sp. numerically dominated in this area. Conclusion: The study revealed that diatoms were higher than other groups of phytoplankton in 2006. The hydrology variation, increased fresh water inflow via rivers and a rise in nutrients concentrations have played important roles in blooming of phytoplankton species, e.g., the diatoms in this study, which is also known from other marines. Similar studies on determination of the effects of environmental degradation on phytoplankton and hydrological processes should be taken into account in near future.

  12. FAUNA OF COLEPTERA,TENEBRIORIDAE OF ARID COASTAL AND ISLAND ECOSYSTEMS OF THE CASPIAN SEA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the given paper is to expose species structure and geographical distribution of Coleoptera, Tenebrioridae (C, T of coastal and island ecosystem of the Caspian Sea. The given report is compiled of the matcrials, collected in different periods by authors (1961-2013 in the Caucasian part of the Caspian Sea, in the south of the European part of the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, islands (the Chechen island, the Nord island. The Tuleniyisland. The Kulaly island, collective materials (ZIN; RAS, museum of Zoology of MSU, Institute NAN of Azerbaijan, National museum of Georgia and materials published (Kryzhanovsky, 1965, Medvedev, 1987, 1990; Medvedev, Nepesova, 1990; Shuster, 1934; Kaluzhnaya, 1982; Arzanov and others, 2004, Egorov, 2006.Methods. We used the traditional methods of collecting (hand picking, traps soil, soil traps light amplification light traps, processing and material definition. List of species composition discussed fauna composed by modern taxonomy using directories. Location. Coastal and island ecosystems of the Caspian sea.Results. Species structure and data on general and regional distribution of C,T of coastal and island ecosystems of the Caspian Sea is represented in the paper. Faund discussed is widely represented in the fauna of arid regions of land, especially in the fauna of subtropical deserts and semideserts.Main conclusions. Results of the study will be a step in the determination of age of the islands through the biological diversity and the consequent level regime of the Caspian Sea, as well as possible changes in the population structure of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae on island ecosystems.

  13. Preliminary assessment of metal distribution in the surface sediments along the coastline of the southern Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Siamak; Bastami, Kazem Darvish

    2017-03-15

    In the present study, the concentrations of metals in sediments along the coastline of the southern Caspian Sea were investigated. For this purpose, sediments were collected from 13 sampling sites in the southern Caspian Sea. The samples were then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Results showed that compound oxides may be responsible for the distribution of metals in the sediments of the southern Caspian Sea. According to mean effects range-median quotient, 61.5% of the studied sites from the southern Caspian Sea had a 21% probability of metal toxicity. On the basis of the enrichment factor, all metals were in the category of deficiency to minimal enrichment. Pollution load index showed that the other sampling sites had no pollution.

  14. The study of the hydrological regime extreme effects of the Caspian Sea during the XX-XXI centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaitskaya, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    The Caspian Sea - the unique largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth. Significant periodic sea level fluctuations are a typical feature of the sea. In the XIX-XX centuries a number of comprehensive studies of the Caspian Sea was carried out. The results are published in the papers, monographs and climatic atlases. But a number of fundamental questions about the features of the hydrological regime of the Caspian Sea is still open: 1. How does the water circulation change during the level variations? 2. What is the effect of heterogeneity of evaporation from the water surface on the formation of the flow field in the conditions of long-term level changes? 3. How does the water salinity regime change depending on the sea level position, water circulation, river flow and different climatic influences? 4. What is the effect of extreme events (multi-hazards) (ice, storms, destruction of the coasts) on coastal infrastructure? In 2016, the project aims to study hydrological regime extreme effects of the Caspian Sea was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. Within this project all of the above problems will be solved. Geographic information system "Caspian Sea" for the storage and data processing, including a database of primary oceanographic information for the period of instrumental observations (1897-2013), cartographic database (1921-2011) and tools for multidimensional analysis of spatio-temporal information is the basis of the study. The scheme of interconnected hydrodynamic models (Caspian Sea MODel - Ocean Model - Wind wave model) was developed. The important factors are taken into account in the structure of the models: long-term and seasonal dynamics of the sea waves parameters, new long-term values of evaporation from the shallow waters areas of the Caspian Sea, water circulation. Schemes of general seasonal circulation of the Caspian Sea and the Northern Caspian at different positions of the sea level in XX-XXI centuries using

  15. Modeling caspian sea water level oscilLations Under Diffrent Scenarioes of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations

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    GholamReza Roshan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978 has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in thecoastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was stimulated. Variations in environmentalparameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, tmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for bothpast (1951-2006 and future (2025-2100 time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software(version 5.3. The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site has increased by ca. 0.17ºC per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21. The Caspian Sea water level has increasedby ca. +36 mm per decade (r=0.82 between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64ºC and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin,temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78ºC and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels projectfuture water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  16. On vertical particle fluxes in the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashin, V. N.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Novigatsky, A. N.; Musaeva, E. I.; Ambrosimov, A. K.; Gayvoronskaya, L. A.

    2014-03-01

    The first results of studies of vertical fluxes of sediment particles using the sediment traps at the Trans-Caspian section are presented. The flux values and distribution regularities are established. The fluxes of particles forming the sediment are also determined. The intra-annual variability in the fluxes corresponds to the seasonal variability of the biological activity. Above the northern slope of the Derbent Basin, the maximum vertical fluxes are recorded in the winter, which is caused by the intensification of the near-bottom currents.

  17. Radioisotopes in sedimentary study of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptev, Gennady; Voitsekhovych, Oleg V.

    2013-04-01

    Natural archives, such as lake or marine sediment, are widely used in erosion/sedimentation, water quality, climate change and eutrophication study alongside with the retrospective reanalysis of contaminants fluxes (trace metals, organic pollutants or radionuclides). In order to "read" information stored in sediment sequences a chronostatigraphic method have been developed and used since 1950s which is based upon variation of activity of 210Pb over the sediment profile, natural radioisotope of Uranium decay series with half-life 22 years, and hence valid for the last 100-150 years of recent sedimentation history. The 210Pb chronology is prone to be validated by other time-markers, such as artificial radionuclides globally dispersed after the nuclear weapons tests of 1960s or major accidents on NPP (the Chernobyl accident of 1986 or latest on the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011). In the last decade an intensive study using sediment cores collected from shelf and deep-sea areas in the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea have been undertaken within the framework of a number of international research projects organized by IAEA and UNOPS-GEF and devoted to environmental problems of this enclosed, and therefore sensitive to environmental impact, marine systems. Elaborative analysis of the experimental data and sediment age calculation have been done by application of CRS and CIC dating models to unsupported 210Pb activity over the sediment profile. Measured in sediment 137Cs and 241Am clearly showed well resolved Bomb test and Chernobyl fallout peaks and were used as markers in order to corroborate radiometrically determined age of sediment. Geochronological reconstruction of the fallout radionuclides inventory, fluxes and accumulation rate in the sediment of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea by application of combined radiometric dating technique proved to be very consistent with the historical data of atmospheric fallout observations of that artificial radionuclides recorded worldwide

  18. Study of parasites native and introduced species of fish in Caspian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Bozorgnia, Abbas

    2007-01-01

    Seven native and introduced species of fish in south east Caspian Sea coast examined for parasite infestation during 2004-2006. Native fishes include Barbus capito, Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio, Rutilus frisii kutum, Rutilus rutilus, Stizostidion lucioperca, Alosa caspia persica, 24 ecto and endo parasites were found in different organs of 7 species of fishes of them 2 of the metazoan 12 species of crustacean Lernaea cyprinacea , Lamproglena pukhella nematodea and cestodea parasite were...

  19. DISARMAMENT AND DEMILITARIZATION IN THE CASPIAN SEA FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF INTERNATIONAL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The article examines the role of international law in regulating the naval activity currently unfolding in the Caspian Sea region. In this context, the author looks at ways to limit military activity: demilitarization, neutralization, non-militarization, and so on. The conclusions he draws are based on the standards of international law and international law practice and reflect a realistic picture of the military-political processes going on in this region.

  20. Coastal dynamics of Garabogazköl bay of Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanov, Redzhep

    2016-04-01

    Garabogazköl is extremely interesting object for the study of coastal evolution and Caspian sea paleogeography. Bay plays an important role in evolution of the Caspian basin, as a major area of permanent loss of sea water, the volume of which varies in different years from 17 to 23 km3/year, averaging about 20.3 km3/year. Termination of runoff into the bay would provide annual Caspian Sea level rise of about 3 cm. Despite the large-scale research of the coast of the Caspian Sea during the Soviet era, Garabogazköl was generally poorly studied, mostly describing sedimentation patterns of salt deposits (associated with the production of sulfates). The basis of our study was the materials of remote sensing (satellite imagery), supported by field research, description of geomorphological structure of coasts. As known, the Caspian Sea level was at the lowest elevations from 1970 to 1985, ranging from -28.6 to -29.01 m. The creation of the dam in 1980 completely blocked Caspian water inflow into the Gulf, resulting even more drastic reduction in its area, which decreased by 3 times (from 18 to 6 thousand. km2), with depth less than 50 cm. In mid-1992, when the level of the Caspian Sea has risen by more than 2 meters over the level of 1978, the dam was destroyed. The obtained data allowed characterizing the peculiarities of the coast of the Gulf in these conditions. During the start of the coastal retreat first appeared drained relatively shallow northern and western parts. During this period the processes of accumulation were predominate. There was the deposition of thick (up to 1 m) salt horizon. Dominating wind-surge processes resulted relatively smoothed surface, filling rugged topography by terrigenous material and salt. After the explosion of the dam in 1992, the bay was quickly filled with water and in the next 3-4 years is completely covered the Gara-Bogaz depression. In general, a high stability of the coastline of the Gulf observed through analysis of the last

  1. Caspian Sea Oil – Still the Great Game for Central Eurasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Gunder Frank

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A book with a foreword by Pat Clawson of the National Defense University and editor of ORBIS, and dedicated to Ronald Reagan and Target Ozxal, announces its U.S. far-right wing political pedigree literally up front. However the book is chock full of information, alas most already well known to anyone even remotely familiar with the problematique under review; but it also offers some incisive analysis. The twelve contributed chapters by fourteen authors and coauthors are divided into three parts dedicated to examining and analyzing the general history and mutual background of the Caspian Sea region; to the ?ve littoral states of Azerbaijan, Russia, Iran, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan; and to three ‘external’ interested states, the United States, Turkey, and Georgia. Nonetheless, the review by each author goes well beyond the nominative boundaries assigned to him or her and trespasses over into the topics, territories and their relations assigned to other authors. Quite prop-erly so, in view of the mutually complex real-life interrelations in the Caspian Sea Basin, so that no topic or state could be adequately understood in itself other than in relation to the others. Indeed, we are witnessing the contemporary continuation of the nineteenth century “Great Game” for the control of Central Eurasia. However, the oil connection also reaches well beyond Caspian Sea and must make this book pertinent also to readers of this journal.

  2. Damages to the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Baltic Sea by the invader comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Eker Develi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study changes in ecosystems of the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Baltic Sea after the invasion of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi were investigated. Excessive increase in plant plankton as a result of antrophogenic eutrophication leads to a shift in mesozooplankton com¬position, which is the main food item of these comb jellies. For instance, while some mesozoo¬plankton species disappeared from the environment or substantially decreased in number, some others increased in quantity. These changes in food chain may promote the rise of jellyfishes rather than fish in the environment. In addition, decrease in planktivorous fish abundance as a consequence of overfishing also triggers the increase of newly introduced comb jellies, which were possibly introduced via ballast waters of ships, in the ecosystem. Increase in abundance of M. leidyi, which compete with planktivorous fishes (anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus ponticus in the Black Sea, kilka, Clupeonella spp. in the Caspian Sea for their food, causes to decrease of planktivorous fish stocks which have already been vulnerable due to overfishing. Another reason for successfully adaption of M. leidyi to its new ecosystems could be linked to global warming which provides favourable temperature ranges for reproduction and growth of this ctenophore. Although there are still many debates related to possible negative effects, one of the ways to reduce harmful impacts of invaders might be the transport of natural predators of these invaders to the new ecosystems of invaders. For example, it was reported that the abun¬dance of Mnemiopsis leidyi decreased to very low levels during 1999-2004 in the Black Sea following the introduction of another comb jelly, Beroe ovata, which feed on this ctenophore.

  3. Chlorophyll a in suspended particulate matter of the Caspian Sea as an indicator of biogenic sedimentation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchishina, M. D.; Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Pautova, L. A.; Politova, N. V.; Lein, A. Yu.; Lisitzin, A. P.

    2015-11-01

    The conditions of biogenic sedimentation (concentration of chlorophyll a (chl a), particulate organic carbon (POC), and its isotope composition (δ13CPOC)), as well as the quantitative characteristics of phytoplankton, and the total concentration of suspended particulate matter have been studied in the Caspian Sea in May and June 2012. The vertical (from the surface layer to bottom) distribution and precipitation of the biogenic component of suspended particulate matter have been determined. It was found that only 5% of the particulate matter and around 3% of POC reached the Middle Caspian after passing through a marginal filter (Volga River delta-Northern Caspian). The subsurface chl a maximum layer (around 20-60 m) with a cold-water phytoplankton community was revealed in the Middle and Southern Caspian. The subsurface region of accumulation of chl a and phytoplankton in the subthermocline layer has been extended from the southern periphery of the Derbent Depression to the Absheron Sill.

  4. A study on distribution of chlorophyll-a in the coastal waters of Anzali Port, south Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, S.; Abu Bakar, N. Bin

    2011-02-01

    Phytoplankton as chlorophyll-containing organisms is the first step of production in most marine processes and food chains. Nutrient enhancement in the seawater due to the discharge of agricultural, industrial, and urban wastes threatens the Caspian Sea environment. Increasing concentrations of chlorophyll-a in seawater, in reaction to the elevation of nutrient supply can have severely damaging effects on the marine environment of the Caspian. In this research, seasonal variability of the chlorophyll-a concentrations in the western part of the southern coastal waters of the Caspian Sea near Iranian coast was examined using field observations. The data showed that the most chlorophyll-a was found below the sea surface. The thermal stratification in water column and outflow of the Anzali Lagoon affect the chlorophyll-a concentrations in the region. Concentrations of chlorophyll-a were recorded in midsummer in a range of 0.2-3.4 mg m-3.

  5. Seasonal variability of the Caspian Sea three-dimensional circulation, sea level and air-sea interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ibrayev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional primitive equation model including sea ice thermodynamics and air-sea interaction is used to study seasonal circulation and water mass variability in the Caspian Sea under the influence of realistic mass, momentum and heat fluxes. River discharges, precipitation, radiation and wind stress are seasonally specified in the model, based on available data sets. The evaporation rate, sensible and latent heat fluxes at the sea surface are computed interactively through an atmospheric boundary layer sub-model, using the ECMWF-ERA15 re-analysis atmospheric data and model generated sea surface temperature. The model successfully simulates sea-level changes and baroclinic circulation/mixing features with forcing specified for a selected year. The results suggest that the seasonal cycle of wind stress is crucial in producing basin circulation. Seasonal cycle of sea surface currents presents three types: cyclonic gyres in December–January; Eckman south-, south-westward drift in February–July embedded by western and eastern southward coastal currents and transition type in August–November. Western and eastern northward sub-surface coastal currents being a result of coastal local dynamics at the same time play an important role in meridional redistribution of water masses. An important part of the work is the simulation of sea surface topography, yielding verifiable results in terms of sea level. The model successfully reproduces sea level variability for four coastal points, where the observed data are available. Analyses of heat and water budgets confirm climatologic estimates of heat and moisture fluxes at the sea surface. Experiments performed with variations in external forcing suggest a sensitive response of the circulation and the water budget to atmospheric and river forcing.

  6. Seasonal variability of the Caspian Sea three-dimensional circulation, sea level and air-sea interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ibrayev

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional primitive equation model including sea ice thermodynamics and air-sea interaction is used to study seasonal circulation and water mass variability in the Caspian Sea under the influence of realistic mass, momentum and heat fluxes. River discharges, precipitation, radiation and wind stress are seasonally specified in the model, based on available data sets. The evaporation rate, sensible and latent heat fluxes at the sea surface are computed interactively through an atmospheric boundary layer sub-model, using the ECMWF-ERA15 re-analysis atmospheric data and model generated sea surface temperature. The model successfully simulates sea-level changes and baroclinic circulation/mixing features with forcing specified for a selected year. The results suggest that the seasonal cycle of wind stress is crucial in producing basin circulation. Seasonal cycle of sea surface currents presents three types: cyclonic gyres in December–January; Eckman south-, south-westward drift in February–July embedded by western and eastern southward coastal currents and transition type in August–November. Western and eastern northward sub-surface coastal currents being a result of coastal local dynamics at the same time play an important role in meridional redistribution of water masses. An important part of the work is the simulation of sea surface topography, yielding verifiable results in terms of sea level. Model successfully reproduces sea level variability for four coastal points, where the observed data are available. Analyses of heat and water budgets confirm climatologic estimates of heat and moisture fluxes at the sea surface. Experiments performed with variations in external forcing suggest a sensitive response of the circulation and the water budget to atmospheric and river forcing.

  7. Modelling the Caspian Sea and its catchment area using a coupled regional atmosphere-ocean model (RegCM4-ROMS: model design and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. U. Turuncoglu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the development of a coupled regional atmosphere-ocean model (RegCM4-ROMS and its implementation over the Caspian Sea basin. The coupled model is run for the period 1999–2008 (after a spin up of 4 yr and it is compared to corresponding stand alone model simulations and a simulation in which a distributed 1d lake model is run for the Caspian Sea. All model versions show a good performance in reproducing the climatology of the Caspian Sea basin, with relatively minor differences across them. The coupled ROMS produces realistic, although somewhat overestimated, Caspian Sea Surface Temperature (SST, with a considerable improvement compared to the use of the simpler coupled lake model. Simulated near surface salinity and sea currents are also realistic, although the upwelling over the eastern coastal regions is underestimated. The sea ice extent over the shallow northern shelf of the Caspian Sea and its seasonal evolution are well reproduced, however, a significant negative bias in sea-ice fraction exists due to the relatively poor representation of the bathymetry. ROMS also calculates the Caspian Sea Level (CSL, showing that for the present experiment excessive evaporation over the lake area leads to a drift in estimated CSL. Despite this problem, which requires further analysis due to many uncertainties in the estimation of CSL, overall the coupled RegCM4-ROMS system shows encouraging results in reproducing both the climatology of the region and the basic characteristics of the Caspian Sea.

  8. SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF PERSPECTIVE TRENDS IN ECOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RETRACTED ARTICLEAim. The main purpose of the ecological and biological research (EBR of the Caspian Sea is the information and technical support of decision-making to ensure the environmental management in the region taking into account the increase of anthropogenic impact and change in climatic conditions.Methods. As a basis, we have adopted the method of theoretical and mathematical generalization of a number of scientific papers and systematic analysis of the proposed solutions.Results. Analysis and mathematical processing of published literature sources has convincingly demonstrated the need for international cooperation to optimize the ecological and biological research. It has also confirmed the usefulness of the ecological and biological studies of the Caspian Sea in different directions, and the distribution of effort (cost between them requires coordinated management.Conclusion. It is shown that the data obtained by EBI have both rapid and long-term value. In the future, it is rational to develop suitable approaches to unified structuring of the EBR data, including their spatial and timing. An important task is to create a single interstate information space on the results of EBR using information and communication technologies.

  9. Flocculation of metals during mixing of Siyahrud River water with Caspian Sea water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biati, Aida; Karbassi, Abdulreza R

    2012-11-01

    Flocculation of dissolved Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn, and Pb during mixing of Siyahrud River water with water sample of Caspian Sea at nine different salinity regimes was investigated. The maximum flocculation of elements occurs in the salinities 1.67‰ to 3.67‰ (except for Zn). The flocculation trend of Zn (80.9) >Mn (58.3) > Cu (30.5) > Ni (25.9) > Pb (19.5) indicates that flocculation of metals have nonlinear behavior towards salinity changes during estuarine mixing. Electrical conductivity shows a linear behavior in different proportions of salinity which is in contrast with the behavior of other studied parameters. Cluster analysis indicates that pH and NO(3) are governing factors in the flocculation of Cu, Mn, and Pb. The results of this research show that 80.9%, 19.5%, 25.9%, 30.5%, and 58.3% of dissolved Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Mn flocculate during estuarine mixing. Total amount of studied dissolved element flowing in to the Caspian Sea would decrease from 5.62 to 2.76 t/year.

  10. THE ACTION OF OIL, GAS CONDENSATE, DRILLING CUTTINGS AND DRILLING MUD ON THE BIOTA OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Abdusamadov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducted experimental studies on the effect of crude oil, gas condensate, drilling muds and cuttings on the zooplankton, on the plant pigments of phytoplankton, on the saprophytic microflora, as well as on representatives of ichthyofauna of the Caspian sea.

  11. Modeling the Caspian Sea and its catchment area using a coupled regional atmosphere-ocean model (RegCM-ROMS: model design and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. U. Turuncoglu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe the development of a coupled regional atmosphere-ocean model (RegCM-ROMS and its implementation over the Caspian Sea basin. The coupled model is run for the period 1999–2008 (after a spin up of 4 yr and it is compared to corresponding stand alone model simulations and a simulation in which a distributed 1d lake model is run for the Caspian Sea. All model versions show a good performance in reproducing the climatology of the Caspian Sea basin, with relatively minor differences across them. The coupled ROMS produces realistic, although somewhat overestimated, lake surface temperatures (LSTs, with a considerable improvement compared to the use of the simpler coupled lake model. Simulated near surface salinity and sea currents are also realistic, although the upwelling over the eastern coastal regions is underestimated. The distribution of sea ice over the shallow northern shelf of the Caspian Sea and its seasonal evolution are well reproduced. ROMS also calculates the Caspian Sea Level (CSL, showing that for the present experiment excessive evaporation over the lake area leads to a drift in estimated CSL. Despite this problem which requires further analysis due to many uncertainties in the estimation of CSL, overall the coupled RegCM-ROMS system shows encouraging results in reproducing both the climatology of the region and the basic characteristics of the Caspian Sea.

  12. Reasons and Predictions of The Caspian Sea Water Level Fluctuations: Impact of Climate Factors and Man's Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, M.; Shiklomanov, I.; Yezhov, A.; Georgievsky, V.; Shalygin, A.

    The Caspian Sea - the largest lake in the world - has no connection with the Ocean and is lower than its surface. Fluctuations of the Sea level are very significant: during the period of instrumental observations (since 1830) the level amplitude was 3.78 m with maximum of -25.22 m in 1882 and minimum of -29.00 m in 1978. These fluctuations lead to a great damage for the economy of five countries sharing its coast (Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan). Deep knowledge of hydrological and hydrodynamic Sea regime and scientifically justified forecasts of possible changes in its level, taking into account variability in climate and future climate change, are re- quired for undertaking urgent measures for protection of coastal territories. The inter- national research project CASSEAS, carried out in 1997-2000 within the framework of the INCO-COPERNICUS programme by the scientists of 5 countries: France, Rus- sia, Germany, Turkmenistan and UK, was devoted to these problems. Research made within the Project made it possible to get new precise data on all water balance com- ponents of the Caspian Sea for 1880-1996; moreover, all water balance components for 1940-1996 were computed independently. It was shown that the Sea level fluctua- tions depended on the water balance almost completely. Assessment of possible future runoff changes in the Caspian Sea basin was made using the mathematical model of runoff formation developed at the SHI. Several scenarios from a range of GCMs and on the basis of paleoclimatic reconstructions were used as the models of the future climate for the nearest 3 decades. Besides changes in climate characteristics, three variants were accepted for the future water use in the basins of rivers discharging to the Caspian Sea. All scenarios gave similar results for changes in annual river inflow to the Caspian Sea: its increase would be from 5% to 10% by 2030. The same scenarios, used to estimate changes in precipitation onto the Sea

  13. Review: the Caspian Sea benthos: unique fauna and community formed under strong grazing pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinsky, M G

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative comparison of the benthic distribution in the Middle and Southern Caspian Sea, using benthos distribution maps with previously published materials, showed that the benthic communities is stable and interrupted only by the introduction of new species. The bottom community is dominated by small-size organisms, mainly fry and young and the benthic biomass is low although its efficiency as prey for higher trophic levels is high even though carnivores are almost absent in the bottom community. At depths of c.100 m the benthos biomass and species diversity sharply decreases showing these features as a unique case of a bottom fauna and bottom community formed and modified under the influence of a severe grazing pressure by the sturgeon (Acipenser spp.) during very long periods. It is therefore suggested that grazing pressure has become the most important forcing function for the diversity and development of the bottom community.

  14. Assessment of essential elements in the wild Beluga Sturgeon (Huso huso caviar from Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Vali Hosseini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the concentration of Calcium (Ca, Cobalt (Co, Chromium (Cr, Copper (Cu, Iron (Fe, Potassium (K, Magnesium (Mg, Manganese (Mn, Selenium (Se and Zinc (Zn as essential metals, were determined in caviar of wild beluga sturgeon caught from the Caspian Sea in March 2012. Potassium (4885.51± 17.81 µg g-1 and Magnesium (346.61± 6.6 µg g-1 had the highest concentration and Cobalt and Manganese levels were less than 0.01 mg kg-1 wet weight. The mean concentration of Copper and Zinc in the caviar samples were under the permissible limits proposed by the UK’s Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Foods. The caviar maximum allowable daily consumption rate was calculated. However, the health risks from caviar consumption are uncertain because the amount of caviar consumed by heavy users is not known.

  15. Target hazard quotient evaluation of cadmium and lead in fish from Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basim, Yalda; Khoshnood, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Heavy metals are being increasingly released into the natural waters from geological and anthropogenic sources. The distributions of several heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were investigated in muscle and liver of three different fish species seasonally collected from Caspian Sea (autumn 2011-summer 2012). The concentrations of all metals were lower in flesh than those recorded in liver due to their physiological roles. The target hazard quotient (THQ) index for fish was calculated. Estimation of THQ calculations for the contaminated fish consumption was calculated to evaluate the effect of pollution on health. Total metal THQ values of Pb and Cd for adults were 0.05 and 0.04 in Anzali and Noshahr, respectively, and for children were 0.08 and 0.05 in Anzali and Noshahr, respectively.

  16. A GIS Approach to Wind,SST(Sea Surface Temperature) and CHL(Chlorophyll) variations in the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkhalili, Seyedhamzeh

    2016-07-01

    Chlorophyll is an extremely important bio-molecule, critical in photosynthesis, which allows plants to absorb energy from light. At the base of the ocean food web are single-celled algae and other plant-like organisms known as Phytoplankton. Like plants on land, Phytoplankton use chlorophyll and other light-harvesting pigments to carry out photosynthesis. Where Phytoplankton grow depends on available sunlight, temperature, and nutrient levels. In this research a GIS Approach using ARCGIS software and QuikSCAT satellite data was applied to visualize WIND,SST(Sea Surface Temperature) and CHL(Chlorophyll) variations in the Caspian Sea.Results indicate that increase in chlorophyll concentration in coastal areas is primarily driven by terrestrial nutrients and does not imply that warmer SST will lead to an increase in chlorophyll concentration and consequently Phytoplankton abundance.

  17. Information and analysis document. Hydrocarbons of the Caspian sea: actors and stakes; Dossier d'information et d'analyse. Les hydrocarbures de mer Caspienne: acteurs et enjeux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P.

    1998-03-01

    The Caspian sea basin constitutes an important petroleum reserve from which the exploration and development just begin. It should provide near 5 % of the world petroleum offer in 2015. To evaluate the stakes of the situation, the author presents an analysis of the Caspian sea reserves in three main parts: the Caspian sea hydrocarbons and the energy geo-politics, the realizations and the projects of the transport infrastructures, the international participations in the main petroleum and gaseous contracts. (A.L.B.)

  18. The relevance of the North-Sea Caspian Pattern (NCP) in explaining temperature variability in Europe and the Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Brunetti, M.; H. Kutiel

    2011-01-01

    The impact of the upper level (500 hPa) teleconnection between the North-Sea and the Caspian (NCP) on the temperature and precipitation regimes in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) have been studied and reported and an index (NCPI) that measures the normalized geopotential heights' differences between the two poles of this teleconnection has been defined.

    In the present study, the impact of the NCP on the temperature regime over the entire European continent is presented. In...

  19. Intra population polymorphism of Caspian gull (Larus cachinnans from the North-Western Coast of the Azov Sea (oological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Dubinina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of a long term study of nesting colonies of the Caspian gull (Larus cachinnans Pallas, 1811 on the islands of the Molochniy Liman and in Obitochnaya Bay (Azov Sea, in the South of Ukraine (Zaporizhia region, conducted between 1988 and 2013. A description of the size and coloring of eggs of Caspian gull was conducted by generally accepted methods. We measured 1000 eggs from 5 colonies of Caspian gulls. The background coloration of the eggs’ shells was classified into 7 types, the pattern of markings on the surface of the shells was classified into 4 types. In the nesting colonies, comprising different nesting settlements, the study tested differences in the distribution of typical and atypical coloring types and patterns on the surface of the shells. The background color and character of the shell marking patterns is dominated by eggs of phenotypes 3 and 4: gray-green, with a pattern of spots, of medium size (5–60% and brown, with a pattern of large spots (2–40%. In different settlements the Caspian gull egg sizes vary in length and diameter of 54.5–86.3 x 39.2–60.4 mm, volume 61.7–113.7 cm3 and index of roundness 63.6–85.3%. The study revealed that the linear dimensions of eggs also depend on the number of birds in the nesting colonies. We found that morphological and dimensional characteristics of Caspian gull eggs can vary at certain intervals and characterize individual colonies, settlements and populations. Based on cluster analysis, conducted in terms of the average of the linear sizes of eggs of Caspian gull from several populations within the range of the species, the study identified three groups of colonies – Danube-Sivash, Azov-Black Sea and Caucasus-Caspian. In region of the Azov-Black Sea, the greatest similarity was shown between the settlements of Sivash and the South of Crimea, which in turn is similar to Lebiyazhyi Islands and Kaniv Nature Reserve (river Dnipro. A related link

  20. Parasitic worms and their histopathological effects in four sturgeon species from the southwest shores of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Noei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study conducted to provide the status of parasite communities of four sturgeon species viz. Acipenser stellatus, A. gueldenstaedtii, A. nudiventris, and Huso huso in the southwest of the Caspian Sea and their histopathological effects on the examined fishes. For this purpose a total of 93 individuals of four sturgeon species were caught in two fisheries regions from the southwest of the Caspian Sea (Guilan Province, Iran from March 2010 to May 2011. The histological slides of the infested tissues of the examined fishes were prepared for study of the histopathological effects of the parasites. Classical epidemiological variables, including mean intensity, prevalence, abundance and dominance were calculated for overall samples, grouped by season, geographical region, and sex. Five worm species, including two nematodes (Cucullanus   sphaerocephalus and Eustrongylides excisus larvae, one cestode (Bothrimonus fallax, one acanthocephalans (Leptorhynchoide plagicephalus and one digenean trematode (Skrjabinopsolus   semiarmatus were found in examined sturgeons and their histopathological effects on the fish tissues were assessed. Based on the results, the diversity of the parasites (including freshwater ones in the southern part of the Caspian Sea have decreased since the time of the first study in 1972. This may be related to unfavorable conditions in freshwater ecosystems.

  1. Impact of the European Russia drought in 2010 on the Caspian Sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arpe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological budgets of the Volga basin (VB and the Caspian Sea (CS have been analysed. The components of the water balance for the CS were calculated for the period 1993 to 2010 with emphasis on summer 2010 when a severe drought developed over European Russia.

    A drop in precipitation over the VB in July 2010 occurs simultaneously with a decrease in evaporation for the same area, an increase of evaporation over the CS itself and a drop of the Caspian Sea level (CSL. The drop in the precipitation over the VB cannot lead to an instantaneous drop of the CSL because the precipitated water needs some months to reach the CS. The delay is estimated here to be 1 to 3 months for excessive precipitation in summer, longer for deficient precipitation and for winter cases. However, the evaporation over the CS itself is considered to be responsible for a simultaneous drop of the CSL from July to September 2010. The impact on the CSL from the precipitation deficit over the VB occurs in the months following the drought. The water deficit from July to September 2010 calculated from the anomalous precipitation minus evaporation over the VB would decrease the CSL by 22 cm, of which only 2 cm had been observed until the end of September (observed Volga River discharge anomaly. So the remaining drop of 20 cm can be expected in the months to follow if no other anomalies happen. In previous studies the precipitation over the VB has been identified as the main cause for CSL changes, but here from a 10 cm drop from beginning of July to end of September, 6 cm can be directly assigned to the enhanced evaporation over the CS itself and 2 cm due to reduced precipitation over the CS.

    Further periods with strong changes of the CSL are also investigated, which provide some estimates concerning the accuracy of the analysis data. The investigation was possible due to the new ECMWF interim reanalysis data which are used to provide data also for sensitive

  2. The Impact of Turkey's Domestic Resources on the Turkic Republics of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Akkoyunlu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how Turkey's domestic resources, which are Turkey's historical, cultural and political relations with the Turkic states and Turkey's economic interests in the region, affect Turkey's foreign relations with Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Findings show that the Turkic Republics' interest in Turkish development model gradually declined starting from the 1994s. The hypothesis that the stronger socio-cultural ties between Turkey and the Turkic states are the closer the foreign relations are between Turkey and the Turkic states is applicable to all five republics. In the field of business the study finds that Turkish economy follows a similar pattern in its relations with the Azerbaijani and the Central Asian market. Common policy goals of Turkey and the five states led Turkey to establish close foreign relations with these five regional countries. The hypothesis that the more Turkey has business interests in the Caspian Sea Region the more Turkey will have closer foreign relations with Turkic states is mostly apparent in the case of Azerbaijan. In the area of energy politics Turkey has its strongest link with Azerbaijan. Besides being strong economic partners Turkey is Azerbaijan's biggest supporter in the region against Armenia.

  3. The Impact of Turkey’s Domestic Resources on the Turkic Republics of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Akkoyunlu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how Turkey’s domestic resources, which are Turkey’s historical, cultural and political relations with the Turkic states and Turkey’s economic interests in the region, affect Turkey’s foreign relations with Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Findings show that the Turkic Republics’ interest in Turkish development model gradually declined starting from the 1994s. The hypothesis that the stronger socio-cultural ties between Turkey and the Turkic states are the closer the foreign relations are between Turkey and the Turkic states is applicable to all five republics. In the field of business the study finds that Turkish economy follows a similar pattern in its relations with the Azerbaijani and the Central Asian market. Common policy goals of Turkey and the five states led Turkey to establish close foreign relations with these five regional countries. The hypothesis that the more Turkey has business interests in the Caspian Sea Region the more Turkey will have closer foreign relations with Turkic states is mostly apparent in the case of Azerbaijan. In the area of energy politics Turkey has its strongest link with Azerbaijan. Besides being strong economic partners Turkey is Azerbaijan’s biggest supporter in the region against Armenia.

  4. Biosynthesis of bismuth nanoparticles using Serratia marcescens isolated from the Caspian Sea and their characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, P; Faramarzi, M A; Sepehrizadeh, Z; Mofid, M R; Bazaz, R D; Shahverdi, A R

    2012-06-01

    Today, synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) using micro-organisms has been receiving increasing attention. In this investigation, a bismuth-reducing bacterium was isolated from the Caspian Sea in Northern Iran and was used for intracellular biosynthesis of elemental bismuth NPs. This isolate was identified as non-pigmented Serratia marcescens using conventional identification assays and the 16s rDNA fragment amplification method and used to prepare bismuth NPs. The biogenic bismuth NPs were released by liquid nitrogen and highly purified using an n-octanol water two-phase extraction system. Different characterisations of the purified NPs such as particle shapes, size and purity were carried out with different instruments. The energy-dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns demonstrated that the purified NPs consisted of only bismuth and are amorphous. In addition, the transmission electron micrograph showed that the small NPs formed larger aggregated NPs around <150 nm. Although the chemical syntheses of elemental bismuth NPs have been reported in the literature, the biological synthesis of elemental bismuth NPs has not been published yet. This is the first report to demonstrate a biological method for synthesising bismuth NPs and their purification with a simple solvent partitioning method.

  5. Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Stricto in Dogs and Jackals from Caspian Sea Region, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirzad GHOLAMI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from dogs and jackals in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, and using partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1.Methods: E. granulosus isolates (n = 15 were collected from 42 stray dogs and 16 jackals found in south of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran. After morphological study, the isolates were genetically characterized using consensus sequences (366bp of the cox1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of cox1 nucleotide sequence data was performed using a Bayesian Inference approach.Results: Four different sequences were observed among the isolates. Two genotypes [G1 (66.7% and G3 (33.3%] were identified among the isolates. The G1 sequences indicated three sequence profiles. One profile (Maz1 had 100% homology with reference sequence (AN: KP339045. Two other profiles, designated Maz2 and Maz3, had 99% homology with the G1 genotype (ANs: KP339046 and KP339047. A G3 sequence designated Maz4 showed 100% homology with a G3 reference sequence (AN: KP339048.Conclusion: The occurrence of the G1 genotype of E. granulosus sensu stricto as a frequent genotype in dogs is emphasized. This study established the first molecular characterization of E. granulosus in the province.

  6. Mushroom Poisoning in the Southwest Region of the Caspian Sea, Iran: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Badsar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mushroom poisoning as a medical emergency can be a challengingproblem for physicians. Despite the vast resources of poisonous mushrooms inIran, few studies have been done in this regard, especially in the southwest regionof the Caspian Sea that is very suitable for mushroom growth. Therefore, the aimof this study was to evaluate our experience with mushroom poisoning in thisregion.Methods: This retrospective study reviewed the records of 102 patients who wereadmitted to the Emergency Department of Razi Hospital of Rasht, the only referraldepartment in this region, from May 2006 to May 2011. Data were analyzed byChi-square test, ANOVA, and student’s t-test.Results: The patients’ age ranged from 13 to 75 years and 47 of them were maleand the rest 55 were female. Overall, 57.8% of mushroom poisoning casesoccurred in patients from urban areas. Most incidences were reported betweenSeptember and October, the rainy season in Guilan. Except for four patients withtachycardia, others had stable vital signs. The most frequent symptoms (86.4%were nausea and vomiting. Complete blood cell count revealed that 28.4% of thepatients had leukocytosis but all of them had platelet counts of less than 100000.Conclusions: This study showed that all cases had mild to moderate symptomsthat were treated by simple supportive therapies. This suggested that mushroomspecies in our region are less dangerous but further studies need to establish whattoxins and species are responsible for mushroom toxicity.

  7. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on brain histopathology of Caspian Sea Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiee, Farzaneh; Samiee, Keivandokht

    2017-01-01

    There is limited research on the effect of electromagnetic field on aquatic organisms, especially freshwater fish species. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (50 Hz) exposure on brain histopathology of Cyprinus carpio, one of the important species of Caspian Sea with significant economic value. A total of 200 healthy fish were used in this study. They were classified randomly in two groups: sham-exposed group and experimental group, which were exposed to five different magnetic field intensities (0.1, 1, 3, 5, and 7 mT) at two different exposure times (0.5 and 1 h). Histologic results indicate that exposure of C. carpio to artificial ELF-EMF caused severe histopathological changes in the brain at field intensities ≥3 mT leading to brain necrosis. Field intensity and duration of exposure were key parameters in induction of lesion in the brain. Further studies are needed to elucidate exact mechanism of EMF exposure on the brain.

  8. Russia and the Caspian Sea: Projecting Power or Competing for Influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    will continue to be a spoiler in the Caspian region, block- ing any prospective collective settlement . Pipelines. Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and...project.” He stated that Russia has: answers that are economically more effective, and we are going to realise them. Blue Stream is already op...region. Cooperating for Caviar? In addition to its significant hydrocarbon reserves, the Caspian contains another high- value natural re- source: it

  9. Municipal solid waste management on the south coastline of the Caspian Sea (Golestan, Mazandaran, and Guilan Provinces of Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduli, Mohammad Ali; Bidhendi, Gholamreza Nabi; Nasrabadi, Touraj; Hoveidi, Hassan

    2007-12-01

    The Caspian region (including the Golestan, Mazandaran, and Guilan provinces of Iran) occupies 58,678 square kilometers (22,651 square miles) and has a population of 6,270,192, according to the census of 1996. This part of Iran is attractive to tourists because of its proximity to the Caspian Sea. In addition, the region boasts invaluable forests and grasslands, and is the exclusive producer in the country of key agricultural crops like rice and tea. The lack of systematic solid waste management has put this region on the edge of irreparable environmental damage. The large number and dispersion of open-dumping landfills, as well as the faded role of functional elements like waste minimization and processing, have sped up the environmental deterioration. This article evaluates the current status of solid waste management in the Caspian region and suggests practical alternatives. As a result of a field and desk study, the authors offer some instructions for separation of putrescibles, paper and cardboard, plastics, and so forth. Finally, after considering all aspects of the environmental impact assessments for different alternatives, the authors recommend the construction of two compost-producing facilities in Golestan province with a combined capacity of 500 metric tons per day and a total cost of $60,000, and four incineration sites in southern and southwestern parts of the region (Mazandaran and Guilan provinces) with a total capacity of 2,000 metric tons per day and total cost of $75 million.

  10. Vertical distribution of suspended particulate matter in the Caspian Sea in early summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchishina, M. D.; Lein, A. Yu.; Pautova, L. A.; Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Politova, N. V.; Novigatsky, A. N.; Silkin, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    The features of the vertical distribution of chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon and its isotopic composition, total suspended particulate matter (SPM), and the structure of the phytoplankton community in the Middle and South Caspian Sea in May-June 2012 are discussed. The subsurface chlorophyll a maximum (SCM) was found everywhere at depths of 20 to 40-60 m. The position of this layer is confined to the depth of the seasonal thermocline, which is determined by the development of a cold-water (dark) phytocenosis. The genesis of this layer was studied. The increase in chlorophyll a concentration in this layer is caused by an abundance of phytoplankton or an increased concentration of this phytopigments per algal cell. The highest values of the studied organic compounds and phytoplankton biomass are revealed as close to the seasonal thermocline extending from the southern periphery of the Derbent Depression to the Apsheron Sill, which is determined by the bottom topography. The presence of chlorophyll a at depths exceeding 300 m (up to ≥1 mg/m3) was revealed. This was supported by findings of individual algal cells containing chlorophyll a and even their accumulations in the deep water layer. The most probable mechanisms responsible for the presence of these cells at the deep water level are discussed in the paper. The vertical distribution of the values of the organic carbon isotopic composition is primarily controlled by the vertical structure of phytoplankton and chlorophyll a in the water column up to 500 m and by biogeochemical processes at the redox barrier ( 600 m layer). The relative stability of chlorophyll a and the stability of pheophytin a in anaerobic environments were verified. A significant amount of weakly transformed chlorophyll a was found close the sea bottom.

  11. Oceanographic and meteorological data from meteorological sensors and bottle/rosette/net and CTD taken from Russian vessels in the Caspian, Azov and Black Seas from 1897 to 2012 (NODC Accession 0117429)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruises took place from May 1897 to December 2012 in the Caspian, Azov and Black Seas. Russian vessels were used to collect data in the open sea. Small boats were...

  12. Oceanographic and meteorological data from various meteorological sensors and bottle/rosette/net taken from several Russian vessels in Caspian, Black and Azov Seas from 18 April, 1952 to 7 December, 2012 (NCEI Accession 0117731)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruises took place from 18 April 1952 to 7 December 2012 in Caspian, Black and Azov Seas. Various vessels were used to collect data in the open sea. Data collection...

  13. Genetic comparison of Caspian Sea Rutilus frisii kutum (Kamenskii, 1901) in Gorganroud and Cheshmekile (Tonekabon) rivers using microsatellite markers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Rezaei; Ali Shabani; Bahare Shabanpour; Hadis Kashiri

    2010-01-01

    The population structure of Rutilus frisii kutum in southern coasts of Caspian Sea was investigated using microsatellite loci. 50 Kutum fish samples were collected from Gorganroud (Golestan province) and Cheshmekile (Mazandaran province) rivers in April 2006. All the 10 loci investigated in this study (Ca1, Ca3, CypG3, CypG24, CypG27, CypG30, Lid1, Rru2, Rru4, Z21908) were polymorphic. The mean number of alleles at the population level was 7.95 which is lower than the reported values for anad...

  14. Caucasus and the petroleum stakes of Caspian Sea; Le Caucase et les enjeux petroliers de la Mer Caspienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalillosoltan, N. [Universite de Franche Comte, 25 - Montbeliard (France); Faculte de Droit de Besancon, 25 (France)

    2001-07-01

    The splitting of the former USSR block in 1991 has generated a shock wave in the Caucasus area with the will of all ex-soviet republics to reach their complete independence. Because of the historical and geographical complexity of Caucasus, both geopolitical and human, this disorder has generated even more hazardous results, enhanced by the coveted oil and gas reserves of the Caspian Sea. This article analyses the petroleum stakes as factors of rivalry and instability (sovereignty of oil and gas fields, rivalries about the exploitation and transport of hydrocarbons), but also as factors of cooperation and re-composition. (J.S.)

  15. CURRENT STATE OF FISHERIES AND ASSESSMENT OF FISH STOCKS IN THE WESTERN MIDDLE OF THE CASPIAN SEA. PROSPECTS FOR THE USE OF THE FISH RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Abdusamadov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To aim is to assess stocks and the fisheries of aquatic biological resources in the western part of the middle Caspian Sea and perspectives for the use of their resource potential.Methods. On the basis of the literature sources and our own data on the fish inventory in the western part of the Middle Caspian, we discuss possible reasons for emerging environmental, economic and other problems in the use of biological resources.Results. The main negative factors are the large-scale poaching, resulting in a catastrophic reduction in stocks of sturgeon and other valuable fish species of the Caspian Sea, a natural penetration of alien organisms (Mnemiopsis and overfishing of some species. The potential danger is large-scale development of oil and gas fields in the Caspian Sea, which can lead to even worse situation for the biological resources of the sea.Conclusions. In order to preserve the biological resources of the sea it is necessary to create conditions for steadily developing fishing and fish processing enterprises, thus ensuring the satisfaction of the constant demand for fish products and an increase in the revenue base of the budget and the well-being of the Russian population.

  16. New species from family Gasterosteidae in ichthyofauna of the Caspian Sea basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Shikhshabekov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is described a new genus and species - Gasterosteus Aculeatus for the Dagestan part of the Middle Caspian from the genus Gasterosteus species Aculeatus, which differs from other kinds of family Gasterosteidae by presence of three needles on the back part of the body and by some ecological features. This species is well enough described in other southern reservoirs. In comparison of external attributes of the three-needle stickle-back of the Caspian and other southern reservoirs no special differences are revealed.

  17. Native carbonoxidation microorganisms in bioremedetion Northern Caspian sea from oil pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gridneva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 26 strains microorganisms - degradation oil have been isolated from shelf water North Caspian. The high emulsifying ability relative to benzine, kerosene and diesel-fuel oil relevantly were possessed the 11 strains. The 4 cultures exhibiting degradation of oil rates 43-49 %, respectively, were selected.

  18. First results on determination of chlorophill A and its derivatives in the system of trapped sedimentary material-fluffy layer-bottom sediment of the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchishina, M. D.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Lein, A. Yu.; Lukashin, V. N.; Novigatsky, A. N.; Klyuvitkin, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The first data were obtained on the vertical chlorin flux in the water column and its accumulation in the upper layer of sediments of the Caspian Sea. Seasonal variability of the chlorine concentration in sedimentary matter was evaluated. The tendency of decrease in the phytoplankton-synthesized (allochtonous) organic matter content was revealed over approximately the past 60 years.

  19. Mass evolution of Mediterranean, Black, Red, and Caspian Seas from GRACE and altimetry: accuracy assessment and solution calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, B. D.; Luthcke, S. B.

    2017-02-01

    We present new measurements of mass evolution for the Mediterranean, Black, Red, and Caspian Seas as determined by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) GRACE time-variable global gravity mascon solutions. These new solutions are compared to sea surface altimetry measurements of sea level anomalies with steric corrections applied. To assess their accuracy, the GRACE- and altimetry-derived solutions are applied to the set of forward models used by GSFC for processing the GRACE Level-1B datasets, with the resulting inter-satellite range-acceleration residuals providing a useful metric for analyzing solution quality. We also present a differential correction strategy to calibrate the time series of mass change for each of the seas by establishing the strong linear relationship between differences in the forward modeled mass and the corresponding range-acceleration residuals between the two solutions. These calibrated time series of mass change are directly determined from the range-acceleration residuals, effectively providing regionally-tuned GRACE solutions without the need to form and invert normal equations. Finally, the calibrated GRACE time series are discussed and combined with the steric-corrected sea level anomalies to provide new measurements of the unmodeled steric variability for each of the seas over the span of the GRACE observation record. We apply ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) to adaptively sort the mass and steric components of sea level anomalies into seasonal, non-seasonal, and long-term temporal scales.

  20. The Caspian Sea-Hindu Kush Index (CasHKI): A regulatory factor for dust activity over southwest Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Houssos, E. E.; Rashki, A.; Francois, P.; Legrand, M.; Goto, D.; Bartzokas, A.; Kambezidis, H. D.; Takemura, T.

    2016-02-01

    This work investigates the modulation in dust activity over southwest (SW) Asia attributed to changes in the mean sea level pressure (MSLP) between the Caspian Sea (CS) and Hindu Kush (HK) during the summer months (June-July-August-September, JJAS) of the period 2000-2014. The MSLP anomalies obtained via NCEP/NCAR re-analysis are evaluated via a new climatology index, the Caspian Sea-Hindu Kush Index (CasHKI), which is defined as CasHKI = MSLPanom.CS - MSLPanom.HK, over specific domains taken over the CS and HK. The changes in CasHKI intensity are examined against dust activity and rainfall distributions over south Asia. The satellite remote sensing (Meteosat, OMI, MODIS) analyses show that high CasHKI values corresponding to enhanced pressure gradient between the CS and the HK, are associated with intensification of northerly winds, increased dust emissions and transportation over SW Asia and north Arabian Sea. In contrast, variations in CasHKI intensity do not seem to have a significant effect on the Indian summer monsoon. Only a slight decrease of precipitation over the southern Indian peninsula and the neighboring oceanic areas and an increase of precipitation along the Ganges Basin and Himalayan range are found to be related to high CasHKI values. Model (MIROC-SPRINTARS) simulations of dust concentration and dust AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) over SW Asia are consistent with the satellite observations, highlighting for the first time the modulation of the SW Asian dust activity by CasHKI.

  1. Can the role of the tectonic-related processes be excluded on the Caspian Sea level fluctuations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyavas, A.; Khan, S. D.

    2009-12-01

    The Caspian Sea is the largest isolated reservoir in the world and located between Russia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkmenistan, and Kazakhstan. Its sea level is 27 meter below the mean sea level of the world oceans. Large sea level fluctuations have been recorded during its history and the reasons of these sea level variations have long been examined. While several authors attribute sea level oscillations to hydroclimatic change in the basin, some suggested that the activities associated with tectonism in the basin could have potential on hydrologic budget of the CS. The water balance of the CS from 1998 to 2005 is calculated. Evaporation is quite significant in water budget calculations in the CS due to the fact that almost all of the water input is compensated by the evaporation itself and that discharge to Kara Bogaz Gol bay is relatively small. We utilize NCEP/DOE Reanalysis II meteorological data to estimate evaporation over the CS by using Penman method. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is the source for computing the direct precipitation on the sea surface. The Volga River is the main water source to it and 80 % of the total inflow to it has been provided via rivers. Total river runoff data along with discharge to KBG bay have been obtained from Geophysical Center of Russian Academy of Science (RAS). Even though Volga river discharge is usually of a high correlation with the sea level rise and drop until 2001, precipitation over the CS together with the contribution of the rest of the rivers has also strong influence over the sea level fluctuations for the rest of the years. Our results reveal that sea level changes from 1998 to 2005 are essentially controlled by meteorological factors. However, geological processes (groundwater outflow and inflow, mud volcanoes, tectonic activity) should be included to the water budget calculations of the CS.

  2. Occurrence and intensity of parasites in Wels catfish, Silurus glanis L. 1758 from Amirkelayeh wetland, southwest of the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khara, Hossein; Sattari, Masoud

    2016-09-01

    Amirkelayeh international wetland with a surface area of 1,230 hectares and fifteen fish species is an important water resource in the southern part of the Caspian Sea. There is few reports on fish parasites of this area. In the present study, a total of 80 Wels catfish, Silurus glanis, were collected from April through July 2011. After recording biometric characteristics, common necropsy and parasitology methods were used. In the present study, a total of 441 individuals of seven parasite species consisting of one nematode: Raphidascaroides sp., one cestode: Triaenophorus crassus, two digenean trematodes: Aphanurus stossichi and Diplostomum spathaceum, two monogenean trematodes: Silurodiscoides vistulensis and Silurodiscoides siluri, and one crustacean: copepodid stage of Lernaea cyprinacea was found in the catfish. The occurrence of copepodid stage of L. cyprinacea, Raphidascaroides sp. and T. crassus are reported for the first time from S. glanis in Iran.

  3. The Caspian Sea question. Perspectives for the new millennium; Il gioco del Mar Caspio: prospettive per il nuovo millennio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahgat, G. [Indiana Univ., Pennsylvania (United States). Dept. of Political Science

    1999-12-01

    The break-up of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s opened the door for the international oil companies to explore and develop the Caspian Sea's hydrocarbons resources. The full utilisation of this wealth, however, has been hindered by disagreement over the ownership of the basin and the choice of export routes. Another important obstacle is the troubled relationship between the United States and Iran. [Italian] Il crollo dell'Unione Sovietica nei primi anni '90 ha consentito alle compagnie petrolifere internazionali di esplorare e sviluppare le risorse di idrocarburi del Mar Caspio. Il disaccordo sulla proprieta del bacino e sulla scelta delle rotte di esportazione ha tuttavia impedito il pieno sfruttamento di questa ricchezza. Un altro importante ostacolo e dato dalle difficili relazioni tra Stati Uniti e Iran.

  4. Heavy metal pollution assessment in relation to sediment properties in the coastal sediments of the southern Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Neyestani, Mahmoud Reza; Shemirani, Farzaneh; Soltani, Farzaneh; Haghparast, Sarah; Akbari, Atefeh

    2015-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate major elements and heavy metal concentrations of Arsenic (As), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), Vanadium (V), Nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) in surface sediments of the southern Caspian Sea. Metal contents in the sediment were observed in the order of: V>Cr>Zn>Ni>Co>Cu>Pb>As. Correlations between elements showed that sediment TOM, grain size and chemical composition are the main factors that influence the distribution of heavy metals. According to the pollution load index (PLI), sediments from some sampling sites were polluted. Concentrations of Ni, As, Cr and Cu were higher than sediment quality guidelines at some sampling sites, implying potential adverse impacts of these metals.

