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Sample records for caspian export development

  1. Long-term competition between gas infrastructures developments in Asia. The constraints on the Siberia and Caspian export development by cross-border pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D; Locatelli, C; Mima, S

    2000-09-01

    Despite the effects of the recent financial crisis, the problem of satisfying the energy requirements of the emerging economies in Asia remains the principal challenge in the first half of the 21. century. The competition between sources of supply is influenced by the nature of the transport infrastructures used in their exportation and by the associated economic and geopolitical conditions: capital intensiveness, rigidity, country-risk, etc... The aim of the study is the position that could be occupied by major continental infrastructures in trade within the Asian continent, in view of the economic institutional and geopolitical restraints that would appear more favourable to projects based on LNG. Developments in Siberia and Central Asia will be heavily influenced by the geographical remoteness and organizational weakness of the countries in that area. (A.L.B.)

  2. Caspian Sea Energy: Oil, Politics and Development in the Caspian Sea Region (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Light, Chris

    2004-01-01

    ...: 1 CD-ROM; 4 3/4 in.; 5.0 MB. ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to present the major issues impacting Caspian hydrocarbon development Specifically, a number of topics including the regions geography, history, governments, politics...

  3. Still more records, Iraqi violence and Caspian exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    Oil prices set further records at the start of May before falling back. December WTI hit an all-time high of $78.00/bbl on Nymex on 3rd May. IPE November Brent went up to a record $76.45/bbl. Both contracts eventually settled lower and prices in general weakened before staging a minor rally at the end of the month. Other price records were broken early in the month. In Asia, the Indonesian marker grade, Minas, was recorded at $74.04/bbl on 2nd May, whilst Malaysia's Tapis went above $76.70/bbl. Strong Asian demand also boosted the prices of West African crudes. The markets appeared to be reacting to growing tensions in Iraq, Iran and Nigeria. These considerations returned to haunt the markets later in the month. All crude oil loadings at Iraq's Persian Gulf marine terminal were suspended following a fire, though the main Gulf terminal at Basrah continued to operate. The Ceyhan terminal remained out of action. Tensions between the US and Iran over the latter's nuclear programme gave rise to fears of an embargo on Iranian oil exports. Several foreign oil workers were kidnapped following an armed attack on oil installations in Nigeria. OPEC ministers kept their production ceiling unchanged at 28 mn bpd at a meeting in Caracas. (author)

  4. Ovarian development of Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus, in southern Caspian Sea: A histological and ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Akhoundian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The histology and ultrastructure of the ovarian maturation process in Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus, was studied. A total 170 female specimens were collected from the Gharasoo River, Bandar Turkmen, the southern Caspian Sea to evaluate its maturation cycle. Based on the results, its ovarian follicle’s development could classified into six stages by distinct characteristics. Minimum and maximum diameter of oocytes were recorded in the chromatin-nucleolus and maturation stages as 56.34±3.74 and 918.83±14.82 µm, respectively. The zona radiata was observed from the cortical alveoli stage and its maximum diameter measured in the secondary vitellogenesis stage as 93.11±23.0 µm. Gonadosomatic index (GSI reached to its peak in mid-March and its sharp drop in the late April showed its spawning period from late March or early April till the end of April. A positive correlation was found between the GSI and HSI in the vitellogenesis stage. The results also revealed Caspian roach as iteroparous synchronous spawner.

  5. Caspian energy phase II: Beyond 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the major factors that will shape the second phase of Caspian oil and natural gas export. The article compares the prospects of the post-2005 period with the Caspian energy developments in the first decade and a half after independence. This article claims: One, political considerations will continue to play an important role in the decisions on export routes for and participants in Caspian energy production and export projects. However, those political considerations will produce different policies in phase two of Caspian energy production than they did in the first phase. Second, the relative influence and interest in the Caspian region of various global and regional powers have changed significantly from Caspian energy phase one to phase two. Third, the producers in the region are not as anxious for foreign investment as they were earlier. The major resources that will be developed in Caspian phase two are: new production of Azerbaijan's natural gas, extension to new markets and expansion of capacity of existing gas export routes; new production projects for Turkmenistan's natural gas and new pipelines; and additional Kazakhstani oil production and natural gas increased production and initiation of export.

  6. The Trans-Caspian energy route: Cronyism, competition and cooperation in Kazakh oil export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliyev, Farid [School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen (Germany)], E-mail: f.guliyev@jacobs-university.de; Akhrarkhodjaeva, Nozima [School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The article delineates the major national, regional and international level stakeholders in the westward Trans-Caspian transportation of Kazakh oil, supplemented with a discussion of the prospect of expansion of the Trans-Caspian/South Caucasus corridor in light of the presumably harmful effect of the war between Russia and Georgia in August 2008. It demonstrates that while foreign companies have been backed by their respective governments, national firms have also enjoyed considerable state support, partly due to their close links to the interests of state elites in Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. It appears that most companies along the shipping line either belong to the governments of Kazakhstan or Azerbaijan, directly or indirectly (through subsidiaries), or enjoy favoritism and a near monopoly in their markets (crony capitalism). Some of these firms are privately owned but registered in offshore tax havens, while some others have rather obscure ownership structures and corporate profiles. It suggests that cronyism and state capture comprise that politico-economic environment within which the future of Caspian transport systems will have to be decided.

  7. The Trans-Caspian energy route. Cronyism, competition and cooperation in Kazakh oil export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliyev, Farid; Akhrarkhodjaeva, Nozima [School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The article delineates the major national, regional and international level stakeholders in the westward Trans-Caspian transportation of Kazakh oil, supplemented with a discussion of the prospect of expansion of the Trans-Caspian/South Caucasus corridor in light of the presumably harmful effect of the war between Russia and Georgia in August 2008. It demonstrates that while foreign companies have been backed by their respective governments, national firms have also enjoyed considerable state support, partly due to their close links to the interests of state elites in Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. It appears that most companies along the shipping line either belong to the governments of Kazakhstan or Azerbaijan, directly or indirectly (through subsidiaries), or enjoy favoritism and a near monopoly in their markets (crony capitalism). Some of these firms are privately owned but registered in offshore tax havens, while some others have rather obscure ownership structures and corporate profiles. It suggests that cronyism and state capture comprise that politico-economic environment within which the future of Caspian transport systems will have to be decided. (author)

  8. The Trans-Caspian energy route. Cronyism, competition and cooperation in Kazakh oil export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guliyev, Farid; Akhrarkhodjaeva, Nozima

    2009-01-01

    The article delineates the major national, regional and international level stakeholders in the westward Trans-Caspian transportation of Kazakh oil, supplemented with a discussion of the prospect of expansion of the Trans-Caspian/South Caucasus corridor in light of the presumably harmful effect of the war between Russia and Georgia in August 2008. It demonstrates that while foreign companies have been backed by their respective governments, national firms have also enjoyed considerable state support, partly due to their close links to the interests of state elites in Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. It appears that most companies along the shipping line either belong to the governments of Kazakhstan or Azerbaijan, directly or indirectly (through subsidiaries), or enjoy favoritism and a near monopoly in their markets (crony capitalism). Some of these firms are privately owned but registered in offshore tax havens, while some others have rather obscure ownership structures and corporate profiles. It suggests that cronyism and state capture comprise that politico-economic environment within which the future of Caspian transport systems will have to be decided. (author)

  9. Caspian staging a comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitbread, Sue

    2000-01-01

    A new surge of activity in the oil and gas business in the Caspian Sea has occurred. Since 1991, as a result the drilling of 16 new exploration wells, the estimated reserves in the region have been drastically increased. Work to increase production on two major onshore developments in Kazakhstan are under way and in Azerbaijan 22 fields are producing, three are under development and four are being appraised. Reserves in Azerbaijan are estimated to be 32 billion barrels offshore and 3 billion barrels onshore. The Caspian is in fifth place in terms of planned expenditure on field facilities and pipeline infrastructure for the next decade. The possible options for exports are discussed: there is a need for additional secured marketing options and pipelines and here the spotlight is on the western routes through Turkey and beyond to the world markets via the Mediterranean and south through Iran. The home markets in both Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan are substantial

  10. Export development financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, J.

    1995-01-01

    The main activities of the Export Development Corporation (EDC) were described, as well as some of the changes currently being implemented. EDC is Canada's official export credit agency, providing risk management services such as insurance, loans, guarantees, equity and leasing. EDC's project finance initiative started in 1991, and focused mainly on the up-front process. It has established itself as a recognized leader in project financing. It has over 15 years experience in a variety of sectors and countries. Energy projects financed to date include hydro projects in India, Argentina and Pakistan, and thermal projects in Thailand, China, Indonesia and Egypt. Lending criteria used to select projects were outlined, along with the risks endemic to project financing

  11. Cruising round the Caspian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Paul

    1997-12-31

    The combined offshore potential of Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, could result in the Caspian becoming one of the world`s most important oil and gas producing regions. Foreign companies are committed to investing over 30 billion dollars in various oil and gas developments in the region over the coming decades but Russian policy aims could create problems. Difficulties are already being experienced over pipelines for the export of oil and gas from the region. The conflict in Chechnya has thrown doubt on the export of oil from Baku via the Russian pipeline and an alternative route using a refurbished pipeline through Georgia to the Black Sea is becoming an increasingly important option. Turkmenistan, the world`s fourth largest natural gas producer, relies on a pipeline owned by the Russian Gazprom to supply its main customers in Azerbaijan, Georgia and Ukraine but on a number of occasions in recent years Gazprom has refused to carry the gas. The provision of alternative pipelines to Iran and Pakistan has attracted the support of foreign investors. Further problems could arise over arguments as to whether the Caspian is an inland sea or a lake. The resolution of this question will determine exploitation rights of the five littoral states with Russia, backed by Iran, having a major stake in the outcome. (UK)

  12. Cruising round the Caspian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Paul.

    1996-01-01

    The combined offshore potential of Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, could result in the Caspian becoming one of the world's most important oil and gas producing regions. Foreign companies are committed to investing over 30 billion dollars in various oil and gas developments in the region over the coming decades but Russian policy aims could create problems. Difficulties are already being experienced over pipelines for the export of oil and gas from the region. The conflict in Chechnya has thrown doubt on the export of oil from Baku via the Russian pipeline and an alternative route using a refurbished pipeline through Georgia to the Black Sea is becoming an increasingly important option. Turkmenistan, the world's fourth largest natural gas producer, relies on a pipeline owned by the Russian Gazprom to supply its main customers in Azerbaijan, Georgia and Ukraine but on a number of occasions in recent years Gazprom has refused to carry the gas. The provision of alternative pipelines to Iran and Pakistan has attracted the support of foreign investors. Further problems could arise over arguments as to whether the Caspian is an inland sea or a lake. The resolution of this question will determine exploitation rights of the five littoral states with Russia, backed by Iran, having a major stake in the outcome. (UK)

  13. EITI and sustainable development: Lessons and new challenges for the Caspian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ospanova, Saule; Ahmadov, Ingilab; Wilson, Emma

    2013-03-01

    EITI requires countries to declare the revenues they receive from companies in the oil, gas and mining sectors, and for companies to declare what they pay. This paper highlights key issues and challenges related to implementing EITI, and suggests several ways for these new rules to help reduce poverty, improve lives and ensure that extractive industries operate in a sustainable, environmentally responsible way. Focusing on three countries of the Caspian Sea Region - Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, the paper will be of particular interest to those preparing for, and attending, the EITI conference in Sydney in May 2013. It will also inform the public and stakeholders working towards EITI implementation in the Caspian Region, and contributes to on-going debates on EITI and sustainable development more broadly.

  14. Ice issues relating to the Kashagan phase II development, North Caspian Sea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croasdale, Ken [KRCA, Calgary (Canada); Verlaan, Paul [Shell Development Kashagan, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    The ice conditions in the north Caspian Sea are challenging for the Kashagan field development. The climatic conditions of the area are extreme, with cold winters (-30 degrees C) and hot summers (+40 degrees C). The presence and the quantity of ice are also highly variable from year to year. This paper investigated the major ice-related issues affecting the Kashagan structures and pipelines. An extensive description of the ice environment was provided. Ice design criteria for the offshore rock islands, the pipelines and the layout of the ice protection barriers around the islands were presented. It was found that the ice design methods used in Arctic areas have required some adaptations to meet Caspian conditions. All the islands were designed with an ice encroachment zone to reduce the hazardous effect of the ice rubble encroaching. Rock sloped barriers and steel barriers were implanted around the islands to protect the logistical areas.

  15. CASPIAN BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Guseynov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We present the data on the biological resources of the Caspian Sea, based on the analysis of numerous scientific sources published between years of 1965 and 2011. Due to changes in various biotic and abiotic factors we find it important to discuss the state of the major groups of aquatic biocenosis including algae, crayfish, shrimp, pontogammarus, fish and Caspian seal. Methods. Long-term data has been analyzed on the biology and ecology of the main commercial fish stocks and their projected catches for qualitative and quantitative composition, abundance and biomass of aquatic organisms that make up the food base for fish. Results and discussion. It has been found that the widespread commercial invertebrates in the Caspian Sea are still poorly studied; their stocks are not identified and not used commercially. There is a great concern about the current state of the main commercial fish stocks of the Caspian Sea. A critical challenge is to preserve the pool of biological resources and the restoration of commercial stocks of Caspian fish. For more information about the state of the marine ecosystem in modern conditions, expedition on Caspian Sea should be carried out to study the hydrochemical regime and fish stocks, assessment of sturgeon stocks, as well as the need to conduct sonar survey for sprat stocks. Conclusions. The main condition for preserving the ecosystem of the Caspian Sea and its unique biological resources is to develop and apply environmentally-friendly methods of oil, issuing concerted common fisheries rules in various regions of theCaspian Sea, strengthening of control for sturgeon by all Caspian littoral states. The basic principle of the protection of biological resources is their rational use, based on the preservation of optimal conditions of their natural or artificial reproduction. 

  16. Mixing geopolitics and business: How ruling elites in the Caspian states justify their choice of export pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Heinrich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As political elites in the Caspian countries see themselves as actors who determine the fate of their countries and not as mere objects of international power struggles or as managers of pipeline projects, this contribution examines how domestic elites assess different pipeline projects. Based on close to 1,500 TV reports from national TV stations, which are seen as the mouthpiece of the ruling elites, we analyze the arguments surrounding oil and gas pipeline debate and construction in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan.

  17. Export opportunities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.

    1992-01-01

    Developing countries will offer major opportunities to US exporters of energy and related environmental equipment in the next ten years. These opportunities arise because the markets in developing countries will be growing much faster than those in the developed countries during this period, and because these countries will not in most cases have strong domestic manufacturers to compete against. US technologies will help these countries solve their energy, environmental, and economic development problems, and help the US solve its serious trade balance problems. This market will represent over $200 billion between now and 2000. There are, however, many potential problems. These include a lack of focus and coordination among US government trade assistance organizations, a lack of interest on the part of US firms in exporting and an unwillingness to make the needed investments, barriers put up by the governments of potential foreign customers, and strong international competition. This paper describes how the United States Agency for International Development's (A.I.D.) Office of Energy and other US agencies are helping US firms resolve these problems with a comprehensive program of information, trade promotion assistance, and co-funding of feasibility studies. In addition, there are monies available to match unfair concessionary financing offered by our major competitors

  18. Caspian games: A dynamic bargaining game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Dennis Wright

    This Dissertation was written under the direction of Professor P.Terrence Hopmann. In this work, the author seeks to identify the independent variables affecting the outcome of three key decisions required of the international consortiums constructing Caspian oil export pipelines. The first of involves whether or not the enterprises developing the pipelines to export Kazakh oil, the Caspian Pipeline Consortium ("CPC"), and Azeri oil, the Azerbaijan International Operating Consortium ("CPC"), cooperate by utilizing the same route or utilize separate energy export corridors. Second, I analyzed how the actual Main Export Pipeline route ("MEP") for Azeri oil was selected by the AIOC. Finally, I tried to understand the factors driving the residual equity positions in each consortium. I was particularly interested in the equity position of Russian state and commercial interests in each consortium. I approached the puzzle as a multilevel bargaining problem. Hence, the preferences of each relevant actor (state and corporate levels) were assessed. The covering theory utilized was rational choice. An application of game theoretic modeling, particularly Bayesian analysis (used as a metaphor), accounted for the learning process resulting from the strategic interaction between actors. I sought to understand greater the refinement of each actor's perception of counterpart preferences. Additionally, the Gordon Constant Growth Model ("CGM") and the Sharp's Capital Asset Pricing Model ("CAPM") were utilized to relate multinational actors preferences, achieving a cost of capital based hurdle rate, to political risk. My end findings demonstrate this interrelationship and provide a clear argument for great power states to persuade newly developing Caspian states to adopt a more transparent, and credible approach to corporate governance. This revised state strategy will reduce multinationals' perception of political risk, lower firms' cost of capital (hurdle rate), and increase the

  19. A SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN CASPIAN HYRCANIAN MIXED FORESTS ECOREGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI BALI

    Full Text Available Ecotourism, as a form of sustainable nature-based tourism, promotes conservation of ecological and scenic values. In this study, a Spatial Decision Support System, SDSS, was developed based upon Multi Criteria Evaluation, MCE, for ecotourism development in the Caspian Hyrcanian Mixed Forests ecoregion, northern Iran. For this, important criteria and constraints for ecotourism development were shortlisted using the Delphi Method. The criteria were weighted using Analytical Hierarchy Process, AHP. The obtained results indicated that "distance from water resources", "land use", "slope", "soil", "climate", "distance from roads", "land cover density", "erosion", and "distance from residential areas" were the most important criteria, respectively. The findings suggest that GIS-based SDSS is suitable to engage the various criteria affecting the development of ecotourism destinations. This empirical research develops a new method that can significantly facilitate planning forecotourism development with respect to ecological capability of ecotourism destinations.

  20. Offshore platforms and deterministic ice actions: Kashagan phase 2 development: North Caspian Sea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croasdale, Ken [KRCA, Calgary (Canada); Jordaan, Ian [Ian Jordaan and Associates, St John' s (Canada); Verlaan, Paul [Shell Development Kashagan, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    The Kashagan development has to face the difficult conditions of the northern Caspian Sea. This paper investigated ice interaction scenarios and deterministic methods used on platform designs for the Kashagan development. The study presents first a review of the types of platforms in use and being designed for the Kashagan development. The various ice load scenarios and the structures used in each case are discussed. Vertical faced barriers, mobile drilling barges and sheet pile islands were used for the ice loads on vertical structures. Sloping faced barriers and islands of rock were used for the ice loads on sloping structures. Deterministic models such as the model in ISO 19906 were used to calculate the loads occurring with or without ice rubble in front of the structure. The results showed the importance of rubble build-up in front of wide structures in shallow water. Recommendations were provided for building efficient vertical and sloping faced barriers.

  1. Caspian sea: petroleum challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Caspian sea is one of the world areas the most promising in terms of investments and petroleum development. This study presents the petroleum challenges generated by this hydrocarbons reserve. The first part discusses the juridical status (sea or lake), the petroleum and the gas reserves, the ecosystem and the today environment (fishing and caviar), the geostrategic situation and the transport of gas and oil. It provides also a chronology from 1729 to 2005, a selection of Internet sites, books and reports on the subject and identity sheets of the countries around the Caspian sea. (A.L.B.)

  2. Russian-Iranian relations in the Caspian Region: results and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Sergeevich Zhiltcov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The collapse of the USSR affected the Russian-Iranian relations, governed by bilateral agreements during several centuries. The emergence of “new” independent states in the region, such as Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, changed the geopolitical situation and put a question of the legal status of the Caspian Sea. Russian-Persian and Soviet-Iranian agreements had a centuries-old tradition but they did not draw up a legal status of the Caspian Sea or clarify the procedures of subsursafe management. Those agreements governed only laid down rules of navigation and fishery, without touching the issues of oil and gas field exploration, production and transportation, including pipelines on the floor of the Caspian Sea. It did not fit political and economic interests of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan and stimulate them to unilateral actions. Russia and Iran in turn insisted on saving the former rules and agreements. The absence of Convention on legal status of the Caspian Sea introduced uncertainty in the principles of oil and gas development and export, pushing Caspian countries toward making unilateral decisions. Russia and Iran kept close positions, insisting on following the former agreements. The other Caspian countries did not support that position and adopted a policy aimed at division of the Caspian Sea and asserting a certain control over its hydrocarbons. Close Russian and Iranian positions on legal status of the Caspian Sea became a strong deterrent for Caspian countries to let them divide the sea into national sectors and launch pipeline plans on the floor of the Caspian Sea. As the result Russian and Iranian relations had stabilizing effect in the Caspian region. At the same time, the Russian Federation aimed at following a flexible policy, taking into account the interests of the other Caspian countries. The settlement of the legal status of the Caspian Sea with Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan let Russia improve the

  3. The Caspian Sea geopolitical game: prospects for the new millenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, G.

    1999-01-01

    The break-up of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s opened the door for the international oil companies to explore and develop the Caspian Sea's hydrocarbon resources. The full utilisation of this wealth, however, has been hindered by disagreement over the ownership of the basin and the choice of export routes. In addition, there is no consensus on the exact quantity of resources there. This study examines all these issues and focuses on the rivalry between a regional power - the Islamic Republic of Iran - and an international one - the United States of America. The contention is that they have a mutual interest in promoting economic development and political stability in the Caspian region

  4. Total pressing Indonesian gas development, exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Total is on track to become Indonesia's leading gas exporter by the turn of the century. Total's aggressive development of its Mahakam Delta acreage in East Kalimantan is intended to keep pace with growing liquefied natural gas demand, mainly from Japan but also increasingly from South Korea and Taiwan. A frantic scramble is under way among natural gas suppliers in the Pacific Rim region, particularly those with current LNG export facilities, to accommodate projections of soaring natural gas demand in the region. Accordingly, Total's Indonesian gas production goal is the centerpiece of a larger strategy to become a major player in the Far East Asia gas scene. Its goals also fall in line with Indonesia's. Facing flat or declining oil production while domestic oil demand continues to soar along with a rapidly growing economy, Indonesia is heeding some studies that project the country could become a net oil importer by the turn of the century. The paper describes Total's Far East strategy, the Mahakam acreage which it operates, the shift to gas development, added discoveries, future development, project spending levels, and LNG export capacity

  5. Export diversification in Uganda : developments in non-traditional agricultural exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last two decades agricultural export diversification has been pushed as an economic development strategy for sub-Saharan Africa. This paper looks at Uganda, where nontraditional agricultural export commodities have been (re)-introduced since Museveni came to power in 1986. The most

  6. Development of Oil Spill Monitoring System for the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and the Barents/Kara Seas (DEMOSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandven, Stein; Kudriavtsev, Vladimir; Malinovsky, Vladimir; Stanovoy, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    DEMOSS will develop and demonstrate elements of a marine oil spill detection and prediction system based on satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and other space data. In addition, models for prediction of sea surface pollution drift will be developed and tested. The project implements field experiments to study the effect of artificial crude oil and oil derivatives films on short wind waves and multi-frequency (Ka-, Ku-, X-, and C-band) dual polarization radar backscatter power and Doppler shift at different wind and wave conditions. On the basis of these and other available experimental data, the present model of short wind waves and radar scattering will be improved and tested.A new approach for detection and quantification of the oil slicks/spills in satellite SAR images is developed that can discriminate human oil spills from biogenic slicks and look-alikes in the SAR images. New SAR images are obtained in coordination with the field experiments to test the detection algorithm. Satellite SAR images from archives as well as from new acquisitions will be analyzed for the Black/Caspian/Kara/Barents seas to investigate oil slicks/spills occurrence statistics.A model for oil spills/slicks transport and evolution is developed and tested in ice-infested arctic seas, including the Caspian Sea. Case studies using the model will be conducted to simulate drift and evolution of oil spill events observed in SAR images. The results of the project will be disseminated via scientific publications and by demonstration to users and agencies working with marine monitoring. The project lasts for two years (2007 - 2009) and is funded under INTAS Thematic Call with ESA 2006.

  7. Horticultural Exports of Developing Countries: Issues under WTO Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Shah

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to evaluate the present and future prospects of developing and developed countries in agricultural exports in general and in horticultural exports in particular. The study also evaluates the behaviour of international export prices for agricultural commodities, both for developing and developed nations. In general, this study provides an insight into the direction in which various developed and developing countries are heading for insofar as their agricultural and horticultural exports are concerned in the changed market conditions. The study has made a few major observations. First, the study shows decline in market share of developing countries’ in world agricultural exports in the face of marginal increase in their market share in world fruits and vegetable (F&V exports during the period between 1981 and 1997. Second, although the study shows lower market share of developing countries’ in world F&V exports during the period between 1981 and 1997, the growth in F&V exports as proportion of total agricultural exports is noticed to be much faster for developing countries’ as against the developed countries’ during the same period. Third, though agricultural exports of Least Developed Countries (LDC have grown only marginally between 1981 and 1997, the growth in their F&V exports is seen to have been tremendous, especially after the late eighties period. Similarly, Socialist Countries of Asia (SCA and developing countries of Oceania have also shown sharp increases in their F&V exports after the late eighties period. Fourth, while except America, other Africa and Oceania, all the developing countries have shown decline in their market share in total F&V exports of Developing Market Economies (DME, Asia shows rise in its market share not only in agriculture but also in F&V exports of DME. Another major observation of this study is in terms of instabilities in export prices. The instabilities in export prices of agricultural

  8. Geo-economy of the Caspian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raballand, G.

    2003-05-01

    The Caspian area is essential for the development of the central Asia countries and Caucasus. Excepted the Iran and the Russia, these areas economy is poor. The hydrocarbons exploitation should reinforce the economic weight of these States. The author analyzes the Caspian area economies and shows that the basin economies are confronted with three handicaps, and that even with different economic ways, the soviet economic system is still present in the basin. (A.L.B.)

  9. Analysis of Developed Country's Export Contract and Contract Risk and Development of Sample Contract and Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Oh, K. B.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, K. S.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, B. W.; Kim, H. J.; Yang, M. H.

    2008-10-01

    This paper aimed at developing legal support for the non nuclear power plant industry's export. This study aids establishing government policy and promoting export of non nuclear power plant industry. This paper treated analysis of contractual risk and caution before entering into contract. To promote continuing export result, governmental and legal aids and guide will be required continuously. This study showed risks related with export contract and explained export control acts and procedures

  10. Developing Export Management Competencies and Skills among Undergraduate Business Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Fred; Bell, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Responses of 25 Northern Ireland business students who undertook client-sponsored projects in local businesses reported increased proficiency in conducting research, improved competence in export management, development of soft skills, and better ability to apply theory to practice. (SK)

  11. China and the Manufacturing Exports of Other Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon H. Hanson; Raymond Robertson

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the impact of China's growth on developing countries that specialize in manufacturing. Over 2000-2005, manufacturing accounted for 32% of China's GDP and 89% of its merchandise exports, making it more specialized in the sector than any other large developing economy. Using the gravity model of trade, we decompose bilateral trade into components associated with demand conditions in importing countries, supply conditions in exporting countries, and bilateral trade cost...

  12. Export Credit Insurances in Developing Countries: The Case of Turkey and IMT Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Koksal

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Export credit insurance is one of the substantial tools to promote export in a country. This paper endeavours to find out the effect of Export Credit Insurance covered by Export Credit Agencies on the developing countries’ export figures and GDP. The countries subject to the analysis are Turkey and Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand also known as IMT Countries. The relationship between export value, economic growth and export credit insurances will be analyzed using Vector Autoregression (VAR Model.

  13. A study on packaging factors influencing on export development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mohammadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Packaging is an important instrument of commerce and trade in the world, it plays essential role in increasing sales and export and thus it maximizes profits generated in enterprises. Hence, the appropriate packaging for the producer generates necessary incentives for production, partly preserves them against zany opponents, and finally provides the customer with much more variety and choosing the right products. Packaging in fact, is a major contributor to the performance of customer relationship management. This survey determines five packaging factors influencing on export development including communications, infrastructure, awareness, design and technical extraction. Through the implementation of principal component analysis, the effective role of packaging components on exports is measured. Exploratory research model indicates that all five packing components were effective in export development of food industry.

  14. Depletion policies for oil-exporting developing economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stournaras, Y A

    1984-01-01

    The fact that most oil-exporting countries are developing economies has important implications for oil supply which have not been properly taken into account in the literature on exhaustible resource depletion. The way in which depletion policies are affected by trade uncertainty, given the high degree of the major oil exporters' 'dependence' on crude oil revenues, by investment time lags which delay the exploitation of (some of) these countries' comparative advantage in a petroleum based development, and by ideological objections to the ideal of a rentier society and to foreign capital are examined.

  15. Exports, government size and economic growth (Evidence from Iran as a developing oil-export based economy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Dizaji (Sajjad Faraji)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this study, I investigate the short run and long run effects of government size and exports on the economic growth of Iran as a developing oil export based economy for the period of 1974 to 2008. For this purpose I use the bounds testing approach to cointegration and error correction

  16. Commercial Aircraft Development and the Export Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, J.

    1972-01-01

    The various factors which endanger the future of commercial aircraft development are defined. The factors discussed are: (1) a decline in federally funded research and development programs, (2) a general decline in the economic health of the domestic airlines, (3) the increased cost of development which may be several times the net worth of the company, (4) the development overseas of common market and manufacturing consortia, and (5) foreign manufacturers receiving significant financial support from their national governments. It is stated that unless immediate and innovative solutions to combat these factors are found, the commercial aviation industry will be in serious difficulty.

  17. Formation and development of hightechnology export corporate potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgen Panchenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the essence and peculiarities of high-Technology products exports in conditions of global competition with performed classification of its models on a corporate level. Peculiarities of corporate motivation of exporting high-technology products have been determined. Interconnection between innovation management system in transnational corporations and their capabilities of strengthening their competitive positions on world markets of high-technology products has been shown. Tendencies of fixing studies and developments during the last decade of leading companies, along with their influence on corporate innovative potential have been studied. On the example of aerospace sector of Ukraine, possibilities of strengthening the influence of high-technology export on rising of national economy international competitiveness have been determined. The need has been proved, and the ways have been shown for attraction of international investments into hightechnology sectors of Ukrainian economy through improvement of business conduct area, defense of intellectual property rights, and development of cooperation between national and transnational companies. Directions of use of integration factors of rising of volumes of export of high-technology Ukrainian products on the basis of developing cooperation of national enterprises with Russian partners have been shown.

  18. Organizing export strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    G. Lojacono; M. Venzin

    2014-01-01

    The article unfolds as follows: after a brief introduction on the relevance of international trade and the characteristics of export strategies, we describe four distinct archetypes: export manager, centralistic export developer, export skimmer, integrated export developer.

  19. Non oil exports finance and economic development in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alsakran, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University Oil is an important part of the Saudi economy. With the volatility of oil prices and the pressing needs of economic growth and development, the Saudi Arabian government has planned to diversify its sources of income. To this end, the majority of effort has focused on developing the non-oil export sectors, particularly in manufacturing. Despite government efforts to enhance the ratio of non-...

  20. PHYTOPLANKTON OF CASPIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysha Sharapatinovna Gasanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The composition of the species of the phytoplankton in the Russian sector of the Caspian Sea in conditions of transgression, anthropogenic and chemical contamination has been studied.Location.The Russian sector of the Caspian SeaMethods. The phytoplankton samples were collected at the depths of 8 – 50m by the use of the Nansen bathometer and subsequently were fixed in 4% formalin. The office processing was carried out in a box of Nozhotta type, which has the volume of 0.1 ml and the triplicate surface, under the light microscope of Biolam P15. The system of domestic diamotologists was used during the classification of Bacillariaphyta, as for the classification of Dinophyta, the Dodge scheme was applied. Cyanophyta algae were classified according to the system of A.A. Elenkina with the amendments adopted by A.I. Proshkin-Lavrenko and V.V. Makarova. The classification of the Chlorophyta division has been done according to the Smith system.Results, main conclusions. Presented the taxonomic structure and the lists of species of the phytoplankton community in the sea coastal shallow waters Russian sector of the Caspian Sea have been presented. A high floristic diversity and domination of small cell forms are characteristics of the modern structure of the coastal shoal waters of the Dagestan part of the Caspian Sea. The auttaclimatizant of 1934, Pseudosolenia calcaravis, has not been discovered in the plankton of the researched water area. The phytoplankton community has been represented by 58 species of six groups: Cyanophyta, Bacillariaphyta, Dinophyta, Euglenophyta, Chlorophyta and the small flagellate. Bacillariaphyta were the basis of both the taxonomic diversity and the biomass. Cyanophita prevailed in number.

  1. Kalimantan field development hikes gas supply for LNG export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharmoko, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of Tambora and Tunu gas fields in Kalimantan that have increased available gas supply for the export of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Indonesia. The demand for LNG is increasing in the energy thirsty Far East market. And Indonesia, the world's largest exporter, is keeping pace by expanding the Bontang liquefaction plant in East Kalimantan. A fifth train, with a capacity of around 2.5 million tons/year, began operating in January 1990. Start-up of a sixth train, of identical capacity, is planned for January 1994. The Bontang plant is operated by PT Badak on behalf of Pertamina, the Indonesian state oil and gas mining company. The feed to the fifth train comes primarily from the first-phase development of Total Indonesie's two gas fields, Tambora and Tunu. The sixth train will be fed by a second-phase development of the Tunu field

  2. Renewables and exports: how Export Credit Agencies could help develop markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpi, G.; Salter, L.

    2002-01-01

    Future export markets for renewable energies have enormous potential, yet business-as-usual investment trends will not achieve that potential, write Giulio Volpi and Liam Salter. They examine the role that Export Credit Agencies - which have provided essential support for exports in the conventional energy business - could play in aiding the renewables sector, characterized as it is by small- and medium-sized enterprises. This new role will require certain reforms - but without those reforms the Export Credit Agencies will simply not be providing relevant services to new technologies and new market players. (author)

  3. Validating growth and development of a seabird as an indicator of food availability: captive-reared Caspian Tern chicks fed ad libitum and restricted diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    For seabirds raising young under conditions of limited food availability, reducing chick provisioning and chick growth rates are the primary means available to avoid abandonment of a breeding effort. For most seabirds, however, baseline data characterizing chick growth and development under known feeding conditions are unavailable, so it is difficult to evaluate chick nutritional status as it relates to foraging conditions near breeding colonies. To address this need, we examined the growth and development of young Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia), a cosmopolitan, generalist piscivore, reared in captivity and fed ad libitum and restricted (ca. one-third lower caloric intake) diets. Ad libitum-fed chicks grew at similar rates and achieved a similar size at fledging as previously documented for chicks in the wild and had energetic demands that closely matched allometric predictions. We identified three general characteristics of food-restricted Caspian Tern chicks compared to ad libitum chicks: (1) lower age-specific body mass, (2) lower age-specific skeletal and feather size, such as wing chord length, and (3) heightened levels of corticosterone in blood, both for baseline levels and in response to acute stress. Effects of diet restriction on feather growth (10-11% slower growth in diet-restricted chicks) were less pronounced than effects on structural growth (37-52% slower growth) and body mass (24% lower at fledging age), apparently due to preferential allocation of food resources to maintain plumage growth. Our results suggest that measurements of chick body mass and feather development (e.g., wing chord or primary length) or measurement of corticosterone levels in the blood would allow useful evaluation of the nutritional status of chicks reared in the wild and of food availability in the foraging range of adults. Such evaluations could also inform demography studies (e.g., predict future recruitment) and assist in evaluating designated piscivorous waterbird

  4. Investigating important factors influencing electronic banking for export development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Abbas Zadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Export is one of the most important indicators of a growing economy and it is the primary source of reaching sustainable growth on the market. This paper presents an empirical study to determine important factors influencing electronic banking in export development of Iranian organizations. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some regular customers who do internet banking with Parsian bank in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.82, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.71 and 1955 with Sig. = 0.000, respectively. Using principal component analysis, the study has detected six factors including customer’s information, building trust, secure internet access, having good internet infrastructure and internet users.

  5. Unrequited demand : the Middle East and the Caspian in the global energy context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Many countries in the world would like to diversify their oil supply sources and rely less on Middle Eastern oil. For that reason, there will be considerable focus on the ability of the Caspian states and Russia to increase their output. It will be crucial for the Middle Eastern countries, the Caspian states and Russia to promote energy development in a commercial manner and not in political rivalry. If not, other non-OPEC producers such as the Gulf of Mexico, various Atlantic producers, offshore West Africa, the Brazilian offshore basins, and the United Kingdom's West of Shetland reservoir will gain the market. The biggest gainers, however, would be the core OPEC producers of the Middle East and Venezuela who would profit from high prices resulting from their own minimal efforts to increase capacity. The International Energy Agency (IEA) forecasts an increase in total primary energy supply of 2.0 per cent over the next 20 years. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) forecasts an increase of 2.1 per cent, while ExxonMobil's outlook is for an increase of 1.9 per cent. The IEA believes demand will rise to about 115 mb/d in 2020 and the EIA believes it will reach 117 mb/d. The two agencies do not agree where this oil will come from. The IEA believes that non-OPEC supplies will grow much less than the EIA anticipates. This paper also described production politics and financial constraints in the Gulf states with particular reference to capacity increase attitudes in the core OPEC states of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela. The opportunities and constraints for the Caspian (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) to become a major force in world energy production were described with reference to the impact that oil price volatility has already had on predictions of Caspian availability. The IEA expects that the Caspian will be able to produce 75 mt a year for export by 2010. An overview of the different regions

  6. Iran's role in the Caspian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enav, Peter

    1999-08-01

    Contains Chapters on: The Central Asian pipeline puzzle; What's at stake - Central Asian oil supply and world oil demand to 2015; Non-Iranian outlets for Central Asian hydrocarbon exports - assessing the alternative; Iranian outlets for Central Asian hydrocarbon exports; Iran's hydrocarbon development strategy - in conflict with Central Asia? US policy and Iran; Iran and the Russian role in Central Asia; The Iranian impact on Central Asian hydrocarbon development. (Author)

  7. Mud volcanism of South-Caspian depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyev, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : South-Caspian depression is presented by area of large warping with thick (more than 25 km) sedimentary series and with wide development of mud volcanism. This depression is unique according to its number of mud volcanoes and intensity of their eruptions. There are about 400 mud volcanoes in this area, which is more than than a half of all volcanoes of the planet. Among them - 220 are continental, more 170 are marine, defined by different methods in the South-Caspian aquatorium. As a result of mudvolcanic activity islands, banks, shoals and underwater ridges are formed in marine conditions. Depths of underwater volcanoes vary from few meters to 900 m as the height of cones are different too. Marine mud volcanoes in geological history of Caspian sea evolution and in its recent history had and important significance. Activity of mud volcanoes in sea conditions lead to the formation of positive elements of relief. Products of ejection take part in the formation of microrelief of surrounding areas of sea bottom influence upon its dynamics and composition of bottom sediments. The carried out comparative analysis of mud volcanism manifestation both onshore and offshore showed the basic differences and similarities in morphology of volcanoes and geology-geochemical peculiarities of eruption products. New data on tectonics of mud volcanism development has been obtained over recent years. Mud volcanoes of South-Caspian depression are studied for assessment and oil-gas content of deep-seated deposits. Geochemical method of search of oil and gas deposits in mudvolcanic areas had been worked out.

  8. The role of new product development on export market share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing change on customers’ needs on selecting customers’ needs, which may influence requirements on designing products and services as well as export sale and company’s market shares in domestic and international market. In the present study, through descriptive approach with qualitative method and case study, we investigate important key factors influencing on new product development and products’ successive factors at overseas nutritional market. In addition by presenting a new model in accordance with the present condition of the organization we explore the closest product development model and affective factors influencing them. The study investigates 36 factors and extracts six important ones, which influence product development including intelligent information, process research and development, strategy introduced, participation strategy, market survey and differentiation strategy.

  9. Globalisation determinants of export-led development of Ukrainian agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Karasova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes globalisation preconditions for export in the agricultural sector of Ukraine. The summarised results of the previous research highlight the essential characteristics of the export-led activity concept, establish the current trends, factor conditions and the impact of globalisation on the development of agricultural exports. The article also shows the dynamics and peculiarities of goods and geographical structure of agrarian exports. The areas and causes of Ukraine’s vulnerability in the global agro-food market have been established. The work also deals with the directions of export-led activity development in the context of economic globalisation

  10. Development of the rational scheme of geological exploration process, its analysis and significance for prospecting and exploration of hydrocarbons at the russian sector of the Caspian sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Bystrova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To conduct a justified assessment of the perspective resources of the Caspian Sea and adjacent territories, the authors develop a rational scheme of the geological exploration process with its analysis and identification of significance for hydrocarbon exploration in the northern part of the Caspian Sea. The paper outlines the methodological approaches and concepts of introducing this scheme in search for oil and gas. This allows us to justify and select the optimal set of research methods at various stages of oil and gas production. The system of structure and principles of organization scheme of the geological prospecting process allow to identify the optimal complexes of methods of geological-geophysical and other studies for these stages. The article provides information confirming the necessity of developing and implementing this scheme in the geological exploration process of the studied territory. The necessary development of opportunities in carrying out this work fundamentally changes the qualitative aspect of the geological exploration process. The facts presented in the article allow to study in detail the structures of the shelf zone, the thicknesses and composition of productive subsalt deposits, and to trace their interrelation with continental structural elements. The paper shows the importance of providing, at different levels, a rationale and choice of an optimal set of research methods at different stages of oil and gas prospecting during the development of a rational geological exploration scheme for hydrocarbons in water areas. This paper presents a proposed block diagram of a marine geological prospecting process for hydrocarbons. It describes the sequence of performing the types of work at the regional, exploratory and exploration stages. For each stage of the study, the authors set the tasks, determine the objects of research, methods of geological and geophysical research and their results, and determine methods for

  11. Geopolitics of Caspian Oil and Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tolga Turker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper providesan analysis of increasing geopolitical competition over energyrich Central Asia andCaucasus by key actors such as theU.S.A., Russia andChina. In addition to an evaluation of theregion’s future as anenergyhub both forEast andWest,this paperexamineshow the regional conflicts such as the August2008 war between Russia and Georgia might affect prospects for Caspian energydevelopment and export.Even though both Russia and China have a commongoal of countering Western, particularly U.S., influence in the region, they bothhave their own agenda and distinct relationships with Western countries.In termsof oil and natural gas, only Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan have the potential toplay significant roles in the future.However the entire region will continue to bemajor area of conflict or cooperation forglobal powers.

  12. CRUDE OIL TRANSPORT FROM THE CASPIAN SEA REGION TO EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Przybyłowski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world, despite the growing importance and scale of the use of renewable energy , conventional energy resources still play a huge role. The European Union countries are dependent on the oil imports and the their main supplier of crude oil and natural gas has been the Russian Federation. After the collapse of the Soviet Union , the Caspian Sea region has become an alternative to Russian energy resources. The Unit-ed States , European Union, China and many other countries have shown their interest about this region. Despite a relatively large oil and natural gas reserves, the export of the-se commodities to the West is still problematic. Based on the available data and infor-mation, the publication explores the issue of energy resources transport directions with a particular emphasis on the crude oil from the Caspian Sea region to Europe.

  13. Caspian Pipeline Consortium, Bellwether of Russia's Investment climate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellecker, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC), a shipper-owned oil pipeline carrying Caspian oil to Russia's Black Sea port of Novorossyisk, remains to this day the only oil export pipeline on Russian territory that is not under the control of the state company Transneft. Completed in 2001, the CPC was, from the start, the product of a fragile balance of power between states eager to maintain control of hydrocarbon flows and private companies able to finance the necessary infrastructure. Despite its economic success, the future of the CPC currently hinges on a share-holding dispute pitting Russia against private shareholders. This essay places the CPC dossier in the broader context of Russia's investment climate and argues that the dispute's dynamic is an important bellwether of the Russian energy policy. (author)

  14. Development Strategy for the Export- Oriented Horticulture in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    The export-oriented horticulture sector in Ethiopia has been growing rapidly and forms an important element in the country’s efforts to expand and diversify the economy, raise export earnings and create employment. This rapid growth is remarkable particularly when placed in a historic context.

  15. A hybrid Delphi-SWOT paradigm for oil and gas pipeline strategic planning in Caspian Sea basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavana, Madjid; Pirdashti, Mohsen; Kennedy, Dennis T.; Belaud, Jean-Pierre; Behzadian, Majid

    2012-01-01

    The Caspian Sea basin holds large quantities of both oil and natural gas that could help meet the increasing global demand for energy resources. Consequently, the oil and gas potential of the region has attracted the attention of the international oil and gas industry. The key to realizing the energy producing potential of the region is the development of transnational export routes to take oil and gas from the landlocked Caspian Sea basin to world markets. The evaluation and selection of alternative transnational export routes is a complex multi-criteria problem with conflicting objectives. The decision makers (DMs) are required to consider a vast amount of information concerning internal strengths and weaknesses of the alternative routes as well as external opportunities and threats to them. This paper presents a hybrid model that combines strength, weakness, opportunity and threat (SWOT) analysis with the Delphi method. - Highlights: ► The evaluation and selection of the pipeline routes is a multi-criteria problem. ► A hybrid SWOT-Delphi method is proposed to evaluate five potential routes. ► The Southern and Northern routes are chosen as the best and second-best options. ► The second best option is identified to provide some degree of diversification.

  16. Oman: Current status, upstream and export developments, investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeet, I.

    1994-01-01

    Oil production in Oman has consistently increased since 1980 to reach its current level of ca 800,000 bbl/d. Reserves total ca 5 billion bbl and gas reserves are over 20 trillion ft 3 , of which a third is being dedicated for export. The main operator is Petroleum Development Oman (PDO), which is 60% owned by the Omani government. Some production areas are taken up by other companies under production sharing contracts. Gas is used for local industrial purposes and a third of gas reserves are being dedicated to a liquefied natural gas export scheme planned to be on-stream by 2000. The government has been seeking foreign investment and increasing private-sector participation, an example being a Belgian-Omani consortium to construct a 100-MW gas-fired power station. However, opportunities for investing in the upstream oil/gas sector are limited since most prospective areas have already been taken up. The economic, political, and social problems which may affect future investment are discussed. Oman is essentially a one-resource economy and declines in oil prices have led to widening government deficits. Social expectations created by the oil-financed welfare state make it difficult for government expenditures to be cut back. There is lack of public debate in the state-controlled media and no public participation in policy and decision making. There is a perception of widening corruption in government and a nascent movement toward a more rigid Islamic view of society. Controls are needed to maintain a reasonable balance between oil revenues and public expenditures, while pressures from an increasingly literate and numerous population will demand changes to the traditional autocratic system of government. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Political implications of US nuclear-export-policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson-Freese, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    There has been a great deal of international debate regarding how effective strict export controls on nuclear-energy supplies are toward a non-proliferation goal. With the Carter Administration, the debate was heightened by a new, more-vigorous US nuclear-export policy, much of which was codified by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 (NNPA). Because of the US position in both the international non-proliferation regime and nuclear export market, the NNPA has had far-reaching consequences. The thesis of this paper is that a nuclear-export policy that fails to consider its short-term ramifications, as the NNPA has been accused of, will be self-defeating. If the US wants a viable worldwide nuclear non-proliferation policy, it must first direct its efforts toward building a domestic non-proliferation consensus, and then worldwide, rather than first setting a highly controversial policy and expecting other nations to fall into line. This work provides a comprehensive case study of US nuclear-export policy between the years 1976 to 1980 in support of the thesis. Further, the behavior and impact of the interest groups which seem to shape US nuclear-export policies is examined, and recommendations made regarding the role of groups in nuclear policy-making and implementation. Finally, recommendations are made regarding non-proliferation policy for the future, as it relates to nuclear exports

  18. Study on Maintenance Personnel Development Plan For The Exported APR1400 Commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sungbae; Kim, Jongdae; Jun, Hokwang; Hwang, Inok; Kang, Jaeyuel

    2012-01-01

    This paper indicates ways to develop maintenance personnel for the exported APR1400 commissioning. The exported APR1400 has not been experienced ay maintenance yet, and requirements for maintenance personnel have not been clarified yet. Based on sound maintenance experience, KEPCO Plant Service and Engineering Company (KEPCO KPS) has studied on maintenance training and career requirement to establish a development plan of the maintenance personnel for the exported nuclear power plant. By defining manpower and training requirement, and mobilization plan, we expect to secure reliability of the exported APR1400

  19. Caspian sea: petroleum challenges; Mer Caspienne: enjeux petroliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Caspian sea is one of the world areas the most promising in terms of investments and petroleum development. This study presents the petroleum challenges generated by this hydrocarbons reserve. The first part discusses the juridical status (sea or lake), the petroleum and the gas reserves, the ecosystem and the today environment (fishing and caviar), the geostrategic situation and the transport of gas and oil. It provides also a chronology from 1729 to 2005, a selection of Internet sites, books and reports on the subject and identity sheets of the countries around the Caspian sea. (A.L.B.)

  20. How the United States exports managed care to developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitzkin, H; Iriart, C

    2001-01-01

    As their expansion slows in the United States, managed care organizations will continue to enter new markets abroad. Investors view the opening of managed care in Latin America as a lucrative business opportunity. As public-sector services and social security funds are cut back, privatized, and reorganized under managed care, with the support of international lending agencies such as the World Bank, the effects of these reforms on access to preventive and curative services will hold great importance throughout the developing world. Many groups in Latin America are working on alternative projects that defend health as a public good, and similar movements have begun in Africa and Asia. Increasingly, this organizing is being recognized not only as part of a class struggle but also as part of a struggle against economic imperialism--which has now taken on the new appearance of rescuing less developed countries from rising health care costs and inefficient bureaucracies through the imposition of neoliberal managed-care solutions exported from the United States.

  1. Middle East, Russia and Caspian region - new geopolitics for oil and gas flows in the Eastern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplyanik, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Caspian Oil Basin and its would-be impact on the world energy sales has been a big talking issue of late. The Caspian Rim states will join the international oil/gas market simultaneously with new Oil Industry projects coming on-stream in Russia. Both Russia and Caspian states will influence the existing oil/gas flows and balance of forces on the oil/gas markets of the Eastern Hemisphere. What will be the resultant of these two vectors? Will a stronger stand of Russia as one of the existing world market participants and a new big rival - the Caspian states, exert a profound influence on the competitive rating of the Middle East countries as oil/gas exporting majors? Let us try to answer the questions within this contribution. (orig./RHM)

  2. 75 FR 37756 - Request for Public Comment To Inform Development of National Export Initiative Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... with financing, and in general by pursuing a government-wide approach to export advocacy abroad, among other steps. General information concerning the NEI and government programs that help U.S. businesses... To Inform Development of National Export Initiative Plan AGENCY: International Trade Administration...

  3. Causality Relationship Between Import, Export and Growth Rate in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat YUKSEL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we tried to determine the relationship between imports, exports and growth rate in developing countries. Within this scope, 6 developing countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, Malaysia, Mexico and Turkey were analyzed in this study. In order to achieve this purpose, annual data for the periods between 1961 and 2014 was tested by using Engle Granger co-integration analysis, Vector Error Correction Model and Toda Yamamoto causality analysis. According to the result of the analysis, it was determined that there is not any relationship among three variables in Brazil and Mexico. On the other hand, we defined that increase in export causes higher growth rate in Argentina. Moreover, it was concluded that there is a causal relationship from import to export in China and Turkey. Furthermore, it was determined that export causes higher import in Malaysia. Therefore, it can be concluded that the relationship between import, export and growth rate is not same for all developing countries..

  4. Caspian energy: Oil and gas resources and the global market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, M.P.; Houweling, H.

    2003-01-01

    his article develops several concepts of critical geopolitics and relates them to the energy resources of the Caspian Region. Energy resources beyond borders may be accessed by trade, respectively by conquest, domination and changing property rights. These are the survival strategies of human groups

  5. Possible lin between elevated accumulation of trace elements and canine distemper virus infection in the Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) stranded in 2000 and 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinsuke, T.; Takashi, K.; Yasumi, A.; Tokutaka, I.; Reiji, K.

    2003-05-01

    In the Caspian Sea, a die-off of thousands of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) occurred in 1997 and 2000. While a direct cause for these deaths seems to be canine distemper virus (CDV) infection, immunosuppression due to environmental pollutants is considered as one of the possible explanations for the development of the disease. The purpose of this work is to examine whether exposure to trace metals could be one of the factors involved in the mass mortality of Caspian seals. Concentrations of 13 trace elements weredetermined in liver, kidney and muscle of Caspian seals found stranded along the coasts of the Caspian Sea in 2000 and 2001. Concentrations of toxic elemen ts (Ag, Cd, Hg, Tl and Pb) in the Caspian seals collected in 2000 and 2001 were comparable to or lower than those in healthy Caspian seals collected in 1993 and 1998 and in seals from other regions, suggesting that these elements would not be the causative agent for the death of Caspian seals. In contrast, Zn and Fe concentrations in the stranded Caspian seals were apparently higher than those in seals from other locations. These results suggest the disturbance in homeostatic control and nutritional statu s of essential elements in the stranded Caspian seals.

  6. Development of a Prototype for the Export Control List Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, GwanYoung

    2011-01-01

    The international society has concerned the possibility of a diversion with strategic items into the nuclear weapon development. So they have regulated those, and our country also has done it. Following a accomplishment of a UAE nuclear power plant export contraction in December, 2009 and a Jordan research reactor export contraction in March, 2010, thousands upon thousands of the strategic goods include the strategic technology will be supposed to transfer to UAE and Jordan. A lot of manpower in the government and the company concerned in addition to an enormous amount of time are needed so as to manage transferred items to UAE and Jordan efficiently. Accordingly, the Export Control List Management System has developed 1) to decrease the administrative time required about implementations such as the classification, the export license 2) and to plan the practical use of manpower 3) and to enhance a convenience of businesses, the government and a company concerned by the KINAC and the KOSTI. That system is scheduled to complete after June, and now a management of export items has done manually. This inconvenience can be solved by developing a prototype of the Export Control List Management System. Also an understanding of the Export Control List Management will be enhanced by doing it. A procedure of a system development and results will be presented in this paper

  7. Oil and the Caspian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Poure Daryaei, N.

    2000-01-01

    Caspian Sea is the biggest lake in the world. It is almost F-shape and located between five Countries of Iran, Turkmenistan, Russia, Azarbayjohn, Ghazaghestan. Un fortunately, in the different region of the sea there are highly contaminated oil, in addition with other source of pollutants such as: agricultural, industrial and domestic pollution, which causes to eliminate the natural habitats of aquatic life and thus, the Caspian sea with all of the valuable natural sources of foods and energy is close to be destroyed. This paper studies the pollution by oil industry which causes the elimination of aquatic life and natural ecosystem, as well as, necessary plan to over come the present situation

  8. A review of horticultural export performance of Asian developing countries: aspects of quality, competitiveness and sustainability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.G.P.

    1994-01-01

    Many developing countries in Asia have a comparative advantage in the production of horticultural commodities. Drawing from the widely diverging experiences of six countries, it is concluded that government policies significantly influence horticultural export performance. In order to meet strict

  9. Export strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage

    2002-01-01

    It is argued here that traditional export strategy research (encompassing the study of internationalization processes and export performance) is characterized by weak theoretical foundations and could benefit from a reorientation towards a dynamic capabilities perspective (DCP). We seek to draw...... on insights from DCP in order to devise a theoretical basis that could enrich export strategy research. Although our development of DCP insights builds on previous work, it also adds a crucial distinction between knowledge stocks and informational architecture. Changes in architecture are of greater...... importance. Following this elaboration of the dynamic capabilities perspective, we outline some implications and guidelines for future export strategy research....

  10. Development of monitoring system for studying of radionuclide and chemical contamination level in trans boundary river basins of Caspian and Kara Seas at Russian Federation territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valyaev, A.N.; Stepanets, O.V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Intensive and insufficiently controlled human industrial activities, ignoring regional geological and geochemical processes, resulted in considerable chemical pollution and radioactive contamination of these river's basins, where some large nuclear power plants, uranium and chemical enterprises, oil and gas productions are also located. This epidemiological and environmental situation aggravated further after USSR collapse and the establishment of new independent states due to lack of the appropriate environmental monitoring in those countries and on their near-border areas in particular, that contributed to further aggravation of the political tension and economic destabilization between transboundary countries. The environmental situation here is one of most unfavorable among world water ecosystems. In recent years different pollutants (radionuclides, toxins, organic substances and heavy metals) activate reduction processes in bottom sediments, that lead to changes in sulfur and carbon cycles, the oxygen deficit in water, to eutrophication of water reservoirs and their biological degradation. Today the development of total environmental monitoring systems is clearly necessary for operative current control, ensuring preparedness and prediction of any potential emergencies of global and local scales and their long-term effects. The objectives for presented monitoring systems are to: (1)study sources and mechanisms of chemical pollution and radioactive contamination of water basins of Volga (the largest river in Europe and Russia), Terek and Ural rivers flowed into Caspian Sea, and Ob, Irtysh and Tom ones, flowed into Kara Sea in Arctic Ocean within RF territory; (2) develop the well-ground database (DB) on contamination; (3) the using of the obtained results for the operative current trans boundary control, monitoring and protection of freshwater resources; (4) modeling of pollutant's migration. There is no way to provide solution of environmental

  11. Geo-economy of the Caspian basin; Geoeconomie du bassin caspien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raballand, G

    2003-05-15

    The Caspian area is essential for the development of the central Asia countries and Caucasus. Excepted the Iran and the Russia, these areas economy is poor. The hydrocarbons exploitation should reinforce the economic weight of these States. The author analyzes the Caspian area economies and shows that the basin economies are confronted with three handicaps, and that even with different economic ways, the soviet economic system is still present in the basin. (A.L.B.)

  12. Energy Globalization: Oil Geopolitics in Central Asia Big Race for the Caspian Oil

    OpenAIRE

    VOLKOVA, JANINA

    2007-01-01

    The research aims to show causal relations between recent global change in geopolitics towards energy resources, its effect on foreign policies of Russia, the USA and China; as well as the role of oil factor in their rivalry, development of the newly formed Central Asian (the Caspian region) states-donors and international relations in general . Globalization, geopolitics, oil factor, Russia, the USA, China, the Caspian Sea, international relations, Asia

  13. Development of Export Control Comprehensive Management Model for Nuclear Power Plants and Others Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chansuh; Seo, Hana; Choi, Sundo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation And Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    It is required that there are lots of managements of care and concern if the project contains strategic items such as NPPs. The Korean nuclear industry and its related companies, such as the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP), are promoting greater exports of NPPs. It is likely that Korea will export more this technology to newcomer states in the future. As a result, the ROK has been improving its export control management system for NPPs. In keeping with this national effort, Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation And Control (KINAC) developed comprehensive export control management model for NPPs and other projects, in preparation for this projected growth in the industry. This model also applies to the nuclear export case of the UAE, aims to manage the project from bidding to the end of the contract. The recent Export Licensing of Nuclear Facility Technology was reflected in the Notice on Export and Import of Strategic Items in January 2014. Through this license, the large-scale project legislation framework was established. It can also minimize nonproliferation concerns of the international community through strict management. It is expected that the Korea will be able to enhance transparency and secure the nuclear use, while meeting nonproliferation purpose.

  14. Development of Export Control Comprehensive Management Model for Nuclear Power Plants and Others Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chansuh; Seo, Hana; Choi, Sundo

    2014-01-01

    It is required that there are lots of managements of care and concern if the project contains strategic items such as NPPs. The Korean nuclear industry and its related companies, such as the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP), are promoting greater exports of NPPs. It is likely that Korea will export more this technology to newcomer states in the future. As a result, the ROK has been improving its export control management system for NPPs. In keeping with this national effort, Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation And Control (KINAC) developed comprehensive export control management model for NPPs and other projects, in preparation for this projected growth in the industry. This model also applies to the nuclear export case of the UAE, aims to manage the project from bidding to the end of the contract. The recent Export Licensing of Nuclear Facility Technology was reflected in the Notice on Export and Import of Strategic Items in January 2014. Through this license, the large-scale project legislation framework was established. It can also minimize nonproliferation concerns of the international community through strict management. It is expected that the Korea will be able to enhance transparency and secure the nuclear use, while meeting nonproliferation purpose

  15. Information and analysis document. Hydrocarbons of the Caspian sea: actors and stakes; Dossier d'information et d'analyse. Les hydrocarbures de mer Caspienne: acteurs et enjeux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    1998-03-01

    The Caspian sea basin constitutes an important petroleum reserve from which the exploration and development just begin. It should provide near 5 % of the world petroleum offer in 2015. To evaluate the stakes of the situation, the author presents an analysis of the Caspian sea reserves in three main parts: the Caspian sea hydrocarbons and the energy geo-politics, the realizations and the projects of the transport infrastructures, the international participations in the main petroleum and gaseous contracts. (A.L.B.)

  16. Export Controls: Export-Controlled Technology at Contractor, University, and Federally Funded Research and Development Center Facilities (D-2004-061)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... The report discusses the steps DoD needs to take to identify unclassified export-controlled technology and to ensure that DoD contractors, universities, and Federally Funded Research and Development...

  17. Trade Policies, Exchange Rate and Developing Country’s Real Sector Export Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Edeme, Richardson Kojo; Nkalu, Nelson C.; Emecheta, Chisom; Ugwu, Sam

    2017-01-01

    For developing countries like Nigeria, empirical evidence have shown they are faced with policy management challenge because they are mostly involved in the production and export of primary products which is often characterized by unfavourable terms of trade. The essence of this study therefore is to ascertain if trade and exchange rate policies complement each other in stimulating non-oil exports, especially the agricultural and manufacturing sectors, using both aggregated and disaggregated ...

  18. The Caspian Sea question. Perspectives for the new millennium; Il gioco del Mar Caspio: prospettive per il nuovo millennio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahgat, G. [Indiana Univ., Pennsylvania (United States). Dept. of Political Science

    1999-12-01

    The break-up of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s opened the door for the international oil companies to explore and develop the Caspian Sea's hydrocarbons resources. The full utilisation of this wealth, however, has been hindered by disagreement over the ownership of the basin and the choice of export routes. Another important obstacle is the troubled relationship between the United States and Iran. [Italian] Il crollo dell'Unione Sovietica nei primi anni '90 ha consentito alle compagnie petrolifere internazionali di esplorare e sviluppare le risorse di idrocarburi del Mar Caspio. Il disaccordo sulla proprieta del bacino e sulla scelta delle rotte di esportazione ha tuttavia impedito il pieno sfruttamento di questa ricchezza. Un altro importante ostacolo e dato dalle difficili relazioni tra Stati Uniti e Iran.

  19. Inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export of influenza A nucleoprotein and nuclear export protein as a novel target for antiviral drug development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chutiwitoonchai, Nopporn; Mano, Takafumi; Kakisaka, Michinori; Sato, Hirotaka [Viral Infectious Disease Unit, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Osada, Hiroyuki [Chemical Biology Research Group, RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kotani, Osamu; Yokoyama, Masaru; Sato, Hironori [Laboratory of Viral Genomics, Pathogen Genomics Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 4-7-1 Gakuen, Musashimurayama, Tokyo 208-0011 (Japan); Aida, Yoko, E-mail: aida@riken.jp [Viral Infectious Disease Unit, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    An anti-influenza compound, DP2392-E10 based on inhibition of the nuclear export function of the viral nucleoprotein-nuclear export signal 3 (NP-NES3) domain was successfully identified by our previous high-throughput screening system. Here, we demonstrated that DP2392-E10 exerts its antiviral effect by inhibiting replication of a broad range of influenza A subtypes. In regard to the molecular mechanism, we revealed that DP2392-E10 inhibits nuclear export of both viral NP and nuclear export protein (NEP). More specifically, in vitro pull-down assays revealed that DP2392-E10 directly binds cellular CRM1, which mediates nuclear export of NP and NEP. In silico docking suggested that DP2392-E10 binds at a region close to the HEAT9 and HEAT10 domains of CRM1. Together, these results indicate that the CRM1-mediated nuclear export function of influenza virus represents a new potential target for antiviral drug development, and also provide a core structure for a novel class of inhibitors that target this function. - Highlights: •DP2392-E10 inhibits replication of a broad range of influenza A subtypes. •DP2392-E10 inhibits nuclear exports of NP and NEP via their NP-NES3 and NEP-NES2 domains, respectively. •DP2392-E10 is predicted to directly bind CRM1 in the region near the HEAT9 and HEAT10 repeats.

  20. Inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export of influenza A nucleoprotein and nuclear export protein as a novel target for antiviral drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chutiwitoonchai, Nopporn; Mano, Takafumi; Kakisaka, Michinori; Sato, Hirotaka; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Osada, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Osamu; Yokoyama, Masaru; Sato, Hironori; Aida, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    An anti-influenza compound, DP2392-E10 based on inhibition of the nuclear export function of the viral nucleoprotein-nuclear export signal 3 (NP-NES3) domain was successfully identified by our previous high-throughput screening system. Here, we demonstrated that DP2392-E10 exerts its antiviral effect by inhibiting replication of a broad range of influenza A subtypes. In regard to the molecular mechanism, we revealed that DP2392-E10 inhibits nuclear export of both viral NP and nuclear export protein (NEP). More specifically, in vitro pull-down assays revealed that DP2392-E10 directly binds cellular CRM1, which mediates nuclear export of NP and NEP. In silico docking suggested that DP2392-E10 binds at a region close to the HEAT9 and HEAT10 domains of CRM1. Together, these results indicate that the CRM1-mediated nuclear export function of influenza virus represents a new potential target for antiviral drug development, and also provide a core structure for a novel class of inhibitors that target this function. - Highlights: •DP2392-E10 inhibits replication of a broad range of influenza A subtypes. •DP2392-E10 inhibits nuclear exports of NP and NEP via their NP-NES3 and NEP-NES2 domains, respectively. •DP2392-E10 is predicted to directly bind CRM1 in the region near the HEAT9 and HEAT10 repeats.

  1. Performance and suggested alternative strategies in developing Indonesian cocoa export business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Dradjat

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This research focussed on the export development of cocoa bean with respect to its export growth, values and competitiveness. Based on this deve-lopment, the aim of this research is to propose alternative development strategies of export business for cocoa bean in the future. The Analysis Hierarchie Process (AHP framework of export business of cocoa bean was arranged consecutively from formulation of focuss or goals, identification of affecting factors and actors, deter mination of actor objectives, and recognition of alternative strategies needed. Each component of goals, factors, actors, objectives, and alternative strategies were valued on the basis of their importance using Saaty scales. Results of interviews with experts were analyzed using AHP technique. The development of cocoa bean export from 2000 to 2006 showed the competitiveness position of Indonesia in the world market was fairly good. In order to increase the growth and values of cocoa bean export, the experts consider the role of government as regulators and facilitators is very important. The government became the main actor for the export development through de/regulation related to the cocoa bean commodity. The objectives of actors could be achieved by combining strategies (i provision of fund in national and regional budget, as well as other sources (ii implementation of recomended technologies of cocoa, (iii acceleration of replanting program, (iv improvement of research productivity in producing high yielding plant materials, (v development of transportation facilities from farms to harbours, (vi development of farmers’ organization and partnerships as well as strategic alliance, and (viii pests and diseases control. Key words: Cocoa bean, expor, role of government, objectives and strategies.

  2. Biogeographic classification of the Caspian Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fendereski, F.; Vogt, M.; Payne, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Like other inland seas, the Caspian Sea (CS) has been influenced by climate change and anthropogenic disturbance during recent decades, yet the scientific understanding of this water body remains poor. In this study, an eco-geographical classification of the CS based on physical information deriv...... confirms the relevance of the ecoregions as proxies for habitats with common biological characteristics....... from space and in-situ data is developed and tested against a set of biological observations. We used a two-step classification procedure, consisting of (i) a data reduction with self-organizing maps (SOMs) and (ii) a synthesis of the most relevant features into a reduced number of marine ecoregions...... in phytoplankton phenology, with differences in the date of bloom initiation, its duration and amplitude between ecoregions. A first qualitative evaluation of differences in community composition based on recorded presence-absence patterns of 27 different species of plankton, fish and benthic invertebrate also...

  3. The Nexus Between Research And Development And Export Decision: The Case Of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Balli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an investigation into the relationships between Research and Development (R&D and export decisions in Turkey. We empirically test to what extent firms’ R&D and export decisions are determined on the basis of firm-specific characteristics such as labour productivity, total sales, age, skill, capital intensity, foreign ownership and transfer of technology. Design/methodology/approach: Data used in this study was extracted from the World Bank's Turkey-Enterprise Survey conducted in 2013 and 2014 in a cross-section study undertaken in face-to-face interviews with the establishments. Bivariate Probit estimation is utilized. Findings: Our main findings show that learning by examining the export effect is invalid for Turkey. Additionally, as expected, government support and the transfer of technology increases the probability of a decision to export. Furthermore, both export and R&D decisions exhibits substantial differences on the basis of firm characteristics. Research limitations/implications: Our principle findings lead to the implication that Turkish government support for small firms can particularly be employed as a mechanism to cope against the obstacles posing limitations on small firms to make a decision to export. Originality/value: The novelty of this study is that it uses data extracted from one of the most recent and reliable surveys conducted by the World Bank on the behaviour of firms in Turkey.

  4. The National Implementation of Nuclear Export Controls: Developing a Best Practices Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viski, Andrea [European University Institute, Department of Law, Badia Fiesolana, S.Domenico di Fiesole, Firenze (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    The nuclear renaissance promises significant benefits to the international community, but also raises security challenges, particularly relating to the trade of nuclear materials and equipment. The objective of this paper is to examine how supply-side non-proliferation efforts can be strengthened by developing a best practices model for national nuclear export control implementation. In order to achieve this goal, nuclear export control measures identified by the 1540 Committee will be used as a framework from which a best practices model can be formed. Such a model concentrates specifically on national legislation and enforcement measures delineated by the Committee in order to bring countries in accordance with international law. Developing a best practices model seeks to deliver an ideal process for national export control law actualization in order to encourage the peaceful development of nuclear energy and develop the infrastructure and framework for precluding nuclear proliferation.

  5. Black Sea and Caspian Sea, Symposium II, Constanta, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Great, the Bronze Horseman . You may have heard me quote this before, but Pushkin in his poem “Th e Bronze Horseman ,” asks rhe- torically “Whither dost...mile down the embankment from the Bronze Horseman in front of the Admiralty Building in Petersburg. It commemorates the Czarist Foreign Minister...need for a coordinated approach to broader political developments in the Black and Caspian Sea regions. Th e December 21, 2006 death of

  6. Inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export of influenza A nucleoprotein and nuclear export protein as a novel target for antiviral drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutiwitoonchai, Nopporn; Mano, Takafumi; Kakisaka, Michinori; Sato, Hirotaka; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Osada, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Osamu; Yokoyama, Masaru; Sato, Hironori; Aida, Yoko

    2017-07-01

    An anti-influenza compound, DP2392-E10 based on inhibition of the nuclear export function of the viral nucleoprotein-nuclear export signal 3 (NP-NES3) domain was successfully identified by our previous high-throughput screening system. Here, we demonstrated that DP2392-E10 exerts its antiviral effect by inhibiting replication of a broad range of influenza A subtypes. In regard to the molecular mechanism, we revealed that DP2392-E10 inhibits nuclear export of both viral NP and nuclear export protein (NEP). More specifically, in vitro pull-down assays revealed that DP2392-E10 directly binds cellular CRM1, which mediates nuclear export of NP and NEP. In silico docking suggested that DP2392-E10 binds at a region close to the HEAT9 and HEAT10 domains of CRM1. Together, these results indicate that the CRM1-mediated nuclear export function of influenza virus represents a new potential target for antiviral drug development, and also provide a core structure for a novel class of inhibitors that target this function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy Issues As The Trigger Of Formation Of An International Regime Of The Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Rozhkov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The research object of the article is a development of the international regime of the Caspian Sea after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and increase in the number of the Caspian Littoral States, which transformed the former “closed” Soviet-Iranian region to the arena for wrangling between the different foreign policy interests of the most powerful world nations. The research subject is the key role of energy resources in the negotiation process between the States of the Caspian Region. The author pays special attention to the evolution of national approaches of the “Caspian Five” to the problem of mineral resources delimitation as well as its connection to negotiations on the draft comprehensive Convention on the Legal Status of the Caspian Sea. The article mentions the key benchmarks of the negotiation process, examines the influence of biand multilateral arrangements among Russia, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan during 1998-2003 on the situation in the region. The role of conflicts among Azerbaijan, Iran and Turkmenistan over transboundary oil and gas fields in the southern part of the sea as a factor of regional instability as well as its negative influence on the relations between the Caspian Littoral States, in general, are analyzed. The main conclusion of the author is that debates, launched by the Caspian Littoral States on the energy issues in the format of the Special Working Group at the level of Deputy Foreign Ministers, have gradually transformed to the multilateral mechanism for interaction of regional actors and become a trigger for debates on the other issues of the Caspian agenda such as economic, ecological, military, security, transport, tourist cooperation, etc. Taking into account importance and a positive role of four Caspian Summits as well as influence of other factors (separate position of Iran, external forces, environmental risks on the negotiation process, the author underlines the fact that all efforts of

  8. Effects of export concentration on CO2 emissions in developed countries: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apergis, Nicholas; Can, Muhlis; Gozgor, Giray; Lau, Chi Keung Marco

    2018-03-08

    This paper provides the evidence on the short- and the long-run effects of the export product concentration on the level of CO 2 emissions in 19 developed (high-income) economies, spanning the period 1962-2010. To this end, the paper makes use of the nonlinear panel unit root and cointegration tests with multiple endogenous structural breaks. It also considers the mean group estimations, the autoregressive distributed lag model, and the panel quantile regression estimations. The findings illustrate that the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis is valid in the panel dataset of 19 developed economies. In addition, it documents that a higher level of the product concentration of exports leads to lower CO 2 emissions. The results from the panel quantile regressions also indicate that the effect of the export product concentration upon the per capita CO 2 emissions is relatively high at the higher quantiles.

  9. EVALUATING AND DEVELOPING LOGISTICS SYSTEM FOR EXPORTING SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (CASE STUDY IN YOGYAKARTA PROVINCE AND ADJACENT AREAS, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizkie Syahputera

    2013-05-01

    The recommendations are established by developing 5th party logistics, constructing clear and market responsive regulations, and improving the facilities of transport infrastructure. Keywords: SME, logistics, Indonesia, export.

  10. Caspian Oil and Gas: Production and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelb, Bernard A

    2005-01-01

    .... The Caspian Sea region historically has been an oil and natural gas producer, but many believe that the region contains large reserves of oil and gas capable of much greater production than at present...

  11. The Caspian Sea Negotiation Support System 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, O. M.; Madani, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Caspian Sea is one of the most resourceful (both in energy and biological resources) areas of the world. The share allocation of Caspian Sea has been the subject of many disputes. Up to now, the negotiations to reach an agreement regarding the ownership status of the sea have not been completely successful. To facilitate reaching an agreement among littoral countries, research studies can provide valuable information. Researchers should examine different options for dividing the sea closely and determine the benefits of each of the options for the parties involved. Following an earlier effort, Caspian Sea Negotiation Support System is further developed in this regard. The model estimates countries' areal and utility shares under different legal methods/scenarios, attempting to minimize transportation costs of exploiting the resource. The applied model is more efficient than the earlier model and the used data includes more variables/attributes such as depth, the differentiation between gas and oil, and various fish resources than the previously employed data. Consequently, the estimates are calculated in more details than are calculated in the earlier study. The results still show a high sensitivity of outputs to the proposed division rules, suggesting a need to clarify the countries' utility and areal shares under any suggested legal regime. Compared to the previous results, the new results confirm the significant effect of the addition of the more variables/attributes to the analysis, in terms of the areal shares and allocations, valuation of resources, and asset management.

  12. Development of Export Performance Scale for Fresh Vegetable-Fruit Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Keskinkılınç

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to propose a scale for assessing the performance of foreign trade companies in fresh vegetable-fruit sector. As a first step, a qualitative interviews was conducted to the sample consists of the managers working in export companies. As a result of the interviews major problems of exporters were grouped. In the second phase of the study a questionnaire was formed and a survey was conducted to the larger sample. Subsequently, validity and reliability of the scales were determined by means of explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses and reliability analysis respectively. The theoretical contribution of this research is the development of a method for evaluation of export performance of foreign trade companies in fresh vegetable-fruit sector.

  13. Development of export and import operations in the market of poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyryliuk O.F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available the article examines the current trends in the development of the poultry industry in Ukraine in the context of the deepening of European integration; the priorities of export and import operations in the world food markets are examined. In recent years, Ukraine has officially changed the vector of foreign policy and economy.

  14. Private power in developing countries: Exporting the American experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, W.L.; Bourgeacq, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses using American marketing and financing expertise and technology to meet the need for increased power production and efficiency in developing countries. The topics of the paper include the opportunity for independent power production, dangers in international development, foreign country market evaluation, the criteria for selection, and taking advantage of the opportunities

  15. Oman: current status, upstream and export developments, investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeet, Ian

    1995-01-01

    Oman is an attractive and welcoming country, well-ordered and unpretentious. It has benefited from remarkable achievements of economic and social development since 1970. It now has a resource base that should be sufficient to keep it on continuing path of further development. However, the second 20-years of modern Oman will inevitable contain some testing challenges. These are centred in two main areas - the economic, where expenditure has already outstripped revenue and where firm controls are needed to maintain a reasonable balance; and the social, where the pressures from an increasingly literate and numerous population will demand changes to the autocratic traditional system of government. (author)

  16. Exploring effective factors on privatization, firm performance and export development: Evidence from steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Seyedaliakbar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Privatization means establishing a new system based on the market mechanisms and consequently making a change, alteration in different aspects of economy and is a process in which the government can examine the possibility of transferring the duties and facilities to the private sector on any level and if necessary, exerts such transfer. On the other hand, exports in industry sector can be a noticeable point for the economic growth of any country. Enhancing the exports of the steel industry of the country can have a principal role in the economic pursuit of the country’s non-oil products. Such an enhancement brings about a positive effect in the efficiency of the stocks within the financial markets by developing the steel industry. Researchers of this field claim that privatization in the steel industry results in the further development of the steel stock market and exports. This paper presents a comprehensive survey on factors influencing on privatization of the firms in steel industry. The study has designed a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributed it among some experts who worked for Mobarakeh steel producer in Iran. Using principle component analysis, the survey has concluded that export activities were influenced the most by six major factors including creativity, technological limitation, opportunities and challenges, being up to date, customer orientation and financial sanction. Moreover, firm performance was influenced by two major factors of stakeholder’s satisfaction and organizational culture. Finally, two factors of rationalism and market orientation influenced the most on privatization.

  17. Development of technology for washed minced fish production from low-profit objects of fishing in the Volga-Caspian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukatova M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objects of the study are as follows: rudd and goldfish, samples of food minced made of them without washing, after single and double washings. To study the organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters the conventional methods of the fishing industry have been used. At the LLC "Astrakhan fisheries" two experimental batches of minced rudd and goldfish with double washing by water using a food additive "Omfresh plus" have been made in the amount of 1.0 % by weight of the meat. The yield of washed minced food from rudd is 41.4 %, from silver carp – 41.0 %. Some decrease in water content, water-holding capacity and formalin-titratable nitrogen in minced fish after each washing step has been established. Studying the organoleptic characteristics has shown that the frozen minced briquettes are cuboids, have clean surface with the presence of minor irregularities, colour – light gray, dense texture. On physical and chemical parameters the food washed mince correspond to GOST R 55505–2013 "Frozen food fish forcemeat. Specifications". Water content is 79–82 %, sodium chloride – 0,17–0,35 %, and water-holding capacity – at over 50 %. The proven technology of manufacturing washed minced from goldfish and rudd can be put into production for the purpose of deep processing of unprofitable species of the Volga-Caspian Basin and getting washed minced food and culinary products based on it.

  18. Role of minor export crops in the integrated rural development project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennakoon, A S

    1985-01-01

    The average farm homestead in the Wet Zone of Sri Lanka is about 0.25-0.5 ha in size and is comprised of a mixture of fruit, spice, beverage and valuable timber trees that give a meagre economic return to supplement the family income. Over the last 10 years, these minor export crops have proved a significant foreign exchange earner. However, they are rarely managed at an optimum level. Since these crops have the ability to adapt to different agroclimatic conditions and maximize income flow and labour utilization, minor export crop programmes have been given high priority in Integrated Rural Development Projects. Since 1979 five such projects, each with specific objectives and targets, have been set up in five districts. All aim to increase the production of minor export crops for export; maximize land utilization; generate more income for smallholders by diversifying the cropping system; increase employment opportunities for the rural labour force; educate the farmers on the adoption of good cultural practices, processing techniques and marketing systems; and bring about all round improvement in the quality of life of the rural population.

  19. MNEMIOPSIS LEIDYI IMPACT ON SOME TROPHICAL CHAINS OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. KAMAKIN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of monitoring investigations over the past 10 years are presented concerning the distribution of a new species-invader in the Caspian Sea, Mnemiopsis leidyi. The spatial distribution of its population is shown during the period of its maximal development in August-September. The influence of that gelatinous invader on different levels of the trophic pyramid is described to show the cause of qualitative and quantitative decline in the nutritive base both of plankton feeders (Caspian kilka, shads and mollusk-eating fish (roach, sea bream and common carp, to estimate the level and reveal the trend of ecosystem development in the Caspian Sea in the near future.

  20. Information and analysis document. Hydrocarbons of the Caspian sea: actors and stakes; Dossier d'information et d'analyse. Les hydrocarbures de mer Caspienne: acteurs et enjeux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P.

    1998-03-01

    The Caspian sea basin constitutes an important petroleum reserve from which the exploration and development just begin. It should provide near 5 % of the world petroleum offer in 2015. To evaluate the stakes of the situation, the author presents an analysis of the Caspian sea reserves in three main parts: the Caspian sea hydrocarbons and the energy geo-politics, the realizations and the projects of the transport infrastructures, the international participations in the main petroleum and gaseous contracts. (A.L.B.)

  1. Influence of Intermediaries on the Efficiency of Export of Small and Medium Business Production in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzik Miqael Suvaryan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium business plays an important role in the national economies of developing countries. From this perspective, to create an effective system for exports is of key importance for these countries. The article provides the basis for the implementation of intermediary export organizations and systems for their interaction with small and medium business entities. On the example of Armenia, the authors proved that the introduction of intermediary organizations to enhance the participation of small and medium business in export operations is expedient. These organizations may be implemented in other developing countries. We used methods of analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, comparative method, statistical analysis and others. The authors proposed three possible options for establishing intermediary export organizations in developing countries.. Firstly, we considered the intermediary export organizations, established and managed directly by the state. Secondly, intermediary export organizations may be created by uniting of small and medium enterprises (SMEs of a particular industry in association. And the final option is the commercial intermediary organizations for export. By applying a comparative cost analysis of direct and indirect exports, the authors have developed a method for assessing the effectiveness of interaction of intermediary export organizations with small and medium-sized businesses. We defined the following components of the total exports costs: the costs of warehousing, packaging, transportation, information collection, contracts, search for the shadow broker and interaction with him/her, marketing, export documentation, broker services, banking and insurance services, personnel costs, operation of the structure, tax and customs payments. We have analysed possible changes in these costs and defined the value of the cost changes total indicator that shows more effective indirect exports. . The study defines the

  2. ZOOBENTHOS OF THE MIDDLE CASPIAN. BENTHOS COMMUNITIES OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Guseinova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Industrialization of Caspian oil and gas supplies requires a serious approach to the problem of protecting and preserving the region’s unique environment that, in fact, represents a property of international commons. The article studies into the impact of the Caspian modified waters on the benthos faunistic composition.Methods. Zooplancton and zoobenthos hydrobiology material was collected in the Central Caspian survey loop. Samples were collected in spring and summer in 2002 – 2007 in the western part of the Caspian Sea (Dagestan offshore location of the Caspian Sea from Smirnovsky Midstream Sandbank and Pearl Bank till Derbent latitude on “Tsada” vessel. They were collected from 25 stations located on ten standard parallel latitude logs with depth scope of 8–100 m from 0, 10, 25, 100 m horizons. These samples were used as a material for characterizing phyto- and zooplankton.Results. The benthic can be considered the most stable communities of the marine environment as they are the most resilient to quantity and modifications. Heterogeneous and variable ecosystem (biotope is typical of the areas with strong currents as the organic quality, quantity and physic-chemical properties are marked by variability.Location. The Caspian zoobenthos state as well as the features of the Caspian Sea benthos communities characterize the ecology of the Caspian Sea and give a true view of the situation in the drilling sites. This will help predict and avert negative effect of hydrocarbon production on the Caspian Sea ecosystem. Main conclusions. Water modification must be intensive, long-lasting and frequent for it to have an impact on benthos.

  3. Aquatic carbon export from peatland catchments recently undergone wind farm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ben; Waldron, Susan; Henderson, Andrew; Flowers, Hugh; Gilvear, David

    2013-04-01

    Scotland's peat landscapes are desirable locations for wind-based renewables due to high wind resources and low land use pressures in these areas. The environmental impact of sitting wind-based renewables on peats however, is unknown. Globally, peatlands are important terrestrial carbon stores. Given the topical nature of carbon-related issues, e.g. global warming and carbon footprints, it is imperative we help mitigate their degradation and maintain carbon sequestration. To do so, we need to better understand how peatland systems function with regards to their carbon balance (export versus sequestration) so we can assess their resilience and adaptation to hosting land-based renewable energy projects. Predicting carbon lost as a result of construction of wind farms built on peatland has not been fully characterised and this research will provide data that can supplement current 'carbon payback calculator' models for wind farms that aim to reinforce their 'green' credentials. Transfer of carbon from the terrestrial peatland systems to the aquatic freshwater and oceanic systems is most predominant during periods of high rainfall. It has been estimated that 50% of carbon is exported during only 10% of highest river flows, (Hinton et al., 1998). Furthermore, carbon export from peatlands is known to have a seasonal aspect with highest concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) found mostly in late summer months of August and September and lowest in December and January, (Dawson et al., 2004). Event sampling, where high intensity sample collection is carried out during high river flow periods, offers a better insight, understanding and estimation of carbon aquatic fluxes from peatland landscapes. The Gordonbush estate, near Brora, has an extensive peatland area where a wind farm development has recently been completed (April 2012). Investigations of aquatic carbon fluxes from this peatland system were started in July 2010, in conjunction with the start of

  4. Phosphorus Export Model Development in a Terminal Lake Basin using Concentration-Streamflow Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannotte, T.; Mahmood, T. H.; Matheney, R.; Hou, X.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrient export to streams and lakes by anthropogenic activities can lead to eutrophication and degradation of surface water quality. In Devils Lake, ND, the only terminal lake in the Northern Great Plains, the algae boom is of great concern due to the recent increase in streamflow and consequent rise in phosphorus (P) export from prairie agricultural fields. However, to date, very few studies explored the concentration (c) -streamflow (q) relationship in the headwater catchments of the Devils Lake basin. A robust watershed-scale quantitative framework would aid understanding of the c-q relationship, simulating P concentration and load. In this study, we utilize c-q relationships to develop a simple model to estimate phosphorus concentration and export from two headwater catchments of different size (Mauvais Coulee: 1032 km2 and Trib 3: 160 km2) draining to Devils Lake. Our goal is to link the phosphorus export model with a physically based hydrologic model to identify major drivers of phosphorus export. USGS provided the streamflow measurements, and we collected water samples (filtered and unfiltered) three times daily during the spring snowmelt season (March 31, 2017- April 12, 2017) at the outlets of both headwater catchments. Our results indicate that most P is dissolved and very little is particulate, suggesting little export of fine-grained sediment from agricultural fields. Our preliminary analyses in the Mauvais Coulee catchment show a chemostatic c-q relationship in the rising limb of the hydrograph, while the recession limb shows a linear and positive c-q relationship. The poor correlation in the rising limb of the hydrograph suggests intense flushing of P by spring snowmelt runoff. Flushing then continues in the recession limb of the hydrograph, but at a more constant rate. The estimated total P load for the Mauvais Coulee basin is 193 kg/km2, consistent with other catchments of similar size across the Red River of the North basin to the east. We expect

  5. Petroleum geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Black and Caspian region. Extended abstracts book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    Full text : The scientists from following countries took part at the international conference : Azerbaijan, Turkey, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine, Austria, USA, Great Britain, Czech Republic. The activity was conducted in eight sections. Section 1 was devoted to the exploration operations in the Caspian and Black sea region. Section 2 was devoted to regional geology and tectonics. Section 3 was devoted to hydrocarbon systems of the south Caspian basin. Section 4 was devoted to exploration operations results and their prospects in the south Caspian Sea and contiguous on-shore areas. Section 5 was devoted to neotectonics and its effect on the process of hydrocarbon resources development. Section 6 was devoted to paleogeography of sedimentation basin. Section 7 was devoted to geological aspects of the exploration geophysics data interpretation. Section 8 was devoted to ecology problems in oil and gas exploration and production

  6. Gas Exports in Turkmenistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanczki, Luca Zs.

    2011-01-01

    The Caspian region has been at the center of attention since Europe began seeking alternative routes to natural-gas resources. Turkmenistan has the potential to become an important gas exporter to Europe. As a landlocked country, Turkmenistan until recently has relied on post-Soviet pipeline infrastructures. The Central Asian republic has been at the mercy of Moscow's energy policy, which overlaps its foreign policy. At the same time, the revenue from gas exports is an essential part of the Turkmen national budget. This prompted Ashgabat to look for energy partners bypassing Russian territories. It started to convey natural gas first to Iran and then to China. This gave Turkmenistan strong leverage vis-a-vis Moscow. Ashgabat has not decided to export every gas molecule eastward, but, in jeopardizing its relations with Moscow, it expects more than empty pledges from Europe. On the other hand, a simple question emerges: Does Europe really need alternative sources? The answer is in the hands of Gazprom and Russian policy-makers

  7. Homegrown hydro, part 2: Private sector an important resource for developing Canadian exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, P. A.

    1994-01-01

    A review of four major hydro consultants across Canada illustrates how the private sector has become an important resource for export of Canadian goods and services. The major utilities have contributed in operations and training and have acted as catalysts in this process. An overview is presented of the history and export activities of four consultants: Monenco, Acres, SNC, and Klohn-Crippen. The linkage between domestic experience and expansion into foreign markets in hydro resource development is apparent. Domestic projects have fallen into a severe decline due to the market; it is suggested that cyclical markets might be avoided by constructing capacity in advance. A tally is provided of current Canadian projects, which represent a substantial economic potential for sustainable, renewable hydroelectric resource development. 1 fig

  8. THE IMPACT OF CHINA´S ACCESSION TO WTO ON THE EXPORTS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Shafaeddin

    2002-01-01

    Using the "revealed competitive advantage indices" for exports and imports, the paper is devoted to the analyses of the vulnerability of selected developing countries if China´s competitive position is improved due to its entry to WTO. In contrast to the existing literature which concentrates on labour-intensive products as a group, this paper considers products at a disaggregate level since products in the same group are not often homogeneous. In labour-intensive manufactured goods, China co...

  9. Outcomes and strategies in the ‘New Great Game’: China and the Caspian states emerge as winners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Smith Stegen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The decades-long struggle for control over oil and natural gas resources, infrastructure and influence in the Caspian region has been referred to as the ‘New Great Game’, with Europe, China, the US and Russia typically cited as the main combatants. We explore recent developments and aver that, if present trends continue, Europe will have access to Azerbaijan's resources, China to those of the East Caspian states, the US will stay commercially and strategically engaged, and Russia's influence will (continue to diminish. How did this unexpected turn of events arise? We examine China's dominance and argue that the foreign policies of the US and Russia – within the region and even further abroad – have inadvertently driven the East Caspian states and China towards each other. Wary of potential maritime chokepoints in the Pacific, China feels strongly compelled to shore up resources and influence in the Caspian region. In part because of Russia's intransigence regarding the Caspian Sea's status, the East Caspian states – faced with constrained access to the West – have turned to China as an alternative market and counterbalance to Russia.