  5. The Caspian Sea regionalism in a globalized world: Energy security and regional trajectories of Azerbaijan and Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedjazi, Babak

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation is fundamentally about the formation of new regional spaces in Central Eurasia viewed from a dynamic, comparative and historical approach. Analyzing the global-local economic and political interactions and their consequences on resource rich countries of the Caspian Sea enable us to reframe security as a central element of the new global order. In this respect, the dissertation examines how two particular states, Azerbaijan and Iran, respond to the changing global security environment and optimize their capacity to absorb or control change. Here, security as I conceive is multidimensional and engages various social, political and economic domains. My research is articulated along three hypotheses regarding the formation of a new regional space and its consequences on territorial polarization and interstate rivalry. These hypotheses, respectively and cumulatively, elucidate global and domestic contexts of regional space formation, regional strategic and discursive trajectories, and regional tensions of global/local interactions. In order to empirically test these hypotheses, a series of thirty interviews were conducted by the author with local and foreign business representatives, civilian and government representatives, and corroborated by economic data collected from the International Energy Agency. The findings of the research validate the primary assumption of the dissertation that Azerbaijan and Iran have chosen the regional scale to address discrepancies between their aspired place in the new world order and the reality of their power and international status. Extending the argument for structural scarcity of oil towards contenders, this dissertation concludes that the Caspian oil has become a fundamental element of the regional discourse. The mismatch between the rhetoric of sovereign rights and energy security on one side and the reality of regional countries' powerlessness and their need to reach international markets on the other side are

  6. Effect of copper sulfate on the survival and growth performance of Caspian Sea kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharedaashi, Esmail; Nekoubin, Hamed; Imanpoor, Mohammad Reza; Taghizadeh, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    The aim of present study was to determine the LC50/96 h value of copper sulfate and determine the growth performance of Caspian Sea kutum) Rutilus frisii kutum (fingerlings during 60-days sub-lethal copper (Cu). After acclimation period to two weeks, for determine the LC50/96 h value, total of 27 aquarium with a capacity of 60 L each stocked with 10 fishes an aquarium. Tunney four aquarium and 8 concentrations of (Cu) composed the 24 treatments while 3 other aquaria were used as control. For each treatment, three replications were conducted. And experiment to determine the growth performance fish were transferred into fiberglass aquaria of 200 L water capacity for growth trials. The treated fish were kept in the aquarium containing sub-lethal concentrations of Cu (0.11 and 0.23 mg L(-1)) and affected to grow for 60 days, while control fish were placed in metal free water. The results indicated that median lethal concentrations (LC50) of copper to Caspian Sea kutum for 96 h exposure was 2.310 ppm. The chronic sub-lethal water-borne Cu exposure to the fish exerted that fish had significantly decreased final body weight in comparison to control group. The copper sulfate also had significant negative effects on specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in comparison to those fed the control group. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) and condition factor (CF) were significantly increased in comparison with the control group (P Rutilus frisii kutum).

  7. The structure of the upper Paleozoic carbonate sediments in the zone of confluence of the Caspian Sea depression and the Southern Emba uplift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunin, N.Ya.; Budagov, A.G.; Lyakh, L.I.; Miletenko, N.V.

    1983-01-01

    Light is shed on the results of a seismo-stratigraphic analysis of the carbonate sedimentation bodies of the Carboniferous to early Permian age in the zone of confluence of the Southern Emba uplift and the Caspian Sea depression. The zones of the development of reef origin structures of different ages are isolated. Drilling of exploratory wells is recommended in the sectors of the most probable localization of reefs.

  8. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler observations in the southern Caspian Sea: shelf currents and flow field off Freidoonkenar Bay, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ghaffari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of offshore bottom-mounted ADCP measurements and wind records carried out from August to September 2003 in the coastal waters off Freidoonkenar Bay (FB in the south Caspian Sea (CS are examined in order to characterize the shelf motion, the steady current field and to determine the main driving forces of currents on the study area. Owing to closed basin and absence of the astronomical tide, the atmospheric forcing plays an important role in the flow field of the CS. The lasting regular sea breeze system is present almost throughout the year that performs motive force in diurnal and semi-diurnal bands similar to tides in other regions. In general, current field in the continental shelf could be separated into two distinguishable schemes, which in cross-shelf direction is dominated by high frequencies (1 cpd and higher frequencies, and in along-shelf orientation mostly proportional to lower frequencies in synoptic weather bands. Long-period wave currents, whose velocities are much greater than those of direct wind-induced currents, are dominating the current field in the continental shelf off FB. The propagation of the latter could be described in terms of shore-controlled waves that are remotely generated and travel across the shelf in the southern CS. It has also been shown that long term displacements in this area follow the classic cyclonic, circulation pattern in the southern CS.

  9. Comparison of AVHRR and ECMWF ERA-Interim data with buoy observational data for sea surface temperature over the Southern Coast of the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafarian, Parvin; Pegahfar, Nafiseh

    2016-07-01

    Sea surface temperature plays an important role in formation or intensification of many atmospheric phenomena such as tropical storms, lake-effect snow and sea breeze. Also, this variable is one of the input data in atmospheric, climate and oceanic models and also used climate change interpretation. According to the sparse location of observational stations over the ocean basins and seas, so satellite products can play an important role over such areas. The southern coast of the Caspian Sea (CS) is a prone area to experience some extreme challenging events forming due to sea surface temperature (SST) variation. In this research, SST data obtained by the AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and those modeled by ECMWF data have been compared with observational data from buoy instrument. The horizontal resolution of AVHRR data is 0.125 degree, while that is 0.75 degree for ECMWF. The comparison process has been done in various seasons especially for some stormy days in winter and spring led to the lake-effect snow and waterspout. Analysis has been done applying nearest-neighbor interpolation and statistical methods. Our findings indicated that SST measured by AVHRR, comparing with ECMWF data, is more close to the observational data.

  10. Life history pattern of mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki (Girard, 1859) in the Tajan River (Southern Caspian Sea to Iran)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PATIMAR Rahman; GHORBANI Mohsen; GOL-MOHAMMADI Ali; AZIMI-GLUGAHI Hoda

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of the ecology of introduced species in new habitats can allow determinations of the degree, direction, and rate of evolutionary change. The introduction of Gambusia holbrooki in the southern Caspian Sea presents such a situation. We evaluated the life history traits of mosquitofish in the Tajan River basin. A total of 744 G. holbrooki specimens were collected between January and December 2008. The maximum observed ages are 0+ years for males and 1+ years for females. Both sexes grew allometrically (negative for males: b=2.442 and positive for females: 6=3.232). The overall sex ratio is unbalanced and dominated by females. GSI values suggest that this population of G. holbrooki matures between February-July. The highest mean GSI value is 1.80 for males and 15.97 for females in May. Egg diameter ranges from 1.00 to 3.00 mm with a mean value of 2.098 mm. Absolute fecundity varied from 7 to 57 eggs. Both ova diameter and absolute fecundity were positively correlated to fish size (length and weight). Fecundity relative to total weight fluctuated from 34.44 to 582.64 eggs/g, and to total length from 2.33 to 12.95 eggs/cm. Both were negatively correlated with female size. The characteristics of this population are important with respect to life history of the species.

  11. Seroprevalence survey of H9N2 avian influenza virus in backyard chickens around the Caspian Sea in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Hadipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, an epidemic of avian influenza occurred in the Iranian poultry industry. The identified agent presented low pathogenicity, and was subtyped as an H9N2 avian influenza virus. Backyard chickens can play an important role in the epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection. Close contact of backyard chickens with migratory birds, especially with aquatic birds, as well as neighboring poultry farms, may pose the risk of transmitting avian influenza virus, but little is known about the disease status of backyard poultry. A H9N2 avian influenza virus seroprevalence survey was carried out in 700 backyard chickens from villages around the Caspian Sea, Northern Iran, using the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI test. The studied backyard chickens had not been previously vaccinated and showed no clinical signs of disease. The mean antibody titers found were 6.8, 7.5, 5.9, 7.2, 5.7, 6.4, 6.2 and the seroprevalence was 76.2%, 79.5%, 68.18%, 78.27%, 65%, 72.31% and 71.4% as found in seven villages. Overall HI titer and seroprevalence against H9N2 were 6.52 and 72.98%, respectively.

  12. Measurement of antimicrobial activity of isolated bacteria from the Caspian sea and molecular identification of strains with antimicrobial effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Harounabadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Easy access and wide use of antimicrobial compounds led to the emergence of resistance among microorganisms. Therefore, screening and identifying antimicrobial compound with high effect of microorganisms in different environments is necessary and vital . Using microorganisms for biological aims change them to an important tool to control pathogens. Streptomyces griseus is one of them. The aim of this study is isolation of marine bacteria with antimicrobial effect against gram positive and negative bacteria. Finally, molecular identification of strains with antimicrobial activity. Materials and methods: In this study, 162 strains were isolated from the Caspian Sea .The strains were cultured on special medium and finally antimicrobial activity on references strains as measured. Among them four strains with remarkable antimicrobial activity were identified and selected. The strains were subjected to 16S rDNA PCR sequencing. The strains were submitted to NCBI as new Streptomyces griseus strains. Results: Among 162 strains, 4 strains had the most antimicrobial activity. The result showed, the strains were the most effective on Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive bacteria and the least effect were observed on Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram negative bacteria. After sequencing, the strains were classified to sterptomyces griseus genu. Discussion and conclusion: In this study, 4 strains with antimicrobial activity were identified. According to the strength of these bacteria for controlling pathogenic bacteria resistant to antibiotic, we can have more pure microorganisms in optimized and controlled conditions for using in pharmaceutical industries and also for the treatment of dangerous pathogenic bacteria.

  13. Involvement of Acetobacter orientalis in the production of lactobionic acid in Caucasian yogurt ("Caspian Sea yogurt") in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryu, T; Kiso, T; Nakano, H; Ooe, K; Kimura, T; Murakami, H

    2009-01-01

    Lactobionic acid was first found in a Caucasian fermented milk product popularly known as "Caspian Sea yogurt" in Japan. The presence of lactobionic acid in the fermented milk was indicated by the results of both high-performance anion-exchange chromatographic analysis with pulsed amperometric detection and mass spectrometric analysis. Thereafter, the acid was purified from the yogurt and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. A substantial amount of lactobionic acid was found to be accumulated in the upper layer of the yogurt, especially within 10 mm from the surface. A total of 45 mg of lactobionic acid per 100 g of the upper yogurt layer was collected after 4 d of fermentation. The annual intake of lactobionic acid in individuals consuming 100 g of the yogurt every day would be 0.5 to 1.0 g. A lactose-oxidizing bacterium was isolated from the fermented milk and was identified as Acetobacter orientalis. Washed A. orientalis cells oxidized monosaccharides such as d-glucose at considerable rates, although their activities for substrates such as lactose, maltose, and cellobiose were much lower. When A. orientalis cells were cultivated in cow's milk, they exhibited lactose-oxidizing activity, suggesting that this bacterium was the main organism involved in the production of lactobionic acid in the yogurt.

  14. The relevance of the North-Sea Caspian Pattern (NCP in explaining temperature variability in Europe and the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brunetti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the upper level (500 hPa teleconnection between the North-Sea and the Caspian (NCP on the temperature and precipitation regimes in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM have been studied and reported and an index (NCPI that measures the normalized geopotential heights' differences between the two poles of this teleconnection has been defined.

    In the present study, the impact of the NCP on the temperature regime over the entire European continent is presented. In particular, the correlation between temperature and the NCPI has been evaluated, on a monthly basis, over the entire Euro-Mediterranean domain for the 1948–2007 period. The results highlight a significant positive correlation in the north-western area of the domain and a significant negative correlation in the south-eastern one. These two poles were also highlighted by comparing the temperature anomalies associated with both phases of NCP.

    The importance of this sort of NCP-induced temperature bi-pole in the context of temperature variability over Europe and the Mediterranean has been evaluated by applying a Principal Component Analysis to the temperature dataset. The results showed that the temperature bi-pole is associated with the second most important mode of temperature variability over the domain, but if the analysis is restricted to the months associated to NCP (+ and NCP (−, it becomes the first mode with 29.2 % of associated variance.

  15. Evaluation of heavy metal concentrations in Rutilus frisii kutum on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea (northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Naghipour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marine products, especially fish, play an increasingly significant role in human diets and health. This research evaluated the concentrations of cadmium, lead, chromium, and nickel in liver and muscle tissues of Rutilus frisii kutum along the Caspian Sea coasts of northern Iran. Methods: Thirty samples of fishes were taken from five stations (Astara, Rezvanshahr, Anazali, Ramsar, and Tonekabon during fishing season. An ICP-OES spectrophotometer was used to determine concentrations of the studied metals. Data was analyzed by SPSS 19 using descriptive statistical index, t test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA test; P Ni>Pb>Cd. The results showed statistically significant differences in the concentrations of these metals in liver and muscle tissues (P < 0.05, but no significant difference was observed between males and females. Conclusion: Based on calculations, the estimated permissible tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs of cadmium (0.042 and 0.567 mg and lead (0.0021 and 0.027 mg in this study are lower than the levels established by the World Health Organization (WHO (0.455 mg for cadmium and 1.625 mg for lead.

  16. Genetic comparison of Caspian Sea Rutilus frisii kutum (Kamenskii, 1901 in Gorganroud and Cheshmekile (Tonekabon rivers using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaei

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The population structure of Rutilus frisii kutum in southern coasts of Caspian Sea was investigated using microsatellite loci. 50 Kutum fish samples were collected from Gorganroud (Golestan province and Cheshmekile (Mazandaran province rivers in April 2006. All the 10 loci investigated in this study (Ca1, Ca3, CypG3, CypG24, CypG27, CypG30, Lid1, Rru2, Rru4, Z21908 were polymorphic. The mean number of alleles at the population level was 7.95 which is lower than the reported values for anadromous fishes. Both populations showed signs of bottleneck. The mean value of observed heterozygosity was 0.80 for Gorganroud and 0.74 for Cheshmekile, respectively. Among the 20 tests of population-loci, 11 samples showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Results from Fst (0.008 and Rst (0.04 values showed low genetic differentiation among the populations, also, AMOVA analysis indicated only 4% genetic diversity between populations. The values of genetic distance was 0.03 among the regions. It seems that mismanagement of kutum’restocking programs has had negative effects on the genetic structure of this species.

  17. Evaluation of Residues of D.D.T and D.D.A in Fish Collected from Caspian Sea, Iran

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    Mohammad Shokrzadeh lamuki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pesticides are essential in modern agricultural practices but due to their biocide activity and potential risk to the consumer, the control of pesticide residues in foods is a growing source of concern for the general population. Extensive application of such agents as organochlorine pesticides in farmlands and contemporary agricultural industries has led to undesired environmental contamination and human health hazards. Thus, this study attempted to evaluate and analyze the residual values of the organochlorine insecticide D.D.T and its metabolite D.D.A in the four species of most consumed fish collected from the Caspian Sea. Methods: In this investigation, concentrations of residual values of D.D.T and D.D.A were quantitatively determined in the 4 species of fish sampled from 4 major fishing centers (Chalous and Babolsar cities and Khazar Abad and Miankaleh regions in Mazandaran province, Iran, using gas chromatography electron-capture detection (GC–ECD in 2008. Results: The results showed that the highest values of D.D.T were in Mugil auratns (0.033±0.008 mg/kg and Rutilus frisikutum (0.031±0.007 mg/kg fishes collected from Babolsar sampling center. Conclusion: Concentrations of D.D.T and D.D.A in the fish were found to be less than the standard permissible intake.

  18. Wave Energy Estimation by Using A Statistical Analysis and Wave Buoy Data near the Southern Caspian Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.R.Zamani; M.A.Badri

    2015-01-01

    Statistical analysis was done on simultaneous wave and wind using data recorded by discus-shape wave buoy. The area is located in the southern Caspian Sea near the Anzali Port. Recorded wave data were obtained through directional spectrum wave analysis. Recorded wind direction and wind speed were obtained through the related time series as well. For 12-month measurements (May 25 2007-2008), statistical calculations were done to specify the value of nonlinear auto-correlation of wave and wind using the probability distribution function of wave characteristics and statistical analysis in various time periods. The paper also presents and analyzes the amount of wave energy for the area mentioned on the basis of available database. Analyses showed a suitable comparison between the amounts of wave energy in different seasons. As a result, the best period for the largest amount of wave energy was known. Results showed that in the research period, the mean wave and wind auto correlation were about three hours. Among the probability distribution functions, i.e Weibull, Normal, Lognormal and Rayleigh, “Weibull” had the best consistency with experimental distribution function shown in different diagrams for each season. Results also showed that the mean wave energy in the research period was about 49.88 kW/m and the maximum density of wave energy was found in February and March, 2010.

  19. New methods for processing and interpreting marine magnetic anomalies: Application to structure, oil and gas exploration, Kuril forearc, Barents and Caspian seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Gorodnitskiy

    2013-01-01

    In the southern and central parts of Barents Sea, tectonic blocks with widths of 30–100 km, and upper and lower boundaries of magnetic layers ranging from depths of 10 to 5 km and 18 to 30 km are calculated. Models of the magnetic layer underlying the Mezen Basin in an inland part of the White Sea–Barents Sea paleorift indicate depths to the lower boundary of the layer of 12–30 km. Weak local magnetic anomalies of 2–5 nT in the northern and central Caspian Sea were identified using the new methods, and drilling confirms that the anomalies are related to concentrations of hydrocarbon. Two layers causing magnetic anomalies are identified in the northern Caspian Sea from magnetic anomaly spectra. The upper layer lies immediately beneath the sea bottom and the lower layer occurs at depths between 30–40 m and 150–200 m.

  20. Morphological and genetic characteristics of the anisakid nematode Raphidascaris acus from the southwest Caspian Sea: evidence for the existence of sibling species within a species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahantab, Mikhak; Haseli, Mohammad; Salehi, Zivar

    2014-09-01

    Recently, it has been shown that many nematode species are in fact species complex, using exact morphological and genetic studies. In this case, there are no such studies related to the genus Raphidascaris Railliet & Henry, 1915. Herein, the morphological and genetic variations among the Iranian population of the species Raphidascaris acus (Bloch, 1779) Railliet & Henry, 1915 and the other allopatric populations with morphological and genetic information were compared to show whether this species can be considered as a species complex. R. acus is an anisakid species and has been frequently reported from different host species from the Caspian Sea. Nonetheless, there are no morphological and genetic information for this species from the region. In the present study, a total of 20 specimens of R. acus were collected from Esox lucius Linnaeus, and the morphology of the Caspian population of this species was surveyed for the first time using both light and scanning electron microscopy. Meanwhile, some parts of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) including internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), 5.8 s, and ITS2 were sequenced and presented as the genetic marker for this species. To understand whether R. acus can be considered as a species complex, the Caspian population of this species was compared morphologically with the allopatric populations of Czech and Canada and genetically with the allopatric population of Poland (Vistula lagoon). Morphologically, there was no difference between the Caspian and Czech populations, but the Caspian and Canadian populations differed in the length of ejaculatory duct and the presence of small triangular elevation between the bases of subventral lips. The nucleotide difference between the Caspian and Polish populations was 4.48%. In comparison with the interspecific genetic distances in the genus Raphidascaris, this value is notable. In conclusion, based on morphological and genetic differences among the allopatric populations of R. acus, this species

  1. Haemato-biochemical disorders associated with nodavirus like-agent in adult leaping mullet Liza saliens (Risso, 1810) in the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasi, Maryam; Binaii, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Mohdes; Fazli, Hasan; Zorriehzahra, Mohamad Jalil

    2016-03-01

    Betanoda virus is an emerging problem in several marine fish species in various geographic areas all over the world. In recent years, mullets stock of the Caspian Sea decreased dramatically and a betanoda virus like-agent was introduced as the cause of mullet's mortality. The main objective of the present study is to compare hemato-biochemical parameters in healthy and infected sharpnose mullets (Liza saliens) to betanoda virus like-agent. The adult sharpnose mullets (34 clinically affected fish + 34 apparently healthy fish) were captured from the southeast the Caspian Sea from 2012 to 2013. All of the captured fish were 4 or 5 years old. The main clinical sings of infected fish were lethargy, severe abdominal distention, abnormal swimming and hyperinflation of swim bladder. The results showed that the weight and total length of infected fish were significantly lower than the healthy fish. The results of histopatological evaluation and indirect florescent antibody test were confirmed the presence of a betanoda virus-like agent in infected fish. The diseased fish were severely anemic (hypochromic macrocytic anemia) and had a serious haemopoietic disorders. The anemia associated with a sever leukopenia, a significant rise of neutrophils and immature neutrophils and a significant decries of lymphocytes percentage. Total protein, albumin and total immunoglobulin levels were significantly reduced in the serum of infected fish, while the activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase significantly increased when compared to the healthy fish. These results suggested that the feeding of the infected fish to betanoda virus like-agent were disturbed and it could be cause haemato-biochemical disorder and mortality of the fish in Iranian water of the Caspian Sea.

  2. A record of Late Quaternary continental weathering in the sediment of the Caspian Sea: evidence from U-Th, Sr isotopes, trace element and palynological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, M. C.; Chabaux, F.; Leroy, S. A. G.; Causse, C.

    2012-09-01

    This study presents combined mineralogical, chemical, isotopic (87Sr/86Sr and U-Th disequilibria series) and palynological analyses on bulk sediments and on distinct mineral phases (carbonates and clays) from a 10-m-long core drilled in the southern Caspian Sea and containing a Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene record. The data allowed identifying 1) the main variations in sedimentation, 2) the processes causing these variations, 3) the modification of erosion vs weathering, and 4) the influence of climatic and/or Caspian Sea level changes in the region since the Late Pleistocene. The chemical and mineralogical results allowed the division of the sedimentary sequence into three main units and a transition zone. The lower unit (unit U1) primarily consists of silicate and carbonate-rich detritus. Sedimentation characteristics, including observation of detritus in secular equilibrium, are relatively constant within this unit and reflect mechanical erosion in a cold climate. Unit U1 probably corresponds to a glacial period when the vegetation cover was sparse and wind and river transport of pollen were strong. Subsequently, global increase in temperatures has greatly modified the sedimentation in the Caspian Sea south basin. Biogenic sedimentation is higher in units U2 and U3, and detrital inputs varied from unit U1. Variations in detrital input are likely to be caused by decreasing aeolian contribution and by relative changes in river volumes and origins. The study of the bulk sediments, clays and carbonates reflects an increase in chemical weathering since about 10 14C ka BP ago (base of unit U2), in line with an increase in the vegetation cover. Our results suggest an evolution of continental weathering conditions in the catchment area of the Caspian Sea, from dominantly mechanical/physical erosion during the cold period to a continuous increase in weathering since the Lateglacial period, as climate improved, which illustrates the strong relation between climate

  3. Cytological comparison of gill chloride cells and blood serum ion concentrations in kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum spawners from brackish (Caspian Sea and fresh water (Khoshkrood River environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahremanzadeh Zahra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The size and number of chloride cells and serum ion concentrations in kutum, Rutillus frisii kutum Nordman, from brackish (Caspian Sea and fresh water (Khoshkrood River environments were studied to gain a better understanding of osmoregulation in this species. Twenty mature kutum specimens were collected from the Caspian Sea (Anzali coasts, 8.49 ppt salinity and 12.4°C temperature and 20 specimens from Khoshkrood River (0.18 ppt salinity and 18°C temperature. Gill samples were analyzed histologically and concentrations of Na+, Cl- , K+, and Mg2+ ions were determined in the blood serum. Concentrations of Na+, Cl- , K+, and Mg2+ ions and osmotic pressure in mature kutum from brackish water were significantly higher than in specimens from fresh water. The average size and number of chloride cells in the fish from seawater were considerably larger than those from fresh water. The mean size of chloride cells was 6.89 ± 1.16 μm in brackish water samples and 5.1 ± 0.81 μm in river samples. The average number of chloride cells in brackish and river water samples were 16.92 and 6.57, respectively. The density and size of chloride cells increased with increases in salinity

  4. Modelling of oil spill frequency, leak sources and contamination probability in the Caspian Sea using multi-temporal SAR images 2006–2010 and stochastic modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Bayramov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to detect oil spills, to determine the oil spill frequencies and to approximate oil leak sources around the Oil Rocks Settlement, the Chilov and Pirallahi Islands in the Caspian Sea using 136 multi-temporal ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar Wide Swath Medium Resolution images acquired during 2006–2010. The following oil spill frequencies were observed around the Oil Rocks Settlement, the Chilov and Pirallahi Islands: 2–10 (3471.04 sq km, 11–20 (971.66 sq km, 21–50 (692.44 sq km, 51–128 (191.38 sq km. The most critical oil leak sources with the frequency range of 41–128 were observed at the Oil Rocks Settlement. The exponential regression analysis between wind speeds and oil slick areas detected from 136 multi-temporal ENVISAT images revealed the regression coefficient equal to 63%. The regression model showed that larger oil spill areas were observed with decreasing wind speeds. The spatiotemporal patterns of currents in the Caspian Sea explained the multi-directional spatial distribution of oil spills around Oil Rocks Settlement, the Chilov and Pirallahi Islands. The linear regression analysis between detected oil spill frequencies and predicted oil contamination probability by the stochastic model showed the positive trend with the regression coefficient of 30%.

  5. The USA policy evolution in the Caspian sea from Clinton to Bush; L'evolution de la politique americaine dans la region de la mer Caspienne de Clinton a Bush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafalian, A

    2003-07-01

    The author analyzes the USA policy in the Caspian Sea area and its evolution with the election of Bush. If no major orientation appear, some sensible evolutions are presented concerning the pipelines management in this area. The author presents then, the new definition of the economical variables and the reinforcement of the security dimension of the USA policy. (A.L.B.)

  6. Vacuolating encephalopathy and retinopathy associated with a nodavirus-like agent: a probable cause of mass mortality of wild Golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) and Sharpnose grey mullet (Liza saliens) in Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorriehzahra, Mohammad Jalil; Nazari, Alireza; Ghasemi, Mohaddes; Ghiasi, Maryam; Karsidani, Somayeh Haghighi; Bovo, Giuseppe; Daud, Hassan Hj Mohd

    2014-12-01

    Mullets are dominant fishes in the catch composition in the southern coasts of the Caspian Sea and after (Rutilus frisii kutum Kamensky, 1901) have a worthy role in production of marine proteins and incomings of north provinces of Iran. Mullets stocks decreased dramatically in recent decades in the Caspian Sea and catch amount reached from 6446 MT on 2002 to 2151 MT in 2012. Mysterious mortalities occurred in wild mullet (Liza auratu) and (Liza saliens) in Iranian waters of Caspian Sea in recent years. Regarding to investigation of causative agent of mentioned outbreak about 322 suspected samples were collected from coastal capture sites of Iranian north provinces in 2008 till 2011. Moribund fish revealed skin darkening, erratic swimming, belly-up at rest and high distension of swim bladder. Target tissues such as brain and eye were removed and then fixed for histopathology and TEM assay. Widespread and massive vacuolation were observed in brain, spinal cord, retina and optical nerve and intracytoplasmic vacuoles and virus particles in retina. So concerning to clinical signs, histopathological and TEM findings, it could be concluded that nodavirus-like agent could be probable cause of mass mortality of wild mullet in Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea.

  7. ECOLOGICAL-FAUNISTIC AND ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF BEETLE-WEEVILS OF ISLAND CHECHEN OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Arsanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Ecological-faunistic investigations of island Chechen are great interest for understanding the law of formation of island biotas and reconstruction of zoogeological history of the Caspian Sea. Faunistic investigations of islands and coastal areas , habitats and others chorologic aspects illuminate the ways of their probable settlement,explains the paradoxes of propagation of some species. Study of relationships with host plants appear the crucial stage of ecological-faunistic investigathions of the weevils.Location. Materials of the work were expeditionary duties of the authors, as well as staff and the students of ecologo-geografical faculty of Dagistan State University and the Institute for Applied Ecology ( Makhachkala from 2009 to 2013 year for the island Chechen.Methods. Charges were made with the help of light traps, soil traps, including trap, enhanced light source .Geografpical coordinates of all locations were recorded using GPS- navigator: T1 - 43°57’58” N 47°38’35” E; T2 - 43°58’17” N 47°42’55”; T3 - 43°59’08” N 47°44’39” E; T4 - 43°57’27” N 47°45’05” E; T5 - 43°58’11” N47°38’46” E.Results. As a result of studies were set the species composition of the faun of the beetle-weevils of the island Chechen, the analyses of the distribution of species by locality; mounted forage plants of the beetles and quantitative distribution of the beetls for families forage plants; conduct the zoogeographical analysis of studied fauna.Main conclusions. The studies on the island of Chechen were collected 187 specimens belonging to 16 species and 14 geniuse; the most common type was Coniatus splendidulus. The food base of the weevil beetles in the island of Chechen are 10 plant families,thelargest number of species focused on Chenopodiаceae, then followed Polygonaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae. Analysis of fauna habitats of the beetle- weevils of the island Chechen allowed to allocate 7

  8. Evaluating the efficiency of sediment metal pollution indices in interpreting the pollution of Haraz River sediments, southern Caspian Sea basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Touraj; Bidhendi, Gholamreza Nabi; Karbassi, Abdolreza; Mehrdadi, Nasser

    2010-12-01

    The Haraz River is one of the most significant rivers in the southern Caspian Sea basin. Towards the estuary, the river receives discharges of industrial, agricultural, and urban wastes. In the present investigation, bulk concentrations of Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Fe, Ni, Cr, Co, and Sr in Haraz River (Iran) bed sediments were measured from several sample locations. In addition, association of studied metals with various sedimentary phases was assessed to determine the proportions of metals in different forms. The intensity of sediment contamination was evaluated using an enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (I(geo)), and a newly developed pollution index (I(poll)). Both EF and I(geo) formulae compare present concentrations of metals to their background levels in crust and shale, respectively. In a specific area with its own geological background like Haraz River water basin where naturally high concentrations of metals may be found, such a comparison may lead to biased conclusions regarding levels of anthropogenic contamination. Accordingly, chemical partitioning results are substituted for the mean crust and shale levels in the new index (I(poll)). The Pearson correlation coefficient between the anthropogenic portion of metallic pollution in Haraz river-bed sediments with I(poll) showed much more value in comparison with those of geochemical accumulation index and enrichment factor. The order of metals introduced by anthropogenic activities are as follows: Sr > Pb > Co > Cd > Zn > Cu > Ni > As > Cr > Fe. The results showed relatively higher concentrations of Cd, As, Sr, and Pb in comparison with those of shale. However, based on the chemical partitioning of metals, it is found that Sr, Pb, Co, and Cd are the most mobile metals. In spite of the high As concentrations in sediments, it is not likely that this element is a major hazard for the aquatic environment since it is found mainly in the residual fraction. Also, Fe, Cr, and Ni are present in the greatest

  9. The study of genetic diversity and population structure of Vimba vimba persa (Pallas, 1814 populations in the Eastern and Western coastline of the Caspian sea (Havigh River and GorganRoud River using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Mohamadian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of Vimba vimba persa was investigated using microsatellite markers from two regions of the Iranian coastline of southern Caspian sea (Havigh River in Guilan province, GorganRoud River in Golestan province. The purpose of this research was the study of Vimba vimba persa’s possible populations related to genetic diversity and population structure in the Caspian sea and introducing the useful genetic markers. To investigate the genetic structure of Vimba vimba persa populations, we sampled 50 specimens of Vimba vimba persa caught by beach seine from GorganRoud River in Golestan Province (30 specimens and Havigh River in the Guilan Province (20 specimens. Genomic DNA was extracted from fin tissue by phenol-Chlorophorm method and PCR reaction was accomplished with 17 microsatellite primers 10 of which were amplified with reasonable polymorphism. Means of alleles were on 6.75 averages, observed and expected heterozygosity averages were 0.817 and 0.735, respectively. Most cases, significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p≤0.01. According to the Fst values, there are two significant populations of Vimba vimba persa in the eastern and western coasts of the Caspian Sea which restocking of these species should be considered. Based on the survey revealed, since the population of this species is decreasing with its high genetic diversity, the Caspian Vimba had an enormous diversity in the past.

  10. A Comparative Study on the Tourism Policies in Pre and Post Islamic Revolution of Iran Case Study: Babolsar in the Coast of Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeznia, Mohammad Reza; Eftekhari, Abdorreza R.; Ramazani, Isa

    In this research, we study the effects of tourism policy-making in the Pre and Post Islamic revolution (1979) in Iran with a comparative approach. The case study of research is Babolsar in the north of Iran which located on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. The results of the research show that differences in ideology and values between Pre and Post Islamic Revolution affected on the Tourism Policy-making in Iran. In the case, the jobs and spatial features related to the tourism have been better and increased, but pollution of the coastal environments and shores have been increased. Also the ecotourism opportunities after the revolution have been more attractive for internal tourists than foreigners.

  11. Comparative study of mercury accumulation in two fish species, (Cyprinus carpio and Sander lucioperca) from Anzali and Gomishan wetlands in the southern coast of the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaie, Tayebeh; Ghomi, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Fazel; Zamani-ahmadmahmoodi, Rasool

    2011-12-01

    Anzali and Gomishan wetlands are considered as two of the most important wetlands in southern coast of Caspian Sea. To investigate mercury accumulation in these ecosystems, total mercury concentrations were measured in the muscle tissue of two fish species. Higher mercury concentrations were detected in C. carpio, an omnivorous benthic/pelagic species (Anzali wetland: 0.2 μg g(-1) wet weight; Gomishan wetland: 0.2 μg g(-1) wet weight), than in S. lucioperca, a carnivorous pelagic species (Anzali: 0.06 μg g(-1) wet weight; Gomishan: 0.15 μg g(-1) wet weight).

  12. Benthos response following petroleum exploration in the southern Caspian Sea: Relating effects of nonaqueous drilling fluid, water depth, and dissolved oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, R D; Maxon, C L; Parr, T D; Newton, F C

    2016-09-15

    The effects of linear alpha olefin (LAO) nonaqueous drilling fluid on benthic macrofauna were assessed over a six year period at a southern Caspian Sea petroleum exploration site. A wide-ranging, pre-drilling survey identified a relatively diverse shelf-depth macrofauna numerically dominated by amphipods, cumaceans, and gastropods that transitioned to a less diverse assemblage dominated by hypoxia-tolerant annelid worms and motile ostracods with increasing depth. After drilling, a similar transition in macrofauna assemblage was observed with increasing concentration of LAO proximate to the shelf-depth well site. Post-drilling results were consistent with a hypothesis of hypoxia from microbial degradation of LAO, supported by the presence of bacterial mats and lack of oxygen penetration in surface sediment. Chemical and biological recoveries at ≥200m distance from the well site were evident 33months after drilling ceased. Our findings show the importance of monitoring recovery over time and understanding macrofauna community structure prior to drilling.

  13. Allometric body shape changes and morphological differentiation of Shemaya, Alburnus chalcoides (Guldenstadf, 1772, populations in the southern part of Caspian Sea using Elliptic Fourier analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohadasi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Study of phenotypic diversity among populations can help better understanding of diversification of species within ecosystems and intraspecific diversification in fishes. A geometric morphometric study was carried out using the Elliptic Fourier analysis to demonstrate the effect of habitat type on morphological features of shemaya (Alburnus chalcoides populations. Populations were sampled from three rivers and one lagoon, from the southern part of Caspian Sea. Significant differences in body shape were found among the populations. Differences in shapes of the riverine populations were minute compared to those of lagoon one in terms of size and shape. Shemaya is an anaderemus fish and its populations have a common origin, therefore, observed differences could be as result of environmental factors. In addition, this study suggest that the amount of curvature i.e. fusiform body shape of this species could be independent form environmental condition.

  14. Identifying the source of petroleum pollution in sediment cores of southwest of the Caspian Sea using chemical fingerprinting of aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirneshan, Golshan; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Memariani, Mahmoud

    2017-02-15

    In this study, the concentration and sources of aliphatic and petroleum markers were investigated in 105 samples of Anzali, Rezvanshahr and Astara cores from the southwest of Caspian Sea. Petroleum importation was diagnosed as a main source in most depths of cores by the results of unresolved complex mixture, carbon preference index and hopanes and steranes. From the chemical diagnostic parameters, petroleum inputs in sediment of cores were determined to be different during years and the sources of hydrocarbons in some sections differed than Anzali and Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan oils. Diagenic ratios in most sediments of upper and middle sections in Astara core were determined to be highly similar to those of Azerbaijan oil, while the presence of Turkmenistan and Anzali oils were detected in a few sections of Anzali and Rezvanshahr cores and only five layers of downer section in Anzali core, respectively.

  15. Bioaccumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn in the edible and inedible tissues of three sturgeon species in the Iranian coastline of the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashroofeh, Abdulreza; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Rasouli, Sana

    2013-01-01

    The accumulations of Cd, Pb and Zn were determined in edible and inedible tissues of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus; n=27), stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus; n=5) and beluga (Huso huso; n=4) collected from coastal waters of the South Caspian Sea from March to April 2011. Concentrations of metals evaluated in the caviar, muscle, liver, kidney, gills, ovary and heart of the three species of sturgeons have been assessed using the flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in the edible and inedible tissues were apparently different among the three species of sturgeons. Especially, beluga heart showed the highest concentrations of Zn and Pb and Cd in Persian sturgeon liver. The analyzed metals were found in the caviar and muscle samples of Persian sturgeon and likewise muscle samples two other sturgeon species at mean concentrations under the permissible limits proposed by MAFF (2000).

  16. Effect of crude oil pollution on organic carbon and humus content in grey-brown soils in Mangyshlak,Pre-Caspian Sea Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saimbulek; DOSBERGENOV

    2010-01-01

    The organic carbon and humus content in oil polluted brown and grey-brown soils in Mangyshlak,Pre-Caspian Sea Region,was analyzed from 2000 to 2008.The results indicated that bitumen substances from crude oil pollution deteriorated the soil property,however,the organic carbon content increased significantly.The products of oil pollution changed the composition of car-bonaceous substances which formed soil humus,and changed the ratios of the humus components.Residual insoluble carbon increased with the rise of oil organic carbon.The mobility of humus components was significantly increased because of the high oxidation-reduction process in the topsoil,and the humus content and microorganism activity increased.The organic carbon content increased significantly,while it decreased with the distance away from the oil well.The rearrangement of physical,physical-chemical and chemical properties of the polluted soils was significant.

  17. In Defense of the Southern Borders of Russia and Allied Countries (the Russian Foreign Military Bases on the Black Sea-Caspian Arc of Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Afanasenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available December 25, 2014, President Vladimir Putin approved a new version of the military doctrine of the Russian Federation, which reflects manifested threat to Russia and its allies because the situation in Ukraine, especially in its south-east, in the Donets Basin; the events in Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan; issues of interaction and cooperation with Abkhazia, South Ossetia, with the CSTO member countries, the BRICS. An important role in the strengthening of the southern borders of the security operate military bases and facilities of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, located in Transnistria, the Caucasus, Syria and Central Asia. Characteristics of these bases and their value in the Black Sea-Caspian arc of tension given in this article.

  18. Isolation and confirmation of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease in golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) and leaping mullet (Liza saliens) in the Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorriehzahra, M E J; Ghasemi, M; Ghiasi, M; Karsidani, S Haghighi; Bovo, G; Nazari, A; Adel, M; Arizza, V; Dhama, K

    2016-07-15

    The present study was conducted on 428 moribund mullet fish samples to isolate and identify the causative agent of a mysterious acute mortality which recently occurred in wild mullets in Iranian waters of Caspian Sea, suspected to be due to viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease. Disease investigation was carried out employing various diagnostic procedures such as virology, bacteriology, parasitology, haematology, histopathology, IFAT, IHC and nested RT-PCR. Brain and eye samples of affected fishes were collected in sterile conditions and then kept at -80°C for cell culture isolation and nested RT-PCR detection of the causative agent. Other tissue samples were also collected and fixed for histopathology, IHC and EM examinations. CPE was observed in cell cultures at 6days after inoculation. Nine samples were found positive with virological assay. Nested RT-PCR, performed on suspected tissues and CPE positive samples, showed that about 21 tissue samples and all the CPE positive samples were positive for VNN virus (VNNV). IFAT was selected as a confirmatory method for detecting the presence of Betanodavirus antigen, cell culture isolation results and nested RT-PCR findings. Moreover, VNNV particles with 25-30nm in diameter were also visualized in the infected brain and retina. In pathogenicity studies, guppy fishes bathed in VNNV-infected tissue culture (10(-4) TCID50) showed clinical signs similar to naturally infected mullet after 15days post infection (dpi), with mortality rates reaching up to 100% at 30dpi. Affected organ samples as examined by cell culture isolation, IFAT, IHC and histopathology, revealed the presence of VNNV in the guppy fishes. In conclusion, it was confirmed that VNNV was the main causative agent for the disease outbreak in mullet fish in the Caspian Sea, and this is such first official report of VNN disease from Iran.

  19. Survey on parasites of Rutilus frisii Kutum in South west of Caspian Sea with the emphasis of pathology of Dactylogyrus frisii and morphological identification of Paradiplozoon sp and Anisakis sp

    OpenAIRE

    Rahanandeh, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Rutilus frisii Kutum is one of the most precious fish in the Caspian Sea. Investigation of the various aspects of its biocharactristics. Including its parasite fauna and ecological aspects are of prime importance. In this study the farmed kutum fry were on the focus of investigation in various seasons of the year and prior to their being released in the sea. This included also the study on the kutum spawners caught both from liver and the sea. The results were that 17 external and internal pa...

  20. Caspian Oil and Gas: Production and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-04

    Statistical Review of World Energy 2004, June 15, 2004; Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA). Caspian Sea Region Country...oil and gas. e Includes Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, and United Kingdom. Sources: BP. BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2004. June 15

  1. Concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd in muscle and liver of Perca fluviatilis and Tinca tinca in Anzali Wetland, southwest the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Eslami

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Anzali Wetland is one of the most important aquatic ecosystems of Iran located at southwest of the Caspian Sea. This wetland is a habitat for valuable fish with vital role in life cycle of this ecosystem. Assessment of pollutants concentration is rational due to complications of determining biological effects in a habitat. The present study examined the concentration of lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd in muscles and livers of two fish species i.e. Perca fluviatilis and Tinca tinca collected from Anzali Wetland, and their  relationships with fish size (length and weight. The results showed the highest concentration of metals in liver, and the lowest in muscle tissues of both species. Highest concentrations of Cd (0.09 and Pb (3.66 were recorded in liver tissue of T. tinca. The results also showed significant negative correlation between metal concentrations and fish size. Highly significant (P<0.01 negative relationships were observed between fish length and Pb concentrations in liver of P. fluviatilis. Cd and Pb concentrations in liver of P.  fluviatilis and Cd concentrations in the liver of T. tinca showed significant negative relationships  (P<0.05 with size factors. The concentrations of Pb and Cd were lower than the maximum acceptable concentrations for fish proposed by MAFF thus safe for human utilization.

  2. Experimental susceptibility of Caspian white fish, Rutilus frisii kutum to Spring viraemia of carp virus

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani, H.; Ghasemi, M.; Hosseini, S.M.; Haghighi Karsidani, S.

    2013-01-01

    Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) is a fish of the family Cyprinidae, which is commercially harvested from the Caspian Sea. Experimental infection with Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) was conducted in order to examine susceptibility of caspian White Fish and clinical impacts of infection. Fingerling fish were injected intra-peritoneally or waterborne-exposed with SVCV and were monitored daily for 7 weeks. Dead fish and those survived at the end of experimental period were collect...

  3. Distribution and composition pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in different tissues of sturgeons collected from Iranian coastline of the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashroofeh, Abdulreza; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Pourkazemi, Mohammad

    2015-02-01

    The levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the liver, kidney, gills and muscle tissues of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus; n=16), and Stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus; n=7) collected from coastal waters of the South Caspian Sea from March and April 2011. The distribution and composition pattern of PAHs in the different tissues of sturgeons, and the effects of lipid content in sturgeon tissues and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) of PAHs congeners on them were analyzed. The levels of total PAHs in the various tissues of Persian sturgeon and Stellate sturgeon ranged from 2.095 to 6.587 and 1.942 to 6.206 μg g(-1)dw, respectively. Stellate sturgeon showed significantly higher levels of heavy PAHs (⩾ 4-rings) than Persian sturgeon. The analysis has revealed a high degree of differential accumulation of the studied PAHs in the tissues of the both species. Low molecular weight PAHs predominated in the sturgeons, accounting for 81.89% of the total PAHs. Among the sixteen tested PAHs, naphthalene was the most dominant congener, followed by phenanthrene and fluorene. The PAHs levels and distribution in the tissues of sturgeons are dependent on both the Kow of PAH congeners and the lipid content in these tissues. There was a significant positive relationship (r=0.868, p<0.005) between lipid content and PAHs levels. The statistically significant negative relationships (p<0.01) were found between log Kow and log-transformed PAHs levels for muscle tissues of both sturgeon species.

  4. Heavy metals relationship with water and size-fractionated sediments in rivers using canonical correlation analysis (CCA) case study, rivers of south western Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosoogh, Ali; Saeedi, Mohsen; Lak, Raziyeh

    2016-11-01

    Some pollutants can qualitatively affect aquatic freshwater such as rivers, and heavy metals are one of the most important pollutants in aquatic fresh waters. Heavy metals can be found in the form of components dissolved in these waters or in compounds with suspended particles and surface sediments. It can be said that heavy metals are in equilibrium between water and sediment. In this study, the amount of heavy metals is determined in water and different sizes of sediment. To obtain the relationship between heavy metals in water and size-fractionated sediments, a canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was utilized in rivers of the southwestern Caspian Sea. In this research, a case study was carried out on 18 sampling stations in nine rivers. In the first step, the concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ni, and Cd) were determined in water and size-fractionated sediment samples. Water sampling sites were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) utilizing squared Euclidean distance with Ward's method. In addition, for interpreting the obtained results and the relationships between the concentration of heavy metals in the tested river water and sample sediments, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was utilized. The rivers were grouped into two classes (those having no pollution and those having low pollution) based on the HCA results obtained for river water samples. CCA results found numerous relationships between rivers in Iran's Guilan province and their size-fractionated sediments samples. The heavy metals of sediments with 0.038 to 0.125 mm size in diameter are slightly correlated with those of water samples.

  5. Cryptic Ponto-Caspian Bighead Gobies (genus Ponticola, Gobiidae, Perciformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Alexandrovich Medvedev

    2015-11-01

    In this way, P. iljini, P. gorlap, and P. kessleri represent a group of distinct allopatric cryptic species with very low morphological divergence. The start of the divergence between P. kessleri and the Caspian species can be dated no earlier than the end of the Miocene (5.8-5.0 million years ago when the Pontian sea-lake has divided into two separate brackish pools: the later Pontian sea-lake basin and Babadzhanskoe sea-lake in the southern part of the Caspian depression. But, at the same time, it can be dated not later than Pleistocene (2.0-0.7 Ma, when the last connection of the Caspian and the Black Sea through the Manych has been stopped. The ancestors of P. iljini could penetrate to the east coast of the Caspian Sea during the period of the largest transgressions, Akchagyl (2.5-2.0 Ma or Apsheron (2.0-0.7 Ma. Their isolation in the Mangyshlak Peninsula region from other Caspian Bighead goby populations has been provided by two hypersaline bays, limiting the peninsula from the north (Mërtvyj Kultuk and Kajdak bays with salinity of 30 ‰ and above and from the south (Kara-Bogaz-Gol Bay with salinity of 300-350 ‰ and above, as well as the lack of a network of rivers on the peninsula.

  6. Review on the Caspian Shemaya, Alburnus chalcoides (Güldenstädt, 1772

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Falahatkar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alburnus chalcoides, Caspian Shemaya, is found in the river systems of the Aral, Black and Caspian sea basins and is an economically valuable cyprinid from the southern Caspian Sea. This species has been reported as near threatened species in this basin due to damming, over and illegal fishing, destruction of its spawning grounds and water pollution. The Caspian Shemaya is an important species ecologically and economically, but information about its biology and ecology is widely scattered. Hence, in this review, its taxonomy, general characteristics and morphology, distribution, habitat and ecology, age and growth, reproduction, conservation status and threats in the southern Caspian Sea is summarized, and a bibliography on this fish is provided.

  7. The 2000 canine distemper eptdemic in Caspian seals (Phoca caspica): pathology and analysis of contributory factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, T.; Kennedy, S.; Barret, T.; Bildt, van de M.W.G.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Bren, S.D.; Codd, G.A.; Duck, C.; Deaville, R.; Eybatov, T.; Forsyth, M.A.; Foster, G.D.; Jepson, P.D.; Kydyrmatov, A.; Mitrofanov, I.; Ward, C.J.; Wilson, S.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.

    2006-01-01

    More than 10,000 Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) were reported dead in the Caspian Sea during spring and summer 2000. We performed necropsies and extensive laboratory analyses on 18 seals, as well as examination of the pattern of strandings and variation in weather in recent years, to identify the cau

  8. Geochemical anomalies in South Caspian sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturin, G. N.; Gordeev, V. V.; Lisitzin, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    Study of the element composition of ten samples of modern terrigenous and carbonate sediments from the northern part of the Caspian Sea by the ICP-MS method showed that these sediments were enriched in sulfur, nonferrous metals, and some related minor elements including Se, Te, Re, and others in comparison with the average composition of sedimentary rocks. It is assumed that local hydrothermal seeps similar to those known on the Cheleken Peninsula and which may be formed in other areas of this tectonically active zone are the sources of these elements. In addition, such a composition of sediments may indicate the sporadic contamination of bottom water with hydrogen sulfide, which has been observed in areas of the South and Middle Caspian by many researchers.

  9. [Phylogeography and origin of freshwater Populations of tubenose gobies of genus Proterorhinus (Gobiidae: Pisces) in Ponto-Caspian Basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Representatives of the genus Proterorhinus (tubenose gobies) from the water bodies of the Ponto-Caspian Basin were examined for sequence polymorphism of the mitochondrial DNA fragment containing the cytochrome b (Cyt-b) gene. A total often haplotypes were discovered, which formed two groups. Thus, the data obtained indicated the existence of only two taxonomically valid phylogenetic lineages, represented by (1) marine and brackish-water populations of the Black Sea and (2) freshwater populations of the whole Ponto-Caspian Basin, along with the brackish-water population of the Caspian Sea. Based on an analysis of the tubenose goby haplotype distribution patterns, the colonization patterns of this group of fishes (phylogeography) in the freshwater drainages of Ponto-Caspian Basin are examined. It was established that the basin of the ancient Caspian Sea was the major donor area for the formation of the freshwater and brackish-water populations. In the Ponto-Caspian Basin, two centers of the tubenose gobies speciation and distribution are distinguished. One of these centers is associated with the modern northwestern part of the Black Sea, and another one is confined to the Caspian Sea. It is suggested that the modern colonization of the Volga River by tubenose goby occurred from the Caspian Sea.

  10. Application of ALD Images and Caliper Data for the breakout analysis from the wells which were drilled in the Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirov, Elnur

    2016-04-01

    compressive strength of the rock. This can create the enlargement of the borehole with two failure zones opposite to each other with circumference at 180 degrees (for instance top side vs bottom side of the borehole or right side vs left side of the borehole). The image tracks for Rhob (density), Pe (photoelectric absorption) and Caliper can show the data such as edges of the track from the top, right, bottom and left sides of the hole (the center of the track is the bottom side of the borehole). Generally the color gradation (different spectrums) can be used in order to show the orientation change in the measurement around the wellbore. The azimuthal density, Pe, and Caliper data can be pointed and visualized as a log curves which can represent the average of all available data (an average of the top, right, bottom and left sides (or quadrants) or as 8 (RT) or 16 (RM) individual bins and as an ALD Image log. In addition, the Caliper data can give us information about the diameter and geometry of the borehole while drilling, trip in and trip out activities (for more detailed breakout analysis and interpretations). This paper (abstract) will present the results of a breakout analysis conducted from the wells which were drilled in the Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic in order to evaluate the available ALD images, caliper information and eventually incorporation of all available data into the wellbore stability monitoring service (breakout analysis).

  11. Possible lin between elevated accumulation of trace elements and canine distemper virus infection in the Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) stranded in 2000 and 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinsuke, T.; Takashi, K.; Yasumi, A.; Tokutaka, I.; Reiji, K.

    2003-05-01

    In the Caspian Sea, a die-off of thousands of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) occurred in 1997 and 2000. While a direct cause for these deaths seems to be canine distemper virus (CDV) infection, immunosuppression due to environmental pollutants is considered as one of the possible explanations for the development of the disease. The purpose of this work is to examine whether exposure to trace metals could be one of the factors involved in the mass mortality of Caspian seals. Concentrations of 13 trace elements weredetermined in liver, kidney and muscle of Caspian seals found stranded along the coasts of the Caspian Sea in 2000 and 2001. Concentrations of toxic elemen ts (Ag, Cd, Hg, Tl and Pb) in the Caspian seals collected in 2000 and 2001 were comparable to or lower than those in healthy Caspian seals collected in 1993 and 1998 and in seals from other regions, suggesting that these elements would not be the causative agent for the death of Caspian seals. In contrast, Zn and Fe concentrations in the stranded Caspian seals were apparently higher than those in seals from other locations. These results suggest the disturbance in homeostatic control and nutritional statu s of essential elements in the stranded Caspian seals.

  12. Genetic variation among agamid lizards of the trapelus agiliscomplex in the caspian-aral basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macey, J. Robert; Ananjeva, Natalia B.

    2004-05-19

    Allozyme variation is examined in eight populations of Trapelus from the Caspian-Aral Basin of the former USSR. Thirty-one loci (15 variable) exhibit remarkably low levels of genetic variation with only a Nei's genetic distance of 0.117 across 2500 km. An isolated population on the European side of the Caspian Sea is found to phenetically cluster inside the Asian populations examined, suggesting that it should not be considered taxonomically distinct.

  13. The Ponto-Caspian basin as a final trap for southeastern Scandinavian Ice-Sheet meltwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudryn, Alina; Leroy, Suzanne A. G.; Toucanne, Samuel; Gibert-Brunet, Elisabeth; Tucholka, Piotr; Lavrushin, Yuri A.; Dufaure, Olivier; Miska, Serge; Bayon, Germain

    2016-09-01

    This paper provides new data on the evolution of the Caspian Sea and Black Sea from the Last Glacial Maximum until ca. 12 cal kyr BP. We present new analyses (clay mineralogy, grain-size, Nd isotopes and pollen) applied to sediments from the river terraces in the lower Volga, from the middle Caspian Sea and from the western part of the Black Sea. The results show that during the last deglaciation, the Ponto-Caspian basin collected meltwater and fine-grained sediment from the southern margin of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS) via the Dniepr and Volga Rivers. It induced the deposition of characteristic red-brownish/chocolate-coloured illite-rich sediments (Red Layers in the Black Sea and Chocolate Clays in the Caspian Sea) that originated from the Baltic Shield area according to Nd data. This general evolution, common to both seas was nevertheless differentiated over time due to the specificities of their catchment areas and due to the movement of the southern margin of the SIS. Our results indicate that in the eastern part of the East European Plain, the meltwater from the SIS margin supplied the Caspian Sea during the deglaciation until ∼13.8 cal kyr BP, and possibly from the LGM. That led to the Early Khvalynian transgressive stage(s) and Chocolate Clays deposition in the now-emerged northern flat part of the Caspian Sea (river terraces in the modern lower Volga) and in its middle basin. In the western part of the East European Plain, our results confirm the release of meltwater from the SIS margin into the Black Sea that occurred between 17.2 and 15.7 cal kyr BP, as previously proposed. Indeed, recent findings concerning the evolution of the southern margin of the SIS and the Black Sea, show that during the last deglaciation, occurred a westward release of meltwater into the North Atlantic (between ca. 20 and 16.7 cal kyr BP), and a southward one into the Black Sea (between 17.2 and 15.7 cal kyr BP). After the Red Layers/Chocolate Clays deposition in both seas

  14. A study on Zinc, Nickel, and Vanadium in fish muscle of Alosa caspia and Sander lucioperca and food risk assessment of its consumption in the southeast of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sadeghi Bajgiran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In recent years, anthropogenic and natural activities have caused high levels of metal contamination into the aquatic ecosystem. These pollutants can accumulate in the food chain. The present study examined the amount of metals such as nickel, zinc, and vanadium in the muscle tissue of Sander and Alosa because of their importance in the southeast of the Caspian Sea.             Method and materials:  After bioassay, the samples of Sander and Alosa were prepared through acid digestion method and the amount of metals was measured using atomic absorption device (Scientific Equipment GBS. Results:  Statistical tests showed that there was no significant difference between the amount of zinc in two species of the Sander and Alosa (p>0.05 while the amount of nickel and vanadium in Alosa was significantly higher than Sander (P> 0.05. Statistical analysis of differences in the accumulation of metals in Sander was: Zn>Ni ~ V and of Alosa was Zn>Ni ~ V. There was a correlation between nickel and vanadium of Sander and between zinc and vanadium of Alosa (p>0.05. The amount of nickel metal in both species and vanadium in Alosa were higher than the WHO guideline. The maximum and minimum THQ for Alosa were vanadium (0.059 and zinc (0.017 respectively. Whereas, for Sander, these values were zinc (0.016 and vanadium (0.004 respectively.  In general, the TQM measured in this study was <1, indicating no food risk in present consumption rate (21 g/day of these fish. Conclusion:  Food risk assessment of case study species indicates that the consumption of Sander and Alosa with the current consumption rate causes no danger to consumers from the viewpoint of zinc, nickle, and vanadium.

  15. The Caspian energy game: views from the United States and United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, H

    2003-07-01

    The importance of the Caspian Sea region to energy production is increasing and the forces influencing it are changing. The attention on this region focuses on its oil and natural gas reserves. A series of interviews with Western experts mainly from the United States and United Kingdom, including those in international organizations, academia, policy institutions, and government and industry officials identified key trends and issues that are important to their future policies and the significance of the Caspian oil and gas to the world energy market. The overriding issues are: The influence of Russia on regional security, stability, and the transportation of oil and gas products in the Caspian region. The outcome of the test between the United States and Iraq and the major effects it could have on commercial interests in the region and on who will be the major actors. Tensions caused by Iran refusal to settle the international demarcation of the Caspian Sea. Turkey position as a player, the affect of its new islamic-dominated government and its energy policies. Europe need to import gas and to diversify its supply. The construction of a pipeline to China. The impact of September 11, 2001 and terrorism on the Caspian region issues. The stability of the former Soviet Republics in the region. (author)

  16. Divergence with gene flow between Ponto-Caspian refugia in an anadromous cyprinid Rutilus frisii revealed by multiple gene phylogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlík, Petr; Marková, Silvia; Choleva, Lukás; Bogutskaya, Nina G; Ekmekçi, F Guler; Ivanova, Petya P

    2008-02-01

    The Black and Caspian Seas have experienced alternating periods of isolation and interconnection over many Milankovitch climate oscillations and most recently became separated when the meltwater overflow from the Caspian Sea ceased at the end of the last glaciation. Climate-induced habitat changes have indisputably had profound impacts on distribution and demography of aquatic species, yet uncertainties remain about the relative roles of isolation and dispersal in the response of species shared between the Black and Caspian Sea basins. We examined these issues using phylogeographical analysis of an anadromous cyprinid fish Rutilus frisii. Bayesian coalescence analyses of sequence variation at two nuclear and one mitochondrial genes suggest that the Black and Caspian Seas supported separate populations of R. frisii during the last glaciation. Parameter estimates from the fitted isolation-with-migration model showed that their separation was not complete, however, and that the two populations continued to exchange genes in both directions. These analyses also suggested that majority of migrations occurred during the Pleistocene, showing that the variation shared between the Black and Caspian Seas is the result of ancient dispersal along the temporary natural connections between the basins, rather than of incomplete lineage sorting or recent human-mediated dispersal. Gene flow between the refugial populations was therefore an important source of genetic variation, and we suggest that it facilitated the evolutionary response of the populations to changing climate.

  17. [Enterobacteria isolated from commercial fishes from the Volga-Caspian basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartseva, L V; Rogatkina, I Iu; Bormotova, S V

    1996-01-01

    Enteric bacteria, such as Proteus, Citrobacter [correction of Cytobacter], and Providencia, were found to be prevalent particularly in the gills and intestines of marketable fishes of the Volga and Caspian Seas. Half of all the enteric bacteria was detected in the fish kidneys, spleen, and liver. This shows it necessary to standardize different types of fish raw materials.

  18. A Histopathology Study of Caspian Seal (Pusa caspica (Phocidae, Mammalia Liver Infected with Trematode, Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Rudolphi, 1819 (Opisthorchidae, Trematoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Heckmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of this study was to investigate the invasive activity of the liver fluke, Pseudamphistomom truncatum against the Caspian seal (Pusa caspica and was exemplified at the gross, light microscopy (LM and electron microscopy (EM levels.The study was done on a freshly dead Caspian Seal in the southern coast of Caspian Sea. The checked Caspian seal probably being died of canine distemper virus and was found host to numerous parasites of four helminth species.P. truncatum caused edematous foci on the surface of the liver with prominent fluid accumulation. Sections of the liver viewed with LM had multiple necrotic areas with extensive hemorrhaging and disorganized hepatic lobules. Granulocytes and invasion of connective tissue were prominent. Whole worms were visible with invasive pathways through the host tissue. Damage to both hepatic ducts and blood vessels were prominent. At the EM level, organelles within the impacted hepatocytes were disorganized as exemplified by the cristae of the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum. Parasite eggs were scattered throughout the tissue.It was shown that this trematode can be very pathogenic to Caspian Seal and as this only mammal of Caspian Sea is an endangered species; this needs more investigation toward control or possible treatment of this helminth.

  19. Application of Formation Testing While Drilling (GeoTap) for acquiring formation pressure data from the Azeri, Chirag and Guneshli wells which were drilled in the Khazarian-Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirov, Elnur

    2016-04-01

    A new technology to acquire wireline quality pressure tests using a Logging While Drilling approach has been successfully implemented few years ago in Azeri, Chirag and Guneshli wells which were drilled in the Khazarian-Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic. The Formation Tester While Drilling tool (GeoTap) uses a testing sequence similar to wireline tools. A single probe is extended to the borehole wall and a small pretest volume withdrawn from the formation. The resulting pressure transient is then analyzed for formation pressure, formation permeability and mobility information. Up-link and down-link capabilities have been added to achieve test control and quality feedback. An efficient downlink algorithm is used downhole to analyze the data. The parameters and pressure data are transmitted to the surface in real-time for continuous monitoring of the test. More detailed pressure data is recorded and retrieved after returning to surface. Use of a quartz gauge allows excellent accuracy. Azeri, Chirag and Guneshli fields consist of layered sand reservoirs alternation with shale sequences and detailed pressure data is acquired on a high percentage of wells in order to understand lateral and vertical continuity of different flow units. The formation tester can be utilized with the 'triple combo' Logging While Drilling string which eliminates the need to rig up wireline on many wells. Wireline formation tester runs are time consuming - particularly if high deviation or high overbalance conditions are encountered requiring pipe conveyed techniques. Non-Productive Time is high when the wireline tools are stuck and fishing operations are required. The Sperry Drilling GeoTap formation pressure tester service provides real-time formation pressure measurements. It bridges the critical gap between drilling safety and optimization, by providing early and reliable measurements of key reservoir properties, while improving reservoir understanding and completion design in real

  20. Experimental susceptibility of Caspian white fish, Rutilus frisii kutum to Spring viraemia of carp virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, H; Ghasemi, M; Hosseini, S M; Haghighi Karsidani, S

    2014-01-01

    Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) is a fish of the family Cyprinidae, which is commercially harvested from the Caspian Sea. Experimental infection with Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) was conducted in order to examine susceptibility of caspian White Fish and clinical impacts of infection. Fingerling fish were injected intra-peritoneally or waterborne-exposed with SVCV and were monitored daily for 7 weeks. Dead fish and those survived at the end of experimental period were collected for virus isolation and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. Epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line was used to re-isolate the virus and indirect fluorescent antibody test was conducted to identify the isolated virus. Infection trials showed that SVCV was highly pathogenic for the Caspian White Fish with mortality rate ranging from 75 to 85 %, depending on the viral challenge model. SVCV genome was detected from dead and apparently healthy fish tissues of both virus exposure models, which showed Caspian White Fish not only can be regarded as a susceptible host, but also serve as a vector of the virus.

  1. SPECIES COMPOSITION OF PSAMMOPHILIC CILIATES OF SUMGAIT CASPIAN COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kh. Alekperov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Comparative data on the species composition and species saprobic indicators of the psammon ciliates from Sumgait coast of the Caspian Sea are given.Methods. “Alive” samples were collected using a small clean plastic wide mouth bottles. Further processing was carried out under laboratory conditions. Small quantities of soil were examined under a binocular microscope MBS-9 . Ciliates detected microvessel caught and fixed castors for further impregnation kinetoma silver nitrate (Chatton et Lwoff, 1930 or silver proteinate. To determine the keys for ciliates used Foyssner’s major publications (Foissner et al., 1991, 1992, 1999 and “Free-living ciliates Atlas” (Alekperov, 2005.Results. We observed 75 species of ciliates during the studies, which species composition and distribution of the collection points are shown in table 1. Diagrams with average data were made relations groups psammophilous ciliates indicators saprobity different zones for each of the sites investigated Sumgait coast.Main conclusions. Environmental analysis using benthic ciliates indicators saprobity different zones showed that as expected, the industrial zone of Sumgayit coast coast, despite the decline in recent years, the total amount of pollution that is still highly contaminated portion of the coastal zone of the Caspian Sea.

  2. The Review of Ecological and Genetic Research of Ponto-Caspian Gobies (Pisces, Gobiidae in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Goran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Ponto-Caspian gobies (monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis, round goby Neogobius melanostomus and bighead goby Ponticola kessleri have recently caused dramatic changes in fish assemblage structure throughout European river systems. This review provides summary of recent research on their dietary habits, age and growth, phylogenetic lineages and gene diversity. The principal food of all three species is invertebrates, and more rarely fish, which depends on the type of habitat, part of the year, as well as the morphological characteristics of species. According to the von Bertalanffy growth model, size at age is specific for the region, but due to its disadvantages it is necessary to test other growth models. Phylogenetic analysis of monkey goby and round goby indicates separation between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea haplotypes. The greatest genetic diversity is found among populations of the Black Sea, and the lowest among European invaders. The lack of molecular research on bighead goby requires further studies.

  3. Assessment of Caspian Seal By-Catch in an Illegal Fishery Using an Interview-Based Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Dmitrieva

    Full Text Available The Caspian seal (Pusa caspica has declined by more than 90% since 1900 and is listed as endangered by IUCN. We made the first quantitative assessment of Caspian seal by-catch mortality in fisheries in the north Caspian Sea by conducting semi-structured interviews in fishing communities along the coasts of Russia (Kalmykia, Dagestan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. We recorded a documented minimum by-catch of 1,215 seals in the survey sample, for the 2008-2009 fishing season, 93% of which occurred in illegal sturgeon fisheries. Due to the illegal nature of the fishery, accurately quantifying total fishing effort is problematic and the survey sample could reflect less than 10% of poaching activity in the north Caspian Sea. Therefore total annual by-catch may be significantly greater than the minimum documented by the survey. The presence of high by-catch rates was supported independently by evidence of net entanglement from seal carcasses, during a mass stranding on the Kazakh coast in May 2009, where 30 of 312 carcasses were entangled in large mesh sturgeon net remnants. The documented minimum by-catch may account for 5 to 19% of annual pup production. Sturgeon poaching therefore not only represents a serious threat to Caspian sturgeon populations, but may also be having broader impacts on the Caspian Sea ecosystem by contributing to a decline in one of the ecosystem's key predators. This study demonstrates the utility of interview-based approaches in providing rapid assessments of by-catch in illegal small-scale fisheries, which are not amenable to study by other methods.

  4. Assessment of Caspian Seal By-Catch in an Illegal Fishery Using an Interview-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, Lilia; Kondakov, Andrey A; Oleynikov, Eugeny; Kydyrmanov, Aidyn; Karamendin, Kobey; Kasimbekov, Yesbol; Baimukanov, Mirgaliy; Wilson, Susan; Goodman, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    The Caspian seal (Pusa caspica) has declined by more than 90% since 1900 and is listed as endangered by IUCN. We made the first quantitative assessment of Caspian seal by-catch mortality in fisheries in the north Caspian Sea by conducting semi-structured interviews in fishing communities along the coasts of Russia (Kalmykia, Dagestan), Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. We recorded a documented minimum by-catch of 1,215 seals in the survey sample, for the 2008-2009 fishing season, 93% of which occurred in illegal sturgeon fisheries. Due to the illegal nature of the fishery, accurately quantifying total fishing effort is problematic and the survey sample could reflect less than 10% of poaching activity in the north Caspian Sea. Therefore total annual by-catch may be significantly greater than the minimum documented by the survey. The presence of high by-catch rates was supported independently by evidence of net entanglement from seal carcasses, during a mass stranding on the Kazakh coast in May 2009, where 30 of 312 carcasses were entangled in large mesh sturgeon net remnants. The documented minimum by-catch may account for 5 to 19% of annual pup production. Sturgeon poaching therefore not only represents a serious threat to Caspian sturgeon populations, but may also be having broader impacts on the Caspian Sea ecosystem by contributing to a decline in one of the ecosystem's key predators. This study demonstrates the utility of interview-based approaches in providing rapid assessments of by-catch in illegal small-scale fisheries, which are not amenable to study by other methods.

  5. EITI and sustainable development: Lessons and new challenges for the Caspian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ospanova, Saule; Ahmadov, Ingilab; Wilson, Emma

    2013-03-01

    EITI requires countries to declare the revenues they receive from companies in the oil, gas and mining sectors, and for companies to declare what they pay. This paper highlights key issues and challenges related to implementing EITI, and suggests several ways for these new rules to help reduce poverty, improve lives and ensure that extractive industries operate in a sustainable, environmentally responsible way. Focusing on three countries of the Caspian Sea Region - Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, the paper will be of particular interest to those preparing for, and attending, the EITI conference in Sydney in May 2013. It will also inform the public and stakeholders working towards EITI implementation in the Caspian Region, and contributes to on-going debates on EITI and sustainable development more broadly.

  6. Black Sea and Caspian Sea, Symposium II, Constanta, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    December, on the eve of the Russia-Belarus energy transit dispute, Royal Dutch Shell, along with Japanese partners Mitsui and Mitsubishi, under...enjoyed the tour of one of the prominent winery and the chances to enjoy excellent cuisine . | 139 Symposium attendees listen to a briefing on...theme of the conference, the entertainment included cultural performances by local dancers and the chance to enjoy the local cuisine . Th e

  7. New data on OSL dating of Early Khalynian deposits of Northern Caspian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychev, Nikita; Yanina, Tamara; Svitoch, Alexander; Kurbanov, Redzhep; Badyukova, Ekaterina

    2016-04-01

    Ponto-Caspian region is the key region the study of which can provide information about the paleogeographic history of the central Eurasia, particularly revealing the history of the East European Plain, the Caucasus and Central Asia. However, despite the long history of the study, today there is no accepted general stratigraphic scheme of the Caspian Sea. One of the most interesting and important stages of Late Pleistocene history of Caspian is Khalynian transgression which is divided into two major phases: early and ate. In the Caspian lowland Lower Khalynian stage are represented by a unique type of deposit - "chocolate clays". A distinctive feature of these sediments is widely distributed among Lower Khalynian deposits of Northern Caspian and the Volga region. All clay deposits are confined to the diverse origins of depression before-Khalynian relief. Chocolate clays formation consists of facies: mono-clay (typological), layered, sand- and silty-clay (Svitoch, Yanina, 1997). Determining the age of chocolate clays by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in our view will allow bettering the understanding of their genesis. Age of chocolate clays of Lower Volga was widely dated using the radiocarbon. However, the existing chronology is controversial, raises a number of issues, primarily due to the material of which are used for dating - thin shells of Caspian mollusks of the Didacna Eichw. genus, which are characterized by a significant isotopic exchange with the enclosing sediments (Arslanov, 2015). Lower Volga region is characterized by very complex geological structure of the Late Pleistocene deposits (alternating continental aeolian, alluvial and slope sediments with marine Caspian deposits of different age). There are many conflicting opinions, not only with respect to paleogeographic features of the area, but also to its precise chronology. The differences in opinion over the age of the individual stages of development of the Caspian Sea (transgressions and

  8. Caspian White Fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) as a host for Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, M; Zamani, H; Hosseini, S M; Haghighi Karsidani, S; Bergmann, S M

    2014-06-04

    Rutilus frisii kutum is a fish of the Cyprinidae Family which is native in Caspian Sea and commercially cultured in Iran. This study was conducted to investigate susceptibility of Caspian White Fish to Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus (SVCV) infection and to evaluate influence of different challenge routes on virulence of the virus. Fingerlings were infected by immersion, intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection, cohabitation and orally. Dead and surviving fish were collected for histological examination as well as for virus re-isolation by cell culture, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerization Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) analysis. The results indicated that immersion was the best infectious route of transmission with the highest mortality, whereas oral transmission showed the lowest mortality. The virus was also re-isolated from dead fish and identified by IFAT. In addition, histopathological changes including branchial, hepatic and splenic necrosis as well as glomerulonephritis and necrosis in kidney were observed in diseased fish tissues but not in the survivors. RT-PCR on samples obtained from surviving fish tissues detected viral genome in the fish surviving from immersion, i.p. injection and cohabitation challenges but not in the fish infected orally. In conclusion, Caspian White Fish are susceptible to infection by SVCV and virulence of the virus could be influenced by route of transmission. In addition, SVCV could persist in surviving fish, which may serve as reservoirs of the virus, transmitting infection to healthy fish population.

  9. Comparative study of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus fry gut microbiota modulation following administration of galacto- and fructooligosaccharide prebiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Modulation of intestinal microbiota toward potentially beneficial communities (probiotics positively affects fish physiology and health status. Different prebiotics showed contradictory effects on intestinal microbiota. The present study investigates the effects of different levels of two prebiotics, galacto- and fructooligosaccharide on intestinal microbiota of Caspian roach fry which is a commercially valuable species of Caspian sea. Materials and methods: The study was performed as a randomized design with 5 treatments and 3 replications in which Caspian roach were fed different levels, 0, 1, and 2% of galacto- and fructooligosaccharide prebiotics for 6 weeks. At the end of the trial culture, analysis of intestinal microbiota include lactic acid bacteria levels, total bacteria as well as proportion of LAB were performed by using MRS agar, Plate count agar media. Results: Administration of different levels of galacto- and fructooligosaccharide had no significant effects on total bacteria of intestinal microbiota (P > 0.05. The lactic acid bacteria levels significantly increased compared to control group following prebiotics administration in diet (P > 0.05. LAB levels in galactooligosaccharide treatment were higher than those of fructooligosaccharide treatment. The highest LAB proportion in intestinal microbiota was observed in roach fed diet which contains 2% galactooligosaccharide (P > 0.05. Discussion and conclusion: The results of the present study revealed that prebiotics can be used for modulation of Caspian roach intestinal microbiota toward beneficial bacterial communities. Also, the results showed that galactooligosaccharide was more efficient than fructooligosaccharide in case of modulation of intestinal microbiota and elevation of LAB levels.

  10. Caspian Region in the System of International Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosov Gennadiy Vladimirovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The given research paper presents an attempt to analyze the Caspian region from the point of view of its cross-border specifics. In contrast to the traditional understanding of the Caspian region as the region of heightened geopolitical significance the authors analyze its peculiarities and potential in the context of the cross-border cooperation dynamics. It is especially emphasized that the Caspian region may be considered as a cross-border region which, despite the substantial similarities is different from international transnational regions. The authors focus attention on a key contradiction of the Caspian region. On the one hand, national interests and foreign policy of the states-members of the Caspian region (Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan have a national country and regional importance, since their implementation will form an effective regional security system. On the other hand, the Caspian region attracts the attention of the world powers, becoming a subject of their interest, as it is of great importance for world energy markets and has status of a transit zone between Europe and Asia. For Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan the Caspian status is combined with their most important characteristic of post-Soviet states - shared long historical stage of development within the Soviet Union. The article distinguished and analyzed four main periods of establishment of cross-border cooperation in the Caspian region. The national specificity of modernization reforms in all the countries of the Caspian region have interrelations with further development of cross-border cooperation, the priority of that performs convergence of Caspian states on a number of strategic issues, including economic cooperation and security.

  11. Caspian games: A dynamic bargaining game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Dennis Wright

    This Dissertation was written under the direction of Professor P.Terrence Hopmann. In this work, the author seeks to identify the independent variables affecting the outcome of three key decisions required of the international consortiums constructing Caspian oil export pipelines. The first of involves whether or not the enterprises developing the pipelines to export Kazakh oil, the Caspian Pipeline Consortium ("CPC"), and Azeri oil, the Azerbaijan International Operating Consortium ("CPC"), cooperate by utilizing the same route or utilize separate energy export corridors. Second, I analyzed how the actual Main Export Pipeline route ("MEP") for Azeri oil was selected by the AIOC. Finally, I tried to understand the factors driving the residual equity positions in each consortium. I was particularly interested in the equity position of Russian state and commercial interests in each consortium. I approached the puzzle as a multilevel bargaining problem. Hence, the preferences of each relevant actor (state and corporate levels) were assessed. The covering theory utilized was rational choice. An application of game theoretic modeling, particularly Bayesian analysis (used as a metaphor), accounted for the learning process resulting from the strategic interaction between actors. I sought to understand greater the refinement of each actor's perception of counterpart preferences. Additionally, the Gordon Constant Growth Model ("CGM") and the Sharp's Capital Asset Pricing Model ("CAPM") were utilized to relate multinational actors preferences, achieving a cost of capital based hurdle rate, to political risk. My end findings demonstrate this interrelationship and provide a clear argument for great power states to persuade newly developing Caspian states to adopt a more transparent, and credible approach to corporate governance. This revised state strategy will reduce multinationals' perception of political risk, lower firms' cost of capital (hurdle rate), and increase the

  12. Mud Volcanism in the South East Caspian, Gorgon Plane, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, A.; Poludetkina, E. N.; Mehrabi, B.; Krueger, M.; Inguaggiato, S.; Etiope, G.

    2014-12-01

    Although numerous studies have been completed on the Western Caspian side (e.g. mainly Azerbaijan), very little is known about the hydrocarbon plumbing system of the deepest and southernmost basin. This region has great potentials for hydrocarbon exploration and the study of mud volcanoes located here represents the opportunity to access to an open window to better understand the stratigraphy and the mechanisms ongoing at great depth as well as the origin and signature of the seeping fluids. Three so far unexplored mud volcano structures (Sofikam, Gharniarigh, and Naftliche) have been mapped and sampled in the Golestan region in the south eastern Caspian Sea. All the structures have negative morphology (i.e. "pockmark like") with caldera collapse. A multidisciplinary workflow of analyses is being conducted including gas and water geochemistry, incubation of microbial colonies, petrography of the seeping mud and erupted mud breccia clasts. Sofikam consists of 5 distinct pools up to 4-5 m in diameter that forms an E-W oriented alignment. All of the pools display vigorous seepage of fluids and are either water- or denser mud-dominated. Gharniarigh is a large mud volcano up to ~600 m in diameter with a bulging island in the internal part of the crater where eroded gryphons ridges witness a palaeo vigorous activity. The outskirts of the "island" are almost entirely flooded with water and/or covered with salt crusts in the summer. Here are distributed several small water and gas seeps. Naftliche (~400 m wide) is filled with water with a main seep in the centre of the lake. Preliminary gas geochemistry indicates the seepage of methane-dominated gas in all structures with additional small portions of ethane and propane as well as iC4 in Gharniarigh and Naftliche. All samples collected for microbial colonies incubation reveal strong activity with CO2 production under aerobic and anaerobic conditions as well as production of biogenic methane. In particular, samples from

  13. Petroleum geology and resources of the North Caspian Basin, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    The North Caspian basin is a petroleum-rich but lightly explored basin located in Kazakhstan and Russia. It occupies the shallow northern portion of the Caspian Sea and a large plain to the north of the sea between the Volga and Ural Rivers and farther east to the Mugodzhary Highland, which is the southern continuation of the Ural foldbelt. The basin is bounded by the Paleozoic carbonate platform of the Volga-Ural province to the north and west and by the Ural, South Emba, and Karpinsky Hercynian foldbelts to the east and south. The basin was originated by pre-Late Devonian rifting and subsequent spreading that opened the oceanic crust, but the precise time of these tectonic events is not known. The sedimentary succession of the basin is more than 20 km thick in the central areas. The drilled Upper Devonian to Tertiary part of this succession includes a prominent thick Kungurian (uppermost Lower Permian) salt formation that separates strata into the subsalt and suprasalt sequences and played an important role in the formation of oil and gas fields. Shallow-shelf carbonate formations that contain various reefs and alternate with clastic wedges compose the subsalt sequence on the 1 basin margins. Basinward, these rocks grade into deep-water anoxic black shales and turbidites. The Kungurian salt formation is strongly deformed into domes and intervening depressions. The most active halokinesis occurred during Late Permian?Triassic time, but growth of salt domes continued later and some of them are exposed on the present-day surface. The suprasalt sequence is mostly composed of clastic rocks that are several kilometers thick in depressions between salt domes. A single total petroleum system is defined in the North Caspian basin. Discovered reserves are about 19.7 billion barrels of oil and natural gas liquids and 157 trillion cubic feet of gas. Much of the reserves are concentrated in the supergiant Tengiz, Karachaganak, and Astrakhan fields. A recent new oil discovery

  14. Caspian energy and legal disputes: prospects for settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogutcu, Mehmet

    2003-07-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of the Caspian energy prospects and politics on the global scene with a particular emphasis on the legal disputes and their impact on business operations. It also elaborates on the investment environment, the geopolitical stakes and country positions for each key player as they relate to the legal arguments that are randomly advanced according to the perceived national interests. Turkey position as a consumer, transit country and security provider for Caspian energy shipments in relation to other major players active in the region is also of special interest to the paper. The paper puts forth a series of ideas for reaching a settlement of the disputes in the Caspian region. (author)

  15. Caspian Sea Environmental Security Game: 16-17 November 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    overview documents, on the INTERNET, and from scientific journals . Although we include the information from the INTERNET, we treat it as unconfirmed...rather than as peer-reviewed information, and we seek to confirm the issues with the scientific journal articles. After a description of the...1 Jalan Sentosa Terendak Camp, Terendak 76200 Melaka , Malaysia Aliriza, Bulent Dr. Senior Associate The Center for Strategic & International

  16. [Role of Aeromonas in the monitoring of a hydroecosystem in the Volga-Caspian area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhova, O V; Lartseva, L V; Lisitskaia, I A

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives data obtained over many years on the quantity of bacteria of the genus Aeromonas in the hydroecosystems of the delta of the Volga and Caspian Sea and in commercial fishes (sturgeon (Acipenseridae), pike perch (Stizostedion), carp (Cyprinus carpio), silurus (Silurus glanis), etc.). It provides a detailed analysis of their seasonal trends and spatial distribution, markers of their pathogenicity, and antibiotic resistance. The findings suggest that Aeromonas is a causative agent of sapronoses and meets the criteria for natural focal infections. They show a wide range of tolerance to the abiotic factors of hydroecosystems, as well as mixotrophy and autrophic nutrition in the environment and they are of great sanitary and hygienic importance.

  17. USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS-TECHNIQUES IN SOUTH EAST CASPIAN COASTAL CHANGES DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Mousavi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to detect the shoreline changes along Miankaleh peninsula promontory of the Gorgan Bay entrance over the last three decades (1975-2002. For this purpose satellite data including LANDSAT ETM+, TM, SPOT, ASTER L1A and RADARSAT have been analyzed. SPOT-Pan data were georeferenced with respect to 1 : 50 000 topographic maps using a Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM projection, then all the needed data sets were registered to the SPOT-Pan image. The hydrological data showed a rapid rise of the Caspian Sea level by 2.6 m between “1975-1996”.

  18. South Caspian Pliocene-Anthropogenic basin (summary of existing views)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrakhov, Rashad; Shiraliyeva, Sevinj; Kerimova, Nailya

    2016-04-01

    On the basis of long-time integrated sedimentology, paleogeographic and structural - formation studies covering Pliocene-Anthropogenic sediments of South Caspian Basin (SCB) and design of structural - formation, paleogeographic and catagenetic models applying geophysical studies in the region, the author has interred rift nature on this basin during Pliocene-Anthropogenic stage of its evolution. It is assumed that SCB is intercontinental with absence of continental crust. Evolution of SCR started from Miocene, continental stage of development Lesser and Great Caucasus and Kopetdag. At initial stage of South Caspian rift-graben evolution the crystal uplift of Caucasus, Kopetdag and Talysh organic system took place. Extension forces within their borders caused collapse of central part of South Caspian block. We assumed that at later stage folded blocks of Lesser Caucasus and Talysh on the other hand Alborz and Kopetdagh on the other were moving apart. As a result of these riftogene processes the contemporary structure of SCB Antropogene was formed. Starting from Miocene, subsidence of central part of SCB and later movements of folded blocks of Great and Lesser Caucasus, Talysh and Elbrus occurred along Western Caspian, Sangachal - Ogurcghy deep faults and Turkmenistan thrust. During rift generation within SCB, magmatic troughs emerged in the rift zone - South Absheron, Lower Kura. Enzaly and Western Turkmenistan. Structural-formation studies with application of geophysical data acquired in the region, allow assuming that massive Godina can be considered as interrift horst with large gravity anomaly. Its generation relates to Miocene-Pliocene ages and was formed due to South Caspian riftogenesis. The following are sedimentologic evidences of South Caspian rift basin: a) Avalanche sedimentation and development of large thickness (2.5-3 km/106 years) even within border of Lower Pliocene (Productive Series); b) Morphology of Lower Pliocene molasses formation covering 600

  19. Zonality of sulfur content of natural gas. [Caspian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    An examination is made of the genesis of hydrogen sulfide under conditions of high temperatures and pressures existing in the deep levels of the sedimentary mass. The processes of hydrogen sulfide formation are viewed with regard for the geological and geochemical conditions which are inherent to the subsaline deposits of the Caspian. A number of criteria are indicated which can be used to predict the dissemination of H/sub 2/S both in the peripheral parts of the basin, and in its inner regions where the subsaline deposits have not yet been stripped by deep drilling. Especial attention was focused on the geochemical conditions which are characteristic for the upper levels of the section and governed by vertical migration of H/sub 2/S from the subsaline deposits. An attempt was made to make a quantitative forecast of the H/sub 2/S concentrations in the bed fluids of the subsaline deposits of the Caspian basin.

  20. Modeling anomalous surface - wave propagation across the Southern Caspian basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priestly, K.F.; Patton, H.J.; Schultz, C.A.

    1998-01-09

    The crust of the south Caspian basin consists of 15-25 km of low velocity, highly attenuating sediment overlying high velocity crystalline crust. The Moho depth beneath the basin is about 30 km as compared to about 50 km in the surrounding region. Preliminary modeling of the phase velocity curves shows that this thick sediments of the south Caspian basin are also under-lain by a 30-35 km thick crystalline crust and not by typical oceanic crust. This analysis also suggest that if the effect of the over-pressuring of the sediments is to reduce Poissons` ratio, the over-pressured sediments observed to approximately 5 km do not persist to great depths. It has been shown since 1960`s that the south Caspian basin blocks the regional phase Lg. Intermediate frequency (0.02-0.04 Hz) fundamental mode Raleigh waves propagating across the basin are also severely attenuated, but the low frequency surface waves are largely unaffected. This attenuation is observed along the both east-to-west and west-to-east great circle paths across the basin, and therefore it cannot be related to a seismograph site effect. We have modeled the response of surface waves in an idealized rendition of the south Caspian basin model using a hybrid normal mode / 2-D finite difference approach. To gain insight into the features of the basin which cause the anomalous surface wave propagation, we have varied parameters of the basin model and computed synthetic record sections to compare with the observed seismograms. We varied the amount of mantel up-warp, the shape of the boundaries, the thickness and shear wave Q of the sediments and mantle, and the depth of the water layer. Of these parameters, the intermediate frequency surface waves are most severely affected by the sediments thickness and shear wave attenuation. fundamental mode Raleigh wave phase velocities measure for paths crossing the basin are extremely low.

  1. The consolidation of rafted sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, E.; Feltham, D.; Sammonds, P.

    2009-04-01

    Rafting is an important process in the deformation of sea ice that occurs when two ice sheets collide. This process is particularly common in the North Caspian Sea, where ice floes override one another multiple times to produce thick sea ice features. To date, rafting has received little attention in the literature perhaps because in most regions pressure ridges produce the greatest loads on offshore structures. In the North Caspian Sea the shallow waters constrain the size to which pressure ridges can grow and the low salinity seems to favor rafting over ridging. Therefore it is likely that multiply-rafted sea ice may be the governing design feature for ice loads in the Caspian Sea. Here we present a one-dimensional, thermal-consolidation model for rafted sea ice. This is of interest because the degree of consolidation will affect the strength of a rafted structure, and therefore may be of value for modeling rafted ice loads. Results show that the thickness of the liquid layers reduces asymptotically with time, such that there always remains a thin liquid layer. We propose that when the liquid layer is equal to the surface roughness the adjacent layers can be considered consolidated. Using parameters specific to the North Caspian Sea, calculations show that it took 1hr, 14mins for the ice sheets to consolidate. To test the accuracy of the model concurrent experiments were carried out in the HSVA ice basin. During an experiment, equally sized portions of level ice were manually piled on top of one another to produce a rafted section. The rate of consolidation or bonding of the layers was then monitored by coring and using thermistors that were frozen into the level ice prior to rafting. Once consolidated, strength tests were carried out on the rafted ice and compared with those of level ice.

  2. Detection of cryoglobulins in serum of Caspian miniature horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atyabi, N,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were collected from 20 healthy miniature Caspian horses at 37 °C. Isolation of cryoglobulin was performed based on a standard method in present study. Harvested sera were kept at 4 °C for two hours and then examined for cryoglubolin. Four serum samples containing precipitate Suspicious of containing cryoglobulin were selected. Subsequently serum protein electrophoresis was performed on normal serum samples and also on four serum samples containing precipitates using an automated electrophoresis system on cellulose acetate strips. In addition Ig isotypes detection (IgG, IgM and IgA was performed on both precipitates and serum containing precipitates using single radio immunediffusion method (SRID. A narrow-based peak on gamma region of precipitate acetate cellulose strips was observed. Precipitate concentrations were strikingly higher than normal concentration of serum immuneglobulins. It can be suggested that cryoglobulin concentration in a proportion of Caspian miniature horse is higher than other equides may be in relation with animal susceptibility to neoplasias such as lymphoma and leukemia.

  3. Geo-economy of the Caspian basin; Geoeconomie du bassin caspien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raballand, G

    2003-05-15

    The Caspian area is essential for the development of the central Asia countries and Caucasus. Excepted the Iran and the Russia, these areas economy is poor. The hydrocarbons exploitation should reinforce the economic weight of these States. The author analyzes the Caspian area economies and shows that the basin economies are confronted with three handicaps, and that even with different economic ways, the soviet economic system is still present in the basin. (A.L.B.)

  4. Quantitative analysis of Paratethys sea level change during the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vara, Alba; Meijer, Paul; van Baak, Christiaan; Marzocchi, Alice; Grothe, Arjen

    2016-04-01

    At the time of the Messinian Salinity Crisis in the Mediterranean Sea (i.e., the Pontian stage of the Paratethys), the Paratethys sea level dropped also. Evidence found in the sedimentary record of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea has been interpreted to indicate that a sea level fall occurred between 5.6 and 5.5 Ma. Estimates for the magnitude of the fall range between tens of meters to more than 1500 m. The purpose of this study is to provide quantitative insight into the sensitivity of the water level of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea to the hydrologic budget, for the case that the Paratethys is disconnected from the Mediterranean. Using a Late Miocene bathymetry based on a palaeographic map by Popov et al. (2004) we quantify the fall in sea level, the mean salinity, and the time to reach equilibrium for a wide range of negative hydrologic budgets. By combining our results with (i) estimates derived from a recent global Late Miocene climate simulation and (ii) reconstructed basin salinities, we are able to rule out a drop in sea level of the order of 1000 m in the Caspian Sea during this time period. In the Black Sea, however, such a large sea level fall cannot be fully discarded.

  5. Genetic Structure and Relationships among Populations of the Caspian Bent-toed Gecko, Tenuidactylus caspius (Eichwald, 1831) (Sauria:Gekkonidae) in Northern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vida HOJATI; Eskandar Rastegar POUYANI; Kazem PARIVAR

    2015-01-01

    The Caspian bent-toed gecko, Tenuidactylus caspius, belonging to the family Gekkonidae, is widely distributed across the northern half of Iran, especially along the southern coastal region of the Caspian Sea. It is regarded as a commensal species throughout its entire distribution. We investigated genetic variation and relationships among different populations of this species in Iran. Fragments of the mitochondrial cyt b (547 bp) and ND4 (831 bp) genes were sequenced and analyzed in 64 and 28 specimens, respectively, from 21 geographically distant localities. Cyrtopodion scabrum was used as the outgroup taxon. The data showed no significant genetic variation within the populations of T. caspius in Iran. Nevertheless, populations of Khorasan and Semnan (especially Shahrood) in northeastern Iran showed greater divergence (p-distance = 2.1%) from other Iranian populations. The low genetic variation and homogeneous structure among populations of T. caspius on either side of the Elburz Mountains suggests that this species most likely has achieved its current distribution recently and as a result of anthropogenic activities.

  6. Breeding ecology of Caspian terns at colonies on the Columbia Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolos, Michelle; Roby, D.D.; Collis, K.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the breeding ecology and diet of Caspian terns on the Columbia Plateau in southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon. We examined trends in colony size and area during 1996-2001, and estimated number of breeding pairs, nesting density, fledging success, and diet composition at selected colony sites in 2000 and 2001. We found six tern colonies totaling ???1,000 breeding pairs, ranging in size from < 50 to nearly 700 pairs. Predation by mink caused complete abandonment of one of these colonies in 2000 and 2001. The relocation of ???9,000 Caspian tern breeding pairs from Rice Island to East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary did not result in an obvious increase in the number of tern breeding pairs on the Columbia Plateau during the study period. The majority of Caspian tern prey items at colonies on the mid-Columbia River consisted of juvenile salmonids. At a colony in Potholes Reservoir, Washington, Caspian terns commuted over 100 km round-trip to the Columbia River to forage on juvenile salmonids, suggesting that locally abundant food may be limiting. High nesting densities at other mid-Columbia River colonies suggest that availability of breeding habitat may limit colony size. The small size of Caspian tern colonies on the Columbia Plateau, and possible constraints on availability of suitable nesting habitat within the study area, suggest that the level of predation on ESA-listed juvenile salmonids in this region will likely remain well below that currently observed in the Columbia River estuary.

  7. CANCER IN THE CASPIAN LITTORAL AND NORTH WEST AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A Salmasizadeh

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies undertaken during the last 5 years in the Babol Research Station of the Institute of Public Health Research, Teheran University, with the collaboration of the International Agency for Research on Cancer in the Caspian Littoral and Ardabil area in the north of Iran has indicated the presence of cancer in 48 different sites. The five more prevalent types of cancer found in that area in order of their incidence are esophageal, stomach, skin, lung and liver cancers. Except for cancer of esophagus which occurs with a very high variation in incidence in the area, the incidence of other 4 does not significantly differ in various parts of the region. The incidence of esophageal cancer is maximum in the east and southeast of the area and it gradually decreases towards the reaching its minimum level in Gilan and increasing again to the west in Ardabil area. The incidence is higher among males in the low incidence, almost equal in the high incidence area except in Gombad area where is much higher among females than in males. The total number of cancer of soesophagus registered during the 5 years period is 1420 which constitute 1/10 of all cases reported. Of other types of cancer registered, cancers of skin, cervix uteri and lymphoma, mostly lymphosarcoma are more prevalent. Of the cancers of digestive tube, oesophageal is more prevalent in the east and stomach cancer in the west of the area.

  8. A postulate for tiger recovery: the case of the Caspian Tiger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Driscoll

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent genetic analysis has shown that the extinct Caspian Tiger (P. t. virgata and the living Amur Tigers (P. t. altaica of the Russian Far East are actually taxonomically synonymous and that Caspian and Amur groups historically formed a single population, only becoming separated within the last 200 years by human agency. A major conservation implication of this finding is that tigers of Amur stock might be reintroduced, not only back into the Koreas and China as is now proposed, but also through vast areas of Central Asia where the Caspian tiger once lived. However, under the current tiger conservation framework the 12 “Caspian Tiger States” are not fully involved in conservation planning. Equal recognition as “Tiger Range States” should be given to the countries where the Caspian tiger once lived and their involvement in tiger conservation planning encouraged. Today, preliminary ecological surveys show that some sparsely populated areas of Central Asia preserve natural habitat suitable for tigers. In depth assessments should be completed in these and other areas of the Caspian range to evaluate the possibility of tiger reintroductions. Because tigers are a charismatic umbrella species, both ecologically and politically, reintroduction to these landscapes would provide an effective conservation framework for the protection of many species in addition to tigers. And for today’s Amur Tigers this added range will provide a buffer against further loss of genetic diversity, one which will maintain that diversity in the face of selective pressures that can only be experienced in the wild.

  9. The “New Great Game” Over the Caspian Region: Russia, the USA, and China in the Same Melting Pot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamkhal Abilov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Caspian region has been transformed into the battleground and the power confrontations of the world major leading countries not only because of its geo-strategic position in the map of the Eurasia, but also because of its immense hydrocarbon resources. The geographical location of the Caspian region and possessing vast amount of oil and gas resources led it to play a significant role in world energy security and drew the attention of the regional and global players in order to increase their stocks in exploitation and transportation of Caspian hydrocarbon. The discovery of big amount of oil and gas in the Caspian led the Western politicians to project the Caspian region as a ―New Middle East‖. Therefore, the scope of this research paper is to evaluate the geo-strategic significance of the Caspian region and its role as a crucial link between East and West, as well as examine the geopolitical rivalry over the vast Caspian region hydrocarbons and the transportation routes (pipeline politics between the three global powers; Russia, the United States, and China. Lately, it will analyze what policies do these big states pursue in order to impose their political influence and ensuring economic benefits.

  10. Gender identification of Caspian Terns using external morphology and discriminant function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, J.T.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Bluso, J.D.; Yee, J.L.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia) plumage characteristics are sexually monochromatic and gender cannot easily be distinguished in the field without extensive behavioral observations. We assessed sexual size dimorphism and developed a discriminant function to assign gender in Caspian Terns based on external morphology. We collected and measured Caspian Terns in San Francisco Bay, California, and confirmed their gender based on necropsy and genetic analysis. Of the eight morphological measurements we examined, only bill depth at the gonys and head plus bill length differed between males and females with males being larger than females. A discriminant function using both bill depth at the gonys and head plus bill length accurately assigned gender of 83% of terns for which gender was known. We improved the accuracy of our discriminant function to 90% by excluding individuals that had less than a 75% posterior probability of correctly being assigned to gender. Caspian Terns showed little sexual size dimorphism in many morphometries, but our results indicate they can be reliably assigned to gender in the field using two morphological measurements.

  11. THE CASPIAN REGION: FEATURES OF THE REGIONAL CIVILIZATION‟S FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baatr Uchaevich KITINOV

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the possibilities of forming of the Caspian regional civilization based on the interaction of three major local civilizations: Islamic, Christian and Buddhist. The potential and vitality of the local Buddhist civilization depends on the level of relations‟ develop-ment with the basic Buddhist civilization.

  12. Histopathological effects of atrazine on gills of Caspian kutum Rutilus frisii kutum fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnood, Zahra; Jamili, Shahla; Khodabandeh, Saber

    2015-04-08

    The use of chemical pesticides has increased environmental pollution and affects fishes as non-target organisms. To investigate the toxic effects of the widely used herbicide atrazine on Caspian kutum Rutilus frisii kutum fingerlings, fish were exposed to a sublethal concentration of half LC50 for 96 h. The main alterations visible in the gill tissue were detachment of the epithelium of the lamellae, necrosis, lamellar fusion, hyperplasia, club shaped lamellae, collapse of the lamellae, shrinkage and curling of the lamellae, and ultrastructural alterations such as necrosis of the apical microridges of the pavement cells. Results also showed that the gill ionocytes were fewer in number and larger in size in the atrazine-exposed fish. Atrazine appears to be highly toxic to Caspian kutum fingerlings even at a sublethal concentration (12.47 mg l(-1)) and acute exposure. This toxicity could affect gill respiration and ion regulation function of fingerlings by damaging tissue, pavement cells, and ionocytes.

  13. Globalisation, Geopolitics and Energy Security in Central Eurasia and the Caspian Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amineh, Parvizi Mehdi

    2003-07-01

    The demise of the Soviet Union and its subsequent break-up into 15 independent states gave rise to totally new political and strategic circumstances, which also extended into Central Eurasia and the Caspian Region. The eight newly independent states of this region have become one of the most important geopolitical areas in the post-Cold War era, due to a combination of its geographical position and significant oil and gas reserves. The region's resources are vital for advanced industrialised countries and figure prominently in Western geostrategic and economic interests in the twenty-first century. Intense competition, as well as co-operation, among various state and non-state actors for the control of these resources is emerging, also known as the New Great Game. The main actors involved in Central Eurasia and the Caspian region are identified as follows: inner circle actors (Russia, Iran, and Turkey), outer circle actors (China, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan), external actors (the United States, the European Union and its particular member states), and non-state actors (ethno-religious groups, Transnational Corporations, crime groups, etc.). The author analyses the New Great Game by using a neo-geopolitical perspective. An important element towards control of the region's energy resources is the construction of transport routes. The question of where to construct pipelines engenders considerable conflicts between the interested players that could create obstacles to building the most economically viable and secure pipelines. Transportation of energy resources to the global market is also subject to conflicts between different forces within the Central Eurasian region, including ethno-religious conflicts. Problems such as lack of infrastructure and technology, and finding a solution for the Caspian legal regime dispute could pose further obstacles to prospective pipeline construction. The book analyses these and other important local and geopolitical

  14. Hatching success of Caspian terns nesting in the lower Laguna Madre, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C.A.; Custer, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    The average clutch size of Caspian Terns nesting in a colony in the Lower Laguna Madre near Laguna Vista, Texas, USA in 1984 was 1.9 eggs per nest. Using the Mayfield method for calculating success, one egg hatched in 84.1% of the nests and 69.8% of the eggs laid hatched. These hatching estimates are as high or higher than estimates from colonies in other areas.

  15. Responding to Environmental Challenges in Central Asia and the Caspian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    implemented by outside powers. Local dissatisfaction with these borders, long suppressed by forced client status and super-power influence...not presently kept in the north Caspian. The “white skin” pup fishery is said to be in support of German clients (Yampolsky 1996). Total net birth...Civil, Los Desastres y Su Orientacion al Reordenamiento Territoral, (no date) 8. Department of Defense, News Briefing: U.S. Military Relief Effort

  16. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Caspian seals of unusual mortality event during 2000 and 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiwara, Natsuko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: kajiwara.natsuko@nies.go.jp; Watanabe, Mafumi [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Wilson, Susan [Tara Seal Research Centre, Co. Down, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Eybatov, Tariel [Geological Institute of the Azerbaijan Republic Academy of Science, Baku (Azerbaijan); Mitrofanov, Igor V. [Laboratory of Hydrobiology and Ecotoxicology, Institution of Zoology, Academgorodok, Almaty 480060 (Kazakhstan); Aubrey, David G. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Khuraskin, Lev S. [Caspian Fisheries Research Institute, Astrakhan 414056 (Russian Federation); Miyazaki, Nobuyuki [Center for International Cooperation, Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 1-15-1 Minamidai, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-8639 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

    2008-03-15

    Persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PCDDs/DFs were determined in the blubber of Caspian seals, which died during an outbreak of canine distemper virus in 2000 and 2001. DDTs were the predominant contaminants that ranged from 3.1 to 560 {mu}g/g lipid. A negative correlation was observed between concentration of contaminants and blubber thickness. During spring, as the blubber layer becomes thin after breeding and moulting, seals may face higher risk due to the increased concentration of organochlorines in their bodies. TEQs in the blubber of Caspian seals (10-340 pg TEQ/g) were lower than those in seals from other locations, suggesting that toxic effects of these contaminants are a deal less in the present population and they are unlikely to be linked to mass mortality. The levels of PCBs and pesticides in Caspian seals, however, comparable to those in other aquatic mammals that have suffered from epizootics, might pose a risk of immunosuppression. - POPs in seals are high enough to induce immunosuppression.

  17. The Trans-Caspian energy route: Cronyism, competition and cooperation in Kazakh oil export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliyev, Farid [School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen (Germany)], E-mail: f.guliyev@jacobs-university.de; Akhrarkhodjaeva, Nozima [School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The article delineates the major national, regional and international level stakeholders in the westward Trans-Caspian transportation of Kazakh oil, supplemented with a discussion of the prospect of expansion of the Trans-Caspian/South Caucasus corridor in light of the presumably harmful effect of the war between Russia and Georgia in August 2008. It demonstrates that while foreign companies have been backed by their respective governments, national firms have also enjoyed considerable state support, partly due to their close links to the interests of state elites in Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. It appears that most companies along the shipping line either belong to the governments of Kazakhstan or Azerbaijan, directly or indirectly (through subsidiaries), or enjoy favoritism and a near monopoly in their markets (crony capitalism). Some of these firms are privately owned but registered in offshore tax havens, while some others have rather obscure ownership structures and corporate profiles. It suggests that cronyism and state capture comprise that politico-economic environment within which the future of Caspian transport systems will have to be decided.

  18. The Trans-Caspian energy route. Cronyism, competition and cooperation in Kazakh oil export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliyev, Farid; Akhrarkhodjaeva, Nozima [School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The article delineates the major national, regional and international level stakeholders in the westward Trans-Caspian transportation of Kazakh oil, supplemented with a discussion of the prospect of expansion of the Trans-Caspian/South Caucasus corridor in light of the presumably harmful effect of the war between Russia and Georgia in August 2008. It demonstrates that while foreign companies have been backed by their respective governments, national firms have also enjoyed considerable state support, partly due to their close links to the interests of state elites in Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. It appears that most companies along the shipping line either belong to the governments of Kazakhstan or Azerbaijan, directly or indirectly (through subsidiaries), or enjoy favoritism and a near monopoly in their markets (crony capitalism). Some of these firms are privately owned but registered in offshore tax havens, while some others have rather obscure ownership structures and corporate profiles. It suggests that cronyism and state capture comprise that politico-economic environment within which the future of Caspian transport systems will have to be decided. (author)

  19. Quantifying the effect of predators on endangered species using a bioenergetics approach : Caspian terns and juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roby, DD; Lyons, DE; Craig, DP; Collis, K; Visser, GH

    2003-01-01

    We estimated the consumption of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) and other forage fishes by Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) nesting on Rice Island in the Columbia River estuary in 1997 and 1998 using a bioenergetics modeling approach. The study was prompted by concern that Caspian tern predation

  20. Mitochondrial phylogeography illuminates the origin of the extinct caspian tiger and its relationship to the amur tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Roca, Alfred L; Luo, Shujin; Macdonald, David W; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) flourished in Central Asian riverine forest systems in a range disjunct from that of other tigers, but was driven to extinction in 1970 prior to a modern molecular evaluation. For over a century naturalists puzzled over the taxonomic validity, placement, and biogeographic origin of this enigmatic animal. Using ancient-DNA (aDNA) methodology, we generated composite mtDNA haplotypes from twenty wild Caspian tigers from throughout their historic range sampled from museum collections. We found that Caspian tigers carry a major mtDNA haplotype differing by only a single nucleotide from the monomorphic haplotype found across all contemporary Amur tigers (P. t. altaica). Phylogeographic analysis with extant tiger subspecies suggests that less than 10,000 years ago the Caspian/Amur tiger ancestor colonized Central Asia via the Gansu Corridor (Silk Road) from eastern China then subsequently traversed Siberia eastward to establish the Amur tiger in the Russian Far East. The conservation implications of these findings are far reaching, as the observed genetic depletion characteristic of modern Amur tigers likely reflects these founder migrations and therefore predates human influence. Also, due to their evolutionary propinquity, living Amur tigers offer an appropriate genetic source should reintroductions to the former range of the Caspian tiger be implemented.