  10. The development of Middle Eastern gas: analyses of the graveyard of export projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabro, Robert

    1994-01-01

    There are three types of opportunities for gas developments in the Middle East. The first are those provided by the domestic energy market, the second by regional trade and the third by the potential for exports outside the region. The development of the full gas potential of the region, given the size of the reserves held by several countries, will only be possible through export. Of course, there is still room for the expansion of gas use within the producing countries and their regional neighbours but growth of domestic demand would not make a significant dent in the regional reserves before several decades. The potential for exports is constrained, however, by the uncertainty about future oil prices, the long lead-in time of major gas projects and the associated financing problems. There is a graveyard of gas export projects in the Middle East. New projects are continually conceived and then abandoned or indefinitely postponed. Even the famous Qatargas project which took so long to bring to the threshold of implementation appears in the present climate to be unattractive for both the country and the foreign investors involved. Gas in the Middle East will remain for a very long time a resource for an ever more distant future. There is still too much oil around for its price to rise to a support level for big gas projects in the Middle East. And there is no significant demand yet in Europe for Middle East oil which only leaves the Far East as a potential market. The paradox is that if gas resources are not developed ahead of needs, gas will not be available in sufficient volumes when required. (Author)

  11. Structural geology of the North and Middle Caspian sea on the new geophysical data interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boris, V.S; Rais, V.Sh; Victor, L.U

    2002-01-01

    Full text:A structural and tectonic map of the North and Middle Caspian Sea is made on the basis of seismic and other geological and geophysical data analysis. According to the plotting results the total amplitude range of the heterogeneous basement depths are in the North Caspian Sea (Ukatnensky depression-over 12 km and Prorva depression-over 16 km). In the middle Caspian Sea the deppest basement point is supposed in Sulak basin (over 12 km). The least basement depths are marked in Karpinsky ridge,Buzachinky and Karabogazsky arches (1-3 km). On the whole the morphology and structure of the basement confirms the conclusion previously made by many researches that the Caspian Sea is a heterogeneous depression superimposed on the junction of regional tectonic elements of various ages.The ancient East-European platform represented by Pricaspiisky depression (Donetsko-Astrakhanskaya fault system limits the latter in the south) is situated on the North. The middle Caspian Sea is occupied with the offshore continuation of Terek-Caspian foredeep is represented by Sulak basin clearly limited in the south by a system of upthrusts and thrusts falling under North Caucasus foreland.Geological interpretation of the Yuzhmorgeologiya Center new geophysical data allows making an assumption about the biohermexistence within TriassicSea sediments on Kuma-Manychsky depression offshore continuation. Seismic exploration works show strike-slip faults and thrust structure development within the sedimentary cover on the offshore continuation of Karpinsky ridge.Some strike-slipped blocks are separated by left-side shifts of the northeast stretch.The pool location at the left-side (east) blocks of the shift areas is marked.

  12. Vulnerability of exporting nations to the development of a carbon label in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards-Jones, G.; Plassmann, K.; York, E.H.; Hounsome, B.; Jones, D.L.; Mila i Canals, L.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon labels inform consumers about the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) released during the production and consumption of goods, including food. In the future consumer and legislative responses to carbon labels may favour goods with lower emissions, and thereby change established supply chains. This may have unintended consequences. We present the carbon footprint of three horticultural goods of different origins supplied to the United Kingdom market: lettuce, broccoli and green beans. Analysis of these footprints enables the characterisation of three different classes of vulnerability which are related to: transport, national economy and supply chain specifics. There is no simple relationship between the characteristics of an exporting country and its vulnerability to the introduction of a carbon label. Geographically distant developing countries with a high level of substitutable exports to the UK are most vulnerable. However, many developing countries have low vulnerability as their main exports are tropical crops which would be hard to substitute with local produce. In the short term it is unlikely that consumers will respond to carbon labels in such a way that will have major impacts in the horticultural sector. Labels which require contractual reductions in GHG emissions may have greater impacts in the short term.

  13. Formation Sources of the Caspian ecosystems biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Monakhova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing ideas of the Caspian ecosystems biodiversity have been classified on the basis of data analysis and the main sources of its formation have been defined. They are different ways of flora and fauna originating combined with different mechanisms of water bodies’ isolation.

  14. Formation Sources of the Caspian ecosystems biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    G. A. Monakhova; G. M. Abdurakhmanov; G. A. Akhmedova

    2009-01-01

    The existing ideas of the Caspian ecosystems biodiversity have been classified on the basis of data analysis and the main sources of its formation have been defined. They are different ways of flora and fauna originating combined with different mechanisms of water bodies’ isolation.

  15. The Caspian, a linchpin of energy supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeinalov, F.

    2010-01-01

    As well as being an essential link between Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Caspian Sea is an abundant energy source of strategic importance. European and Russian. companies come into conflict in the area, as do those of China and the United States. How interests will pan out lies in the hands of Central Asian countries. (author)

  16. The study of the hydrological regime extreme effects of the Caspian Sea during the XX-XXI centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaitskaya, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    The Caspian Sea - the unique largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth. Significant periodic sea level fluctuations are a typical feature of the sea. In the XIX-XX centuries a number of comprehensive studies of the Caspian Sea was carried out. The results are published in the papers, monographs and climatic atlases. But a number of fundamental questions about the features of the hydrological regime of the Caspian Sea is still open: 1. How does the water circulation change during the level variations? 2. What is the effect of heterogeneity of evaporation from the water surface on the formation of the flow field in the conditions of long-term level changes? 3. How does the water salinity regime change depending on the sea level position, water circulation, river flow and different climatic influences? 4. What is the effect of extreme events (multi-hazards) (ice, storms, destruction of the coasts) on coastal infrastructure? In 2016, the project aims to study hydrological regime extreme effects of the Caspian Sea was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. Within this project all of the above problems will be solved. Geographic information system "Caspian Sea" for the storage and data processing, including a database of primary oceanographic information for the period of instrumental observations (1897-2013), cartographic database (1921-2011) and tools for multidimensional analysis of spatio-temporal information is the basis of the study. The scheme of interconnected hydrodynamic models (Caspian Sea MODel - Ocean Model - Wind wave model) was developed. The important factors are taken into account in the structure of the models: long-term and seasonal dynamics of the sea waves parameters, new long-term values of evaporation from the shallow waters areas of the Caspian Sea, water circulation. Schemes of general seasonal circulation of the Caspian Sea and the Northern Caspian at different positions of the sea level in XX-XXI centuries using

  17. Big Sugar in southern Africa: rural development and the perverted potential of sugar/ethanol exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper asks how investment in large-scale sugar cane production has contributed, and will contribute, to rural development in southern Africa. Taking a case study of the South African company Illovo in Zambia, the argument is made that the potential for greater tax revenue, domestic competition, access to resources and wealth distribution from sugar/ethanol production have all been perverted and with relatively little payoff in wage labour opportunities in return. If the benefits of agro-exports cannot be so easily assumed, then the prospective 'balance sheet' of biofuels needs to be re-examined. In this light, the paper advocates smaller-scale agrarian initiatives.

  18. Biogeographic classification of the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendereski, F.; Vogt, M.; Payne, M. R.; Lachkar, Z.; Gruber, N.; Salmanmahiny, A.; Hosseini, S. A.

    2014-11-01

    Like other inland seas, the Caspian Sea (CS) has been influenced by climate change and anthropogenic disturbance during recent decades, yet the scientific understanding of this water body remains poor. In this study, an eco-geographical classification of the CS based on physical information derived from space and in situ data is developed and tested against a set of biological observations. We used a two-step classification procedure, consisting of (i) a data reduction with self-organizing maps (SOMs) and (ii) a synthesis of the most relevant features into a reduced number of marine ecoregions using the hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC) method. From an initial set of 12 potential physical variables, 6 independent variables were selected for the classification algorithm, i.e., sea surface temperature (SST), bathymetry, sea ice, seasonal variation of sea surface salinity (DSSS), total suspended matter (TSM) and its seasonal variation (DTSM). The classification results reveal a robust separation between the northern and the middle/southern basins as well as a separation of the shallow nearshore waters from those offshore. The observed patterns in ecoregions can be attributed to differences in climate and geochemical factors such as distance from river, water depth and currents. A comparison of the annual and monthly mean Chl a concentrations between the different ecoregions shows significant differences (one-way ANOVA, P qualitative evaluation of differences in community composition based on recorded presence-absence patterns of 25 different species of plankton, fish and benthic invertebrate also confirms the relevance of the ecoregions as proxies for habitats with common biological characteristics.

  19. Influence of Intermediaries on the Efficiency of Export of Small and Medium Business Production in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Arzik Miqael Suvaryan; Narina Grigorii Mkrtichyan; Hasmik Khachik Manukyan

    2018-01-01

    Small and medium business plays an important role in the national economies of developing countries. From this perspective, to create an effective system for exports is of key importance for these countries. The article provides the basis for the implementation of intermediary export organizations and systems for their interaction with small and medium business entities. On the example of Armenia, the authors proved that the introduction of intermediary organizations to enhance the p...

  20. Renewable energy export network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    A Renewable Energy Exporters Network (REEN) has recently been established, following a meeting of renewable energy exporters and government agencies on 30 October 2000. REEN will assist the Australian renewable energy industry to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the burgeoning global market for renewable energy goods and services. Recent estimates of the significant potential global growth is renewable energy demand have reinforced the industry and Government's view that, in the medium to long-term, growth in the Australian renewable energy industry will largely depend on capturing export market share. Expanding the export market was identified as a crucial component in the Renewable Energy Action Agenda, developed jointly by industry and Government and released in June 2000. It was estimated that, for the industry to achieve its vision of sales of $4 billion per year by 2010, exports would need to comprise approximately 50% of the forecast growth in sales. As such, the need for a specific export strategy for the Australian renewable energy industry was recognised in the Action Agenda, and the establishment of the REEN is one of the first initiatives undertaken as part of the Renewable Energy Export Strategy. The REEN comprises approximately 50 export-ready renewable energy companies, the Department of Industry, Science and Resources, Austrade, and Stage Government agencies such as NSW's Sustainable Energy Development Authority. The Export Network will operate electronically, with face-to-face meetings held as appropriate. The Department of Industry, Science and Resources will facilitate the Export Network and has published a website at www.isr.gov.au/industry/reen. The site includes: a members directory; a discussion forum; information on opportunities to showcase Australian renewable; energy products and services; and Iinks to sites containing information that may be useful to renewable energy exporters. Other actions that are being undertaken as

  1. The impact of oil-export dependency on a developing country; The case of Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidarian, J. (World Bank, Washington, DC (USA)); Green, R.D. (Howard Univ., Washington, DC (US). Dept. of Economics)

    1989-10-01

    A large oil export sector is often considered to be a potential spur to diversification and full modernization in third world countries, especially when a central government controls and plans the use of oil revenues with such goals in mind. We evaluate this proposition by developing a 12-equation Keynesian econometric model of the Algerian economy. The model's equations, estimated using ordinary least squares, are robust with strong R-squares, significant t-tests for the independent variables, and reasonable Durbin-Watson statistics. Historical simulations track the true variables rather closely. Our RMSEs (percentage) are in general better than those in most studies of less-developed countries, ranging from 7 to 21%. Our results indicate that there has been a growing dependency of most major economic sectors on oil revenues, both before and after nationalization. Improvements in oil exports will, ceteris paribus, lead to elastic increases in luxury imports and domestic consumption, and inelastic increases in domestic investment. Thus, the goals of diversification, modernization and industrialization will not be met under the current set of policies in Algeria. (author).

  2. The Influence of Globalization on Caspian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. . Chernitsyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During last several years the Caspian region has to face the integration into global international process. Long and hard process of globalization is connected not only with the dissolution of the USSR and the emergence of new regional players, but also the desire of extra-regional countries to participate, monitor and control all aspects of life in this region, including energy potential, transport, cultural, ecological and strategic issues. The situation is complicated by the uncertainty of the legal status and the conflict of interest of some extra-regional participants. Until recently, Caspian regional countries were not ready to solve old familiar aches without the biggest international players, such as the USA, China, EU etc. However the safety of the region requires decisions for the benefit of the region in the whole and each country separately.

  3. Temporal habitat suitability modeling of Caspian shad (Alosa spp. in the southern Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Haghi Vayghan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To comprehensively manage an ecosystem such as that of the Caspian Sea, the world’s largest lake, detailed knowledge of the habitat traits of the living organisms in the ecosystem is essential. The present study examined environmental variables and used the Habitat Suitability Index (HSI model to determine the most preferred seasonal habitat and optimal environmental range of Caspian shad (Alosa spp. The fish preferred deep waters with low levels of total organic matter and sea level anomaly in winter and productive areas with a high concentration of chlorophyll-a (Chla and relatively high benthos biomass in spring. The number per unit area (NPUA-based HSI model determined that the geometric mean model (GMM was the optimal model for defining a suitable habitat in winter. For spring, the arithmetic mean model (or GMM in the NPUA-based HSI model most accurately predicted preferred habitat for Caspian shad. The average NPUA in both seasons increased with the HSI; areas with an HSI of between 0.4 and 0.6 in spring and between 0.6 and 0.8 in winter had a high percentage of total catch. Areas with an HSI of more than 0.5 had over 91% and 63% of the total catch in spring and winter, respectively, demonstrating the reliability of the NPUA-based HSI model in predicting Caspian shad habitat. The present study shows that remotely sensed data plus depth are the most critical environmental variables in Caspian shad habitats and that Chla and SLA are the most critical remotely sensed parameters for near real-time prediction of Caspian shad habitat.

  4. A peptide export-import control circuit modulating bacterial development regulates protein phosphatases of the phosphorelay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, M

    1997-08-05

    The phosphorelay signal transduction system activates developmental transcription in sporulation of Bacillus subtilis by phosphorylation of aspartyl residues of the Spo0F and Spo0A response regulators. The phosphorylation level of these response regulators is determined by the opposing activities of protein kinases and protein aspartate phosphatases that interpret positive and negative signals for development in a signal integration circuit. The RapA protein aspartate phosphatase of the phosphorelay is regulated by a peptide that directly inhibits its activity. This peptide is proteolytically processed from an inactive pre-inhibitor protein encoded in the phrA gene. The pre-inhibitor is cleaved by the protein export apparatus to a putative pro-inhibitor that is further processed to the active inhibitor peptide and internalized by the oligopeptide permease. This export-import circuit is postulated to be a mechanism for timing phosphatase activity where the processing enzymes regulate the rate of formation of the active inhibitor. The processing events may, in turn, be controlled by a regulatory hierarchy. Chromosome sequencing has revealed several other phosphatase-prepeptide gene pairs in B. subtilis, suggesting that the use of this mechanism may be widespread in signal transduction.

  5. Export and Economic Growth in the Case of the Manufacturing Industry: Panel Data Analysis of Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Kılavuz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between growth in export and economic growth, which is called “Export-led Growth Hypothesis” in the literature, is still a current issue in both the theoretical and empirical literature. In the present study, the effect of different classifications of export and import on economic growth in 22 developing countries in the 1998–2006 period was tested based on two models, via panel data analysis. According to the results of the first model, the analysis of which included variables such as high and low-tech manufacturing industry exports, investment and population, it was found that only two variables, high-tech manufacturing industry export and investment, have a positive and significant effect on growth. In addition to the first model which included the analysis of all variables, the second model investigated the effect of high and low-tech manufacturing industry imports on growth. The findings revealed that only high-tech manufacturing industry export, investment and low-tech manufacturing industry import have a positive and significant effect on growth.

  6. Determining the effective indices on export development of Iran’s office furniture thereby analytical hierarchy process (AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Alizadeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Furniture industry is one of the most important employment and wealth productive industries, and also one major category in developing countries. This study aimed on determining the effective indices on export development of office furniture throughout the analytical hierarchy process (AHP and also by group decision. For this, imports and exports of office furniture were determined through visiting the custom office of Islamic Republic of Iran. By then, after initial studies, furniture industry and relevant experts were interviewed to recognize the effective indices on export development, and specified indices were categorized on six main groups and forty-eight sub-index. After receiving the comments of experts, degree of importance of indices and sub-indices determined thereby Expert Choice software. Results showed that raw material and product has been chosen among the major indices. Among the 48 influential sub-indices also product designing, guaranty and costumer services, quality control, custom tariffs, and strategic marketing had highest value-weighted priorities in export development of office furniture, respectively. Regarding to government’s policies and decisions in wood raw materials extent, monetary and banking system and marketing infrastructures, to maintain the productivity competitiveness of Iran’s furniture industry in first step, and to achieve to the export markets in second step, full cooperation of government with furniture industry is necessary provision for participating of this industry in global markets.

  7. PHO1 Exports Phosphate from the Chalazal Seed Coat to the Embryo in Developing Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzaki, Evangelia; Baroux, Célia; Jung, Ji-Yul; Poirier, Yves

    2017-10-09

    Seed production requires the transfer of nutrients from the maternal seed coat to the filial endosperm and embryo. Because seed coat and filial tissues are symplasmically isolated, nutrients arriving in the seed coat via the phloem must be exported to the apoplast before reaching the embryo. Proteins implicated in the transfer of inorganic phosphate (Pi) from the seed coat to the embryo are unknown despite seed P content being an important agronomic trait. Here we show that the Arabidopsis Pi exporters PHO1 and PHOH1 are expressed in the chalazal seed coat (CZSC) of developing seeds. PHO1 is additionally expressed in developing ovules. Phosphorus (P) content and Pi flux between the seed coat and embryo were analyzed in seeds from grafts between WT roots and scions from either pho1, phoh1, or the pho1 phoh1 double mutant. Whereas P content and distribution between the seed coat and embryo in fully mature dry seeds of these mutants are similar to the WT, at the mature green stage of seed development the seed coat of the pho1 and pho1 phoh1 mutants, but not of the phoh1 mutant, retains approximately 2-fold more P than its WT control. Expression of PHO1 under a CZSC-specific promoter complemented the seed P distribution phenotype of the pho1 phoh1 double mutant. CZSC-specific down-expression of PHO1 also recapitulated the seed P distribution phenotype of pho1. Together, these experiments show that PHO1 expression in the CZSC is important for the transfer of P from the seed coat to the embryo in developing seeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of Exports and Imports of Kosova with European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Myrvete Badivuku-Pantina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Kosova, within the nine years period, has moved from a post conflict country to a country considered to be in transition. Kosova has passed from its determination for reconstruction of the country to the orientation towards economic development and integration to European structures. But economic development is not yet sufficient in order to address challenges that Kosova is facing, such as high percentage of unemployment and high deficit of trade exchange. The unemployment rate in Kosova is the most concerning economic issue. Unemployment norms move from about 30 % (IMF to 40% (SOK, 2006. High deficit of recurrent accounts also present a great concern for Kosova economy, which has been evaluated to be 17.3% of gross domestic production (GDP following receipt of assistance from abroad, and decrease of trade deficit remains one of economic priorities in Kosova. Current ways of cooperation between countries are based on ignoring existing borders and mutual cooperation among people of the world, based on freedom and equality among entities of market economy. Kosova supports open economic policies and it achieved to sign some of Free Trade Agreements (FTA with regional countries of western Balkans. It is expected that Kosova will endorse other FTA also with other countries in the region and wider since these actions are to be taken in order to support economic development of Kosova. In the post war period, the main trade partner of Kosova has been European Union (Germany, Greece, Slovenia, Italy, and Austria, whose participation in general import of Kosova for 2004 was 26.7%, while this integration in general export of Kosova in 2004 was 28.7%. The purpose of this study is that I wanted to present importance of trade cooperation of Kosova with UE countries and offer information of the course of imports and exports of Kosova with EU countries, as well as to analyze possibilities and advantages that this cooperation offers for economic development of

  9. Reckless lending: how Canada's Export Development Corporation puts people and environment at risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report documents the negative impacts of several projects financed by Canada's Export Development Corporation (EDC), how these investments put people and the environment at risk, and highlights the need for ensuring that EDC, an agency of the Canadian Government, is compelled to uphold public policies and international standards protecting human rights, the environment and the social needs of communities. By way of proving its case, authors of this report describe several international projects --the Three Gorges Dam in China; the Urra Hydro Project in Colombia; the Marcopper Mine in the Philippines; the BioBio Dam in Chile; the Ok Tedi Copper Mine in Papua New Guinea; the Yacyreta Dam in Argentina and Paraguay; and CANDU reactors in Argentina, China, Romania, South Korea and Turkey -- as proof of human rights violations and environmental disasters in which EDC has been an accessory. It is emphasized that unlike the World Bank and the U.S. export credit agencies, EDC is not required to undertake environmental assessment, or to take into account the impact on human rights or communities of project which they help to finance. The authors recommend amendments to the Export Development Act that would require the EDC to disclose information about proposed project at least 60 days before approval by the Board, including description of the project, the terms of financing, along with any environmental, social and human rights information collected. EDC should be required to establish an autonomous accountability mechanism, using the mechanisms of the World Bank Group as a model to track and guide EDC's policy implementation, and to receive and address complaints from external parties affected by EDC-supported activities. EDC should require social, environmental and human rights assessments, using World Bank standards and methodology as the base, and ensure implementation of recommendations by separately specifying them in the contract. EDC should not be

  10. 'The Iranian connection': the geo-economics of exporting Central Asian energy via Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    Of the possible routes to connect Caucasian and Central Asian oil to market, the 'Iranian connection' is the most interesting. The economic attraction of the Iranian route is clear: large transport capacities exist in the various pieces of Iran's existing network, large refining centers are located near the Caspian and there ate unutilized export terminals [it

  11. Developing TheoreticalMethodological Approaches to Assessment of Export Potential of Ukrainian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyushenko Igor Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the existing theoretical-methodological approaches to the analysis and assessment of export potential. The opinions by scientists regarding the disclosure of the categorial content of the concept of «export potential» have been considered, an own definition of the indicated economic category has been suggested. The main types of analytical procedures for assessment have been classified, some authorial methodical approaches to determine the level of export potential have been analyzed. The export potential of a hypothetical enterprise has been calculated by the selected methodologies of assessment. The urgency of improving and refining existing methods to implement more detailed and quantitative analysis has been substantiated. It has been suggested to implement a prognosis assessment of export potential of enterprises by combining the results of several methodologies in the aggregate indicator of export potential efficiency. A prognosis model for the dynamics of export potential of a hypothetical enterprise has been built, value of the aggregate indicator has been calculated on the basis of three selected valuation methodologies.

  12. Analysis of domestic price and inflation determinants in Iran (as a developing oil-export based economy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Dizaji (Sajjad Faraji)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The objective of this study is to examine and investigate both behaviour and determinants of domestic prices and inflation rate in Iran as a developing oil export based economy. I apply two models; the first model is for investigating the main determinants of domestic prices

  13. The problem of formation of strategic oil-gas research alliance's in the Caspian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, V.S.; Silantiev, I.D.; Skorobogatov, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Common information is given here concerning the Caspian region that is located in the juncture zone of two regions : European and Western Asian. While the European region is a great centre of gas consumption, the Western Asian region contains the largest gas accumulation. Gas supply from Iran, Iraq, Turkmenia in the western direction requires strategic alliances in development of hydrocarbon potential. Also project investments on PSA base are more developed. Russia uses PSA mechanisms and strategic alliance formation. Reasons for strategic alliance formation for every company are widely described. Analysis of seismic data proves existence of anomalies of hydrocarbon pool type to filter the prospect portfolio, geological information complex analysis and preparation materials for oil and gas atlas formation. Peculiarity of Caspian region determine the necessing of international strategic alliance for decision infrastructure formation and ecosystem conservation

  14. Influence of oil pollution to the total biological productivity of the Caspian sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmanov, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Island cape, Aktau port) and South Caspian (district of the Absheron - Baku archipelago islands, Baku - Krasnavod bays, Cheleken peninsula) contaminated with oil floristic structure of phytoplankton, and phytobenthos has been suppressed the midyear biomass that since 60th of the last century has been comparatively decreased more than 25-30 times up to 90th. In the oil contaminated zones the development of all the plankton - benthoic organisms has been suppressed that consists the main base of total biological productivity of the Caspian

  15. Development and evaluation of a questionnaire for assessment of determinants of weight disorders among children and adolescents: The Caspian-IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The developed questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for assessment of the determinants of weight disorders in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents in the MENA.

  16. Determinants of Short-Term Export Performance in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Osman, Ms.Amber; Habib, Sukaina

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the interdependency between independent (Increase of pricing strategy adaptation, Increase of export intensity, Firm's commitment to exporting, Export market development, Export market competition, Past Pricing Strategy Adaptation, Past Export Performance Satisfaction, Past Export Intensity, Export market distance) and dependent variables (i.e. Expected Short-Term Export Performance improvement) of export performance. The framework is tested via a survey through que...

  17. ON PHYTOCOENOTICAL MAPPING OF CASPIAN DESERT REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. SAFRONOVA

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The phytoecological map (l :2.500.000 for Desert Region, including the Caspian Lowland and the Mangyshlak. has been compiled. It gives an idea of latitudinal differentiation cf vegetation. Edaphic variants and lithological composition in low mountains. The legend has been constructed according to zonal-typological principle e using an ecological-phytocoenotic classification. Heterogeneity of vegetation is reflected by means of territoria1 units (complex, series, combination and additional marks above the vegetation background. In the northern subzone vegetation is fairly monotonous and characterized by prevalence of wormwood communities (Artemisia of subgenus Seriphidium, joined in three formations: Artemisia lerchiana, A. arenaria. A. pauciflora. Small areas are occupied by shrub deserts of Calligollum aphyllum and Tamarix ramosissima. To southward of 47° N in the middle subzone on the Caspian Lowland the communities of halophyte perennial saltworts essential1y dominate, and to less extent-wormwood communities of hemipsammophytic Artemisia terrae-albae and psammophytic Artemisia arenaria and A. lerchiana. Deserts of Mangyshlak are much diverse. Dwarf semishrubs are presented by species of perennial saltworts (Anabasis salsa, Nanophyton erinaceum,Arthrophytum lehnwnianum, Salsola orientaUs and wonnwood (Artemisia terrae-albae, A. gurganica. A. santolina. To southward of 43° N in the southern subzone dwarf semishrub Salsola gemmascens and Artemisia kemrudica corrnnunities prevail.

  18. ON PHYTOCOENOTICAL MAPPING OF CASPIAN DESERT REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. SAFRONOVA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytoecological map (l :2.500.000 for Desert Region, including the Caspian Lowland and the Mangyshlak. has been compiled. It gives an idea of latitudinal differentiation cf vegetation. Edaphic variants and lithological composition in low mountains. The legend has been constructed according to zonal-typological principle e using an ecological-phytocoenotic classification. Heterogeneity of vegetation is reflected by means of territoria1 units (complex, series, combination and additional marks above the vegetation background. In the northern subzone vegetation is fairly monotonous and characterized by prevalence of wormwood communities (Artemisia of subgenus Seriphidium, joined in three formations: Artemisia lerchiana, A. arenaria. A. pauciflora. Small areas are occupied by shrub deserts of Calligollum aphyllum and Tamarix ramosissima. To southward of 47° N in the middle subzone on the Caspian Lowland the communities of halophyte perennial saltworts essential1y dominate, and to less extent-wormwood communities of hemipsammophytic Artemisia terrae-albae and psammophytic Artemisia arenaria and A. lerchiana. Deserts of Mangyshlak are much diverse. Dwarf semishrubs are presented by species of perennial saltworts (Anabasis salsa, Nanophyton erinaceum,Arthrophytum lehnwnianum, Salsola orientaUs and wonnwood (Artemisia terrae-albae, A. gurganica. A. santolina. To southward of 43° N in the southern subzone dwarf semishrub Salsola gemmascens and Artemisia kemrudica corrnnunities prevail.

  19. Tracking the Global Distribution of Persistent Organic Pollutants Accounting for E-Waste Exports to Developing Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Knut; Armitage, James M; Wania, Frank; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C

    2016-01-19

    Elevated concentrations of various industrial-use Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been reported in some developing areas in subtropical and tropical regions known to be destinations of e-waste. We used a recent inventory of the global generation and exports of e-waste to develop various global scale emission scenarios for industrial-use organic contaminants (IUOCs). For representative IUOCs (RIUOCs), only hypothetical emissions via passive volatilization from e-waste were considered whereas for PCBs, historical emissions throughout the chemical life-cycle (i.e., manufacturing, use, disposal) were included. The environmental transport and fate of RIUOCs and PCBs were then simulated using the BETR Global 2.0 model. Export of e-waste is expected to increase and sustain global emissions beyond the baseline scenario, which assumes no export. A comparison between model predictions and observations for PCBs in selected recipient regions generally suggests a better agreement when exports are accounted for. This study may be the first to integrate the global transport of IUOCs in waste with their long-range transport in air and water. The results call for integrated chemical management strategies on a global scale.

  20. Export spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choquette, Eliane; Meinen, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the importance of export spillovers in a firm's decision to enter specific export markets and extends the current state of the literature by assessing different mechanisms through which they may occur, namely (i) labour movement, (ii) intra-industry spillovers and (iii) inter......-industry linkages. We do so by exploiting a unique data set covering the universe of manufacturing firms in Denmark for the period 1995–2006 which combines transaction-level export data, firm accounting data, employer–employee linked data and information from yearly input–output tables. We corroborate...... the literature on export spillovers by presenting robust evidence of destination-specific export spillovers. The results suggest that labour mobility as well as intra- and inter-industry linkages (backward linkages) are important channels for export spillovers, while presenting heterogeneous effects across firms...

  1. Development of Core Design Model for Small-Sized Research Reactor and Establishment of Infrastructure for Reactor Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M. H.; Win, Naing; Lim, J. Y.

    2007-02-01

    Within 10 years a growing world-wide demand of new research reactor construction is expected because of obsolescence. In Korea, a new research reactor is also required in order to meet domestic demand of utilization. KAERI has been devoted to develop an export-oriented research reactors for these kinds of demand. A next generation research reactor should comply with general requirements for safety, economics, environment-friendliness and non-proliferation as well as high performance requirement of high flux level. A export-tailored reactor should be developed for the demand of developing counties or under-developed countries. A new design concept is to be developed for a long cycle length core which has excellent irradiation facility with high flux

  2. Impact of High - Performance Work Systems on Export - Oriented SMEs Performance: The Mediating Role of Human Capital Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Hamid

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SMEs contribute substantially to the economic development, income generation, poverty reduction, and particularly job creation for both developed and developing economies. However, compared with large firms, SMEs face several challenges related to their performance and competitiveness. The role of human capital (HC and human resource practices (HR Practices in enhancing SMEs competitiveness and performance is vital but understudied areas. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of HC development between the relationship of high-performance work systems (HPWS and export-oriented SMEs performance. Quantitative strategy and cross-sectional survey method was used to collect data from 205 managerial staff through a self-administered structured questionnaire. HPWS had a significant positive impact on export-oriented SMEs performance. The findings of the study provide evidence that HC development plays a mediating role between HPWS and enterprises performance.

  3. The Gulf and the Caspian: who gets to have their cake - and eat it as well?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgshon, S.

    1998-01-01

    Contractual developments in Central Asia and the Middle East and their impact on the petroleum industry are reviewed. Until recently, both regions were mostly closed to investment by the international oil companies. As of late 1998, however, all countries in the two regions, apart from Saudi Arabia, have opened, or are planning to open their doors to foreign investment. The contractual terms being offered, the relative severity of the fiscal terms and the response of the oil companies are examined for the Gulf states of Iraq, Iran and Kuwait, and Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan in the Caspian region. It is concluded that fiscal terms in the Caspian states will become increasingly attractive, while the Gulf states should, subject to political considerations, be in a much stronger position both to attract foreign investment dollars and to ask a high economic rent for the state. (UK)

  4. Seven deadly secrets : what the Export Development Canada does not want you to know

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coumans, C.; Drost, N.; Glynn, T.; Quevillon, M.; Roth, S.; Tricarico, A.

    2003-01-01

    Export Development Canada (EDC) is a financial institution, owned by the Canadian government, which lends money to thousands of Canadian companies interested in international business opportunities. This report describes 7 projects that are being pursued by Canadian companies that will have negative impact on the environment and local communities. The projects include: (1) the Alumysa aluminum smelter in Chile, (2) the Cernavoda nuclear reactor in Romania, (3) the Goro nickel mine in Kanaky - New Caledonia, (4) the Inco nickel mine in Indonesia, (5) the OCP pipeline in Ecuador, (6) the Rosia Montana gold and silver mine in Romania, and (7) the Tambogrande gold, silver, copper and zinc mine in Peru. EDC has recently adopted a policy on disclosure, in part due to the controversy over its association with the Three Gorges Dam in China. However, the authors argue that the disclosure policy has had little impact as the above mentioned case studies indicate that there are serious environmental, social and human rights issues that have not been addressed. This report presents the authors' recommendations regarding: individual transaction reporting; environmental and social reporting; treatment of confidential information; accountability; retroactive disclosure; and access to information. 233 refs., 17 figs., 3 appendices

  5. Seven deadly secrets : what the Export Development Canada does not want you to know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coumans, C.; Drost, N.; Glynn, T.; Quevillon, M.; Roth, S.; Tricarico, A.

    2003-01-01

    Export Development Canada (EDC) is a financial institution, owned by the Canadian government, which lends money to thousands of Canadian companies interested in international business opportunities. This report describes 7 projects that are being pursued by Canadian companies that will have negative impact on the environment and local communities. The projects include: (1) the Alumysa aluminum smelter in Chile, (2) the Cernavoda nuclear reactor in Romania, (3) the Goro nickel mine in Kanaky - New Caledonia, (4) the Inco nickel mine in Indonesia, (5) the OCP pipeline in Ecuador, (6) the Rosia Montana gold and silver mine in Romania, and (7) the Tambogrande gold, silver, copper and zinc mine in Peru. EDC has recently adopted a policy on disclosure, in part due to the controversy over its association with the Three Gorges Dam in China. However, the authors argue that the disclosure policy has had little impact as the above mentioned case studies indicate that there are serious environmental, social and human rights issues that have not been addressed. This report presents the authors' recommendations regarding: individual transaction reporting; environmental and social reporting; treatment of confidential information; accountability; retroactive disclosure; and access to information. 233 refs., 17 figs., 3 appendices.

  6. Long-term exports and use of interconnections: Development plan 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The orientations, objectives, and strategies proposed for long-term exports of electricity from Quebec are presented, as well as the use of interconnections between Hydro-Quebec and northeastern US utilities. A recent historical overview shows that after a period of exporting large amounts of surplus energy in the late 1980s, most export sales are of firm power and energy. Export commitments signed for 1993-2000 amount to total exports of 11-14 TWh per year with revenues generated to be at least $4 billion. Hydro-Quebec originally had an export strategy with a target of 3,500 MW of firm power and energy exports by the year 2000. An economic recession, lower demand for power in the USA, new planning policies at US utilities emphasizing maximum flexibility, and competition from other electricity providers have revised this estimate downward. Over the short and medium term, neighboring US utilities will experience surpluses in both capacity and energy, and additional requirements indicated by their demand forecasts only appear after the year 2000. The situation is similar for neighboring Canadian utilities. In the long term, Hydro-Quebec's objective is to meet 15-20% of new requirements on neighboring US systems. New agreements could represent 1,500 MW by the year 2004, or ca 8.5 TWh/y. Hydro-Quebec also wants to be recognized as an active partner in the market for short-term transactions and to maximize use of its generation and interconnection facilities. The utility will examine transactions such as guaranteeing reserve capacity, energy banking, wheeling service, and pooling of generating capacities in order to offer the products best suited to customer needs. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Lower permian reef-bank bodies’ characterization in the pre-caspian basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Yankun; Yin, Jiquan; Luo, Man; Liang, Shuang

    2018-02-01

    Reef-bank reservoir is one of the targets for exploration of marine carbonate rocks in the Pre-Caspian Basin. Within this basin, the reef-bank bodies were primarily developed in the subsalt Devonian-Lower Permian formations, and are dominated by carbonate platform interior and margin reef-banks. The Lower Permian reef-bank present in the eastern part of the basin is considered prospective. This article provides a sequence and sedimentary facies study utilizing drilling and other data, as well as an analysis and identification of the Lower Permian reef-bank features along the eastern margin of the Pre-Caspian Basin using sub-volume coherence and seismic inversion techniques. The results indicate that the sub-volume coherence technique gives a better reflection of lateral distribution of reefs, and the seismic inversion impedance enables the identification of reef bodies’ development phases in the vertical direction, since AI (impedance) is petrophysically considered a tool for distinguishing the reef limestone and the clastic rocks within the formation (limestone exhibits a relatively high impedance than clastic rock). With this method, the existence of multiple phases of the Lower Permian reef-bank bodies along the eastern margin of the Pre-Caspian Basin has been confirmed. These reef-bank bodies are considered good subsalt exploration targets due to their lateral connectivity from south to north, large distribution range and large scale.

  8. New data on OSL dating of Early Khalynian deposits of Northern Caspian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychev, Nikita; Yanina, Tamara; Svitoch, Alexander; Kurbanov, Redzhep; Badyukova, Ekaterina

    2016-04-01

    Ponto-Caspian region is the key region the study of which can provide information about the paleogeographic history of the central Eurasia, particularly revealing the history of the East European Plain, the Caucasus and Central Asia. However, despite the long history of the study, today there is no accepted general stratigraphic scheme of the Caspian Sea. One of the most interesting and important stages of Late Pleistocene history of Caspian is Khalynian transgression which is divided into two major phases: early and ate. In the Caspian lowland Lower Khalynian stage are represented by a unique type of deposit - "chocolate clays". A distinctive feature of these sediments is widely distributed among Lower Khalynian deposits of Northern Caspian and the Volga region. All clay deposits are confined to the diverse origins of depression before-Khalynian relief. Chocolate clays formation consists of facies: mono-clay (typological), layered, sand- and silty-clay (Svitoch, Yanina, 1997). Determining the age of chocolate clays by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in our view will allow bettering the understanding of their genesis. Age of chocolate clays of Lower Volga was widely dated using the radiocarbon. However, the existing chronology is controversial, raises a number of issues, primarily due to the material of which are used for dating - thin shells of Caspian mollusks of the Didacna Eichw. genus, which are characterized by a significant isotopic exchange with the enclosing sediments (Arslanov, 2015). Lower Volga region is characterized by very complex geological structure of the Late Pleistocene deposits (alternating continental aeolian, alluvial and slope sediments with marine Caspian deposits of different age). There are many conflicting opinions, not only with respect to paleogeographic features of the area, but also to its precise chronology. The differences in opinion over the age of the individual stages of development of the Caspian Sea (transgressions and

  9. New prospects in the political economy of inner-Caspian hydrocarbons and western energy corridor through Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgin, Mert

    2007-01-01

    This paper makes a new conceptualization on Caspian energy system and the transit routes that pass through Turkey. Firstly, it puts forward the term of 'inner-Caspian', comprising Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. Secondly, it identifies sub-systems of 'western energy corridor through Turkey' (WECT) by diversifying: (1) 'WECT inner-Caspian', which includes hydrocarbon transportation from Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan; (2) 'WECT Russia', which is currently composed of Blue Stream gas pipeline and oil transportation by tankers through Turkish straits; and (3) 'WECT Middle East', which refers to Iranian, Iraqi and Egyptian hydrocarbons. Thirdly, this paper makes a comparative analysis on WECT systems through selected economic (reserves, supply/demand, production and transportation costs), geo-political (e.g. moves of the concerned actors), political (e.g. recent developments in government structures) and security (especially in terms of transport) indicators which bring out that 'it is more reasonable for the EU to first embrace WECT inner-Caspian, then develop WECT Middle-East in order to diversify its energy supply'

  10. Problems of radio monitoring in the Caspian region and methodology of their solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyev, Ch.; Aliyeva, S.; Zolotovitskaya, T.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The Caspian region occupies a special geographic position between the East and the West. It is situated in the seismoactive zone. The region is rich in reserves of hydrocarbon raw materials and is crossed by several oil-pipelines. In compliance with requirements of high-developed industry a great many ionizing sources are being brought there. Sometimes they are building materials contaminated by radionuclides and probably food-stuff and clothes. Cargo with radioactive matters are being transited though the Caspian region. Moreover, there exist radon-hazardous zones in the region which become especially excited during earthquakes. System analysis allowed determining main problems of radionuclide monitoring in the Caspian region: radionuclide contamination of the environment associated with production and refinement of oil; environmental contamination by radium while extracting iodine; radiometric monitoring along routes of oil-gas pipelines; uncontrolled utilization of ionizing radiation sources, their imu importation of building materials, contaminated by radionuclides; transit of radioactive matters though the territory; radon-hazardous zones. Radon-contamination of dwelling during calm and during seismically active periods. Given above are main ways of the solution of this problem

  11. Use of GIS and Remote Sensing for Estimation of the Desertification of Northern Caspian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabanov Dmitriy Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Northern Caspian Region is a part of the territory of Russia. On the territory of the Northern Caspian Region arid and semi-arid landscapes exist and are used as pastures for ages. Mining, construction, installation and operation of communications, cultivation of land make significant impact to the environmental change of this territory. Desertification is the most typical respond to irrational environmental impact for the arid areas, and assessment of the current status and trends of desertification of the territory are necessary to determine the plans for the development and environment restoration missions. Four scenes from Landsat-8 (OLI, June 2014 have been processed via ENVI software. Top of the surface reflectance have been calculated, supervised and classified using ROI based on ground truth data. Based on the remote sensing data area of desertification was estimated and created a map “Desertification of the Northern Caspian Region.” The obtained data are preliminary and require further clarification, including verification by ground truth and further research.

  12. Empirical Studies Development Of Creative Industry Its Contribution To Make-Up Of Product Orientation Exporting In Denpasar-Bali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryathi, W.; Gede, I. G. K.

    2018-01-01

    The puIDRose of this study are : 1) to study the model of development of creative industries which export-oriented in Denpasar 2) to examine the main problems and constraints faced by creative industries 3) to know the increasing of product export in Denpasar.The number of samples are 15 creatives industries such as sub-sector of handicraft, fashion and culinary. Sampling technique used cluster and puIDRosive sampling. Data collection by interview, observation, literature study and questioner. Data analysis using qualitative and quantitative description. The results of this study explain: The model development of creative industry in Denpasar City basically consist of three phases that is : development input, development process and development output. The problems and business constraints in creative industries about skill and salary of human resources, capital of financial, promotion of marketing, raw material of resources, technology and modern administration of production. From the product export showed that woods were hight one of crafting sub sector, textiles were hight one of fashion sub sector, tuna fish were hight one of culinary sub sector.

  13. Caspian Sea Environmental Security Game: 16-17 November 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Further, Iran has developed export products based on fish protein concentrate (FPC) targeted at a far east market in Japan and China (Shojaei 1998). At...a major dietary change program involving a shift to fish as a protein source, and an export product-generating program, with several foreign...Fishes 48: 209-219. Khrushchev, S. 1997. Caviar Will Go the Way of Dinosaur Eggs. In Asia Inc. Ltd. Available online: http://www.asia-inc.com:80

  14. C. elegans MRP-5 Exports Vitamin B12 from Mother to Offspring to Support Embryonic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Huimin; Ponomarova, Olga; Giese, Gabrielle E; Walhout, Albertha J M

    2018-03-20

    Vitamin B12 functions as a cofactor for methionine synthase to produce the anabolic methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and for methylmalonyl-CoA mutase to catabolize the short-chain fatty acid propionate. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, maternally supplied vitamin B12 is required for the development of offspring. However, the mechanism for exporting vitamin B12 from the mother to the offspring is not yet known. Here, we use RNAi of more than 200 transporters with a vitamin B12-sensor transgene to identify the ABC transporter MRP-5 as a candidate vitamin B12 exporter. We show that the injection of vitamin B12 into the gonad of mrp-5 deficient mothers rescues embryonic lethality in the offspring. Altogether, our findings identify a maternal mechanism for the transit of an essential vitamin to support the development of the next generation. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Strategic plan for the development of core technologies for the Korean advanced nuclear power reactor for export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Joo Hyun; Cho, Young Ho

    2010-01-01

    With the soaring oil price and worsening global warming, nuclear power has attracted considerable attention on a global scale and a new large market of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is expected. The Korean government aims to export up to 10 NPPs by 2012, based on the successful export of 2 NPPs to the UAE in 2009. It is also going to develop a follow-up model of the Advanced Power Reactor (APR) 1400, and join the world's NPP market under the banner of Korea's original reactor type. For this, it promulgated the strategic plan, NuTech 2012, a technology development plan intended for the early acquisition of core technologies for the Korean advanced NPP design and domestic production of the main components in NPP. This paper introduces the strategic plan of NuTech 2012. (orig.)

  16. The development and projection of exports of selected agricultural and alimentary commodities from the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents partial results of a statistical analysis of export indicators of selected agricultural and alimentary categories of products from the Czech Republic according to countries in a reference period 1993−2002. The analysis includes short-run prediction based on applied modes of developmental tendencies of assessed phenomena.

  17. The determinants of export performance in developing countries : the case of Indonesian manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we analyse export behaviour of Indonesian companies using a unique database covering all manufacturing firms active in 1995. We test a range of determinants, pointed out by the literature, separately for 28 industries at the three-digit level. Furthermore, the Pavitt taxonomy is

  18. Iran, a gas exporter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the gas sector has not allowed, up to now, Iran to become one of the main gas actors, whether it is on the regional or international market. This under-development of the gas sector finds expression, each winter, through the Iranian incapability to satisfy its domestic demand as well as its exportation commitments to Turkey or Armenia. In this study, the author tries to examine the origins of Iranian difficulties to increase its gas production and to abide by its commitments to export gas to other countries. The possibility of gas exportation from Iran to the European Union is also discussed

  19. Hydrology and water resources in Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi Moghaddam, Kourosh

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation is the main driver of the water balance variability of the water over space and time, and changes in precipitation have very important implications for hydrology and water resources. Variations in precipitation over daily, seasonal, annual, and decadal time scales influence hydrological variability over time in a catchment. Flood frequency is affected by changes in the year-to-year variability in precipitation and by changes in short-term rainfall properties. Desiccation of the Caspian Sea is one of the world's most serious ecosystem catastrophes. The Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) caught under 10 m depth using bottom trawl net by research vessel during winter 2012, summer and winter 2013 and spring 2014 in east, central and west of southern parts of Caspian Sea, then, their diets were investigated. During 136 trawling in the aimed seasons, Persian sturgeon with 1 to 2 years old and 179.67 × 0.2 g (body weight) and 29.97 ± 0.4 cm (Total length) captured. Examination of stomach contents in the sturgeon specimens revealed that the food spectrum was composed of bony fishes (Neogobius sp., Atherina sp. and Clupeonella delicatula), invertebrates belonging to the family Ampharetidae polychaeta worms including (Hypanai sp. and Nereis diversicolor), various crustaceans (Gammarus sp. and Paramysis sp.). Investigation on stomach contents of sturgeon Acipenser persicus caught under 10 m depth in 2012 to 2013 surveys showed that there is significant difference in the consumed food. The most food diversity have been observed in winter 2013, also Polychaeta is the primary consumed food and crustacean is the secondary one (P > 0.05), no new types of food (such as bony fishes or benthics) have been observed on food chain of Acipenser persicus and shows no significant difference (P > 0.05).