  1. Mitochondrial phylogeography illuminates the origin of the extinct caspian tiger and its relationship to the amur tiger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Driscoll

    Full Text Available The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata flourished in Central Asian riverine forest systems in a range disjunct from that of other tigers, but was driven to extinction in 1970 prior to a modern molecular evaluation. For over a century naturalists puzzled over the taxonomic validity, placement, and biogeographic origin of this enigmatic animal. Using ancient-DNA (aDNA methodology, we generated composite mtDNA haplotypes from twenty wild Caspian tigers from throughout their historic range sampled from museum collections. We found that Caspian tigers carry a major mtDNA haplotype differing by only a single nucleotide from the monomorphic haplotype found across all contemporary Amur tigers (P. t. altaica. Phylogeographic analysis with extant tiger subspecies suggests that less than 10,000 years ago the Caspian/Amur tiger ancestor colonized Central Asia via the Gansu Corridor (Silk Road from eastern China then subsequently traversed Siberia eastward to establish the Amur tiger in the Russian Far East. The conservation implications of these findings are far reaching, as the observed genetic depletion characteristic of modern Amur tigers likely reflects these founder migrations and therefore predates human influence. Also, due to their evolutionary propinquity, living Amur tigers offer an appropriate genetic source should reintroductions to the former range of the Caspian tiger be implemented.

  2. Optimization of lactobionic acid production by Acetobacter orientalis isolated from Caucasian fermented milk, "Caspian Sea yogurt".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryu, Takaaki; Yamauchi, Kouhei; Masuyama, Araki; Ooe, Kenichi; Kimura, Takashi; Kiso, Taro; Nakano, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    We have reported that lactobionic acid is produced from lactose by Acetobacter orientalis in traditional Caucasian fermented milk. To maximize the application of lactobionic acid, we investigated favorable conditions for the preparation of resting A. orientalis cells and lactose oxidation. The resting cells, prepared under the most favorable conditions, effectively oxidized 2-10% lactose at 97.2 to 99.7 mol % yield.

  3. Composition of dispersed sedimentary matter and fluxes in the water column of the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisitzin, A. P.; Lukashin, V. N.

    2015-09-01

    This article presents the first data on the chemical composition of dispersed matter from sediment traps with analysis of the sedimentary components that constitute suspended particulate matter (amorphous silica, organic matter (OM), carbonates, and lithogenic matter). It is established that the annual variability of fluxes demonstrates its seasonal growth in spring and summer. High fluxes of these components over the northern and southern slopes of the Derbent Basin are determined by deposition of material from the nepheloid layer formed by the contour current.

  4. Geochemistry of dispersed sedimentary matter and its fluxes in the water column of the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashin, V. N.; Lisitzin, A. P.

    2016-09-01

    The first data on the chemical composition of dispersed matter from sedimentary traps are reported. The suspended components of sedimentary matter (amorphous silica, organic matter, carbonates, and lithogenic material, as well as Fe, Mn, and minor elements) are considered. As a result, it is shown that the intraannual variability in vertical fluxes of sedimentary matter is characterized by a seasonal increase in spring and autumn. The high fluxes of the components of sedimentary matter on the northern and southern slopes of the Derbent Basin in winter are explained by precipitation of material from the nepheloid layer that forms over the contour current.

  5. On the history of the first Russian fortifications on the east coast of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah K. Daudov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to highlight the history of fortifications built by the expedition of Alexander Cherkassky on Mangghyshlaq peninsula in the wide context of international relations between Russia, Khanate of Khiva and Turkmen tribes in Peter’s Age. Historiographical overview indicated lack of new approaches to the problem and absence of any serious attempts to find the fortresses. Instead of the exact information on the number of the objects (two there was a misapprehension that there were three posts. Not only published sources were examined by the staff, but also some archival documents were explored. During the source studies an unkown map made by a participant of the mission of 1716-1717 was discovered. Authors used the findings of the current field study on Manghyshlaq peninsula. The analysis of memoirs of the topographers who visited this area since the middle of XVIIIth century highlighted the process of fortresses remains extinction and changing of the perception of the events of 1716-1717 among Russians and nomads. The history of monument to the participants of Alexander Cherkassky expedition was also traced. As a result they précised supposed location of the St. Peter fortress and unveiled one of the main causes of Cherkassky’s failure which was his aspiring to rely predominantly on the Khiva nobles without getting sufficient Turkmen support.

  6. [A study on the taxonomy of soil amoebas from Caspian plague foci based on an analysis of ribosomal operon sequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshel', E I; Anisimova, L V; Novichkova, L A; Vidiaeva, N A; Guseva, N P; Eroshenko, G A; Kutyrev, V V

    2015-01-01

    The results of a study on the taxonomy and quantitative abundance of free-living amoebas in soil samples from the Russian plague foci of the northwestern Caspian steppe, the Caspian sand, and the Volga-Ural steppe are presented. Amoebas of the Willaertia and Hartmanella genera, as well as representatives of myxomycetes, were isolated from samples. From these, amoebas of the Acanthamoeba genus predominated and could be as abundantas 300000 cells per 1 g of soil. Sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene region showed that Acanthamoeba from the Volga-Ural steppe focus belonged to the A. castellanii species. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that amoebas from two other Caspian foci belonged to the species of Acanthamoeba spp.

  7. Description of the biology of Caspian vimba, Vimba vimba (Linnaeus, 1758), in Gorgan Bay-Miankaleh Wildlife Refuge (southeast Caspian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patimar, Rahman; Safari, Sajjad

    2010-11-01

    We collected Vimba vimba throughout the spawning season (mid April to mid June, 2007) in Gorgan Bay (south-western Iran) and investigated its age, growth, and reproductive traits. The maximum age was 5+ years. Both sexes grew allometrically (positive for males: b=3.140 9 and negative for females: b=2.791 4). The von Bertalanffy growth functions were described by the formulae L t =32.565(1-e-0.184( t+0.530)) for males and L t =35.950(1-e-0.179( t+0.529)) for females. The overall sex ratio was balanced, but males were predominant in the smaller size classes and females in the larger size classes. Based on the gonadosomatic index (GSI) values, spawning appears to occur between late April and late May in the bay. The highest mean GSI was 6.44 for males in early May and 20.36 for females in late April. Absolute fecundity varies from the minimum of 5 436 eggs for age 3+ fish to the maximum of 36 141 eggs for age 5+ fish. Fecundity was also positively correlated with fish size (length and weight). Egg diameter ranged from 1.05 to 1.70 mm in the mean of 1.42 mm. There was no correlation between female size and ova diameter.

  8. Unraveling a new lineage of Hydrobiidae genera (Caenogastropoda: Truncatelloidea from the Ponto-Caspian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Delicado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analyses of the highly diverse (non-marine aquatic gastropod family Hydrobiidae Stimpson, 1865 have revealed seven main lineages, most of which represent subfamilies. The subfamily Pseudamnicolinae Radoman, 1977, and specifically the genus Pseudamnicola Paulucci, 1878 (mainly inhabiting western and central Mediterranean regions, contributes substantially to this hydrobiid richness. Most of its congeners have been described in terms of their shell and penis features, which are of limited diagnostic value. Hence, the taxonomic status of some Pseudamnicola species needs to be revised, particularly of those inhabiting marginal regions, such as the Ponto-Caspian domain, largely occupied by the subfamily Pyrgulinae Brusina, 1882. Here we present a molecular phylogeny including species of both subfamilies along with extended morphological descriptions to confirm assignments of the Iranian species Pseudamnicola zagrosensis Glöer & Pešić, 2009; Sarkia kermanshahensis Glöer & Pešić, 2009 (originally within Pseudamnicola and P. saboori Glöer & Pešić, 2009. Our COI-based tree rejects these assignments suggesting a new potential lineage, sister to the pyrgulinid species, and comprising three genera: Shadinia Akramowski, 1976, Intermaria gen. nov. and Persipyrgula gen. nov. These genera differ molecularly by 3.6%–8.5%, and are diagnosable by penis, female genitalia and radula features. Our findings evidence the high morphological variability of pyrgulinid species and provide insight into the origins and evolution of the freshwater Ponto-Caspian fauna.

  9. Distribution and origins of n-alkanes, hopanes, and steranes in rivers and marine sediments from Southwest Caspian coast, Iran: implications for identifying petroleum hydrocarbon inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirneshan, Golshan; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Memariani, Mahmoud

    2016-09-01

    The occurrence of n-alkanes and biomarkers (hopane and sterane) in surface sediments from Southwestern coasts of Caspian Sea and 28 rivers arriving to this lake, determined with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, was used to assess the impacts of anthropogenic activities in the studied area. The concentrations of total n-alkanes (Σ21 n-alkane) in costal and riverine sediments varied from 249.2 to 3899.5 and 56 to 1622.4 μg g(-1), respectively. An evaluation of the source diagnostic indices indicated that petroleum related sources (petrogenic) were mainly contributed to n-alkanes in costal and most riverine sediments. Only the hydrocarbons in sediment of 3 rivers were found to be mainly of biogenic origin. Principal component analysis using hopane diagnostic ratios in costal and riverine sediments, and Anzali, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan oils were used to identify the sources of hydrocarbons in sediments. It was indicated that the anthropogenic contributions in most of the costal sediment samples are dominated with inputs of oil spills from Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan countries.

  10. Long-range dependence and sea level forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Ercan, Ali; Abbasov, Rovshan K

    2013-01-01

    This study shows that the Caspian Sea level time series possess long range dependence even after removing linear trends, based on analyses of the Hurst statistic, the sample autocorrelation functions, and the periodogram of the series. Forecasting performance of ARMA, ARIMA, ARFIMA and Trend Line-ARFIMA (TL-ARFIMA) combination models are investigated. The forecast confidence bands and the forecast updating methodology, provided for ARIMA models in the literature, are modified for the ARFIMA models. Sample autocorrelation functions are utilized to estimate the differencing lengths of the ARFIMA

  11. Profile analysis of microbiomes in soils of solonetz complex in the Caspian Lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, T. I.; Lebedeva, M. P.; Tkhakakhova, A. K.; Kutovaya, O. V.

    2017-01-01

    The taxonomic structure of the microbiota in two associated soils—solonetz on a microhigh and meadow-chestnut soil in a microlow—was studied in the semidesert of the Caspian Lowland. A highthroughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used for the soil samples from genetic horizons. A considerable reduction in the bacterial diversity was found in the lower horizons of the solonetz and compact solonetzic horizon with a high content of exchangeable sodium. In the meadow-chestnut soil, the microbial diversity little decreased with the depth. In both soils, a portion of archaea from the Thaumarchaeota group also decreased in the deeper horizons. In the soil horizons with the lower total bacterial diversity, a share of proteobacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Sphingomonadaceae families became higher. The difference between the structure of the microbial population in the solonetz and meadow- chestnut soil can be first explained by the different water regimes and soil consistence.

  12. Foraging ecology of Caspian Terns in the Columbia River Estuary, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, D.D.; Collis, K.

    2005-01-01

    Comparisons were made of the foraging ecology of Caspian Terns (Sterna caspia) nesting on two islands in the Columbia River estuary using radio telemetry and observations of prey fed to chicks and mates at each colony. Early in the chick-rearing period, radio-tagged terns nesting at Rice Island (river km 34) foraged mostly in the freshwater zone of the estuary close to the colony, while terns nesting on East Sand Island (river km 8) foraged in the marine or estuarine mixing zones close to that colony. Late in the chick-rearing period, Rice Island terns moved more of their foraging to the two zones lower in the estuary, while East Sand Island terns continued to forage in these areas. Tern diets at each colony corresponded to the primary foraging zone (freshwater vs. marine/ mixing) of radio-tagged individuals: Early in chick-rearing, Rice Island terns relied heavily on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp., 71% of identified prey), but this declined late in chick-rearing (46%). East Sand Island terns relied less on salmonids (42% and 16%, early and late in chick-rearing), and instead utilized marine fishes such as Anchovy (Engraulis mordax) and Herring (Clupea pallasi). Throughout chick-rearing, Rice Island terns foraged farther from their colony (median distance: 12.3 km during early chick-rearing and 16.9 km during late chick-rearing) than did East Sand Island terns (9.6 and 7.7 km, respectively). The study leads to the conclusion that Caspian Terns are generalist foragers and make use of the most proximate available forage fish resources when raising young.

  13. Evaluation of lysozyme, complement C3, and total protein in different developmental stages of Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Razieh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, non–specific immune parameters in fertilized eggs, eyed embryos, larvae 10, 25, 50, 60, and 70 days post hatch (DPH, and female broodstock of Caspian kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum (Kamensky, were evaluated. The lysozyme activity, complement C3, and total protein levels were measured with the turbidimetric, immunoturbidimetric, and Bradford methods, respectively. The results showed that lysozyme levels decreased from levels noted in the fertilized eggs until the larvae were 10 days old. Subsequently, significant increases in lysozyme levels were observed until 70 DPH. An increasing trend of complement component C3 was noted from the levels in fertilized eggs to 10 DPH, following which it decreased significantly. Total protein levels differed significantly in early developmental stages of Caspian kutum. The higher values of complement component C3 than of lysozyme in the early life stages could be indicative of the former’s more fundamental role.

  14. Histopathological alterations in the kidney of Caspian kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum, larvae and fingerlings exposed to sublethal concentration of atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnood, Zahra

    2015-02-01

    The use of chemical pesticides has increased environmental pollution and affected ichthyofauna as non target organisms. In the present study, the histopathological alterations in the larvae and fingerlings of the Caspian kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum, were used as a model to investigate the toxic effects of triazine herbicide, atrazine. To investigate toxic effects of atrazine, fish were exposed to sublethal concentration of ½ LC50 for 96 h. Histologically, the most significant alterations in kidney tissues were hyperplasia, necrosis, vacuolation, swelling, hypertrophy, aggregation of hyaline droplets, and disruption of the haematopitic tissue of the head kidney. The damage was more severe in larvae than the fingerlings. Results showed that alterations in kidney tissue caused by atrazine were not specific but it could be concluded that atrazine is excessively toxic for Caspian kutum even at sublethal concentration and acute exposure.

  15. Association of Healthy Food Intake with Psychiatric Distress in Children and Adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda Zahedi; Mostafa Qorbani; Shirin Hasani Ranjbar; Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh; Gelayol Ardalan; Moloud Payab; Omid Safari; Gita Shafiee; Morteza Mansourian; Ramin Heshmat; Roya Kelishadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthy dietary habits are known as a key factor for improving brain functions and cognitive ability in children and adolescents. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association of healthy food consumption with mental health in Iranian children and adolescents.Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from the fourth national school-based surveillance survey entitled CASPIAN-IV study. In this study, 14880 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years were selected by multistage,...

  16. Peculiar features of histopathological changesincase of helminthoses in mero-consortia of the caspian seal (PusaCaspica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Demidenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The papercovers the study of peculiarfeatures of histopathological changesunderaction of two helminthspeciesin tissues of meroconsortia of the Caspian seal: liver, gall bladder, pancreas, and stomach. Significant changesin the seorgans accompanied by appearance of capsules, inflammatory infiltration, and occurrence of abscesses were recorded. The se peculiarities should be considered as a manifestation of morpho-functional compensation generated in the process of mutual adaptation of organisms of the host and parasite.

  17. Variations of serum and mucus lysozyme activity and total protein content in the male and female Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum, Kamensky 1901) during reproductive period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoori, Zomorod; Heidari, Behrooz; Farzadfar, Fariba; Aghamaali, Mahmoudreza

    2014-03-01

    Serum and mucus lysozyme were measured in male and female Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) under seasonal temperature, gonadal growth and reproductive migration. Significant difference with almost similar trend in serum and mucus lysozyme of the female Caspian kutum in sampling time and ovarian growth was observed. However, while there was no significant difference in serum lysozyme of the male specimen in sampling time and testicular growth, significant variations was observed in mucus lysozyme. In addition, there was significant difference in mucus total protein both for male and female specimens. The effectiveness ratio of factors on lysozyme variations followed in descending order by seasonal temperature (main factor), reproductive activity and migration with negligible effect and the lysozyme level was not significantly different in male and female Caspian kutum.

  18. Dietary Habits and Health Related Behaviors in Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN- IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azizi-Soleiman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity has a growing global epidemic with several risk factors including lifestyle habits, physical activity, and prolonged screen time. This study aimed to compare the dietary habits and self-reported health behaviors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional nationwide study was conducted in the framework of the fourth survey of a national school-based surveillance program, entitled Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non‑communicable disease (CASPIAN-IV Study. Participants were 14,880 students aged 6-18 years from 30 provinces in Iran. The World Health Organization- Global Student Health Survey questionnaire was utilized to assess their relationship with peers, body image, dietary, life-style and smoking habits, physical activity, and violence behaviors. Apart from the questionnaire, additional information on dietary habits was obtained as well. The Chi-square test and the student t-test were used to compare the groups. Results: Boys had higher proportions of obesity (P

  19. Effect of Lethal Concentration of Commercial Gasoline on Caspian Roach (Rutilus caspicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Hedayati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the mortality effects of commercial gasoline at different tested concentrations were evaluated on the common roach (Rutilus caspicus and LC50 values for each time period (24, 48, 72, and 96 hours have been determined. Roach with an average weight of 3.1 ± 0.45 g and lengths of 4 ± 0.25 cm were used in this study. After transferring the 200 fish to the laboratory, they were kept in tanks of 100 liters for one week to adapt them to the experimental conditions. After the adaptation period, 100 fish were selected randomly and divided into 14 treatments (0, 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, and 100 ppm commercial gasoline. The treatments were completed in triplicate. The results of this study show that the 96-hour LC50 of commercial gasoline is 600.2 ± 0.44 ppm and the maximum allowable concentration (MAC is 60.02 mg/L. The study demonstrates the deadly effects of commercial gasoline on the Caspian roach. Spillage of diesel and gasoline fuels from transport tankers can enter rivers and eventually the marine ecosystem, and reach nursery and spawning areas where it can become a serious threat to fish survival.

  20. Physiological responses in wild broodstocks of the Caspian Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) subjected to transportation stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoo, Mehdi; Falahatkar, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    Caspian Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) broodstocks in the wild were subjected to 2 different densities (100 and 300 kg m(-3)) for 2 hr of transport, and their physiological responses were examined. Fifteen fish were placed into the plastic container for each replicate and blood was taken at 0, 10, 30, 60, and 120 min after transportation in different densities. Mean levels of cortisol and glucose as primary and secondary responses to the stress were significantly different between densities. Significant differences in both densities were observed in cortisol for all times and glucose levels at 30 and 120 min after transportation, and the highest values were found in both densities at 120 min. Testosterone concentrations declined considerably in the first 10 min, and then they showed a gradual decrease with a significant difference between 2 densities at 10 and 30 min after transportation. Serum estradiol reached the lowest level at 120 min after transportation, and differences were significant between the 2 densities after 30 min. Based on the results, it was concluded that Kutum broodstocks are sensitive to transport, especially at high density. Therefore, welfare during transport should be considered.

  1. Structure of pre-Caspian depression and major oil and gas fields of the region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylov, N.A. (Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Avrov, V.P. (Igirgi, Moscow (USSR)); Lisovsky, N.N.

    1991-03-01

    As a single unified depression, the pre-Caspian basin has been formed from Paleozoic to Cenozoic time. The basin is superimposed on two large pre-Permian depressions. On the Astrakhan-Aktyubinsk zone of uplifts between them is found sharply reduced Carboniferous and Devonian sections. Modern structural plan clearly displays two major structural stages: Subsalt (Paleozoic) and post (post-Kungurian). The post-salt stage is characterized by wide development of salt dome tectonics. It corresponds with its own petroliferous stage containing numerous, mostly small oil accumulations in terrigenous Mesozoic reservoirs. Large recent discoveries-Astrakhan condensate, Karachaganak and Kanazhol-Sinelnikov oil/condensate, Tengiz oil, and other fields-are associated with the Subsalt Paleozoic complex ranging from Lower Permian to the top of Upper Devonian. The Subsalt stage has its own regularities in hydrocarbon phase differentiation; large reserves concentration; dominantly productive carbonates with various reservoirs; and presence of structural, depositional, and erosional factors controlling formation of oil and gas traps. The paper describes major distributional features of the various arc-and-type Permian and Carboniferous formations, which in conjunction with Subsalt paleotemperature data and geochemistry of organic matter represents a basis for the forecast of new discoveries.

  2. Effect of selective cutting type on the chainsaw productivity in Caspian Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farshad Keivan Behjou

    2012-01-01

    Time and motion studies were conducted to evaluate the impact of selective cutting type on Chainsaw productivity in Caspian forests,the selective cutting performed as single and group selection cutting in the region.The selective cutting was performed on a 42-ha tract with an average slope of 30%.The results indicate that felling time for per tree is most affected by diameter at breast height,the distance among harvested trees in single-tree selection method and diameter at breast height in group selection method.The production rate in single and group selection cutting were 21.2 m3·h-1 and 28.4 m3·h-1 for one person,respectively.Considering the gross and net production rate in single and group selection cutting,the unit cost was 1.11 USD·m3 and 0.88 USD·m-3,respectively.The results indicate that group selection cutting can be more profitable than single-tree selection method.

  3. Zebra mussel beds: an effective feeding ground for Ponto-Caspian gobies or suitable shelter for their prey?

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    Jarosław Kobak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aggregations of the Ponto-Caspian invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha constitute a suitable habitat for macroinvertebrates, considerably increasing their abundance and providing effective antipredator protection. Thus, the overall effect of a mussel bed on particular predator species may vary from positive to negative, depending on both prey density increase and predator ability to prey in a structurally complex habitat. Alien Ponto-Caspian goby fish are likely to be facilitated when introduced into new areas by zebra mussels, provided that they are capable of utilizing mussel beds as habitat and feeding grounds. We ran laboratory experiments to find which prey (chironomid larvae densities (from ca. 500 to 2,000 individuals m−2 in a mussel bed make it a more beneficial feeding ground for the racer goby Babka gymnotrachelus (RG and western tubenose goby Proterorhinus semilunaris (WTG compared to sandy and stone substrata (containing the basic prey density of 500 ind. m−2. Moreover, we checked how food availability affects habitat selection by fish. Mussel beds became more suitable for fish than alternative mineral substrata when food abundance was at least two times higher (1,000 vs. 500 ind. m−2, regardless of fish size and species. WTG was associated with mussel beds regardless of its size and prey density, whereas RG switched to this habitat when it became a better feeding ground than alternative substrata. Larger RG exhibited a stronger affinity for mussels than small individuals. WTG fed more efficiently from a mussel bed at high food abundances than RG. A literature review has shown that increasing chironomid density, which in our study was sufficient to make a mussel habitat an attractive feeding ground for the gobies, is commonly observed in mussel beds in the field. Therefore, we conclude that zebra mussels may positively affect the alien goby species and are likely to facilitate their establishment in novel areas

  4. The role of canine distemper virus and persistent organic pollutants in mortality patterns of Caspian seals (Pusa caspica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Susan C; Eybatov, Tariel M; Amano, Masao; Jepson, Paul D; Goodman, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants are a concern for species occupying high trophic levels since they can cause immunosuppression and impair reproduction. Mass mortalities due to canine distemper virus (CDV) occurred in Caspian seals (Pusa caspica), in spring of 1997, 2000 and 2001, but the potential role of organochlorine exposure in these epizootics remains undetermined. Here we integrate Caspian seal mortality data spanning 1971-2008, with data on age, body condition, pathology and blubber organochlorine concentration for carcases stranded between 1997 and 2002. We test the hypothesis that summed PCB and DDT concentrations contributed to CDV associated mortality during epizootics. We show that age is the primary factor explaining variation in blubber organochlorine concentrations, and that organochlorine burden, age, sex, and body condition do not account for CDV infection status (positive/negative) of animals dying in epizootics. Most animals (57%, n = 67) had PCB concentrations below proposed thresholds for toxic effects in marine mammals (17 µg/g lipid weight), and only 3 of 67 animals had predicted TEQ values exceeding levels seen to be associated with immune suppression in harbour seals (200 pg/g lipid weight). Mean organonchlorine levels were higher in CDV-negative animals indicating that organochlorines did not contribute significantly to CDV mortality in epizootics. Mortality monitoring in Azerbaijan 1971-2008 revealed bi-annual stranding peaks in late spring, following the annual moult and during autumn migrations northwards. Mortality peaks comparable to epizootic years were also recorded in the 1970s-1980s, consistent with previous undocumented CDV outbreaks. Gompertz growth curves show that Caspian seals achieve an asymptotic standard body length of 126-129 cm (n = 111). Males may continue to grow slowly throughout life. Mortality during epizootics may exceed the potential biological removal level (PBR) for the population, but the low frequency of

  5. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Iranian Adolescents: the CASPIAN- III Study

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    Enayatollah Kalantar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori is a common bacterial infection, with considerably high morbidity and mortality worldwide. This bacterium represents a key factor in the etiology of various chronic infections ranging from gastritis, peptic ulcer disease to gastric cancer; but the prevalence has large variations in different communities. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence H. pylori infection in a nationally representative sample of Iranian adolescents.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, serum samples of 882 Iranian adolescents, aged 10-18 years, were examined for seroprevalence of H.pylori. They were randomly selected from the samples obtained in the third survey of a national surveillance program (the CASPIAN III study. Seroprevalence of H. pylori was examined by detection of H. pylori immunoglobulinA (IgA, immunoglobulinG (IgG and immunoglobulinM (IgM in sera by using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA.Results: The study participants had a mean age of 14.82 + 2.77 years. Overall, 51.7% of students were boys and 61.52% were urban residents.  The H. pylori IGM and IGA seropositivity had no significant association with demographic characteristics (p>0.05. The H. pylori IgG seropositivity were significantly different in boys and girls (69.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 66.7-72.7 vs. 76.3%, 95%CI= 73.5-79. 1, respectively, P=0.03.Conclusion: The seroprevalence of H. pylori IgG in Iranian adolescents is high, and girls had greater risk of H. pylori IgG seropositivity compared to boys. Preventive strategies and health education are recommended to reduce the prevalence of this infection in Iranian adolescent.

  6. Foraging patterns of Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants in the Columbia River estuary

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    Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, D.D.; Collis, K.

    2007-01-01

    We examined spatial and temporal foraging patterns of Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants nesting in the Columbia River estuary, to potentially identify circumstances where juvenile salmonids listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act might be more vulnerable to predation by these avian piscivores. Data were collected during the 1998 and 1999 breeding seasons, using point count surveys of foraging birds at 40 sites along the river's banks, and using aerial strip transect counts throughout the estuary for terns. In 1998, terns selected tidal flats and sites with roosting beaches nearby for foraging, making greater use of the marine/mixing zone of the estuary later in the season, particularly areas near the ocean jetties. In 1999, cormorants selected foraging sites in freshwater along the main channel with pile dikes present, particularly early in the season. Foraging trends in the other year for each species were generally similar to the above but usually not significant. During aerial surveys we observed 50% of foraging and commuting terns within 8 km of the Rice Island colony, and ??? 5% of activity occurred ??? 27 km from this colony in both years. Disproportionately greater cormorant foraging activity at pile dikes may indicate greater vulnerability of salmonids to predation at those features. Colony relocations to sites at sufficient distance from areas of relatively high salmonid abundance may be a straightforward means of reducing impacts of avian predation on salmonids than habitat alterations within the Columbia River estuary, at least for terns. ?? 2007 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of ghrelin with cardiometabolic risk factors in Iranian adolescents: the CASPIAN-III study

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    Heshmat, Ramin; Shafiee, Gita; Qorbani, Mostafa; Azizi-Soleiman, Fatemeh; Djalalinia, Shirin; Esmaeil Motlagh, Mohammad; Ardalan, Gelayol; Ahadi, Zeinab; Safari, Omid; Safiri, Saeid; Kelishadi, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Current evidence suggests that ghrelin could contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults, but limited experience exists in adolescents. This study aims to explore the association of ghrelin levels with the MetS components among Iranian adolescents. Methods: In this case-control study, 32 adolescents with MetS and 148 healthy controls were selected randomly from the childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non communicable disease (CASPIAN-III) study. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria modified for children and adolescents. Anthropometric measures (including body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC] and waist to height ratio [WHtR]), blood pressure (BP) and biochemical data (including fasting blood sugar [FBS], triglyceride [TG], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], total cholesterol [TC] and gerlin) were measured. Results: Total ghrelin level was significantly higher in students without MetS compared to those with MetS (748.89 ± 85.04 vs. 728.72 ± 90.36 [pg/mL]; P < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were seen between ghrelin levels and BMI, WC, WHtR, TG, and TC. Ghrelin had also relatively strong inverse correlations with FBS (r = −0.59, P< 0.001), LDL-C (r = −0.56, P < 0.001), and positive correlation with HDL-C (r = 0.60, P < 0.001). Compared with the children with MetS, in those without MetS, ghrelin was significantly associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. A decreasing trend was observed in the mean ghrelin level across increasing number of MetS components (P for trend <0.001). Conclusion: We observed a relationship between ghrelin concentration and MetS components in adolescents. PMID:27777695

  8. Parasitic Infection of an Endemic Fish (Blicca bjoerkna and an Exotic Fish (Hemiculter beucisculus In Anzali Lagoon, Caspian Sea, Iran

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    M Masoumian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Anzali Lagoon, there are some endemic and exotic fishes. The present study was conducted to compare the parasitic fauna of Blicca bjeorkna, as an endemic fish and Hemicul­ter leucisculus, as an introduced fish to the lagoon.Methods: A parasitological investigation was done on 78 specimens of B. bjoerkna and 114 of H. leu­cisculus. The fishes were collected from August 2009 to April 2010 by the electro fishing from Anzali Lagoon.Results: Eleven parasites species were found in 192 fish samples. The prevalence and mean inten­sity of parasites in each host were as follows: Parasites from B. bjorkna were Trichodina perforata (53.85%; Myxobolus musayevi (27.19%, 1±0.79; Dactylogyrus difformis (88.05%, 8±7.24 and D. sphyrna (5.18%, 0.95±0.51, Diplostomum spataceum (98.72%, 9.51±9.01, Post­hodiplostomum cuticula (15.38%, 4.25±2.5, Ripidocotyle sp. (1.28%, 2±0.74; Contracaecum osculatum (17.95%, 1.64±0.79, Philometra rischta (12.8%, 1.4±0.54, and Raphidascaris acus (1.04%, 0.03±0.26. The H. leucisculus were infected with T. perforata (27.19%, D. spataceum (7.89%, 1.33±0.54, Ps. tomentosa (7.02%, 1.62±0.49 and R. acus (0.88%, 3±0.28. B. bjoerkna was presented as a new host for M. musayevi and C. osculatum, while H. leucisculus was intro­duced as a new host for T. perforata and Ps. tomentosa.Conclusion: The prevalence of parasites was significantly more in native fish than that of exotic fish (P<0.05. This reduction in parasitic infection in H. leucisculus may be due to its immune system resistance, well adaptation to the new environment, host-specific limitation for endemic parasites and disability of introduced parasite to complete its life cycle in the new host as well.

  9. Power and Energy: Geopolitical Aspects of the Transnational Natural Gas Pipelines from the Caspian Sea Basin to Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    this strategy, the mountains —the Carpathians , the Caucasus and the Tien Shan—continue to play a key role. The Carpathians , which incorporate Ukraine...involved.”74 However, Kyrgyzstan has no strategic resources, but its importance to Russia lies in its geostrategic position. The Tien Shan Mountains in...Central Asia act as a natural barrier between Russia, and South Asia and China. Within the Tien Shan Mountains lies the core of Central Asia—the

  10. Determination of trace element level in different tissues of the leaping mullet (Liza saliens, Mugilidae) collected from Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Eslami, Shahram; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn were determined in the brain, heart, liver, gill, gonad, spleen, kidney, and red and white muscles of Liza saliens (leaping mullet). Trace element levels in fish samples were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Among the non-essential metals, the levels of Ni and Pb in the tissues were higher than limits for fish proposed by FAO/WHO, EU, and TFC. Generally, the levels of the non-essential metals were much higher than those of manganese in the red and white muscles. Fe distribution pattern in tissues was in order of spleen > liver > heart > gill > brain > kidney > gonad > red muscle > white muscle. Red muscle was not within the safe limits for human consumption because non-essential metal (Ni, Pb) contents were higher than standard limits.

  11. Quality of life of Iranian beta-thalassaemia major patients living on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, H; Majdi, M R; Marzabadi, E Azad; Montazeri, A; Ghorbani, A; Ramezani, M

    2012-05-01

    In the present study, the aim was to explore the quality of life of thalassaemia major (TM) patients according to age, sex, school performance, severity and complications of the disease. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. Quality of life was evaluated by 4 questionnaires; demographic characteristics, the short form 36 health survey (SF-36), Persian version of symptoms checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) and life satisfaction index (LSI). 687 (41.08%) of the eligible patients with TM completed the questionnaires. With the SF-36 questionnaire, 329 (47.9%) participants had an excellent level of physical functioning. With the SCL-90-R questionnaire, 446 (64.9%) participants had a global severity index of > 0.7, considered psychiatric patients, 141 (20.5%) patients had GSI between 0.4 and 0.7, considered suspected psychiatric patients and 100 (14.6%) participants had GSI of < 0.4, considered non-psychiatric patients. The mean score of LSI questionnaire was 20.50 (SD 5.95), range 2-37. Beta-TM patients are at risk of psychiatric symptoms and need appropriate psychiatric counselling.

  12. Investigation into the Physico-Chemical Properties of Soils of Caspian Sea Coastal Area in Mangystau Province

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    Samal Syrlybekkyzy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of investigation into physico-chemical properties of coastal soils in the areas of oil fields. it has been established that the considered soils are characterized with low content of organics, alkaline reaction of soil solutions, high salinity and weak resistance against anthropogenic impacts. The obtained data can be applied for further studies and monitoring of environment in oil field areas.

  13. Ecoepidemiological characteristics of a hypoendemic focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in north Iran (southeast of Caspian Sea

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    M D Agh-Atabay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Leishmaniasis is an endemic parasitic disease reported sporadically throughout Iran. Golestan province is one of the 17 zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL foci. In this study, ecoepidemiological characteristics of ZCL were investigated in Gonbad-e Kavus County, Golestan province of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in three endemic villages and one ZCL-free village by exploiting a stratified random sampling methodology in 2013. To understand particular time-allocation and activity patterns, sandflies were entrapped twice per month using sticky traps from May to October 2013. Records of daily maximum and minimum temperatures (°C obtained from the meteorological station were used to calculate accumulated degree days (ADD for Phlebotomus papatasi sandflies using an online software, viz. degree-day calculator, available from the website of Integrated Pest Management, University of California. The computational ADD and expected stage appearance for P. papatasi sandflies were evaluated along with the phenological events. Human infection indices were investigated in the study areas as well. Results: In the entomological survey, a total of 13 different sandfly species were identified. Sergentomyia sintoni (66.8% and P. papatasi (20% were observed to be the most dominant species. Monthly activity of the different species of sandflies started from early May to mid-October, with two peaks observed in early July and mid- September, and the peak of hourly activity occurred at night (1900-2000 hrs. According to the phenological study, population dynamics of P. papatasi was completely in agreement with ADD required for the various stages of their growth. Epidemiologically, the highest incidence of ZCL was observed in the age group of 30-34 yr (29.4%. Interpretation & conclusion: Higher incidence of the disease was seen in the northern and the northeastern parts of the province bordered by Turkmenistan. The most effective alternative for controlling the disease in this hypoendemic focus is health education regarding personal protection from infected P. papatasi. The long-term studies are imperative for better understanding and estimation of the factors affecting ZCL transmission in the endemic areas.

  14. RECOGNITION OF MONTHLY HUMAN BIOCLIMATIC COMFORT WITH TOURISM CLIMATE INDEX IN RAMSAR, SOUTH-WEST OF CASPIAN SEA, IRAN

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    BAHMAN RAMEZANI GOURABI

    Full Text Available Weather and climate have great importance in developing of tourism industry. Most of the tourists use the climate information for travelling and choice of destination. Knowledge of climate informationand its application can assist tourism planning, tourism industries and in reducing negative effects of weather and climate on tourists and this branch of the economy. The aim of this research isrecognition of suitable months in Ramsar station on the basis of Becker method and tourism climate index (TCI, for a period of 25 years (1981-2005.The results of Becker method has shown thatRamsar station has a bioclimatic comfort in 10 months. Weather in 7 months (March, April, May, September, October, November, and December is moderate and desirable. June, July, and Augusthave a little warm and tolerate weather, but in January and February, Ramsar station has a cool weather with moderate stimulation. Evaluation of TCI index for Ramsar station has shown that May month has the best climate conditions with 80-89 range (Excellent for tourism activities. June and October months have a "very good" climate conditions. April, July, and September are included in the"good" category while August and November are included in the "acceptable" category. January, February, March, and December have the "unfavorable" conditions.

  15. Caspian Sea International Environmental Security Game. Held at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania on 16-17 November 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    as they are featured in the overview documents, on the INTERNET, and from scientific journals . Although we include the information from the INTERNET...we treat it as unconfirmed, rather than as peer-reviewed information, and we seek to confirm the issues with the scientific journal articles...Masood Zainal COL, Malaysia No.1 Jalan Sentosa Terendak Camp, Terendak 76200 Melaka , Malaysia Aliriza, Bulent Dr. Senior Associate The Center for

  16. Escape from the Ponto-Caspian: evolution and biogeography of an endemic goby species flock (Benthophilinae: Gobiidae: Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Matthew E; Stepien, Carol A

    2009-07-01

    Endemic Ponto-Caspian gobies include a flock of 24 "neogobiin" species (containing the nominal genera and subgenera Apollonia, Babka, Neogobius, Mesogobius, Ponticola, and Proterorhinus; Teleostei: Gobiidae), of which a large proportion (5 species; 21%) recently escaped to invade other freshwater Eurasian systems and the North American Great Lakes. We provide its first comprehensive phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis based on 4709 bp sequences from two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes with maximum parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian approaches. We additionally compare its relationships with the tadpole gobies (Benthophilus and Caspiosoma), which comprise a related endemic Ponto-Caspian gobiid group; along with a variety of postulated relatives and outgroups. Results of all phylogenetic approaches are highly congruent and provide very strong support for recognizing the subfamily Benthophilinae; which encompasses both the "neogobiins" and tadpole gobies, and genetically diverges from other Gobiidae subfamilies-including (non-monophyletic) Gobiinae and Gobinellinae. Benthophilinae contains three tribes: Neogobiini (Neogobius, which is synonymized here with Apollonia; containing the type species N. fluviatilis, along with N. melanostomus and N. caspius), Ponticolini (containing the genera Mesogobius, Proterorhinus, Babka, and Ponticola-elevating the latter two from subgenera and removing them from the formerly paraphyletic Neogobius), and Benthophilini (tadpole gobies). Within Ponticolini, Proterorhinus and Mesogobius comprise the sister clade of the Ponticola and Babka clade. Further work is needed to clarify the interrelationships of the tadpole gobies. Invasiveness is widespread in freshwater and euryhaline taxa of Neogobius, Proterorhinus, Babka, and Ponticola; but not in marine species, Mesogobius, or tadpole gobies.

  17. Dietary sodium propionate improved performance, mucosal and humoral immune responses in Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zoheiri, Fazel; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigates the efficiency of graded levels (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2%) of sodium propionate (SP) on Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry growth performance, skin mucus immune response as well as humoral immune parameters. Fish were divided into 5 groups repeated in triplicates and each group were fed on experimental diets for 7 weeks. Growth performance parameters, skin mucus total immunoglobulin (Ig) level, lysozyme, protease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as the non-specific humoral immune response (total Ig, lysozyme, alternative haemolytic complement activity (ACH50) were determined at the end of feeding trial. The results showed that supplementation of diet with 0.25% SP significantly improved growth performance compared control group (P  0.05), except 0.25% SP treatment which was significantly higher than those in other groups (P < 0.05). These results revealed that inclusion of administration of 0.25% and 0.5% SP in early stage of the Caspian white fish culture could improve mucosal and non-specific immune responses as well as performance.

  18. THE OVERVIEW OF THE MAIN GAS PIPELINES IN THE BLACK SEA REGION: POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

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    Corina GRIBINCEA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Topicality. The Black Sea region is very dynamic in terms of economic development, security problems and interstate relations. All of the countries in this region are heterogeneous but energy issue plays a pivotal role in their foreign policy priorities. It is the only one common denominator that can both foster cooperation and catalyze conflict in the Black Sea basin. The problem of transporting energy has an impact not only on the Black Sea countries, but also on the Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caspian Sea, Middle East, and ultimately the European consuming markets. Thus, the issue of energy transition needs the experts’ and scientists’ attention fixed on the Black Sea region in order to come together facing the latter-day challenges. The energy challenge has a multi-dimensional nature. Aim. Thus, this paper aims to provide an overview of the energy transaction issues focusing on the economic effects of the most important gas pipelines within the Black Sea region. Particular attention is going to be paid to the problem of the energy routes’ diversification and pipelines which connect the carbon-rich countries of the Middle East and Caspian region and Europe. Also, it is aimed to give a comprehensive analysis of the energy challenge within the Black sea region, focusing on energy efficiency of the gas pipelines which go through this extremely important energy hub. Methods - scientific methods of data analysis, historical and statistical overview, predictive analysis qualitative indicators, comparative method, method of description, case study. Results. The creation of a stable markets, interconnected and transparent natural gas supply would largely counteract the risks. The flexibility transport infrastructure, numerous and capable pipelines, underground storage capacities and their management may play an important role in the sector’s ability to manage supply shocks.

  19. Depositional cycles and Fe/Mn ratio in Upper Absheron substage succession in the western flank of the South Khazarian/Caspian depression of the Azerbaijan Republic

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    Amirov, Elnur

    2016-04-01

    The Caspian Sea, the largest land locked basin in the world, isolated from ParaTethys at the end of Messinian. Since that time sedimentation there took place under conditions of isolated basin temporarily connected with Black Sea in Upper Pliocene (Akchagyl). For the first time very detailed study (centimeter scale) of outcrop was carried out for stratigraphy and paleoecology of the Upper absheron substage deposits cropped out in the Western flank of the South Caspian depression (Shikhovo exposure) of the Azerbaijan Republic. The data obtained demonstrated the high-frequency cyclicity in sedimentation accompanied by rapid lateral and vertical depositional environment change. Most of these system tracts have not yet been studied in detail. The depositional setting during accumulation of this succession has changed within shore face-shelf environment. On the background of these cycles, the depositional series of a higher order containing sediments deposited during very small-scale sea level fall and rise occur. Some information contained in this document is the new data, due to more recent observations and interpretations. The results of the field works on exposures of the Eopleistocene deposits exposed in the Western flank of the South Caspian depression (Shikhovo outcrop) demonstrated the high-frequency cyclicity in sedimentation. It is possible to observe several full depositional sequences developed from transgressive system tract to low stand system tract, to high stand system tract and return to sedimentation under conditions of sea level rise. The studied successions are characterized by steep foresets, about 12°, which is evidence of steep slope existed during the sediment accumulation. On the background of above mentioned cycles, the depositional series of a higher order containing sediments formed during very small-scale sea level fall and rise occur. Below we give the lithofacial characteristics of one full depositional cycle and our interpretation of

  20. Snack Consumption among Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV Study

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    Maryam BAHREYNIAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to assess the frequency of consuming different types of snacks among Iranian students according to socio-economic status (SES of their living region.Methods: Data were obtained from the fourth national school-based surveillance survey entitled CASPIAN-IV study. Overall, 14880 school students, aged 6-18 years, were selected through multistage, cluster sampling from rural and urban areas of the of 30 provinces of Iran. The World Health Organization Global School Student Health Survey (WHO-GSHS was used. Data were compared at national/sub-national levels by survey data analysis methods.Results: The participation rate was 90.6%, 13486 students (49.2% girls, mean (SD age of 12.50 (3.36 years completed the study. At national level, fresh fruits were the most common used category of healthy snacks (55.74%, 95% CI: 54.51, 56.96. Boys had more daily consumption of milk (48.65% vs. 43.27%, and girls had more daily consumption of fresh fruits (58.07% vs. 53.47%. Urban residents had lower consumption of vegetables (30.53% vs. 37.55%, dried fruits (18.29% vs. 23.02%, and fresh fruits (45.33% vs. 50.09% than their rural counterparts. Among unhealthy snacks, sweets had the highest daily consumption (34.15%, 95% CI: 33.04, 35.28. Boys had higher consumption of sweetened beverages (22.57% vs. 17.6% and fast foods (3.51% vs. 2.17%. At national level, except than salty snacks (16.24% rural vs.11.83% urban, consumption of other junk snacks had no significant difference between urban and rural residents.Conclusion: Differences in the frequency of consuming healthy and unhealthy snacks according to the SES of the living region, and the choice differences between genders should be considered in planning national health programs. Keywords: Snack, Healthy snack, Junk food, Socio-economic status, Iran 

  1. Properties of solonetzes on terraces of salt lakes Bulukhta and Khaki in the Caspian Lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanova, N. P.; Lebedeva, M. P.

    2016-06-01

    A comparative assessment of pedogenetic processes in solonetzes (Calcic Gypsic Salic Solonetzes (Siltic, Albic, Cutanic, Differentic)) developing on terraces of lake depressions within the Volga-Ural interfluve of the Caspian Lowland has been performed on the basis of data on their macro- and micromorphological features and chemical, physicochemical, and physical properties. The studied soils have number of common characteristics shaped by the humus-accumulative, solonetzic, eluvial-illuvial, calcification, and gypsification processes. However, it is shown that macro- and micromorphological indicators of solonetzic processes (the development of clay-humus coatings and the character of structural units in the solonetzic (B) horizon) do not always agree with the modern physicochemical conditions of the development of this process. This is explained by differences in the degree and chemistry of the soil salinization and the depth and salinity of the groundwater. Solonetzes developing on the second terrace of Playa Khaki are distinguished by the highest water content and maximum thickness of the horizons depleted of soluble salts. They are characterized by the well-pronounced humus-accumulative process leading to the development of the light-humus (AJ) horizon. In other solonetzes, the accumulation of humus is weaker, and their topsoil part can be diagnosed as the solonetzic-eluvial (SEL) horizon. Active solodic process and illuviation of organomineral substances with the development of thick coatings and infillings in the B horizon are also typical of solonetzes on the second terrace of Playa Khaki. Micromorphological data indicate that, at present, layered clayey coatings in these soils are subjected to destruction and in situ humification owing to the active penetration of plant roots into the coatings with their further biogenic processing by the soil microfauna. The process of gleyzation (as judged from the number of Fe-Mn concentrations) is most active in

  2. The Diet and Sexual Differences of the Caspian Bent-Toed Gecko, Tenuidactylus caspius (Squamata: Gekkonidae, in Northern Iran

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    Vida Hojati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Caspian bent-toed gecko, Tenuidactylus caspius, is one of the most common nocturnal lizards of Iran with widespread distribution especially in the northern provinces. This research was done in order to study the diet and sexual dimorphism of this species in Sari County from 5 May to 20 October. During this research, 40 specimens of them including 20 males and 20 females were studied for diet and 140 specimens including 70 adult males and 70 adult females were studied for sexual dimorphism. Prey items identified were insects that belong to 15 species of 8 families and 6 orders. The most common prey items were Culex pipiens and Musca domestica. There is no significant difference between diets of males and females. Results show that the adult males in addition of having the apparent femoral and preanal pores are heavier than females and have larger body, head, and tail length.

  3. Invasive Ponto-Caspian amphipods and fish increase the distribution range of the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis in the river Rhine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Emde

    Full Text Available Non-indigenous species that become invasive are one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide. In various freshwater systems in Europe, populations of native amphipods and fish are progressively displaced by highly adaptive non-indigenous species that can perform explosive range extensions. A total of 40 Ponto-Caspian round gobies Neogobius melanostomus from the Rhine River near Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, were examined for metazoan parasites and feeding ecology. Three metazoan parasite species were found: two Nematoda and one Acanthocephala. The two Nematoda, Raphidascaris acus and Paracuaria adunca, had a low prevalence of 2.5%. The Acanthocephala, Pomphorhynchus tereticollis, was the predominant parasite species, reaching a level of 90.0% prevalence in the larval stage, correlated with fish size. In addition, four invasive amphipod species, Corophium curvispinum (435 specimens, Dikerogammarus villosus (5,454, Echinogammarus trichiatus (2,695 and Orchestia cavimana (1,448 were trapped at the sampling site. Only D. villosus was infected with P. tereticollis at a prevalence of 0.04%. The invasive goby N. melanostomus mainly preys on these non-indigenous amphipods, and may have replaced native amphipods in the transmission of P. tereticollis into the vertebrate paratenic host. This study gives insight into a potential parasite-host system that consists mainly of invasive species, such as the Ponto-Caspian fish and amphipods in the Rhine. We discuss prospective distribution and migration pathways of non-indigenous vertebrate (round goby and invertebrates (amphipods under special consideration of parasite dispersal.

  4. Invasive Ponto-Caspian amphipods and fish increase the distribution range of the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis in the river Rhine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emde, Sebastian; Rueckert, Sonja; Palm, Harry W; Klimpel, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Non-indigenous species that become invasive are one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide. In various freshwater systems in Europe, populations of native amphipods and fish are progressively displaced by highly adaptive non-indigenous species that can perform explosive range extensions. A total of 40 Ponto-Caspian round gobies Neogobius melanostomus from the Rhine River near Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, were examined for metazoan parasites and feeding ecology. Three metazoan parasite species were found: two Nematoda and one Acanthocephala. The two Nematoda, Raphidascaris acus and Paracuaria adunca, had a low prevalence of 2.5%. The Acanthocephala, Pomphorhynchus tereticollis, was the predominant parasite species, reaching a level of 90.0% prevalence in the larval stage, correlated with fish size. In addition, four invasive amphipod species, Corophium curvispinum (435 specimens), Dikerogammarus villosus (5,454), Echinogammarus trichiatus (2,695) and Orchestia cavimana (1,448) were trapped at the sampling site. Only D. villosus was infected with P. tereticollis at a prevalence of 0.04%. The invasive goby N. melanostomus mainly preys on these non-indigenous amphipods, and may have replaced native amphipods in the transmission of P. tereticollis into the vertebrate paratenic host. This study gives insight into a potential parasite-host system that consists mainly of invasive species, such as the Ponto-Caspian fish and amphipods in the Rhine. We discuss prospective distribution and migration pathways of non-indigenous vertebrate (round goby) and invertebrates (amphipods) under special consideration of parasite dispersal.

  5. Wetland water and nutrient budget for improving irrigation performance in Caspian Low Lands, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakadevan, Karuppan; Mousavi Shalmani, Mir Ahmad; Nguyen, Minh Long

    2014-05-01

    Water scarcity and uneven distribution of rainfall are the most important limiting factors for the development of agriculture in Iran. Assessment of sources and seasonal variations of wetland water and nutrient budget are fundamental for improving water quantity, quality and its agricultural use. This study was carried out in the Southern Caspian lowlands, Iran to identify sources of wetland water and establish water and nutrient budget for thirty wetlands from 2010 to 2012. Water samples collected in autumn, winter, spring and summer from these wetlands were (i) analysed for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and isotopic signatures of oxygen-18 (δ18O) and hydrogen-2 (δ2H) and (ii) constructed for water and nutrient balance. In addition, groundwater (10-20 meters) rainwater, snow and wetland water were collected in spring 2013 and analysed for δ18O and δ2H. Results showed that wetland water was enriched with δ18O and δ2H in summer (-1.15‰ and -12.11‰ for δ18O and δ2H, respectively) and depleted in winter (-7.50‰ and -47.30‰ for δ18O and δ2H). This is probably due to spring snow melt, summer rainfall and evaporation of wetland water. As more water was used for irrigation in spring and summer, the water column depth reduced and accelerated evaporation leading to isotopic enrichment. Among various water sources, wetland water was enriched (-3.57‰ and -27.72‰ for δ18O and δ2H) compared to groundwater (-6.2‰ and -38.0‰ for δ18O and δ2H), rain water (-5.4‰ and -31.7‰ for δ18O and δ2H) and snow (-15.2‰ and -109.6‰ for δ18O and δ2H). Water and nutrient balance based on rainfall, evapotranspiration and nutrient concentrations for wetlands showed that on average 7.6 million cubic meters of water along with 86 tonnes of nitrogen (N) and 17 tonnes of phosphorus (P) can be captured from an area of 10,400 ha. This water can be used to irrigate up to 1500 ha rice crops over a period of 130 days in spring and summer. The isotopic signature and

  6. The physiological responses of the Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry to the static magnetic fields with different intensities during acute and subacute exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loghmannia, Javad; Heidari, Behrooz; Rozati, Seyed Ali; Kazemi, Soodabeh

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the application of new technologies producing magnetic fields has widely increased in the aquatic environment. In this study, the effects of variable static magnetic fields on metabolic and immune parameters of the Caspian kutum fry were investigated. The Caspian kutum fry (n=220, body weight 1.78±0.11 g) was exposed to static magnetic fields with different intensities (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 mT) induced by electrical power supply during acute (one week) and subacute (3 weeks) periods. The results showed an increment in the quantity of ALT and AST enzymes (metabolic parameters) with increasing magnetic fields intensities in subacute and acute exposures (p<0.05). The lysozyme level, an immune parameter, showed a significant decrease, especially at intensities higher than 2.5 mT during subacute and acute exposures (p<0.05). It seems that low-intensity static magnetic fields can effect on the metabolism and immunity of the Caspian kutum fry as valuable commercial species.

  7. Postglacial floodings of the Marmara Sea: molluscs and sediments tell the story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükmeriç, Yeşim

    2016-08-01

    The early Holocene marine flooding of the Black Sea has been the subject of intense scientific debate since the "Noah's Flood" hypothesis was proposed in the late 1990s. The chronology of the flooding is not straightforward because the connection between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea involves the intermediate Marmara Sea Basin via two sills (Dardanelles and Bosphorus). This study explores the chronology of late Pleistocene-Holocene flooding by examining sedimentary facies and molluscs from 24 gravity cores spanning shelf to slope settings in the southern Marmara Sea Basin. A late Pleistocene Ponto-Caspian (Neoeuxinian) mollusc association is found in 12 of the cores, comprising 14 mollusc species and dominated by brackish (oligohaline-lower mesohaline) endemic taxa (dreissenids, hydrobiids). The Neoeuxinian association is replaced by a Turritella- Corbula association at the onset of the Holocene. The latter is dominated by marine species, several of which are known to thrive under dysoxic conditions in muddy bottoms. This association is common in early Holocene intervals as well as sapropel intervals in younger Holocene strata. It is an indicator of low-salinity outflows from the Black Sea into the Marmara Sea that drive stratification. A marine Mediterranean association (87 species) represents both soft bottom and hard substrate faunas that lived in well-ventilated conditions and upper mesohaline-polyhaline salinities (ca. 25 psu). Shallower areas were occupied by hard substrate taxa and phytopdetritic communities, whereas deeper areas had soft bottom faunas. The middle shelf part of the northern Gemlik Gulf has intervals with irregular and discontinuous sedimentary structures admixed with worn Neoeuxinian and euryhaline Mediterranean faunas. These intervals represent reworking events (slumping) likely related to seismic activity rooted in the North Anatolian Fault system. The core data and faunas indicate an oscillating postglacial sea-level rise and

  8. Invasion pathway of the Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabooli, Sara; Shiganova, Tamara A; Briski, Elizabeta; Piraino, Stefano; Fuentes, Veronica; Thibault-Botha, Delphine; Angel, Dror L; Cristescu, Melania E; Macisaac, Hugh J

    2013-01-01

    Gelatinous zooplankton outbreaks have increased globally owing to a number of human-mediated factors, including food web alterations and species introductions. The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi entered the Black Sea in the early 1980s. The invasion was followed by the Azov, Caspian, Baltic and North Seas, and, most recently, the Mediterranean Sea. Previous studies identified two distinct invasion pathways of M. leidyi from its native range in the western Atlantic Ocean to Eurasia. However, the source of newly established populations in the Mediterranean Sea remains unclear. Here we build upon our previous study and investigate sequence variation in both mitochondrial (Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I) and nuclear (Internal Transcribed Spacer) markers in M. leidyi, encompassing five native and 11 introduced populations, including four from the Mediterranean Sea. Extant genetic diversity in Mediterranean populations (n = 8, N a = 10) preclude the occurrence of a severe genetic bottleneck or founder effects in the initial colonizing population. Our mitochondrial and nuclear marker surveys revealed two possible pathways of introduction into Mediterranean Sea. In total, 17 haplotypes and 18 alleles were recovered from all surveyed populations. Haplotype and allelic diversity of Mediterranean populations were comparable to populations from which they were likely drawn. The distribution of genetic diversity and pattern of genetic differentiation suggest initial colonization of the Mediterranean from the Black-Azov Seas (pairwise F ST = 0.001-0.028). However, some haplotypes and alleles from the Mediterranean Sea were not detected from the well-sampled Black Sea, although they were found in Gulf of Mexico populations that were also genetically similar to those in the Mediterranean Sea (pairwise F ST = 0.010-0.032), raising the possibility of multiple invasion sources. Multiple introductions from a combination of Black Sea and native region sources

  9. Invasion pathway of the Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ghabooli

    Full Text Available Gelatinous zooplankton outbreaks have increased globally owing to a number of human-mediated factors, including food web alterations and species introductions. The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi entered the Black Sea in the early 1980s. The invasion was followed by the Azov, Caspian, Baltic and North Seas, and, most recently, the Mediterranean Sea. Previous studies identified two distinct invasion pathways of M. leidyi from its native range in the western Atlantic Ocean to Eurasia. However, the source of newly established populations in the Mediterranean Sea remains unclear. Here we build upon our previous study and investigate sequence variation in both mitochondrial (Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I and nuclear (Internal Transcribed Spacer markers in M. leidyi, encompassing five native and 11 introduced populations, including four from the Mediterranean Sea. Extant genetic diversity in Mediterranean populations (n = 8, N a = 10 preclude the occurrence of a severe genetic bottleneck or founder effects in the initial colonizing population. Our mitochondrial and nuclear marker surveys revealed two possible pathways of introduction into Mediterranean Sea. In total, 17 haplotypes and 18 alleles were recovered from all surveyed populations. Haplotype and allelic diversity of Mediterranean populations were comparable to populations from which they were likely drawn. The distribution of genetic diversity and pattern of genetic differentiation suggest initial colonization of the Mediterranean from the Black-Azov Seas (pairwise F ST = 0.001-0.028. However, some haplotypes and alleles from the Mediterranean Sea were not detected from the well-sampled Black Sea, although they were found in Gulf of Mexico populations that were also genetically similar to those in the Mediterranean Sea (pairwise F ST = 0.010-0.032, raising the possibility of multiple invasion sources. Multiple introductions from a combination of Black Sea and native

  10. Invasion Pathway of the Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabooli, Sara; Shiganova, Tamara A.; Briski, Elizabeta; Piraino, Stefano; Fuentes, Veronica; Thibault-Botha, Delphine; Angel, Dror L.; Cristescu, Melania E.; MacIsaac, Hugh J.

    2013-01-01

    Gelatinous zooplankton outbreaks have increased globally owing to a number of human-mediated factors, including food web alterations and species introductions. The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi entered the Black Sea in the early 1980s. The invasion was followed by the Azov, Caspian, Baltic and North Seas, and, most recently, the Mediterranean Sea. Previous studies identified two distinct invasion pathways of M. leidyi from its native range in the western Atlantic Ocean to Eurasia. However, the source of newly established populations in the Mediterranean Sea remains unclear. Here we build upon our previous study and investigate sequence variation in both mitochondrial (Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I) and nuclear (Internal Transcribed Spacer) markers in M. leidyi, encompassing five native and 11 introduced populations, including four from the Mediterranean Sea. Extant genetic diversity in Mediterranean populations (n = 8, Na = 10) preclude the occurrence of a severe genetic bottleneck or founder effects in the initial colonizing population. Our mitochondrial and nuclear marker surveys revealed two possible pathways of introduction into Mediterranean Sea. In total, 17 haplotypes and 18 alleles were recovered from all surveyed populations. Haplotype and allelic diversity of Mediterranean populations were comparable to populations from which they were likely drawn. The distribution of genetic diversity and pattern of genetic differentiation suggest initial colonization of the Mediterranean from the Black-Azov Seas (pairwise FST = 0.001–0.028). However, some haplotypes and alleles from the Mediterranean Sea were not detected from the well-sampled Black Sea, although they were found in Gulf of Mexico populations that were also genetically similar to those in the Mediterranean Sea (pairwise FST = 0.010–0.032), raising the possibility of multiple invasion sources. Multiple introductions from a combination of Black Sea and native region sources

  11. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Varicella Zoster Infection in Iranian Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis; The CASPIAN-III Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Ghaffari Hoseini

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the varicella zoster virus (VZV immunity in Iranian adolescents. It was conducted as a primary study for vaccine implementation, and to investigate the association of climatic and socioeconomic factors with the epidemiology of this infection. In this cross- sectional study, anti VZV antibodies were measured in serum samples obtained in a national school-based health survey (CASPIAN- III. Association of demographic, socio-economic, and climate of the living region with the frequency of VZV was investigated by multivariate multilevel analysis. Overall, sera of 2753 individuals aged 10-18 were tested for VZV antibodies, from those 87.4% were positive. The prevalence was statistically different in four socio-geographic regions (P<0.001, varying between 85.24% in West region (mostly mountainous areas with cold climate to 94.59% in Southeast region (subtropical climate. Among variables studied, only age and mean daily temperature of the living area were positively associated with the VZV seroprevalence. Our findings show that most Iranians develop immunity to VZV before the age of 10, but a substantial proportion of them are yet susceptible to the infection. Therefore, it seems that the best strategy to reduce the burden of the disease is to vaccinate high- risk adults, i.e. those without a history of varicella infection. The regional temperature might be the only determinant of VZV epidemiology in Iran.

  12. Association of Healthy Food Intake with Psychiatric Distress in Children and Adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study

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    Hoda Zahedi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy dietary habits are known as a key factor for improving brain functions and cognitive ability in children and adolescents. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association of healthy food consumption with mental health in Iranian children and adolescents.Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from the fourth national school-based surveillance survey entitled CASPIAN-IV study. In this study, 14880 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years were selected by multistage, cluster sampling method from rural and urban areas. The students and their parents completed two sets of questionnaires. The psychiatric distress included depression, worry, insomnia, anxiety, aggression, confusion, and worthless and the violent behaviors comprised of physical fight, victim and bully. The healthy foods included fresh fruits, dried fruits, vegetables and dairy products.Results: The participants include 13,486 students from elementary, intermediate and high school degree. The prevalence of psychiatric distress was significantly higher among high school students, while violent behaviors were more prevalent in the middle school students. According to the multivariate model (model IV, the risk of psychiatric distress was significantly lower in students with daily consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables and milk. In addition, those with daily consumption of vegetables and milk had significantly lower risk for violent behaviors.Conclusion: Consumption of healthy foods may reduce the risk of psychiatric distress and violent behaviors. Therefore, in addition to its benefits, increasing healthy food consumption among children and adolescents can be useful in preventing mental health disorders.

  13. Satellite Monitoring Systems for Shipping and Offshore Oil and Gas Industry in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostianoy A.G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping activities, oil production and transport in the sea, oil handled in harbors, construction and exploitation of offshore oil and gas pipelines have a number of negative impacts on the marine environment and coastal zone of the seas. In 2004-2014 we elaborated several operational satellite monitoring systems for oil and gas companies in Russia and performed integrated satellite monitoring of the ecological state of coastal waters in the Baltic, Black, Caspian, and Kara seas, which included observation of oil pollution, suspended matter, and algae bloom at a fully operational mode. These monitoring systems differ from the existing ones by the analysis of a wide spectrum of satellite, meteorological and oceanographic data, as well as by a numerical modeling of oil spill transformation and transport in real weather conditions. Our experience in the Baltic Sea includes: (1 integrated satellite monitoring of oil production at the LUKOIL-KMN Ltd. D-6 oil rig in the Southeastern Baltic Sea (Kravtsovskoe oil field in 2004-2014; (2 integrated satellite monitoring of the “Nord Stream” underwater gas pipeline construction and exploitation in the Gulf of Finland (2010-2013; (3 numerical modeling of risks of oil pollution caused by shipping along the main maritime shipping routes in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Proper, and in the Southeastern Baltic Sea; (4 numerical modeling of risks of oil pollution caused by oil production at D-6 oil rig and oil transportation on shore via the connecting underwater oil pipeline.

  14. Quantitative estimation of Holocene surface salinity variation in the Black Sea using dinoflagellate cyst process length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Bradley, Lee R.; Takano, Yoshihito

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of salinity in the Holocene Black Sea has been an ongoing debate over the past four decades. Here we calibrate summer surface water salinity in the Black Sea, Sea of Azov and Caspian Sea with the process length of the dinoflagellate cyst Lingulodinium machaerophorum. We then apply...... this calibration to make a regional reconstruction of paleosalinity in the Black Sea, calculated by averaging out process length variation observed at four core sites from the Black Sea with high sedimentation rates and dated by multiple mollusk shell ages. Results show a very gradual change of salinity from ∼14...... ± 0.91 psu around 9.9 cal ka BP to a minimum ∼12.3 ± 0.91 psu around 8.5 cal ka BP, reaching current salinities of ∼17.1 ± 0.91 psu around 4.1 cal ka BP. The resolution of our sampling is about 250 years, and it fails to reveal a catastrophic salinization event at ∼9.14 cal ka BP advocated by other...

  15. Effects of atrazine herbicide on physiological, biochemical and histological biomarkers of developmental stages of larvae and fry in Caspian kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum

    OpenAIRE

    Khoshnood, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    To investigation of the toxic effects of atrazine on newly hatched larvae and releasing age fry of the Caspian Kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum, the 96h LC50 was determined as 18.53 ppm and 24.95 ppm, respectively. Newly hatched larvae were exposed to three sublethal concentrations of atrazine (1/2LC50, 1/4LC50 and 1/8LC50) for 7 days. Different histopathological alterations were observed in fins and integument, gills, Kidney, digestive system, liver and the brain of the exposed larvae. Fry’s were...

  16. Use of Fatty Acid Analysis to Determine Dispersal of Caspian Terns in the Columbia River Basin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranto, C.J.; Parrish, J.K.; Herman, D.P.; Punt, A.E.; Olden, J.D.; Brett, M.T.; Roby, D.D.

    2011-01-01

    Lethal control, which has been used to reduce local abundances of animals in conflict with humans or with endangered species, may not achieve management goals if animal movement is not considered. In populations with emigration and immigration, lethal control may induce compensatory immigration, if the source of attraction remains unchanged. Within the Columbia River Basin (Washington, U.S.A.), avian predators forage at dams because dams tend to reduce rates of emigration of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), artificially concentrating these prey. We used differences in fatty acid profiles between Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia) at coastal and inland breeding colonies and terns culled by a lethal control program at a mid-Columbia River dam to infer dispersal patterns. We modeled the rate of loss of fatty acid biomarkers, which are fatty acids that can be traced to a single prey species or groups of species, to infer whether and when terns foraging at dams had emigrated from the coast. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling showed that coastal terns had high levels of C20 and C22 monounsaturated fatty acids, whereas fatty acids of inland breeders were high in C18:3n3, C20:4n6, and C22:5n3. Models of the rate of loss of fatty acid showed that approximately 60% of the terns collected at Rock Island Dam were unlikely to have bred successfully at local (inland) sites, suggesting that terns foraging at dams come from an extensive area. Fatty acid biomarkers may provide accurate information about patterns of dispersal in animal populations and may be extremely valuable in cases where populations differ demonstrably in prey base. ??2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Anthropogenic Decline of Ecosystem Services Threatens the Integrity of the Unique Hyrcanian (Caspian Forests in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardavan Zarandian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The unique Hyrcanian (Caspian forests of northern Iran provide vital ecosystem services for local and global communities. We assess the status and trends of key ecosystem services in this region where native forest conversion has accelerated to make way for housing and farm development. This is a mountainous forested area that is valuable for both conservation and multiple human uses including recreation and farming. It contains globally significant natural habitats for in situ conservation of biological diversity. A rapid, qualitative, and participatory approach was used including interviews with local households and experts in combination with assessment of land use/cover remote sensing data to identify and map priority ecosystem services in the Geographic Information System (GIS. Based on the interests of the beneficiaries, eight priority services (food production, water supply, raw materials, soil conservation, water regulation, climate regulation, biodiversity, and recreation were identified and mapped. The results indicate the current typical spatial distribution of the provided services based on structural characteristics of the study landscape and their changing trends through a comparison of past, present and future land use, and land cover. Although food production and recreation have greatly increased in recent decades, the other services, in particular timber production, biodiversity, and water purification and supply are being gradually lost. The results of this study and of others elsewhere should raise awareness of ecosystem service status and trends and the value of examining these since they provide much of the information to inform natural resources policy and decision making. The declines in supply of key ecosystem services both within and outside the protected area are creating conflicts within communities as well as impacting on the integrity of the area and careful planning and conservation is required to provide win

  18. Effects of dietary peppermint (Mentha piperita) on growth performance, chemical body composition and hematological and immune parameters of fry Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; Abedian Amiri, Armin; Zorriehzahra, Jalil; Nematolahi, Amin; Esteban, Maria Ángeles

    2015-08-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is a very popular herb. While numerous effects have been described in mammals, its effects on fish have received so far limited attention. The effects of dietary administration of peppermint on fry Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) were studied. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0% (control), 1%, 2% and 3% of peppermint extracts for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases of growth parameters (WG and SGR), mucus skin (protein concentration, alkaline phosphatase and antimicrobial activity) and seric (lysozyme and IgM) and blood leucocyte respiratory burst activities and different hematological parameters (number of red and white cells, seric hemoglobin and hematocrit content) were recorded in fry fish fed supplemented diets. However, the dietary peppermint supplements have different effects on the number of blood leucocytes depending on the leucocyte cell type. While no significant differences were observed in the number of blood monocytes and eosinophils, the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes was increased and decreased, respectively, on fish fed peppermint enriched diets, respect to the values found in control fish. Present results corroborate that dietary administration of peppermint promotes growth performance and increases the main hematological and immune humoral (both mucosal and systemic) parameters of fry Caspian white fish. This study may provide new applications of peppermint and, at the same time, promote rational development and utilization of peppermint resources.

  19. Dietary galactooligosaccharide elicits positive effects on non-specific immune parameters and growth performance in Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zoheiri, Fazel; Dadar, Maryam; Rufchaei, Rudabeh; Ringø, Einar

    2016-09-01

    An eight-weeks feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of galactooligosaccharide (GOS), on the skin and serum non-specific immune parameters and growth performance of Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry. Fish (2.07 ± 0.08 g) were fed different levels of GOS (0%, 1%, 2% and 3%). No significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed in mucus protease activity, but inclusion of 1% GOS significantly (P < 0.05) elevated total immunoglobulin (Ig) level and lysozyme activity. Evaluation of serum non-specific immune parameters revealed significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum total Ig and lysozyme activity of fish fed 1% or 2% GOS compared those of fish fed control diet. Furthermore, the serum alternative haemolytic complement activity (ACH50) was significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in all prebiotic groups regardless of inclusion levels. Administration of GOS in diet significantly (P < 0.05) improved growth performance and feed utilisation. The results of the present study revealed that GOS administration is beneficial by improving immune response and growth performance of Caspian white fish.

  20. The effects of garlic-supplemented diets on skin mucosal immune responses, stress resistance and growth performance of the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghehdarijani, Mahbubeh Salmanian; Hajimoradloo, Abdolmajid; Ghorbani, Rasol; Roohi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of garlic supplementation on some skin mucus immune parameters, mucus antimicrobial activity and growth performance of the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) fry. Fish (1 ± 0.07 g) were divided into four groups fed diets containing 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15 g kg(-1) garlic for 8 weeks. The results showed that there was a significant increase in weight gain and specific growth rate in those fish fed garlic diets compared with the control (P garlic dosage. At the end of trial, the epidermal mucus protein level, alkaline phosphatase and antimicrobial activity against 2 g-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens) and gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus faecium and Micrococcus luteus) were measured. Skin mucus alkaline phosphatase, protein levels and antimicrobial activity were increased following garlic administration, and the bacterial growth inhibition zones were significantly elevated in garlic-fed fish (P garlic beneficially affects the skin mucus immune parameters and growth performance of the Caspian roach fry.

  1. The Karangatian epoch in the Neopleistocene history of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanko-Hombach, Valentina; Motnenko, Irena

    2016-04-01

    Black Sea Quaternary history shows an alternation of transgressive and regressive stages that are related to global climate change and pronounced due to semi-isolation from the World Ocean. In warm epochs, the Black Sea is connected to the Mediterranean Sea (i.e., World Ocean) via connecting seas and straits. In cold epochs, it becomes isolated or connects to the Caspian Sea via the Manych outlet. During transgressions, sea level rises as does salinity. During regressions, when it drops below the Bosphorus sill, the basin transforms into an isolated lake. During transgressions, organisms migrate into the Black Sea from either the Mediterranean or Caspian. Such migrations affect assemblage structure and increase the number of species, especially in case of Mediterranean transgressions. During regressive stages, the number of species drops, and only holeuryhaline Mediterranean species can survive the lowering of salinity (Yanko-Hombach, 2007). The most powerful Mediterranean transgression in the Black Sea occurred during the Mikulino (MIS 5e) interglacial, corresponding to the central European Eemian interglacial; it is usually compared with the Alpine Riss-Würm interglacial. Clear traces of this transgression are preserved in coastal outcrops exposed in tectonically elevated terraces of the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, and Caucasus. They are also found in numerous cores and drill holes recovered from the Black Sea bottom. These traces contain numerous Mediterranean organisms (molluscs, foraminifera, ostracoda, etc.), many of which do not live in the Black Sea today. These sediments were first described by N.I. Andrusov (1925) on Cape Karangat, Kerch peninsula, in the early XX century. He called them "Tyrrenean" as they were similar to those in the "Tyrrenean" beds that form a coastal terrace in the Mediterranean. This similarity enabled him to conclude that the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins were connected to each other. Later, the "Tyrrenian" beds were renamed

  2. Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  3. The effects of dietary xylooligosaccharide on mucosal parameters, intestinal microbiota and morphology and growth performance of Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Sharifian, Maryam; Vesaghi, Mohammad Javad; Khalili, Mohsen; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigates the effects of different levels of dietary xylooligosaccharide (XOS) on skin mucus bactericidal activity and protein content, intestinal microbiota and morphology as well as growth performance of Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry. The specimens (1.54 ± 0.03 g) were fed experimental diets supplemented with different levels of XOS [0% (control), 1%, 2% and 3%] for 8 weeks. The results revealed that feeding on XOS significantly increased skin mucus antibacterial activity and protein levels (P 0.05). These results demonstrate beneficial effects of dietary XOS on different parameters of mucosal immunity (both skin mucus and intestinal microbiota) and encourage further studies regards various aspect of XOS administration in early life stages of fish.

  4. Regional anomalies of hydrocarbon fluid saturation as a new source of data on promising oil and gas deposits in the Caspian shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydenko, D. B.

    2016-10-01

    This paper analyzes the ratio of local and regional anomalies of fluid saturation identified in the southern margins of the Eastern European Platform by remote fluid indexation. A characteristic feature of this area is the very low background values in the initial field, i.e., local anomalies reflecting the deposits. Regional anomalies are mainly related to oil and gas accumulation zones. In the Middle Caspian areas studied, the regional field of the fluid saturation index is the background for local anomalies. We made an attempt to justify the hydrocarbon migration and generation zones as anomaly-forming zones of the regional anomalies. The correlation of oil and gas accumulation zones with the regional field anomalies was noted.

  5. Ionocyte Immunolocalization and the Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on Their Abundance and Distribution in the Alenins of Caspian Sea Salmon,Salmo Trutta Caspius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Khodabandeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: On a global scale, stratospheric ozone depletion has caused an increase inUV-B radiation reaching the earth's surface. Ultraviolet radiation has long been suspectedto be harmful to aquatic organisms.Materials and Methods: In order to study ionocyte localization (by Na+/K+-ATPase immunolocalizationand the effects of UV radiation on the ionocytes of skin and gills, the alevinsof Salmo trutta caspius were exposed to different doses of UV radiation [unit low doses(ULD of: 60 μw/cm2 UVC; 100 μw/cm2 UVB and 40 μw/cm2 UVA and unit high doses(UHD of: 90 μw/cm2 UVC; 130 μw/cm2 UVB and 50 μw/cm2 UVA] using two adjustableF8T5 UV-B, 302 nm lamps (Japan for 15 minutes once a day in laboratory conditions.Alevins not subjected to UV exposure served as a control group.Results: In both UV exposure groups, all the alevins died on the ninth day. No mortalitywas observed in the control group. The Na+/K+-ATPase immunolocalization study indicatedthat ionocytes were located, in lessening order, on the yolk sac, trunk, gills, operculaand rarely on the head skin. Immunohistochemical results showed significant reductionin the number of ionocytes on the yolk sac, with lesser reduction on the trunk in both UVexposure groups. In contrast, the number of immunofluorescence cells on the gill wassignificantly elevated. Our results also showed that the size of ionocytes was reduced onthe trunk and yolk sac in the UV exposure groups, but not significantly. Deformation anddestruction of ionocytes on the yolk sac and trunk were observed with scanning electronmicroscope (SEM in the UV exposure groups.Conclusion: Our results showed that ionocytes were located mainly on the yolk sac,in lesser amounts on the trunk, gills and opercula, and rarely also on the head skinof alevins. UV radiation caused deformation and reduction in the number and size ofionocytes on the trunk and yolk sac. As the skin cells of trout alevins possess essentialfunctions for respiration, osmoregulation, excretion and defense during this stage oflife, the observed damage may have contributed to their suddenly mortality in the UVexposure condition.

  6. Spatial relations of mercury contents in Pike (Esox lucius) and sediments concentration of the Anzali wetland, along the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, Rasool; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio

    2014-07-15

    In recent decades, the Anzali wetland has been threatened and destroyed by environmental pollution from several sources. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible relationships between mercury concentrations in Pike and their respective sediments within the assumed multiple activity center scales of Pike (100, 250 and 500 m in radius). To gain a better understanding spatial distribution pattern of Hg in sediments and to pursue the main purpose of this study, kriging (geostatistic spatial interpolation method) was applied. Poor relationships were found between mercury concentrations of Pike and sediments within the assumed multiple activity center scales of Pike. The mercury sediment influence diminished with the increasing radii of assumed activity centers. The results of the present study indicate that fish and sediment mercury concentrations in western parts of the Anzali wetland were low in comparison with the concentrations reported in the literature from other regions.

  7. Spatial distribution of cadmium and lead in the sediments of the western Anzali wetlands on the coast of the Caspian Sea (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, Rasool; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas; Mohammadi, Jahangard; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan

    2013-09-15

    Spatial distribution patterns of total cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), their bioavailable fractions and total organic matter in sediment from Anzali wetlands are provided. Total sediment Pb was higher than Cd (34.95 versus 0.024 μg/g dry weight). The geoaccumulation index indicated that the sediment was "uncontaminated", but some stations were categorized as "unpolluted" to "moderately polluted". Less than 0.01 of Pb existed in exchangeable and carbonate fractions. The sum of exchangeable and carbonate-bound fractions of Cd was 42%, suggesting that Cd poses high risk to the aquatic ecosystems. Total Cd and Pb exhibited positive relationships with total organic matter. Considering spatial distribution maps of total and bioavailable fractions of metals suggested that high concentrations of metals does not necessarily indicate high bioavailable fraction. The methodologies we used in this study can be in more effective management of aquatic ecosystems, as well as ecological risk assessment of metals, and remediation programs.

  8. Assessment of some homogeneous methods for the regional analysis of suspended sediment yield in the south and southeast of the Caspian Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hossein Kheirfam; Mehdi Vafakhah

    2015-08-01

    Regional analysis of suspended sediment yield (SSY) is commonly used to estimate sediment at a particular site where little or no information is available on sediment yield. In this research, the efficiency of three input selection and homogenization methods were evaluated in the estimation of SSY. Therefore, 42 sediment measurement stations and their upstream watersheds were selected and sediment rating curve was estimated by using regression models for each station. Mean annual SSY was estimated by using sediment rating curve and daily discharge. In the present study, in order to determine the independent variables in sediment yield, 11 physiographical, one climatic and two hydrologic variables of whole study watersheds were selected. Then the most effective independent variables were selected by using principal component analysis (PCA), Gamma test (GT) and stepwise regression (SR) techniques. After reducing 14 input variables to five (using PCA and GT) and two (using SR techniques), they are divided into homogeneous areas by Andrew curve (AC), cluster analysis (CA) and canonical discriminate function (CDFs) techniques. The watersheds were divided into two (using PCA-AC), three (using PCA-CA, PCA-CDFs and GT-CDFs), four (using GT-CA, GT-AC and SR-CA) and five (using SR-AC) homogenous regions. Multiple regression models to estimate mean annual SSY as a function of five (using PCA and GT) and two (using SR techniques) watershed characteristics were built in each homogeneous region, and compared to actual mean annual SSY in each station using relative error (RE), efficiency coefficients (CE) and relative root mean square error (RRMSE). The results showed that preprocessing the input variables by means of PCA and GT techniques has improved the homogeneous stations determination and the development models. According to the results, the best technique for determining homogeneous watersheds was AC technique with RE=49.24%, RRMSE=43.75% and CE=71.04%.

  9. The malacostraca Caspian Sea as object of acclimatization and enrichment of a foоd reserve of fishes of lakes, water basins of foothill and mountain Dagestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Abdulmedzhidov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Peracarilae – Paramysis (Paramysis intermedia, Paramysis (Paramysis kessleri, Paramysis (Mesomysis lacustris, Limnomysis benedeni, Niphargoides (Pontogammarus robustoides, can live in mountain lakes of Dagestan.

  10. Effect of dietary chitosan on growth performance, hematological parameters, intestinal histology and stress resistance of Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum Kamenskii, 1901) fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali Najafabad, Masume; Imanpoor, Mohammad Reza; Taghizadeh, Vahid; Alishahi, Alireza

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary chitosan on growth performance, hematological parameters, intestinal histology, stress resistance and body composition in the Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum, Kamenskii, 1901) fingerlings. Fish (1.7 ± 0.15 g) were fed diets containing chitosan at different levels (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 g kg(-1) diet) for a period of 60 days. Results showed that the feed conversion ratio significantly decreased in fish fed diet containing 1 g kg(-1) of chitosan compared to the other groups (P  0.05). Leukocyte increased in fish fed diet containing 2 g kg(-1) of chitosan compared to the other groups (P  0.05). Also, the chitosan supplementation did not affect the whole-fish body composition (P > 0.05). Light microscopy demonstrated that the intestinal villus length increased in fish fed diet containing 1 g kg(-1) of chitosan compared to control group (P < 0.05). While 11 and 13 ‰ salinity and 30 °C thermal stress had no effect, 1 g kg(-1) of chitosan (P < 0.05) showed highest survival rate (70 %) in 34 °C thermal stress. The results showed that chitosan in the diet of the Caspian kutum fingerlings could improve feed conversion ratio, the nonspecific defense mechanisms and resistance to some of the environmental stresses.

  11. "STUDY ON THE MERCURY CONTENT OF FISH AND SEA FOOD IN IRAN"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nadim

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the mercury content of different samples of Persian Gulf shrimp and fish, Caspian sea fish and the samples of fish from Bandar Pahlavi lagoon, Zarjoub river near Rasht, Zayandehroud river near Esfahan, and Karadj river near Tehran were measured by flameless atomic absorption, cold vapor-technique, using standard addition method. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the presence and the extent of mercury contamination of fish and sea foods, either due to the natural geological existence of mercury compounds in the area of investigation or due to industrial pollution. The result of this study showed that the mean value of mercury content of 100 different samples of Persian Gulf shrimp was 0.24 mg/kg and the average amount of mercury in the samples of different species of Persian Gulf fish was 0.14-0.19 mg/kg and in canned tuna fish was 0.30 mg/kg. The mercury content of the samples of different species of Caspian Sea fish was between 0.07-0.51 mg/kg, the highest value was 0.51 and 0.36 mg/kg which was found in Rutilus-frisikutum and Esox lucius respectively, and the lowest amount of mercury was found in Mugliauratus (0.07 mg/kg. This study was also made on the different species of fish caught from Bandar Pahlaei lagoon which collects the water from some rives in the northern part of the country and therefore any kind of pollution in these rivers would be brought into this lagoon. The mercury content of different species of fish of Bandar Pahlavi lagoon was found to be 0.04-0.51 mg/kg. The mercury content of fish from Zarjoub river near Rasht, Zayandehroud river near Esfahan and Karadj river near Tehran was 0.07-0.23, 0.19, 0.05 mg/kg respectively. Considering the results of this investigation and the acceptable limit of mercury in fish which is 0.5 mg/kg in most countries it seems that at the present time, mercury contamination of fish and sea food is not a hygienic problem in Iran.

  12. Dietary peppermint (Mentha piperita) extracts promote growth performance and increase the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) of Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius Kessler, 1877).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; Safari, Reza; Pourgholam, Reza; Zorriehzahra, Jalil; Esteban, Maria Ángeles

    2015-11-01

    The effects of dietary administration of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) on Caspian brown trout fish (Salmo trutta caspius) were studied. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0% (control), 1%, 2% and 3% of peppermint extracts for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases in growth, immune (both in skin mucus and blood serum) and hematological parameters (number of white cells, hematocrit and hemoglobin content), as well as in amylase activity and in the number of lactic acid bacteria on intestine were recorded in fish fed supplemented diets compared to control fish. However, the dietary peppermint supplements have different effects on the number of blood leucocytes depending on the leukocyte cell type. While no significant differences were observed in the number of blood monocytes and eosinophils, the number of lymphocytes was decreased, respectively, on fish fed peppermint enriched diets, respect to the values found in control fish. Furthermore, dietary peppermint supplements have no significant effect on blood biochemical parameters, enzymatic activities of liver determined in serum and total viable aerobic bacterial count on intestine of Caspian brown trout. Present results support that dietary administration of peppermint promotes growth performance and increases the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) and the number of the endogenous lactic acid bacteria of Caspian brown trout. This study underlying several positive effects of dietary administration of peppermint to farmed fish.

  13. Fine Formation During Brine-Crude Oil-Calcite Interaction in Smart Water Enhanced Oil Recovery for Caspian Carbonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    Modified sea water has been shown to affect the oil recovery fraction considerably during secondary and tertiary waterfloods. Available soluble potential ions (i.e. Ca2+, Mg2+ & SO42-) in the interacting waterflood (ITW) are suggested to play a key role in increasing the displacement efficiency...

  14. Mammals of the Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information on sea mammals, including definitions and characteristics of cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians. Contains descriptions of the teaching activities "Whale Music,""Draw A Whale to Scale,""Adopt a Sea Mammal," and "Sea Mammal Sleuths." (TW)

  15. Development of technology for washed minced fish production from low-profit objects of fishing in the Volga-Caspian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukatova M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objects of the study are as follows: rudd and goldfish, samples of food minced made of them without washing, after single and double washings. To study the organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters the conventional methods of the fishing industry have been used. At the LLC "Astrakhan fisheries" two experimental batches of minced rudd and goldfish with double washing by water using a food additive "Omfresh plus" have been made in the amount of 1.0 % by weight of the meat. The yield of washed minced food from rudd is 41.4 %, from silver carp – 41.0 %. Some decrease in water content, water-holding capacity and formalin-titratable nitrogen in minced fish after each washing step has been established. Studying the organoleptic characteristics has shown that the frozen minced briquettes are cuboids, have clean surface with the presence of minor irregularities, colour – light gray, dense texture. On physical and chemical parameters the food washed mince correspond to GOST R 55505–2013 "Frozen food fish forcemeat. Specifications". Water content is 79–82 %, sodium chloride – 0,17–0,35 %, and water-holding capacity – at over 50 %. The proven technology of manufacturing washed minced from goldfish and rudd can be put into production for the purpose of deep processing of unprofitable species of the Volga-Caspian Basin and getting washed minced food and culinary products based on it.

  16. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Haemogregarina sp. (Apicomplexa: Adeleina: Haemogregarinidae) from the blood of the Caspian freshwater turtle Mauremys caspica (Gmelin) (Geoemydidae) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Ahmadi, Amin

    2016-06-01

    To date, a number of species of Haemogregarina have been described from different turtle hosts, mainly based on the morphology of the developmental stages detected in the host erythrocytes. The diversity and overlapping morphological features in the old and recent descriptions has led to considerable complications in the taxonomy of Haemogregarina spp. In this study, different stages of maturity and developing gamonts of a putative new species of Haemogregarina were detected in erythrocytes of the Caspian turtle Mauremys caspica (Gmelin) (Geoemydidae) originating from a southern province in Iran. Although some of the morphological characteristics were consistent with Haemogregarina stepanowi Danilewsky, 1885, some new observations were made, particularly in the gamont stage. The phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA sequences revealed that the present isolate appears as basal to a large clade of Haemogregarina spp. with sequences available in the GenBank database. In accordance with the phylogenetic results, the present Iranian isolate showed a higher degree of interspecific divergence (up to 3.3%) compared to the data for the taxa available in the GenBank database. Thus, molecular data indicate that this isolate may represent a new species. However, further genetic analyses are needed as a complementary tool to the morphological characterisation in order to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of Haemogregarina spp.

  17. The spatial distribution of esophageal and gastric cancer in Caspian region of Iran: An ecological analysis of diet and socio-economic influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodi Mahmood

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies have suggested a systematic geographic pattern of esophageal cancer (EC and gastric cancer (GC incidence in the Caspian region of Iran. The aims of this study were to investigate the association between these cancers and the region's dietary and socioeconomic risk factors and to map EC and GC after adjustment for the risk factors and the removal of random and geographic variations from area specific age standardised incidence ratios (SIRs. We obtained cancer data from the Babol cancer registry from 2001 to 2005, socioeconomic indices from the Statistical Centre of Iran, and dietary patterns from the control group in a case control study conducted in the study region. Regression models were fitted to identify significant covariates, and clusters of elevated rates were identified. We found evidence of systematic clustering for EC and GC in men and women and both sexes combined. EC and GC SIRs were lower in urban areas, and were also lower in areas of high income. EC SIRs were lower in areas with higher proportions of people having unrestricted food choice and higher in areas with higher proportions of people with restricted food choice. EC and GC were associated with aggregated risk factors, including income, urbanisation, and dietary patterns. These variables represent the influence of improved lifestyle which has coincided with a decrease in upper gastrointestinal cancer frequency over recent decades but which has not necessarily been uniform throughout the region.

  18. The spatial distribution of esophageal and gastric cancer in Caspian region of Iran: an ecological analysis of diet and socio-economic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Wolfe, Rory; Jolley, Damien; Forbes, Andrew B; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Burton, Robert C

    2011-02-15

    Recent studies have suggested a systematic geographic pattern of esophageal cancer (EC) and gastric cancer (GC) incidence in the Caspian region of Iran. The aims of this study were to investigate the association between these cancers and the region's dietary and socioeconomic risk factors and to map EC and GC after adjustment for the risk factors and the removal of random and geographic variations from area specific age standardised incidence ratios (SIRs). We obtained cancer data from the Babol cancer registry from 2001 to 2005, socioeconomic indices from the Statistical Centre of Iran, and dietary patterns from the control group in a case control study conducted in the study region. Regression models were fitted to identify significant covariates, and clusters of elevated rates were identified. We found evidence of systematic clustering for EC and GC in men and women and both sexes combined. EC and GC SIRs were lower in urban areas, and were also lower in areas of high income. EC SIRs were lower in areas with higher proportions of people having unrestricted food choice and higher in areas with higher proportions of people with restricted food choice. EC and GC were associated with aggregated risk factors, including income, urbanisation, and dietary patterns. These variables represent the influence of improved lifestyle which has coincided with a decrease in upper gastrointestinal cancer frequency over recent decades but which has not necessarily been uniform throughout the region.

  19. Association of Anthropometric Measures with Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in Normal-Weight Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN III Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Qorbani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This nationwide study was conducted to determine the association of anthropometric measures with cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome (MetS in Iranian normal-weight children and adolescents. Methods: We analyzed the data of 3,565 children and adolescents (50.3% boys, aged 10-18 years, with a normal BMI (5th-84th percentile obtained from the third survey of ‘Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non-communicable Disease' (CASPIAN III study. The diagnostic criteria for MetS were defined by the International Diabetes Federation consensus. Results: The prevalence of MetS for 10- to 13.9-year-old boys, 14- to 18-year-old boys, 10- to 13.9-year-old girls, and 14- to 18-year-old girls were 1.4, 2.8, 2.3, and 3.3%, respectively. After adjustment for age and sex, each unit increase in BMI (within normal range and waist circumference increased the odds of MetS from 6 to 72% and from 1 to 20%, respectively. The dominant pattern of dyslipidemia among the participants was high triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusion: This study complements recent research about the high frequency of metabolic risk factors among normal-weight individuals in the pediatric age group.

  20. Interaction of cholesterol ester transfer protein polymo- rphisms, body mass index, and birth weight with the risk of dyslipidemia in children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-III study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motahar Heidari-Beni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: This study aims to investigate joint association between cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP polymorphisms and body mass index (BMI or birth weight with the risk of dyslipidemia in Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods:This study was conducted as a sub-study of the “school-based nationwide health survey” (CASPIAN-III. We randomly selected 750 samples from the whole blood samples. Real-time PCR and high resolution melt (HRM analysis were performed to determine Taq1B (rs708272 and A373P (rs5880 polymorphisms. Results:Taq1B polymorphism increased HDL-C, and total cholesterol (TC as well as decreased triglyceride and LDL-C concentrations. LDL-C and triglyceride levels were significantly higher and HDL-C and TC levels were significantly lower among those with A373P polymorphism. CT/TT genotype in Taq1B polymorphism showed a protective effect on dyslipidemia (OR= 0.12, 95%CI: 0.07-0.20. G allele of A373P polymorphism increased the risk of dyslipidemia (OR=4.10, 95%CI: 2.14, 7.83 after adjusting the confounders. We observed interactive effects of CETP gene polymorphisms and BMI or birth weight on dyslipidemia. Conclusion:Findings showed Taq1B polymorphism might have a protective effect and A373P polymorphism had deleterious effect on dyslipidemia in Iranian children and adolescents. These associations interacted with BMI and birth weight.

  1. Modeling of oil spreading in a problem of radar multiangle diagnostics of Sea surface pollutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, A. Ya.; Kubryakov, A. A.; Boev, A. G.; Bychkov, D. M.; Ivanov, V. K.; Stanichny, S. V.; Tsymbal, V. N.

    2016-12-01

    The possibilities of a multiangle method of radar diagnostics to determine thickness of an oil film on a sea surface by comparing the radar data with the quantitative modeling results obtained using the model of oil spreading dynamics are analyzed. The experimental results of the remote sensing of the Caspian Sea water area near the Neftyanye Kamni oil field by the Envisat-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and the new Floating Objects Tracking System (FOTS) model of oil spreading are used for the analysis. The model allows to calculate the dynamics and change in the mass and size of an oil slick basing only on the available data of satellite measurements and atmospheric reanalysis.The model takes into account the main processes that influence the slick formation (gravity spreading, advective transport, dispersion, emulsification, turbulent mixing, and evaporation). This model is used to calculate the thickness evolution and dynamics of the displacement of oil slicks in the period between two consecutive radar images of this region (0.5-4 days) and to estimate the volumes of oil spilled in the field. The good consistence of the height of the oil film calculated using radar measurements and the modeling results confirms the method's reliability.

  2. A new record of Ratan goby - Ponticola ratan (Nordmann, 1840 (Pisces: Gobiidae in the Black Sea, Romanian coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cocan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In August 2015 we managed to capture a specimen of ratan goby (Ponticola ratan in the Romanian coastal waters of the Black Sea, near the locality of Sf. Gheorghe (Tulcea County. This is the 7-th signaling for this species in Romanian coastal waters. The previous 6 specimens were recorded in the period 1960-1993, between Mangalia (Constanţa County and Sulina (Tulcea County. The species was identified by means of meristic characters (number of scales on medial line, number of spiny and soft rays, and morphological particularities (cycloid scales on the nape area and pectoral fin joint. Also, the measurements made, confirmed that the ratio between the head length and total length, which was 33% (TL=8.70 cm vs. Head Length=2.61cm. Another morphological character, specific to this species, is the lower jaw, which exceeds in length the upper jaw. Being a Ponto-Caspian endemite, with low population along the Bulgarian and Romanian coastline, we considered it important to point out this new record. Noting that, being known the trend of sporadic migration of this species, would not be excluded that global warming causes a shift from its normal distribution area, from northern and northeastern (Black Sea to south-west. Therefore, future research may bring more notifications regarding this species in south-western area of the Black Sea

  3. White sea radioactivity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, R.A. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics]|[Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.]|[Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Shirshov Inst. of Oceanology; Kalmykov, S.N.; Lisitzin, A.P. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to estimate potential sources and chronology of pollution of the White Sea (Russia) by artificial radionuclides. White Sea is semi-closed water body connected with Barents Sea by a narrow strait. Thus, pollution of White Sea may be caused by highly polluted Barents waters and river (mainly Northern Dvina) run-off. This is the first detailed investigation of radioactivity of White Sea sediment records. (orig.)

  4. Organochlorine and PBDE concentrations in relation to cytochrome P450 activity in livers of Forster’s Terns (Sterna forsteri) and Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia), in San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Adelsbach, Terrence L.; Melancon, Mark J.; Stebbins, Katie R.; Hoffman, David J.

    2010-01-01

    We measured halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) [polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT)] and P450 [e.g., ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD)] stress in livers from Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) adults and Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri) adults and chicks in San Francisco Bay (SFB). Penta BDEs and tetra PBDEs composed 46–66% of ∑PBDE in terns. PCB homologues di, tri, penta, hexa, and hepta composed 93–95% of ∑PCBs and p′p-DDE composed 82–98% of all ∑DDTs. We found similar concentrations of ∑PBDEs [mean micrograms per gram wet weight (ww) ± standard error = 0.4 ± 0.1], ∑PCBs (5.9 ± 1.6), and ∑DDTs (0.6 ± 0.1) among species, sexes, and regions. However, concentrations were higher in Forster’s tern adults than chicks (∑PBDEs = 0.4 ± 0.1 and 0.1 ± 0.1; ∑PCBs = 7.08 ± 2.4 and 2.4 ± 1.4; ∑DDTs = 0.5 ± 0.1 and 0.1 ± 0.1; respectively), and there was a nonsignificant trend of elevated ∑PBDEs and ∑PCBs for adult Forster’s terns in the Central South Bay and Lower South Bay portions of SFB. Combined Forster’s tern and Caspian tern ∑DDTs bioaccumulated similarly to selenium, but not mercury, and there was a nonsignificant but positive trend for ∑PBDEs and ∑PCBs bioaccumulation with mercury. P450 protein activity was higher in adult Forster’s terns than Caspian terns, higher in Central South Bay than in Lower South Bay, and higher in adult Forster’s terns than in chicks.

  5. The ships' ballast water impact on the Black Sea marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acomi, Nicoleta; Acomi, Ovidiu

    2015-04-01

    Ships use ballast water to provide stability during voyages. This type of seawater loaded on board from one geographical area and discharged in very different port areas as ballasting practice, turned into a vector for spreading the non-native sea life species. The reduction and limitation of invasive species is a problem that the modern world addresses. Thus, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) developed the BWM 2004 Convention. Adopting international regulations influences the socio-economic sector and this is the reason why the ballast water, the subject of this paper, has been on the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee's agenda for more than 10 years, while the Convention has not yet been ratified and enforced. Although the Black Sea was subject to incidents regarding the invasive species the Romanian Government, as member of the IMO, did not ratify the Convention. The Black Sea was the subject of four major incidents regarding the ships' ballast water. One of them refers to the North American Comb Jelly, native from the Eastern Seaboard of America, introduced in the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas and seriously affecting the Romanian coastal environment in the 1990's. This invasive species has negative impacts: it reproduces rapidly under favourable conditions, it feeds excessively on zooplankton, it depletes zooplankton stocks, altering the food web and the ecosystem functionality, and contributed significantly to the collapse of Black and Azov Sea fisheries in the 1990s, with massive economic and social impact. There are studies for identifying the invasive species for the Black sea, structured in a database for marine species - the Black Sea Red Data Book. For these invasive species, there have been identified and developed charts to emphasize their ways of migration into the Black Sea. This paper aims to analyse the marine traffic in Romanian ports, broken down according with seasons and types of vessels, and to assess its relationship with

  6. Oxidative stress response of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) to mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in liver, kidney, and brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Adelsbach, Terrence L.; Stebbins, Katherine R.

    2011-01-01

    Bioindicators of oxidative stress were examined in prebreeding and breeding adult and chick Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) and in prebreeding adult Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) in San Francisco Bay, California. Highest total mercury (THg) concentrations (mean±standard error;μg/g dry wt) in liver (17.7±1.7), kidney (20.5±1.9), and brain (3.0±0.3) occurred in breeding adult Forster's terns. The THg concentrations in liver were significantly correlated with hepatic depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increased oxidized glutathione (GSSG):GSH ratio, and decreased hepatic gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity in adults of both tern species. Prefledging Forster's tern chicks with one-fourth the hepatic THg concentration of breeding adults exhibited effects similar to adults. Total mercury-related renal GSSG increased in adults and chicks. In brains of prebreeding adults, THg was correlated with a small increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) activity, suggestive of a compensatory response. Brain THg concentrations were highest in breeding adult Forster's terns and brain tissue exhibited increased lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, loss of protein bound thiols (PBSH), and decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes, GSSG reductase (GSSGrd), and G-6-PDH. In brains of Forster's tern chicks there was a decrease in total reduced thiols and PBSH. Multiple indicator responses also pointed to greater oxidative stress in breeding Forster's terns relative to prebreeding terns, attributable to the physiological stress of reproduction. Some biondicators also were related to age and species, including thiol concentrations. Enzymes GGT, G-6-PDH, and GSSGred activities were related to species. Our results indicate that THg concentrations induced oxidative stress in terns, and suggest that histopathological, immunological, and behavioral effects may occur in terns as reported in other species.

  7. Field-Analytical approach of land-sea records for elucidating the Younger Dryas Boundary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, T.; Courty, M. M.; Guichard, F.

    2009-12-01

    Linking lonsdaleite crystals, carbon spherules and diamond polymorphs from the North American dark layers at 12.9 cal yr B.P. to a cosmic event has questioned the nature and timing of the related impact processes. A global signal should trace the invoked airshocks and/or surface impacts from a swarm of comets or carbonaceous chondrites. Here we report on the contextual analytical study of debris fall events from three reference sequences of the Younger Dyras period (11-13 ka cal BP) : (1) sand dune fields along the French Atlantic coast at the Audenge site; (2) A 10 m record of detrital/bioorganic accumulation in the southern basin of the Caspian Sea with regular sedimentation rate (0.1 to 3 mm per year) from 14 to 2-ka BP cal; (3) the Paijan sequence (Peruvian coastal desert) offering fossiliferous fluvial layers with the last large mammals and aquatic fauna at 13 ka BP sealed by abiotic sand dunes. The three sequences display one remarkable layer of exogenous air-transported microdebris that is part of a complex time series of recurrent fine dust/wildfire events. The sharp debris-rich microfacies and its association to ashes derived from calcination of the local vegetation suggest instantaneous deposition synchronous to a high intensity wildfire. The debris assemblage comprises microtektite-like glassy spherules, partly devitrified glass shards, unmelted to partly melted sedimentary and igneous clasts, terrestrial native metals, and carbonaceous components. The later occur as grape-clustered polymers, vitrified graphitic carbon, amorphous carbon spherules with a honeycomb pattern, and green carbon fibres with recrystallized quartz and metal blebs. Evidence for high temperature formation from a heterogeneous melt with solid debris and volatile components derived from carbonaceous precursors supports an impact origin from an ejecta plume. The association of debris deposition to total firing would trace a high energy airburst with surface effects of the fireball. In

  8. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value...

  9. Sea Lion Diet Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions pup and breed at four of the nine Channel Islands in southern California. Since 1981, SWFSC MMTD has been conducting a diet study of sea lions...

  10. Sea Turtle Interaction Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Turtle Interaction Report is a report sent out in pdf format to authorized individuals that summarizes sea turtle interactions in the longline fishery. The...

  11. SEA and planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoeglehner, G.; Brown, A.L.; Kørnøv, Lone

    2009-01-01

    As the field of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has matured, the focus has moved from the development of legislation, guidelines and methodologies towards improving the effectiveness of SEA. Measuring and of course achieving effectiveness is both complex and challenging. This paper...... suggests that SEA professionals need to consider 'democratic effectiveness' as well as 'environmental effectiveness' in both 'direct' and 'indirect' outputs. The effectiveness of SEA depends critically on the context within which SEA legislation and guidelines are understood and implemented......, and the relationship of the SEA to the planning activity itself. This paper focuses on the influence that planners have in these implementation processes, postulating the hypothesis that these are key players in achieving effectiveness in SEA. Based upon implementation theory and empirical experience, the paper...

  12. Sea piracy and law of the sea

    OpenAIRE

    Hanif, Muhammad Tahir

    2010-01-01

    As the sea become world’s largest source to trade between the nations during the last few decades. Of course there are lots of problems in this regards when we are using the sea on such a large scale. The problem of piracy is most dangerous problems, among the all problems of the sea at the same time. Nations are trying to control this crime individually and collectively but the problem is still on its peak. Lots of international and national laws and conventions are held in this ...

  13. Salish Sea Genetics - Salish Sea genetic inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Salish Sea comprises most of the Puget Sound water area. Marine species are generally assemblages of discrete populations occupying various ecological niches....

  14. Methodology and Early Findings of the Fifth Survey of Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Noncommunicable Disease: The CASPIAN-V Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ziaodini, Hasan; Qorbani, Mostafa; Taheri, Majzoubeh; Aminaei, Tahereh; Goodarzi, Azam; Ataie-Jafari, Asal; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Ahadi, Zeinab; Shafiee, Gita; Shahsavari, Ali; Heshmat, Ramin; Kelishadi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Background: This paper presents the methodology and early findings of the fifth survey of a school-based surveillance program in Iran. Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2015 as the fifth survey of a surveillance program entitled “Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and PreventIon of Adult Non- communicable disease” (CASPIAN-V) study. The protocol was mainly based on the World Health Organization-Global School student Health Survey. We studied 14400 students, aged 7-18 years, and their parents living in 30 provinces in Iran. Fasting blood was obtained from a sub-sample of 4200 randomly selected students. Results: The participation rate for the whole study and for blood sampling were 99% and 91.5%, respectively. The mean (SD) age of participants was 12.3 (3.2) years, consisting of 49.4% girls and 71.4% urban residents. Overall, 16.1% were underweight (17.4% of boys and 14.8% of girls), and 20.8% had excess weight consisting of 9.4% (8.7% of boys and 10.2% of girls) of overweight and 11.4% (12.5% of boys and 10.3% of girls) of obesity. Abdominal obesity was documented in 21.1% of students (21.6% of boys and 20.5% of girls). Low HDL-C was the most prevalent abnormality of the lipid profile (29.5%) followed by high serum triglycerides (27.7%). Of students, 59.9% consumed whole wheat bread; and 57% reported that they never or rarely added salt to table. The reported daily consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables, and milk was about 60%, 32% and 40%, respectively. 13.7% of participants had at least 30-min daily leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions: The current findings provide an overview of the current health status and lifestyle habits of children and adolescents. This surveillance program would help planning preventive programs at individual and community levels. PMID:28217266

  15. 哈萨克斯坦滨里海油田钻井提速技术%Fast ROP Technology in Pre-Caspian Oilfield, Kazakhstan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐泓; 王涛; 黄新成; 张庆荣

    2013-01-01

    为了提高哈萨克斯坦滨里海油田的钻井速度,针对地层特点开展了钻井提速技术研究.研究应用了水力加压器钻头保护技术、旋转垂直导向钻进技术、“MWD+弯螺杆”技术以及“孕镶金刚石钻头十高速涡轮”组合技术,有效解决了二开蹩跳钻、井斜难以控制和三开钻遇灰岩地层机械钻速低的问题,实现了二开、三开快速钻进.现场应用的18口井中,施工井段平均机械钻速达到4.54 m/h,同比提高了103%,节约钻井时间共计196.29 d.现场应用表明,滨里海地区的综合钻井提速技术应用已趋成熟,能够大幅度提高机械钻速,经济效益良好,可在该地区推广应用.%In order to raise drilling rate in Pre-Caspian Oilfield,Kazakhstan,research on penetration rate has been made according to formation features,including the drilling bit protection with hydraulic thruster,rotary vertical guidance drilling,MWD with bent PDM technique,impregnated diamond bit and high-speed turbine assembly,etc.,troubles such as bit bouncing,well inclination,low penetration rate in limestone formation have been solved,fast drilling rate was obtained in second-spud and third-spud well sections.In eighteen wells,the average ROP was up to 4.54 m/h,103% higher than past drilling rate,or 196.29 days shorter than past drilling cycle time.Field application shows that comprehensive ROP improving technology has been successful,which can raise ROP significantly,and have good economic benefit.So,it can be widely applied in this area.