  20. Investigating the effect of ecommerce on export development of rose water and essences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nataghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There are some issues in marketing, supply and after-sales services for customers in global markets for production of rose water and essences extracts. Despite the fact that the products are genuine, there is a downward trend for the production of rose water and essences extracts in recent years. The present study aims to evaluate the identified structural barriers affecting exports of rose water and essences of Kashan to United Arabic Emirates. The population consisted of 77 managers of exporter companies in Kashan. Self-made questionnaire approved by supervisor to be valid and reliable, were distributed. The study tried to deliver a model for barriers to e-commerce in the context of Iran's rose water and essences extracts Export by examining different models of and studied in the field of electronic commerce and the application and advantages of systems based on it. The study also tried to identify current obstacles in the way of electronic commerce in export of rose water and essences extracts by using the questionnaire as an indicator in five-point Likert scale. There were three factors associated with the proposed model. Barriers to electronic commerce in export of rose water and essences extracts were determined in the order of priority as follows: 1 Problems and obstacles related to information infrastructure, 2 problems related to legislative, legal and secure infrastructure, 3 problems and obstacles to human, educational, cultural and behavioral infrastructure, 4 problems related to infrastructure of customs, trade and taxation, 5 internet problem, 6 Problems related to technical and hardware infrastructure, 7 Problems related to financial and software infrastructure.

  1. The geopolitics of natural gas. The countries bordering the Caspian viewed as new sources of supply in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudry, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Caspian region could constitute an additional source of supply of natural gas for Europe, in addition to the imports currently obtained from Northern Europe (Norway) North-Eastern Europe (North Russia) and from the South (Algeria and Libya). Although the producer nations concerned, (Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Iran), have expressed a wish to export their gas to Europe, the means of getting this gas to the end-destination are not yet in place and certain geopolitical factors will have an influence when it comes to investment in infrastructure and transportation contracts. The disagreements concerning the status of the Caspian Sea, something which has been argued over since the independence gained by the republics of the former Soviet Union, has created a climate which is not particularly favourable to multilateral agreements, and makes it highly unlikely that Turkmenistan will be able to export its gas to Europe via Azerbaijan, without passing via Russia. The most likely scenario is that Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan will remain within Russia's orbit, with the latter creating a common market for gas also including the Ukraine and Belarus. For European buyers, purchasing gas in Turkmenistan actually means buying the gas in Russia, which will give Russia increasing negotiating power vis-a-vis Europe. Iran also has ambitions to export gas to Europe, and should gradually manage this despite the slow pace of political and industrial processes. The key problem for Iran will be reaching an agreement with Turkey in order to be able to sell its gas to Europe under satisfactory conditions. It should be possible to export Azeri gas to Europe thanks to a gas pipeline running alongside the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline which is currently under construction. As a result, Azerbaijan is gradually continuing with its process of emancipation from Russia and turning directly towards Turkey and Europe. Turkey should become a key country for the transportation of gas from

  2. Proceedings of the wind energy industry conference : develop, innovate, export : held in conjunction with Quebec's first wind energy industry gala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This conference was dedicated to the wind energy industry and business opportunities in Quebec, the rest of Canada and abroad. It was held in conjunction with Quebec's first wind energy industry gala which highlighted the organizations and individuals that have made outstanding contributions to the wind power sector in Quebec over the past three years. The entire conference focused on current and future requests for proposals in Quebec, innovation, and exports. Some fifteen reputed speakers shared their knowledge and experience regarding technological development and technical support available in Quebec. It was intended to clarify current and future issues affecting the wind power industry and to build key relations with leading wind energy players. The sessions of the conference were entitled: the wind energy industry in Quebec and Canada; issues surrounding requests for proposals; the players involved in the request for proposals; visual impacts of wind farms; data transmission during wind farm construction; innovating to move ahead of the crowd; innovation in practice; exporting as a means of development; and, exports in practice. A tour of the Baie-des-Sable wind farm was also provided. The conference featured 24 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  3. Markups and Exporting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a method to estimate markups using plant-level production data. Our approach relies on cost minimizing producers and the existence of at least one variable input of production. The suggested empirical framework relies on the estimation of a production function and provides...... estimates of plant- level markups without specifying how firms compete in the product market. We rely on our method to explore the relationship be- tween markups and export behavior. We find that markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity; that exporters charge......, on average, higher markups and that markups increase upon export entry....

  4. Effects of Poland’s Pro‑Export Policy Implementation in the Context of the Plan for Responsible Development – a Preliminary Comparative Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wysokińska Zofia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of a preliminary assessment of Poland’s export expansion policy in relation to the export of commodities, which is a result of the Government’s Plan for Responsible Development, in the context of existing barriers and the external and internal conditions reported by small and medium‑sized enterprises sector (SMEs. In the latest ranking of its competitive position in the global market for the period 2016-2017, Poland ranked 36th in the world. It should also be stressed that in this most recent world ranking Poland held the 16th position among EU Member States. A positive phenomenon in relation to Poland’s foreign trade in 2016, as compared to previous years, was that the value of export exceeded import, which allowed for a turnover surplus of nearly EUR 4.8 billion, i.e. two times higher than in 2015. In 2016 (and also in the first half of 2017 there was a favorable diversification of Polish export, demonstrating an increase in export to non‑EU markets of economically developed countries. After two years of relatively slow growth, export to this group of countries in 2016 increased by 5.6% (to EUR 12 billion, i.e. nearly 2.5 times faster than the total export. Despite the tariff‑free and quota‑free access to the single European market, there are still limits and barriers to the free movement of goods, and especially services. There are also many internal barriers in small and medium‑sized enterprises’ export to foreign markets, which limit their export expansion. Despite the gradual increase in export observed in recent years, the internationalization of non‑Polish enterprises is still much lower than in Western European countries. As a result, the share of Polish SMEs in the EU market is one third smaller than the EU average.

  5. Quebec's electricity exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averyt, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987 Hydro-Quebec exported over 16 TWh to New England and New York and it plans to export 3,500 MW of firm power, not interruptible, by the early 2000s. It estimates that the northeast US market has an additional potential of 9,000 MW. The export market has become more difficult than anticipated. The federal/state regulatory framework for electricity generation was changing - it encouraged small scale generation, cogeneration and conservation which decreased demand. Demand for power imports has also been influenced by pricing judgements and avoided costs. Environmental concerns and Native protest have become increasingly important factors affecting future export sales and hence the proposed James Bay developments. Regulatory changes affecting supply and pricing, concerns about continental impacts, about further development of electrical sources together with Native requirements will further complicate the Quebec-US electricity trade. (author)

  6. The Iranian connection: the geo-economics of exporting Central Asian energy via Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    The prospect of exporting Caspian Sea crude oil production via a transit route through Iran is discussed. There are many political and economic barriers that are preventing the establishment of a transit route to bring the landlocked hydrocarbon resources of Azerbaijan and Central Asia to world oil markets. A route via Iran is most appealing because of the existing system of pipelines and export facilities already in place there, plus its close geographic location to Central Asia. Close to 2 MMb/d of production from the Caspian region could be accommodated at under $1.50/barrel transit costs. However, the opposition from the United States and Israel to any Iranian connection for the Caspian Sea production is well documented. The Russians, too, are opposed to any export option for Caucasian or Central Asian crude production that would bypass Russia because it would reduce its economic leverage over the new republics. It is widely believed that export through Iran would be more beneficial to the individual state governments by providing them with greater net well head revenues, as well as in reinforcing their independence at the expense of the central government in Moscow

  7. The Effect of Export Tax on Indonesia’s Cocoa Export Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Rifin, Amzul; Nauly, Dahlia

    2013-01-01

    The government of Indonesia implemented an export tax policy on cocoa beans since April 2010 in order to develop cocoa processing industry. The objective of this article is to analyze the effect of export tax on Indonesia’s cocoa export competitiveness. The results indicate that with the implementation of export tax, cocoa export product composition shift from cocoa beans to processed cocoa products. On the other hand, Indonesia’s cocoa export growth is lower than the growth of cocoa world de...

  8. Nuclear export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    One approach to describing the multilateral nuclear export controls is to do it according to time. This led to an interesting discovery, i.e. multilateral export controls have been defined by four distinct periods, the forst two of abut five years each, the second two about twice as long. These time periods have another interesting property. The two suppliers groups, which we will discuss in detail, have alternated in dominance over nearly thirty years. After describing the historical developments, the status of the present situation in multilateral nuclear export controls is examined, with the strengths and weaknesses. The future of multilateral nuclear export controls and possible ways that might be taken are considered

  9. Scenario analysis of the impacts of socioeconomic development on phosphorous export and loading from the Dongting Lake watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ying; Chen, Weiping; Liao, Yuehua; Luo, Yueping

    2017-12-01

    Socioeconomic development in lake watersheds is closely related with lake nutrient pollution. As the second largest freshwater lake in China, the Dongting Lake has been experiencing an increase in nutrient loading and a growing risk of eutrophication. This study aimed to reveal the likely impacts of the socioeconomic development of the Dongting Lake watershed on the phosphorous pollution in the lake. We estimated the contributions from different sources and sub-watersheds to the total phosphorous (TP) export and loading from the Dongting Lake watershed under two most likely socioeconomic development scenarios. Moreover, we predicted the likely permissible and actual TP loadings to the Dongting Lake. Under both two scenarios, three secondary sub-watersheds-the upper and lower reaches of the Xiang River watershed and the Dongting Lake Area-are expected to dominate the contribution to the TP export from the Dongting Lake watershed in 2020. Three primary sub-watersheds-the Dongting Lake Area, the Xiang River, and the Yuan River watersheds-are predicted to be the major contributors to the TP loading from the entire watershed. The two scenarios are expected to have a slight difference in TP export and lake TP loading. Livestock husbandry is expected to be the predominant anthropogenic TP source in each of the sub-watersheds under both scenarios. Compared to 2010, permissible TP loading is not expected to increase but actual TP loading is predicted to grow significantly in 2020. Our study provides methodologies to identify the key sources and regions of lake nutrient loading from watersheds with complex socioeconomic context, and to reveal the potential influences of socioeconomic development on nutrient pollution in lake watersheds.

  10. Canada's reactor exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A brief sketch of the development of Canada's nuclear exports is presented and some of the factors which influence the ability to export reactors have been identified. The potential market for CANDUs is small and will develop slowly. The competition will be tough. There are few good prospects for immediate export orders in the next two or three years. Nonetheless there are reasonable opportunities for CANDU exports, especially in the mid-to-late 1980s. Such sales could be of great benefit to Canada and could do much to sustain the domestic nuclear industry. Apart from its excellent economic and technical performance, the main attraction of the CANDU seems to be the autonomy it confers on purchasing countries, the effectiveness with which the associated technology can be transferred, and the diversification it offers to countries which wish to reduce their dependence on the major industrial suppliers. Each sales opportunity is unique, and marketing strategy will have to be tailored to the customer's needs. Over the next decade, the factors susceptible to Canadian government action which are most likely to influence CANDU exports will be the political commitment of the government to those reactor exports, the performance established by the four 600 MWe CANDUs now nearing completion, the continuing successful operation of the nuclear program in Ontario, and the co-ordination of the different components of Canada's nuclear program (AECL, nuclear industry, utilities, and government) in putting forth a coherent marketing effort and following through with effective project management

  11. An exporter's checklist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englot, P.

    1995-01-01

    The benefits of exporting goods and services was discussed. The article listed a summary of issues which could be referred to to assist with the development of an effective plan to export. Some issues to consider were: (1) analysis of the export market, such as political and cultural issues, local legislation, competition, infrastructure, transportation and logistics, (2) internal issues, such as people, equipment, capital, time, understanding of the risks, relocation and identification of all costs, (3) sources of support such as banks, government and transporters, (4) development of a solid payment plan. It was concluded that exporting was not for the faint-hearted. It can be expensive, and time consuming, however, if approached in the right spirit it could be highly rewarding. As a rule of thumb, the probability of success was said to be directly related to the amount of effort put into the preparatory phase. Potential exporters were reminded of the very strong infrastructure that exists in Canada to promote and support export initiatives, including all levels of government, financial institutions, freight forwarders and innumerable consultant/specialists

  12. Indonesian coal export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millsteed, Ch.; Jolly, L.; Stuart, R.

    1993-01-01

    Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  13. Caspian energy and legal disputes: prospects for settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogutcu, Mehmet

    2003-07-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of the Caspian energy prospects and politics on the global scene with a particular emphasis on the legal disputes and their impact on business operations. It also elaborates on the investment environment, the geopolitical stakes and country positions for each key player as they relate to the legal arguments that are randomly advanced according to the perceived national interests. Turkey position as a consumer, transit country and security provider for Caspian energy shipments in relation to other major players active in the region is also of special interest to the paper. The paper puts forth a series of ideas for reaching a settlement of the disputes in the Caspian region. (author)

  14. Caspian energy and legal disputes: prospects for settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogutcu, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of the Caspian energy prospects and politics on the global scene with a particular emphasis on the legal disputes and their impact on business operations. It also elaborates on the investment environment, the geopolitical stakes and country positions for each key player as they relate to the legal arguments that are randomly advanced according to the perceived national interests. Turkey position as a consumer, transit country and security provider for Caspian energy shipments in relation to other major players active in the region is also of special interest to the paper. The paper puts forth a series of ideas for reaching a settlement of the disputes in the Caspian region. (author)

  15. An Analysis of the Dynamic Effect of China's E-commerce Development on Export: Evidences from the Countries Involved in the Belt and Road Initiative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tongsheng; YANG Ying; CHEN Ya

    2017-01-01

    E-commerce is one of the important contents of "Internet+".With the entropy method,this paper measures the development level of China's E-commerce and analyzes the mechanism of its impact on export trade.Based on the data of China's exports to 60 countries involved in the Belt and Road Initiative from 1999 to 2014 and adopting the panel vector auto-regression model,it tries to validate the dynamic effect of E-commerce development on export.The results show that China's E-commerce development is presenting a continuously rising momentum,which has a positive impact on the one phase lag export and its binary margins,the impact on the intensive margin is greater than that on the expansion margin.In the second phase,it has a negative impact on the binary margins,but in other times,it has only positive impacts.Its contribution to the changes of export value is the biggest,followed by the changes of the intensive margin,and its contribution to the changes of expansion margin is the least.Therefore,to strive to develop E-commerce and effectively control its risks is an important measure to promote exports and its binary margins.

  16. Comparative assessment of geo dynamics processes of oil and gas production areas at the west and east boards of the south-Caspian depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhardecki, A.V; Zhukov, V.S; Poloudin, G.A

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Alpine geosynclinals s belt including fold mountains up Carpathian and Crimea Mountainous to Copetdag and Pamirs divided to two unequal parts by the South-Caspian depression.Ashgabadian depression at the east side and Kyrian depression extends and get deeper at the east direction and transforms to South-Caspian depression. Large in number of oil and gas deposits and fields are situated at the areas of this depressions on the west and east boards of the South Caspian. They have a many common characteristics. They are:1.Anticline highs are form tectonic structure like a line. Lines was branching, anticline highs are shingling.2.Red color reservoir of the depression at the east board and production reservoir at the west board of the depression are the main oil and gas containing reservoirs and are stratigraphic analogy of the middle Pliocene age.3.Both side of the depression are areas of the diapiric folding and mud volcanic activity. 4.The intensive seismic activity.5 Marine gryphons, island and sandbank sometime appear and disappear at the littoral area. 6.The Caspian Sea level has quick changes at the geological history and present time.Thus, it is possible to mark two main factors of activation of the geo dynamic processes. First deformation terrestrial surface, and second -induced seismic activity. Comparing above mentioned data on western and east it is visible to boards of the South-Caspian hollow, that for want of availability of the large number identical tectonic of features there are essential distinctions in a character of induced geo dynamic activity. In the long term, in accordance with me development of oil deposits, it is possible to expect manifestation of both factors of activation of geo dynamic processes on both boards of the South-Caspian hollow

  17. [IMPACT OF CASPIAN SEA LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS ON THE EPIZOOTIC ACTIVITY OF THE CASPIAN SANDY NATURAL PLAGUE FOCUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, N V; Udovikov, A I; Eroshenko, G A; Karavaeva, T B; Yakovlev, S A; Porshakov, A M; Zenkevich, E S; Kutyrev, V V

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that in 1923-2014 the sharp aggravations of the epizootic situation of plague in the area of its Caspian sandy natural focus after long interepizootic periods are in time with the ups of the Caspian Sea in the extrema of 11-year solar cycles. There were cases of multiple manifestations of plague in the same areas in the epizootic cycles of 1946-1954, 1979-1996, 2001, and 2013-2014. The paper considers the possible role of amebae of the genus Acanthamoeba and nematodes, the representatives of the orders Rhabditida and Tylenchida in the microfocal pattern of plague manifestations.

  18. Developing innovative training protocol for export personnel in the fashion industries through “Extro Skills” project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, M.; Avădanei, M. L.; Ciobanu, L.; Loghin, M. C.; Ionesi, D. S.; Loghin, E.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the objectives, the planned outputs and the innovative aspects of the project entitled “Developing new skills for the extroversion specializations of fashion industry in Europe”, acronym EXTRO SKILLS, which is co-financed by the European Commission under the Erasmus+ Programme, Key Action 2 - Strategic Partnerships. This is a 30 months project and started on December 1-st, 2015. The project aims to bridge the gap between fashion industries and lack of specific expertise and experts of SMEs in these industries. Fashion industries require a more qualified workforce and, therefore, the availability of adequately skilled workers and trained and qualified personnel for their export and fashion marketing departments has become one of the major issues. The new curricula that will be developed in the project will offer essential transversal skills for a quick and qualified response to the international trade and market demands and for enhancing the extroversion and the competitiveness of the fashion industry. The learning content will be tailored to the needs of export and fashion marketing personnel. The constitution of the partnership was based on the cooperation between education and employment in order to better achieve the objectives of the project. The project consortium includes six partners from five countries (Greece, Belgium, Romania, Spain and UK).

  19. Export Variety and Country Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Feenstra, Robert; Looi Kee, Hiau

    2004-01-01

    The authors study the link between export product variety and country productivity based on data from 34 industrial and developing countries, from 1982 to 1997. They measure export product variety by the share of U.S. imports on the set of goods exported by each sampled country relative to the world. It is a theoretically sound index which is consistent with within-country GDP maximization...

  20. Export regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Australia is a major uranium supplier. Uranium is exported under conditions laid down to avoid any nuclear proliferation. On 24 May 1977 the Prime Minister had stated the main elements of Australian policy: the strengthening of the system of international safeguards and the selection of importing countries. (Non-nuclear weapon states must be Contracting Parties to the NPT. Nuclear weapon states must undertake not to use Australian uranium for this purpose). Australia retains property of the uranium up to the UF 6 stage (uranium hexafluoride) in the fuel cycle; it reserves the right to stop any export if the importing country no longer complies with AIEA Safeguards. Any transfer to a third country, any irradiated fuel reprocessing, requires Australia's prior agreement. Finally, importing countries must satisfy physical protection conditions. (NEA) [fr

  1. ANALYSIS OF TRENDS AND PROSPECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF EXPORT AND IMPORT OF GOODS AND SERVICES BY ENTERPRISES OF UKRAINE AT THE REGIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Kushniruk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available International economic relations at the level of export and import of goods and services have a significant impact on the development of the economy of each country. At the same time, the export of goods and services by enterprises of Ukraine at the regional level plays an important role, which is a source of significant inflow of foreign exchange funds, ensuring financial stability and investment attractiveness. The subject of the research is theoretical, methodological, and practical aspects of the development of foreign economic activity by enterprises of Ukraine at the regional level. The methodological basis of the study is the dialectical method of cognition and the basics provisions of economic science. The use of the system approach allowed considering the object and subject of research as a system and element of the general economic system. In the process of research, a number of methods are used, such as: abstract-logical, economic-statistical, monographic, and graphic. The purpose of the study is to analyse trends and prospects for the export and import of goods and services by enterprises of Ukraine at the regional level. The stated purpose led to the following tasks: conducting research on the volumes of export and import trade in goods and services; identification of factors influencing foreign trade; definition of geographical changes in the sphere of foreign trade and the coefficient of export coverage by import; substantiation of cooperation with foreign partners on a toll basis. According to the results of the research, the following conclusions are obtained: trends and prospects of the export and import of goods and services are investigated; it is found that the low competitiveness of national industrial products, the crisis financial situation of most industrial enterprises, the lack of development of national certification systems and quality control of export goods, the low world rating of Ukraine’s reliability for loans

  2. Evaluation of Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) and snowy plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus) nesting on modified islands at the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, California—2016 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, C. Alex; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Strong, Cheryl; Trachtenbarg, David; Shore, Crystal A.

    2017-05-08

    Executive SummaryIn order to address the 2008/10 and Supplemental 2014 NOAA Fisheries Biological Opinion for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) developed and have begun implementation of Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) management plans. This implementation includes redistribution of the Caspian terns in the Columbia River estuary and the mid-Columbia River region to reduce predation on salmonids listed under the Endangered Species Act. Key elements of the plans include (1) reducing nesting habitat for Caspian terns in the Columbia River estuary and the mid-Columbia River region, and (2) creating or modifying nesting habitat at alternative sites within the Caspian tern breeding range. USACE and Reclamation developed Caspian tern nesting habitat at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge (DENWR), California, prior to the 2015 nesting season. Furthermore, to reduce or eliminate potential conflicts between nesting Caspian terns and threatened western snowy plovers (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus), nesting habitat for snowy plovers also was developed. Seven recently constructed islands within two managed ponds (Ponds A16 and SF2) of DENWR were modified to provide habitat attractive to nesting Caspian terns (5 islands) and snowy plovers (2 islands). These 7 islands were a subset of 46 islands recently constructed in Ponds A16 and SF2 to provide waterbird nesting habitat as part of the South Bay Salt Pond (SBSP) Restoration Project.We used social attraction methods (decoys and electronic call systems) to attract Caspian terns and snowy plovers to these seven modified islands, and conducted surveys between March and September of 2015 and 2016 to evaluate nest numbers, nest density, and productivity. Results from the 2015 nesting season, the first year of the study, indicated that island modifications and social

  3. The international project of radiation and hydrochemical investigation and monitoring of general Caspian rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passell, H.D.; Barber, D.S.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K; Solodukhin, V.P.; Chernykh, E.E.; Arutyunyan, R.V.; Valyaev, A.N.; Kadik, A.A.; Stepanetts, O.V; Vernadsky, V.I.; Alizade, A.A.; Gutiev, I.S.; Mamedov, R.F.; Nadareishvili, K.S.; Chkhartishvili, A.G.; Tsitskishvili, M.S.; Chubaryan, E. V; Gevorgyan, R.G.; Puskyulyan, K.I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The scientific community of six countries (USA, Kazakhstan, Russia, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan) has developed the ecological project 'Joint International Researches and Creation of the General System of Radiation and Hydro-chemical Monitoring of Rivers of the Caspian Sea Basin.' The purpose of this project is to investigate and characterized contamination by radionuclides and toxic and chemically hazardous elements and create a valid system of radiation and hydro-chemical monitoring of the main river basins of the Caspian region: the Volga, Ural, Emba and Kura. The basins of these rivers cover large parts of Europe and Asia, including parts of Russia, West Kazakhstan and the South Caucasus and including territories of Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. The total area of the basins of these rivers exceeds combined area of such large European states as France, Spain and Germany, and comprises 1631 sq. km. All these rivers are the main life-supporting water arteries for the region's inhabitants, a population that comprises tens of millions of people Also, the outlets of these rivers determine the condition of the aquatic environment of the Caspian Sea. The ecological condition of the aquatic environment of all the rivers of the Caspian Sea is to a great extent due to contamination, the main components of which are anthropogenic radioactive elements, heavy metals and oil products. At present, information about contamination levels of these rivers is not known and is occasionally contradictory. In this connection there is an obvious need of qualified investigation of contamination levels and its character in the basins of these rivers and in creating a common monitoring system to assess the quality of the aquatic environment. The present project is devoted to this matter. 1. The project provides for the following main tasks: 1. Wide-ranging investigation of the level and character of contamination by radionuclides and toxic elements of the river basins

  4. Preliminary Study of Development of the Organization of Rare-Earth Exportation Countries (OREEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kamei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The largest two sectors emitting CO2 in the world are electricity generation and land-transportation. Therefore, nuclear power plays an important role in generating electricity with low CO2 emission. An important aspect needs to be considered to ensure environmental sustainability is nuclear non-proliferation and less amount of radioactive waste generated. Thus the use of "thorium" as nuclear fuel has received increasing interest because thorium produces little amount of plutonium and very little amount of long-lived minor actinide. However, thorium cannot be used immediately due to its lack of fissile isotope indispensable to start fission reaction. At the same time, electric vehicle and hybrid-vehicle become more popular as low-carbon automobiles. Rare-earth elements are indispensable for manufacturing these low-carbon automobiles. However the problem with rare-earth production is its radioactive by-product of "thorium". Since the largest potential of consuming thorium by nuclear power still needs several decades for commercializing, there becomes a discrepancy in consumption and production of thorium causing unused stockpile of thorium. Several countries have announced to supply rare-earth but this cannot be safely and economically done unless thorium problem is solved. In this paper, an international framework called the "OREEC: Organization of Rare-Earth Exportation Countries" is proposed as a solution to this issue. The OREEC has mainly three functions: (1 ThAX, which is a financial collecting method, (2 Th FREE label, which is certification of adequate treatment of thorium and (3 The Bank, which stores separated thorium.

  5. Development of post-harvest protocol of okra for export marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhall, R K; Sharma, S R; Mahajan, B V C

    2014-08-01

    The study was carried out on the harvesting and handling methods of okra with the objective to maintain the best quality of pods from harvesting to end consumer especially for export marketing. For that purpose okra cv. 'Punjab-8' pods were harvested with minimum handling (least injuries to the pubescence on the ridges of pod) and normal handling (no safety taken to prevent injuries on pods). Pods were precooled at 15 ± 1ºC, 90-95% RH; jumble packed in the CFB boxes of 2.0 Kg capacity and than stored at 8 ± 1ºC, 90-95% RH. The quality parameters of okra namely texture, chlorophyll content, physiological loss in weight, rotting percentage and general appearance were studied. The pods harvested with minimum handling and field packaging can retain their green colour, crisp texture (maximum force to puncture pod = 500.2 g) with minimum rotting (3.0%) and physiological loss in weight (15.8%) and good appearance upto 13 days of cold storage whereas normal handled pods can be stored upto 5 days at 8 ± 1ºC, 90-95% RH and thereafter lost their general appearance on the 7th day of storage and were discarded. Therefore, in order to maintain high quality of okra from harvesting to the final destination (consumer), the okra pods should be harvested with minimum handling followed by field packaging in CFB boxes.

  6. Oil price shocks: Sectoral and dynamic adjustments in a small-open developed and oil-exporting economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissou, Yazid

    2010-01-01

    The recent uptrend in oil prices represents both an opportunity and a challenge for small-open developed and oil-exporting countries. Using Canada as a study case and in contrast to most studies that use aggregate models, this paper employs a multi-sector, intertemporal general equilibrium model to provide perspectives on the sectoral, aggregate and dynamic adjustments of a sustained increase in oil prices. It highlights the transmission channels through which the rise in oil prices affects the domestic economy. The simulation results suggest that the shock would have positive aggregate impacts, but would also spur the reallocation of resources and would therefore induce disparities in sectoral adjustments. The suggested contraction in some industries could not however be attributed to a pure Dutch disease phenomenon because of, among other factors, the cost-push effect induced by the increase in oil prices.

  7. CURRENT STATE OF FISHERIES AND ASSESSMENT OF FISH STOCKS IN THE WESTERN MIDDLE OF THE CASPIAN SEA. PROSPECTS FOR THE USE OF THE FISH RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Abdusamadov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To aim is to assess stocks and the fisheries of aquatic biological resources in the western part of the middle Caspian Sea and perspectives for the use of their resource potential.Methods. On the basis of the literature sources and our own data on the fish inventory in the western part of the Middle Caspian, we discuss possible reasons for emerging environmental, economic and other problems in the use of biological resources.Results. The main negative factors are the large-scale poaching, resulting in a catastrophic reduction in stocks of sturgeon and other valuable fish species of the Caspian Sea, a natural penetration of alien organisms (Mnemiopsis and overfishing of some species. The potential danger is large-scale development of oil and gas fields in the Caspian Sea, which can lead to even worse situation for the biological resources of the sea.Conclusions. In order to preserve the biological resources of the sea it is necessary to create conditions for steadily developing fishing and fish processing enterprises, thus ensuring the satisfaction of the constant demand for fish products and an increase in the revenue base of the budget and the well-being of the Russian population.

  8. Fluctuations of Phytoplankton Community in the Coastal Waters of Caspian Sea in 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Siamak Bagheri; Mashhor Mansor; Marzieh Makaremi; Jalil Sabkara; W. O.W. Maznah; Alireza Mirzajani; Seyed H. Khodaparast; Hossein Negarestan; Azemat Ghandi; Akbar Khalilpour

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The Caspian Sea ecosystem has been suffered with many problems since 1980s. Aanthropogenic pollution from heavy metals, hydrocarbons, pesticides, changes in the quantity of nutrient inputs by rivers, are significant threats to biodiversity and biological resources such as plankton structure in the Caspian Sea. According to the significant of phytoplankton community in marine system. The state of the fluctuations of phytoplankton communities of the southwestern Caspian Sea w...

  9. Bio-geographic classification of the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendereski, F.; Vogt, M.; Payne, M. R.; Lachkar, Z.; Gruber, N.; Salmanmahiny, A.; Hosseini, S. A.

    2014-03-01

    Like other inland seas, the Caspian Sea (CS) has been influenced by climate change and anthropogenic disturbance during recent decades, yet the scientific understanding of this water body remains poor. In this study, an eco-geographical classification of the CS based on physical information derived from space and in-situ data is developed and tested against a set of biological observations. We used a two-step classification procedure, consisting of (i) a data reduction with self-organizing maps (SOMs) and (ii) a synthesis of the most relevant features into a reduced number of marine ecoregions using the Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering (HAC) method. From an initial set of 12 potential physical variables, 6 independent variables were selected for the classification algorithm, i.e., sea surface temperature (SST), bathymetry, sea ice, seasonal variation of sea surface salinity (DSSS), total suspended matter (TSM) and its seasonal variation (DTSM). The classification results reveal a robust separation between the northern and the middle/southern basins as well as a separation of the shallow near-shore waters from those off-shore. The observed patterns in ecoregions can be attributed to differences in climate and geochemical factors such as distance from river, water depth and currents. A comparison of the annual and monthly mean Chl a concentrations between the different ecoregions shows significant differences (Kruskal-Wallis rank test, P qualitative evaluation of differences in community composition based on recorded presence-absence patterns of 27 different species of plankton, fish and benthic invertebrate also confirms the relevance of the ecoregions as proxies for habitats with common biological characteristics.

  10. Some peculiarities of basin petroleum potential, mediterranean belt, in connection with estimating oil potential of large depths, south Caspian province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belonin, M.D.; Sobolev, V.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Some peculiarities of occuring and forming oil pools in the richest south Caspian province are considered in connection with the problems concerning the estimation of oil potential of large depths. On the data of A.A. Ali-zade (1981, 1985) and other researchers, in the direction of regional subsidence of sedimentary beds, gas saturation of fluids increases and oil pools change progressively into gas-oil and gas-condensate ones. The continental margins of a transitional stage between the synoceanic and final phases of developing a continent-ocean system are present in the Mediterranean belt including its west component in the Mexico-Caribbean region. Some new results of a chromatographic analysis of nonfractional oils were received. The indices of individual hydrocarbon composition are indicative of the presence of wide vertical hydrocarbon migration during forming multibedded offshore hydrocarbon fields in south Caspian. In the south Caspian offshore, the composition of oils found in the range between 4-6 km is in agreement with the composition of fluids of the main zone of oil generation. It suggests the generation of liquid hydrocarbons at depths exceeding 6.5 km.

  11. SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF PERSPECTIVE TRENDS IN ECOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RETRACTED ARTICLEAim. The main purpose of the ecological and biological research (EBR of the Caspian Sea is the information and technical support of decision-making to ensure the environmental management in the region taking into account the increase of anthropogenic impact and change in climatic conditions.Methods. As a basis, we have adopted the method of theoretical and mathematical generalization of a number of scientific papers and systematic analysis of the proposed solutions.Results. Analysis and mathematical processing of published literature sources has convincingly demonstrated the need for international cooperation to optimize the ecological and biological research. It has also confirmed the usefulness of the ecological and biological studies of the Caspian Sea in different directions, and the distribution of effort (cost between them requires coordinated management.Conclusion. It is shown that the data obtained by EBI have both rapid and long-term value. In the future, it is rational to develop suitable approaches to unified structuring of the EBR data, including their spatial and timing. An important task is to create a single interstate information space on the results of EBR using information and communication technologies.

  12. Caspian oil and Azerbaijan foreign policy: analyse of Azerbaijanese arguments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbanov, T.

    2005-03-01

    Since Azerbaijan's independence, He decided to use its natural resources for strengthening the bases of a new state and signed 21 massive oil contracts with 35 companies of 21 different countries. Our research aims to analyse the Azerbaijanis' arguments related to Caspian oil through its foreign policy, by economic, legal and geopolitical axes. Oil has a fundamental place in the country's economy, as it is Azerbaijan's Gross Product. The treaties of 1921 and 1940 do not regulate the question concerning the common use of the resources of the Caspian Sea. Therefore, it became urgent to define new status related to divide the sea by median line into national sectors according to the equidistance principles. As the oil is a 'political game' between foreign powers, Azerbaijan tries to take the benefice from this 'New great game' by transforming the country into a zone of cooperation. (author)

  13. US exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrage, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the past, present, and future of US coal exports. It is expected that in the 1990's, the following factors will be evident: Significant increases in coal production and port capacity in Australia and South Africa, but little in Canada; Potentially significant increase in coal production and port capacity in Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia; Continued movement away from subsidized indigenous coal production in Europe and Japan. A substantial growth in world coal trade; Stronger growth in energy demand in the 1990s than in the 1980s; Significantly fewer additions to nuclear generating capacity in the 1990s than in the 1980s; Reduced coal production in Eastern Europe from that of the 1980s; Greater caution will be exercised in putting in new coal production capacity

  14. Promoting International Energy Security. Volume 2: Turkey and the Caspian

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    production is reaching a plateau, and widespread concerns about climate change are leading to the retirement of coal-fired power plants and an increase...RUSSIA AUSTRIA ITALY HUNGARY SLOVAKIA ROMANIA SERBIA BULGARIA TURKEY UKRAINE Black Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea GREECE MOLDOVA BOSNIA MONTENEGRO ...Novorossiysk line), as well as energy infrastructure targets. Most recently, militants launched an unsuccessful assault on a hydroelectric power plant

  15. Late Quaternary chronology of paleo-climatic changes in Caspian Sea region based on Lower Volga sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanov, Redzhep; Yanina, Tamara; Murray, Andrew; Svitoch, Alexander; Tkach, Nikolai

    2017-04-01

    Lower Volga is a unique region for understanding the history of the Caspian Sea in the Pleistocene, its correlation of paleogeographic events with glacial-interglacial rhythms of the East European Plain and the global and regional climate changes. The reason is representativeness of Quaternary sections, their completeness, presence of both marine and subaerial sediments, paleontological richness of the materials and available for study. The purpose of this work is to reconstruct the paleogeographic events in the Late Pleistocene of the Lower Volga region on the basis of summarizing the study results for the Srednyaya Akhtuba reference section. Located near city of Volgograd, at Khvaynian plain natural outcrop of Srednyaya Akhtuba section, reveals in a series of exposures a unique to the region series of marine Caspian continental deposits with four levels of buried soil horizons and loess. The results were obtained during 2015 and 2016 complex field research with application of lithological, paleopedological, paleontological, paleocryological, OSL-dating, paleomagnetic methods, that allowed more fundamental approach to the chronological assessment of individual horizons. The structure of the Srednyaya Akhtuba reference section reflects a number of paleogeographic stages of development of the study area. The oldest phase (layers 22-19) is not characterized by OSL dating or faunal material. Based on the sequence of dated layers, we assume its Middle Pleistocene age (MIS-6 stage), corresponding to Moscow stage of the Dnieper glaciation of the East European Plain and the final stage of Early Khazarian transgressive era of Caspian sea. The next stage (layers 18-14), represented by three horizons of paleosols, refers to the first half of the Late Pleistocene (MIS 5). Epoch of soil formation, based on the results the OSL-dating, can be referred to the warm sub-stages (MIS 5c and 5a), with unstable climatically transitional phase from Mikulino (Eemian) interglacial to the

  16. The effects of oil shocks on government expenditures and government revenues nexus in Iran (as a developing oil-export based economy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Dizaji (Sajjad Faraji)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe main purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamic relationship between government revenues and government expenditures in Iran as a developing oil export based economy. Moreover, I want to know how government expenditures and revenues respond to oil price (revenue) shocks. I

  17. Development of Computer Aided Modelling Templates for Model Re-use in Chemical and Biochemical Process and Product Design: Importand export of models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Tolksdorf, Gregor; Fillinger, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    been established, in order to provide a wider range of modelling capabilities. Through this link, developed models can be exported/imported to/from other modelling-simulation software environments to allow model reusability in chemical and biochemical product and process design. The use of this link...

  18. Standards and Development : Perspectives from Kenya’s Horticultural Export Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Otieno (Gloria)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis examines perspectives on standards and development in Kenya’s horticulture sector. The debate on standards and development is at the forefront of global policy discussions. The proliferation of trade standards is often seen as a threat to poor countries that will diminish

  19. Investigating a Random Walk in Air Cargo Exports of Fresh Agricultural Products: Evidence from a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawanga Freddie Festo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s exports of fresh agricultural products by air from Uganda have been increasing and making a significant contribution to her International trade. Products include mostly fish, flowers, papain, and vanilla constituting over 95% of all air exports. Farming of the items is mainly by small scale farmers who depend on the natural climate of the country. Consequently, monthly yields are also climate dependent making individual export volumes unpredictable. In spite of these uncertainties, this study was intended to investigate possible existence of a model in the trends. Monthly data were collected from Uganda Civil Aviation Authority from 2009 to 2012. Analysis was by using ARIMA Approach with the help of Eviews 8. Visually the data exhibited irregular patterns and without a trend or seasonality. First order differencing stationarised the data and the residuals had a random non-significant noise suggesting a Random Walk Model expressed as ARIMA (0, 1, 0 and a negative drift. The model shows a link between current and one lag export volumes and the negative drift is a convergence of successive differences in export volumes. These findings have policy implications in expansion and forecasting of the exports potential of applicability of Random Walk Theory in practice.

  20. The 2000 canine distemper epidemic in Caspian seals (Phoca caspica): Pathology and analysis of contributory factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Kuiken (Thijs); S.W. Kennedy (Seamus); T. Barrett (Thomas); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); S.D. Borgsteede (Sander); S.D. Brew (S.); G.A. Codd (G.); C. Duck; R. Deaville; T. Eybatov; M.A. Forsyth (M.); G. Foster (Geoffrey); A. Kydyrmanov; I. Mitrofanov; C.J. Ward (C.); S. Wilson (Susan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractMore than 10,000 Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) were reported dead in the Caspian Sea during spring and summer 2000. We performed necropsies and extensive laboratory analyses on 18 seals, as well as examination of the pattern of strandings and variation in weather in recent years, to

  1. The 2000 canine distemper eptdemic in Caspian seals (Phoca caspica): pathology and analysis of contributory factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, T.; Kennedy, S.; Barret, T.; Bildt, van de M.W.G.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Bren, S.D.; Codd, G.A.; Duck, C.; Deaville, R.; Eybatov, T.; Forsyth, M.A.; Foster, G.D.; Jepson, P.D.; Kydyrmatov, A.; Mitrofanov, I.; Ward, C.J.; Wilson, S.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.

    2006-01-01

    More than 10,000 Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) were reported dead in the Caspian Sea during spring and summer 2000. We performed necropsies and extensive laboratory analyses on 18 seals, as well as examination of the pattern of strandings and variation in weather in recent years, to identify the

  2. The implications of uranium export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that Australia should not enter the business of uranium mining enrichment and export because of the hazards of nuclear power and because there are practical alternatives to the development of nuclear power. (R.L.)

  3. Examining the role of export competitive advantages on export performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganeh Alimohammadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of export competitive advantage on export performance in food industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 280 randomly selected experts in food industry and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.827. The study has applied factor analysis to find important factors influencing export performance. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity have been performed to validate the results and they both validated the questionnaire. The results of the survey have determined six effective groups including product development, e-commerce, marketing planning, organizational performance, competitiveness and supply chain management.

  4. Using sustainable development actions to promote the relevance of mountain wines in export markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça António R.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED, 1987. For the business community, sustainability is more than mere window-dressing. By adopting sustainable practices, companies can gain a competitive edge, increase their market share, and boost shareholder value (IISD, 2013. The wine industry has incorporated sustainability into its business strategy for a long time. In the USA, several industry organizations promoted its adoption by both grape growers and winemakers. In mountain wine regions, sustainability becomes more important as these regions generally struggle with reduced competitiveness due to inherent difficulties such as accessibility, remoteness, sparseness of business and population, topography and pedoclimatology (EUROMONTANA 2005. Therefore, any improvement in sustainability is a key factor for the viability of mountain wine producers. Sogrape Vinhos farms 480 ha of mountain vineyards in DWR securing the quality base of grapes for its SANDEMAN Port and CASA FERREIRINHA Douro wines. The company continuously adopted sustainable practices across the whole value chain, from grape to glass. This paper illustrates how a simple, but comprehensive, sustainability assessment, as proposed by a US-based award, can be used to monitor and improve sustainable development practices for a wine business set in an adverse environment, while raising awareness in a key market for wines produced in a mountain vineyard area such as the DWR.

  5. Canadian solar export market study. Export policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    This report outlines policies and recommendations on the export of Canadian solar equipment and technology, with a view toward stimulating the domestic solar industry. The current picture is of an industry which is relatively small, operates in a competitive domestic market with low profit margins, and needs assistance in order to break into the world market. A number of recommendations are therefore made on the main thrust of industry and government solar export development activities. An export development program is described which includes a strategy of concentrating on a limited number of product lines, namely: low-temperature solar heating systems for recreational applications, integrated residential water heating systems, prepackaged commercial water heating systems, and industrial pre-heat systems. It is also recommended that this strategy be directed only at a limited number of target countries where the market justifies such activity. Market research, international cooperation agreements, promotional services, and proper export organization are also needed.

  6. Iran’s policy in the Caspian region at the present stage: results and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Hosseinzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important players in the geopolitical process in the Caspian region is Iran. In this article, we consider Iran’s policy on a wide range of problems in the Caspian Sea region that the country has been following since the collapse of the Soviet Union. For more than two decades, one of the important tasks of the Iranian Foreign Ministry was to define the international legal regime of the Caspian Sea, which was complicated by the geopolitical changes in the region associated with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of new Caspian states - Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan. Initially, Iran tried to justify the division of the sea, based on the former Soviet-Iranian agreements. However, the new Caspian states believed that the geopolitical status underwent fundamental changes and the previous contracts couldn’t justify modern challenges. In this connection, the tasks of preserving the national interest to the maximum extent and at the same time maintaining constructive relations with other Caspian states, especially with the Russian Federation, became urgent for Iran’s policy. Environmental pollution and lack of financial and technological resources for energy extraction are a serious problem for Iran in the Caspian Sea. The Islamic Republic of Iran is still at the stage of research into the extraction of energy resources in the region and has not entered the mass production stage due to international sanctions. However, after the agreement with the “5+1” and the lifting of sanctions, Iran has the opportunity to extract oil and gas from the Caspian. The activities of Western companies and their close cooperation with the new Caspian states are also a problem for Iran. The military presence of the West, especially the United States, in the Caspian region is considered a direct security threat from the Iranian point of view, and Iran has serious objections and fears in this regard.  

  7. The Formation of Analytical Provision of Working-Out the Development Strategies and Use of the Export-Import Potential of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barannik Ihor O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the procedure of formation of analytical provision of working-out strategies on the basis of optimization of indicators of the export-import potential of enterprise (EIPE. A setting of multi-criteria optimization task of maximization of development and use of the export-import potential of the concrete enterprise is provided, solving of which is recommended to be carried out in the software environment of MatLab. The formation of a strategy based on the monitoring of EIPE, which involves solving of a multi-criteria optimization task, is recommended to be implemented in stages, which can be combined into four blocks, as follows: 1 determination of the structure of company’s potential and the place of its export-import potential in this structure; 2 assessment of the status of export-import potential and its use at the enterprise, and the factors influencing them; 3 assessment of the strategic position of enterprise in the internal and foreign markets; 4 selection and formation of strategy of enterprise’s activity. In the formation of strategies, it is recommended that the desired values of indicators be based on the forecast and optimal values of the main indicators of EIPE and the performance indicators of the enterprise.

  8. BP-Statoil to study Caspian oil project; S. Korea eyes Yakut gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that a combine of British Petroleum Co. plc and Den norske stats oljeselskap AS has agreed to pay $40 million for exclusive rights to study development of a Caspian Sea oil field off Azerbaijan and explore a nearby prospect. Meanwhile, the South Korean press said South Korea and Russia have agreed to form a joint venture to develop undisclosed gas fields in the Yakut Autonomous Republic of eastern Siberia and lay gas pipelines from Yakut to the Korean peninsula. In a 50-50 joint venture with the former Soviet republic of Azerbaijan, BP-Statoil will evaluate undeveloped Dostlug field, previously known as Kaverochkin, 75 km southeast of Baku. It also will study the adjacent Shak Deniz prospect, formerly known as Shakhovo More

  9. Performance and suggested alternative strategies in developing Indonesian cocoa export business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Dradjat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Black pod rot disease (BPRD which is caused by Phytophthora palmivora is one of the main diseases of cocoa cultivations particularly in plantations with wet climate. Black pod rot can develop rapidly under high humidity environments, particularly during rainy seasons. This disease can cause loss of harvest of up to 46.63% in East Java. The various control efforts attempted so far have not resulted in significant improvements. Urea, in addition to functioning as fertilizer, can also produce the ammonia gas which is believed to be able to suppress black pod rot. This research aims to determine the effectiveness of black pod rot control using the combination of lime and urea. This research was conducted from June to September 2013. The materials used in test included sterile soil, black pod rot infected cocoa, urea, and agricultural lime. Observation results showed that ammonia could form from urea. Lime can increase the speed of the formation. The ammonia gas forming from 0.06% urea and 0.3% lime can control the P. palmivora fungus inside the soil. Key words: Pod rot, P. palmivora, urea, lime, ammonia

  10. Upgrading in the global apparel value chain : an analysis on Asian developing countries' competition with China in exporting apparels

    OpenAIRE

    Bakken, Ingvild

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine how regional suppliers of apparels have performed in the global apparel industry compared to China during the past two decades, and particularly after the phase out of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement (MFA), which up to 2004 applied quotas to exports of clothing in the largest end markets. The speculation prior to the quota phase out was that large increases of Chinese exports would be at the expense of other Asian suppliers. This thesis effort to trace w...