  16. Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a National Sample of Adolescent Population in the Middle East and North Africa: The CASPIAN III Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Khashayar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study was designed to investigate the prevalence of different combinations of the metabolic syndrome (MetS risk factors among a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA. Methods. The study sample, obtained as part of the third study of the school-based surveillance system entitled CASPIAN III, was representative of the Iranian adolescent population aged from 10 to 18 years. The prevalence of different components of MetS was studied and their discriminative value was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Results. The study participants consisted of 5738 students (2875 girls with mean age of 14.7±2.4 years living in 23 provinces in Iran; 17.4% of participants were underweight and 17.7% were overweight or obese. Based on the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation for the adolescent age group, 24.2% of participants had one risk factor, 8.0% had two, 2.1% had three, and 0.3% had all the four components of MetS. Low HDL-C was the most common component (43.2% among the overweight/obese versus 34.9% of the normal-weight participants, whereas high blood pressure was the least common component. The prevalence of MetS was 15.4% in the overweight/obese participants, the corresponding figure was 1.8% for the normal-weight students, and 2.5% in the whole population studied. Overweight/obese subjects had a 9.68 increased odds of (95% CI: 6.65–14.09 the MetS compared to their normal-weight counterparts. For all the three risk factors, AUC ranged between 0.84 and 0.88, 0.83 and 0.87, and 0.86 and 0.89 in waist circumference, abdominal obesity, and BMI for boys and between 0.78 and 0.97, 0.67 and 0.93, and 0.82 and 0.96 for girls, respectively. Conclusion. The findings from this study provide alarming evidence-based data on the considerable prevalence of obesity, MetS, and CVD risk factors in the adolescent age group. These results are confirmatory

  17. Summer Arctic sea fog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Synchronous or quasi-synchronous sea-land-air observations were conducted using advanced sea ice, atmospheric and marine instruments during China' s First Arctic Expedition. Based on the Precious data from the expedition, it was found that in the Arctic Ocean, most part of which is covered with ice or is mixed with ice, various kinds of sea fog formed such as advection fog, radiation fog and vapor fog. Each kind has its own characteristic and mechanics of creation. In the southern part of the Arctic Ocean, due to the sufficient warm and wet flow there, it is favorable for advection fog to form,which is dense and lasts a long time. On ice cap or vast floating ice, due to the strong radiation cooling effect, stable radiating fog is likely to form. In floating ice area there forms vapor fog with the appearance of masses of vapor from a boiling pot, which is different from short-lasting land fog. The study indicates that the reason why there are many kinds of sea fog form in the Arctic Ocean is because of the complicated cushion and the consequent sea-air interaction caused by the sea ice distribution and its unique physical characteristics. Sea fog is the atmospheric phenomenon of sea-air heat exchange. Especially, due to the high albedo of ice and snow surface, it is diffcult to absorb great amount of solar radiation during the polar days. Besides, ice is a poor conductor of heat; it blocks the sea-air heat exchange.The sea-air exchange is active in floating ice area where the ice is broken. The sea sends heat to the atmosphere in form of latent heat; vapor fog is a way of sea-air heat exchange influencing the climate and an indicator of the extent of the exchange. The study also indicates that the sea also transports heat to the atmosphere in form of sensible heat when vapor fog occurs.

  18. South China Sea Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's attempts to solve disputes with ASEAN over the South China Sea help regional peace China's marine economy and security are currently faced with new challenges, requiring careful handling, especially in disputes with ASEAN countries and in promoting common development of the South China Sea. The outcome of how this is dealt with could undoubtedly pave the way for solutions to other oceanic disputes. The South China Sea is located south of

  19. Dilemmas in SEA application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    Dilemmas in SEA Application: The DK Energy SectorIvar Lyhne - lyhne@plan.aau.dk. Based on three years of collaborative research, this paper outlines dilemmas in the application of SEA in the strategic development of the Danish energy sector. The dilemmas are based on concrete examples from practice...... the Danish energy sector) are starting to get it right. Lessons for SEA implementation in similar contexts are proposed....

  20. Effects of diazinon on adaptation to sea-water by the endangered Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajirezaee, Saeed; Mirvaghefi, Ali Reza; Farahmand, Hamid; Agh, Naser

    2016-11-01

    To replenish the depleting populations of sturgeon fishes especially Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus in the Caspian Sea, millions of Persian sturgeon fingerlings are farmed through artificial propagation and released into the Iranian river estuaries annually. Fish osmoregulation is a vital physiological process that can be affected during the release. Many Iranian river estuaries are under the influence of pesticides originating from farming activities that may affect osmoregulation. In this study, Persian sturgeon fingerlings were exposed to sublethal concentrations (0, 0.18, 0.54, 0.9mgL(-)(1)) of diazinon for 96h (short-term trial) and 12 days (long-term trial) in fresh water (FW) and then fish were exposed in brackish water (BW) for 24h. After 96h and 12 days of exposure in FW, the lower levels of plasma triidothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), Na(+), Cl(-), K(+), gill Na(+)/K(+)- ATPase activity and number of chloride cells were observed in exposed fish (0.54 and 0.9mgL(-)(1) diazinon) compared to control group and 0.18mgL(-)(1) diazinon treatment. Also, higher levels of plasma cortisol (except 0.18mgL(-)(1) diazinon treatment in long-term trial) were observed in diazinon exposed fish compared to control group. However, gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and the number of chloride cells were higher in fingerlings exposed to diazinon compared than control. When fish were exposed in BW for 24h, the following changes occurred: (a) in short-term trial: increases in cortisol and Cl(-) levels (0.54mgL(-)(1) diazinon ), Na(+) (0.9mgL(-)(1) diazinon ) and gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity (0.18mgL(-)(1) diazinon ). In control group, cortisol, T4, Na(+), gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and the number of chloride cells increased significantly. (b) In long-term trial: increases in K(+) levels in fish exposed to 0.9mgL(-)(1) diazinon, Na+ in all diazinon concentrations and decreases in chloride cells number in fish exposed to 0.18mgL(-)(1) diazinon. In control group

  1. Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B.; Sheehy, Coleman M.; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana

    2014-01-01

    Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans. PMID:24648228

  2. Sea surface temperatures and salinities from platforms in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and the South China Sea (Nan Hai) from 1896-1950 (NODC Accession 0000506)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface temperatures and salinities were collected in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and South China Sea (Nan Hai)...

  3. Oceanography of marginal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    in the marginal seas is low since the inflowing surface waters from the Arabian Sea are oligotrophic. High evaporative conditions in the Persian Gulf facilitate a carbonate precipitation of 125 mu mole kg-1 near the Trucial coast. The partial pressure of carbon...

  4. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki;

    2011-01-01

    . Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...

  5. IOMASA SEA ICE DEVELOPMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Tonboe, Rasmus; Heygster, Georg

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity studies show that the radiometer ice concentration estimate can be biased by +10% by anomalous atmospheric emissivity and -20% by anomalous ice surface emissivity. The aim of the sea ice activities in EU 5th FP project IOMASA is to improve sea ice concentration estimates at higher...... spatial resolution. The project is in the process of facilitating an ice concentration observing system through validation and a better understanding of the microwave radiative transfer of the sea ice and overlying snow layers. By use of a novel modelling approach, it is possible to better detect...... and determine the circumstances that may lead to anomalous sea ice concentration retrieval as well as to assess and possibly minimize the sensitivities of the retrieval system. Through an active partnership with the SAF on Ocean and Sea Ice, a prototype system will be implemented as an experimental product...

  6. Indicators and SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    Abstract: Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation. Indicators can be seen as part of the implementation...... process helping to understand, communicate and, integrate important environmental issues in planning and decision-making. On the other hand, use of indicators can also limit SEA effectiveness, if the ones chosen are biased or limited, if the aggregation gives incorrect interpretation...... and if the information requirement for different target groups is not addressed. Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation...

  7. Dead sea water intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Khademi, Floris; Brooks, Rebecca; Maayan, Channa; Tenenbaum, Ariel; Wexler, Isaiah D

    2012-08-01

    Near drowning in the Dead Sea is associated with both respiratory manifestations and severe electrolyte abnormalities. It is often difficult to distinguish between the contributions of sea water aspiration or ingestion to clinical manifestations. We present a unique case of accidental ingestion of a large amount of Dead Sea water through a gastrostomy tube in which a patient with familial dysautonomia presented with severe electrolyte disturbances. Forced diuresis with large amounts of intravenous fluids resulted in clinical and biochemical improvement. Full recovery was achieved after 2 days of treatment.

  8. The north Sulu Sea productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Z.

    2009-12-01

    The Sulu Sea is a part of the western North Pacific. It is a closed sea for its deep water and a semi-closed sea for its upper layer. The Sulu Sea exchanges mainly surface waters with the South China Sea and the Celebes Sea. The Sulu Sea is more productive than the adjacent South China Sea (Jones, 2002). On the basis of MERIS satellite observations from 2002 to 2008, we focus on the high-chlorophyll area as an indicator of the abundance of primary productivity in the Sulu Sea. Strong chlorophyll concentration in the north Sulu Sea close to the Mindoro Strait mainly occurs from December to March and low chlorophyll concentration happens in April to November. The adjacent South China Sea on the other side of Mindoro Strait has shown persistent signs of low chlorophyll concentration. Based on 1/8° Global Navy Coastal Ocean Model, the intrusion of the South China Sea waters through the Mindoro Strait to the Sulu Sea from April to November is the main reason for the low chlorophyll concentration observed in the north Sulu Sea. During April to November, the South China Sea waters flow through the Mindoro Strait and stay on the surface of the north Sulu Sea because of their low density. The north Sulu Sea waters mix with fresher waters coming from the South China Sea without new nutrients supply. When the inflow from South China Sea to Sulu Sea ceases in December to March, the upwelling due to the summer monsoon wind becomes an important mechanism supplying deep nutrients to the surface water which lead to high chlorophyll concentration. Jones, I.S.F., 2002. Primary production in the Sulu Sea. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences-Earth and Planetary Sciences 111, 209-213.

  9. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Pollution of various environments is a consequence of population growth and industrialisation. Coastal seas form part of marine environment and are very rich in minerals, crude oil fishes etc. They are also being used for disposal of wastes from...

  10. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    method.For oceanographic purposes, the altimetric record over the Arctic Ocean is inferiorin quality to that of moderate latitudes, but nonetheless an invaluable set of observations. During this project, newly processed Arctic altimetry from the ERS-1/-2 and Envisat missions has become available......Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...

  11. Sea Scallop Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Sea Scallop Survey began in 1980 and has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey aims to determine the distribution and...

  12. A Sea Floor Penetrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    processed through an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter, and stored in the memory of a mini-computer. Computer algorithms are applied to the deceleration data to provide real-time sea floor classification.

  13. South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  14. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  15. A new species of Cottus from the Onega River drainage, White Sea basin (Actinopterygii: Scorpaeniformes: Cottidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideleva, Valentina G; Naseka, Alexander M; Zhidkov, Zakhar V

    2015-04-29

    Cottus gratzianowi, a new cottid species, is described from material collected in the Ukhtomitsa River in the Onega River drainage, White Sea basin. It differs from its congeners in Europe east of the Meuse except C. koshewnikowi by having no transverse dark bands on the pelvic fin, a single chin canal pore, an incomplete lateral line not reaching behind the anal-fin insertion, and the position of the lateral line which is located considerably above the mid-line of the flank. From C. koshewnikowi distributed in the Volga (Caspian basin), Pechora, and Northern Dvina rivers (Arctic basin), C. gratzianowi sp. nov. can be distinguished by a combination of character states, the most differentiating are as follows: a larger eye (horizontal diameter 23-28% HL, equal to or exceeding snout length vs. 16-25% HL, less than snout length), a rounded caudal fin (vs. commonly truncated), frequent presence of one to three branched rays in median part of the pectoral fin (vs. usual absence), an interrupted supratemporal canal commissure with 4 pores (vs. non-interrupted, with 3 pores), abdominal vertebrae commonly 10 (vs. 11), and contrasting black blotches on all fins including pelvic and anal fins (vs. no blotches on pelvic and anal fins).

  16. USACE Extreme Sea levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-14

    flooding in the Thames Estuary under imaginable worst case sea-level rise scenarios. Int J Water Resour Dev Special Edition Water Disasters 21(4):577...Extreme tide and sea-level events. Technical report, Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Corporate Research Centre. McMillan, A., Batstone, C...Barros V, Stocker TF, Qin D, Dokken DJ, Ebi KL, Mastrandrea MD, Mach KJ, Plattner GK, Allen SK, Tignor M, Midgley PM. A Special Report of Working Groups

  17. Contemporary sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  18. A POSSIBLE TSUNAMI IN THE LABRADOR SEA RELATED TO THE DRAINAGE OF GLACIAL LAKE AGASSIZ ~8400 YEARS B.P.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nirupama

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For thousands of years, the thick Laurentide Ice Sheet covered a large part of northern North America, damming northward-draining rivers. As this ice retreated, large lakes formed along its margin. Glacial Lake Agassiz was the largest of these ice-marginal lakes, covering an area of >800,000 km2 (more than twice the size of the largest lake in the modern world, the Caspian Sea before it drained catastrophically into the Labrador Sea. Even before that, Lake Agassiz had periodically released large volumes of water into the ocean via the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence and the Athabasca-Mackenzie River systems. The last and largest of these outbursts released >150,000 km3 through Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait in 6-12 months; the average flux over that period was ~5 Sv (1 Sv = 1×106 m3s-1.When a volume of water this large is discharged into a coastal sea like the Labrador Sea, it may generate a surface flood wave or a tsunami if the water mass is large enough and introduced in a short time. To our knowledge no previous calculations have been made to estimate the potential impact of a flood burst on the generation of solitary waves. Using analogies of tsunamis generated by submarine landslides and ocean earthquakes, the amplitude of a Lake Agassiz generated tsunami is estimated to have been at least 2 m. Directionality considerations, as well as the effect of the Coriolis Force in the Northern Hemisphere, suggest that the resulting tsunami probably traveled 50-100 km along the west coast of the Labrador Sea, south of Hudson Strait where the outburst entered the ocean, before being dissipated. The erosional and depositional affects of historic and prehistoric tsunamis are present in the geological record, and provide guidance in seeking evidence for the Lake Agassiz flood burst and subsequent tsunami. This record may be found along the western coast of the Labrador Sea as well as along the shores of Hudson Strait.

  19. Projecting future sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  20. The Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining

  1. America's Post-Cold War Energy Strategy and Diplomacy in the Caspian Sea Region%冷战后美国能源战略及其在里海地区的能源外交

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑立锋; 赵景文

    2001-01-01

    里海地区不仅有非常重要的地缘政治地位,而且蕴藏着丰富的油气资源.苏联解体以后,该地区成为大国争夺的新焦点.作为当今世界上最大的石油消费国,美国不仅在政策层面上制定了详细的国家能源安全战略,而且还凭借其强大的政治、经济和军事实力在里海地区开展了不懈的能源外交努力.美国在里海地区的种种能源外交努力,一方面强化了里海沿岸国家"离俄亲美"的倾向,进一步刺激其他大国对该地区的争夺,使该地区的能源开发呈现出更加激烈的竞争局面,从而对世界能源市场的稳定产生深远影响;另一方面由于外资大量流入,也将促进该地区的经济发展和人民生活水平的提高.

  2. 欧盟在中亚-里海地区的能源外交与中欧合作%EU's Energy Diplomacy in Central Asia-Caspian Sea Region and Cooperation with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建生; 崔洪建

    2010-01-01

    欧盟是全球主要的能源消费方和进口方.确保能源安全已成为欧盟内外政策的重点.欧盟推行能源多元化战略,加大了在中亚地区的能源竞争力度.中欧面临相似的能源安全问题.中亚天然气管道开通后,中欧天然气供应源在该地区逐渐交织,双方竞争态势增强.处理好与欧在该地区的能源竞争与合作成为中国能源安全战略的重要关切.

  3. 美国在中亚-里海地区的能源政策评析%Analysis of American Energy Policy in the Central Asia-Caspian Sea Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗振兴

    2005-01-01

    美国在中亚-里海地区的能源政策是其国际能源政策的重要组成部分.本文在简要介绍美国国际能源政策的基础上,集中阐释美国在该地区能源外运线路、商业利益、国家问合作等方面的能源政策,进而对该政策在美国国际能源政策中的地位、原因,以及政策实施过程中所面临的困境进行了探讨.作者认为,美国在中亚-里海地区的能源政策并不以直接满足美国石油供应为目标,而是更多地着眼于平衡全球能源供应、稳定石油价格、保障能源供给多样化等长期的能源战略目标,并服务于美国在该地区的外交战略目标.但除了商业利益之外,美国实现该能源政策的其他目标则面临诸多困难.

  4. Dynamics of sea level variations in the coastal Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, James; Abulnaja, Yasser; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Limeburner, Richard; Lentz, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Sea level variations in the central Red Sea coastal zone span a range of roughly 1.2 m. Though relatively small, these water level changes can significantly impact the environment over the shallow reef tops prevalent in the central Red Sea, altering the water depth by a factor or two or more. While considerable scientific work has been directed at tidal and seasonal variations of Red Sea water level, very little attention has been given to elevation changes in an 'intermediate' frequency band, with periods of 2-30 d, even though motions in this band account for roughly half of the sea level variance in central Red Sea. We examined the sea level signal in this band using AVISO sea level anomaly (SLA) data, COARDAS wind data and measurements from pressure sensors maintained for more than five years at a number of locations in Saudi Arabian coastal waters. Empirical orthogonal function analysis of the SLA data indicates that longer-period (10-30 d) sea level variations in the intermediate band are dominated by coherent motions in a single mode that extends over most of the Red Sea axis. Idealized model results indicate that this large-scale mode of sea level motion is principally due to variations in the large-scale gradient of the along-axis wind. Our analysis indicates that coastal sea level motions at shorter periods (2-10 d) are principally generated by a combination of direct forcing by the local wind stress and forcing associated with large-scale wind stress gradients. However, also contributing to coastal sea level variations in the intermediate frequency band are mesoscale eddies, which are prevalent throughout the Red Sea basin, have a sea level signal of 10's of cm and produce relatively small-scale (order 50 km) changes in coastal sea level.

  5. Air-sea exchange studies at the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Kunz, G.J.; Veefkind, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The North Sea can be considered as a local 'inner' sea in which many processes are quite different from these over the open ocean. The surrounding land has a major influence, being the source for man-made aerosols and gases, whereas the North Sea acts as a sink for these. At the same time the North

  6. Seasonal Change of Steric Sea Level in the GIN Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lei; WANG Huijuan; SUN Ruili

    2011-01-01

    The Greenland Sea, Iceland Sea, and Norwegian Sea (GIN seas) form the main channel connecting the Arctic Ocean with other Oceans, where significant water and energy exchange take place, and play an important role in global climate change. In this study steric sea level, associated with temperature and salinity, in the GIN seas is examined based on analysis of the monthly temperature and salinity fields from Polar science center Hydrographic Climatology (PHC3.0). A method proposed by Tabata et al. is used to calculate steric sea level, in which, steric sea level change due to thermal expansion and haline contraction is termed as the thermosteric component (TC) and the halosteric component (SC), recpectively. Total steric sea level (TSSL) change is the sum of TC and SC. The study shows that SC is making more contributions than TC to the seasonal change of TSSL in the Greenland Sea, whereas TC contributes more in the Norwegian and the Iceland Seas. Annual variation of TSSL is larger than 50ram over most regions of the GIN Seas, and can be larger than 200mm at some locations such as 308mm at 76.5°N, 12.5°E and 246mm at 77.50N, 17.5°W.

  7. Analysis of Sea Spikes in Radar Sea Clutter Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melief, H.W.; Greidanus, H.; Genderen, P. van; Hoogeboom, P.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract—In this paper three sets of high-resolution, coherent, and polarimetric radar sea clutter data are analyzed and compared with radar sea clutter models. The nature of the data allows a thorough analysis of the power, polarization and velocity of the sea clutter. It is shown that these quanti

  8. Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey, conducted from 1991 to 2002 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, was established to record sea duck numbers using near shore...

  9. SEA LEVEL (TOPEX/POSEIDON)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sea level rise is caused by the thermal expansion of sea water due to climate warming and widespread melting of land ice. The TOPEX/POSEIDON mission a joint...

  10. Seafloor Control on Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Rigor, I. G.; Hall, D. K.; Neumann, G.

    2011-01-01

    The seafloor has a profound role in Arctic sea ice formation and seasonal evolution. Ocean bathymetry controls the distribution and mixing of warm and cold waters, which may originate from different sources, thereby dictating the pattern of sea ice on the ocean surface. Sea ice dynamics, forced by surface winds, are also guided by seafloor features in preferential directions. Here, satellite mapping of sea ice together with buoy measurements are used to reveal the bathymetric control on sea ice growth and dynamics. Bathymetric effects on sea ice formation are clearly observed in the conformation between sea ice patterns and bathymetric characteristics in the peripheral seas. Beyond local features, bathymetric control appears over extensive ice-prone regions across the Arctic Ocean. The large-scale conformation between bathymetry and patterns of different synoptic sea ice classes, including seasonal and perennial sea ice, is identified. An implication of the bathymetric influence is that the maximum extent of the total sea ice cover is relatively stable, as observed by scatterometer data in the decade of the 2000s, while the minimum ice extent has decreased drastically. Because of the geologic control, the sea ice cover can expand only as far as it reaches the seashore, the continental shelf break, or other pronounced bathymetric features in the peripheral seas. Since the seafloor does not change significantly for decades or centuries, sea ice patterns can be recurrent around certain bathymetric features, which, once identified, may help improve short-term forecast and seasonal outlook of the sea ice cover. Moreover, the seafloor can indirectly influence cloud cover by its control on sea ice distribution, which differentially modulates the latent heat flux through ice covered and open water areas.

  11. Classification and features of single-well flow units in a carbonate reservoir - Taking the NT oil field at the eastern edge of Pre-Caspian Basin as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zifei; Wang, Shuqin; Liu, Lingli; Li, Jianxin; Zhao, Wenqi; Sun, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the carbonate reservoirs has always been a challenge to geological exploration, while reasonable classification of flow units is the bottleneck in this exploitation. While taking the NT oil field at the eastern edge of Pre-Caspian Basin as an example, this paper proposes the classification of flow units into five categories based on previous flow-unit classification theory and actual oilfield features by using the pore throat radius at the mercury injection saturation of 35% as the main judging criterion. In this paper, the features of various flow units have also been analyzed. The type-I flow units, mainly found in dolomite and algal reef limestone reservoirs, have the highest production capacity. Given the existence of corrosion and dolomitization, they are mainly fracture-cave composite reservoirs or fracture pore reservoirs. As far as the type-I flow units are concerned, the flow index is > 1.42 for KT-I stratum and > 1.55 for KT-II stratum. The production capacity and reservoir quality of type-II-IV flow units would decline in turn. The type-V flow units are argillaceous limestone, with a very low production capacity and a flow index being 0.01-0.05 for KT-I and 0.03-0.05 for KT-II.

  12. Wadden Sea Mud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, P.

    The present thesis deals with the transport phenomena of estuarine cohesive sediment from a laboratory and a numerical point of view. The cohesive sediment used throughout the whole process was natural mud from the Danish part of the Wadden sea, Ho Bay. In the laboratory, the work was concentrated...

  13. Sailing the Cyber Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    years, the Internet 4 years, and the iPod 3 years, while Facebook added 200 million users in less than 1 year. And finally, if Facebook were a... Apple ] gets an iPhone. It’s not an acceptable trade.” New Thinking In the context of security, unleashing the power of the Cyber Sea has changed

  14. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...

  15. Pollution around Malta's sea

    OpenAIRE

    Formosa, Nicolette; Duca, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Marine littering is a global concern and every single year tons of litter end up in the ocean all around the globe. It has become such a problem that the waste has amalgamated into huge ‘islands’ floating in the world’s oceans. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/pollution-around-maltas-sea/

  16. The North Sea - A shelf sea in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeis, Kay-Christian; van Beusekom, Justus; Callies, Ulrich; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Kannen, Andreas; Kraus, Gerd; Kröncke, Ingrid; Lenhart, Hermann; Lorkowski, Ina; Matthias, Volker; Möllmann, Christian; Pätsch, Johannes; Scharfe, Mirco; Thomas, Helmuth; Weisse, Ralf; Zorita, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Global and regional change clearly affects the structure and functioning of ecosystems in shelf seas. However, complex interactions within the shelf seas hinder the identification and unambiguous attribution of observed changes to drivers. These include variability in the climate system, in ocean dynamics, in biogeochemistry, and in shelf sea resource exploitation in the widest sense by societies. Observational time series are commonly too short, and resolution, integration time, and complexity of models are often insufficient to unravel natural variability from anthropogenic perturbation. The North Sea is a shelf sea of the North Atlantic and is impacted by virtually all global and regional developments. Natural variability (from interannual to multidecadal time scales) as response to forcing in the North Atlantic is overlain by global trends (sea level, temperature, acidification) and alternating phases of direct human impacts and attempts to remedy those. Human intervention started some 1000 years ago (diking and associated loss of wetlands), expanded to near-coastal parts in the industrial revolution of the mid-19th century (river management, waste disposal in rivers), and greatly accelerated in the mid-1950s (eutrophication, pollution, fisheries). The North Sea is now a heavily regulated shelf sea, yet societal goals (good environmental status versus increased uses), demands for benefits and policies diverge increasingly. Likely, the southern North Sea will be re-zoned as riparian countries dedicate increasing sea space for offshore wind energy generation - with uncertain consequences for the system's environmental status. We review available observational and model data (predominantly from the southeastern North Sea region) to identify and describe effects of natural variability, of secular changes, and of human impacts on the North Sea ecosystem, and outline developments in the next decades in response to environmental legislation, and in response to

  17. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...... emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... jet in high concentrations of surface active organics and brackish water salinities. The jet produces particles with less cloud condensation activity, implying an increase in organic material in aerosol particles produced by the plunging jet over the frit. In the second paper we determine...

  18. Sea Basing Logistiek

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    iets wat nu voor zware goederen niet mogeljk is met de middelen binnen de Nederlandse krijgsmachit. Nederland heeft bijvoorbeeld (nog) geen specifieke...weer gevechtsklaar zijn. Nederlandse troepen voeren de reconstitute fase in het algemeen uit in Nederland . [Kang&Gue] A special concern in sea based...besluit Nederland zelf in te grijpen. De Nederlandse vredesmissie bevindt zich nabij de kust. maar ver van de grens met buurlanden. De operatie kan niet

  19. SEA/WOMAN

    OpenAIRE

    Furse, Anna F. D.

    2011-01-01

    A new laboratory research performance by Anna Furse, Athletes of the Heart, UK) in collaboration with Maja Mitic (DAH Teatar, Serbia) and Antonella Diana (Teatret OM, Denmark) based on Henrik Ibsen's 'The lady from the sea' (1888). The project is an AHRC/ACE funded project as part of the Pinter Centre for Performance and Creative Writing's Fractured Narratives project. It has been touring in the UK and to Beirut, Lebanon.

  20. SEA/WOMAN

    OpenAIRE

    Furse, Anna F. D.

    2011-01-01

    A new laboratory research performance by Anna Furse, Athletes of the Heart, UK) in collaboration with Maja Mitic (DAH Teatar, Serbia) and Antonella Diana (Teatret OM, Denmark) based on Henrik Ibsen's 'The lady from the sea' (1888).\\ud \\ud The project is an AHRC/ACE funded project as part of the Pinter Centre for Performance and Creative Writing's Fractured Narratives project. It has been touring in the UK and to Beirut, Lebanon.

  1. Dead Sea rhodopsins revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodaker, Idan; Suzuki, Marcelino T; Oren, Aharon; Béjà, Oded

    2012-12-01

    The Dead Sea is a unique hypersaline ecosystem with near toxic magnesium levels (∼2 M), dominance of divalent cations and a slightly acidic pH. Previously, we reported a haloarchaeon related to Halobacterium salinarum to dominate in a microbial bloom that developed in 1992 in the upper water layers of the lake following massive freshwater runoff. Whether this clade also dominated an earlier bloom in 1980-1982 cannot be ascertained as no samples for cultivation-independent analysis were preserved. The presence of the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin was reported in the 1980-1982 bloom of prokaryotes that had developed in the Dead Sea. To test the hypothesis that bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping may play a major role in determining what type of haloarchaea may dominate in specific bloom conditions, we compared rhodopsin genes recovered from Dead Sea biomass collected in different periods with genes coding for retinal proteins in isolated haloarchaea. Novel bacteriorhodopsin and sensory rhodopsin genes were found in samples collected in 2007 and 2010. The fact that no rhodopsin genes were recovered from samples collected during the 1992 bloom, which was dominated by a single species, suggests that different clades were present in the 1980-1982 and 1992 blooms, and that bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping did not necessarily play a determinative role in the dominance of specific halophiles in the blooms.

  2. Bindin from a sea star

    OpenAIRE

    Patiño, Susana; Jan E. Aagaard; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.; Hart, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    The genetic basis for the evolution of development includes genes that encode proteins expressed on the surfaces of sperm and eggs. Previous studies of the sperm acrosomal protein bindin have helped to characterize the adaptive evolution of gamete compatibility and speciation in sea urchins. The absence of evidence for bindin expression in taxa other than the Echinoidea has limited such studies to sea urchins, and led to the suggestion that bindin might be a sea urchin-specific molecule. Here...

  3. Sea Salt Source Function over the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemyslaw; Markuszewski, Piotr; Jankowski, Andrzej; Zieliński, Tymon

    2013-04-01

    Studies of production and transport of aerosol over the sea are very important for many areas of knowledge. Marine aerosol emitted from the sea surface helps to clean the boundary layer from other aerosol particles. The emitted droplets do not dry out in the highly humid surface layer air and because of their sizes most of them are deposited quickly at the sea surface. Therefore, marine aerosol has many features of rain i.e. the deposition in the marine boundary layer in high wind events is controlled not only by the "dry" processes but also by the "wet" scavenging. While many cruises conducted on board S/Y Oceania, we collected many data which were used to calculate sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. Our cruises held between 2009 and 2012. Measurements were carried out using gradient method. For this method we used Laser Particle Counter (PMS model CSASP-100_HV) placed on one oft the mast of S/Y Oceania. Measurements were performed on five different levels around sea level: 8, 11, 14, 17 and 20 meters. Based on the averaged vertical concentration, profiles were calculated, using Monin-Obuchow theory, vertical sea spray fluxes in the near water layer. Based on fluxes calculated from vertical concentration profiles was calculated sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. This function gives emission for different particle size, depending on environmental parameters. Emission of sea spray depends of the size of energy lost by the wind waves in process of collapse. Acknowledgements: The support for this study was provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBałtyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09.

  4. Waves in the seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    to watch. M. J. VARKEY sheds light on how these waves are formed SCIENCE REPORTER [9] MAY 1996 BIMAN BASU OU are on a seashore on a windless day. Watch the sea for some time and you will see regular, long waves run- ning towards the land, steepening... to special sand and wind structures SCIENCE REPORTER [10] MAY 1996 into active role. For a clear un- derstanding of the mechanisms of wave formation it is neces- sary to know some basic as- pects of wind as it blows over the water with low or high ve...

  5. NOAA NDBC SOS - sea_floor_depth_below_sea_surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NDBC SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have sea_floor_depth_below_sea_surface data. Because of the nature of SOS...

  6. EASE-Grid Sea Ice Age

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides weekly estimates of sea ice age for the Arctic Ocean from remotely sensed sea ice motion and sea ice extent. The ice age data are derived from...

  7. Sea modeling and rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

    2010-10-01

    More and more defence and civil applications require simulation of marine synthetic environment. Currently, the "Future Anti-Surface-Guided-Weapon" (FASGW) or "anti-navire léger" (ANL) missile needs this kind of modelling. This paper presents a set of technical enhancement of the SE-Workbench that aim at better representing the sea profile and the interaction with targets. The operational scenario variability is a key criterion: the generic geographical area (e.g. Persian Gulf, coast of Somalia,...), the type of situation (e.g. peace keeping, peace enforcement, anti-piracy, drug interdiction,...)., the objectives (political, strategic, or military objectives), the description of the mission(s) (e.g. antipiracy) and operation(s) (e.g. surveillance and reconnaissance, escort, convoying) to achieve the objectives, the type of environment (Weather, Time of day, Geography [coastlines, islands, hills/mountains]). The paper insists on several points such as the dual rendering using either ray tracing [and the GP GPU optimization] or rasterization [and GPU shaders optimization], the modelling of sea-surface based on hypertextures and shaders, the wakes modelling, the buoyancy models for targets, the interaction of coast and littoral, the dielectric infrared modelling of water material.

  8. The Law of the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jean-Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Recounts problems related to the law of the sea and suggests that these problems could be dealt with in the classroom in an interdisciplinary manner. Problems include pollution control, fishing rights, development of deep sea mineral deposits, and shore access. (Author/DB)

  9. The environmental state at sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatenhove, van J.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Seas and oceans are confronted with a plethora of environmental problems, caused by land-based activities (agriculture, industries, and ports) and by maritime activities (such as shipping, fishing, oil and gas drilling, tourism, and navigational dredging). Environmental problems at sea challenge the

  10. Her Husband Is at Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Out in the sea of China are Chinese offshore oil workers. They battle against wind, waves, loneliness and monotony. Their profession requires not only bravery and endurance from the employees themselves, but also from their spouses. It is because of the wives’support that the husbands can work at sea. This,for women, means double family responsibilities, loneliness, worries and endless waiting.

  11. Plastic in North Sea Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Gruijter, de C.; Mergia, M.T.; Franeker, van J.A.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard, wh

  12. SeaPort-e Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    aquilent.com 22 QUESTIONS?? 23 Back-up 24 Program Evolution Category SeaPort Original (2001 – 2004) SeaPort-Enhanced (2004...Function = Industry User Function External System Interfaces: Create Purchase Request (Navy ERP ) Receive CAR Data (FPDS-NG) Receive Award Documents (EDA) Receive Award Data (SPS)

  13. Arctic Sea Ice Predictability and the Sea Ice Prediction Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Stroeve, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Drastic reductions in Arctic sea ice cover have increased the demand for Arctic sea ice predictions by a range of stakeholders, including local communities, resource managers, industry and the public. The science of sea-ice prediction has been challenged to keep up with these developments. Efforts such as the SEARCH Sea Ice Outlook (SIO; http://www.arcus.org/sipn/sea-ice-outlook) and the Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook have provided a forum for the international sea-ice prediction and observing community to explore and compare different approaches. The SIO, originally organized by the Study of Environmental Change (SEARCH), is now managed by the new Sea Ice Prediction Network (SIPN), which is building a collaborative network of scientists and stakeholders to improve arctic sea ice prediction. The SIO synthesizes predictions from a variety of methods, including heuristic and from a statistical and/or dynamical model. In a recent study, SIO data from 2008 to 2013 were analyzed. The analysis revealed that in some years the predictions were very successful, in other years they were not. Years that were anomalous compared to the long-term trend have proven more difficult to predict, regardless of which method was employed. This year, in response to feedback from users and contributors to the SIO, several enhancements have been made to the SIO reports. One is to encourage contributors to provide spatial probability maps of sea ice cover in September and the first day each location becomes ice-free; these are an example of subseasonal to seasonal, local-scale predictions. Another enhancement is a separate analysis of the modeling contributions. In the June 2014 SIO report, 10 of 28 outlooks were produced from models that explicitly simulate sea ice from dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice models. Half of the models included fully-coupled (atmosphere, ice, and ocean) models that additionally employ data assimilation. Both of these subsets (models and coupled models with data

  14. Sea Surface Temperature Climate Data Record for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Jacob L.; Karagali, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    A 30-yr climate data record (CDR) of sea surface temperature (SST) has been produced with daily gap-free analysis fields for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea region from 1982 to 2012 by combining the Pathfinder AVHRR satellite data record with the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) Reprocessing...... observations on average. Validation against independent in situ observations shows a very stable performance of the data record, with a mean difference of -0.06 °C compared to moored buoys and a 0.46 °C standard deviation of the differences. The mean annual biases of the SST CDR are small for all years......, with a negligible temporal trend when compared against drifting and moored buoys. Analysis of the SST CDR reveals that the monthly anomalies for the North Sea, the Danish straits, and the central Baltic Sea regions show a high degree of correlation for interannual and decadal time scales, whereas the monthly...

  15. Role of sea ice in air-sea exchange and its relation to sea fog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解思梅; 包澄澜; 姜德中; 邹斌

    2001-01-01

    Synchronous or quasi-synchronous stereoscopic sea-ice-air comprehensive observation was conducted during the First China Arctic Expedition in summer of 1999. Based on these data, the role of sea ice in sea-air exchange was studied. The study shows that the kinds, distribution and thickness of sea ice and their variation significantly influence the air-sea heat exchange. In floating ice area, the heat momentum transferred from ocean to atmosphere is in form of latent heat; latent heat flux is closely related to floating ice concentration; if floating ice is less, the heat flux would be larger. Latent heat flux is about 21 23.6 W*m-2, which is greater than sensible heat flux. On ice field or giant floating ice, heat momentum transferred from atmosphere to sea ice or snow surface is in form of sensible heat. In the floating ice area or polynya, sea-air exchange is the most active, and also the most sensible for climate. Also this area is the most important condition for the creation of Arctic vapor fog. The heat exchange of a large-scale vapor fog process of about 500000 km2 on Aug. 21 22,1999 was calculated; the heat momentum transferred from ocean to air was about 14.8×109 kW. There are various kinds of sea fog, radiation fog, vapor fog and advection fog, forming in the Arctic Ocean in summer. One important cause is the existence of sea ice and its resultant complexity of both underlying surface and sea-air exchange.

  16. Sea truth validation of sea WiFS ocean colour sensor in the coastal waters of the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.S.; Suresh, T.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Desa, E.

    Sea will underestimate chlorophyll by up to 30%. Comparison of our in situ normalized water-leaving radiance [Lwn] and chlorophyll measurements at sea with that derived from the SeaWifs colour sensor shows that SeaWifs overestimates both Lwn...

  17. Deformities, PCBs, and TCDD-equivalents in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) of the Upper Great Lakes 1986–1991: Testing a cause-effect hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, James P.; Kurita-Matsuba, Hiroko; Auman, Heidi J.; Ludwig, Matthew E.; Summer, Cheryl L.; Giesy, John P.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Jones, Paul D.

    1996-01-01

    Deformities have been reported in many species of colonial waterbirds from several localities on the Laurentian Great Lakes. The hypothesis that deformities were caused by either polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or contaminants measured as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs) is tested in this review of available data on concentrations of contaminants in eggs and observed deformities in embryos and chicks of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) between 1986 and 1991. Hatched chicks, live and dead eggs retrieved from 37 colonies in the upper Great Lakes were assessed for gross anatomical deformities. Rates of embryo death from seven regions of the upper Great Lakes were measured annually between 1986–1991. Half the embryos found dead in eggs were deformed. Nineteen types of abnormalities or deformities were observed. Subcutaneous edema in cormorants and gastroschisis in terns were the most common abnormalities in live or dead eggs. One of ten crossed-billed cormorant embryos survived to hatch. No bill-deformed terns hatched, although tern embryos had a greater rate of crossed-bills than cormorants. The suite of deformities and abnormalities found was similar to that produced in chickens by exposure to planar polychlorinated biphenyl (pPCB) and dioxin congeners. Hatching and deformity rates were correlated with concentrations ofpPCBs and TCDD-EQs. Planar PCB congeners that contributed most of the TCDD-EQs were present at concentrations sufficient to cause the observed effects. TCDD-EQs measured by H4IIE rat hepatoma cell 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) bioassay were highly correlated with deformity rates observed in cormorant chicks, live and dead eggs, and egg death rates. Similar correlations of TCDD-EQs with deformity rates were found in hatched tern chicks, dead eggs, and egg death rates, but not in live eggs. TCDD-EQs were more highly correlated to deformity and embryo death rates

  18. Sea surface temperature anomalies in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.

    . Further analysis has shown that the sea surface anomalies are well correlated to the anomalies of air temperature and latent heat flux values; whereas they are least correlated to the anomalies of wind stress and net radiation values, except over...

  19. Iridium in sea-water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresco, J; Weiss, H V; Phillips, R B; Askeland, R A

    1985-08-01

    Iridium in sea-water has been measured (after isolation from the saline matrix by reduction with magnesium) by neutron bombardment, radiochemical purification and high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. The concentration obtained in a Pacific coastal water was 1.02 +/- 0.26 x 10(-14) g per g of sea-water. At such extremely low concentrations, seawater is an extremely unlikely source for anomalously high iridium concentrations measured in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary layer of deep-sea sediments.

  20. Iridium in sea-water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresco, J.; Weiss, H.V.; Phillips, R.B.; Askeland, R.A.

    1985-08-01

    Iridium in sea-water has been measured (after isolation from the saline matrix by reduction with magnesium) by neutron bombardment, radiochemical purification and high resolution ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy. The concentration obtained in a Pacific coastal water was 1.02 +- 0.26 x 10/sup 14/ g per g of sea-water. At such extremely low concentrations, seawater is an extremely unlikely source for anomalously high iridium concentrations measured in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary layer of deep-sea sediments.

  1. Is sea-level rising?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    be converted into sea level height by using the hydrostatic equation. Radar gauge uses a radar sensor, kept at a height looking down the sea, sends out a pulse of radio waves and measures the travel time to be reflected off the surface and back... to the sensor. By using the travel time and the speed of radio waves one can estimate the sea surface height. The tide gauge data have been analysed and used to predict the time of ‘high tide’ and ‘low tide’, which are used by ships to decide the timing...

  2. Open Kazakhstan, the Beating Heart of Eurasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Kazakhstan lies in the north of the central Asian republics and is bounded by Russia in the north, China in the east, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan in the south, and the Caspian Sea and part of Turkmenistan in the west. It has almost 1,177 mi (about 1,894 km) of coastline on the Caspian Sea.

  3. Summer sea ice characteristics of the Chukchi Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    During August 1999, we investigated sea ice characteristics; its distribution, surface feature, thickness, ice floe movement, and the temperature field around inter-borders of air/ice/seawater in the Chukchi Sea. Thirteen ice cores were drilled at 11 floe stations in the area of 72°24′ 77°18′N, 153°34′ 163°28′W and the ice core structure was observed. From field observation, three melting processes of ice were observed; surface layer melting, surface and bottom layers melting, and all of ice melting. The observation of temperature fields around sea ice floes showed that the bottom melting under the ice floes were important process. As ice floes and open water areas were alternately distributed in summer Arctic Ocean; the water under ice was colder than the open water by 0.4 2.8℃. The sun radiation heated seawater in open sea areas so that the warmer water went to the bottom when the ice floes move to those areas. This causes ice melting to start at the bottom of the ice floes. This process can balance effectively the temperature fluctuating in the sea in summer. From the crystalline structure of sea ice observed from the cores, it was concluded that the ice was composed of ice crystals and brine-ice films. During the sea ice melting, the brine-ice films between ice crystals melted firstly; then the ice crystals were encircled by brine films; the sea ice became the mixture of ice and liquid brine. At the end of melting, the ice crystals would be separated each other, the bond between ice crystals weakens and this leads to the collapse of the ice sheet.

  4. SMOS Sea Surface Salinity Validation in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongzheng; Li, Xiaoming; Dong, Qing

    2013-01-01

    In November 2009, the European Space Agency (ESA) launched the first soil moisture and ocean salinity (SMOS) satellite, which represented the first use of spaceborne remote sensing tools to probe global sea surface salinity (SSS). The SMOS satellite carries a microwave imaging radiometer with aperture synthesis (MIRAS) for detection in the microwave L-band as the only payload. The MIRAS instrument is expected to provide a global SSS distribution with a spatial resolution of approximately 100 km and an accuracy of 0.1-0.2 practical salinity units (psu). The South China Sea is semi-enclosed, and the sea conditions are relatively complex. The suitability of ESA SMOS salinity products for the South China Sea has not been validated. Therefore, using SSS data measured during an expedition in the South China Sea, which was sponsored by China Natural Science Foundation and conducted in the fall of 2011, this paper validated the SSS products released by ESA, which were retrieved using three sea surface roughness models. To analyze the effect of the spatial resolution on the weekly average SMOS SSS distribution, the weekly average salinity data were averaged to reduce the spatial resolution to 0.25 ° x 0.25°. These average data were then compared to the measured data, followed by an analysis of the error variation. In addition, the effects of the orbital track (ascending or descending) on the SSS retrieval were analyzed.

  5. Spirulina culture in sea water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Materassi, R.; Tredici, M.; Waldemaro, B.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory experiments using small raceway ponds have shown that Spirulina maxima can be adapted easily to grow in sea-water supplemented with nitrate, phosphate, bicarbonate, and Fe-EDTA. To prevent precipitate formation, phosphate was supplied by diffusion through a dialysis membrane; the amount of Na-bicarbonate added was low (100 ppm) and the pH was kept in the range 8.6 - 8.8 by bubbling CO/sub 2/ into the culture. No significant differences have been noticed in productivity or in the chemical composition of the biomass between cultures in sea-water and in the standard bicarbonate medium. Cultures subjected to light/dark cycles of 12/12 hours showed a higher respiration rate in sea-water than in the bicarbonate medium. The higher weight loss in the sea-water medium in the dark was counterbalanced by an increased synthesis of carbohydrates during the light period. 9 references.

  6. Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2010-06-01

    Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristics of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.

  7. Sea otter studies in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The final objective of the present Fish and Wildlife sea otter program is to learn enough of the ecology, population, reproductive potential, and requirements in...

  8. A Can of Sea Worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Donald J.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the free-living worms that inhabit the beaches and subtidal bottoms of the Cape Cod shoreline is presented. Methods for the location, collection, preservation, and identification of sea worms are identified. (BT)

  9. Black Sea Bass genetic connectivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microsatellite analysis of black sea bass was undertaken to determine magnitude and direction of mixing of black seabass across the Hatteras boundary, as well as...

  10. Towards Good Order at Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Vreÿ, Francois

    . The problems originating from the resultant “bad order at sea” can be directly felt on land, when smuggling, terrorism and related criminal activities operate more or less unhindered. The book provides an important mapping of the challenges preventing good order at sea off the African coast and East Africa......This book addresses a timely and important theme in the debate on how to create good governance at sea in general, but specifically in the Western Indian Ocean. In a security milieu where the number of piracy attacks originating from Somalia has decreased, there is an urgent need to address...... structural problems facing attempts to create and maintain good order at sea off East Africa. As mentioned in one of the chapters, the most secure place for a criminal in East Africa to be is at sea, because most African littoral states have only limited capacity to police their territorial waters...

  11. Sea bed mapping and inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 24 presentations on the topics: Sea bed mapping, inspection, positioning, hydrography, marine archaeology, remote operation vehicles and computerized simulation technologies, oil field activities and plans, technological experiences and problems. (tk)

  12. Dynamic Topography of the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Bering Sea. Comparisons also indicate that MDT estimates derived from the latest Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment geoid model have more in common...with the presented sea surface topography than with the MDTs based on earlier versions of the geoid . The presented MDT will increase the accuracy of...estimating the geoid in the Bering Sea. 15. SUBJECT TERMS dynamic topography, sea surface height, Bering Sea, 4DVar 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a

  13. Alien seas oceans in space

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Rosaly

    2013-01-01

    In the early days of planetary observation, oceans were thought to exist in all corners of the Solar System. Carbonated seas percolated beneath the clouds of Venus. Features on the Moon's surface were given names such as "the Bay of Rainbows” and the "Ocean of Storms." With the advent of modern telescopes and spacecraft exploration these ancient concepts of planetary seas have been replaced by the reality of something even more exotic. Alien Seas serves up the current research, past beliefs, and new theories to offer a rich array of the "seas" on other worlds. It is organized by location and by the material composing the oceans under discussion, with expert authors penning chapters on their  specialty. Each chapter features new original art depicting alien seas, as well as the latest ground-based and spacecraft images. With the contributors as guides, readers can explore the wild seas of Jupiter's watery satellite Europa, believed similar in composition to battery acid. Saturn's planet-sized moon Titan see...

  14. Sea otter investigation, Amchitka Island, 1954, and proposed plan of research for sea otters

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes a sea otter investigation on Amchitka Island during 1954 and a proposed plan of research for sea otters. The report covers capturing wild sea...

  15. Deep-sea Hexactinellida (Porifera) of the Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janussen, Dorte; Tabachnick, Konstantin R.; Tendal, Ole S.

    2004-07-01

    New Hexactinellida from the deep Weddel Sea are described. This moderately diverse hexactinellid fauna includes 14 species belonging to 12 genera, of which five species and one subgenus are new to science: Periphragella antarctica n. sp., Holascus pseudostellatus n. sp., Caulophacus (Caulophacus) discohexactinus n. sp., C. ( Caulodiscus) brandti n. sp., C. ( Oxydiscus) weddelli n. sp., and C. ( Oxydiscus) n. subgen. So far, 20 hexactinellid species have been reported from the deep Weddell Sea, 15 are known from the northern part and 10 only from here, while 10 came from the southern area, and five of these only from there. However, this apparent high "endemism" of Antarctic hexactinellid sponges is most likely the result of severe undersampling of the deep-sea fauna. We find no reason to believe that a division between an oceanic and a more continental group of species exists. The current poor database indicates that a substantial part of the deep hexactinellid fauna of the Weddell Sea is shared with other deep-sea regions, but it does not indicate a special biogeographic relationship with any other ocean.

  16. Toxic Algae and Early Warning Management in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song; Lun; Song; Guangjun; Song; Yonggang; Xu; Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    The research status of toxic algae in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea are reviewed from the aspects of toxicity characteristics,toxic mechanism and early warning management,and the existing toxic algae and their toxicity in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea are analyzed in the paper. The early warning level of toxic algae in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China is put forward,and the research direction of shellfish poisoning in future is summarized.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

    1991-12-31

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

  19. Dead sea asphalts: historical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A.

    1978-05-01

    Asphalts are present in the Dead Sea basin in three forms: (1) huge blocks, up to 100 tons in weight, composed of extremely pure (>99.99%) solid asphalt occasionally found floating on the lake, (2) veins, seepages, and cavity and fissure fillings in Lower Cretaceous to Holocene rocks, and (3) ozocerite veins on the eastern shore of the lake. Dead Sea asphalts probably have been documented over a longer period of time than any other hydrocarbon deposit--from antiquity to the 19th century. Major uses of asphalt from the Dead Sea have been as an ingredient in the embalming process, for medicinal purposes, for fumigation, and for agriculture. The first known war for control of a hydrocarbon deposit was in the Dead Sea area in 312 B.C. between the Seleucid Syrians and the Nabatean Arabs who lived around the lake. Surface manifestations of asphalt are linked closely to tectonic activity. In the lake itself, the asphalt is associated with diapirs During certain historic periods, tectonic and diapiric activity caused frequent liberation to the Dead Sea surface of semiliquid asphalt associated with large amounts of hydrogen sulfide gas. When the tectonic activity was attenuated, as in the 19th and 20th centuries, the rate of asphalt seepage to the bottom sediments of the Dead Sea was much slower and the asphalt solidified on the lake bottom. The release of asphalt to the surface became much more sporadic, and may have resulted in part from earthquakes. Thus, future asphalt prospecting in the Dead Sea area should be conducted along the boundaries of diapirs or their associated faults.

  20. Understanding the Amundsen Sea Low

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    The Amundsen Sea Low (ASL) is a climatological low pressure system located between 170-300 ° E and 60-75°S and is a key component of the non-zonal climatological circulation at high southern latitudes. With reanalysis output identifying that climatologically the low in the Amundsen Sea is the deepest of three mean sea level pressure (MSLP) centres observed around Antarctica. The ASL strongly modulates West Antarctic climate with impacts on sea ice extent, temperature and precipitation, via its controlling influence on the variability of the meridional wind field. It has also been shown to have a significant influence on the atmospheric circulation in the Ross Sea region and to strongly modulate temperature and moisture advection over the Antarctic Peninsula. Previous work has demonstrated strong relationships between the depth of the ASL and cyclone densities in the region. However, interestingly a recent review identified that it is not easy to relate the storm density and depths of the cyclones to the climatological ASL, since the climatological location of the ASL does not occur at a clear maximum of storm activity. This study examines output from the ERA-interim reanalyses around Antarctica to further understand the contributors to the climatological pattern, partially in an effort to identify whether a more physically meaningful ASL depth index (normally simply defined as the monthly minimum MSLP) can be created. In this effort, storm track data derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis and mean sea level pressure data bandpass filtered to accentuate synoptic scale variability are first examined. The contribution of persistent positive anomalies in the mean sea level pressure (defined as 8hPa positive anomalies from the climatological mean for a period of 5 days) in the region surrounding the Amundsen sea is also examined to identify whether blocking plays a role. Finally, the frequency of persistent negative anomalies (defined as a negative 8hPa occurring for

  1. Integrating out the Dirac sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karbstein, Felix

    2009-07-08

    We introduce a new method for dealing with fermionic quantum field theories amenable to a mean-field-type approximation. In this work we focus on the relativistic Hartree approximation. Our aim is to integrate out the Dirac sea and derive a no-sea effective theory'' with positive energy single particle states only. As the derivation of the no-sea effective theory involves only standard Feynman diagrams, our approach is quite general and not restricted to particular space-time dimensions. We develop and illustrate the approach in the ''large N'' limit of the Gross-Neveu model family in 1+1 dimensions. As the Gross-Neveu model has been intensely studied and several analytical solutions are known for this model, it is an ideal testing ground for our no-sea effective theory approach. The chiral Gross-Neveu model, also referred to as 1+1 dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, turns out to be of particular interest. In this case, we explicitly derive a consistent effective theory featuring both elementary ''{pi} meson'' fields and (positive energy) ''quark'' fields, starting from a purely fermionic quantum field theory. In the second part of this work, we apply our approach to the Walecka model in 1+1 and 3+1 dimensions. As the Dirac sea caused considerable difficulties in attempts to base nuclear physics on field theoretic models like the Walecka model, mean-field calculations were typically done without the sea. We confront several of these mean-field theory results with our no-sea effective theory approach. The potential of our approach is twofold. While the no-sea effective theory can be utilized to provide new analytical insights in particular parameter regimes, it also sheds new light on more fundamental issues as the explicit emergence of effective, Dirac-sea induced multi-fermion interactions in an effective theory with positive energy states only. (orig.)