  11. Oil majors under states pressure: two examples in the Caspian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussac, Samuel; Raballand, Gael

    2011-01-01

    All over the world, and especially in developing countries, governments strive to strengthen national oil companies over oil and gas majors. The Caspian, and notably Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan, is not an exception to this current trend. This article sheds light on the leverages both Azerbaijani and Kazakhstani governments have used to increase pressure over oil and gas multinationals. In a first step, they both established a publicly-owned integrated company managed by the presidential entourage. Then, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan have applied various instruments. Baku has sought to increase its own oil production to decrease the role of majors while Astana has preferred to use ecological, fiscal, legal and logistical leverages. However, in both cases, the outcome has been rather similar since the increasing pressure over majors has not necessarily led to benefit local populations

  12. The Chinese Export Displacement Effect Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian; Yu, Wusheng; Yu, Qian

    China’s global export share has increased dramatically over the past decades. This development has prompted an empirical literature on whether Chinese exports displace those originated from elsewhere in various destination markets. In this paper we focus on the growth of China’s exports to the East...... African Community (EAC) countries and show how it has affected exports from the European Union (EU) to the EAC. Our main contribution to the literature on the displacement effect of Chinese exports is a set of total and relative displacement estimates based on different specifications of the gravity model...... where we control for country-year fixed effects so as to avoid the “gold medal mistake” of not accounting for time varying “multilateral resistance”. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that Chinese exports have displaced exports from other countries in general. Nor do they support the hypothesis...

  13. Foreign Direct Investment and Electronics Exports: Exploratory Empirical Evidence from Malaysia's Top Five Electronics Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck Cheong Tang; Koi Nyen Wong

    2007-01-01

    The foreign direct investment (FDI) has contributed significantly to Malaysia's electronics exports as well as the growth and development of the electronics industry as a result of the export-oriented industrialization initiatives undertaken since 1970s. The aim of this study is to explore the causation between FDI and electronics exports by using Malaysia''s top five electronics exports by SITC (Standard International Trade Classification) product groups. The findings show a bi-directional c...

  14. Caucasus and the petroleum stakes of Caspian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalillosoltan, N.

    2001-01-01

    The splitting of the former USSR block in 1991 has generated a shock wave in the Caucasus area with the will of all ex-soviet republics to reach their complete independence. Because of the historical and geographical complexity of Caucasus, both geopolitical and human, this disorder has generated even more hazardous results, enhanced by the coveted oil and gas reserves of the Caspian Sea. This article analyses the petroleum stakes as factors of rivalry and instability (sovereignty of oil and gas fields, rivalries about the exploitation and transport of hydrocarbons), but also as factors of cooperation and re-composition. (J.S.)

  15. Frequency of exposure of endangered Caspian seals to Canine distemper virus, Leptospira interrogans, and Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Namroodi

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV, Leptospira interrogans, and Toxoplasma gondii are potentially lethal pathogens associated with decline in marine mammal populations. The Caspian Sea is home for the endangered Caspian seal (Pusa caspica. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, CDV caused a series of mortality events involving at least several thousand Caspian seals. To assess current infection status in Caspian seals, we surveyed for antibodies to three pathogens with potential to cause mortality in marine mammals. During 2015-2017, we tested serum samples from 36, apparently healthy, Caspian seals, accidentally caught in fishing nets in the Caspian Sea off Northern Iran, for antibodies to CDV, L. interrogans, and T. gondii, by virus neutralization, microscopic agglutination, and modified agglutination, respectively. Twelve (33%, 6 (17%, and 30 (83% samples were positive for CDV, L. interrogans and T. gondii antibodies, respectively. The highest titers of CDV, L. interrogans, and T. gondii antibodies were 16, 400, and 50, respectively. Frequencies of antibody to these pathogens were higher in seals >1 year old compared to seals <1 year old. Two serovars of L. interrogans (Pomona and Canicola were detected. Our results suggest a need for additional studies to clarify the impact of these pathogens on Caspian seal population decline and the improvement of management programs, including systematic screening to detect and protect the remaining population from disease outbreaks.

  16. Frequency of exposure of endangered Caspian seals to Canine distemper virus, Leptospira interrogans, and Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namroodi, Somayeh; Shirazi, Amir S; Khaleghi, Seyyed Reza; N Mills, James; Kheirabady, Vahid

    2018-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), Leptospira interrogans, and Toxoplasma gondii are potentially lethal pathogens associated with decline in marine mammal populations. The Caspian Sea is home for the endangered Caspian seal (Pusa caspica). In the late 1990s and early 2000s, CDV caused a series of mortality events involving at least several thousand Caspian seals. To assess current infection status in Caspian seals, we surveyed for antibodies to three pathogens with potential to cause mortality in marine mammals. During 2015-2017, we tested serum samples from 36, apparently healthy, Caspian seals, accidentally caught in fishing nets in the Caspian Sea off Northern Iran, for antibodies to CDV, L. interrogans, and T. gondii, by virus neutralization, microscopic agglutination, and modified agglutination, respectively. Twelve (33%), 6 (17%), and 30 (83%) samples were positive for CDV, L. interrogans and T. gondii antibodies, respectively. The highest titers of CDV, L. interrogans, and T. gondii antibodies were 16, 400, and 50, respectively. Frequencies of antibody to these pathogens were higher in seals >1 year old compared to seals <1 year old. Two serovars of L. interrogans (Pomona and Canicola) were detected. Our results suggest a need for additional studies to clarify the impact of these pathogens on Caspian seal population decline and the improvement of management programs, including systematic screening to detect and protect the remaining population from disease outbreaks.

  17. 77 FR 55197 - LNG Development Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... particularly shale, gas-bearing formations in the United States and Canada. Oregon LNG states that improvements in drilling and extraction technologies have coincided with rapid diffusion in the natural gas...-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From Canadian and Domestic Natural Gas...

  18. 76 FR 33746 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ..., China and/or Taiwan.\\5\\ This blanket authorization was later amended to permit exports to Canada, Mexico... imported into the United States from foreign sources on a short-term or spot market basis. The LNG would be... liability company and wholly owned subsidiary of Zachary American Infrastructure, LLC, which owns a 55...

  19. SPECIES COMPOSITION OF PSAMMOPHILIC CILIATES OF SUMGAIT CASPIAN COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kh. Alekperov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Comparative data on the species composition and species saprobic indicators of the psammon ciliates from Sumgait coast of the Caspian Sea are given.Methods. “Alive” samples were collected using a small clean plastic wide mouth bottles. Further processing was carried out under laboratory conditions. Small quantities of soil were examined under a binocular microscope MBS-9 . Ciliates detected microvessel caught and fixed castors for further impregnation kinetoma silver nitrate (Chatton et Lwoff, 1930 or silver proteinate. To determine the keys for ciliates used Foyssner’s major publications (Foissner et al., 1991, 1992, 1999 and “Free-living ciliates Atlas” (Alekperov, 2005.Results. We observed 75 species of ciliates during the studies, which species composition and distribution of the collection points are shown in table 1. Diagrams with average data were made relations groups psammophilous ciliates indicators saprobity different zones for each of the sites investigated Sumgait coast.Main conclusions. Environmental analysis using benthic ciliates indicators saprobity different zones showed that as expected, the industrial zone of Sumgayit coast coast, despite the decline in recent years, the total amount of pollution that is still highly contaminated portion of the coastal zone of the Caspian Sea.

  20. Detection of cryoglobulins in serum of Caspian miniature horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atyabi, N,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were collected from 20 healthy miniature Caspian horses at 37 °C. Isolation of cryoglobulin was performed based on a standard method in present study. Harvested sera were kept at 4 °C for two hours and then examined for cryoglubolin. Four serum samples containing precipitate Suspicious of containing cryoglobulin were selected. Subsequently serum protein electrophoresis was performed on normal serum samples and also on four serum samples containing precipitates using an automated electrophoresis system on cellulose acetate strips. In addition Ig isotypes detection (IgG, IgM and IgA was performed on both precipitates and serum containing precipitates using single radio immunediffusion method (SRID. A narrow-based peak on gamma region of precipitate acetate cellulose strips was observed. Precipitate concentrations were strikingly higher than normal concentration of serum immuneglobulins. It can be suggested that cryoglobulin concentration in a proportion of Caspian miniature horse is higher than other equides may be in relation with animal susceptibility to neoplasias such as lymphoma and leukemia.

  1. An Introduction to Export Assistance in the Internet Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanathan, Somasundaram; Rask, Morten

    2003-01-01

    's (2002) model about web marketing strategies for conceptualizing the Internet related developments associated with export assistance. Finally, we highlight the implications of providing export assistance over the Internet. Those interested in export assistance research and those providing export......Governments and other non-profit organizations have been providing information-oriented services for long to encourage exports. The primary targeted recipient of such services is Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME's). The effectiveness of such activities has been researched extensively until...

  2. An Introduction to Export Assistance in the Internet Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanathan, Somasundaram; Rask, Morten

    2004-01-01

    's (2002) model about web marketing strategies for conceptualizing the Internet related developments associated with export assistance. Finally, we highlight the implications of providing export assistance over the Internet. Those interested in export assistance research and those providing export......Governments and other non-profit organizations have been providing information-oriented services for long to encourage exports. The primary targeted recipient of such services is Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME's). The effectiveness of such activities has been researched extensively until...

  3. Ecological assessment of oil-gas producing area in Kazakhstan zone of Caspian sea and using the bioremediation technology for cleaning of high level oil polluted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigaliev, A.A.; Ishanova, N.E.; Bijazheva, S.M.; Novikova, A.; Bigaliev, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    A significant part of mineral raw material resources of Kazakhstan placed in the depth of the Caspian region, where more than 90% extracting of oil and natural gas, 100% balance store rare ground, 3.2% uranium, ore 0.3%, 90.5% sawn store concentrated. Last years, it takes intensive works by extraction of carbon raw materials in Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian sea. It brought to exceeding of coastal pollution at the North and middle the Caspian coastal pollution with oil products in average till 0.282 mg/l. Maximum meaning oil product pollution reaches 0.56 mg/l (which means exceeding of limited concentration on 11 times). How much money need to cover cost of remediation in real sites? Develop of assessment and monitoring procedures based on fate mechanisms for most of representative hydrocarbons in polluted soils. Step 1 - Collection of heavily polluted portions of soils, separation of hydrocarbons by cost efficient mechanical procedures and send HC rich material (HC>95%) to prepare of alternative fuel. Return of low HC content sand to project area (HC<5.0%). Step 2 - Development of low cost bioremediation procedures in areas transformed to moderately polluted site (HC<5% after removing of heavily polluted portions) with uniform HC content. We are needed to develop of coast efficiency approach for cleaning of high level oily polluted sites around urban areas in Kazakhstan new methodology to estimate polluted area and recover of pollution history, low cost bioremediation

  4. Export Margins, Price and Quantity of Belarus’s Export Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otamurodov Shavkat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the sources of Belarus’s export growth and decomposes export growth into extensive and intensive margins. This study also aims to determine export margins for intermediate and final goods and to determine the price and quantity components of the intensive export margin. In order to achieve the desired objectives, we use two methods for decomposing export growth, the count method and the export shares method. We analyse Belarus's export growth using export data at the HS-6 digit level for the 2004-2014 period. Our results show that Belarus's exports grew mainly due to growth in the price margin during the studied period 2004-2014. However, the extensive margin was important in export growth to some extent. Comparing the growth rate across final and intermediate goods reveals that although the share of final products in Belarus’s exports is not very big (18.9% in 2014, the average annual growth in exports of final products is higher than that of intermediate goods. Our investigation also shows that Belarus produces a wide range of commodities, but the share of the most of these commodities is not large; its exports depend on a restricted range of commodities. Moreover, most of the commodities are exported to Russia and Ukraine. Our results give us reason to assume that finding new markets for their new products is one of the main challenges for developing countries wishing to increase their exports by an extensive margin. This has important implications for how policy makers promote the trade and diversification of exports.

  5. Analysis of the development of export prices of selected agricultural and food commodities in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Palát

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the description of average level, variability and developmental trends the export prices of selected agricultural and food commodities in the Czech Republic with differentiation according to particular countries within the defined reference period 1993–2002. Thre is also presented the short-time point and interval extrapolation prediction of studied events. Methods of regression and correlation analysis and developmental trends were applied for the mathematical-statistical analysis.

  6. EVALUATING AND DEVELOPING LOGISTICS SYSTEM FOR EXPORTING SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (CASE STUDY IN YOGYAKARTA PROVINCE AND ADJACENT AREAS, INDONESIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Syahputera, Rizkie

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia is ranked 75 of 155 countries in the world for the Logistics Performance Index. Thus, logistics services efficiency has to be improved to make sure SMEs can be more competitive and gain benefit from international trade arena. Yogyakarta with its viscous culture has become a favorite tourism destination, with many art craft products. Its unique location which far from seaport inflicts higher cost to the exporting cost. The study is to understand the system, understand the constraints...

  7. Horizontal thrusts and overthruts of South-East subsidence of the greater Caucasus and aquatorium of Azerbaijan sector of Caspian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyev, A.D

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Regional correlative analysis of basement formation nature and volcanogenic-sedimentary complex of South-East subsidence of the Greater Caucasus and Aquatorium of Azerbaijan sector of Caspian.III allowed to correct ideas of destruction of continental crust to develop new structural constructions: structural maps of studied region regional and paleotectonic profiles, maps of thickness, etc.A big reference material, data of field observations, drilling, deep seismic probing and gravimetry has been used in this work. All this allowed to reveal horizontal thrust, overthrusts, elements of transgressive bedding in Meso-Cenozoic deposits; which show long-term activation of geodynamic processes, different in some areas of region.The difference in geodynamic setting is emphasized due to intensive subsidence of SCD at Pliocene-Quaternary stage and this can be proved by data of paleotectonic profile made for Caspian depression in meridional direction where displacement of axial lines of troughing can be observed in regional aspect in wide stratigraphical range.Tectonic fluctuation movements have been clarified in western frame of Azerbaijan sector of Caspian aquatorium:so, according to field observations the western paleogeographical border of north-Absheron marginal trough has been defined in frontal parts of Siazan thrusts in zone of olistrom of Aptian age, underwater landslide and rock fall.Early it was carried out within contours of Quaternary terrace of Pre-Caspian-Kuba area.Tectonic breccias from Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks has been studied on line of Nardaran-Zorat profile,within cliffs of Beshbarmag mountain.It consists of fragmental compact rocks of light-grey colour by size 10-15 sm, they possibly form scale thrusts of thickness more than 500 m, where 2 km thickness of Mesozoik rocks thrusts over and tectonic-screen structures are formed.Transgressive subsidence on Pontain-Sarmatian deposiuts were revealed on the near-shore strip of trough on the above

  8. Caspian Sea level changes during the last millennium: historical and geological evidences from the south Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi Beni, A.; Lahijani, H.; Mousavi Harami, R.; Arpe, K.; Leroy, S. A. G.; Marriner, N.; Berberian, M.; Andrieu-Ponel, V.; Djamali, M.; Mahboubi, A.

    2013-03-01

    Historical literature may constitute a valuable source of information to reconstruct sea level changes. Here, historical documents and geological records have been combined to reconstruct Caspian sea-level (CSL) changes during the last millennium. In addition to a literature survey, new data from two short sediment cores were obtained from the south-eastern Caspian coast to identify coastal change driven by water-level changes. Two articulated bivalve shells from the marine facies were radiocarbon dated and calibrated to establish a chronology and to compare them with historical findings. The overall results indicate a high-stand during the Little Ice Age, up to -19 m, with a -28 m low-stand during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, while presently the CSL stands at -26.5 m. A comparison of the CSL curve with other lake systems and proxy records suggests that the main sea-level oscillations are essentially paced by solar irradiance. Although the major controller of the long-term CSL changes is driven by climatological factors, the seismicity of the basin could create locally changes in base level. These local base-level changes should be considered in any CSL reconstruction.

  9. Caspian sea-level changes during the last millennium: historical and geological evidence from the south Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi Beni, A.; Lahijani, H.; Mousavi Harami, R.; Arpe, K.; Leroy, S. A. G.; Marriner, N.; Berberian, M.; Andrieu-Ponel, V.; Djamali, M.; Mahboubi, A.; Reimer, P. J.

    2013-07-01

    Historical literature may constitute a valuable source of information to reconstruct sea-level changes. Here, historical documents and geological records have been combined to reconstruct Caspian sea-level (CSL) changes during the last millennium. In addition to a comprehensive literature review, new data from two short sediment cores were obtained from the south-eastern Caspian coast to identify coastal change driven by water-level changes and to compare the results with other geological and historical findings. The overall results indicate a high-stand during the Little Ice Age, up to -21 m (and extra rises due to manmade river avulsion), with a -28 m low-stand during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, while presently the CSL stands at -26.5 m. A comparison of the CSL curve with other lake systems and proxy records suggests that the main sea-level oscillations are essentially paced by solar irradiance. Although the major controller of the long-term CSL changes is driven by climatological factors, the seismicity of the basin creates local changes in base level. These local base-level changes should be considered in any CSL reconstruction.

  10. The Organizing and Market Development of a Subcontracting Project to Vietnam : a Developing Export Market for Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Thien

    2010-01-01

    Vietnam is one of the fastest developing countries in the world. Finland and Finnish companies have been doing more and more business in Vietnam in recent years. Understanding the environment and the business culture of the country of the utmost importance before entering the market. The goal of this project was to find a suitable subcontracting partner for the client company and thus to find information about the Vietnamese business culture. This project was carried out for Finpro which ...

  11. Quality, Export and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    in an international context. The paper, therefore, addresses the complicated interactions between economic growth, export performance and quality. The contribution of the paper, compared to other growth accounting research, is the inclusion of quality data, quality being a significant mirror of technological...... development. The countries covered by the research represent a wide variation in terms of economic development, from poor LDC's to the most developed industrial nations. The empirical results reveal a probable strong relationship between quality/price and export growth as well as economic growth. This new...

  12. Exports and Job Training

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Paulo; Silva, Joana; Proenca, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines whether export participation matters for job training. The paper draws on longitudinal worker-firm data for Brazilian manufacturing, linked with detailed records on training activity from the main provider. The analysis uses industry-specific exchange rate movements to generate exogenous variation in export status at the firm-level. The findings indicate that export par...

  13. Understanding China's renewable energy technology exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jialu; Goldstein, Don

    2013-01-01

    China became a major player in renewable energy (RE) technology during the 2000s. Chinese solar PV cell and module makers quickly dominated global sales in that industry, while the country's wind turbine producers became poised for significant exports after capturing their rapidly growing home market. In countries like the US, Chinese RE technology strength has been met with claims of excessive governmental support of exports. This study examines to what extent Chinese firms' solar PV and wind technology successes have been enabled by policy supports, and whether those policies appear to have been driven by broader goals versus RE export promotion per se. The evidence suggests that governmental policy toward both wind and solar originated in a push for export-competitive Chinese companies. But the specifics differed substantially due to the particular requirements of building technological capabilities in each: export readiness necessitated substantial support for domestic installation of wind but not solar PV power. The findings also suggest that as the decade of the 2000s progressed, environmental goals played an increasing role alongside export promotion in motivating and shaping Chinese RE technology policies. - Highlights: ► Export policy in the rise of Chinese renewable energy technologies is studied. ► Policy supported wind turbine firms' capabilities via domestic uptake, not exports. ► Pre-2009 solar module exports enjoyed, but did not depend on, export subsidies. ► Renewables development also fit wider technology and environmental policy goals.

  14. China's coal export and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaodong Li

    1993-01-01

    With the development of world's business and trade, coal has become a large part of the import and export goods in the international market. The total amount of coal trade has risen a lot. China is rich in coal resources. According to the estimate made by some experts, the reserve which has been explored recently could be exploited hundreds of years. China's output of raw coal has risen a lot during the past forty years. China coal industry has developed rapidly since the 1980s. It is possible for China to become a big coal export country since it has rich resources and increasing output. The paper suggests four steps which must be taken to expand coal exports in China: improve the level of management and administration of coal mines so as to raise the economic benefit; the follow-up production capacity of the present mines must be enhanced rapidly; step up construction of new large-scale mines; and China's coal washing capacity must be improved speedily since the low capacity has seriously influenced the improvement of coal quality. The paper describes the inspection bureaus and companies that have developed to perform inspection of exports in order to guarantee the quality of export coal

  15. Nuclear export controls - Closing the gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Fritz W.

    2005-01-01

    Concerns over a nuclear 'black market' have focused international attention on the effectiveness of nuclear export controls. IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei has stated that the emergence of a multinational illicit network demonstrated the inadequacy of the present export control system, that international cooperation on export controls lay on informal arrangements that were not only not binding but also limited in membership, and that export control information was not systematically shared with the IAEA. This criticism, often heard on the political level, does not really do justice to the work of export control groups. The emergence of a multinational illicit network does not necessarily prove failures in export control systems. Criminal activities, by definition, try to circumvent existing rules and regulations, or they exploit the absence of such rules on State level. To fight such individual cases is not so much a task of regular export control systems, whose function lies primarily in establishing standards and procedures for export controls on State level, but rather the task for intelligence services and their international cooperation. The basis of the export control regime is the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Export controls can - and do - play an important role in fostering this universality goal by demanding the implementation of internationally agreed security standards in recipient countries before export licenses are granted. Drawn from the deliberations in the NPT conferences, the current standards to be demanded as conditions of supply are the following: Safeguards, Physical Protection, National export control provisions. According to the NPT system, export controls require IAEA verification in the recipient country. In addition, export controls enable States to provide information to the IAEA on exports and imports as required by the Additional Protocol. The 2005 NPT Review Conference will be an opportunity to review developments

  16. Impact of wood pellets export on the development of their production in Serbia with the effects of substituting enegry from fossil fuels and reduction of carbon dioxide emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavonjić Branko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of researching the impact of export on the production of wood pellets as well as the situation on the market for this wood fuel in Serbia. Objective of the research was to produce scientifically and professionally founded conclusions and the related adequate recommendations to the decision makers in order to improve the situation on wood pellets market in Serbia and eliminate the existing problems which significantly burden and slow down this development. Special objective of the research was to observe the contributions of wood pellets to the mitigation of climate changes using Serbia as the example. Results of the conducted research show that the expansion of the consumption (demand increase in the European Union countries in the last fifteen years and the related increase of export from Serbia are the most significant factors which have influenced the development of wood pellets production in Serbia. Parameters of econometric model of the impact of export on the increase of production show that production increase of 1.17% can be expected with the increase of export of 1%. Thus, the number of wood pellet producers has rapidly increased in the last ten years, from 2 producers in 2006 to 52 active producers in 2016. Increase of the number of producers was also accompanied by the increase of the installed capacities. At the end of 2015, total installed capacities for wood pellet production in Serbia reached 550 thousand tons, and the realized production was 229 thousand tons, or 41.6% of the installed capacity. Consumption of wood pellets in Serbia in the last four years achieved significant increase and reached the level of 89 thousand tons in 2015. However, concerning the segment of wood pellets consumption in Serbia, the situation is still unsatisfactory despite the fact that the consumption has been increasing year after year. Average price of 1 kWh of energy from wood pellets exported from Serbia was in the

  17. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan GholamReza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978 has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006 and future (2025-2100 time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3. The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21. The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82 between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  18. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Moghbel, Masumeh; Grab, Stefan

    2012-12-12

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  19. Genetic variation among agamid lizards of the trapelus agiliscomplex in the caspian-aral basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macey, J. Robert; Ananjeva, Natalia B.

    2004-05-19

    Allozyme variation is examined in eight populations of Trapelus from the Caspian-Aral Basin of the former USSR. Thirty-one loci (15 variable) exhibit remarkably low levels of genetic variation with only a Nei's genetic distance of 0.117 across 2500 km. An isolated population on the European side of the Caspian Sea is found to phenetically cluster inside the Asian populations examined, suggesting that it should not be considered taxonomically distinct.

  20. A postulate for tiger recovery: the case of the Caspian Tiger

    OpenAIRE

    C.A. Driscoll; I. Chestin; H. Jungius; O. Pereladova; Y. Darman; E. Dinerstein; J. Seidensticker; J. Sanderson; S. Christie; S.J. Luo

    2012-01-01

    Recent genetic analysis has shown that the extinct Caspian Tiger (P. t. virgata) and the living Amur Tigers (P. t. altaica) of the Russian Far East are actually taxonomically synonymous and that Caspian and Amur groups historically formed a single population, only becoming separated within the last 200 years by human agency. A major conservation implication of this finding is that tigers of Amur stock might be reintroduced, not only back into the Koreas and China as is now proposed, but also ...

  1. Potentials in Asian Export Credit Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    "Mekong River Regional Development Project advocated by Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been implemented. Trans-Asia Railway and Trans-Asia Highway are being discussed. It is a good opportunity for Asian Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) to cooperate and financing these large crossboarder projects."On May 11, at the 10th Annual Meeting of Asian Export Credit Agencies,

  2. Trans-Caspian gas pipeline feasibility study. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This study, conducted by Enron Engineering and Construction Company, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study provides detailed information concerning natural gas demand in Turkey and Southern Europe. The purpose of the study is to estimate the rate at which new gas can be absorbed in the Turkish market and be re-exported to the markets in Europe, as well as to forecast Turkish natural gas demand for the period up to 2020. The study also evaluates gas demand and pricing for the market in the 2002--2005 time frame. This is Volume 2 of a 3-volume report, and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework; (3) Assessment of Alternatives; (4) Baseline Conditions in the Project Area; (5) Potential (Unmitigated) Environment, Health and Safety Impacts; (6) Proposed Environmental Prevention and Mitigation; (7) Projected Net Environmental Impacts; (8) Bibliography

  3. Trans-Caspian gas pipeline feasibility study. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This study, conducted by Enron Engineering and Construction Company, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study provides detailed information concerning natural gas demand in Turkey and Southern Europe. The purpose of the study is to estimate the rate at which new gas can be absorbed in the Turkish market and be re-exported to the markets in Europe, as well as to forecast Turkish natural gas demand for the period up to 2020. The study also evaluates gas demand and pricing for the market in the 2002--2005 time frame. This is Volume 1 of a 3-volume report, and is divided into the following sections: (1) Task A: Gas Sales; (2) Task B: Initial Economic Screening; (3) Task D: Project Cost Analysis

  4. Trans-Caspian gas pipeline feasibility study. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This study, conducted by Enron Engineering and Construction Company, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study provides detailed information concerning natural gas demand in Turkey and Southern Europe. The purpose of the study is to estimate the rate at which new gas can be absorbed in the Turkish market and be re-exported to the markets in Europe, as well as to forecast Turkish natural gas demand for the period up to 2020. The study also evaluates gas demand and pricing for the market in the 2002--2005 time frame. This is Volume 3 of a 3-volume report, and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Task C: Technical Feasibility and Preliminary Design; (3) Task F: Project Implementation Strategy

  5. Exporting and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    different policy stance than typical in Africa. This is especially so in promoting export-oriented industry. If learning by exporting is a key driver of progress, then a fundamental reason for Africa's lack of transformation is likely to be the low policy priority given to export promotion in the past....... To enlarge the body of empirical evidence, we use an extensive 2005–2012 firm-level panel data set from Vietnam and separate out productivity effects of exporting due to self-selection. This allows us to conclude that firms actually learn by exporting. We also examine how this learning takes place. Our...... findings suggest that productivity gains are associated with moving to larger scale for foreign-owned firms with little evidence of subsequent learning on export markets. We find strong evidence to suggest that private domestic firms learn and accumulate knowledge from export markets with learning...

  6. Export of radiopharmaceuticals and establishment of export base of cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyungil; Kim, Youngsik

    2006-01-01

    Sam young Unit ech has seized an opportunity to advance into the radiopharmaceuticals market through successful transfer of radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing technology and medical cyclotron, an original technology in nuclear medicine that is the core of less developed areas in nuclear-related fields. The company has continued to push for research development and establishment of market base through industry-academia-research center cooperation with an aim to complement relatively less developed domestic technology and market than in advanced countries, and is making efforts to establish export base in the overseas market based on stabilized supply in the domestic market. As for radiopharmaceuticals, the company is exporting Tc-99m generator to Vietnam, Thailand and the Philippines and preparing itself to export manufacture facilities for Tc-99m generator to Syria and Kazakhstan. In addition, it plans to export 13Mev Cyclotron that has been commercialized after being developed in the domestic market to the U. S. The company plans to grow up to play a pivotal role in the domestic RT area by conducting proactive business activities with an aim to revitalize the domestic market and further domestic original technologies and products in the global market

  7. Determinants Of Vertical And Horizontal Export Diversification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also reveals domestic investment plays an important role to enhance vertical as well as horizontal export diversification for East Asia, while it only ... resource-based industries and gradually shift production and exports from customary products to more dynamic ones by developing competitive advantage in the ...

  8. 76 FR 15294 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export management; export licensing; advertising; documentation and services related to compliance with customs requirements; insurance and financing; trade show exhibitions; organizational development; management and labor strategies...

  9. 75 FR 44760 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export management; export licensing; advertising; documentation and services related to compliance with customs requirements; insurance and financing; trade show exhibitions; organizational development; management and labor strategies...

  10. Emerging coal export logistics on the US West Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolach, D. [Savage Industries Inc., UT (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Initially describes the activities of Savage Industries Inc., a privately held materials and transportation systems company. Goes on to describe the development and start-up of the Los Angeles Export Terminal (LAXT), a world class coal export terminal.

  11. Exporter Price Premia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Sørensen, Allan

    This paper provides new evidence on manufacturing firms' output prices: in Denmark, on average, exported varieties are sold at a lower price (i.e. a negative exporter price premium) relative to only domestically sold varieties. This finding stands in sharp contrast to previous studies, which have...... found positive exporter price premia. We also document that the exporter price premium varies substantially across products (both in terms of sign and magnitude). We show that in a standard heterogeneous firms model with heterogeneity in quality as well as production efficiency there is indeed no clear......-cut prediction on the sign of the exporter price premium. However, the model unambiguously predicts a negative exporter price premium in terms of quality-adjusted prices, i.e. prices per unit of quality. This prediction is broadly borne out in the Danish data: while the magnitude of the premium varies across...

  12. NEW DATA ABOUT COMPOSITION, GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND POSSIBLE WAYS OF FORMING OF DARKLING BEETLES FAUNA (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE IN PERI-CASPIAN AND ISLAND CASPIAN ECOSYSTEMS. PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim is study of biological diversity of the Caspian coasts and islands ecosystems, the composition, especially geographical distribution and possible ways of forming of darkling beetles fauna (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae.Methods. We used the traditional methods of collecting (hand collecting, soil traps, light traps, processing and material definition. List discussed tenebrionid fauna is composed using Abdurakhmanov and Medvedev (1994, Abdurakhmanov and Nabozhenko (2011.Results. The paper includes a comparative analysis of darkling beetles (341 species of 17 regions of 5 Caspian countries. Diversity of Tenebrionidae of the Caspian islands Chechen (32 species, Tyuleniy (29 species, Nordovyi (24 species, Kulaly (16 species is discussed for the first time. Faunistic base of discussed ecosystems includes species with turanian (sensu lato, 204 species, steppe (42 species, caucasian (30 species, including subendemics of the Caucasus, mediterranean (19 species, western asian (17 species biogeographic complexes with background of widespread euro-siberian, transpalearctic, paleotropical species. Сonnections and relations of regional and island faunas are discussed.Main conclusions. Results of the study will be a step in the determination of age of the islands through the biological diversity and the coastal level regime of the Caspian Sea, as well as possible changes in the population structure of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae on island ecosystems.

  13. Radioisotopes in sedimentary study of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptev, Gennady; Voitsekhovych, Oleg V.

    2013-04-01

    Natural archives, such as lake or marine sediment, are widely used in erosion/sedimentation, water quality, climate change and eutrophication study alongside with the retrospective reanalysis of contaminants fluxes (trace metals, organic pollutants or radionuclides). In order to "read" information stored in sediment sequences a chronostatigraphic method have been developed and used since 1950s which is based upon variation of activity of 210Pb over the sediment profile, natural radioisotope of Uranium decay series with half-life 22 years, and hence valid for the last 100-150 years of recent sedimentation history. The 210Pb chronology is prone to be validated by other time-markers, such as artificial radionuclides globally dispersed after the nuclear weapons tests of 1960s or major accidents on NPP (the Chernobyl accident of 1986 or latest on the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011). In the last decade an intensive study using sediment cores collected from shelf and deep-sea areas in the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea have been undertaken within the framework of a number of international research projects organized by IAEA and UNOPS-GEF and devoted to environmental problems of this enclosed, and therefore sensitive to environmental impact, marine systems. Elaborative analysis of the experimental data and sediment age calculation have been done by application of CRS and CIC dating models to unsupported 210Pb activity over the sediment profile. Measured in sediment 137Cs and 241Am clearly showed well resolved Bomb test and Chernobyl fallout peaks and were used as markers in order to corroborate radiometrically determined age of sediment. Geochronological reconstruction of the fallout radionuclides inventory, fluxes and accumulation rate in the sediment of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea by application of combined radiometric dating technique proved to be very consistent with the historical data of atmospheric fallout observations of that artificial radionuclides recorded worldwide

  14. Demand Uncertainty: Exporting Delays and Exporting Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of the resolution of uncertainty found in models with heterogeneity...... of firm productivity. This retooling addresses several shortcomings. First, the imperfect correlation of demands reconciles the sales variation observed in and across destinations. Second, since demands for the firm's output are correlated across destinations, a firm can use previously realized demands...... to forecast unknown demands in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit...

  15. The Caspian energy game: views from the United States and United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, H

    2003-07-01

    The importance of the Caspian Sea region to energy production is increasing and the forces influencing it are changing. The attention on this region focuses on its oil and natural gas reserves. A series of interviews with Western experts mainly from the United States and United Kingdom, including those in international organizations, academia, policy institutions, and government and industry officials identified key trends and issues that are important to their future policies and the significance of the Caspian oil and gas to the world energy market. The overriding issues are: The influence of Russia on regional security, stability, and the transportation of oil and gas products in the Caspian region. The outcome of the test between the United States and Iraq and the major effects it could have on commercial interests in the region and on who will be the major actors. Tensions caused by Iran refusal to settle the international demarcation of the Caspian Sea. Turkey position as a player, the affect of its new islamic-dominated government and its energy policies. Europe need to import gas and to diversify its supply. The construction of a pipeline to China. The impact of September 11, 2001 and terrorism on the Caspian region issues. The stability of the former Soviet Republics in the region. (author)

  16. The Caspian energy game: views from the United States and United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, H.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of the Caspian Sea region to energy production is increasing and the forces influencing it are changing. The attention on this region focuses on its oil and natural gas reserves. A series of interviews with Western experts mainly from the United States and United Kingdom, including those in international organizations, academia, policy institutions, and government and industry officials identified key trends and issues that are important to their future policies and the significance of the Caspian oil and gas to the world energy market. The overriding issues are: The influence of Russia on regional security, stability, and the transportation of oil and gas products in the Caspian region. The outcome of the test between the United States and Iraq and the major effects it could have on commercial interests in the region and on who will be the major actors. Tensions caused by Iran refusal to settle the international demarcation of the Caspian Sea. Turkey position as a player, the affect of its new islamic-dominated government and its energy policies. Europe need to import gas and to diversify its supply. The construction of a pipeline to China. The impact of September 11, 2001 and terrorism on the Caspian region issues. The stability of the former Soviet Republics in the region. (author)

  17. Impact of the European Russia drought in 2010 on the Caspian Sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arpe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological budgets of the Volga basin (VB and the Caspian Sea (CS have been analysed. The components of the water balance for the CS were calculated for the period 1993 to 2010 with emphasis on summer 2010 when a severe drought developed over European Russia.

    A drop in precipitation over the VB in July 2010 occurs simultaneously with a decrease in evaporation for the same area, an increase of evaporation over the CS itself and a drop of the Caspian Sea level (CSL. The drop in the precipitation over the VB cannot lead to an instantaneous drop of the CSL because the precipitated water needs some months to reach the CS. The delay is estimated here to be 1 to 3 months for excessive precipitation in summer, longer for deficient precipitation and for winter cases. However, the evaporation over the CS itself is considered to be responsible for a simultaneous drop of the CSL from July to September 2010. The impact on the CSL from the precipitation deficit over the VB occurs in the months following the drought. The water deficit from July to September 2010 calculated from the anomalous precipitation minus evaporation over the VB would decrease the CSL by 22 cm, of which only 2 cm had been observed until the end of September (observed Volga River discharge anomaly. So the remaining drop of 20 cm can be expected in the months to follow if no other anomalies happen. In previous studies the precipitation over the VB has been identified as the main cause for CSL changes, but here from a 10 cm drop from beginning of July to end of September, 6 cm can be directly assigned to the enhanced evaporation over the CS itself and 2 cm due to reduced precipitation over the CS.

    Further periods with strong changes of the CSL are also investigated, which provide some estimates concerning the accuracy of the analysis data. The investigation was possible due to the new ECMWF interim reanalysis data which are used to provide data also for sensitive

  18. The export of China nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jian

    2012-01-01

    The article first introduces the meaning of nuclear power export, and then analyses the advantages of China nuclear industry based on the status and development of this industry. At the same time. the collection of nuclear development for the next 30 years of several nations in south-east Asia, south Asia, Middle East, Africa and South America is compiled, which could be a valuable reference for foreseeing nuclear power export market. Finally, as the situation throughout the world is considered, some suggestions are made that what else could be done for future development and export. (author)

  19. Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz, Antonio; Newman, Carol; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the learning-by-exporting (LBE) hypothesis in the Mozambican context. Due to the presence of the ‘Born-Global’ phenomenon among exporters, we address the endogeneity introduced by self-selection, combining a generalised Blinder–Oaxaca approach with results from...

  20. Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz, Antonio; Newman, Carol; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the learning-by-exporting (LBE) hypothesis in the Mozambican context. Due to the presence of the ‘Born-Global’ phenomenon among exporters, we address the endogeneity introduced by self-selection, combining a generalised Blinder–Oaxaca approach with results from traditi...

  1. Industrialisation, Exports and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabolo, Yves

    1980-01-01

    After reviewing trends in industrial production, exports, and employment in the Third World since 1960, the author discusses industrialization strategies based on the local processing of raw materials for export. Such processing has proved to be a major factor in job creation. (Author/SK)

  2. Exporting nuclear engineering and the industry's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelt, K.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear energy offers all possibilities to reduce the energy problems in the world which arise with the world-wide increasing population and the energy demand connected with it. The Federal Republic of Germany lives on the exports of refined technical methods which also include nuclear engineering. The exports of nuclear engineering should lead to a technology transfer with guidance and training on an equal basis between the industrial and developing countries. The preconditions of exporting nuclear-technical systems are a well-functioning domestic market and a certain support by the government, especially with regard to giving guarantees for the special exports risks of these big projects. On the other hand, exports are also needed in order to be able to continue providing high-level technology for the domestic market. (UA) [de

  3. Netherlands export country for electricity? New developments in power plants and the impact on the Clean and Efficient programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seebregts, A.J.; Daniels, B.W.

    2008-07-01

    This report explores part of the effects of the Dutch Climate Programme 'Clean and Efficient - Opportunities for Tomorrow' on the emissions of air pollutants, as included in the National Emissions Ceilings. The starting point for the analysis is the ex ante evaluation of Clean and Efficient as published in September 2007. Specifically for the Netherlands, the role of the power generation sector is important. For the near future (up to 2015), about 11 to 15 GW of new fossil generation capacity is being planned. In combination with the Clean and Efficient Programme, this will have a large impact on the resulting national emissions of air pollutants. Strong climate policies and high CO2 prices are likely to result in a lower electricity demand than the original reference projection (the Global Economy High Oil Price scenario). In addition, more renewable electricity generation and more cogeneration are expected. These changes are likely to improve the international competitiveness of the Dutch electricity generation. As a result, electricity exports rise and part of the emission reductions materialize outside the Netherlands, rather than within its borders [nl

  4. Export Growth and Factor Market Competition: Theory and Some Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Emami Namini (Julian); G. Facchini (Giovanni); R.A. Lopez (Ricrado)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractEmpirical evidence suggests that sectoral export growth decreases exporters' survival probability, whereas this is not true for non-exporters. Models with firm heterogeneity in total factor productivity (TFP) predict the opposite. To solve this puzzle, we develop a two{factor framework

  5. Impact of manufactured goods' exports on economic growth: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of exports on growth has for a long time enmeshed in controversy partly due to both positive and negative effects empirically established in the literature. Still, most studies in developing countries have left detailed examination of exports' components and domestic institutions unexplored in the export-growth ...

  6. Expansion of Asparagus Production and Exports in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Tatsuya

    2006-01-01

    Peru is the one of the most important exporters of asparagus in the world. Its export volume of fresh asparagus is ranked number one, and its export volume of preserved asparagus number two, globally. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the recent trends in asparagus production and exports around the world and to analyze factors in the development of the Peruvian asparagus industry. The production of asparagus has spread geographically. The center of its production used t...

  7. The ecological problems of rivers of Georgia (the Caspian Sea basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurab Lomsadze

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demands of fresh water in the world threaten the biodiversity and the supply of water for food production and other vital human needs. Providing adequate quantities of pure, fresh water for humans and their diverse activities is the major problem worldwide. In spite of the fact that Georgia is considered rather rich of fresh water resources our research showed that the major rivers of The Caspian Sea basin are polluted with different contaminants like, nitrates, ammonium nitrogen. Heavy metals, oil products, pesticides and other toxic chemicals. From researched rivers the most polluted are Mashavera and Kazretula (Bolnisi Municipality. They are mainly contaminated with toxic releases of joint-stock company, Madneuli's activities. The rivers are also polluted from other plants, agricultural activities and farms. To protect the public and the environment from toxic releases the government should prevent pollution by requiring industries to reduce their use of toxic chemicals and restore and strengthen protection for all water objects. Concerted actions are needed to safely manage the use of toxic chemicals and develop monitoring and regulatory guidelines. The principles and practices of sustainable development will help to contain or eliminate risks resulting from the chemical pollution.

  8. Prospects for the Competitive Export Price of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Man Ki; Jeong, Ki Ho

    2012-01-01

    SMART is an integral type pressurized water reactor with a thermal capacity of 330MW. Its design development is in the final stage preparing getting a design certificate. SMART has been developed by KAERI for the purpose of exporting it. The objective of this study is to estimate the probable price range of SMART in the exporting market. The estimation of competitive exporting price of SMART in advance is believed to be helpful in the establishment of the development strategy of SMART. Exporting price of SMART in this study means the construction cost of it. It is because the construction cost is a decisive factor determining the exporting price of SMART

  9. Mexico: Imports or exports?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, J.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of Mexico's energy sector. Proven oil reserves place Mexico in ninth position in the world and fourth largest in natural gas reserves. Energy is one of the most important economic activities of the country, representing 3 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Oil exports represent 8.4 per cent of total exports. Approximately 40 per cent of total public investment is earmarked for energy projects. The author discusses energy resources and energy sector limitations. The energy sector plan for the period 2001-2006 is discussed. Its goals are to ensure energy supply, to develop the energy sector, to stimulate participation of Mexican enterprises, to promote renewable energy sources, and to strengthen international energy cooperation. The regulatory framework is being adapted to increase private investment. Some graphs are presented, displaying the primary energy production and primary energy consumption. Energy sector reforms are reviewed, as are electricity and natural gas reforms. The energy sector demand for 2000-2010 and investment requirements are reviewed, as well as fuel consumption for power generation. The author discusses the National Pipeline System (SNG) and the bottlenecks caused by pressure efficiency in the northeast, flow restriction on several pipeline segments, variability of the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) own use, and pressure drop on central regions. The entire prospect for natural gas in the country is reviewed, along with the Strategic Gas Program (PEG) consisting of 20 projects, including 4 non-associated natural gas, 9 exploration and 7 optimization. A section dealing with multiple service contracts is included in the presentation. The authors conclude by stating that the priority is a national energy policy to address Mexico's energy security requirements, to increase natural gas production while promoting the diversification of imports, and a regulatory framework to be updated in light of current

  10. Export markets for nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huettl, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    By late 1984, nuclear power plants were in operation or under construction in 32 countries of the globe. An additional six countries had concrete plans for building nuclear power plants. Of these 38 countries, ten have shown that they posses the necessary know-how and the technical facilities to plan and build nuclear power plants practically on their own. Seven of these ten countries have already acted as exporters of nuclear power plants, albeit with very different degrees of market penetration. In addition, there have been a number of countries for quite some time whose industries have managed to manufacture many important nuclear power plant components. Their high level of technical development and the problems frequently encountered in export financing have made them very attractive partners of the true exporters of nuclear power plants. For the future, it must be expected that some of the countries which have so far limited their efforts to the construction of nuclear power plants at home will also develop into exporters of nuclear technology. The report contains a survey of the range of nuclear products available, a list of reactor vendors, reactor lines, and data on the economics of electricity generation in nuclear plants. It then goes on to offer detailed descriptions of the market and the demand situation. Interesting chapters are devoted to the selection criteria applied by importing countries, to financing problems, and to the influences exerted by the political environment. A realistic forecast is attempted in order to make a quantitative analysis of possible export contracts up until the year 2000. (orig.) [de

  11. CRITERIA OF THE ECOSYSTEM STABILITY IN THE NORTHERN REGION OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mitina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to determine the criteria of the marine shallow-water ecosystem stability using the Northern region of the Caspian Sea as a case study. For each 260 reference points, we received data on 76 parameters, including physical-geographical, hydrochemical, and hydrobiological characteristics that have been analyzed by the method of principle components. The analyzes of these data allowed us to reveal and evaluate principal geoecological factors that influence the distribution of Acipenseridae in the Caspian Sea as a top level of the ecosystem’s trophic chain. The main geoecological factors and the factor of anthropogenic load of the Caspian Sea ecosystems’ stability have been determined.

  12. From Caspian to Turkey: The Southern European Gas Corridor's Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebiere, Noemie

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of global energy demand and the raise of conflicts for the control of energy resources and supply routes, energy security is becoming a major issue for the European Union, but also for suppliers and transit countries. The recent crisis in Ukraine highlights the role of gas as a strategic weapon in the Russian external policy and reinforces the need of the European countries to diversify energy sources and supply routes. The southern European gas corridor, which carries hydrocarbons of the Caspian region to Europe through Turkey, is as a key project of E.U. and U.S. strategy to ensure the energy security of Europe. However, with the current instability in the Middle East and the difficulty to set-up an agreement in the Iranian nuclear negotiations, the issue of the ability of the southern gas corridor to be supplied with enough amount of resources remains hypothetical. In this respect, this approach analyses the deep interactions between energy issues, territorial security, political aims and economic interests

  13. Photovoltaic systems for export application. Informal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, J.; Campbell, H.; Sajo, A.; Sanz, E. [Univ. of Lowell, MA (United States)

    1988-01-31

    One approach to improving the competitiveness of photovoltaic systems is the development of designs specifically for export applications. In other words, where is it appropriate in a system design to incorporate components manufactured and/or assembled in the receiving country in order to improve the photovoltaic exports from the US? What appears to be needed is a systematic method of evaluating the potential for export from the US of PV systems for various application in different countries. Development of such a method was the goal of this project.

  14. The Caspian Sea Catchment influenced by Atlantic Teleconnections in CESM1.2.2 and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandini, S. D.; Prange, M.; Schulz, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Caspian Sea (CS) is the world's largest inland sea and located within a closed (endorheic) drainage basin [ 37°-47N, 47°-54°E]. It has undergone dynamic variations (>3 m) during the past century with huge impacts on the economy, ecosystem and livelihood of coastal people. The origin of these variations as well as future changes are disputable. Here, we examine the impact of the major seasonal North Atlantic teleconnection patterns, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the East Atlantic pattern (EA) on Caspian hydroclimate variability from 1850-2100 CE. Five Numerical experiments at different atmospheric grid resolutions (2° and 1°) and atmospheric model versions (CAM4 and CAM5) are carried out with the coupled Community Earth System Model (CESM1.2.2). Results reveal the 1° CESM1.2.2 CAM5 captures DJF NAO (46.5%) and EA (13.4%), agreeing well with observational data (1850-2000). The DJF NAO has a strong influence on the DJF temperature, rainfall and evaporation minus precipitation (E-P) over the Caspian sub-basins (Volga, Ural, Terek and Kura). Furthermore, 1° model climate projections (2020-2100 CE) are performed with different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) to examine likely changes in the NAO and EA and their influence on the Caspian catchment. The NAO under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios remains the leading mode with the highest variance and influences E-P with increased precipitation over the Volga basin and increased evaporation over the Caspian Sea. The above canceling effects act on the hydroclimate variability in the Caspian sub-basins. Moreover, it is indicated that no substantial change is predicted in the CSL by the year 2100. Keywords: North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), CESM1.2.2 resolutions, Evaporation minus Precipitation (E-P), RCP4.5, RCP8.5

  15. A postulate for tiger recovery: the case of the Caspian Tiger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Driscoll

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent genetic analysis has shown that the extinct Caspian Tiger (P. t. virgata and the living Amur Tigers (P. t. altaica of the Russian Far East are actually taxonomically synonymous and that Caspian and Amur groups historically formed a single population, only becoming separated within the last 200 years by human agency. A major conservation implication of this finding is that tigers of Amur stock might be reintroduced, not only back into the Koreas and China as is now proposed, but also through vast areas of Central Asia where the Caspian tiger once lived. However, under the current tiger conservation framework the 12 “Caspian Tiger States” are not fully involved in conservation planning. Equal recognition as “Tiger Range States” should be given to the countries where the Caspian tiger once lived and their involvement in tiger conservation planning encouraged. Today, preliminary ecological surveys show that some sparsely populated areas of Central Asia preserve natural habitat suitable for tigers. In depth assessments should be completed in these and other areas of the Caspian range to evaluate the possibility of tiger reintroductions. Because tigers are a charismatic umbrella species, both ecologically and politically, reintroduction to these landscapes would provide an effective conservation framework for the protection of many species in addition to tigers. And for today’s Amur Tigers this added range will provide a buffer against further loss of genetic diversity, one which will maintain that diversity in the face of selective pressures that can only be experienced in the wild.

  16. On the need for the organization of integrated monitoring of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Kostianoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the organization of comprehensive monitoring of the Caspian Sea. We discuss the goals and objectives of the environmental monitoring, as well as the functions of federal services and agencies in the organization and implementation of the monitoring. The basic characteristics of the marine observation network in the seas of Russia are shown. We discuss modern satellite environmental monitoring methods, as well as specific applications of satellite data for the study and monitoring of the Caspian Sea region. Particular attention is given to satellite monitoring of oil pollution of the sea.

  17. Environmental change studies in the Caspian Sea and the north-east Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.; Oregioni, B.; GASTAUD, J.

    2002-01-01

    Caspian Sea and NE Atlantic water profiles were investigated for radionuclide content. Radionuclide data on the water samples collected in 1995 and 1996 in the Caspian Sea show a rapid exchange of water masses in the two deep basins (the Central and Southern Basins). The main source of radionuclides is global fallout. In the NE Atlantic Ocean elevated concentrations of 3 H and 4 C were observed at medium depths (2000-3000 m) which could be explained by high latitude injection processes. (author)

  18. New species from family Gasterosteidae in ichthyofauna of the Caspian Sea basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Shikhshabekov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is described a new genus and species - Gasterosteus Aculeatus for the Dagestan part of the Middle Caspian from the genus Gasterosteus species Aculeatus, which differs from other kinds of family Gasterosteidae by presence of three needles on the back part of the body and by some ecological features. This species is well enough described in other southern reservoirs. In comparison of external attributes of the three-needle stickle-back of the Caspian and other southern reservoirs no special differences are revealed.

  19. CURRENT STATE OF WATER BIORESOURCES OF THE VOLGA AND CASPIAN SEA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Vasileva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of current degraded state of aquatic biological resources of the Volga-Caspian Sea basin and provides specific data on commercial stocks of fish. The main reasons for decrease in natural stocks of ichthyofauna are regulation and pollution of the spawning rivers, adverse hydrological conditions, injudicious hunting, poaching pressure. To improve the state of natural stocks of fish it is necessary to increase their reproduction and implement measures to restore and rational exploitation of aquatic bioresources of the Volga- Caspian Sea basin.

  20. FEATURES DELINEATION AND USE OF SPECIALLY PROTECTED THE CASPIAN LOWLAND THE REPUBLIC OF DAGHESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Kurbanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Questions of delimitation of state property on specially protected areas land of the Caspian lowland in Daghestan need further study. It is Requires the definition of the status of land of recreational zones of the coast of the Caspian sea, including coastal and border strips, legal and logical resolution of the millet for the management of these lands as Federal property. It is Necessary to accelerate the work on the delimitation of the remaining areas of land in this zone, to take inventory, to put these lands on cadastral registration and to sign lease agreements with businesses on these lands. 

  1. Guide to software export

    CERN Document Server

    Philips, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    An ideal reference source for CEOs, marketing and sales managers, sales consultants, and students of international marketing, Guide to Software Export provides a step-by-step approach to initiating or expanding international software sales. It teaches you how to examine critically your candidate product for exportability; how to find distributors, agents, and resellers abroad; how to identify the best distribution structure for export; and much, much more!Not content with providing just the guidelines for setting up, expanding, and managing your international sales channels, Guide to Software

  2. Coal exports still growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the swings and roundabouts of the Asian economic shake out and Australian dollar devaluation are starting to work their way through the Australian export coal market. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, at this stage the results are not proving to be as bad as were at first predicted by some market watchers. Export revenue and tonnages are up 12% for the year to July 98. Coal exports totaling $9.5 billion left Australia's shores in the 12 months confirming coal as Australia's single largest export revenue earner. Sales volumes in the present financial year are still increasing, the market being driven by steadily increasing Asian demand for steaming coal from places like Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines

  3. Exploitative Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Elena; Lopes Bento, Cindy; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies...... and learning about new markets ? R&D investments and marketing investments, in search of novel insights into the content and process underlying learning by exporting. We draw from organizational learning theory for predicting changes in both R&D and marketing investment patterns that accompany firm entry......, it is predominantly the marketing-related investment decisions associated with starting to export that lead to increases in firm productivity. We conclude that learning-by-exporting might be more properly characterized as ?learning about and exploiting new markets? rather than ?learning about new technologies...

  4. Valie EXPORT Society. Overlok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Valie EXPORT Society asutasid 23. okt. 1999. a. Frankfurdis Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets, kui olid külastanud austria naiskunstniku Valie Exporti näitust. Rühmituse aktsioonide kirjeldus

  5. Valie EXPORT Society Rooseumis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Malmös Rooseumi Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuses näitus "Baltic Babel". Projekt koosneb Läänemeremaade linnades tegutsevate innovatiivsete gruppide aktsioonidest. Kuraator Charles Esche. Esinejatest (Eestist Valie Export Society: Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit)

  6. The skeletal deformity in response of dietary phosphorus and calcium level in the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Ahmadivand

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal deformities are a common problem in fish hatcheries and commercial farms that affect growth, development and survival as well as the market value of the final product. Among the nutritional components, phosphorus (P and calcium (Ca are of special interest as they are directly involved in the development and maintenance of the skeletal system. Hence, the present study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary P and Ca on the skeletal deformity, growth and carcass composition the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus larvae. In this study, six semi-purified diets were formulated. The diets A, B, C, D and E were supplemented with 0.0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6% available P supplied as a 1:1mixture of NaH2Po4/KH2Po4. These five diets were supplemented with 1% Ca, supplied as CaCo3. Diets F was Ca-free and supplemented with 0.8% available P served as control level of P. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of fish, and each group was stocked with 30 larvae and fed three times a day for 60 days. At the end experiment, there was no significant effect of dietary P (0 to 1.6% or Ca (0 or 1% supplementation on growth performance such as weight gain and FCR, carcass moisture, P and Ca. However, a significant difference found between treatments in carcass ash. Analysis of length, height and area of vertebrae in two regions of the vertebral column showed no significant difference between the dietary treatments. The skeletal abnormalities were highest incidence in the Caspian roach fed with a low P. Kyphosis placement of vertebrae was the most frequent abnormality.

  7. Core labour standards and exports

    OpenAIRE

    Siroën, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    (english) Core labour standards defined by the ILO in 1998 are universal, but applied very differently across countries. Compliance is much higher in high income countries. However, the causality between improved labour standards and economic growth remains a controversial issue. Export-led growth strategies might encourage developing countries to curb the process of standards improvement. In this way, they can raise the volume of their unskilled labour endowments (child and/or forced labour)...

  8. Leptospirosis in Caspian Sea littoral, Gilan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garshasbi, Vahid; Naddaf, Saied Reza; Aghighi, Zohreh; Hassan, Nayerreh; Pooya, Mohammad; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2018-05-01

    In Iran, leptospirosis is endemic to Caspian Sea littoral. The disease appears as a seasonal infection mostly affecting people in rural areas involved in farming. We investigated the prevalence of this infection among suspected patients in Gilan Province by an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA), and two PCR protocols, a nested-PCR and a real-time PCR (qPCR), targeting rrs and lipL32 genes, respectively. We also identified the common Leptospira species by sequencing a partial sequence of rrs gene. Out of the 128 sera examined by IFA, 25.78% were positive with the antibody titers ≥1/80. The antibody titer in 39.06% of sera ranged from 1/10 to 1/140, and 35. 16% showed no antibodies, all considered negative. Nested PCR and qPCR detected Leptospira DNA in 20.31% and 18.75% of the sera, respectively. The two PCR assays had 98.43% agreement (K = 0.93) and showed an inverse correlation with the IFA titers. Also, three pathogenic Leptospira species, L. kirschneri (n = 10), L. introgans (n = 8), and L. borgpetersenii (n = 2) were identified from the clinical specimens in the study area. In our hands both PCR assays proved very efficient for early diagnosis of illness and could be used in combination with IFA for both diagnosis and epidemiological studies, but nested PCR was cheaper and appeared more appropriate for our laboratories in rural settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spider fauna in Caspian Costal region of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Sahra

    2007-03-01

    The current study investigated spider fauna of Caspian Costal region of Iran (Guilan, Mazandaran and Golestan provinces) during 2005-2006. Spiders were collected from on the ground and under the stones and grasses by bottle, aspirator, Pitfall trap and pans and from branches, leaves and trunks of different trees and bushes by Steiner and Baggiolini method and insect net. They transferred to the laboratory and classified in 52 species and 51 genera belonged to 20 families. Thirty species, 13 genera and 2 families are reported for the first time from Iran, as follows: Family Agelenidae: Agelena labyrinthica (Clerck, 1757), Cicurina sp., Family Araneidae: Agalenatea redii (Scopoli, 1763), Araniella inconspicua (Simon, 1874), Araniella alpica (C.L. Koch, 1869), Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757, Cercidia sp., Cyclosa conica (Pallas, 1772), Hypsosinga sanguinea (C.L. Koch,1845), Family Clubionidae: Clubiona neglecta O.P. Camridge, 1862, Family Amaurobiidae, Family Eresidae: Eresus sp., Dresserus sp., Family Gnaphosidae: Aphantaulax sp., Micaria sp., Family Metidae: Zygiella x-notata (Clerck,1757), Family Miturgidae: Cheiracanthium erraticum (Walckenaer, 1802), Cheiracanthium pennyi O.P. Cambridge, 1873, Family Linyphiidae: Microlinyphia sp., Family Lycosidae: Alopecosa pulverulenta (Clerck, 1757), Pardosa amentata (Clerck, 1757), Pardosa agrestis (Westring, 1861), Pardosa monticola (Clerck, 1757), Family Oxyopidae: Oxyopes salticus (Hentx, 1802), Family Philodromidae: Philodromus cespitum (Walckenaer, 1802),Family Pholcidae: Psilochorus simoni (Berland, 1911), Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin, 1775), Family Salticidae: Salticus scenicus (Clerck, 1757), Family Tetragnathidae: Tetragnatha montana, Simon, 1874, Tetragnatha javana (Thorell, 1890), Family Theridiidae: Dipoena prona (Menge, 1868), Steatoda albomaculata (Degeer, 1778), Theridion impressum C. L. Koch, Theridion simile C.L. Koch,1836, Family Thomisidae: Misumena vatia (Clerck, 1757), Thanatus formicinus (Clerck

  10. Export Taxes under Bertrand Duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    David Collie; Roger Clarke

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses export taxes in a Bertrand duopoly with product differentiation, where a home and a foreign firm both export to a third-country market. It is shown that the maximum-revenue export tax always exceeds the optimum-welfare export tax. In a Nash equilibrium in export taxes, the country with the low cost firm imposes the largest export tax. The results under Bertrand duopoly are compared with those under Cournot duopoly. It is shown that the absolute value of the export subsid...

  11. Private hydropower projects: exporting the american experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, W.L.; Bourgeacq, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses different aspects of exporting the American knowledge and experience in the private development of small-scale hydropower projects. It details the 'export' and 'adaptation/translation' of American PURPA philosophy to other countries. The major stumbling blocks on the road to exportation are listed. The subject countries'market evaluation is explained, as well as methods for researching and gathering the necessary information on a specific country. Methods of choosing a target country are discussed, and the criteria necessary for making a choice are detailed. The subject of legal framework and privatization of power generation issues overseas and the ways and means to help the 'export of U.S. expertise' through U.S. Government programs are described. The subjects of financing and joint ventures with local entities are also included in this paper. Various scenarios for private development overseas are presented

  12. Native carbonoxidation microorganisms in bioremedetion Northern Caspian sea from oil pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gridneva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 26 strains microorganisms - degradation oil have been isolated from shelf water North Caspian. The high emulsifying ability relative to benzine, kerosene and diesel-fuel oil relevantly were possessed the 11 strains. The 4 cultures exhibiting degradation of oil rates 43-49 %, respectively, were selected.

  13. Tides in three enclosed basins: the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor P Medvedev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tides are the main type of sea level variability in the world ocean. However, oceanic tides penetrate weakly, or do not penetrate at all, into enclosed basins such as the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas. Consequently, only directly forced tides are formed in these basins. Long observation time series (up to 123 years in the Baltic Sea and 38 years in the Black and Caspian seas at numerous stations were used to precisely estimate tidal constituents. High-resolution spectra revealed fine structure of discrete peaks at tidal frequencies. The diurnal radiational constituent S1 (1 cpd, apparently associated with breeze winds, was found to play an important role in general tidal dynamics in these seas. Harmonic analysis of tides for individual yearly series with consecutive vector averaging over the entire observational period was applied to estimate mean amplitudes and phases of tidal constituents. Our findings indicate that the formation and predominance of diurnal or semidiurnal tides in these seas appears to depend on the frequency-selective properties of the basins. Thus, in the Baltic Sea with fundamental modal period of about 27 h, diurnal tides dominate in the major eastern gulfs. In the Black Sea resonant amplification of semidiurnal tides is observed in the northwestern part. The predominance of semidiurnal tides in the Caspian Sea has also probably a resonant nature. Maximum tidal heights estimated for a 100-year period are 23 cm in the Baltic Sea, 18 cm in the Black Sea and 21 cm in the southern Caspian Sea.

  14. SAFETY PROBLEMS IN THE CASPIAN REGION IN THE CONTEXT OF CHANGE OF THE GEOPOLITICAL SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Abdullayev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to research of geopolitical processes in Caspian region and to questions of regional security. In article is analyzed the influence on a situation in the region of the western countries. The questions connected with deliveries of hydrocarbonic resources from the countries of the Middle East are considered.

  15. The USA policy evolution in the Caspian sea from Clinton to Bush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafalian, A.

    2003-01-01

    The author analyzes the USA policy in the Caspian Sea area and its evolution with the election of Bush. If no major orientation appear, some sensible evolutions are presented concerning the pipelines management in this area. The author presents then, the new definition of the economical variables and the reinforcement of the security dimension of the USA policy. (A.L.B.)

  16. Caspian Sea water balance and dynamics studies using anthropogenic radionuclides: Implications for environmental changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oregioni, B.; Gastaud, J.; Pham, M.K.; Povinec, P.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Environmental changes in the Caspian Sea have recently become of great interest in connection with fluctuations in sea level changes. Radioactive and stable isotopes have been used as powerful tracers to investigate water balance and dynamics and have contributed significantly to understanding climatically driven environmental changes in the Caspian Sea. The Caspian Sea is the world largest inland water body with a surface area of about 386000 km 2 and a volume of about 67000 km 3 , located in a large continental depression about 28 m below sea level. With no surface outlet, the Caspian Sea is particularly sensitive to climatic variations. The drainage area of the Caspian Sea is approximately 3.7 million square kilometers. The Volga, Ural and Terek empty into the North Caspian, with their combined annual flow accounting for 88% of all water entering the sea. The Sulak, Samur, Kura and a number of small rivers contribute about 7% of the inflow, the remainder comes from the rivers of the Iranian shore. The Caspian Sea is divided into three basins with approximately the same surface. The North Caspian Basin, maximum depth 15 m, average depth 5 m, contains 1% of the total water. The Middle Caspian (or Central) Basin has a maximum depth of 800 m and contains 22% of the total water. The South Caspian Basin, maximum depth 1024 m, average depth 330 m, contains 77% of the total Caspian Sea water. Recently there have been concerns over the environmental conditions of the Caspian Sea, especially over observed sea level changes, which have had a strong impact on the region. Anthropogenic radionuclides like 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239 , 240 Pu are particularly useful tracers for the investigation of water dynamics. Two research-training cruises were carried out in September 1995 and August-September 1996. At every station, 60-70 liters samples of seawater from different depths were processed for sequential separation of plutonium, cesium and strontium isotopes. This was

  17. Study of physiological and genotoxic status of fish populations of Azerbaijan shore of the Caspian sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasimov, R.Yu.; Palatnikov, G.M.; Mekhtiev, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : According to the studies conducted on Ecotox program of Caspian Ecological program, littoral waters of Azerbaijan and Iran are characterized with high content of heavy metals and organic compounds. Actually, all these substances are not just toxicants but mutagens as well. Taking into account these considerations, it appears important to be aware of physiological and genotoxic status of fish populations dwelling along Azerbaijan shore of the Caspian Sea for present time. The purpose of proposed project is collecting data concerning actual physiological and genotoxic status of fish populations dwelling in the littoral zone of Azerbaijan shore of the Caspian Sea. That will present the real picture of ecological status of ichtyofauna in Azerbaijan sector of the Caspian Sea and give grounds to conduct comparative analysis of changes while conducting all kinds of activities in the sea with the data provided within this project's frames. For this purpose we offer to conduct studies of fish populations along Azerbaijan littoral zone of the Caspian Sea beginning from north ones, sharing all shore into 5-6 points where fish catches should be done. Not less than 5 specimens of attached-dwelling fish, for instance gobies, are planned to catch in each of defined points. Blood samples for genotoxic analysis and samples of muscles, livers and gills for immunochemical and histopathological analysis will be taken. Along with this in these points the analysis of water - oxygen content, ph, salinity, temperature will be realized. Physiological status of fish will be evaluated by determination of serotonin-modulating protein content in ELISA-test. This analysis gives precise estimation of serotonergic system status that is very sensitive to adverse conditions. The second test - histopathological tissue studies gives grounds to determine functional status of internal organs of caught fish. The third test - micronuclei counting in erythrocytes. This technique allows

  18. IMPROVING ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC ISSUES OF EXPORT CREDIT INSURANCE AND INVESTMENT IN RUSSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kadyrbaev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article are considered problem of Russian export development and export Russian investments. The Russian government work actively to increase Russian non-energy export and allocate huge funds for this. Activity of Export Insurance Agency of Russia (EXIAR are examined severally

  19. Cooperation of nuclear manpower development between Viet Nam and Korea in order to enhance establishment of infrastructure in exporting nuclear technology to Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E. J.; Han, K. W.; Park, J. K.; Kim, Y. T.; Nam, Y. M.; Jang, Y. H.; Yang, M. H.

    2003-08-01

    Through this project, KAERI provided OJT Programme to 3 nuclear experts of Viet Nam at the KAERI for 3 months as a cooperation of human resource development in the field of nuclear policy, nuclear safety analysis and thermo hydraulic. We could have publicity activities of S/W and H/W then achieve an advantage position of economical and technical in exporting nuclear technology to Viet Nam. Also we have provided a training course and seminar for a high-level delegation of nuclear policy decision makers, which is consisted of 5 deputy ministers and general directors of Viet Nam in Korea. Thus we could have Vietnamese who are favoring Korea. The KAERI will also prepare a data base of trained Vietnamese in Korea for the maximum utilization of them in cooperating with Viet Nam. We accomplished the cooperation of human resource development and providing program and curriculum of the nuclear education and training in Viet Nam. Furthermore, it is expected that the enhancement of nuclear technical cooperation between Viet Nam and Korea and the nuclear human resource development

  20. Cooperation of nuclear manpower development between Viet Nam and Korea in order to enhance establishment of infrastructure in exporting nuclear technology to Viet Nam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. J.; Han, K. W.; Park, J. K.; Kim, Y. T.; Nam, Y. M.; Jang, Y. H.; Yang, M. H

    2003-08-15

    Through this project, KAERI provided OJT Programme to 3 nuclear experts of Viet Nam at the KAERI for 3 months as a cooperation of human resource development in the field of nuclear policy, nuclear safety analysis and thermo hydraulic. We could have publicity activities of S/W and H/W then achieve an advantage position of economical and technical in exporting nuclear technology to Viet Nam. Also we have provided a training course and seminar for a high-level delegation of nuclear policy decision makers, which is consisted of 5 deputy ministers and general directors of Viet Nam in Korea. Thus we could have Vietnamese who are favoring Korea. The KAERI will also prepare a data base of trained Vietnamese in Korea for the maximum utilization of them in cooperating with Viet Nam. We accomplished the cooperation of human resource development and providing program and curriculum of the nuclear education and training in Viet Nam. Furthermore, it is expected that the enhancement of nuclear technical cooperation between Viet Nam and Korea and the nuclear human resource development.

  1. Diagnostics of the Enterprise Export Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrynkovskyy Ruslan M.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to form and develop theoretical and methodological foundations for diagnostics of the enterprise export potential, which should be understood as a process of identification, analysis and assessment of the level of potential possibility and readiness of the enterprise to implement export activities taking into account the impact of interrelated internal variables (goals, technology, structure, tasks, educational and professional potential of the staff and factors of the enterprise external environment (customers, competitors, suppliers, intermediaries, contact audience, etc. in order to ensure a qualitatively new level of its development and formation of its prospects. It is determined that the key business indicators of the system for diagnostics of enterprise export potential are: the level of enterprises competitiveness in the international (global market; the level of competitiveness of enterprise products; the level of competitiveness of enterprise export products; the level of enterprise resource opportunities; the level of enterprise export performance. Prospects for further research in this direction are to develop a classification (specifically detailed list of objectives of the enterprise diagnostics by the level of detail (element, partial, complex, taking into account diagnostics of export potential of the enterprise as part of diagnostic objective.

  2. Trade Promotion Organizations (TPOs Role in Laying the Groundwork for an Export Promotion Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OCTAVIAN-LIVIU OLARU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most countries focus on strategies for export development and promotion, given the importance of national goals and, in many cases, limited resources. A TPO has a significant role in laying the groundwork for an export promotion program. TPOs should pay close attention to the trade information needs of exporters and have appropriate mechanisms for acquiring such information systematically and disseminating it in a timely way. Moreover, a TPO provides basic and useful support to the export community if it can facilitate contacts between foreign buyers and exporters. Developing the export promotion program is one of the basic requirements when the TPO formulates its support program for the export sector.

  3. FAUNA OF COLEPTERA,TENEBRIORIDAE OF ARID COASTAL AND ISLAND ECOSYSTEMS OF THE CASPIAN SEA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the given paper is to expose species structure and geographical distribution of Coleoptera, Tenebrioridae (C, T of coastal and island ecosystem of the Caspian Sea. The given report is compiled of the matcrials, collected in different periods by authors (1961-2013 in the Caucasian part of the Caspian Sea, in the south of the European part of the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, islands (the Chechen island, the Nord island. The Tuleniyisland. The Kulaly island, collective materials (ZIN; RAS, museum of Zoology of MSU, Institute NAN of Azerbaijan, National museum of Georgia and materials published (Kryzhanovsky, 1965, Medvedev, 1987, 1990; Medvedev, Nepesova, 1990; Shuster, 1934; Kaluzhnaya, 1982; Arzanov and others, 2004, Egorov, 2006.Methods. We used the traditional methods of collecting (hand picking, traps soil, soil traps light amplification light traps, processing and material definition. List of species composition discussed fauna composed by modern taxonomy using directories. Location. Coastal and island ecosystems of the Caspian sea.Results. Species structure and data on general and regional distribution of C,T of coastal and island ecosystems of the Caspian Sea is represented in the paper. Faund discussed is widely represented in the fauna of arid regions of land, especially in the fauna of subtropical deserts and semideserts.Main conclusions. Results of the study will be a step in the determination of age of the islands through the biological diversity and the consequent level regime of the Caspian Sea, as well as possible changes in the population structure of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae on island ecosystems.

  4. Long-term variability of extreme waves in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, Victor; Dobroliubov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    In order to study extreme storm waves in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic Sea we used the spectral wave model SWAN. Significant wave height, swell and sea height, direction of propagation, their length and period were calculated with the NCEP/NCAR (1,9°x1,9°, 4-daily) reanalysis wind forcing from 1948 to 2010 in the Caspian, Black and Baltic Seas and with the NCEP/CFSR (0,3°x0,3°, 1 hour) for the period from 1979 to 2010 in the Azov Sea. The calculations were performed on supercomputers of Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU). The spatial resolution of the numerical grid was of order 5 km for the Caspian, Baltic and Black Seas, 2 km for the Azov Sea. These model wave hindcasts were used to calculate interannual and seasonal variability of the storm frequency, location and duration. The Initial Distribution Method and Annual Maxima Series Methods were used to study probable waves of a century reoccurrence. The long-term variability of extreme waves revealed different trends in the investigated seas. The Caspian and Azov seas decreased the storm activity, while in the Baltic Sea the number of storm cases increased and the Black Sea showed no significant trend. The of more than 12 m were observed in two centers in the middle part of the Caspian Sea and in the center of the Baltic Sea. In the Black Sea the extreme waves of the same probability of more than 14 m were found in the region to the south of the Crimean peninsula. In the Azov Sea the highest waves of a century reoccurrence do not exceed 5 m. The work was done in Natural Risk Assessment Laboratory, MSU under contract G.34.31.0007.

  5. The NPT and nuclear export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.

    1992-01-01

    Controls on the export of nuclear materials and technology were originally imposed in wartime and under the United States Atomic Energy Act of 1946 to restrict the supply of uranium. But there was no international agreement until the mid 1960s; before that the United States, Canada, France and the Soviet Union imposed export controls on a national basis. The Non-Proliferation Treaty, especially Articles I-IV, set out the first world wide controls on the nuclear trade. These articles are explained in the context of the relevant Committees (the Zangger Committee, the Committee on the Assurance of Supply, the National Export Committee and the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Control) and Guidelines (the Nuclear Suppliers Guidelines and the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation). Recent developments which have a bearing on nuclear trade, such as the single European market, the emergence of new supplies and the break-up of the Soviet Union, are considered. (UK)

  6. Safety and exportation of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coudray, M.; Perrais, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Safety problems arising from exportation are especially handled through the French exportation of PWR stations. Regulations differ widely from one country to another. However, very large use of American regulations is made and frequently there is a tendency to harden such or such clause in the quotation. Industry must be ready to give satisfaction to such demands of customers. Sometimes also, it is a mere duplication of French stations which is above all looked for. In that case, it is the problem of using French regulations abroad which arises. Desirable changes in examination proceedings are analyzed together with a French regulation effort aiming to make easier the promotion of their use abroad. Finally, safety may be a factor of success for exportation attempts. It is shown how useless some outbiddings may be, but also how, on the contrary, speeding up of research and development effort towards specific safety problems in case of exportation, is to be promoted [fr

  7. Exporting the Saemaul spirit: South Korea’s Knowledge Sharing Program and the ‘rendering technical’ of Korean development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucette, Jamie; Müller, Anders Riel

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a critical intervention into South Korea’s recent effort to promote its 1970s authoritarian-era rural modernization program, Saemaul Undong (New Village Movement), as the ‘iconic’ model of its international development assistance. To better understand how this movement has...... been represented, this article examines the policy narratives that have been produced by the Korean government’s Knowledge Sharing Program (KSP) and circulated through multiple development cooperation initiatives. These narratives portray Saemaul as the key to Korea’s developmental success: a mental...... questions about the ‘brand’ of development assistance that has been built upon it....

  8. THE POLLUTION OF THE BOTTOM SEDIMENTSIN THE NORTH-WESTERN PART OF THE CASPIAN SEA HYDROCARBONS AND PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Ostrovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The pollution of the bottom sediments in the north-western part of the Caspian sea hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. Location.Caspian Sea. Methods. The materials for this article is based on the results of monitoring conducted in 2012-2013 years. Results. Sediments in the north-western part of the Caspian Sea as a whole slightly contaminated YV and SOZ, although localized areas of high pollution are marked, especially characteristic of the Middle Caspian. Mainconclusions.The studies were showed, PAY in the sediments are mixed genesis, but most of them, in all probability, were petroleum origin. The not weathered hydrocarbons are presented in sediments, which indicates to the presence of the local sources of the fresh oil pollution on the surveyed area.

  9. Temperature, salinity, nutrients, and meteorological data collected from 1926 to 1991 aboard multiple platforms in Caspian Sea (NODC Accession 0072200)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0072200 contains temperature, salinity, nutrients, and meteorological data collected from 1926 to 1991 aboard multiple platforms in Caspian Sea.

  10. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SPECIES COMPOSITION OF GROUND BEETLES OF COASTAL AND ISLAND ECOSYSTEMS OF THE WESTERN CASPIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time studied the species composition of ground beetles of coastal and island ecosystems of the Western Caspian. The article provides a comparative analysis of species composition of ground beetles and adjacent areas.

  11. Australia's uranium export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    During the period 1954-71 in Australia approximately 9000 MT of U 3 O 8 was produced from five separate localities. Of this, 7000 MT was exported to the United Kingdom and United States and the balance stockpiled by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC). Australia's uranium ore reserves occur in eight deposits in three states and the Northern Territory. However, 83% of Australia's reserves are contained in four deposits in lower Proterozoic rocks in the East Alligator River region of the Northern Territory. The AAEC has calculated Australia's recoverable uranium reserves by eliminating estimated losses during the mining and milling of the ores. AAEC has estimated reasonably assured resources of 289,000 MT of uranium at a recovery cost of less than US$80 per kilogram uranium. The companies have collectively announced a larger ore reserve than the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. This difference is a result of the companies adopting different ore reserve categories. On August 25, 1977, the federal government announced that Australia would develop its uranium resources subject to stringent environmental controls, recognition of Aboriginal Land Rights, and international safeguards. Australian uranium production should gradually increase from 1981 onward, growing to 10,000 to 15,000 MT by 1985-86. Further increases in capacity may emerge during the second half of the 1980s when expansion plans are implemented. Exploration for uranium has not been intensive due to delays in developing the existing deposits. It is likely that present reserves can be substantially upgraded if more exploration is carried out. 6 figures, 3 tables

  12. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeles, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  13. Canada's nuclear export policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, R W; Wonder, E F [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology.

  14. Canada's nuclear export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.; Wonder, E.F.

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology. (O.T.)

  15. Modeling caspian sea water level oscilLations Under Diffrent Scenarioes of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GholamReza Roshan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978 has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in thecoastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was stimulated. Variations in environmentalparameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, tmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for bothpast (1951-2006 and future (2025-2100 time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software(version 5.3. The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site has increased by ca. 0.17ºC per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21. The Caspian Sea water level has increasedby ca. +36 mm per decade (r=0.82 between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64ºC and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin,temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78ºC and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels projectfuture water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  16. Correlations-Adjusted Export Market Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Joo La

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces new export market diversification indices incorporated with correlations of business cycles among export partners to identify the actual effects of export market diversification on export instability. Three existing export market diversification indices reflect the dispersion level in terms of the number of export partners and their export shares, without a clear control for correlations among export earnings from export partners. In addition, they are underestimated or ...

  17. West Angeles Community Development Corporation final technical report on export market feasibility planning and research for the solar medical autoclave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, G.D.

    1998-04-20

    This report summarizes core findings from an investigation performed by the staff of West Angeles Community Development Corporation (CDC) regarding the feasibility of marketing the Solar Medical Autoclave (``autoclave``) in South Africa. The investigation was completed during 1997, the period prescribed by the Grant Award made by the U.S. Department of Energy on January 1, 1997, and was monitored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  18. Export Control in the AREVA Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zero, S.

    2013-01-01

    After the Second World War the nuclear technology was mostly considered inappropriate for the export. It remains strictly regulated today, but the development of the civil applications urged states to facilitate the peaceful uses while establishing a strict control in the domains of the internal security and the nuclear proliferation. AREVA decided to set up an Export Control program applied to all the products and in all the countries where the group operates. AREVA can export products or make transfer of technology considered as sensitive for the non-proliferation and the risks linked to the terrorism. This sensitiveness results from the nature of the products or from the country of destination and in certain cases both of them. AREVA has set up an Export Control program and an interactive e-learning training within the Group to make exports of sensitive products, raw materials and technologies more secure. The subject is rather complex, the regulations are constantly evolving, and becoming familiar with them is necessarily a gradual process, but it must be made in-depth, hence the idea of regular training sessions. The implementation of the Export Control in the AREVA Group declines in four fundamental stages: -) Policy and procedure; -) Appointment of Export Control Officers (ECO); -) Training; and -) Audit and Self Assessment. The training program is composed by the following elements: Ethics (Value Charter) of the Group, Non-proliferation, international regulations and more particularly those that are applicable in Europe (Germany and France) and in the United States. Particular attention is devoted to the Export Control practice in China, Japan and India. (A.C.)

  19. A Histopathology Study of Caspian Seal (Pusa caspica (Phocidae, Mammalia Liver Infected with Trematode, Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Rudolphi, 1819 (Opisthorchidae, Trematoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Heckmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of this study was to investigate the invasive activity of the liver fluke, Pseudamphistomom truncatum against the Caspian seal (Pusa caspica and was exemplified at the gross, light microscopy (LM and electron microscopy (EM levels.The study was done on a freshly dead Caspian Seal in the southern coast of Caspian Sea. The checked Caspian seal probably being died of canine distemper virus and was found host to numerous parasites of four helminth species.P. truncatum caused edematous foci on the surface of the liver with prominent fluid accumulation. Sections of the liver viewed with LM had multiple necrotic areas with extensive hemorrhaging and disorganized hepatic lobules. Granulocytes and invasion of connective tissue were prominent. Whole worms were visible with invasive pathways through the host tissue. Damage to both hepatic ducts and blood vessels were prominent. At the EM level, organelles within the impacted hepatocytes were disorganized as exemplified by the cristae of the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum. Parasite eggs were scattered throughout the tissue.It was shown that this trematode can be very pathogenic to Caspian Seal and as this only mammal of Caspian Sea is an endangered species; this needs more investigation toward control or possible treatment of this helminth.

  20. Nuclear export controls and nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevini, F.

    2013-01-01

    The export control of dual use goods has developed since the early seventies to counter nuclear proliferation. The paper provides an overview of dual-use export control issues also in relation with the Additional Protocol to the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement, which requires States to provide declarations of the export of the controlled items listed in its Annex II, derived from the Nuclear Suppliers Group Trigger list. Recommendations for improvement are proposed. On the EU level, the paper summarises the framework set by the European Council Regulation 428/2009, requiring Member States to impose control on exports, brokering and transit of dual use goods. The Regulation includes the so-called 'EU dual-use control list' integrating the lists of dual-use items defined by the international regimes and requires also the control on intangible technology transfers as foreseen by U.N. Security Council Resolution 1540. ESARDA has recently launched a new sub-Working Group on export control, which raised large interest and may evolve to a full-fledged working group. Export control may provide an opportunity of technical collaboration between ESARDA and INMM. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  1. British Columbia's untapped wind export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, M.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discussed wind energy developments in British Columbia (BC). There are currently more than 5000 MW of wind power development activities in British Columbia, but only 325 MW of wind power purchase agreements (PPAs). Various renewable portfolio standards and greenhouse gas (GHG) initiatives are now being use to create demand for additional renewable energy development in the northwestern United States. Studies have demonstrated that BC wind export initiatives have the potential to deliver wind power to markets in the Pacific northwest. Canadian transmission export proposals are now examining methods of bringing renewable energy to areas with high load demands. However, the United States has more than 240,000 MW of proposed wind projects for key markets in the northwestern region. It was concluded that activities in United States wind development are now posing a challenge to Canadian wind energy exporters. Various transmission projects in the United States are now looking at developing renewable energy sources close to BC. tabs., figs

  2. Composition of Exports and Export Performance of Eurozone Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierts, P.J.; Kerkhoff, H.; de Haan, J.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates to what extent the composition of exports is related to the export performance of eurozone countries using a data set on exports from the oldest eurozone countries to their top 20 trade partners for the period 1988-2009. The results suggest that a higher share of high

  3. Caspian Sea International Environmental Security Game. Held at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania on 16-17 November 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Department 1995; FAO 1996). Further, Iran has developed export products based on fish protein concentrate (FPC) targeted at a far east market in Japan...program for the local populace, a major dietary change program involving a shift to fish as a protein source, and an export product-generating...Sea Basin. Env. Biol. of Fishes 48: 209-219. Khrushchev, S. 1997. Caviar Will Go the Way of Dinosaur Eggs. In Asia Inc. Ltd. Available online: http

  4. Effects of dietary peppermint (Mentha piperita) on growth performance, chemical body composition and hematological and immune parameters of fry Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; Abedian Amiri, Armin; Zorriehzahra, Jalil; Nematolahi, Amin; Esteban, Maria Ángeles

    2015-08-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is a very popular herb. While numerous effects have been described in mammals, its effects on fish have received so far limited attention. The effects of dietary administration of peppermint on fry Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) were studied. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0% (control), 1%, 2% and 3% of peppermint extracts for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases of growth parameters (WG and SGR), mucus skin (protein concentration, alkaline phosphatase and antimicrobial activity) and seric (lysozyme and IgM) and blood leucocyte respiratory burst activities and different hematological parameters (number of red and white cells, seric hemoglobin and hematocrit content) were recorded in fry fish fed supplemented diets. However, the dietary peppermint supplements have different effects on the number of blood leucocytes depending on the leucocyte cell type. While no significant differences were observed in the number of blood monocytes and eosinophils, the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes was increased and decreased, respectively, on fish fed peppermint enriched diets, respect to the values found in control fish. Present results corroborate that dietary administration of peppermint promotes growth performance and increases the main hematological and immune humoral (both mucosal and systemic) parameters of fry Caspian white fish. This study may provide new applications of peppermint and, at the same time, promote rational development and utilization of peppermint resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. THE TRADE STRUCTURE OF CHINESE MANUFACTURED EXPORTS: 1999-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Wei; Xi Wang

    2012-01-01

    Based on the classification of 144 kinds of manufactured products, we make an analysis on the technological structure of Chinese manufactured exports from 1999-2009. We find that: (1) the trade structure of Chinese manufactured exports are totally changed in both world and US markets, the share of Low Technology (LT) products in the total exports shrank while the share of High Technology (HT) products expanded. The development of HT1 products (electronic and electrical products) contributed a...

  6. Information, Corruption, and Measures for the Promotion of Manufactured Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; CHUN-YAN KUO

    2007-01-01

    There has been a growing emphasis in many developing countries on export-led growth policies that attract both domestic and foreign investment into activities that will increase exports. Many countries, however, have not achieved the desired response. Among other problems, investors often face foreign exchange controls, tariffs on imported inputs, and a costly system for the exemption or refund of sales inflow of foreign investment and prevented the expansion of export production and sales. T...

  7. Price impact on Russian gas production and export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononov, Y.D.

    2003-01-01

    The paper examines the prospects for Russian gas output and export under different price development. Growth of gas production and transportation costs, following an increase of gas export and production, is estimated. An attempt is made to determine the relation of efficient (from the point of view of gas companies) gas export volumes to prices on external energy markets. The paper presents a quantitative estimate of the possible impact of domestic gas price policy on gas output in Western Siberia. (author)

  8. Coastal dynamics of Garabogazköl bay of Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanov, Redzhep

    2016-04-01

    Garabogazköl is extremely interesting object for the study of coastal evolution and Caspian sea paleogeography. Bay plays an important role in evolution of the Caspian basin, as a major area of permanent loss of sea water, the volume of which varies in different years from 17 to 23 km3/year, averaging about 20.3 km3/year. Termination of runoff into the bay would provide annual Caspian Sea level rise of about 3 cm. Despite the large-scale research of the coast of the Caspian Sea during the Soviet era, Garabogazköl was generally poorly studied, mostly describing sedimentation patterns of salt deposits (associated with the production of sulfates). The basis of our study was the materials of remote sensing (satellite imagery), supported by field research, description of geomorphological structure of coasts. As known, the Caspian Sea level was at the lowest elevations from 1970 to 1985, ranging from -28.6 to -29.01 m. The creation of the dam in 1980 completely blocked Caspian water inflow into the Gulf, resulting even more drastic reduction in its area, which decreased by 3 times (from 18 to 6 thousand. km2), with depth less than 50 cm. In mid-1992, when the level of the Caspian Sea has risen by more than 2 meters over the level of 1978, the dam was destroyed. The obtained data allowed characterizing the peculiarities of the coast of the Gulf in these conditions. During the start of the coastal retreat first appeared drained relatively shallow northern and western parts. During this period the processes of accumulation were predominate. There was the deposition of thick (up to 1 m) salt horizon. Dominating wind-surge processes resulted relatively smoothed surface, filling rugged topography by terrigenous material and salt. After the explosion of the dam in 1992, the bay was quickly filled with water and in the next 3-4 years is completely covered the Gara-Bogaz depression. In general, a high stability of the coastline of the Gulf observed through analysis of the last

  9. Prevalence of Corynosoma caspicum infection in Gasterosteus aculeatus fish in Caspian Sea, Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Esboei, Bahman; Najm, Mahdi; Shaker, Morad; Fakhar, Mahdi; Mobedi, Iraj

    2017-09-01

    There is little information about the prevalence of Corynosoma caspicum in fish particularly Gasterosteus aculeatus in Iran and the world. The aim of the present study was to find out the prevalence of acanthocephalan infection in Babolsar district, southern coastal of Caspian Sea, Northern Iran. Between September 2012 and August 2014, a total of 360 G. aculeatus fishes were randomly collected by drift nets from coastal regions in Babolsar and then examined the intestine and body cavity for worm infections. A total of 360 G. aculeatus fishes, 109 (30.3%) were found infected with at least one Corynosoma capsicum , and there was no significant association between genders and the prevalence infection of acanthocephalan. Moreover, there was a significant difference in infected rate between summer (79%, 86/109) and spring (21%, 23/109) (paculeatus indicates the enzootic constancy status of the infection in the southern coastal of Caspian Sea, Northern Iran.

  10. The Review of Ecological and Genetic Research of Ponto-Caspian Gobies (Pisces, Gobiidae in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Goran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Ponto-Caspian gobies (monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis, round goby Neogobius melanostomus and bighead goby Ponticola kessleri have recently caused dramatic changes in fish assemblage structure throughout European river systems. This review provides summary of recent research on their dietary habits, age and growth, phylogenetic lineages and gene diversity. The principal food of all three species is invertebrates, and more rarely fish, which depends on the type of habitat, part of the year, as well as the morphological characteristics of species. According to the von Bertalanffy growth model, size at age is specific for the region, but due to its disadvantages it is necessary to test other growth models. Phylogenetic analysis of monkey goby and round goby indicates separation between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea haplotypes. The greatest genetic diversity is found among populations of the Black Sea, and the lowest among European invaders. The lack of molecular research on bighead goby requires further studies.

  11. Measurements of natural uranium concentration in Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf water by laser fluorimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garshasbi, H.; Karimi Diba, J.; Jahanbakhshian, M. H.; Asghari, S. K.; Heravi, G. H.