  2. Sea Ice Concentration and Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2014-01-01

    Among the most seasonal and most dynamic parameters on the surface of the Earth is sea ice which at any one time covers about 3-6% of the planet. In the Northern Hemisphere, sea ice grows in extent from about 6 x 10(exp 6) sq km to 16 x 10(exp 6) sq km, while in the Southern Hemisphere, it grows from about 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km to about 19 x 10(exp 6) sq km (Comiso, 2010; Gloersen et al., 1992). Sea ice is up to about 2-3 m thick in the Northern Hemisphere and about 1 m thick in the Southern Hemisphere (Wadhams, 2002), and compared to the average ocean depth of about 3 km, it is a relatively thin, fragile sheet that can break due to waves and winds or melt due to upwelling of warm water. Being constantly advected by winds, waves, and currents, sea ice is very dynamic and usually follows the directions of the many gyres in the polar regions. Despite its vast expanse, the sea ice cover was previously left largely unstudied and it was only in recent years that we have understood its true impact and significance as related to the Earths climate, the oceans, and marine life.

  3. Iodine emissions from the sea ice of the Weddell Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Atkinson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Iodine compounds were measured above, below and within the sea ice of the Weddell Sea during a cruise in 2009, to make progress in elucidating the mechanism of local enhancement and volatilisation of iodine. I2 mixing ratios of up to 12.4 pptv were measured 10 m above the sea ice, and up to 31 pptv was observed above surface snow on the nearby Brunt Ice Shelf – large amounts. Atmospheric IO of up to 7 pptv was measured from the ship, and the average sum of HOI and ICl was 1.9 pptv. These measurements confirm the Weddell Sea as an iodine hotspot. Average atmospheric concentrations of CH3I, C2H5I, CH2ICl, 2-C3H7I, CH2IBr and 1-C3H7I were each 0.2 pptv or less. On the Brunt Ice Shelf, enhanced concentrations of CH3I and C2H5I (up to 0.5 and 1 pptv respectively were observed in firn air, with a diurnal profile that suggests the snow may be a source. In the sea ice brine, iodocarbons concentrations were over 10 times those of the sea water below. The sum of iodide + iodate was depleted in sea ice samples, suggesting some missing iodine chemistry. Flux calculations suggest I2 dominates the iodine atom flux to the atmosphere, but models cannot reconcile the observations and suggest either a missing iodine source or other deficiencies in our understanding of iodine chemistry. The observation of new particle formation, consistent with the model predictions, strongly suggests an iodine source. This combined study of iodine compounds is the first of its kind in this unique region of sea ice rich in biology and rich in iodine chemistry.

  4. Iodine emissions from the sea ice of the Weddell Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Atkinson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Iodine compounds were measured above, below and within the sea ice of the Weddell Sea during a cruise in 2009, to elucidate the mechanism of local enhancement and volatilisation of iodine. I2 mixing ratios of up to 12.4 pptv were measured 10 m above the sea ice, and up to 31 pptv was observed above surface snow on the nearby Brunt Ice Shelf – large amounts. Atmospheric IO of up to 7 pptv was measured from the ship, and the average sum of HOI and ICl was 1.9 pptv. These measurements confirm the Weddell Sea as an iodine hotspot. Average atmospheric concentrations of CH3I, C2H5I, CH2ICl, 2-C3H7I, CH2IBr and 1-C3H7I were each 0.2 pptv or less. On the Brunt Ice Shelf, enhanced concentrations of CH3I and C2H5I (up to 0.5 and 1 pptv, respectively were observed in firn air, with a diurnal profile that suggests the snow may be a source. In the sea ice brine, iodocarbons concentrations were over 10 times those of the sea water below. The sum of iodide + iodate was depleted in sea ice samples, suggesting some missing iodine chemistry. Flux calculations suggest I2 dominates the iodine atom flux to the atmosphere, but models cannot reconcile the observations and suggest either a missing iodine source or other deficiencies in our understanding of iodine chemistry. The observation of new particle formation, consistent with the model predictions, strongly suggests an iodine source. This combined study of iodine compounds is the first of its kind in this unique region of sea ice rich in biology and rich in iodine chemistry.

  5. Alone by the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ferić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 1.At first the island is just a sign on a yellow board with a drawing of a vessel and the letters saying “Car Ferry,” then it is a grayish silhouette in the blue of the sea, and then, later still, an acquaintance working on the ferry, who just nods briefly in greeting. Jablanac, ferry port, its pleasant lobby, and then, from the upper deck, a giant rock approaching. That is the object of a year-long desire: the moment of stepping off the boat and smelling the rosemary, diesel and sheep droppings, seeing the sharp rocks looking at the Strait of Senj, coarse limestone in sharp opposition to the signs that say: Benvenuti, Welcome, Willkommen!At home, on the terrace, in the shade of the oleander, there’s no wish to eat. Only swimming trunks are put on and then, barefoot, without a towel or sun-tanning lotion, off to the beach.“Why won’t you eat something?” grandma asks.She knows that there’s an exciting world waiting out there, but she knows nothing of the details. All friends went on a boat trip. And suddenly one step from the shade of a path covered with oleanders and acacias leads into the burning sun of the afternoon. The light screams, just like children in the water, just like white objects that radiate as if there are some powerful light bulbs within. The feeling of freedom of someone who has just arrived in a foreign place and can now do anything. There’s no one familiar on the beach, they all got in the boat and left. The seafront leading to the camp is full of people, naked children with dirty faces licking ice cream, young families pushing strollers, groups of teenagers who have just woken up from their last night’s party. But there’s no one that must be greeted. The feeling of freedom that’s at the same time close to death. Suddenly, all paths are open. That there are no obligations or friends waiting, this afternoon, until they come back, is a complete boon.

  6. On The Black Sea Surozhian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Corneliu, Cerchia

    2016-04-01

    Some Black Sea researchers still support the idea of no other connection to the Mediterranean Sea between LGM and Karangatian Stage (Riss - Wurm). We try to clarify the source of these disagreements. C14 AMS age data (HERAS Project) made on undisturbed samples from a new Mamaia drilling hole where compared with the classical Black Sea stratigraphic schemes. A first transgressive event (Zone D) is found between 38.00 - 20.20 m depth. Zone D4 shows a fairly rapid rise of sea level, about 10 m below the present one indicating an inner shelf marine polyhaline environment. AMS age data show 14C ages between 53690 - 47359 y (MIS 1), corresponding to the "Surozhian Beds" of Popov. The "beach rock" from Zone E marks the decrease of the sea level after the maximum reached in Zone D4. Zone E mollusc shells AMS data, indicate 14C ages of 48724 - 44604 y, suggesting a long-time reworked material from the previous D4 zone sediments, and represents the beginning of the "regressive Tarkankutian" sequence.The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) led to the retreat of the sea level down to about 100 m below the current one (27-17 ky BP), followed by an retreat of the shoreline to the present position. At the beginning of the Holocene - MIS 1 (8408-8132 cal. y BP), Black Sea brackish water level grew rapidly, up to -14 m below the present one (Zone F: 22, 57-20, 20 m). Zone F deposits could be correlated with the Bugazian strata. Then, a continuous rising of the Black Sea level is recorded up to a maximum of -2 m under the present one, about 6789 - 7063 cal. y BP, when a transgressive spurt ("Neolithic transgression") may have taken place. After that, given a weak Danubian sedimentary input, coastal erosion intensified. The coarse sandy sediments were reworked and pushed over the previous peat deposits, and suggest a classical "sedimentary regression", not a sea-level decrease. During the last 1.5 ky, sea level has risen towards the current one. Previous C14 dates from "Karangatian

  7. GHRSST Level 4 DMI_OI North Sea and Baltic Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis by the Danish...

  8. The politics of SEA indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    2013-01-01

    The use of indicators is not only technical and science-led, but also a value-laden social process, and thus concerns public participation, political judgment and decision-making. This article approaches the Chinese SEA indicator system from a science-policy interface and aims at: 1) contributing...... to the general recognition of indicators functioning at science-policy interfaces in SEA, and 2) analysing, through a Chinese case-study, to what extent national guidelines mediate the science-policy interaction. The overall finding is a strong emphasis on technical/science aspects found in the Chinese SEA...... guidance, and a weak explicit recognition that policy plays a role in choosing and using indicators. Recent development, however, indicates a growing recognition of the politics involved and thus also leads to more involvement of stakeholders....

  9. How SEA can inform lenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banhalmi-Zakar, Zsuzsa; Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    SEA can be a powerful tool to improve decision-making for plans, policies and programmes, but it can also be a useful for banks. SEA can help lenders address the reputational risks they are exposed to through financing projects that may have a negative impact on the environment and it can also help...... with identifying the financial incentives that ‘green’ projects attract. Although bank lending decisions apply to projects, examination of the lending practices of an Australian and a Hungarian bank have shown that decisions about the type of projects to target or avoid are also made at strategic level......, such as in the credit policies. It was also found that in some cases lenders become involved in project planning at a very early stage, when projects are conceptualized, and certainly before formal approval is sought from relevant authorities and an EIA is conducted. This suggests that SEA can be a useful tool...

  10. EXPERIMENTS OF SEA ICE SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xi-ying; ZHANG Xue-hong; YU Ru-cong; LIU Hai-long; YU Yong-qiang

    2005-01-01

    As a substitute for the original displaced pole grids, a simple rotated spherical coordinate system was introduced into the Community Sea Ice Model version 4(CSIM4), which is a component of the Community Climate System Model(CCSM) of the American National Center of Atmospheric Research(NCAR), to deal with the "pole problems".In the new coordinates, both the geographical North Pole and South Pole lie in the model equator and grid sizes near the polar region are more uniform.With reanalysis dataset of American National Centers for Environment Prediction(NCEP) and Levitus dataset without considering sub-mixed layer heat flux, the model was integrated for 100 years with thermodynamics process involved only in the former 49 years and both dynamic and thermodynamic processes involved in the left time.Inner consistency of model results was checked with no contradiction found.The results of last 10 years' model output were analyzed and it is shown that the simulated sea ice seasonal variation is rational whereas sea ice extent in the Barents Sea in winter is larger than that of observation.Numerical experiment on influence of sub-mixed layer heat flux was also carried out and it is shown that the sub-mixed layer heat flux can modulate seasonal variation of sea ice greatly.As a model component, the sea ice model with rotated spherical coordinates was coupled with other models (the oceanic general circulation model is the LASG/IAP Climate System Ocean Model(LICOM) with reduced grid, other models are components of NCAR CCSM2) forming a climate system model and its preliminary results were also given briefly.

  11. Mapping the deep sea floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    By the early 20th century, oceanographers intensified their efforts to map the deep sea. The great depth of the Philippine Trench was first observed by the German Planet Expedition in 1912. During World War II, the US naval vessel Cape Johnson used directional echo-sounding to obtain a depth of 10...... Trench in order to map its bathymetric features. The resulting maps are presented in this poster. Unlike many other contemporary developments in deep sea topography and cartography that were shaped by the Cold War, the Galathea maps of the Philippine Trench were intimately connected with the expedition...

  12. Sailing In Sea of Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The law of big fish swallowing little fish has expired when it comes to the era of new economy.What prevails nowadays in the sea of commerce is quick fish swallowing slow fish.In the Internet economy,small companies are not destined to lose to giants,but slow ones are doomed to become prey of their quick counterparts. The swiftly rising Yongkang Group has made a breakthrough in dental treatment by translating the law into practice.It is called"Law of the Sea."‘Law of the Sea’

  13. Black Sea coastal forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kubryakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

  14. Sea-State Engineering Analysis System (SEAS). Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    New revised editions/supplements will be issued as other new data sets or capabilities are added to SEAS. 20 ,S’Rl9U’ ON, AVAILABILTY OF ABSTRACT 121...system resource usage prints). 9.2.3 Disconnect the telephone receiver from the terminal. 9.2.4 Turn the terminal power switch to the "OFF" position. kt

  15. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data collected from North Atlantic Ocean, White Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Sea of Azov from 1924-03-19 to 1989-11-19 by multiple Soviet Union institutes (NODC Accession 0077413)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data collected from North Atlantic Ocean, White Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Sea of Azov from 1924-03-19 to 1989-11-19...

  16. Implementing the European SEA Directive in planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone

    The paper describes how the European SEA Directive can complement the existing planning practice in Denmark.......The paper describes how the European SEA Directive can complement the existing planning practice in Denmark....

  17. Quarterly Fishery Surveys - Salton Sea [ds428

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In the spring of 2003, California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) personnel began quarterly sampling of Salton Sea fish at fourteen stations around the sea, as...

  18. Range Extent for southern sea otters 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS shapefile "Range extent of southern sea otters 2016" is a simple polyline representing the geographic distribution of the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris...

  19. Erective Sea Embankment with PCC Piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Han-long; FEI Kang; DENG An; ZHANG Ting

    2005-01-01

    The sea embankment is a critical civil works in marine and coastal engineering. In this study, an innovative technique is proposed for constructing erective sea embankments. In the construction of sea embankments, this technique integrates PCC pile installation, PVDs drainage systems, and geotextile reinforcements, resulting in sea embankments with PCC piles. In the application of a sea embankment with PCC piles, PCC piles are employed as the retaining structures;the soft sea ground inside PCC piles is drained and improved by PVDs and vacuum-surcharge combined preloading; geotextile-reinforced backfills lying over the improved soft ground form the embankment body. Brief descrptions of the fundamentals, design and construction of the sea embankment with PCC piles are presented. A case study on the stability of sea embankment with PCC piles is presented as well.

  20. 2010 USGS Lidar: Salton Sea (CA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The USGS Salton Sea project encompasses a 5-kilometer buffer around the Salton Sea, California. Dewberry classified LiDAR for a project boundary that touches 623...

  1. Sea turtles sightings in North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea turtles sightings are reported to the NMFS Beaufort Laboratory sea turtle program by the general public as they are fishing, boating, etc. These sightings...

  2. Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature analysis derived from the International Comprehensive...

  3. SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets (www.seadatanet.org)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Maudire, Gilbert

    2010-05-01

    from the beginning. It is able to support a wide variety of data types and to serve several sector communities. SeaDataNet is willing to share its technologies and expertise, to spread and expand its approach, and to build bridges to other well established infrastructures in the marine domain. Therefore SeaDataNet has developed a strategy of seeking active cooperation on a national scale with other data holding organisations via its NODC networks and on an international scale with other European and international data management initiatives and networks. This is done with the objective to achieve a wider coverage of data sources and an overall interoperability between data infrastructures in the marine and ocean domains. Recent examples are e.g. the EU FP7 projects Geo-Seas for geology and geophysical data sets, UpgradeBlackSeaScene for a Black Sea data management infrastructure, CaspInfo for a Caspian Sea data management infrastructure, the EU EMODNET pilot projects, for hydrographic, chemical, and biological data sets. All projects are adopting the SeaDataNet standards and extending its services. Also active cooperation takes place with EuroGOOS and MyOcean in the domain of real-time and delayed mode metocean monitoring data. SeaDataNet Partners: IFREMER (France), MARIS (Netherlands), HCMR/HNODC (Greece), ULg (Belgium), OGS (Italy), NERC/BODC (UK), BSH/DOD (Germany), SMHI (Sweden), IEO (Spain), RIHMI/WDC (Russia), IOC (International), ENEA (Italy), INGV (Italy), METU (Turkey), CLS (France), AWI (Germany), IMR (Norway), NERI (Denmark), ICES (International), EC-DG JRC (International), MI (Ireland), IHPT (Portugal), RIKZ (Netherlands), RBINS/MUMM (Belgium), VLIZ (Belgium), MRI (Iceland), FIMR (Finland ), IMGW (Poland), MSI (Estonia), IAE/UL (Latvia), CMR (Lithuania), SIO/RAS (Russia), MHI/DMIST (Ukraine), IO/BAS (Bulgaria), NIMRD (Romania), TSU (Georgia), INRH (Morocco), IOF (Croatia), PUT (Albania), NIB (Slovenia), UoM (Malta), OC/UCY (Cyprus), IOLR (Israel), NCSR

  4. Late glacial to Holocene water level and climate changes in the Gulf of Gemlik, Sea of Marmara: evidence from multi-proxy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filikci, Betül; Eriş, Kürşad Kadir; Çağatay, Namık; Sabuncu, Asen; Polonia, Alina

    2017-02-01

    Multi-proxy analyses of new piston core M13-08 together with seismic data from the Gulf of Gemlik provide a detailed record of paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic changes with special emphasis on the timing of the connections between the Sea of Marmara (SoM) and the Gulf of Gemlik during the late Pleistocene to Holocene. The deposition of a subaqueous delta sourced from the Armutlu River to the north is attributed to the lowstand lake level at -60 m in the gulf prior to 13.5 cal ka BP. On the basis of the seismic data, it is argued that the higher lake level (-60 m) in the gulf compared to the SoM level (-85 m) attests to its disconnection from the SoM during the late glacial period. Ponto-Caspian assemblages in the lacustrine sedimentary unit covering the time period between 13.5 and 12 cal ka BP represent a relict that was introduced into the gulf by a Black Sea outflow during the marine isotope stage 3 interstadial. Contrary to the findings of previous studies, the data suggest that such an outflow into the Gulf of Gemlik during the late glacial period could have occurred only if the SoM lake level (-85 m) was shallower than the sill depth (-55 m) of the gulf in the west. A robust age model of the core indicates the connection of the gulf with the marine SoM at 12 cal ka BP, consistent with the sill depth (-55 m) of the gulf on the global sea level curve. Strong evidence of a marine incursion into the gulf is well documented by the μ-XRF Sr/Ca data. The available profiles of elemental ratios in core M13-08, together with the age-depth model, imply that a warm and wet climate prevailed in the gulf during the early Holocene (12-10.1 cal ka BP), whereas the longest drought occurred during the middle Holocene (8.2-5.4 cal ka BP). The base of the main Holocene sapropel in the gulf is dated at 10.1 cal ka BP, i.e., 500 years younger than its equivalent in the SoM. The late Holocene is earmarked by warm and wet climate periods (5.0-4.2 and 4.2-2.7 cal ka BP) with some

  5. Estimating sea floor dynamics in the Southern North Sea to improve bathymetric survey planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorst, Leendert Louis

    2009-01-01

    Safe nautical charts require a carefully designed bathymetric survey policy, especially in shallow sandy seas that potentially have dynamic sea floor patterns. Bathymetric resurveying at sea is a costly process with limited resources, though. A pattern on the sea floor known as tidal sand waves is c

  6. 50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) ATLANTIC COASTAL FISHERIES COOPERATIVE... must: (1) Notify the sea sampler/observer of any sea turtles, marine mammals, or other specimens taken by the vessel. (2) Provide the sea sampler/observer with sea turtles, marine mammals, or...

  7. Multiscale Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 Multiscale Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice Kenneth M. Golden University of Utah, Department of Mathematics phone: (801) 581-6851...feedback has played a major role in the recent declines of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. However, understanding the evolution of melt ponds and sea...Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER

  8. Caspian Tern Range - CWHR [ds604

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  9. New crude oils from Caspian Depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhmykhova, N.M.; Krylova, S.M.; Arenbrister, L.P.; Kolevatova, V.P.

    1987-07-01

    In this article the authors are reporting data on the characteristics of crude oils from new fields of the North Emba oil district (Zhanazhol, Kozhasaya, Karachaganak) and old fields in this same district (Kenkiyak, Kara-Tyube), and also the Tengiz field, which was discovered in the South Emba district. During the last few years, twenty samples of crude oils and condensates from these fields have been investigated at the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Petroleum Processing (VNII NP). Characteristics of some of these crudes are listed.

  10. [Multiple scattering of visible and infrared light by sea fog over wind driving rough sea surface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xian-Ming; Wang, Hai-Hua; Lei, Cheng-Xin; Shen, Jin

    2013-08-01

    The present paper is concerned with computing the multiple scattering characteristics of a sea fog-sea surface couple system within this context. The single scattering characteristics of sea fog were studied by Mie theory, and the multiple scattering of sunlight by single sea fog layer was studied by radiative transfer theory. The reflection function of a statistically rough ocean surface was obtained using the standard Kirchhoff formulation, with shadowing effects taken into account. The reflection properties of the combined sea fog and ocean surface were obtained employing the adding method, and the results indicated that the reflected light intensity of sea fog increased with the sea background.

  11. India and the South China Sea Dispute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Jiali

    2012-01-01

    South China Sea is a sea area of great significance. It lies between the Pacific and Indian Oceans, a crucial waterway bridging East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia. In general, South China Sea is a rich deposit of oil and fishing resources, a transportation hub of strategic importance, and an important buffer zone to safeguard China's maritime rights and interests.

  12. 33 CFR 2.22 - Territorial sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Territorial sea. 2.22 Section 2... Jurisdictional Terms § 2.22 Territorial sea. (a) With respect to the United States, the following apply— (1) Territorial sea means the waters, 12 nautical miles wide, adjacent to the coast of the United States...

  13. Parasites in the Wadden Sea food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieltges, D.W.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Wendling, C.C.; Wegner, M.

    2013-01-01

    While the free-living fauna of the Wadden Sea has received much interest, little is known on the distribution and effects of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. However, recent studies on this special type of trophic interaction indicate a high diversity of parasites in the Wadden Sea and suggest

  14. 50 CFR 223.205 - Sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sea turtles. 223.205 Section 223.205... Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.205 Sea turtles. (a) The prohibitions of section 9 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1538) relating to endangered species apply to threatened species of sea turtle, except...

  15. OW NASA SeaWIFS Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface ocean color (chlorophyll-a) measurements collected by means of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS)...

  16. [Comparative analysis of sea-ice diatom species composition in the seas of Russian Arctic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'iash, L V; Zhitina, L S

    2009-01-01

    Comparative analysis of species composition of ice diatom algae (IDA) of the White, Barents, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi Seas and the Basin of the Arctic Ocean was conducted on the basis of both original and published data. Species composition of IDA counts 567 taxa including 122 centric and 446 pennate diatoms. The freshwater algae composed about 18% of the total species number. In the White Sea, IDA were the most numerous (272 taxa), in the Kara Sea they are the least numerous (57 taxa). The species compositions in different seas differ significantly from each other. Similarity of IDA was consistent with the Arctic Ocean circulation and ice drift. IDA of Chukchi, East Siberian and Laptev Seas are the most similar, as are IDA of White and Kara Seas. Similarity of IDA of Chukchi Sea to those of other seas decrease in the west direction. IDA species differences between regions within one sea could be greater than those between different seas.

  17. Generic Hurricane Extreme Seas State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Skourup, Jesper; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    the US east coast and the Gulf of Mexico (1851 - 2009) and Japanese east coast (1951 -2009) form the basis for Weibull extreme value analyses to determine return period respective maximum wind speeds. Unidirectional generic sea state spectra are obtained by application of the empirical models...

  18. The Sea Ice Board Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Kathryn Berry

    2008-01-01

    The National Science Foundation-funded Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) provides "curriculum resource-based professional development" materials that combine current science information with practical classroom instruction embedded with "best practice" techniques for teaching science to diverse students. The Sea Ice Board…

  19. Radar for Mapping Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barath, F. T.; Jordan, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    X-band system has 100-m2 resolution. Wide swath imaging radar of synthetic aperature type transmits signal to ground station for subsequent processing into imagery. Concept meets functional requirements for continuously mapping sea ice in north and south polar regions.

  20. Killer storms from the seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    The author has discussed the distruction taking place due to cyclone in the Indian subcontinent of formation which is said to be the result of thermal fronts in the atmosphere and sea interaction of different air masses is discussed in detailed...

  1. IAHR List of Sea Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Helm-Petersen, J; Klopman, G.

    1997-01-01

    A Working Group on multidirectional waves formed by the International Association for Hydraulic Research has proposed an update of the IAHR List of Sea State Parameters from 1986 in the part concerning directional. Especially wave structure interaction with reflection of the waves have been treated....

  2. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Main ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 200 grams of gray sea cucumbers Supplementary ingredients: 100 grams of water chestnut, the whites of four eggs, MSG, salt, wine, meat soup, starch, sugar, scallions, ginger, soy sauce Directions: Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnut into small

  3. Past and present Aral Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhovniy, Viktor; Stulina, Galina; Eshchanov, Odylbek

    2013-04-01

    The tragedy of disappearing of Aral Sea is well known to the World. Before and after collapse of Soviet Union, a huge quantity of scientific and popular editions described with grief the situation around the Aral Sea. After the NIS states became independent, World Bank, UNDP, UNEP in proper competition with each other had provided some assessment of the situation through presentation of some small and medium grants, but after 2000, the local population remained alone with own problems. Although on the eyes of the present generation a unique transformation of great water body into deserts took place, the global scientific community did not find forces and financing for real and detail investigation of the processes accompanying the Sea shrinking and land formation. We should acknowledge and give big respect to NATO, later to German Government that through GTZ (now GIZ) - German International Collaboration Agency - and GFZ (Potzdam) paid attention to this area of environment crisis and organized scientific and protective design in the so-called Priaralie - the territory around the drying Sea and delta of the two rivers - Amudarya and Syrdarya. Thank to this assistance, the local specialists in collaboration with limited a number of foreign scientists (N.Aladin, P.Zavialov, Joop de Schutter, Hans Wilps, Hedi Oberhansli) organized significant works for detail socioeconomic, ecological and hydrological assessment situation in Priaralie and on the Aral sea coast. On this base, Ministry of Agriculture and Water resources of Uzbekistan and State Committee of Water resources of Kazakhstan developed a plan of rehabilitation of Amudarya and Syrdarya deltas and started implementation of these projects. If Kazakh water authority moved ahead in wetland restoration faster, a forestation of delta and drying bed of Aral Sea got big success in Uzbek territory. 244 thousands hectares of saxsaul and tamarix were planted for protection of the Priaralie. By request of GTZ SIC, ICWC

  4. Salton Sea Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A. Keith; Ricca, Mark A.; Meckstroth, Anne; Spring, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    The Salton Sea is critically important for wintering and breeding waterbirds, but faces an uncertain future due to water delivery reductions imposed by the Interstate and Federal Quantification Settlement Agreement of 2003. The current preferred alternative for wetland restoration at the Salton Sea is saline habitat impoundments created to mitigate the anticipated loss of wetland habitat. In 2006, a 50-hectare experimental complex that consisted of four inter-connected, shallow water saline habitat ponds (SHP) was constructed at the southeastern shoreline of the Salton Sea and flooded with blended waters from the Alamo River and Salton Sea. The present study evaluated ecological risks and benefits of the SHP concept prior to widespread restoration actions. This study was designed to evaluate (1) baseline chemical, nutrient, and contaminant measures from physical and biological constituents, (2) aquatic invertebrate community structure and colonization patterns, and (3) productivity of and contaminant risks to nesting waterbirds at the SHP. These factors were evaluated and compared with those of nearby waterbird habitat, that is, reference sites.

  5. Climate change challenges for SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    This paper takes a theoretical perspective on the challenges that climate changes pose for SEA. The theoretical framework used is the sociologist Ulrich Beck’s theory of risk society and the aspects that characterise this society. Climate change is viewed as a risk, and the theory is used to derive...

  6. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    the Arctic Ocean and surrounding seas, with particular emphasis on the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Some of the largest changes to the sea ice cover are...Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover Don Perovich ERDC – CRREL 72 Lyme Road Hanover, NH 03755 Phone: 603-646-4255 Email: donald.k.perovich...quantitative understanding of the partitioning of solar radiation by the Arctic sea ice cover and its impact on the heat and mass balance of the ice and upper

  7. Facing up to sea rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernetta, J

    1994-01-01

    A milder and less extreme climate, abundance of fish and mollusks, transport and communication, and fertile land at low altitudes have drawn humans to coastal areas and river valleys for centuries. More than 60% of the world's population occupy the 150 km closest to the coast. Millions of tourists come to coastlines and small tropical islands for recreation. About 80% of the global fish supply originates from the 19 km closest to the shore. Fish are the only protein source for the rapidly growing populations in many developing countries. Global climate change is increasing the sea level so much that by 2050, the mean increase will be about 38 cm (24-52 cm). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) notes that the effects of sea level rise will differ from place to place. Direct effects are flooding of low-lying coastal areas and increased erosion rates. An indirect effect includes higher water tables and intrusion of saline water into aquifers, resulting in loss of fresh ground water resources. These effects may make coastal areas less suitable for settlement and agriculture. Coral sand settled on top of coral reefs makes up the unstable, small atoll islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. People on these islands depend almost entirely on the sea for their livelihood and on the small amount of fresh water with which they grow root crops and drink. Rising sea levels also threaten low lying countries, e.g., Bangladesh, and densely populated deltas, e.g., the Nile. Changes in the frequency and severity of flooding will increase Bangladesh's dependence on foreign aid. IPCC sees 3 possible responses to the rising sea level: defense, retreat, and accommodation. Accommodation is the only practical choice for many developing countries. A switch from rice cultivation to mariculture of prawns and fish is an example of accommodation. We need to more completely understand the natural processes in coastal environments to be better prepared for climate change.

  8. Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea and White Sea from R/Vs Artemovsk, Atlantida, Okeanograf, Professor Rudovits, and ice observations, 1957 - 1995 (NODC Accession 0073674)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, North Sea, Norwegian...

  9. Jet formation at the sea ice edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltham, D. L.; Heorton, H. D.

    2014-12-01

    The sea ice edge presents a region of many feedback processes between the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice, which are inadequately represented in current climate models. Here we focus on on-ice atmospheric and oceanic flows at the sea ice edge. Mesoscale jet formation due to the Coriolis effect is well understood over sharp changes in surface roughness such as coastlines. This sharp change in surface roughness is experienced by the atmosphere flowing over, and ocean flowing under, a compacted sea ice edge. We have studied a dynamic sea ice edge responding to atmospheric and oceanic jet formation. The shape and strength of atmospheric and oceanic jets during on-ice flows is calculated from existing studies of the sea ice edge and prescribed to idealised models of the sea ice edge. An idealised analytical model of sea ice drift is developed and compared to a sea ice climate model (the CICE model) run on an idealised domain. The response of the CICE model to jet formation is tested at various resolutions. We find that the formation of atmospheric jets during on-ice winds at the sea ice edge increases the wind speed parallel to the sea ice edge and results in the formation of a sea ice edge jet. The modelled sea ice edge jet is in agreement with an observed jet although more observations are needed for validation. The increase in ice drift speed is dependent upon the angle between the ice edge and wind and can result in a 40% increase in ice transport along the sea ice edge. The possibility of oceanic jet formation during on-ice currents and the resultant effect upon the sea ice edge is less conclusive. Observations and climate model data of the polar oceans has been analysed to show areas of likely atmospheric jet formation, with the Fram Strait being of particular interest.

  10. Ecological consequences of sea-ice decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Eric; Bhatt, Uma S; Bitz, Cecilia M; Brodie, Jedediah F; Fulton, Tara L; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kerby, Jeffrey; Kutz, Susan J; Stirling, Ian; Walker, Donald A

    2013-08-02

    After a decade with nine of the lowest arctic sea-ice minima on record, including the historically low minimum in 2012, we synthesize recent developments in the study of ecological responses to sea-ice decline. Sea-ice loss emerges as an important driver of marine and terrestrial ecological dynamics, influencing productivity, species interactions, population mixing, gene flow, and pathogen and disease transmission. Major challenges in the near future include assigning clearer attribution to sea ice as a primary driver of such dynamics, especially in terrestrial systems, and addressing pressures arising from human use of arctic coastal and near-shore areas as sea ice diminishes.

  11. On the Sea, From the Sea, Of the Sea: The Physics of maritime Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Royce; Page, Eric

    2014-03-01

    The United States Coast Guard Academy Physics Section is proud to present our initial conceptions of ``On the Sea, From the Sea, Of the Sea: The Physics of Maritime Governance,'' a program funded by an APS Outreach Grant in 2013. In our classes, the Physics Section has focused on active student engagement for the past ten years. Recently, we have refined our program to make heavy use of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) and our own highly interactive adaptation which we call Interactive Lecture Labs (ILLs). ``On the Sea'' is a unique opportunity to investigate their use in a different learning modality from our standard college level military academic use. Multigenerational science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) projects are a prolific source of academic discourse, while learning through play has been touted as an effective learning tool. We plan to investigate group and individual participation, intragroup communication, demographics, and prior skill (or education) in comparison to outcomes in learning objectives through projects designed to educate the Coast Guard Academy and surrounding community on the physics of the Coast Guard's missions. Progress on the lab and demonstration designs, community participation, and our emerging ILL and ILD pedagogical methods, will be reported.

  12. Sea ice thickness and recent Arctic warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andreas; Yang, Shuting; Kaas, Eigil

    2017-01-01

    The climatic impact of increased Arctic sea ice loss has received growing attention in the last years. However, little focus has been set on the role of sea ice thickness, although it strongly determines surface heat fluxes. Here ensembles of simulations using the EC-Earth atmospheric model (Integrated Forecast System) are performed and analyzed to quantify the atmospheric impacts of Arctic sea ice thickness change since 1982 as revealed by the sea ice model assimilation Global Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System. Results show that the recent sea ice thinning has significantly affected the Arctic climate, while remote atmospheric responses are less pronounced owing to a high internal atmospheric variability. Locally, the sea ice thinning results in enhancement of near-surface warming of about 1°C per decade in winter, which is most pronounced over marginal sea ice areas with thin ice. This leads to an increase of the Arctic amplification factor by 37%.

  13. Episodic sea-floor spreading in the Southern Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalki, Khalid A.; Betts, Peter G.; Ailleres, Laurent

    2014-03-01

    The Red Sea represents the most spectacular example of a juvenile ocean basin on the modern Earth. Synthesis of regional aeromagnetic data, gravity data, seismic refraction data coupled with structural mapping from the Farasan Islands suggest that the opening of the Red Sea is complex and episodic. Modeling of magnetic and gravity data constrained by seismic refraction data reveals the Arabian Shelf is underlain by oceanic and transitional crust and that mafic diking and intrusions are focused at the continental-transitional crust boundary. This relationship is interpreted to indicate that early Miocene diking along the Arabian Escarpment heralded termination of oceanic basin formation and a shift in the locus of extension focused from a central mid-ocean ridge spreading center to the continental-transitional crust zone. Uplift along the Arabian Escarpment caused erosion and Middle to Late Miocene sedimentation of the Farasan Bank onto existing oceanic crust, suggesting that the extensive sedimentary banks of the southern Red Sea are not passive margins. Re-initiation of spreading occurred at ca 5 Ma. Pliocene to Pleistocene Shelf reef systems (Farasan Islands), developed on the flanks of the spreading ridge, are extensively overprinted by normal faults, suggesting that not all crustal extension is accommodated by active spreading.

  14. Variability and Trends in Sea Ice Extent and Ice Production in the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino; Kwok, Ronald; Martin, Seelye; Gordon, Arnold L.

    2011-01-01

    Salt release during sea ice formation in the Ross Sea coastal regions is regarded as a primary forcing for the regional generation of Antarctic Bottom Water. Passive microwave data from November 1978 through 2008 are used to examine the detailed seasonal and interannual characteristics of the sea ice cover of the Ross Sea and the adjacent Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. For this period the sea ice extent in the Ross Sea shows the greatest increase of all the Antarctic seas. Variability in the ice cover in these regions is linked to changes in the Southern Annular Mode and secondarily to the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. Over the Ross Sea shelf, analysis of sea ice drift data from 1992 to 2008 yields a positive rate of increase in the net ice export of about 30,000 sq km/yr. For a characteristic ice thickness of 0.6 m, this yields a volume transport of about 20 cu km/yr, which is almost identical, within error bars, to our estimate of the trend in ice production. The increase in brine rejection in the Ross Shelf Polynya associated with the estimated increase with the ice production, however, is not consistent with the reported Ross Sea salinity decrease. The locally generated sea ice enhancement of Ross Sea salinity may be offset by an increase of relatively low salinity of the water advected into the region from the Amundsen Sea, a consequence of increased precipitation and regional glacial ice melt.

  15. Relationship between Hadley circulation and sea ice extent in the Bering Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU BoTao; WANG HuiJun

    2008-01-01

    The linkage between Hadley circulation (HC) and sea ice extent in the Bering Sea during March-April is investigated through an analysis of observed data in this research. It is found that HC is negatively correlated to the sea ice extent in the Bering Sea, namely, strong (weak) HC is corresponding to less (more) sea ice in the Bering Sea. The present study also addresses the large-scale atmospheric general circulation changes underlying the relationship between HC and sea ice in the Bering Sea. It follows that a positive phase of HC corresponds to westward located Aleutian low, anomalous southerlies over the eastern North Pacific and higher temperature in the Bering Sea, providing unfavorable atmospheric and thermal conditions for the sea ice forming, and thus sea ice extent in the Bering Sea is decreased, and vice versa. In addition, it is further identified that East Asian-North Pacific-North America telecon-nection may play an important role in linking HC and changes of atmospheric circulations as well as sea ice in the Bering Sea.

  16. Promoting International Energy Security. Volume 3: Sea-Lanes to Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    public service of the RAND Corporation. CHILDREN AND FAMILIES EDUCATION AND THE ARTS ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE INFRASTRUCTURE AND...governance in Nigeria, these considerations suggest that Ghana may be a more attractive partner. In examining the Caspian Region, the major energy...lanes as supply lines. Because they facilitate delivery of the resources necessary to fuel continued economic growth, they are far more important than

  17. Micromechanics of Sea Urchin spines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Tsafnat

    Full Text Available The endoskeletal structure of the Sea Urchin, Centrostephanus rodgersii, has numerous long spines whose known functions include locomotion, sensing, and protection against predators. These spines have a remarkable internal microstructure and are made of single-crystal calcite. A finite-element model of the spine's unique porous structure, based on micro-computed tomography (microCT and incorporating anisotropic material properties, was developed to study its response to mechanical loading. Simulations show that high stress concentrations occur at certain points in the spine's architecture; brittle cracking would likely initiate in these regions. These analyses demonstrate that the organization of single-crystal calcite in the unique, intricate morphology of the sea urchin spine results in a strong, stiff and lightweight structure that enhances its strength despite the brittleness of its constituent material.

  18. Mind the gap in SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Kørnøv, Lone; Wejs, Anja

    2012-01-01

    and discussed, mainly based on Scott's theory of institutions. The institutional analysis highlights a regulatory element, since the assessment of climate change synergies is underpinned by legislation, but not by guidance. This means that great focus is on normative elements such as the local interpretation...... of legislation and of climate change mitigation and adaptation. The analysis also focuses on how the fragmentation of the organisation in which climate change and SEA are embedded has bearings on both normative and cultural–cognitive elements. This makes the assessment of synergies challenging. The evidence......This article takes its point of departure in two approaches to integrating climate change into Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Mitigation and adaptation, and in the fact that these, as well as the synergies between them and other policy areas, are needed as part of an integrated...

  19. Sea Power. Quickscan; Zeekracht. Quickscan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-08-15

    The Dutch Stichting Natuur en Milieu (The Netherlands Foundation for Nature and Environment - SNM) takes the view that the long time span between application for a permit and the realization of offshore wind parks in the North Sea is the result of unnecessary bureaucracy. Therefore SNM has asked the Kafka Brigade to list the procedures for construction of offshore wind parks in the North Sea that might be causing these delays. [mk]. [Dutch] de Stichting Natuur en Milieu (SNM) is van mening dat de oorzaak van de lange doorlooptijd die ligt tussen het aanvragen van een vergunning en de realisatie van offshore windparken in de Noordzee ligt in de onnodige bureaucratie. SNM heeft daarom de Kafkabrigade gevraagd een inventarisatie te maken van procedures rond het bouwen van offshore windmolenparken in de Noordzee die mogelijk vertragend kunnen werken.

  20. Open Ocean Bilging, Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    These dual oil slicks on the ocean surface are the result of tanker ships flushing their tanks (bilging) in the Arabian Sea (18.5N, 62.5E). These two ships flushed out their bilges, apparently contaminated with bunker oil, leaving oily residues on the ocean's surface. One wake, believed to have been done earlier than the other, has been broadened by the effects of surface winds and current.

  1. Coastal and Semi Enclosed Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Numerical model process and sensitivity studies are conducted to better understand the dynamics and thermodynamics of shallow and deep semi-enclosed seas...included figures of model results in this report, output from these forecasts are now publicly available through the NRL website listed under the title of...this document and we would urge researchers with an interest in this system to visit this website . The EAS model will be run longer during the next

  2. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber is a dish created according to a well-known story about Jia Chang, who raised cocks during the Tang Dynasty. Cockfighting was popular among commonfolk during the Tang Dynasty. Emperor Xuanzong selected 5,000 cocks in Chang’an, and 500 children to feed them and train them to fight. Jia Chang was one of the children. Sent to the

  3. Chemical munitions dumped at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Margo; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Modern chemical warfare is a byproduct of the industrial revolution, which created factories capable of rapidly producing artillery shells that could be filled with toxic chemicals such as chlorine, phosgene and mustard agent. The trench warfare of World War I inaugurated extensive deployments of modern chemical weapons in 1915. Concomitantly, the need arose to dispose of damaged, captured or excess chemical munitions and their constituents. Whereas today chemical warfare agents (CWA) are destroyed via chemical neutralization processes or high-temperature incineration in tandem with environmental monitoring, in the early to middle 20th century the options for CWA disposal were limited to open-air burning, burial and disposal at sea. The latter option was identified as the least likely of the three to impact mankind, and sea dumping of chemical munitions commenced. Eventually, the potential impacts of sea dumping human waste were recognized, and in 1972 an international treaty, the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, was developed to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the dumping of wastes and other matter into the ocean. By the time this treaty, referred to as the London Convention, was signed by a majority of nations, millions of tons of munitions were known to have been disposed throughout the world's oceans.

  4. Fracture Networks in Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Nesland Vevatne

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fracturing and refreezing of sea ice in the Kara sea are investigated using complex networkanalysis. By going to the dual network, where the fractures are nodes and their intersectionslinks, we gain access to topological features which are easy to measure and hence comparewith modeled networks. Resulting network reveal statistical properties of the fracturing process.The dual networks have a broad degree distribution, with a scale-free tail, high clusteringand efficiency. The degree-degree correlation profile shows disassortative behavior, indicatingpreferential growth. This implies that long, dominating fractures appear earlier than shorterfractures, and that the short fractures which are created later tend to connect to the longfractures.The knowledge of the fracturing process is used to construct growing fracture network (GFNmodel which provides insight into the generation of fracture networks. The GFN model isprimarily based on the observation that fractures in sea ice are likely to end when hitting existingfractures. Based on an investigation of which fractures survive over time, a simple model forrefreezing is also added to the GFN model, and the model is analyzed and compared to the realnetworks.

  5. Distributions of dimethylsulfide in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Min; TANG Xiao-yan; LI Jin-long; MA Qi-ju

    2003-01-01

    Dimethylsulfide(DMS) measurements in the surface seawater of China eastern coastline were conducted during March 9-10, 1993 in Bohai Sea along the cruise from Dalian to Tianjin and during September 24-25, 1994 in Yellow Sea along the cruise from Shanghai to Qingdao. On the cruise in Bohai Sea DMS concentrations varied from 0. 11 to 2.63 nmol/L with an average of 1.31 nmol/L, while DMS flux Bohai Sea. DMS concentrations and fluxes had a similar spatial trend both in Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea with the correlation coefficients of 0.75 and 0.64, respectively.

  6. Sea-level variation/change and thermal contribution in the Bering Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Juncheng; ZHANG Jianli; DU Ling; LI Peiliang; LI Lei

    2005-01-01

    The long-term sea-level trend in the Bering Sea is obtained by the analysis of TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data, including the data of two tide gauges. The averaged sea-level in the Bering Sea rises at a rate of 2.47 mm/a from 1992 to 2002. The mean sea-level is falling in the most part of the Bering Sea, especially in its central basin, and it is rising in the northeastern part of the Bering Sea. During the 1998/99 change, the sea-level anomaly differences exhibit a significant sea-level anomaly fall in the deep basin of the Bering Sea,which is roughly in the same position where a prominent SST fall exists. The maximal fall of sea-level is about 10 cm in the southwestern part of the Bering Sea, and the maximal fall of about 2℃ in the SST also appeared in the same region as the sea level did.The steric sea-level change due to temperature variations is discussed. The results are compared with the TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data at the different spatial scales. It is indicated that the seasonal amplitude of the steric height is about 35% of the observed TOPEX/Poseidon amplitude, which is much smaller than the 83% in the mid-latitudes area. The systematic difference between the TOPEX/Poseidon data with the range of about 7.5 cm and the thermal contribution with the range of about 2.5 cm is about 5 cm. This indicates that the thermal effect on the sea level is not as important as the case in the mid-latitudes area. In the Bering Sea, the phase of the steric height leads the observed sea level by about three months.

  7. The Suspended Sediment Concentration Distribution in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Changwei; JIANG Wensheng; Richard J.Greatbatch; DING Hui

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of the suspended sediment eoncentration (SSC) in the Bohai Sea,Yellow Sea and East China Sea (BYECS) is studied based on the observed turbidity data and model simulation results.The observed turbidity results show that (i)the highest SSC is found in the coastal areas while in the outer shelf sea areas turbid water is much more difficult to observe,(ii) the surface layer SSC is much lower than the bottom layer SSC and (iii) the winter SSC is higher than the summer SSC.The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is used to simulate the SSC distribution in the BYECS.A comparison between the modeled SSC and the observed SSC in the BYECS shows that the modeled SSC can reproduce the principal features of the SSC distribution in the BYECS.The dynamic mechanisms of the sediment erosion and transport processes are studied based on the modeled results.The horizontal distribution of the SSC in the BYECS is mainly determined by the current-wave induced bottom stress and the fine-grain sediment distribution.The current-induced bottom stress is much higher than the wave-induced bottom stress,which means the tidal currents play a more significant role in the sediment resuspension than the wind waves.The vertical mixing strength is studied based on the mixed layer depth and the turbulent kinetic energy distribution in the BYECS.The strong winter time vertical mixing,which is mainly caused by the strong wind stress and surface cooling,leads to high surface layer SSC in winter.High surface layer SSC in summer is restricted in the coastal areas.

  8. Aerial Surveys of Endangered Whales in the Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, and Northern Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    16 Surveys of St Lawrence Island Nome to Point Barrow . . . 16 I Surveys of Barrow Area . . 18 Point Barrow to Deadhorse . . . 20 Surveys from...lease area, the Norton Basin - St . Lawrence Island area, the Hope Basin, and coastal portions of the Chukchi Sea. DESIGN The areas of study are listed...Bowhead Whale 314 857 Balaena mysticetus Beluga Whale** 284 3404 Delphinapterus leucas Gray Whale 2 6 Eschrichtius robustus Ring Seal 250 765 Phoca

  9. [Distribution and air-sea fluxes of methane in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea in the spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xing-Peng; Zhang, Gui-Ling; Ma, Xiao; Zhang, Guo-Ling; Liu, Su-Mei

    2013-07-01

    A survey was carried out in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea from March 17 to April 06 of 2011. Dissolved CH4 in various depths were measured and sea-to-air fluxes were estimated. Methane concentrations in surface and bottom waters ranged between 2.39-29.67 nmol x L(-1) and 2.63-30.63 nmol x L(-1), respectively. Methane concentrations in bottom waters were slightly higher than those in surface waters, suggesting the existence of methane source in bottom waters or sediments. The horizontal distribution of dissolved CH4 showed a decrease from the river mouth to the open sea, and was influenced by the freshwater discharge and the Kuroshio intrusion. Surface methane saturations ranged from 93%-1 038%. Sea to air CH4 fluxes were (2.85 +/- 5.11) micromol x (m2 x d)(-1) (5.18 +/- 9.99) micromol x (m2 x d)(-1) respectively, calculated using the Liss and Merlivat (LM86), the Wanninkhof (W92) relationships and in situ wind speeds, and estimated emission rates of methane from the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea range from 7.05 x 10(-2) - 12.0 x 10(-2) Tg x a(-1) and 1.17 x 10(-2) - 2.20 x 10(-2) Tg x a(-1), respectively. The Yellow Sea and East China Sea are the net sources of atmospheric methane in the spring.

  10. Microplastic pollution in deep-sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth; Vanreusel, Ann; Mees, Jan; Janssen, Colin R

    2013-11-01

    Microplastics are small plastic particles (microplastics have been accumulating in the marine environment for decades and have been detected throughout the water column and in sublittoral and beach sediments worldwide. However, up to now, it has never been established whether microplastic presence in sediments is limited to accumulation hot spots such as the continental shelf, or whether they are also present in deep-sea sediments. Here we show, for the first time ever, that microplastics have indeed reached the most remote of marine environments: the deep sea. We found plastic particles sized in the micrometre range in deep-sea sediments collected at four locations representing different deep-sea habitats ranging in depth from 1100 to 5000 m. Our results demonstrate that microplastic pollution has spread throughout the world's seas and oceans, into the remote and largely unknown deep sea.

  11. Sea ice, climate, and multiscale composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    In September of 2012, the area of the Arctic Ocean covered by sea ice reached its lowest level ever recorded in more than three decades of satellite measurements. In fact, compared to the 1980's and 1990's, this represents a loss of more than half of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. While global climate models generally predict sea ice declines over the 21st century, the precipitous losses observed so far have significantly outpaced most projections. I will discuss how mathematical models of composite materials and statistical physics are being used to study key sea ice processes and advance how sea ice is represented in climate models. This work is helping to improve projections of the fate of Earth's ice packs, and the response of polar ecosystems. A brief video of a recent Antarctic expedition where sea ice properties were measured will be shown. Supported by NSF and ONR.

  12. Impact of sea ice initialization on sea ice and atmosphere prediction skill on seasonal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guemas, V.; Chevallier, M.; Déqué, M.; Bellprat, O.; Doblas-Reyes, F.

    2016-04-01

    We present a robust assessment of the impact of sea ice initialization from reconstructions of the real state on the sea ice and atmosphere prediction skill. We ran two ensemble seasonal prediction experiments from 1979 to 2012 : one using realistic sea ice initial conditions and another where sea ice is initialized from a climatology, with two forecast systems. During the melting season in the Arctic Ocean, sea ice forecasts become skilful with sea ice initialization until 3-5 months ahead, thanks to the memory held by sea ice thickness. During the freezing season in both the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, sea ice forecasts are skilful for 7 and 2 months, respectively, with negligible differences between the two experiments, the memory being held by the ocean heat content. A weak impact on the atmosphere prediction skill is obtained.

  13. GHRSST Level 4 EUR Mediterranean Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily by Ifremer/CERSAT (France) using optimal...

  14. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA Mediterranean Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  15. First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea.

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia

    2013-10-03

    It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with \\'deep-sea\\' and \\'cold-water\\' corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited.

  16. First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, C; Berumen, M L; Bouwmeester, J; Papathanassiou, E; Al-Suwailem, A; Voolstra, C R

    2013-10-03

    It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with 'deep-sea' and 'cold-water' corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited.

  17. Increased CO2 uptake due to sea ice growth and decay in the Nordic Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, S.; Bendtsen, J.; Pedersen, L. T.

    2009-01-01

    uptake in the Nordic Seas is currently unknown. We present evidence from 50 localities in the Arctic Ocean that dissolved inorganic carbon is rejected together with brine from growing sea ice and that sea ice melting during summer is rich in carbonates. Model calculations show that melting of sea ice......The uptake rates of atmospheric CO2 in the Nordic Seas are among the highest in the world's oceans. This has been ascribed mainly to a strong biological drawdown, but chemical processes within the sea ice itself have also been suggested to play a role. The importance of sea ice for the carbon...... exported from the Arctic Ocean into the East Greenland current and the Nordic Seas plays an important and overlooked role in regulating the surface water partial pressure of CO2 and increases the seasonal CO2 uptake in the area by approximately 50%....

  18. Oceanographic cruise: Coral Sea, Arafura Sea, and Java Trench, April - May 1969 (NODC Accession 7100914)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains oceanographic data which was obtained aboard HMAS DIAMANTINA during an oceanographic cruise in the Coral Sea, Arafura Sea, and Java Trench...

  19. Sea otter health: challenging a pet hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of disease transmission.

  20. Physical oceanography of the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaeranta, Matti [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Myrberg, Kai [Finnish Institute of Marine Research, Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-07-01

    The Baltic Sea oceanographic research community is wide and the research history is over 100 years old. Nevertheless, there is still no single, coherent book on the physical oceanography of the Baltic Sea as a whole. There is a strong need for such a book, coming from working oceanographers as well as the university teaching programmes in advanced undergraduate to graduate levels. In the regional conference series in physical oceanography (Baltic Sea Science Conference, Baltic Sea Oceanographers' conference, Baltex-conferences) about 500 scientists take part regularly. Even more scientists work in the fields of marine biology, chemistry and the environment, and they need information on the physics of the Baltic Sea as well. There are nine countries bordering on the Baltic Sea and five more in the runoff area. The Baltic Sea as a source of fish, means of transportation and leisure activities is highly important to the regional society. In the runoff area there are a total of 85 million people. Research and protection strategies need to be developed, as the Baltic Sea is probably the most polluted sea in the world. Since the Baltic Sea has become an inner sea of the EU (apart from small shore parts of Russia in Petersburg and Kaliningrad), it is anticipated that the importance of the region will consequently rise. The book will arouse interest among students, scientists and decision makers involved with the Baltic problems. It will also give important background information for those working with biogeochemical processes in the Baltic Sea, because the physical forcing for those processes is of vital importance. (orig.)

  1. Sea Surface Salinity : Research Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, David; Lagerloef, Gary; Font, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) can be important in regulating sea surface temperature (SST). Two technological breakthrough satellite SSS missions, Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), are currently producing high-quality SSS data. This paper provides an overview of the importance of SSS for weather and climate applications and describes the Aquarius and SMOS missions. The newness of adequately sampled SSS data prompted a first-time at-sea field campaign devoted to improved understanding of SSS variations.

  2. Navigation Issues in the South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The South China Sea is one of the most important sea lanes with numerous competing sovereignty disputes. The freedom of navigation in this region is critical to all major trading States in the world. After an introduction to the navigational regimes of UNCLOS, this article describes the whole navigation situation in this region, by separately introducing the navigation issues in the territorial sea, straits, archipelagic waters and the Spratly area. Meanwhile, since the legal status of the ma...