    2005-01-01

    Natural uranium exists in earth crust and seawater. The concentration of uranium might increase by human manipulation or geological changes. The aim of this study was to verify susceptibility of laser fluorimetry method to determine the uranium concentration in Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf water. Materials and Methods: Laser fluorimetric method was used to determine the uranium concentration in several samples prepared from Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf water. Biological and chemical substances were eliminated in samples for better evaluation of the method. Results: As the concentration of natural uranium in samples increases, the response of instrument (uranium analyzer) increases accordingly. The standard deviation also increased slightly and gradually. Conclusion: Results indicate that the laser fluorimetry method show a reliable and accurate response with uranium concentration up to 100 μg/L in samples after removal of biological and organic substances

  12. Tools for Export Promotion in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugachevska Kateryna S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the rate of growth in exports of goods and GDP is carried out, and goods exports to GDP ratio in the context of the developed countries, developing countries, and countries with the transition economy is calculated. This allows to make a conclusion about a decrease in importance of exports as a key engine of the world economic growth during the past years. The legal basis of the WTO’s activities in terms of state support for exports is described. The main reasons for the emergence of a conflict of interests between countries with different levels of economic development concerning the use of individual protectionist barriers are revealed. Potential long-term consequences of the growth of export orientation under conditions of openness of national economies are identified. The measures and tools of the country’s export promotion in foreign markets are studied. It is grounded that under conditions of destabilization of global trade regulators, effective export promotion is a mechanism for increasing the competitiveness of the national economy of Ukraine. Prospects for further research in this area are the determination of instruments to stimulate exports, which have the greatest impact on the export orientation of certain economic activities.

  13. Phosphorus forms of the surface sediment in the Iranian coast of the southern Caspian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrollahzadeh Saravi, H.; Pouraria, A.; Nowruzi, B.

    2015-01-01

    Sediments from the southern Caspian Sea, located in Iranian coast were examined on the basis of P-fractionation (five forms of phosphorus) by a sequential extraction scheme. Ninety-six surface sediment samples (for each season with triplicate) were collected from eight sampling transects in 10 and 100 m depths during summer and winter in 2010-2011. The result indicated that the most abundant forms of phosphorus were calcium bound phosphorus. Relative abundance of other forms of phosphorus fol...

  14. International conference Caspy-95. Caspian region: economy, ecology, mineral resources. Technical abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1996-12-31

    The collection of technical abstracts submitted to the International conference Caspy-95 held in Moscow (the Russian Federation), June 20-23, 1995, contains 166 presentations in the following fields: (1) Sea levels`s fluctuation and changes of water balance; (2) Geodynamics of the Caspian region; (3) Prospecting, exploration and exploitation of oil and gas fields; (4) Ecological and environmental problems; (5) Complex monitoring and engineering coastal protection; (6) Social-economical and legal aspects of natural resources usage.

  15. International conference Caspy-95. Caspian region: economy, ecology, mineral resources. Technical abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The collection of technical abstracts submitted to the International conference Caspy-95 held in Moscow (the Russian Federation), June 20-23, 1995, contains 166 presentations in the following fields: 1) Sea levels's fluctuation and changes of water balance; 2) Geodynamics of the Caspian region; 3) Prospecting, exploration and exploitation of oil and gas fields; 4) Ecological and environmental problems; 5) Complex monitoring and engineering coastal protection; 6) Social-economical and legal aspects of natural resources usage

  16. Globalisation, Geopolitics and Energy Security in Central Eurasia and the Caspian Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amineh, Parvizi Mehdi

    2003-07-01

    The demise of the Soviet Union and its subsequent break-up into 15 independent states gave rise to totally new political and strategic circumstances, which also extended into Central Eurasia and the Caspian Region. The eight newly independent states of this region have become one of the most important geopolitical areas in the post-Cold War era, due to a combination of its geographical position and significant oil and gas reserves. The region's resources are vital for advanced industrialised countries and figure prominently in Western geostrategic and economic interests in the twenty-first century. Intense competition, as well as co-operation, among various state and non-state actors for the control of these resources is emerging, also known as the New Great Game. The main actors involved in Central Eurasia and the Caspian region are identified as follows: inner circle actors (Russia, Iran, and Turkey), outer circle actors (China, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan), external actors (the United States, the European Union and its particular member states), and non-state actors (ethno-religious groups, Transnational Corporations, crime groups, etc.). The author analyses the New Great Game by using a neo-geopolitical perspective. An important element towards control of the region's energy resources is the construction of transport routes. The question of where to construct pipelines engenders considerable conflicts between the interested players that could create obstacles to building the most economically viable and secure pipelines. Transportation of energy resources to the global market is also subject to conflicts between different forces within the Central Eurasian region, including ethno-religious conflicts. Problems such as lack of infrastructure and technology, and finding a solution for the Caspian legal regime dispute could pose further obstacles to prospective pipeline construction. The book analyses these and other important local and geopolitical

  17. Globalisation, Geopolitics and Energy Security in Central Eurasia and the Caspian Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amineh, Parvizi Mehdi

    2003-01-01

    The demise of the Soviet Union and its subsequent break-up into 15 independent states gave rise to totally new political and strategic circumstances, which also extended into Central Eurasia and the Caspian Region. The eight newly independent states of this region have become one of the most important geopolitical areas in the post-Cold War era, due to a combination of its geographical position and significant oil and gas reserves. The region's resources are vital for advanced industrialised countries and figure prominently in Western geostrategic and economic interests in the twenty-first century. Intense competition, as well as co-operation, among various state and non-state actors for the control of these resources is emerging, also known as the New Great Game. The main actors involved in Central Eurasia and the Caspian region are identified as follows: inner circle actors (Russia, Iran, and Turkey), outer circle actors (China, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan), external actors (the United States, the European Union and its particular member states), and non-state actors (ethno-religious groups, Transnational Corporations, crime groups, etc.). The author analyses the New Great Game by using a neo-geopolitical perspective. An important element towards control of the region's energy resources is the construction of transport routes. The question of where to construct pipelines engenders considerable conflicts between the interested players that could create obstacles to building the most economically viable and secure pipelines. Transportation of energy resources to the global market is also subject to conflicts between different forces within the Central Eurasian region, including ethno-religious conflicts. Problems such as lack of infrastructure and technology, and finding a solution for the Caspian legal regime dispute could pose further obstacles to prospective pipeline construction. The book analyses these and other important local and geopolitical aspects to

  18. The Analysis of Project Finance: a Case Study of Kazakhstan Caspian Transportation System Project

    OpenAIRE

    Serikbayeva, Aigul

    2011-01-01

    Although project finance is a large and fast growing field in finance, there has been very little academic research in that area. The main reason for this deficit is that it is a relatively new sphere in finance and it is difficult to access the information about the implementation of projects from the companies that implement them. This project will provide an overview of how companies finance large infrastructure projects through a case study of the Kazakhstan Caspian Transportation System ...

  19. Exporting Humanist Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The article is a chapter in the catalogue for the Danish exhibition at the 2016 Architecture Biennale in Venice. The catalogue is conceived at an independent book exploring the theme Art of Many - The Right to Space. The chapter is an essay in this anthology tracing and discussing the different...... values and ethical stands involved in the export of Danish Architecture. Abstract: Danish architecture has, in a sense, been driven by an unwritten contract between the architects and the democratic state and its institutions. This contract may be viewed as an ethos – an architectural tradition...... with inherent aesthetic and moral values. Today, however, Danish architecture is also an export commodity. That raises questions, which should be debated as openly as possible. What does it mean for architecture and architects to practice in cultures and under political systems that do not use architecture...

  20. Nuclear exporters cartel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelbaum, M.

    1977-01-01

    Events that have transpired in the past few years that have caused renewed concern about the spread of nuclear weapons are reviewed. Many proposals have been made recently for keeping the bomb from spreading. The author feels that the most novel and intriguing of them is the one advanced by Senator Abraham Ribicoff and Steven J. Baker; in their proposal, the world market for nuclear reactors would be divided into precisely defined shares among the industrial nations that now manufacture them for export; each exporter would be guaranteed a certain number of sales annually; and each would pledge not to sell uranium enrichment or plutonium reprocessing technology, as Germany did to Brazil. This might not halt proliferation, but it would give the world a few more years to find a solution

  1. New opportunities for U.S. coal and mineral exporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    U.S. exports of coal, metals and industrial minerals to the European Community were valued at $2.4 billion in 1989, representing 47 percent of total export revenues generated by these materials. Coal was the single largest contributor to the value of mineral exports to the EC with total sales of approximately $2 billion in 1989. With the extinction of trade barriers that will be triggered by the economic and political unification of Europe, new opportunities for U.S. minerals exporters are likely to develop. This paper examines the overall impact of European integration on U.S. metal and industrial mineral exports and provides a more rigorous analysis of the outlook for thermal and coking coal exports to the EC during the next decade

  2. Cell wall-bound invertase limits sucrose export and is involved in symptom development and inhibition of photosynthesis during compatible interaction between tomato and Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocal, Nurcan; Sonnewald, Uwe; Sonnewald, Sophia

    2008-11-01

    Cell wall-bound invertase (cw-Inv) plays an important role in carbohydrate partitioning and regulation of sink-source interaction. There is increasing evidence that pathogens interfere with sink-source interaction, and induction of cw-Inv activity has frequently been shown in response to pathogen infection. To investigate the role of cw-Inv, transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants silenced for the major leaf cw-Inv isoforms were generated and analyzed during normal growth and during the compatible interaction with Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria. Under normal growth conditions, activities of sucrolytic enzymes as well as photosynthesis and respiration were unaltered in the transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. However, starch levels of source leaves were strongly reduced, which was most likely caused by an enhanced sucrose exudation rate. Following X. campestris pv vesicatoria infection, cw-Inv-silenced plants showed an increased sucrose to hexose ratio in the apoplast of leaves. Symptom development, inhibition of photosynthesis, and expression of photosynthetic genes were clearly delayed in transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. In addition, induction of senescence-associated and pathogenesis-related genes observed in infected wild-type plants was abolished in cw-Inv-silenced tomato lines. These changes were not associated with decreased bacterial growth. In conclusion, cw-Inv restricts carbon export from source leaves and regulates the sucrose to hexose ratio in the apoplast. Furthermore, an increased apoplastic hexose to sucrose ratio can be linked to inhibition of photosynthesis and induction of pathogenesis-related gene expression but does not significantly influence bacterial growth. Indirectly, bacteria may benefit from low invertase activity, since the longevity of host cells is raised and basal defense might be dampened.

  3. Status and perspectives of fish industry of Azerbaijan in conditions of increased oil and gas extraction in the Caspian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadjiev, R.V; Kasimov, R.Yu; Akhundov, M.M; Karaev, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text:The Caspian Sea plays important role in supply of the population of Azerbaijan Republic with fish products. Furthermore, the Caspian Sea is the single pond where more than 70% of sturgeons are harvested all over the world. Besides, more than 80% of the big bony fishes harvested in the ponds of Azerbaijan, are caught in the Caspian Sea. On the other hand, the entrails of the Caspian Sea contain tremendous amounts of oil and gas deposits whose extraction disturbs partially the ecological equilibrium in this unique pond. It should be noticed that since 1973-1974 the increase of sturgeon harvest was observed. The special scientific Institute of Fish Industry in Astrakhan city with its branch in Azerbaijan was founded. In the same years top amount of oil was extracted in the Caspian Sea and simultaneously high pollution level of the sea with oil and oil products, having been clearly seen in the Sea-attached Boulevard, was fixed. However, in spite of these unfavorable conditions, the sturgeon harvests, due to their reproduction in the hatcheries and following release into the sea, increased not only in Azerbaijan, but also all over the whole Caspian Sea basin. It is impossible to keep serenity today owing to the fact that broadening of oil extraction in the Caspian Sea for new deposits are situated near to the fattening areas of juveniles of valuable fish species, in the estuary of the Kura river and other small rivers where sex-mature fishes migrate. Besides, the migration ways of sturgeons the North origin pass through these zones: in autumn- from the North to the South, while in early and middle spring- in opposite direction

  4. ANALYSIS OF CHINESE GARMENT EXPORT SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mina

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Chinese garment export sector. The Chinese garment industry has been an economic pillar ever since the open-door policy and economic reforms of the country took effect in 1979. Earnings from apparel exports have been a major source of foreign revenue. The industry has thus developed and played a vital role in the growth of China?s foreign trade and economic development although some signs of slackened vigour have been revealed recently. To assess the threats and opport...

  5. Exports of petroleum products, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1987 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 22,200 m 3 /d in 1987, up 15% from 1986 levels. Exports of middle distillates and aviation fuel had the largest gains in 1987. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was below the New York spot price in the beginning of 1987 but remained close for the rest of the year. Canada's petroleum products exports were made to 5 countries while imports came from at least 13 countries. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Exports to Japan and the Far East rose ca 60% over 1986. Product outturns for export were 9% of total Canadian refinery throughput. Exports of aviation turbine fuel from Ontario began in April 1987. The top single exporter in Canada was Irving Oil Ltd. with 2,485,000 m 3 . Irving was also the top exporter in 1986. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Caspian seals of unusual mortality event during 2000 and 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiwara, Natsuko; Watanabe, Mafumi; Wilson, Susan; Eybatov, Tariel; Mitrofanov, Igor V.; Aubrey, David G.; Khuraskin, Lev S.; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PCDDs/DFs were determined in the blubber of Caspian seals, which died during an outbreak of canine distemper virus in 2000 and 2001. DDTs were the predominant contaminants that ranged from 3.1 to 560 μg/g lipid. A negative correlation was observed between concentration of contaminants and blubber thickness. During spring, as the blubber layer becomes thin after breeding and moulting, seals may face higher risk due to the increased concentration of organochlorines in their bodies. TEQs in the blubber of Caspian seals (10-340 pg TEQ/g) were lower than those in seals from other locations, suggesting that toxic effects of these contaminants are a deal less in the present population and they are unlikely to be linked to mass mortality. The levels of PCBs and pesticides in Caspian seals, however, comparable to those in other aquatic mammals that have suffered from epizootics, might pose a risk of immunosuppression. - POPs in seals are high enough to induce immunosuppression

  7. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Caspian seals of unusual mortality event during 2000 and 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiwara, Natsuko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: kajiwara.natsuko@nies.go.jp; Watanabe, Mafumi [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Wilson, Susan [Tara Seal Research Centre, Co. Down, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Eybatov, Tariel [Geological Institute of the Azerbaijan Republic Academy of Science, Baku (Azerbaijan); Mitrofanov, Igor V. [Laboratory of Hydrobiology and Ecotoxicology, Institution of Zoology, Academgorodok, Almaty 480060 (Kazakhstan); Aubrey, David G. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Khuraskin, Lev S. [Caspian Fisheries Research Institute, Astrakhan 414056 (Russian Federation); Miyazaki, Nobuyuki [Center for International Cooperation, Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 1-15-1 Minamidai, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-8639 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

    2008-03-15

    Persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PCDDs/DFs were determined in the blubber of Caspian seals, which died during an outbreak of canine distemper virus in 2000 and 2001. DDTs were the predominant contaminants that ranged from 3.1 to 560 {mu}g/g lipid. A negative correlation was observed between concentration of contaminants and blubber thickness. During spring, as the blubber layer becomes thin after breeding and moulting, seals may face higher risk due to the increased concentration of organochlorines in their bodies. TEQs in the blubber of Caspian seals (10-340 pg TEQ/g) were lower than those in seals from other locations, suggesting that toxic effects of these contaminants are a deal less in the present population and they are unlikely to be linked to mass mortality. The levels of PCBs and pesticides in Caspian seals, however, comparable to those in other aquatic mammals that have suffered from epizootics, might pose a risk of immunosuppression. - POPs in seals are high enough to induce immunosuppression.

  8. Caspian Sea Oil – Still the Great Game for Central Eurasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Gunder Frank

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A book with a foreword by Pat Clawson of the National Defense University and editor of ORBIS, and dedicated to Ronald Reagan and Target Ozxal, announces its U.S. far-right wing political pedigree literally up front. However the book is chock full of information, alas most already well known to anyone even remotely familiar with the problematique under review; but it also offers some incisive analysis. The twelve contributed chapters by fourteen authors and coauthors are divided into three parts dedicated to examining and analyzing the general history and mutual background of the Caspian Sea region; to the ?ve littoral states of Azerbaijan, Russia, Iran, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan; and to three ‘external’ interested states, the United States, Turkey, and Georgia. Nonetheless, the review by each author goes well beyond the nominative boundaries assigned to him or her and trespasses over into the topics, territories and their relations assigned to other authors. Quite prop-erly so, in view of the mutually complex real-life interrelations in the Caspian Sea Basin, so that no topic or state could be adequately understood in itself other than in relation to the others. Indeed, we are witnessing the contemporary continuation of the nineteenth century “Great Game” for the control of Central Eurasia. However, the oil connection also reaches well beyond Caspian Sea and must make this book pertinent also to readers of this journal.

  9. Silver nanoparticles cause osmoregulatory impairment and oxidative stress in Caspian kutum (Rutilus kutum, Kamensky 1901)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masouleh, Fatemeh F.; Amiri, Bagher M.; Mirvaghefi, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly used in several industrial and household products because of their antibacterial and antifungal properties. Hence, there is an inevitable risk that these chemicals may end up in aquatic biotopes and have adverse effects on the fauna. In order to asses...... compared to controls. Whole-body cortisol and thyroid hormones decreased compared to controls. In conclusion, the study demonstrates that AgNPs cause oxidative stress and gill osmoregulatory disruption in Caspian kutum juveniles....... potential health effects on aquatic organisms, this study evaluated the effects of waterborne AgNP exposure for 7 days on a set of critical stress parameters in juvenile Caspian kutum (Rutilus kutum), an economically important fish in the Caspian Sea. The applied level 11 μg/l of AgNP is high compared......) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and whole-body cortisol and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) were measured as endpoints. Gill hsp70 mRNA expression increased and gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity decreased in AgNP-exposed fish compared to controls. The specific activities of all liver enzymes decreased significantly...

  10. Effects of nest density, location, and timing on breeding success of Caspian Terns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolos, Michelle; Roby, D.D.; Lyons, Donald E.; Anderson, Scott K.; Collis, K.

    2006-01-01

    One of the proposed benefits of colonial nesting in birds is the protection afforded against avian predators. This advantage may be counter-balanced by the negative effects of intraspecific aggression on breeding success. Effects of nest density, nest location within the colony, and timing of nest initiation on productivity of Caspian Terns (Sterna caspia) were investigated on Crescent Island in the mid-Columbia River, Washington, USA. In the absence of intense nest predation at the Crescent Island tern colony, it was hypothesized that nest density would be negatively associated with productivity. A rangefinder was used to determine spatial distribution of Caspian Tern nests, and these data used to calculate nest characteristics (nest density, nearest neighbor distance, and distance to colony edge) for a randomly-selected subset of nests monitored for nest chronology and productivity. Productivity did not differ between nests in high- and low-density areas of the colony, and was positively associated with earlier nest initiation. Early nests were more productive, were located in areas of higher nest density, and were further from the colony edge than late nests. The strong effect of timing may have been attributable to seasonal declines in prey resources for terns at this site. Our results suggest that Caspian Terns nesting at the highest densities observed in this study did not incur immediate reproductive costs, despite increased potential for encounters between chicks and aggressive conspecific adults.

  11. The future of Russian gas exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiononv, Alexander; Krasheninnikov, Yuri; Panin, Sergei

    1999-12-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; The structure of Russian gas exports; Exports to Europe; Exports to Turkey/Middle East; Exports to Asia/Pacific Rim; FSU gas exports; Regulations for exporting gas from Russia; Equipment and services. (Author)

  12. Joint industry planning platforms for coal export supply chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, R.; Buckley, N.; Goodall, J.; Seeley, D. [InterDynamics Pty. Ltd. (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    Improving the performance and reducing the costs associated with export logistics chain is critical to the competitiveness of export coal mines. The fundamental practices associated with the use of export logistics chains made up of mine, trucking, rail and port operations are being challenged by the advent of third party operators on rail systems and the use of the Internet. Whilst individual mines can improve their processes to drive down their mining costs, they face major challenges in their endeavour to improve the performance of export logistics chains and reduce the significant logistics costs of moving coal from the mine to export ships, via the shared infrastructure of rail systems and ports. There is an increasing realisation that global competition is not only between mines but between coal export regions that are defined by their rail system and ports infrastructure. The development and use of a joint industry planning platform for the export logistics chains of the Western Australian Grain Industry has demonstrated that an industry facing significant restructuring and increased competitiveness can achieve major throughput and cost reduction gains when stakeholders in export logistics chains share key planning information using the Internet and state of the art planning tools. Joint industry planning platforms for export logistics chains are being considered or are at initial stages of development for a number of Australasian coal export logistics chains. This paper addresses the key components of joint industry planning platforms, the key information that should be shared, the use of the internet and information servers, and the contractual structures required to enable stakeholders of an export logistics chain, who are competitors or potential competitors, to work together to improve the competitiveness of a coal export region. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  13. NFLUENCE OF SALTED ENVIRONMENT ON FODDER HERBS EFFICIENCY OF PASTURABLE PHYTOCOENOSES OF THE NORTH-WESTERN CASPIAN LOWLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Z. Usmanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The changes in the intensity of biological processes in the vegetation and productivity of forage grasses depending on the degree of soil salinity of the North-West Caspian Lowland were studied. Salination factors are specific. They are formed because of their adaptive nature, providing for species the opportunity to get the certain position in the relevant biocenosis. As a result each species produces its own strategy of life. Development of saline processes of soil in the growth and development of the plant mass, biological and agronomic salt resistance is clearly seen. Biological salt resistance is characterized by the ability to maintain the viability of the plant body at the upper limit of salinity. Agronomical salt resistance is determined by the value of crop and productivity. Adaptive possibilities of different plant species with different biological characteristics were also examined.Subject, objective of the work. Productivity of vegetation of semidesert ecosystems and dynamics under the influence of salinity forage grass pasture phytocenoses of the North-West Caspian Lowland were studied.Test method. We studied fodder crops: wheat grass long (Elytrigia elongata, ctenoid wheatgrass (Agropirum cristatum and alfalfa (Medicago sativa. The crop from each significant area was weighed; it was taken from the average sample weighed in at 1 kg in a gauze bag for drying at a temperature of 60–65 °C in airing cupboard where brought to constant weight. Accounting for phytomass was carried by laying mowing area 8–10 times. Dimensions of mowing fields are 0.25 m2, that ensured coverage of all dominant plants.Results. At mid-saline meadow-chestnut soil of the North-West Caspian Lowland wheatgrass long gives the highest yield of green mass – 18,1 tons per hectare of dry weight average for 2003–2010. Alfalfa crop is in the second place, that is less than bluegrass by 18.0 % (2.9 tons per hectare. The least yield of these crops is

  14. FEATURES OF MIGRATION OF HEAVY METALS IN THE NORTHERN CASPIAN ECOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. V. Chujko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Study of the forms of migration of heavy metals in water of the Northern part of the Caspian Sea, the characteristics of their accumulation in sediments and fish fauna are presented.Methods. The western part of the North Caspian Sea is investigated in 2002–2009. Complex of sampling, transportation, storage and handling of samples was carried out in accordance with the regulations and methods of measurement.Results. The main share of elements in sea water was transferred as a part of suspended particles. Most often ionic forms of migration of metals dominated over weighed in the central part of a shallow zone of pre-mouth of Volga River. The greatest number of cases of excess was recorded by metals of maximum-permissible concentration in the central part of the studied water area with depths from 5 m to 10 m. It is established that the index of impurity of waters of the changed in the range from 0,2 (waters alone to 3,4 (the polluted waters. The surface water of the water area is located in the western part of the studied area. The greatest coefficients of ground accumulation (CGA are characteristic for iron and the manganese, the least for Zincum. The western part of the studied water area belongs to areas with the greatest values of CGA of metals in the north part of the Caspian Sea: zone near Island Chechen and the region of Volga-Caspian Channel. Cases of excess of the admissible residual concentration for lead and cadmium are noted in Neogobius fluviatilis and sprat ordinary practically in 50 % of cases, and in 35 % in Rutilus caspicus. Most often all studied hydrobionts containing metals in concentration above admissible residual concentration were met in zone before mouth of Volga River.Main conclusions. The main form of migration of heavy metals in the water of the north part of the Caspian Sea is suspension. The largest accumulation of heavy metals was found in the sediments of the western part of the area. The content

  15. PROJECT FINANCE THE ROLE OF EXPORT CREDIT AGENCIES IN PROJECT FINANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Ceren YALCIN

    2013-01-01

    The functions of Export Credit Agencies have an important place in the economies of countries in terms of contribution to economic growth. The developed countries follow various policies and constitute institutions for the development and support of export and export financing. Every country develops its own export-financing mechanism, according to its own economic situation within the existing legal framework. However, the privatization and economic deregulation actions in the approaches to ...

  16. BASIC LAWS OF DISTRIBUTION AND GENESIS OF PSAMMOPHILOUS COLEOPTERA OF PONTO-CASPIAN REGION IN THE CASE OF TENEBRIONIDAE AND SCARABAEOIDEA (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Nabozhenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deal with migration ways of psammophilous Tenebrionidae and Scarabaeoidea of Ponto-Caspian region since the Pliocene. Reconstruction of genesis of the fauna is made after analyses of contemporary distribution. Zoogeographical analyses of fauna showed the share of species with different distribution in 3 zoogeographical big regions and bassins of Caspian sea, Sea of Azov and Black sea.

  17. BASIC LAWS OF DISTRIBUTION AND GENESIS OF PSAMMOPHILOUS COLEOPTERA OF PONTO-CASPIAN REGION IN THE CASE OF TENEBRIONIDAE AND SCARABAEOIDEA (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA)

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Nabozhenko; I. V. Shokhin; G. M. Abdurahmanov; A. M. Klicheva; A. V. Morakhonich; D. I. Oleinik

    2012-01-01

    The paper deal with migration ways of psammophilous Tenebrionidae and Scarabaeoidea of Ponto-Caspian region since the Pliocene. Reconstruction of genesis of the fauna is made after analyses of contemporary distribution. Zoogeographical analyses of fauna showed the share of species with different distribution in 3 zoogeographical big regions and bassins of Caspian sea, Sea of Azov and Black sea.

  18. Quantifying the effect of predators on endangered species using a bioenergetics approach : Caspian terns and juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roby, DD; Lyons, DE; Craig, DP; Collis, K; Visser, GH

    We estimated the consumption of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) and other forage fishes by Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) nesting on Rice Island in the Columbia River estuary in 1997 and 1998 using a bioenergetics modeling approach. The study was prompted by concern that Caspian tern predation

  19. Oil sector developments: Russia, Azerbaijan and Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    The level of resource development in Russia, Azerbaijan and in the countries of Central Asia was discussed. The resources of crude oil and natural gas in the area are considered more than sufficient to support any reasonable expansion for the foreseeable future and this should mean higher exportable surpluses. The collapse of the Soviet Union resulted in the emergence of 15 sovereign and independent nations, collectively known as the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The end of the cold war opened the CIS's oil sector to foreign investors. However, access to these markets has been blocked by the physical isolation of Azerbaijan and Central Asia. According to forecasters, by the year 2005, the annual oil production of the CIS shall reach 7.9 million barrels per day, approximately 11.3 per cent higher than in 1996. Natural gas production is expected to increase by about 30 per cent to 900 billion cubic meters per year. Western capital will be key to the future of resource development in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan. It was suggested that by 2010, the exportable oil from the Caspian Sea and Central Asia will represent 3 to 4 per cent of world oil supply. This projection emphasizes the fact that this new oil would be in addition to, and not in place of oil from the Persian Gulf. Some of the economic and political problems that have had a delaying effect on the development of pipelines through these regions were also reviewed

  20. Exploring potential and opportunities for pakistan cotton export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, G. S.; Tariq, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is the single largest shareholder to GDP an employment to labour force. It has major share in export but unfortunately unable to meet international standards. This study aims to analyze the pattern of Pakistan cotton export, and to explore sector's export potential and opportunities. This new research endeavor with well-tested analytical tools enabled the trade experts and policy makers to explore the answer of lackness for diversification in export, HS-2- digits aggregated data for cotton sub-sectors have been used with latest data from 2004 to 2013 for the panel 39 countries. Revealed comparative advantage (RCA) index and gravity model approach was employed considering country and time specific fixed effect. The RCA index revealed that cotton sub-sectors have comparative advantage in export and there is gradual gain in the competitiveness with time. The opportunity exists in the markets of low, lower-middle and upper middle income countries and countries those have fair trade (low tariff and non-tariff barriers) for cotton export. Greater export potential lies with malaysia, kenya jordan, thailand, mauritius, netherlands norway, Australia and russian federation for export of cotton, however, export potential for cotton has been exhausted with canada, france, india, iran and saudi arabia. The study provide the policy information that countries of Latin america, eastern europe, central asia and northern africa are virgin for export. Therefore, pakistan should penetrate in these markets for export of cotton and other agricultural products. cognizant to new trade theories, pakistan focus on quality to gain maximum trade volume in the markets of high income countries, Pakistan may develop trade agreement with ASEAN, SAFTA, and EU-27 for export of agricultural products. (author)

  1. Mitochondrial phylogeography illuminates the origin of the extinct caspian tiger and its relationship to the amur tiger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Driscoll

    Full Text Available The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata flourished in Central Asian riverine forest systems in a range disjunct from that of other tigers, but was driven to extinction in 1970 prior to a modern molecular evaluation. For over a century naturalists puzzled over the taxonomic validity, placement, and biogeographic origin of this enigmatic animal. Using ancient-DNA (aDNA methodology, we generated composite mtDNA haplotypes from twenty wild Caspian tigers from throughout their historic range sampled from museum collections. We found that Caspian tigers carry a major mtDNA haplotype differing by only a single nucleotide from the monomorphic haplotype found across all contemporary Amur tigers (P. t. altaica. Phylogeographic analysis with extant tiger subspecies suggests that less than 10,000 years ago the Caspian/Amur tiger ancestor colonized Central Asia via the Gansu Corridor (Silk Road from eastern China then subsequently traversed Siberia eastward to establish the Amur tiger in the Russian Far East. The conservation implications of these findings are far reaching, as the observed genetic depletion characteristic of modern Amur tigers likely reflects these founder migrations and therefore predates human influence. Also, due to their evolutionary propinquity, living Amur tigers offer an appropriate genetic source should reintroductions to the former range of the Caspian tiger be implemented.

  2. Mitochondrial phylogeography illuminates the origin of the extinct caspian tiger and its relationship to the amur tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Roca, Alfred L; Luo, Shujin; Macdonald, David W; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) flourished in Central Asian riverine forest systems in a range disjunct from that of other tigers, but was driven to extinction in 1970 prior to a modern molecular evaluation. For over a century naturalists puzzled over the taxonomic validity, placement, and biogeographic origin of this enigmatic animal. Using ancient-DNA (aDNA) methodology, we generated composite mtDNA haplotypes from twenty wild Caspian tigers from throughout their historic range sampled from museum collections. We found that Caspian tigers carry a major mtDNA haplotype differing by only a single nucleotide from the monomorphic haplotype found across all contemporary Amur tigers (P. t. altaica). Phylogeographic analysis with extant tiger subspecies suggests that less than 10,000 years ago the Caspian/Amur tiger ancestor colonized Central Asia via the Gansu Corridor (Silk Road) from eastern China then subsequently traversed Siberia eastward to establish the Amur tiger in the Russian Far East. The conservation implications of these findings are far reaching, as the observed genetic depletion characteristic of modern Amur tigers likely reflects these founder migrations and therefore predates human influence. Also, due to their evolutionary propinquity, living Amur tigers offer an appropriate genetic source should reintroductions to the former range of the Caspian tiger be implemented.

  3. Examining the role of export competitive advantages on export performance

    OpenAIRE

    Yeganeh Alimohammadi; Reza Aghamousa; Fataneh Alizadeh Meshkani

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of export competitive advantage on export performance in food industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 280 randomly selected experts in food industry and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.827. The study has applied factor analysis to find important factors influencing export performance. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity have been performed to validate th...

  4. Export policy and non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.A.V.

    1978-01-01

    Developing countries with a nuclear programme are about a dozen according to information obtained by IAEA. They are a group hostile to any restriction imposed on nuclear technology export and consider that such restriction is contrary to the global concept of North/South co-operation which provides for transfer of advanced technology. In particular, they object to the fact that nuclear weapon states make use of Article 4 of the NPT. Industrialised countries are required to keep a balance between a regular and stable supply system and the assurance that exported nuclear installations and materials are placed under international control according to the IAEA Safeguards. (NEA) [fr

  5. Can market stability be improved. Government and export contract approvals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    The following aspects are discussed: long-term contracts vs spot or short-term uranium transactions; impact of widely fluctuating prices on primary producing/exporting countries and their producers; forecast of growing and largely predictable demand for uranium over next decade or two; effects of government actions; Australian development and export policies. (U.K.)

  6. Exporting to Russia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    the aspects of territoriality and institutional context, and suggests their integration into one concept, or rather a process of contextualizing territories. In doing so, the article argues for a methodology that not only examines current events, but also captures change as particularly important in what we......This article draws on extensive fieldwork conducted in Central Asia to explore food exports to Russia. It takes its theoretical starting point in global value chain theory and pinpoints chain entry barriers relating to financing, transportation and standards. The article also proposes rethinking...

  7. Soviet energy export prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Tony

    1991-05-01

    The Soviet Union produces 20% of world energy but since 1988 this is in decline. Awakening consumerism and a sea-change in the structure of foreign trade and internal investment are placing this key industry into unprecedented uncertainty. The difference between success and failure goes beyond the 1988 peak of six million barrels daily of exports in oil equivalent. The article quantifies the key areas of energy uncertainty as equal in volume to total OPEC output and sees the long-term changes of success more than ever dependent on coordinated planning and investment as well as on market reality. (Author).

  8. Histological and allometric growth analysis of eye in Caspian kutum, Rutilus kutum Kamensky, 1901 (Teleostei: Cyprinidae during early developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh Hasanpour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish larvae have several sensory systems that are functional at or soon after hatching and then are developed further during larval and juvenile stages. This study was conducted to investigate development of the eye in Rutilus kutum, based on histological and allometric growth analysis during early developmental stages up to 35 day post hatching with emphasis on retinal morphology. For this purpose, the histological sections were prepared and allometric growth pattern of the eye was calculated. The results showed that the most eye’s structures along with the retina of the newly hatched larvae, as the inner sensory (photosensitive tissue were completely differentiated. Allometric growth pattern of the eye diameter up to the inflexion point (7 dph was somewhat positive and then it became negative. The results revealed that the Caspian kutum is dependence on visual capability as visual feeder during their larval period which itself explains completion of eye structures and the high growth rate of eye before 3 dph i.e. beginning of mixed feeding.

  9. Preliminary results on biological aspects of the grass snake, Natrix natrix in the southern coastal area of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraham Ahmadzadeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Natrix natrix is, together with N. tessellata, the only representative of water snakes found in Iran. The lack of ecological studies on this species in Iran stimulated the current preliminary research on some basic biological traits. From April to July 2008, a total of fifty five snakes were collected from two stations in the southern part of the Caspian Sea coast, Iran: Gomishan Wetland and Sari. Basic morphometrics were compared between sexes and stations and gonadal development was compared between stations and seasons. At the two stations, adult sex ratio was not different from 1:1 and juveniles composed a predominant portion of the sample. Both sexes had unimodal length class size with a peak at 40-45 cm snout-vent length (SVL. Body sizes were unusually small for the species and no SVL sexual dimorphism was detected although males were relatively heavier than females for the same SVL. Snakes of both sexes attained larger size with better body condition at Sari than in Gomishan. Males and females carried more mature gonads in summer. However, in Sari males developed relatively larger testes earlier in the season and both sexes displayed less synchronic reproduction at this station. These results are best explained by local variations in habitat, trophic availability and degree of environmental disturbance.

  10. Export Processing Zones and Global Class Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neveling, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with one of the most striking developments in the global political economy of capitalism after the Second World War; the rise of export processing zones and special economic zones. Building on long-term ethnohistorical research on the zones’ global spread from one zone in

  11. Import-Export Business Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Asad, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Import export businesses, also known as international trading, are one of the hottest commercial trends of this decade. Since the owner of an import export enterprise, can work as a distributor by focusing on exporting and importing goods and services that cannot be obtained on national soil. With a rapidly growing population of about 150 million, Pakistan is a major country, recognized by the international community, and is one of the most important actors in the Islamic world. Based on its ...

  12. Protein export through the bacterial flagellar type III export pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Tohru

    2014-08-01

    For construction of the bacterial flagellum, which is responsible for bacterial motility, the flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes both ATP and proton motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane and exports flagellar proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the nascent structure. The export apparatus consists of a membrane-embedded export gate made of FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR and a water-soluble ATPase ring complex consisting of FliH, FliI, and FliJ. FlgN, FliS, and FliT act as substrate-specific chaperones that do not only protect their cognate substrates from degradation and aggregation in the cytoplasm but also efficiently transfer the substrates to the export apparatus. The ATPase ring complex facilitates the initial entry of the substrates into the narrow pore of the export gate. The export gate by itself is a proton-protein antiporter that uses the two components of proton motive force, the electric potential difference and the proton concentration difference, for different steps of the export process. A specific interaction of FlhA with FliJ located in the center of the ATPase ring complex allows the export gate to efficiently use proton motive force to drive protein export. The ATPase ring complex couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to its assembly-disassembly cycle for rapid and efficient protein export cycle. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of Export Trade Financing in India with Particular Reference to Commercial Banks: Problems and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Sen Gupta, A. K.; Keshari, Pradeep Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Exports are instrumental in the development of an economy, particularly developing nations. The Indian Financial System, through commercial bank offer financial resources for promoting exports by providing both pre and post shipment finances. LERMS and Full –convertibility on trade account of Indian rupee have provided importers to export financing, so also the New Trade Policy, provides a Favourable climate for exports. The present paper spells out the role and share of commercial banks ...

  14. Russian nuclear industry exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatchev, A.

    2016-01-01

    Rosatom is the world leader for the export of nuclear technologies. 34 reactors of Russian technology are being built or planned worldwide. Most reactors proposed by Rosatom are third generation VVER-1200 units with an electric power output of 1200 MWe. Although the nuclear island is always built by Rosatom, the remain of the plant can be subcontracted to other enterprises and European companies are sought because they would bring a european quality touch to Russian works. One of the main assets of Rosatom is to propose an integrated offer from supplying nuclear fuel to managing nuclear waste via the turnkey building of nuclear power plants. Another important asset is the financial assistance of the Russian state through state credit or the support from Russian national banks that appears to be a decisive advantage in the international competition to win markets. We have to temper the Russian export perspectives by noting that most projects are set in countries that are prone to instabilities and that the economic crisis affecting Russia has a negative impact on its financial means. (A.C.)

  15. Exports of petroleum products, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1988 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 32,000 m 3 /d in 1988, up 44% from 1987 levels. Each product except aviation fuel registered increases in export volumes, which reached the highest total volume of the decade. The main reason for the large increase was the first full year of production from the export-directed refinery at Come By Chance, Newfoundland. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was mostly above the USA east coast spot price during 1988. Attractive prices on the USA east coast resulted in a few cargoes of middle distillate and motor gasoline shipped from British Columbia. Petroleum products imports came from 12 countries; Quebec had the largest volume of imports in 1988. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Western exporters view the Far East as an ongoing important market. The top single exporter in Canada was Newfoundland Processing, with 32% of the total export volume. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  16. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  17. Export incentives, exchange rate policy and export growth in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.; Arslan, I.

    1993-01-01

    The driving forces behind the Turkish export miracle, and in fact its very existence, have remained a matter of debate We show there was a boom. As to contributing factors, import growth in the Middle East in excess of import growth elsewhere made a negative contribution. On exports to non-oil

  18. Russian Pharmaceutical Companies Export Potential in Emerging Regional Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna Sapir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes a diverse range of the enterprise’s export potential growth factors in emerging pharmaceutical clusters of Central European Russia. Classification and comparative analysis were used to identify export potential attributes (production, finance, labor and marketing, which have allowed to reveal the strong connection of cluster and regional factor groups with the results of export performance. The purpose of the study is to provide exports-seeking pharmaceutical companies with a set of tools to enhance their export potential. The hypothesis that the cumulative impact of the specified attributes leads to the strengthening of pharmaceutical cluster export potential and promotes an effective integration of the region in the world economic space, is developed and tested. The methodology combines the geo-economy-based theory with the theory of clusters competitive advantages. The impacts of export potential growth factors are estimated by using an econometric model based on math statistics. Thus, five Russian regional pharmaceutical clusters (Belgorod, Kaluga, Moscow, Oryol, Yaroslavl are shown. Findings identify an objective causal link between enterprise export potential growth and competitiveness factors of cluster origin (network business chains, production functions interconnectedness and flexibility, production localization. An action plan for the purpose of the maximum use of competitive advantages of the cluster organization for export activities of the entities of the pharmaceutical industry is developed. Conclusions and recommendations of the study are intended to enterprises in pharmaceutical industry and regions’ public authorities, implementing cluster development strategies. It is thus essential to improve marketing and organizational innovations, reduction of commercial expenses under the cluster environment, development of drugs production and delivery chains from R&D to end-users in order to enjoy greater

  19. Feasibility study of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, culture in earthen ponds using brackish water of the Caspian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Farabi, S.M.V.; Salehi, A.A.; Pourgholam, R.; Ghanei Tehrani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) post-larvae 12 were obtained from Bushehr province and reared at the Caspian Sea Ecological Research Institute (Mazandaran, Iran) in summer 2012 using brackish water of the Caspian Sea. Prior to start of the experiment, post-larvae were gradually adapted to brackish water. The shrimp was stocked in a 1000 m2 earthen pond with a stocking density of 31 individual/m2. The earthen pond was in quarantine without discharge valve. During the rearing period, there w...

  20. Challenges to nuclear export controls today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelus, R.; Sevini, F.; Janssens, W.; Michel, Q.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear energy and nuclear proliferation programs are potentially inter-twinned, which is a point to be taken into account when analysing the development of civil nuclear energy, both domestically and as foreign investment. International agreements ensure that the adhering countries fulfil their obligations and do not abuse civil nuclear programs for the production of nuclear weapons. Uranium enrichment is the process currently most focused on in this respect by recent news and recent technological and commercial developments. But also the so-called reactor-based pathway, with extraction of plutonium from spent nuclear fuel by reprocessing remains in the spotlight of inspectors. Two of the main and complementary pillars on which the prevention of such diversion relies, are Strategic Export Control and International Safeguards. Strategic export control is a key barrier against nuclear proliferation. In many countries including the EU, it is set by a legal framework, envisaging implementation, enforcement and prosecution. The goods that can exported only with authorisations are those identified by the international export control regimes; primarily the Nuclear Suppliers Group in the case of nuclear items. It is complemented by nuclear safeguards measures, and especially in the past few years, by the IAEA State Level concept, which looks at the overall country's potential, including its industrial structure to derive conclusions on the absence of undeclared activities. However, the strict control of goods and knowledge is a moving target, since technological developments, globalisation and the intensifying exchange of information via the worldwide web offer increasing opportunities to proliferators to acquire sensitive items and competencies, and create bigger challenges to enforcement, calling for new responses. Research and development programmes must be directed towards supporting the adaptation of current proliferation containment systems to these new

  1. Export versus domestic market opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, S.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation analyzed the current global wood pellet market and evaluated some of the forces currently driving market expansion. Global wood pellet production statistics were also presented. Large forest companies are now expanding into the energy sector and seeking to produce processing heat from biomass in addition to creating value-added products such as wood pellets, ethanol and electricity. The European biomass action plan has promised to increase production of energy from biomass from 4 per cent to 8 per cent by 2010. Various biomass boiler eco-directives have been established internationally, and some countries in Europe are now aggressively promoting the use of combined heat and power (CHP) systems. Biofuels mixing quotas have been established in various countries as well as tax relief plans for users of bio-fuels. As a result of these developments, along with various new directives, wood pellet consumption in Europe has increased from approximately 1 million tonnes in 2000 to 5 million tonnes in 2005. Consumption of wood pellets in Canada has increased only marginally in the same time period. While Canada currently exported 330,000 tonnes of wood pellets to Europe in 2006, it is expected that exports will increase to 800,000 tonnes by 2010. Other potential markets for Canadian wood pellets include South America, South Africa, Japan, and China. Production of wood pellets in China is expected to increase from current negligible production figures to approximately 50 million tonnes by 2020. Biomass research and development activities in Europe and North America are continuing to improve the calorific value of wood pellets and improve their mechanical strength. Researchers are also investigating methods of lowering wood pellet production costs. refs., tabs., figs

  2. A RESOURCE-BASED VIEW OF SMALL EXPORT FIRMS' SOCIAL CAPITAL IN A SOUTHEAST ASIAN COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doren Chadee

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the social capital that facilitates the flow of export knowledge, thereby supporting the entrepreneurial stance of small export firms. By applying the VRIO (value, rarity, inimitability and organisation of firm resources framework to the resource-based view (RBV of the firm, this study suggests that superior performance is a function of resources that are valuable, rare, inimitable and sufficiently organised to develop and sustain the firm's competitive advantage. This study argues that small, resource-constrained export firms in a developing economy are able to adopt entrepreneurial tactics and reap positive rates of return by exploiting their relational capital to acquire export knowledge. A survey of 175 small export firms in the Philippines was conducted, and the data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The results suggest positive relationships between the firm's social capital and export knowledge. Export knowledge is associated with entrepreneurial orientation, which then correlates with export performance.