  3. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Artic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Arctic sea ice cover and its impact on the heat and mass balance of the ice and upper ocean ... Arctic Ocean and surrounding seas, with particular emphasis on the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Some of the largest changes to the sea ice cover are...other parts of the Arctic ice cover appear to now be accelerating. Figure 6. Maps of the linear trend of annual solar heat input to the ocean

  4. Comparison among four kinds of data of sea surface wind stress in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢强; 王卫强; 毛庆文

    2002-01-01

    By using remote sensing (ERS) data, FSU data, GOADS data and Hellerman & Rcsenstein objective analysis data to analyze the sea surface wind stress in the South China Sea, it is found that the remote sensing data have higher resolution and more reasonable values. Therefore we suggest that remote sensing data be chosen in the study of climatological features of sea surface wind stress and its seasonal variability in the South China Sea, especially in the study of small and middle scale eddies.

  5. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing...... of Global Positioning System (GPS) buoys placed on sea-ice at five different sites north of Greenland for the study of sea level height and tidal analysis to improve tidal models in the Central Arctic. The GPS measurements are compared with the Arctic tidal model AOTIM-5, which assimilates tide...

  6. Quantification of ikaite in Antarctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fischer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate precipitation in sea ice can increase pCO2 during precipitation in winter and decrease pCO2 during dissolution in spring. CaCO3 precipitation in sea ice is thought to potentially drive significant CO2 uptake by the ocean. However, little is known about the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of CaCO3 within sea ice. This is the first quantitative study of hydrous calcium carbonate, as ikaite, in sea ice and discusses its potential significance for the carbon cycle in polar oceans. Ice cores and brine samples were collected from pack and land fast sea ice between September and December 2007 during an expedition in the East Antarctic and another off Terre Adélie, Antarctica. Samples were analysed for CaCO3, Salinity, DOC, DON, Phosphate, and total alkalinity. A relationship between the measured parameters and CaCO3 precipitation could not be observed. We found calcium carbonate, as ikaite, mostly in the top layer of sea ice with values up to 126 mg ikaite per liter melted sea ice. This potentially represents a contribution between 0.12 and 9 Tg C to the annual carbon flux in polar oceans. The horizontal distribution of ikaite in sea ice was heterogenous. We also found the precipitate in the snow on top of the sea ice.

  7. On sea level - ice sheet interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Natalya Alissa

    This thesis focuses on the physics of static sea-level changes following variations in the distribution of grounded ice and the influence of these changes on the stability and dynamics of marine ice sheets. Gravitational, deformational and rotational effects associated with changes in grounded ice mass lead to markedly non-uniform spatial patterns of sea-level change. I outline a revised theory for computing post-glacial sea-level predictions and discuss the dominant physical effects that contribute to the patterns of sea-level change associated with surface loading on different timescales. I show, in particular, that a large sea-level fall (rise) occurs in the vicinity of a retreating (advancing) ice sheet on both short and long timescales. I also present an application of the sea-level theory in which I predict the sea-level changes associated with a new model of North American ice sheet evolution and consider the implications of the results for efforts to establish the sources of Meltwater Pulse 1A. These results demonstrate that viscous deformational effects can influence the amplitude of sea-level changes observed at far-field sea-level sites, even when the time window being considered is relatively short (≤ 500 years). Subsequently, I investigate the feedback of sea-level changes on marine ice-sheet stability and dynamics by coupling a global sea-level model to ice-sheet models of increasing complexity. To begin, I incorporate gravitationally self-consistent sea-level changes into an equilibrium marine ice-sheet stability theory to show that the sea-level changes have a stabilizing influence on ice-sheet retreat. Next, I consider the impact of the stabilizing mechanism on the timescale of ice-sheet retreat using a 1D dynamic coupled ice sheet - sea level model. Simulations with the coupled model, which incorporate viscoelastic deformation of the solid Earth, show that local sea-level changes at the grounding line act to slow, and in some cases, halt

  8. Physicochemical Studies of the Sea Surface Microlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhengbin; Liansheng; Zhijian; Jun; Haibing

    1998-08-15

    The sea surface microlayer and its thickness are theoretically analyzed. A multiple-layer model of the sea surface microlayer is proposed. Through in situ and laboratory imitation experiments using glass plate, rotating drum, screen, and funnel samplers, the relationships between pH, surface tension, the concentrations of dissolved trace metals Cu and Pb, phosphate, and particulate and sampling thicknesses are carefully investigated. The apparent sampling thickness of the sea surface microlayer is determined to be 50 +/- 10 µm, which is basically consistent with the mean thickness of the liquid boundary film in the models of gas exchange across the sea surface. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  9. Parasites in the Wadden Sea food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieltges, David W.; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Wendling, Carolin C.; Wegner, K. Mathias

    2013-09-01

    While the free-living fauna of the Wadden Sea has received much interest, little is known on the distribution and effects of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. However, recent studies on this special type of trophic interaction indicate a high diversity of parasites in the Wadden Sea and suggest a multitude of effects on the hosts. This also includes effects on specific predator-prey relationships and the general structure of the food web. Focussing on molluscs, a major group in the Wadden Sea in terms of biomass and abundance and an important link between primary producers and predators, we review existing studies and exemplify the ecological role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. First, we give a brief inventory of parasites occurring in the Wadden Sea, ranging from microparasites (e.g. protozoa, bacteria) to macroparasites (e.g. helminths, parasitic copepods) and discuss the effects of spatial scale on heterogeneities in infection levels. We then demonstrate how parasites can affect host population dynamics by acting as a strong mortality factor, causing mollusc mass mortalities. In addition, we will exemplify how parasites can mediate the interaction strength of predator-prey relationships and affect the topological structure of the Wadden Sea food web as a whole. Finally, we highlight some ongoing changes regarding parasitism in the Wadden Sea in the course of global change (e.g. species introduction, climate change) and identify important future research questions to entangle the role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web.

  10. Dynamic Singularity Spectrum Distribution of Sea Clutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Gang; Yu, Wenxian; Zhang, Shuning

    2015-12-01

    The fractal and multifractal theory have provided new approaches for radar signal processing and target-detecting under the background of ocean. However, the related research mainly focuses on fractal dimension or multifractal spectrum (MFS) of sea clutter. In this paper, a new dynamic singularity analysis method of sea clutter using MFS distribution is developed, based on moving detrending analysis (DMA-MFSD). Theoretically, we introduce the time information by using cyclic auto-correlation of sea clutter. For transient correlation series, the instantaneous singularity spectrum based on multifractal detrending moving analysis (MF-DMA) algorithm is calculated, and the dynamic singularity spectrum distribution of sea clutter is acquired. In addition, we analyze the time-varying singularity exponent ranges and maximum position function in DMA-MFSD of sea clutter. For the real sea clutter data, we analyze the dynamic singularity spectrum distribution of real sea clutter in level III sea state, and conclude that the radar sea clutter has the non-stationary and time-varying scale characteristic and represents the time-varying singularity spectrum distribution based on the proposed DMA-MFSD method. The DMA-MFSD will also provide reference for nonlinear dynamics and multifractal signal processing.

  11. Sea breeze-induced wind sea growth in the central west coast of India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aboobacker, V.M.; Seemanth, M.; Samiksha, S.V.; Sudheesh, K.; Kerkar, J.; Vethamony, P.

    in the northwest direction, and grow progressively while propagating towards the coast. Relationships between wind speed and wind sea height have been derived, and they fairly explain the generation of wind seas by the sea breeze system. Since, the land breeze...

  12. Morphotype patterns of Norwegian Sea deep-sea benthic foraminifera and ecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, Bruce H.; Chen, Christina

    1988-08-01

    Deep-sea benthic foraminifera from Norwegian Sea surface sediments are classified into morphotypes on the basis of test shape and nature of test coiling and show distinct patterns with water depth. The morphotype data are used to determine microhabitat patterns of the foraminifera, which are suggested to be related to the organic-carbon content of the surficial deep-sea sediments.

  13. Sea Turtle Conservation on Bonaire. Sea Turtle Club Bonaire 1997. Project Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, M.; Put, van A.L.L.M.; Valkering, N.P.; Eijck, van T.J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Sea Turtle Club Bonaire (STCB) is a non-governmental, non-profit organization. Its main goal is the conservation of the sea turtles that occur on Bonaire. To reach this goal, annual projects are undertaken, such as research and the promotion of public awareness on sea turtle conservation. The ST

  14. Long Term Sea Level Change and Water Mass Balance in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Zengrui; LIU Yuguang; ZONG Haibo; XIU Peng

    2009-01-01

    Sea level anomalies observed by altimeter during the 1993-2006 period, thermosterie sea level anomalies estimated by using subsurface temperature data produced by Ishii and SODA reanalysis data, tide gauge records and HOAPS freshwater flux data were analyzed to investigate the long term sea level change and the water mass balance in the South China Sea. The altimeter-observed sea level showed a rising rate of (3.5±0.9)mm yr-1 during the period 1993-2006, but this figure was considered to have been highly distorted by the relatively short time interval and the large inter-decadal variability, which apparently exists in both the thermosteric sea level and the observed sea level. Long term thermosteric sea level from 1945 to 2004 gave a rising rate of 0.15±0.06 mmyr-1. Tide gauge data revealed this discrepancy and the regional distributions of the sea-level trends. Both the 'real' and the thermosteric sea level showed a good correspondence to ENSO: decreasing during E1 Nifio years and increasing during La Nina years. Amplitude and phase differences between the 'real' sea level and the thermosteic sea level were substantially revealed on both seasonal and interannual time scales. As one of the possible factors, the freshwater flux might play an important role in balancing the water mass.

  15. Ordenisaajate seas seisab arvukalt riigiteenistujaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Riikliku autasu saajate nimekiri. Teenetemärgi saajate seas muusikud: Valgetähe III klass Henn Tiivel. Valgetähe IV klass Johannes Jürisson, Valeri Petrov, Aadu Regi, Helga Surva, Kalle Tamra. Valgetähe V klass Kalev Kuljus, Jaan Mikkel, Heidi Mägi, Heino Mähar, Sigrid Orusaar, Aarne Saluveer, Heli Lääts, Ludmilla Toon. Valgetähe medal Endla Jaanus, Ralf Kaup, Aadu Kukk, Tiit Köster, Heino Pehk, Tiiu Schüts

  16. Filling regulatory gaps in high seas fisheries: discrete high seas fish stocks, deep-sea fisheries and vulnerable marine ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takei, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the legal regime of high seas fisheries with a view to identifying regulatory gaps. The main research questions are as follows: 1. What general principles are applicable to high seas fisheries?; 2. What implications do these general principles have for new challenges in th

  17. Deep-sea pollen research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiangjun; LUO Yunli; CHEN Huaicheng

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly presents the progress of deep-sea pollen research in China since the beginning ofninetieths of the last Century. All the deep-sea pollen contri-butions mainly come from the South China Sea (SCS) andthe East China Sea (ECS). The German-Chinese joint cruise(Sonne 95) and ODP 184 cruise initiated by Chinese scientistsin the SCS provided excellent material for the deep-sea pol-len research. So far a number of pollen results of 20-30 kaand million years from the SCS have been published. A couple of deep-sea pollen records from Okinawa Through of the ECS also came out. The high resolution pollen records obtained from the continuous deposits with high sedimentation rates and reliable age control of the deep-sea sediments provided a high time resolution history (hundred to millennial scales) of vegetation, environment and monsoon evolution of the pollen source areas (southern China and Japan). Spectral analysis of deep-sea pollen records from the SCS discovered orbital (100, 41, 23, 10 ka) and suborbital cyclicities (Heinrich and Dansgaard/Oscheger-O/D events) in the vege-tation changes. Moreover, cross spectral analysis showed that the trend of vegetation changes in northern SCS was regulated mainly by changes of the ice volume in the Northern Hemisphere. The pollen record of the last 20 ka from the Okinawa Through of the ECS indicates that the marine environmental change lagged that on the terrestrail by about 1000 year. The asynchronous environmental changes between land and sea were probably caused by the time difference in thermohaline circulation. This study underscored the role of the deep-sea plant fossils as a bridge across the land and sea.

  18. Air-sea CO2 fluxes on the Bering Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Jeffries

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been few previous studies of surface seawater CO2 partial pressure (pCO2 variability and air-sea CO2 gas exchange rates for the Bering Sea shelf. In 2008, spring and summertime observations were collected in the Bering Sea shelf as part of the Bering Sea Ecological Study (BEST. Our results indicate that the Bering Sea shelf was close to neutral in terms of CO2 sink-source status in springtime due to relatively small air-sea CO2 gradients (i.e., ΔpCO2 and sea-ice cover. However, by summertime, very low seawater pCO2 values were observed and much of the Bering Sea shelf became strongly undersaturated with respect to atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Thus the Bering Sea shelf transitions seasonally from mostly neutral conditions to a strong oceanic sink for atmospheric CO2 particularly in the "green belt" region of the Bering Sea where there are high rates of phytoplankton primary production (PPand net community production (NCP. Ocean biological processes dominate the seasonal drawdown of seawater pCO2 for large areas of the Bering Sea shelf, with the effect partly countered by seasonal warming. In small areas of the Bering Sea shelf south of the Pribilof Islands and in the SE Bering Sea, seasonal warming is the dominant influence on seawater pCO2, shifting localized areas of the shelf from minor/neutral CO2 sink status to neutral/minor CO2 source status, in contrast to much of the Bering Sea shelf. Overall, we compute that the Bering Sea shelf CO2 sink in 2008 was 157 ± 35 Tg C yr−1 (Tg = 1012 g C and thus a strong sink for CO2.

  19. A Heavy Sea Fog Event over the Yellow Sea in March 2005:Analysis and Numerical Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a heavy sea fog episode that occurred over the Yellow Sea on 9 March 2005 is investigated.The sea fog patch, with a spatial scale of several hundred kilometers at its mature stage, reduced visibility along the Shandong Peninsula coast to 100 m or much less at some sites. Satellite images, surface observations and soundings at islands and coasts, and analyses from the Japan Meteorology Agency (JMA) are used to describe and analyze this event. The analysis indicates that this sea fog can be categorized as advection cooling fog. The main features of this sea fog including fog area and its movement are reasonably reproduced by the Fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5). Model results suggest that the formation and evolution of this event can be outlined as:(1) southerly warm/moist advection of low-level air resulted in a strong sea-surface-based inversion with a thickness of about 600 m; (2) when the inversion moved from the warmer East Sea to the colder Yellow Sea, a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) gradually formed at the base of the inversion while the sea fog grew in response to cooling and moistening by turbulence mixing; (3) the sea fog developed as the TIBL moved northward and (4) strong northerly cold and dry wind destroyed the TIBL and dissipated the sea fog. The principal findings of this study are that sea fog forms in response to relatively persistent southerly warm/moist wind and a cold sea surface, and that turbulence mixing by wind shear is the primary mechanism for the cooling and moistening the marine layer. In addition, the study of sensitivity experiments indicates that deterministic numerical modeling offers a promising approach to the prediction of sea fog over the Yellow Sea but it may be more efficient to consider ensemble numerical modeling because of the extreme sensitivity to model input.

  20. Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) products provide measurements of daily sea ice extent and sea ice edge boundary for the...

  1. Snow on Antarctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massom, Robert A.; Eicken, Hajo; Hass, Christian; Jeffries, Martin O.; Drinkwater, Mark R.; Sturm, Matthew; Worby, Anthony P.; Wu, Xingren; Lytle, Victoria I.; Ushio, Shuki; Morris, Kim; Reid, Phillip A.; Warren, Stephen G.; Allison, Ian

    2001-08-01

    Snow on Antarctic sea ice plays a complex and highly variable role in air-sea-ice interaction processes and the Earth's climate system. Using data collected mostly during the past 10 years, this paper reviews the following topics: snow thickness and snow type and their geographical and seasonal variations; snow grain size, density, and salinity; frequency of occurrence of slush; thermal conductivity, snow surface temperature, and temperature gradients within snow; and the effect of snow thickness on albedo. Major findings include large regional and seasonal differences in snow properties and thicknesses; the consequences of thicker snow and thinner ice in the Antarctic relative to the Arctic (e.g., the importance of flooding and snow-ice formation); the potential impact of increasing snowfall resulting from global climate change; lower observed values of snow thermal conductivity than those typically used in models; periodic large-scale melt in winter; and the contrast in summer melt processes between the Arctic and the Antarctic. Both climate modeling and remote sensing would benefit by taking account of the differences between the two polar regions.

  2. BACTERIAL DESEASES IN SEA FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Strunjak-Perović

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available With development of the fish culturing in the sea, the interest in their health also increased. The reason for this are diseases or rather mortality that occur in such controlled cultures and cause great economic losses. By growing large quantities of fish in rather small species, natural conditions are changed, so fish is more sensitive and prone to infection agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites. Besides, a large fish density in the cultural process accelerates spreading if the diseases, but also enables a better perception of them. In wild populations sick specimen very quickly become predator’s prey, witch makes it difficult to note any pathological changes in such fish. There are lots of articles on viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases nowdays, but this work deals exclusively with bacterial deseases that occur in the controlled sea cultures (vibriosis, furunculosis, pastherelosis, nocardiosis, mycobaceriosis, edwardsielosis, yersiniosis, deseases caused by bacteria of genera Flexibacter, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Streptococus and bacteria nephryithis. Yet, the knowledge of these deseases vary, depending on wether a fish species is being cultured for a longer period of time or is only being introduced in the controlled culture.

  3. Mapping of sea bottom topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkoen, C. J.; Wensink, G. J.; Hesselmans, G. H. F. M.

    1992-01-01

    Under suitable conditions the bottom topography of shallow seas is visible in remote sensing radar imagery. Two experiments were performed to establish which remote sensing technique or combination yields optimal imaging of bottom topography and which hydro-meteorological conditions are favorable. A further goal is to gain experience with these techniques. Two experiments were performed over an area in the North Sea near the measuring platform Meetpost Noordwijk (MPN). The bottom topography in the test area is dominated by sand waves. The crests of the sand waves are perpendicular to the coast line and the dominating (tidal-)current direction. A 4x4 sq km wide section of the test area was studied in more detail. The first experiment was undertaken on 16 Aug. 1989. During the experiment the following remote sensing instruments were used: Landsat-Thematic Mapper, and NASA/JPL Airborne Imaging Radar (AIR). The hydro-meteorological conditions; current, wind, wave, and air and water temperature were monitored by MPN, a ship of Rijkswaterstaat (the OCTANS), and a pitch-and-roll WAVEC-buoy. The second experiment took place on 12 July 1992. During this experiment data were collected with the NASA/JPL polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and a five-band helicopter-borne scatterometer. Again the hydro-meteorological conditions were monitored at MPN and the OCTANS. Furthermore, interferometric radar data were collected.

  4. CO2 and sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    There is considerable discussion currently about the potential effects of carbon dioxide build-up in the atmosphere over the next several decades. The sources of information are two Government funded reports, one by the National Research Council (NRC), the other by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), both were released within the last five months. The reports were described recently as being conservative, although the consequences of the resulting greenhouse effects are deemed inevitable. Atmospheric warming on a global scale of as much as 5°C cannot be avoided, only perhaps delayed by a few years at best (Environ. Sci. Technol, 18, 45A-46A, 1984). The cause is the burning of fossil fuels. Oil will not be too important because its supplies are predictably exhausted on the time scale of 50-100 years. Coal burning is considered as the main source of carbon dioxide. Among the more spectacular results of a global temperature rise over the next 100 years is the expected rise in sea level of a minimum of 70 cm (Oceanus, Winter, 1983/84). If the West Antarctic Ice Sheet breaks up and melts, the rise could be in the several meter range. Sea level rose only 15 cm in the past century.

  5. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    forcing that leads to the observed high productivity during winter in the northern Arabian Sea. The weak northerly winds and increased solar insolation during the inter-monsoon period, led to the development of a highly stratified upper layer with warm sea...

  6. The South Pole and the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows a rare clear view of the South Pole (lower right) and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquired the scene on December 26, 2001. The geographic South Pole is located in the center of Antarctica, at an altitude of 2,900 meters (9,300 feet). It rests on a continent-wide ice sheet that is 2,870 m thick, with the underlying bedrock only 30 m (98 feet) above sea level. The ice underlying the South Pole is as much as 140,000 years old, and is currently accumulating at about 82 cm (32 inches) per year. Roughly 2,500 km (1,550 miles) away is the green water of the Ross Sea, which indicates the presence of large numbers of phytoplankton. This is a highly productive part of the world's oceans. Also note the ice gathered around McMurdo Sound, seen toward the lefthand shoreline of the Ross Sea, at the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. According to National Science Foundation researchers, this ice is making it difficult for penguins to reach their food supply. Separating the continental Antarctic ice sheet from the Ross Sea are the Queen Maud Mountains and the Ross Ice Shelf. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  7. Sea level rise: A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of sea level rise on Water Management, it is useful to understand the mechanisrns that determine the level of the sea. In this study, a literature survey is executed to analyze these mechanisms. Climate plays a centra! role in these mechanisms, Climate mainly changes du

  8. Mapping of the air-sea CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yasunaka, S.; Murata, A.; Watanabe, E.; Chierici, M.; Fransson, A.; van Heuven, S.; Hoppema, M.; Ishii, M.; Johannessen, T.; Kosugi, N.; Lauvset, S.K.; Mathis, J.T.; Nishino, S.; Omar, A.M.; Olsen, A.; Sasano, D.; Takahashi, T.; Wanninkhof, R.

    2016-01-01

    We produced 204 monthly maps of the air–sea CO2 flux in the Arctic north of 60°N, including the Arctic Ocean and its adjacent seas, from January 1997 to December 2013 by using a self-organizing map technique. The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in surface water data were obtained by shipboard underwa

  9. Sea energy; Energie de la mer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-07-01

    The tidal and wave power of the sea could offer electric power for many towns and villages of seashore. This document presents the possibilities of electric power production from the sea energy (submarine wind turbines, tidal energy and wave energy) and the research programs in the world. (A.L.B.)

  10. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  11. Greenhouse warming and changes in sea level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1989-01-01

    It is likely that the anticipated warming due to the effect of increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will lead to a further and faster rise in world mean sea level. There are many processes in the climate system controlling sea level, but the most important factors in

  12. Seasonal variability in the Baltic Sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Świrgoń

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea level is subject to spatial and temporal variability on different scales. In this paper we investigate seasonal variability in the open Baltic Sea level using daily satellite altimetry data for the period 1 January 1993-31 December 2010. Our results indicate that there is a well-pronounced seasonal cycle in the 18-year average sea level and in its standard deviation. The average annual SLA amplitude in the open Baltic Sea is about 18 cm. The seasonal cycle of the SLA in the Baltic Sea is asymmetric in shape. In the autumn and winter (about 240-260 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are higher than the 18-year annual average SLA. In the spring and summer (about 100-120 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are lower than the 18-year annual average SLA. A similar asymmetry of the seasonal cycle is not observed in the North Sea and North Atlantic SLA data. The annual pattern of the sea level variability in the Baltic Sea is evident if one considers multi-year average time series, but the cycle can be obscured in some years.

  13. Tritium level along Romanian Black Sea Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Popescu, I.; Faurescu, I. [National Inst. for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, PO Box 10, Rm. Valcea, 24050 (Romania)

    2008-07-15

    Establishing the tritium level along the Romanian Black Sea Coast, after 10 years of exploitation of the nuclear power plant from Cernavoda, is a first step in evaluating its impact on the Black Sea ecosystem. The monitoring program consists of tritium activity concentration measurement in sea water and precipitation from Black Sea Coast between April 2005 and April 2006. The sampling points were spread over the Danube-Black Sea Canal - before the locks Agigea and Navodari, and Black Sea along the coast to the Bulgarian border. The average tritium concentration in sea water collected from the sampling locations had the value of 11.1 {+-} 2.1 TU, close to tritium concentration in precipitation. Although an operating nuclear power plant exists in the monitored area, the values of tritium concentration in two locations are slightly higher than those recorded elsewhere. To conclude, it could be emphasized that until now, Cernavoda NPP did not had any influence on the tritium concentration of the Black Sea Shore. (authors)

  14. The application of ERTS imagery to monitoring Arctic sea ice. [mapping ice in Bering Sea, Beaufort Sea, Canadian Archipelago, and Greenland Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. C. (Principal Investigator); Bowley, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Because of the effect of sea ice on the heat balance of the Arctic and because of the expanding economic interest in arctic oil and minerals, extensive monitoring and further study of sea ice is required. The application of ERTS data for mapping ice is evaluated for several arctic areas, including the Bering Sea, the eastern Beaufort Sea, parts of the Canadian Archipelago, and the Greenland Sea. Interpretive techniques are discussed, and the scales and types of ice features that can be detected are described. For the Bering Sea, a sample of ERTS-1 imagery is compared with visual ice reports and aerial photography from the NASA CV-990 aircraft. The results of the investigation demonstrate that ERTS-1 imagery has substantial practical application for monitoring arctic sea ice. Ice features as small as 80-100 m in width can be detected, and the combined use of the visible and near-IR imagery is a powerful tool for identifying ice types. Sequential ERTS-1 observations at high latitudes enable ice deformations and movements to be mapped. Ice conditions in the Bering Sea during early March depicted in ERTS-1 images are in close agreement with aerial ice observations and photographs.

  15. Teaching Wide Sargasso Sea in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Susan Arpajian

    2005-01-01

    High school teacher Susan Arpajian Jolley emphasizes experience and understanding by using the related novels "Wide Sargasso Sea" and "Jane Eyre" to help her students travel into unfamiliar cultural territory. "Wide Sargasso Sea" relates to Caribbean history and culture, feminism, race relations, colonialism, and personal identity.

  16. Causes for contemporary regional sea level changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammer, Detlef; Cazenave, Anny; Ponte, Rui M; Tamisiea, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Regional sea level changes can deviate substantially from those of the global mean, can vary on a broad range of timescales, and in some regions can even lead to a reversal of long-term global mean sea level trends. The underlying causes are associated with dynamic variations in the ocean circulation as part of climate modes of variability and with an isostatic adjustment of Earth's crust to past and ongoing changes in polar ice masses and continental water storage. Relative to the coastline, sea level is also affected by processes such as earthquakes and anthropogenically induced subsidence. Present-day regional sea level changes appear to be caused primarily by natural climate variability. However, the imprint of anthropogenic effects on regional sea level-whether due to changes in the atmospheric forcing or to mass variations in the system-will grow with time as climate change progresses, and toward the end of the twenty-first century, regional sea level patterns will be a superposition of climate variability modes and natural and anthropogenically induced static sea level patterns. Attribution and predictions of ongoing and future sea level changes require an expanded and sustained climate observing system.

  17. Sea ice thickness estimation in the Bohai Sea using geostationary ocean color imager data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wensong; SHENG Hui; ZHANG Xi

    2016-01-01

    A method to estimate the thickness of the sea ice of the Bohai Sea is proposed using geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) data and then applied to the dynamic monitoring of the sea ice thickness in the Bohai Sea during the winter of 2014 to 2015. First of all, a model is given between the GOCI shortwave broadband albedo and the reflectance of each band with high temporal resolution GOCI data. Then, the relationship model between the sea ice thickness and the GOCI shortwave broadband albedo is established and applied to the thickness extraction of the sea ice in the Bohai Sea. Finally, the sea ice thickness extraction method is tested by the results based on the MODIS data, thermodynamic empirical models (Lebedev and Zubov), and thein situ ice thickness data. The test results not only indicated that the sea ice thickness retrieval method based on the GOCI data was a good correlation (r2>0.86) with the sea ice thickness retrieved by the MODIS and thermodynamic empirical models, but also that the RMS is only 6.82 cm different from the thickness of the sea ice based on the GOCI andin situ data.

  18. The cooling and moistening effect on the formation of sea fog in the Huanghai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jian; ZHOU Faxiu

    2006-01-01

    With the sea surface observations from ICOADS for the years 1960~2002, the conditions of cooling, evaporation and water vapor transportation are analyzed and compared for the formation of seasonal sea fog in April-July in the Huanghai Sea. It is found that sea surface cooling is always existent during the fog seasons while sea surface evaporation only appears in April-June in the Huanghai Sea. Local evaporation alone is not sufficient to form fogs though it may lead to light ones. Water vapor transported from the low-latitudes accomplished by specific synoptic systems is the most important condition for sea fog formation. In general, the moistening effect is more important than the cooling one.

  19. On the measure of sea ice area from sea ice concentration data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccolari, Mauro; Parmiggiani, Flavio

    2015-10-01

    The measure of sea ice surface variability provides a fundamental information on the climatology of the Arctic region. Sea ice extension is conventionally measured by two parameters, i.e. Sea Ice Extent (SIE) and Sea Ice Area (SIA), both parameters being derived from Sea Ice Concentration (SIC) data sets. In this work a new parameter (CSIA) is introduced, which takes into account only the compact sea-ice, which is defined as the sea-ice having concentration at least equal the 70%. Aim of this study is to compare the performances of the two parameters, SIA and CSIA, in analyzing the trends of three monthly time-series of the whole Arctic region. The SIC data set used in this study was produced by the Institute of Environmental Physics of the University of Bremen and covers the period January 2003 - December 2014, i.e. the period in which the data set is built using the new AMSR passive microwave sensor.

  20. A sea temperature data assimilation system for the China Seas and adjacent areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Xiaobao; ZHOU Guangqing; ZHU Jiang; LI Rongfeng

    2003-01-01

    A sea temperature data assimilation system for the China Seas and adjacent areas is developed based on a nested regional ocean circulation model and variational optimal interpolation assimilation method. A 12-year assimilation experiment is performed by using the observational temperature profiles from World Ocean Database 1998 (WOD98) and ECMWF reanalysis surface wind stress. Experimental results indicate that the variational scheme shows good skill in assimilating the observed sea temperature into a regional ocean circulation model. Compared with simulation alone, the sea temperature data assimilation significantly improves the performance of a regional ocean model and obtains comprehensive description of the circulations in the China Seas and adjacent areas. Assimilation results, such as the strength and flowing axis of the Kuroshio, Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass and its corresponding horizontal circulation in summer and dipole eddies in the South China Sea in the late summer/early autumn and the eastward jet between them, are well consistent with the observed evidences.

  1. Captive sea turtle rearing inventory, feeding, and water chemistry in sea turtle rearing tanks at NOAA Galveston 1995-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains daily records of sea turtle inventories by species feeding rates type of food fed sick sea turtles sea turtles that have died log of tanks...

  2. Predictability of the Arctic sea ice edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessling, H. F.; Tietsche, S.; Day, J. J.; Hawkins, E.; Jung, T.

    2016-02-01

    Skillful sea ice forecasts from days to years ahead are becoming increasingly important for the operation and planning of human activities in the Arctic. Here we analyze the potential predictability of the Arctic sea ice edge in six climate models. We introduce the integrated ice-edge error (IIEE), a user-relevant verification metric defined as the area where the forecast and the "truth" disagree on the ice concentration being above or below 15%. The IIEE lends itself to decomposition into an absolute extent error, corresponding to the common sea ice extent error, and a misplacement error. We find that the often-neglected misplacement error makes up more than half of the climatological IIEE. In idealized forecast ensembles initialized on 1 July, the IIEE grows faster than the absolute extent error. This means that the Arctic sea ice edge is less predictable than sea ice extent, particularly in September, with implications for the potential skill of end-user relevant forecasts.

  3. Loss of sea ice in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, Donald K; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline A

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover is in decline. The areal extent of the ice cover has been decreasing for the past few decades at an accelerating rate. Evidence also points to a decrease in sea ice thickness and a reduction in the amount of thicker perennial sea ice. A general global warming trend has made the ice cover more vulnerable to natural fluctuations in atmospheric and oceanic forcing. The observed reduction in Arctic sea ice is a consequence of both thermodynamic and dynamic processes, including such factors as preconditioning of the ice cover, overall warming trends, changes in cloud coverage, shifts in atmospheric circulation patterns, increased export of older ice out of the Arctic, advection of ocean heat from the Pacific and North Atlantic, enhanced solar heating of the ocean, and the ice-albedo feedback. The diminishing Arctic sea ice is creating social, political, economic, and ecological challenges.

  4. The South China Sea Deep: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pinxian; Li, Qianyu; Dai, Minhan

    2015-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) has increasingly become a global focus in ocean research and hydrocarbon explorations. Over the last two decades, at least 17 international cruises including two ODP/IODP expeditions were conducted in the SCS, and more than 2000 exploratory wells were drilled (Wang et al., 2014a). While its sedimentary basins on the continental shelf and slope are explored for offshore resources, the deep basin below 3500 m in depth that overlies the basaltic oceanic crust preserves the key to understanding their formation and development. In order to better understand the life history and functional system of the marginal sea, a major research program "Deep Sea Processes and Evolution of the South China Sea", or "The South China Sea Deep" for short, was launched in January 2011 by the National Natural Science Foundation (NSFC) of China. This venture represents the first ever large-scale basic-research program in ocean science in the country (Wang, 2012).

  5. The microwave scattering characteristics of sea ice in the Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Meijie; DAI Yongshou; ZHANG Jie; ZHANG Xi; MENG Junmin; ZHU Xiuqin; YIN Yalei

    2016-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing has become the primary means for sea-ice research, and has been supported by a great deal of field experiments and theoretical studies regarding sea-ice microwave scattering. However, these studies have been barely carried in the Bohai Sea. The sea-ice microwave scattering mechanism was first developed for the thin sea ice with slight roughness in the Bohai Sea in the winter of 2012, and included the backscattering coefficients which were measured on the different conditions of three bands (L, C and X), two polarizations (HH and VV), and incident angles of 20° to 60°, using a ground-based scatterometer and the synchronous physical parameters of the sea-ice temperature, density, thickness, salinity, and so on. The theoretical model of the sea-ice electromagnetic scattering is obtained based on these physical parameters. The research regarding the sea-ice microwave scattering mechanism is carried out through two means, which includes the comparison between the field microwave scattering data and the simulation results of the theoretical model, as well as the feature analysis of the four components of the sea-ice electromagnetic scattering. It is revealed that the sea-ice microwave scattering data and the theoretical simulation results vary in the same trend with the incident angles. Also, there is a visible variant in the sensitivity of every component to the different bands. For example, the C and X bands are sensitive to the top surface, the X band is sensitive to the scatterers, and the L and C bands are sensitive to the bottom surface, and so on. It is suggested that the features of the sea-ice surfaces and scatterers can be retrieved by the further research in the future. This experiment can provide an experimental and theoretical foundation for research regarding the sea-ice microwave scattering characteristics in the Bohai Sea.

  6. Seasonal sea ice changes in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica, over the period of 1979–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Stammerjohn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent attention has focused on accelerated glacial losses along the Amundsen Sea coast that result from changes in atmosphere and ocean circulation, with sea ice playing a mediating but not well-understood role. Here, we investigated how sea ice has changed in the Amundsen Sea over the period of 1979 to 2014, focusing on spatio-temporal changes in ice edge advance/retreat and percent sea ice cover in relation to changes in winds. In contrast to the widespread sea ice decreases to the east and increases to the west of the Amundsen Sea, sea ice changes in the Amundsen Sea were confined to three areas: (i offshore of the shelf break, (ii the southern Pine Island Polynya, and (iii the eastern Amundsen Sea Polynya. Offshore, a 2-month decrease in ice season duration coincided with seasonal shifts in wind speed and direction from March to May (relating to later ice advance and from September to August (relating to earlier retreat, consistent with reported changes in the depth/location of the Amundsen Sea Low. In contrast, sea ice decreases in the polynya areas corresponded to episodic or step changes in spring ice retreat (earlier by 1–2 months and were coincident with changes to Thwaites Iceberg Tongue (located between the two polynyas and increased southeasterly winds. Temporal correlations among these three areas were weak, indicating different local forcing and/or differential response to large-scale forcing. Although our analysis has shown that part of the variability can be explained by changes in winds or to the coastal icescape, an additional but unknown factor is how sea ice has responded to changes in ocean heat and freshwater inputs. Unraveling cause and effect, critical for predicting changes to this rapidly evolving ocean-ice shelf-sea ice system, will require in situ observations, along with improved remote sensing capabilities and ocean modeling.

  7. SEAS: Student Experiments At Sea - An Education Outreach Pilot Program Sponsored by the Ridge2000 Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, L.

    2004-12-01

    SEAS is a pilot program for middle and high school students who want to learn science by doing science. SEAS students study the deep sea hydrothermal vent environment and learn to ask questions about this exciting, relatively unexplored world, just as researchers do. SEAS students also learn how to answer their own questions through the process of scientific investigation. With the SEAS program, students have the opportunity to participate in the actual discovery process, along side deep-sea researchers. SEAS builds upon the successes of programs like Dive&Discover and Extreme2000, which demonstrated the capability deep-sea scientists have in engaging students with live research. SEAS extends this concept by inviting students to participate in deep-sea research through formal proposal and report competitions. SEAS challenges students to higher levels of achievement. A curriculum, developed by teachers expert in the translation of scientific inquiry in the classroom, prepares students to participate. SEAS was concept-tested during the 2003-2004 school year, with 14 pilot teachers and approximately 800 students. Twenty Ridge2000 scientists contributed their time and expertise to the SEAS program in its first year. Five student proposals were selected and conducted at sea in April during a Ridge2000 research cruise to the East Pacific Rise. All results were posted to the SEAS website (http://www.ridge2000.org/SEAS/) during the cruise, and students were invited to analyze data for their final reports. Final student reports, along with scientists comments were also posted. During the 2004-2005 school year, SEAS will be evaluated for its impact on student learning and attitudes toward science. The benefits of SEAS to the Ridge2000 scientific community are many. Scientists are invited to contribute in a variety of ways, all of which help satisfy the requirement of NSFs Broader Impacts Criterion. They may contribute time and expertise by answering student questions and

  8. Sea Ice Biogeochemistry: A Guide for Modellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Letizia; Vichi, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Sea ice is a fundamental component of the climate system and plays a key role in polar trophic food webs. Nonetheless sea ice biogeochemical dynamics at large temporal and spatial scales are still rarely described. Numerical models may potentially contribute integrating among sparse observations, but available models of sea ice biogeochemistry are still scarce, whether their relevance for properly describing the current and future state of the polar oceans has been recently addressed. A general methodology to develop a sea ice biogeochemical model is presented, deriving it from an existing validated model application by extension of generic pelagic biogeochemistry model parameterizations. The described methodology is flexible and considers different levels of ecosystem complexity and vertical representation, while adopting a strategy of coupling that ensures mass conservation. We show how to apply this methodology step by step by building an intermediate complexity model from a published realistic application and applying it to analyze theoretically a typical season of first-year sea ice in the Arctic, the one currently needing the most urgent understanding. The aim is to (1) introduce sea ice biogeochemistry and address its relevance to ocean modelers of polar regions, supporting them in adding a new sea ice component to their modelling framework for a more adequate representation of the sea ice-covered ocean ecosystem as a whole, and (2) extend our knowledge on the relevant controlling factors of sea ice algal production, showing that beyond the light and nutrient availability, the duration of the sea ice season may play a key-role shaping the algal production during the on going and upcoming projected changes. PMID:24586604

  9. Sea ice biogeochemistry: a guide for modellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Letizia; Vichi, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Sea ice is a fundamental component of the climate system and plays a key role in polar trophic food webs. Nonetheless sea ice biogeochemical dynamics at large temporal and spatial scales are still rarely described. Numerical models may potentially contribute integrating among sparse observations, but available models of sea ice biogeochemistry are still scarce, whether their relevance for properly describing the current and future state of the polar oceans has been recently addressed. A general methodology to develop a sea ice biogeochemical model is presented, deriving it from an existing validated model application by extension of generic pelagic biogeochemistry model parameterizations. The described methodology is flexible and considers different levels of ecosystem complexity and vertical representation, while adopting a strategy of coupling that ensures mass conservation. We show how to apply this methodology step by step by building an intermediate complexity model from a published realistic application and applying it to analyze theoretically a typical season of first-year sea ice in the Arctic, the one currently needing the most urgent understanding. The aim is to (1) introduce sea ice biogeochemistry and address its relevance to ocean modelers of polar regions, supporting them in adding a new sea ice component to their modelling framework for a more adequate representation of the sea ice-covered ocean ecosystem as a whole, and (2) extend our knowledge on the relevant controlling factors of sea ice algal production, showing that beyond the light and nutrient availability, the duration of the sea ice season may play a key-role shaping the algal production during the on going and upcoming projected changes.

  10. The Caribbean conundrum of Holocene sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Luke; Mound, Jon

    2014-05-01

    In the tropics, pre-historic sea-level curve reconstruction is often problematic because it relies upon sea-level indicators whose vertical relationship to the sea surface is poorly constrained. In the Caribbean, fossil corals, mangrove peats and shell material dominate the pre-historic indicator record. The common approach to reconstruction involves the use of modern analogues to these indicators to establish a fixed vertical habitable range. The aim of these reconstructions is to find spatial variability in the Holocene sea level in an area gradually subsiding (Holocene sea-level indicators and the other of published, modern growth rates, abundance and coverage of mangrove and coral species for different depths. We use the first catalogue to calibrate 14C ages to give a probabilistic age range for each indicator. We use the second catalogue to define a depth probability distribution function (pdf) for mangroves and each coral species. The Holocene indicators are grouped into 12 sub-regions around the Caribbean. For each sub-region we apply our sea-level reconstruction, which involves stepping a fixed-length time window through time and calculating the position (and rate) of sea-level (change) using a thousand realisations of the time/depth pdfs to define an envelope of probable solutions. We find that the sub-regional relative sea-level curves display spatio-temporal variability including a south-east to north-west 1500 year lag in the arrival of Holocene sea level to that of the present day. We demonstrate that these variations are primarily due to glacial-isostatic-adjustment induced sea-level change and that sub-regional variations (where sufficient data exists) are due to local uplift variability.

  11. Arctic and Antarctic sea ice and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, S.

    2014-12-01

    Principal Components Analysis in T-Mode Varimax rotated was performed on Antarctic and Arctic monthly sea ice concentration anomalies (SICA) fields for the period 1979-2014, in order to investigate which are the main spatial characteristics of sea ice and its relationship with atmospheric circulation. This analysis provides 5 patterns of sea ice for inter-spring period and 3 patterns for summer-autumn for Antarctica (69,2% of the total variance) and 3 different patterns for summer-autumn and 3 for winter-spring season for the Arctic Ocean (67,8% of the total variance).Each of these patterns has a positive and negative phase. We used the Monthly Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations database derived from satellite information generated by NASA Team algorithm. To understand the links between the SICA and climate trends, we extracted the mean pressure and, temperature field patterns for the months with high loadings (positive or negative) of the sea ice patterns that gave distinct atmospheric structures associated with each one. For Antarctica, the first SICA spatial winter-spring pattern in positive phase shows a negative SICA centre over the Drake Passage and north region of Bellingshausen and Weddell Seas together with another negative SICA centre over the East Indian Ocean. Strong positive centres over the rest of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans basins and the Amundsen Sea are also presented. A strong negative pressure anomaly covers most of the Antarctic Continent centered over the Bellingshausen Sea accompanied by three positive pressure anomalies in middle-latitudes. During recent years, the Arctic showed persistent associations of sea-ice and climate patterns principally during summer. Our strongest summer-autumn pattern in negative phase showed a marked reduction on SICA over western Arctic, primarily linked to an overall increase in Arctic atmospheric temperature most pronounced over the Beaufort, Chukchi and East Siberian Seas, and a positive anomaly of

  12. Sea ice biogeochemistry: a guide for modellers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Tedesco

    Full Text Available Sea ice is a fundamental component of the climate system and plays a key role in polar trophic food webs. Nonetheless sea ice biogeochemical dynamics at large temporal and spatial scales are still rarely described. Numerical models may potentially contribute integrating among sparse observations, but available models of sea ice biogeochemistry are still scarce, whether their relevance for properly describing the current and future state of the polar oceans has been recently addressed. A general methodology to develop a sea ice biogeochemical model is presented, deriving it from an existing validated model application by extension of generic pelagic biogeochemistry model parameterizations. The described methodology is flexible and considers different levels of ecosystem complexity and vertical representation, while adopting a strategy of coupling that ensures mass conservation. We show how to apply this methodology step by step by building an intermediate complexity model from a published realistic application and applying it to analyze theoretically a typical season of first-year sea ice in the Arctic, the one currently needing the most urgent understanding. The aim is to (1 introduce sea ice biogeochemistry and address its relevance to ocean modelers of polar regions, supporting them in adding a new sea ice component to their modelling framework for a more adequate representation of the sea ice-covered ocean ecosystem as a whole, and (2 extend our knowledge on the relevant controlling factors of sea ice algal production, showing that beyond the light and nutrient availability, the duration of the sea ice season may play a key-role shaping the algal production during the on going and upcoming projected changes.

  13. Geomagnetic Navigation in Sea Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, K.; Putman, N.; Lohmann, C.

    2011-12-01

    Young loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from eastern Florida undertake a transoceanic migration in which they gradually circle the north Atlantic Ocean before returning to the North American coast. Newly hatched turtles (hatchlings) begin the migration with a 'magnetic map' in which regional magnetic fields function as navigational markers and elicit changes in swimming direction at crucial geographic boundaries. In laboratory experiments, young turtles that had never before been in the ocean were exposed to fields like those that exist at various, widely separated locations along their transoceanic migratory route. Turtles responded by swimming in directions that would, in each case, help them remain within the North Atlantic gyre currents and advance along the migratory pathway. The results demonstrate that turtles can derive both longitudinal and latitudinal information from the Earth's field, and provide strong evidence that hatchling loggerheads inherit a remarkably elaborate set of responses that function in guiding them along their open-sea migratory route. For young sea turtles, couplings of oriented swimming to regional magnetic fields appear to provide the fundamental building blocks from which natural selection can sculpt a sequence of responses capable of guiding first-time ocean migrants along complex migratory routes. The results imply that hatchlings from different populations in different parts of the world are likely to have magnetic navigational responses uniquely suited for the migratory routes that each group follows. Thus, from a conservation perspective, turtles from different populations are not interchangeable. From an evolutionary perspective, the responses are not incompatible with either secular variation or magnetic polarity reversals. As Earth's field gradually changes, strong selective pressure presumably acts to maintain an approximate match between the responses of hatchlings and the fields that exist at critical points along

  14. Ecology of North Sea fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daan, N.; Bromley, P. J.; Hislop, J. R. G.; Nielsen, N. A.

    Fishes of the North Sea include over 200 species exhibiting widely differing ecological characteristics. There is a wealth of literature and, in this paper, we have restricted ourselves to providing generalized data on the more abundant species, with a view of highlighting those aspects which link the total fish community to the biotic and abiotic environment. There is necessarily a bias towards commercial species, because most of the pertinent information is related specifically to fish which are heavily fished. However, since there are few abundant species which are not exploited, the ecological links of the total fish community to other components of the system are well represented by the selection. Moreover, exploitation of the fish community may have indirectly affected the ecological relationships in the entire system. It follows that an understandinf of the impact of fisheries on the fish community is likely to play a key role in helping us to understand how the North Sea ecosystem functions. The paper highlights various ecological aspects of the fish fauna including population dynamics, spawning in time and space, distribution, variations in year class strength, feeding, density-dependent growth and changes in species composition. Despite long time series of quantitative biological information for individual species and the obvious impact of fisheries on longevity and productivity of the fish community, the general conclusion is that it remains very difficult to separate effects of fisheries and of the environment on reproductive success, in which the variation is the most important destabilizing factor in the regulation of exploited fish populations. Another conclusion is that the spatial heterogeneity of the fish community in the North Sea is a factor of considerable concern in trying to link fish production to other components. It would seem likely that, to improve our understanding of the ecological linkages in the entire system, the spatial differences

  15. NESTOR Deep Sea Neutrino Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    NESTOR Collaboration; Aggouras, G.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Ball, A. E.; Bourlis, G.; Chinowsky, W.; Fahrun, E.; Grammatikakis, G.; Green, C.; Grieder, P.; Katrivanos, P.; Koske, P.; Leisos, A.; Markopoulos, E.; Minkowsky, P.; Nygren, D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Przybylski, G.; Resvanis, L. K.; Siotis, I.; Sopher, J.; Staveris-Polikalas, A.; Tsagli, V.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Zhukov, V. A.

    2006-01-01

    One module of NESTOR, the Mediterranean deep-sea neutrino telescope, was deployed at a depth of 4000m, 14km off the Sapienza Island, off the South West coast of Greece. The deployment site provides excellent environmental characteristics. The deployed NESTOR module is constructed as a hexagonal star like latticed titanium star with 12 Optical Modules and an one-meter diameter titanium sphere which houses the electronics. Power and data were transferred through a 30km electro-optical cable to the shore laboratory. In this report we describe briefly the detector and the detector electronics and discuss the first physics data acquired and give the zenith angular distribution of the reconstructed muons.

  16. Thermodynamic properties of sea air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Very accurate thermodynamic potential functions are available for fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure conditions. They permit the consistent computation of all equilibrium properties as, for example, required for coupled atmosphere-ocean models or the analysis of observational or experimental data. With the exception of humid air, these potential functions are already formulated as international standards released by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS, and have been adopted in 2009 for oceanography by IOC/UNESCO.

    In this paper, we derive a collection of formulas for important quantities expressed in terms of the thermodynamic potentials, valid for typical phase transitions and composite systems of humid air and water/ice/seawater. Particular attention is given to equilibria between seawater and humid air, referred to as "sea air" here. In a related initiative, these formulas will soon be implemented in a source-code library for easy practical use. The library is primarily aimed at oceanographic applications but will be relevant to air-sea interaction and meteorology as well.

    The formulas provided are valid for any consistent set of suitable thermodynamic potential functions. Here we adopt potential functions from previous publications in which they are constructed from theoretical laws and empirical data; they are briefly summarized in the appendix. The formulas make use of the full accuracy of these thermodynamic potentials, without additional approximations or empirical coefficients. They are expressed in the temperature scale ITS-90 and the 2008 Reference-Composition Salinity Scale.

  17. Thermodynamic properties of sea air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Very accurate thermodynamic potential functions are available for fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure conditions. They permit the consistent computation of all equilibrium properties as, for example, required for coupled atmosphere–ocean models or the analysis of observational or experimental data. With the exception of humid air, these potential functions are already formulated as international standards released by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS, and have been adopted in 2009 for oceanography by IOC/UNESCO.

    In this paper, we derive a collection of formulas for important quantities expressed in terms of the thermodynamic potentials, valid for typical phase transitions and composite systems of humid air and water/ice/seawater. Particular attention is given to equilibria between seawater and humid air, referred to as ''sea air'' here. In a related initiative, these formulas will soon be implemented in a source-code library for easy practical use. The library is primarily aimed at oceanographic applications but will be relevant to air-sea interaction and meteorology as well.

    The formulas provided are valid for any consistent set of suitable thermodynamic potential functions. Here we adopt potential functions from previous publications in which they are constructed from theoretical laws and empirical data; they are briefly summarized in the appendix. The formulas make use of the full accuracy of these thermodynamic potentials, without additional approximations or empirical coefficients. They are expressed in the temperature scale ITS-90 and the 2008 Reference-Composition Salinity Scale.

  18. Spatial-temporal characters of Antarctic sea ice variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Lijuan; Lu Longhua; Bian Lingen

    2004-01-01

    Using sea ice concentration dataset covering the period of 1968-2002 obtained from the Hadley Center of UK, this paper investigates characters of Antarctic sea ice variations .The finding demonstrates that the change of mean sea-ice extent is almost consistent with that of sea-ice area, so sea-ice extent can be chosen to go on this research. The maximum and the minimum of Antarctic sea ice appear in September and February respectively. The maximum and the maximal variation of sea ice appear in Weddell Sea and Ross Sea, while the minimum and the minimal variation of sea-ice appear in Antarctic Peninsula. In recent 35 years, as a whole, Antarctic sea ice decreased distinctly. Moreover, there are 5 subdivision characteristic regions considering their different variations. Hereinto, the sea-ice extent of Weddell Sea and Ross Sea regions extends and area increases, while the sea-ice extent of the other three regions contracts and area decreases. They are all of obvious 2-4 years and 5-7 years significant oscillation periods. It is of significance for further understanding the sea-ice-air interaction in Antarctica region and discussing the relationship between sea-ice variation and atmospheric circulation.

  19. Chemical Composition of Sea Fog Water Along the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yanyu; Niu, Shengjie; Zhao, Lijuan; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Feng

    2012-12-01

    The chemical and microphysical properties of sea fog were measured during a field experiment on Donghai Island, Zhanjiang of China from March 15 to April 18, 2010. The average pH and electrical conductivity (EC) value of the six sea fog cases during the experiment was 5.2 and 1,884 μS/cm. The observed total ion concentration of sea fog was four orders of magnitude higher than those in the North Pacific and other sea areas of China. The dominant anion and cation in all sea fog water samples were Cl- and Na+, respectively. From backward trajectory analysis and ion loading computation, it can be concluded that the ions in the samples were transported either from pollutants in distant industrial cities or from local ion deposition processes. The concentration of Ca2+ in the sea fog water samples in Case 2 suggested that a dust storm in the Inner Mongolia, a northern region of China several thousand kilometers away, could reach the South China Sea. The data also showed that the sea fog droplet spectrum over the South China Sea is unimodal. Through relationship analysis, it is illustrated that the evolution of microphysics (such as droplet concentration, diameter, and liquid water content) during fog process could affect the chemical properties of sea fog.

  20. On Study of Sea Fog over the Yellow and Bohai Seas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, G.; Gao, S.; Yang, Y.; Xu, X.; Wang, X.; Chen, Y.; Xue, D.; Shen, J.

    2010-07-01

    A ubiquitous feature of the Yellow and Bohai Sea (YBS) in the eastern Asian region is the frequent occurrence of the sea fog in spring and summer season. The pioneer work on sea fog over YBS can be traced back to Prof. Binhua Wang as early as 1940's. He investigated sea fog systematically and published his book Sea Fog in 1985 (by China Ocean Press and Springer-Verlag). Recently, a research group in the Department of Marine Meteorology at Ocean University of China (OUC) continued sea fog research collaborated with Shandong Meteorological Bureau and Qingdao Meteorological Bureau under the financial supports of National Natural Science Foundation of China and China Meteorological Administration. Their researches involved in both observation analyses and high-resolution modeling of sea fog over YBS. In this talk, the brief history of sea fog research in China will be reviewed firstly. Then, a typical heavy sea fog event over YBS occurred in the morning of 11 April 2004 will be documented by using all available observational data and high-resolution Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) modeling results. Finally, the applications of a quasi-operational sea fog forecasting system which was mainly based on RAMS model will be introduced.