  3. Migration of some metals in the ecosystem of the Caspian sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplygin, Wladimir A.; Tanasova, Anastasia S.; Ershova, Tatiana S.; Zaitsev, Vyacheslav F.; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2017-04-01

    The content of heavy metals in aquatic organisms of the Caspian sea is connected with the increase of anthropogenic load on aqueous ecosystems, what leads to the disruption of the natural cycle of chemical elements. Heavy metals in small concentrations are included in an organism and are involved in various metabolic processes. One of the reasons for the high content of metals in the body of hydrobionts is the accumulation of the last in the food web and functional disturbance in all parts of the ecosystem. The aim of this work was to trace the migration of some metals in trophic chains in the ecosystem of the Caspian sea. The objects of the study were: various types of soils of the Caspian sea molluscs of the genus Didacna, fish - gobies ceneйcTвa Gobiidae and liver of Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, mammal - the liver of the Caspian seal Phoca caspica. The main burden of the accumulation of trace elements takes on the liver, which is a functional depot of many metals and is characterized by high metabolic activity in which there is a filtering and transformation of substances. The content of heavy metals in the objects of study were determined by atomic absorption method. The results are presented in mg/kg dry matter. The results showed that the level of accumulation of heavy metals in different types of soils of the Caspian sea was within the limits of environmental standards for bottom sediments taken in the Netherlands (2009) and heavy metal concentrations in silt and sand soil were below background values (according Verkhnevolzhskaya exploration of the enterprise and the Institute of water problems Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia). It should be noted that silty and sandy soils have a similar distribution pattern of heavy metals. A number of decrease the content of heavy metals in different soils of the Caspian sea were as follows: Silty and sandy soils: Zn>Ni>Pb>Co>Cd>Hg. The metals content in mollusks decreases in the series: Zn

  4. Virtual water exported from Californian agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Johansson, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    In an increasingly teleconnected world, international trade drives the exchange of virtual land and water as crops produced in one region are consumed in another. In theory, this can be an optimal use of scarce resources if crops are grown where they can most efficiently be produced. Several recent analyses examine the export of land and water from food production in developing countries where these resources may be more abundant. Here we focus on a developed region and examine the virtual export of land and water from California, the leading agricultural state in the US and the leading global producer of a wide range of fruit, nut, and other specialty crops. As the region faces a serious, ongoing drought, water use is being questioned, and water policy governance re-examined, particularly in the agricultural sector which uses over three-quarters of water appropriations in the state. We look at the blue water embodied in the most widely grown crops in California and use network analysis to examine the trading patterns for flows of virtual land and water. We identify the main crops and export partners representing the majority of water exports. Considered in the context of tradeoffs for land and water resources, we highlight the challenges and opportunities for food production systems to play a sustainable role in meeting human needs while protecting the life-support systems of the planet.

  5. Exporting EU Liberalism Eastwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Tesser

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is much more to liberalism in the post communist context than has been acknowledged. A sizeable effort has indeed emerged to transplant a relatively coherent liberal ideology to the region, one exported not merely through the conditionality of international financial institutions, but also through the conditionality and socialization of organizations like the NATO, OSCE, EU, and the Council of Europe. ‘EU liberalism’ includes the ‘standard’ liberal emphasis on individual rights, the rule of law, constitutional democracy, freedom, and market economics as well as support for minority rights, and a seemingly schizophrenic emphasis on economic integration that involves, first bringing down borders for the free movement of people, goods, capital, and services between member states, and second, market regulation to diminish the social downsides of capitalism. This paper outlines EU liberalism’s emergence and its application to Central and East European countries.

  6. The south's timer export potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Granskog

    1986-01-01

    Exports of southern wood products have bccil dcclirling since 1980, following a dramatic rise during the 1970s. The value of these exports rose from near the $50 million level in the early 1970s to almost $500 million in 1980, but has dropped by more than a third since then. Now, however, changing monetary conditions appear to be turning the trend upward again....

  7. Insurability of export credit risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.; Antufjew, J.; Huizingh, K.R.E.; Koning, Ruud H.; Sterken, E.; Woltil, M.

    2003-01-01

    Firms exporting their goods and services abroad face risks that are different from the risks faced by firms who do not engage in international trade. It is common practice to allow the receiving party to pay in instalments. The exporting firm faces credit risk, but as in most countries, Dutch firms

  8. Exports of crude oil, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    Effective June 1, 1985, licensing and charging of oil exports ended. The Board now issues export orders specifying neither volumes nor prices and covering an exportation period of up to 1 year for light crude oil and up to 2 years for heavy crude oil, available on request to both Canadian and foreign companies. The Board has assumed a monitoring role, and export prices and volumes are reported monthly by exporters. This annual report provides a review of the volumes and prices associated with the supply and disposition of Canadian crude oil during 1988. Highlights are given with detailed information on prices, both internationally, in Canada, and the Chicago posted price by light or heavy crude, and on volumes including capacity and disposition in both domestic and export markets. A short description of the import market is included. Comparisons are made with the previous year. Export volumes of light crude oil in 1988 increased by 13% to average 50,200 m 3 /d. Export volumes of heavy crude also increased by ca 13% to 62,600 m 3 /d. 15 figs., 2 tabs

  9. EMPLOYMENT EFFECT OF INDONESIA’S NON-OIL EXPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Feriyanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian government needs both domestic and foreign investments to accelerate its economic development. The investments enable promoting export and creating higher employment level. This research uses a path analysis method to analyze time series data of the period 1990 to 2009. It finds that both domestic and foreign direct investments significantly and positively influence Indonesia’s non-oil exports. In addition, it suggests that non-oil export performance can eventually lead to an increase in employment level in Indonesia. The policy implication of these results is that Indonesian government should encourage investment to promote export and absorb more labor. Keywords: Foreign direct investment, domestic investment, non-oil export, labor absorptionJEL classification numbers: F42, F43

  10. Russian gas exports have potential to grow through 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the potential for Russian gas export growth through the next decade and concludes that supply for exports will continue to grow, albeit moderately. The greater or lesser intensity of that growth will depend on the evolution of both production and internal consumption. From the production side, the pace of growth depends on the status of gas reserves and, more importantly, on the investment program pursued by the State-owned gas giant Gazprom. From the demand side, evolution depends on the way Russia's wide potential for gas savings is managed. Through this analysis, we find three likely scenarios for Russian gas exports. In the most positive, diversification of exports will be possible. In the most negative, Russia will have scant opportunity to develop an export diversification strategy.

  11. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  12. Second Thoughts on Exporter Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    Empirical literature has established a positive link between firm productivity and export status, yet notable exceptions exist. The present paper shows that the underlying theory (Melitz, 2003) is in fact able to accommodate the rule as well as the exception. The fulcrum of the argument is the te......Empirical literature has established a positive link between firm productivity and export status, yet notable exceptions exist. The present paper shows that the underlying theory (Melitz, 2003) is in fact able to accommodate the rule as well as the exception. The fulcrum of the argument...... is the tension between empirical work measuring productivity based on average cost information, and theoretical work representing productivity by marginal cost. In a heterogeneous firms trade model, we compute productivity based on average cost and find that around the export-indifferent firm, exporters...... will be less productive than non-exporters. Furthermore, we show that this effect may feed through at the industry level....

  13. Access to and Use of Export Market Information by Non- Traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana has traditionally depended on a number of export commodities such as cocoa, timber, gold and diamonds for its economic and social development. Recent economic policies of government have aimed to expand the country's exports to include non-traditional exports such as horticultural products, textiles, fishery ...

  14. Reliable collection of Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius) sperm using a catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramli, M S; Golshahi, K; Banan, A; Sotoudeh, E

    2016-10-01

    The traditional stripping procedure for collecting fish semen is associated with the risk of urine contamination, which may significantly affect semen quality and quantity. The use of a catheter as an alternative method for semen collection may overcome this problem. Therefore, this study compared Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius) semen parameters (i.e. sperm density, seminal plasma osmolality, motility parameters of spermatozoa analysed using computer-assisted sperm analysis and fertility) between the traditional stripping method and the use of a catheter. All parameter values of the semen collected with a catheter were significantly higher (p brown trout sperm. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Studies on the natural radiation levels around the Caspian sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    We measured about 80 items from four areas of Mazandaran, randomly selected samples of food products, soil and water, around the shore of the Caspian sea area. The results showed that the natural radioactivity in beans and broad beans in some areas is much more than in others. The results were also compared with the levels of radiations from some materials from Brazil, which also contained high levels of radiations. Samples measured in this study showed higher levels of radiations than the American food products. (author). 12 refs, 8 tabs

  16. Mud diaprism and it's effect on the hydrocarbon system in the south Caspian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baganz, O.W.; Ballard, J.H.; Krenov, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Mud diapirism plays a special role in the geology and petroleum system of the south Caspian basin. Hundreads of mud intrusions penetrate the thick Plio-Pleistocene section. This article talks in detail about aspects of the influence of mud diapirs and their related with mud volcanoes on the generation and trapping of hydrocarbons. Some of these aspects are : 1) The influence on the sedimentation; 2) Structural impact; 3) Stress and strain in the surrounded formations; 4) Thermal effect; 5) Pressure effect. All these aspects of the diapiric and mud-volcanic activity should be kept in mind during the volumetric calculations and play evaluation.

  17. Petroleum production contracts of the oil exporting developing countries with US petroleum companies, and US tax laws. Erdoelproduktions-Vertraege erdoelexportierender Entwicklungslaender mit US-Oelunternehmen und US-Steuerrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mettenheimer, K.

    1987-01-01

    The publication deals with the US petroleum production contracts of the past three decades. It analyzes the different types of contracts ranging from franchises to the so-called non-risk service contract. Particular emphasis is on the influence of US tax laws on the terms and conditions of contract. Another point of discussion is the influence of US tax laws on the tax laws of the oil exporting developing countries. The conclusions drawn from the terms and conditions of contracts and the mutual influence of two tax systems aim at contributing to a system whose transnational investment decisions and contracts will not be influenced by fiscal consideration. (orig./HSCH).

  18. Russian LNG: The Long Road to Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrova, Tatiana

    2013-12-01

    On December 1, 2013 a law on liquefied natural gas (LNG) export liberalization came into legal force in Russia. The law grants two categories of companies other than Russia's state gas giant Gazprom and its subsidiary companies the right to export LNG: (1) users of mineral resources that have a license to construct an LNG plant or to send their gas production for liquefaction, and (2) companies that are more than 50% owned by the Russian government, for gas produced from Russian offshore fields or under production-sharing agreements. This is-without exaggeration-a historic decision for the Russian gas industry, the path to which was certainly not easy. Recent years have seen a radical change in the global economic climate, which has changed the dynamics of the European gas market (gas demand decline and Russian gas import reduction, changing pricing mechanism for a much higher share of spot indexing, European Commission anti-trust investigations against Gazprom, etc) and is increasingly pushing Russia to diversify its gas exports. However, diversifying exports through the development of LNG has proven to be not so simple. Over the past 20 years, with the exception of the Sakhalin-2 project, structured under a project-sharing agreement (PSA) rather than in the framework of national legislation, all other projects failed to come close to completion. The Kharasavey and Baltic LNG projects were abandoned in the early stages of project evaluation, while the Shtokman project progressed to the point of the operating company being created, but in the end was postponed indefinitely. The first stage of LNG development in Russia ended in failure. However, the Russian government considers the development of LNG exports to be a priority, which can be evidenced in all official policy papers. It is believed that LNG will help in achieving a set of objectives, namely: increasing the absolute volume of exports, allowing the country to enter into previously inaccessible markets

  19. The Analysis of World Experiences in Promoting Export Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotysh Olena M.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a theoretical analysis of the scientific approaches to defining concepts such as «exports» and «export activity». The results of the study helped to reveal that these concepts are identical, although this approach is criticized by many scientists. In the publication presented, the export activity is understood as a combination of actions on the part of the enterprises – foreign economic actors, involved in organizational arrangements aimed at preparation and marketing of goods to foreign economic actors. The article calculates the macro indicators in dynamics in order to characterize the status of Ukraine’s export activities. Its main development tendencies have been identified, the main challenges and directions for further development have been indicated. The article provides the international experience in promoting exports worldwide, the main tasks and functions of export promotion institutions have been explained, thus creating possibility to form recommendations for further actions on the part of the State to support and develop the export activity of Ukraine.

  20. Molecular resolution of the family Dreissenidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) with emphasis on Ponto-Caspian species, including first report of Mytilopsis leucophaeata in the Black Sea basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therriault, Thomas W; Docker, Margaret F; Orlova, Marina I; Heath, Daniel D; MacIsaac, Hugh J

    2004-03-01

    Considerable uncertainty exists in determination of the phylogeny among extant members of the Dreissenidae, especially those inhabiting the Ponto-Caspian basin, as multiple systematic revisions based on morphological characteristics have failed to resolve relationships within this group of bivalves. In this study we use DNA sequence analyses of two mitochondrial gene fragments, 16S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), to determine phylogenetic relationships among Dreissena rostriformis, D. bugensis, D. polymorpha, D. stankovici, Congeria kusceri, and Mytilopsis leucophaeata. Dreissena stankovici was determined to represent a sister taxa to D. polymorpha and both are more closely related to other extant Dreissena species than Congeria or Mytilopsis. Sequence divergence between D. rostriformis and D. bugensis was relatively low (0.3-0.4%), suggesting that these two taxa constitute a single species. However, environmental differences suggest two races of D. rostriformis, a brackish water race (rostriformis) and a freshwater race (bugensis). Spread of bugensis-type individuals into habitats in the Caspian Sea that are occupied by rostriformis-type individuals may create novel hybridization opportunities. Species-specific molecular markers also were developed in this study since significant intraspecific variation in morphological features complicates dreissenid identification. Using two gene fragments (nuclear 28S and 16S), we identified restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) that distinguish among D. rostriformis/bugensis, D. polymorpha, and D. stankovici and revealed the presence of a cryptic invader to the Black Sea basin, Mytilopsis leucophaeata. This is the first report of this North American native in southern Europe.

  1. An empirical study to determine the critical success factors of export industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Babakhani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exporting goods and services play an important role on economy of developing countries. There are many countries in the world whose economy is solely based on exporting raw materials such as oil and gas. Many believe that countries cannot develop their economy as long as they rely on exporting one single group of raw materials. Therefore, there is a need to help other sectors of industries build good infrastructure for exporting diversified products. In this paper, we perform an empirical analysis to determine the critical success factors on exporting different goods. The results are analyzed using some statistical non-parametric methods and some useful guidelines are also suggested.

  2. Unlocking export potential and the influence of country specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Development Research ... This paper examines the gap between Ethiopia's actual and potential exports and the extent to which ... A stochastic frontier analysis of gravity model of trade is applied to panel data that covered ...

  3. Comparative study of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus fry gut microbiota modulation following administration of galacto- and fructooligosaccharide prebiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Modulation of intestinal microbiota toward potentially beneficial communities (probiotics positively affects fish physiology and health status. Different prebiotics showed contradictory effects on intestinal microbiota. The present study investigates the effects of different levels of two prebiotics, galacto- and fructooligosaccharide on intestinal microbiota of Caspian roach fry which is a commercially valuable species of Caspian sea. Materials and methods: The study was performed as a randomized design with 5 treatments and 3 replications in which Caspian roach were fed different levels, 0, 1, and 2% of galacto- and fructooligosaccharide prebiotics for 6 weeks. At the end of the trial culture, analysis of intestinal microbiota include lactic acid bacteria levels, total bacteria as well as proportion of LAB were performed by using MRS agar, Plate count agar media. Results: Administration of different levels of galacto- and fructooligosaccharide had no significant effects on total bacteria of intestinal microbiota (P > 0.05. The lactic acid bacteria levels significantly increased compared to control group following prebiotics administration in diet (P > 0.05. LAB levels in galactooligosaccharide treatment were higher than those of fructooligosaccharide treatment. The highest LAB proportion in intestinal microbiota was observed in roach fed diet which contains 2% galactooligosaccharide (P > 0.05. Discussion and conclusion: The results of the present study revealed that prebiotics can be used for modulation of Caspian roach intestinal microbiota toward beneficial bacterial communities. Also, the results showed that galactooligosaccharide was more efficient than fructooligosaccharide in case of modulation of intestinal microbiota and elevation of LAB levels.

  4. Adjusting export tax rebates to reduce the environmental impacts of trade: Lessons from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peng; Mao, Xianqiang; Corsetti, Gabriel

    2015-09-15

    Export tax rebates are an important policy instrument for stimulating exports, which many developing countries make use of. However, excessive export tax rebates and inappropriate structural arrangements can lead to over-production in highly polluting industries and cause the environment to deteriorate. This paper, taking China as the study case, tests and verifies the statistical significance of the causal relationship between export tax rebates and pollution emissions. With a computable general equilibrium modeling, the current study further analyzes the effectiveness of export tax rebate adjustments aimed at alleviating environmental pressure for different time periods. It is found that before 2003, export tax rebates primarily promoted exports and boosted foreign exchange reserves, and highly polluting sectors enjoyed above-average export tax rebates, which led to increased pollution emissions. Between 2003 and 2010, the export tax rebate system was reformed to reduce support for the highly polluting export sectors, which led to decreases in emissions. Canceling export tax rebates for highly polluting sectors is shown to be the most favorable policy choice for improving the environmental performance of China's international trade. This study can serve as reference for other developing countries which similarly rely on export tax rebates, so that they can adjust their policies so as to combine economic growth with pollution control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Geopolitics of European natural gas demand: Supplies from Russia, Caspian and the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgin, Mert

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses issues of natural gas which raise questions about European energy security. It first focuses on the rising gas demand of the EU27 and elaborates alleged risks of dependence on Russia such as Gazprom's disagreement with Ukraine, which became an international gas crisis in January 2006 and also more recently in January 2009. Incentives and barriers of Europe's further cooperation with selected Caspian (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) and Middle Eastern (Iran, Iraq and Egypt) countries are discussed. Supplies from Caspian are analyzed with a particular focus on Russia's role and the vested interests in the region. Supplies from the Middle East are elaborated with regard to Iran's huge and Iraq's emerging potentials in terms of natural gas reserves and foreign direct investments in the energy sector. The geopolitical analysis leads to a conclusion that the best strategy, and what seems more likely, for the EU is to include at least two countries from Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Iraq within its natural gas supply system.

  6. Geological features and petroleum potential of the Oguz block , South Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramiz, Safarov; Unal, Bayram; David, Poole

    2002-01-01

    Full text : ExxonMobil has a significant presence in the Azeri sector of the Caspian Sea. The Oguz PSA was the first contract signed between Mobil and SOCAR and it is the first exploration prospect drilled by an ExxonMobil affiliate in Azerbaijan. The Oguz Block lies between the giant Neft Dashlary and Guneshli oil fields. The location of the Block along the Apsheron Ridge, adjacent to these large fileds indicates that the prospect lies within an active hydrocarbon system. The Pliocene deposits in the South Caspian Basin are extremely thick (up to 6000 m). Productive series at Neft Dashlary and Guneshli fields are composed of fluvial sediments. In Azerbaijan more than 90 percent of the hydrocarbons discovered are contained in the Productive series. The Neft Dashlary East Structure, within the Oguz Block, is interpreted as a faulted nose on the Eastern flank of the Neft Dashlary field structure. Updip trap closure would be provided by intersection of two faults. Based on evaluation of 152 wellsand 432 km of seismic data at and around of Neft Dashlary, it is clear that faults play a crucial role in trapping hydrocarbons, compartmentalising the reservoir and controlling the distribution of oil at the Neft Dashlary Filed. These faults commonly have sall displacement, and their individual capacity to seal is difficult to predict. The largest risk to the Neft Dashlary East prospect is definition and presence of trap and fault seal

  7. Prevalence of Corynosoma caspicum infection in Gasterosteus aculeatus fish in Caspian Sea, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Rahimi-Esboei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: There is little information about the prevalence of Corynosoma caspicum in fish particularly Gasterosteus aculeatus in Iran and the world. The aim of the present study was to find out the prevalence of acanthocephalan infection in Babolsar district, southern coastal of Caspian Sea, Northern Iran. Materials and Methods: Between September 2012 and August 2014, a total of 360 G. aculeatus fishes were randomly collected by drift nets from coastal regions in Babolsar and then examined the intestine and body cavity for worm infections. Results: A total of 360 G. aculeatus fishes, 109 (30.3% were found infected with at least one Corynosoma capsicum, and there was no significant association between genders and the prevalence infection of acanthocephalan. Moreover, there was a significant difference in infected rate between summer (79%, 86/109 and spring (21%, 23/109 (p<0.05. Conclusion: The high occurrence of Corynosoma infection in G. aculeatus indicates the enzootic constancy status of the infection in the southern coastal of Caspian Sea, Northern Iran.

  8. HYDROCARBON POLLUTION IN THE NORTH-WESTERN PART OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Ostrovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The paper is aimed to estimate the current level of hydrocarbon pollution of the marine environment in the North-Western part of the Caspian Sea.Methods. The paper discusses the results of three-year studies conducted in 2012-2014 within the framework of Roshydromet’s Programme of monitoring of transboundary waters of the Caspian Sea. Spatial distribution of concentrations of hydrocarbons (total and polyaromatic in water and bottom sediments of the area was analysed. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons were determined by means of infrared spectrometry and PAHs – of gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.Results. The range of the total hydrocarbons in the area’s water is from slight traces to 240 µg/l, in sediments – from traces to 114 µg/g (dry weight. Total concentrations of PAHs in water varied from traces to 321 ng/l, in sediments – from traces to 699 ng/g (dry weight. For the source identification, data of satellite monitoring of the area were used. The data showed increasing input of hydrocarbons coming into the marine environment with discharges from vessels.Conclusion. The results of these studies are compared to those of previous research and show that the level of hydrocarbons in the area is typical for slightly polluted areas.

  9. What are driving the long-term Caspian Sea level change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.

    2017-12-01

    Caspian Sea level (CSL) has undergone substantial fluctuations during the past several hundred years. The causes over the entire historical period are uncertain, but we investigate here large changes seen in the past several decades. We use climate model predicted precipitation (P), evaporation (E), and observed river runoff (R) to reconstruct long-term CSL changes for 1979-2015, and show that PER (P-E+R) flux predictions agree very well with observed CSL changes. The observed rapid CSL increase (about 12.74 cm/yr) and significant drop ( -6.72 cm/yr) during the periods 1979-1995 and 1996-2015 are well accounted for by integrated PER flux predictions of +12.38 and -6.79 cm/yr, respectively. We show that increased evaporation rates over the Caspian Sea play a dominant role in reversing the increasing trend in CSL during the past 37 years. The current long-term decline in CSL is expected to continue into the foreseeable future, under global warming scenarios.

  10. Geopolitics of European natural gas demand: Supplies from Russia, Caspian and the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgin, Mert, E-mail: mert.bilgin@bahcesehir.edu.t [Bahcesehir University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Political Science and International Relations Department, Ciragan Caddesi Besiktas, 34353 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    This paper addresses issues of natural gas which raise questions about European energy security. It first focuses on the rising gas demand of the EU27 and elaborates alleged risks of dependence on Russia such as Gazprom's disagreement with Ukraine, which became an international gas crisis in January 2006 and also more recently in January 2009. Incentives and barriers of Europe's further cooperation with selected Caspian (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) and Middle Eastern (Iran, Iraq and Egypt) countries are discussed. Supplies from Caspian are analyzed with a particular focus on Russia's role and the vested interests in the region. Supplies from the Middle East are elaborated with regard to Iran's huge and Iraq's emerging potentials in terms of natural gas reserves and foreign direct investments in the energy sector. The geopolitical analysis leads to a conclusion that the best strategy, and what seems more likely, for the EU is to include at least two countries from Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Iraq within its natural gas supply system.

  11. Geopolitics of European natural gas demand. Supplies from Russia, Caspian and the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgin, Mert [Bahcesehir University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Political Science and International Relations Department, Ciragan Caddesi Besiktas, 34353 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    This paper addresses issues of natural gas which raise questions about European energy security. It first focuses on the rising gas demand of the EU27 and elaborates alleged risks of dependence on Russia such as Gazprom's disagreement with Ukraine, which became an international gas crisis in January 2006 and also more recently in January 2009. Incentives and barriers of Europe's further cooperation with selected Caspian (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) and Middle Eastern (Iran, Iraq and Egypt) countries are discussed. Supplies from Caspian are analyzed with a particular focus on Russia's role and the vested interests in the region. Supplies from the Middle East are elaborated with regard to Iran's huge and Iraq's emerging potentials in terms of natural gas reserves and foreign direct investments in the energy sector. The geopolitical analysis leads to a conclusion that the best strategy, and what seems more likely, for the EU is to include at least two countries from Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Iraq within its natural gas supply system. (author)

  12. ESPECIALLY VEGETATION ISLANDS OF NORTHWEST OF THE CASPIAN SEA(SEAL, CHECHEN ISLAND, NORDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Soltanmuradova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim The identification of the species flora of Northwest islands of the Caspian Sea.Methods. The collection of useful material were implemented by route-forwarding method. For collect and herbarization of theplants were used the traditional equipments necessary for fioristic studies. For identifying plants in the laboratory conditions were used by binocular MBS-2, and in the field conditions were used by magnifiers with eight-fold increase.Results. Flora of the islands of the Northwest of the Caspian Sea counts 269 species of higher plants, belonging to 49 families and 186 geniuses: the Seals – 32 families, the Nordova – 26 families, 57 geniuses, 65 species.Main conclusions. All the leading families of the islands are specific for Iran-Turan and Mediterranean of floristic areas. Also shared with the Central Asian deserts are families Tamaricaceae, Frankeniaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Apiaceae, Boraginaceae, and the geniuses Halocnemum, Halopeplis, Suaeda.

  13. Product Standards, Exports and Employment An Analytical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Acharyya, Rajat

    2004-01-01

    Through the process of globalization, trade dependence and interdependence of the developing countries have increased phenomenally than ever before. The characteristic of this late twentieth-century globalization process has been the new technological revolution that has led to a high rate of world exports of electronics and other high-technology products. This has marginalized most of the developing countries exporting largely the low quality and low value-addition manufacturing and primary ...

  14. Dissemination of Zoonotic Antibiotic Resistant Serotypes of Salmonella by Caspian Pond Turtles, Golestan and Mazandaran Provinces, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Namroodi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonella spp. are widespread zoonotic pathogens with economic importance for both humans and animals. They are categorized as the natural flora of the gastrointestinal tract of many reptiles. Human salmonellosis acquired from contact with reptiles is a well-recognized medical problem. Objective: The frequency of Salmonella contamination in Caspian pond turtles was surveyed to evaluate the danger of exposure or disease risk for humans as these species are abundant around the villages in Golestan and Mazandaran provinces. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty fecal samples from Caspian pond turtles were tested by standard bacteriological methods and positive samples were serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests on isolated Salmonella strains were also performed. Results: Out of 150 samples, 54 turtles were detected to be contaminated with Salmonella. Of the 54 Salmonella isolates, 38.8% (21/54 were serotyped as S. typhimurium; 35.1% (19/54 as S. enterica subsp. enterica; 9.2% (5/54 as S. enterica subsp. salamae; 9.2% (5/54 as S. enterica subsp. arizona; and 7.4% (4/54 as S. enterica subsp. houtenae. Female (28/80, 35% and male (26/74, 35.1% turtles showed equal incidence of Salmonella spp. contamination. Resistance was mostly observed against ampicillin (37% followed by tetracycline (33.3%, nalidixic acid (7.4%, ciprofloxacin (5.5%, and cotrimoxazole (3.7%. The highest susceptibility was observed against gentamicin (100% and trimethoprim (98.1%. Conclusion: Our findings confirmed that people who are in close exposure to Caspian pond turtles and their feces are at the risk of Salmonella contamination. Accordingly, fundamental principles of hygiene should be applied in human contact with Caspian pond turtles. Furthermore, people should be educated about the Salmonella contamination which may occur through Caspian pond turtles.

  15. Export controls on high technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    A overview of the Export Administration Act of 1979 and subsequent regulations and amendments focuses on how licensing requirements and restrictions against boycott affect high technology exports. The purpose of these controls is to limit the export of technology with possible military applications, as well as to advance US foreign policy and protect the economy without imposing too great a restriction on the principles of free trade. Thus, the act encompasses political, economic, and security goals. Problems of predictability arise when embargoes or other controls are imposed for political or foreign policy reasons without regard to economic impacts. Amendments have attempted to streamline the exporting process, particularly in the area of computer and software licensing.

  16. Economic dynamics of exporting countries and restructuring their oil industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Vega Navarro, A.

    1994-01-01

    The author analyses the re-organization of oil industries in exporting countries. The approach takes internal and external dynamics of these countries' economic crisis into account. It finally makes proposals with a view to a different consistency for the economic development of these countries. This could include a change from pure ''exporting countries'' to ''countries that (among other activities) export oil'' and which will not be conditioned by the incertitude of the international oil market. This in turn means that public oil companies will have to replace thinking in terms of oil rents and assume their industrial and productive role on both national and international levels. (Author). 21 refs., 1 tab

  17. Analysis of Fiji’s Export and Its Impact on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivneil Kumar Raj

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Exports are vital for Fiji’s economy as it contributes significantly to its gross domestic product (GDP and economic growth. The export data over the years show very slow growth and is gradually increasing. Fiji’s GDP data show that GDP is gradually increasing. Thus, Fiji’s economic growth is also increasing at a steady rate. This study aims to measure the relationship between exports and economic growth in Fiji. A regression analysis on data collected for Fiji from 2000-2015 shows that there is a strong positive relationship between exports and economic growth. Thus, when exports increase, economic growth also increases. Potential sectors that can be further developed to boost Fiji’s exports are sugar, garment, tourism and agriculture. The government should restrict imports through import quotas, tariffs and embargoes and give subsidies and tax incentives to potential export sectors to boost domestic production and increase exports. The government’s motive is to increase export incentives and promote Fiji made products both locally and overseas. Thus, this leads to an increase in exports, improves the trade balance and economic growth. This research article was undertaken to carry out research to investigate the link between Fiji’s export and economic growth and highlight ways and potential sectors to increase Fiji’s export and reduce imports.

  18. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  19. Exports of petroleum products, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1990 calendar year. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 34,000 m 3 /d in 1990, up 12% from 1989 levels. The increase reflects increased output from the Come By Chance refinery in Newfoundland. Motor gasoline exports increased 35% to 10,500 m 3 /d, reflecting refinery upgrading in eastern Canada. Export prices were generally in line with spot product prices in the USA. Spot prices rose sharply following the Kuwait crisis in August 1990 but fell again in November. The spot price for jet fuel rose more dramatically in that period than for other products, reflecting increased military demand. In winter 1989/90 and during the Kuwait conflict, the export price of heating oil tended to track the USA spot price. Petroleum products imports in 1990 were 18,500 m 3 /d, compared to 21,900 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports were lower partially as a result of higher crude runs in Quebec and a Quebec refinery expansion. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada continued to be strong in comparison to the mid-1980s. The top single exporter in 1990, as in 1989, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 4,506,400 m 3 . 13 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Exports of petroleum products, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1989 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 30,400 m 3 /d in 1989, down 5% from 1988 levels. Motor gasoline shipments showed the largest decrease, down 1,500 m 3 to 7,700 m 3 /d. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices except in June and July 1989, when attractive prices were obtained for shipments from the prairie provinces. The heavy fuel oil export price was similar to the USA east coast spot price in 1989, except in December. Canada's petroleum products imports in 1989 were 21,600 m 3 /d, compared to 18,400 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada rose 36% in 1989 because of industries switching from electricity and the high demand for thermal power generation. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. The top single exporter in 1989, as in 1988, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 3,484,500 m 3 . 24 figs., 4 tabs

  1. A Study on the Export Control System at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I. C.; Lee, B. D.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. S.; Jung, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    The current non-proliferation regime requires strengthening the export control from Korea to foreign countries. This means that the ministries related to export control deeply emphasize the prohibition of the illegal proliferation in the domestic society as well as international society. The principle of export control for non-proliferation of WMD is to control the transfer of the strategic items/technology to the countries which intend to develop the WMD in accordance with the multilateral agreements of the Nuclear Supply Group (NSG), Wassenaar Agreement (WA), Austrian Group (AG) and Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). Among them, export controls at KAERI are deeply related to the guidelines of the NSG, an international nuclear export control regime. Since the new concept of an export system was launched in Jan. 2014, KAERI needs to consider new approaches to meet the requirement of the revised domestic law and regulation. To cope with this environmental change, this paper suggests new approaches to effectively conduct the export control at KAERI

  2. The anatomy of China's export growth

    OpenAIRE

    Amiti, Mary; Freund, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Decomposing China's real export growth, of over 500 percent since 1992, reveals a number of interesting findings. First, China's export structure changed dramatically, with growing export shares in electronics and machinery and a decline in agriculture and apparel. Second, despite the shift into these more sophisticated products, the skill content of China's manufacturing exports remained ...

  3. E-business and small Ghanaian exporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinson, Robert; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2006-01-01

    The arfticle aims to investigate the relationship between export intensity and e-business adoption in Ghana. No clear relationship is found among exporters of non-traditional items.......The arfticle aims to investigate the relationship between export intensity and e-business adoption in Ghana. No clear relationship is found among exporters of non-traditional items....

  4. 27 CFR 28.30 - Export status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export status. 28.30... Export status. (a) Distilled spirits and wines manufactured, produced, bottled in bottles packed in... such purposes are considered to be exported. Export status is not acquired until application on Form...

  5. Technological barriers to the growth of the export potential of Russian grain industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Eremchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia is the world's largest wheat exporter. The sales volume on foreign markets in 2015 amounted to $3.9 billion, or 10.1% of global exports. By the end of 2015, the volume of exports of agricultural products exceeded revenues from sales of arms in foreign markets. However, in dollar terms, wheat exports correspond to only a fifth place in the world. The article analyzes the reasons for a significant gap in the volume of exports and revenue, barriers to the development of export of agricultural deep processed products. The assumption is made that the development of technologies for deep processing of grain crops will increase the share of exports of Russian products with high added value.

  6. Price leadership strategy or branding strategy:an empirical test of indigenous Chinese exporters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The effects of price leadership strategies and branding strategies on the export performance of indigenous Chinese exporters with a focus on developing country markets and developed country markets are examined based on the principles of strategy-environment co-alignment and marketing segmentation theory. Findings suggest that when focusing on developing country markets, the use of a branding strategy is more likely to enhance export performance. When focusing on developed country markets, neither the use o...

  7. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on exporting medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Nosouzi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests on developing medicinal plant industry. This paper presents an empirical study on important factors influencing medicinal plant for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 310 regular customers who are involved in this industry in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Samplng =KMO test was also computed and it was about 0.66, which is above the minimum acceptable limit of 0.5. The study uses Scree plot to determine important factors and there are eight factors including environmental issues, export supportive issues, potentials for export, business plan, export plan, structural barriers, competition capability and strategy.

  8. Service Innovation by Industrial Cluster Formation and Export Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noleen Pisa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Service innovation drives economic growth and structural change by stimulating the development of new sectors and productivity improvements in existing sectors. Resource based sectors are the main contributors to South Africa’s North West province’s economic output This paper illustrates how such a region can use industrial cluster formation and focused export promotion as a strategy to enhance service innovation. Four service clusters were identified within the above mentioned province through structural path analysis and power of pull methods. An export market selection model is applied to the identified service industrial clusters to reveal realistic export opportunities associated with each cluster. Finally, trade multipliers are used to show the spill-over benefits given an increase in the clusters’ exports. Policymakers can use these results to inform actions that may assist in the development of these services clusters to strengthen the province’s competitive advantage and diversify its output.

  9. Phylogeography and taxonomic status of trout and salmon from the Ponto-Caspian drainages, with inferences on European Brown Trout evolution and taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninua, Levan; Tarkhnishvili, David; Gvazava, Elguja

    2018-03-01

    Current taxonomy of western Eurasian trout leaves a number of questions open; it is not clear to what extent some species are distinct genetically and morphologically. The purpose of this paper was to explore phylogeography and species boundaries in freshwater and anadromous trout from the drainages of the Black and the Caspian Seas (Ponto-Caspian). We studied morphology and mitochondrial phylogeny, combining samples from the western Caucasus within the potential range of five nominal species of trout that are thought to inhabit this region, and using the sequences available from GenBank. Our results suggest that the genetic diversity of trout in the Ponto-Caspian region is best explained with the fragmentation of catchments. (1) All trout species from Ponto-Caspian belong to the same mitochondrial clade, separated from the other trout since the Pleistocene; (2) the southeastern Black Sea area is the most likely place of diversification of this clade, which is closely related to the clades from Anatolia; (3) The species from the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea drainages are monophyletic; (4) except for the basal lineage of the Ponto-Caspian clade, Salmo rizeensis , all the lineages produce anadromous forms; (5) genetic diversification within the Ponto-Caspian clade is related to Pleistocene glacial waves; (6) the described morphological differences between the species are not fully diagnostic, and some earlier described differences depend on body size; the differences between freshwater and marine forms exceed those between the different lineages. We suggest a conservative taxonomic approach, using the names S. rizeensis and Salmo labrax for trout from the Black Sea basin and Salmo caspius and Salmo ciscaucasicus for the fish from the Caspian basin.

  10. An evaluation of Kazakhstan nuclear export control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeligbayeva, G.; Masenov, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    A system to control the export nuclear materials and technologies is a natural part of creating a self-sustaining government. The government of Kazakhstan has made a great deal of progress in building such a system. Control of export and import of nuclear materials and technologies and dual-use materials, related to nuclear activity, became one of the important part of mechanism of Non-Proliferation conditions realization in Kazakhstan. The system of export control has developed well over the 10 years. Kazakhstan is in the midst of a long process of building a functional export control system consistent with World standards. The state system of export control currently exists in Kazakhstan on the legislative base, and is based on efficient cooperation of the KAEC with a number of competent state bodies (Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, State Customs Committee) each of them has its own specific functions, duties and rights. The export is carried out using licenses, issued by the Ministry of Economy of the RK, according to applications of certain standard which are previously agreed with the KAEC under decision of the RK Government. The KAEC, acting on the base of export control principles and observance of international obligations on non-proliferation matter, makes decisions, only after thorough evaluation of ways of export and reliability of an end-user of the commodity, to agree the application for a license. The most fully developed aspect is the licensing process. General politics of export regulation in Kazakhstan are based on normative acts and rules, which are wholly appropriate (complementary) to the managing principles of nuclear export. There exists a full legal basis for the licensing system. But the process is going, some provisions is changing: in 2000 Kazakhstan corrected the export control law and approved the national control list very similar with EU control list, in 2002 the rules of the process of licensing the export and import

  11. Canadian electricity exports and imports : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This energy market assessment (EMA) report focuses on recent trends in exports and imports of Canadian electricity and the associated revenue and pricing. It also outlines major developments in electricity markets in Canada and the United States in the past decade with reference to the implications of electricity trade for both consumers and the power industry. This guide comes at a time of market openings in Alberta and Ontario, and with recent increases in applications to the National Energy Board for electricity exports and international power lines. The first chapter presents an overview of current Canadian federal regulatory regime for electricity exports and restructuring of the electric power industry in Canada and the United States. The second chapter reviews electricity exports and imports from a national perspective. Provincial analyses were presented in the third chapter which also covered international interconnections, export and import trends, export and import pricing, implications for consumer prices, and factors affecting future trade. The final chapter presents some observations on each of these issues. It is noted that exports have fluctuated significantly from year to year due to specific events including the shutdown of nuclear power plants, high gas prices, and the California electricity crisis in 2000-2001. Canadian international electricity trade has continued to yield net revenues of $1 to $2 billion per year due to strong electricity export prices. The relationship between export and import prices varies from province to province. Canadian utilities have emphasized the need for more transmission to the U.S. to foster future trade and improve transmission reliability. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Danish Exports and Danish Bilateral Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John

    higher in the 1980s compared to in particular the most recent decade. This may be related to factors such as untying of aid in the same period. The econometric analysis has two important limitations. First of all, the model can only give information about marginal changes in aid. As a decision to give...... and trade policies. The main result of the study is that Danish bilateral aid has a positive and statistically significant impact on Danish exports to the recipient countries. Bilateral development assistance may affect exports through several channels. Three of the main channels are direct aid tying......; increasing recipient income where higher income leads to higher imports, and decreased trade costs, say due to improved information about cultural and administrative customs and practices. Thus, as for preferential trade arrangements, bilateral aid has two potential economic effects; trade creation working...

  13. Russia vows to end oil export tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Russia will eliminate its oil export tax by 1994 and until then will allow some exemptions, Russian officials have assured a group of US tax specialists. They stopped short of saying it would be repealed by the end of the year, the Ken Crawford, a member of a Tax Foundation delegation visiting Russia and managing partner of KPMG Peat Marwick's Moscow office. The export tax was one of several tax related Russian economic issues on which the US experts and Russian officials exchanged views early this month. The 15 member delegation was in Moscow on invitation from Russia's Ministry of Finance and State Committee on Taxation to help develop guidelines for laws governing Russia's taxation of foreign investment. The US group was sponsored by the Tax Foundation, Washington, DC, a nonprofit, nonpartisan tax and fiscal policy research and public education group

  14. NPT, export controls and nuclear trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Savita

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear trade has by and large remained unhampered vis-a-vis both the NPT as well as export control regulations. The NPT rules are regarded as insufficient, the guidelines appear to contravene the spirit of cooperation in trade and development between suppliers and recipients and there is no agreement among leading suppliers themselves on what constitutes the proper conduct of trade. Export control regimes are more or less too informal to be able to be implemented. The supplier states have to invariably depend on national legislations which again vary from country to country. The only common formal basis on which action can be taken is, therefore, the NPT, its loopholes notwithstanding. The idea of transparency, and supplier-recipient dialogue continues to be a myth and will continue to be so long as these regimes remain discriminatory, so long as some nations are more powerful than others by virtue of retaining nuclear weapons and superiority in nuclear technology and trade

  15. Intra population polymorphism of Caspian gull (Larus cachinnans from the North-Western Coast of the Azov Sea (oological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Dubinina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of a long term study of nesting colonies of the Caspian gull (Larus cachinnans Pallas, 1811 on the islands of the Molochniy Liman and in Obitochnaya Bay (Azov Sea, in the South of Ukraine (Zaporizhia region, conducted between 1988 and 2013. A description of the size and coloring of eggs of Caspian gull was conducted by generally accepted methods. We measured 1000 eggs from 5 colonies of Caspian gulls. The background coloration of the eggs’ shells was classified into 7 types, the pattern of markings on the surface of the shells was classified into 4 types. In the nesting colonies, comprising different nesting settlements, the study tested differences in the distribution of typical and atypical coloring types and patterns on the surface of the shells. The background color and character of the shell marking patterns is dominated by eggs of phenotypes 3 and 4: gray-green, with a pattern of spots, of medium size (5–60% and brown, with a pattern of large spots (2–40%. In different settlements the Caspian gull egg sizes vary in length and diameter of 54.5–86.3 x 39.2–60.4 mm, volume 61.7–113.7 cm3 and index of roundness 63.6–85.3%. The study revealed that the linear dimensions of eggs also depend on the number of birds in the nesting colonies. We found that morphological and dimensional characteristics of Caspian gull eggs can vary at certain intervals and characterize individual colonies, settlements and populations. Based on cluster analysis, conducted in terms of the average of the linear sizes of eggs of Caspian gull from several populations within the range of the species, the study identified three groups of colonies – Danube-Sivash, Azov-Black Sea and Caucasus-Caspian. In region of the Azov-Black Sea, the greatest similarity was shown between the settlements of Sivash and the South of Crimea, which in turn is similar to Lebiyazhyi Islands and Kaniv Nature Reserve (river Dnipro. A related link

  16. Phases definition in marketing export process

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Dragan; Kokić Miljko

    2004-01-01

    The result of export marketing process depends on its five phases. The first phase-revision of export capacities, inner view on advantages and defects of company concerning export possibilities. The second phase-identification of export strategy market penetration. The forth phase-preparing for the marketing campaign (action). The fifth phase-carrying out the above mentioned activities. This study shows the structure and contents of the mentioned phases. At the end, export marketing analyzed ...

  17. Markups and Firm-Level Export Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic

    and export behavior using plant-level data. We find that i) markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity, ii) exporters charge on average higher markups and iii) firms' markups increase (decrease) upon export entry (exit).We see these findings as a first step...... in opening up the productivity-export black box, and provide a potential explanation for the big measured productivity premia for firms entering export markets....

  18. Topics in Productivity, Exporting and Outsourced Services

    OpenAIRE

    Kidder, Matthew Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is a collection of three empirical studies using the a survey of Chilean Manufactures. The first two chapters of this dissertation evaluates the productivity impact of exporting and service outsourcing. The last chapter evaluates selection mechanisms into exporting.The first chapter examines productivity and exporting. I find that asymmetric responses, between exporters and non-exporters, to changes in the domestic lending rate can cause propensity-score-matching-differen...

  19. Comment fonctionne le marché des exportations ?

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick ARTUS

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, several models (perfect or imperfect competition, flexible or fix-price models) for the determination of the level and of the price of exports of manufactured goods are developed and estimated. A special interest is given to the link between the situation (price level and level of demand) on the domestic market and the volume and price of exports, and to the degree of flexibility of prices.

  20. Rivalry as Synergy? The Japanese Automobile Companies' Export Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Dominique M Hanssens; Johny K Johansson

    1991-01-01

    The paper explores “rivalry” and “synergy” arguments to explain the export growth of Japanese auto manufacturers. Previous literature on competitive behavior, including Porter's [1985] discussion of “good” versus “bad” competitors, is used to develop a conceptual framework and empirical methodology to separate out alternative explanations for the Japanese success. Data on Japanese auto companies' sales in six different export markets (Europe, North America, Latin America, Asia, the Middle Eas...

  1. Meat export competitiveness of European Union countries on global markets

    OpenAIRE

    Štefan Bojnec; Imre Fertő

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to provide insight into the export competitiveness of meat products of the European Union (EU-27) member states on global markets. The revealed comparative advantage index is used to analyze the levels, compositions, and evolutions in patterns of development in the export competitiveness of meat products and their levels of stability at the product level. Except for some niche meat products, a larger number of the EU-27 member states have experienced comparativ...

  2. Leveraging marketing capabilities into competitive advantage and export performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Q.; Sousa, C. M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – By using the dynamic capabilities (DC) theory and the theory of competitive advantage, the purpose of this paper is to develop a framework to investigate the role of marketing capabilities on the firm’s export performance. Specifically, this framework depicts the consequences of marketing capabilities and focuses on the relationships among marketing capabilities, competitive advantage, and export performance. Design/methodology/approach – The authors conduct a meta-analysis of ...

  3. Uranium exports could match oil imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    Apart from a temporary embargo while safeguards are negotiated, the Canadian government limits uranium exports so as to guarantee fuel for every Canadian reactor built or planned for 30 years. On the basis of present known reserves of 172 Gg of 'cheap' U 3 O 8 and 33 of 'dear', that would mean phasing out exports after the mid 1980's, but probably much more 'dear' uranium remains to be discovered. Provincial taxation and restrictions on foreign ownership may be limitations. Discoveries range over eleven areas, but production capacity at present is 14190 Mg/d from Ontario and 3400 from Saskatchewan, with 8800 mothballed and 4860 planned or being rehabilitated. The price has jumped to $95/kg, so that uranium exports may cover half the cost of oil imports. All producers use sulfuric acid leaching, except Eldorado, which uses carbonate leaching; a process using tertiary amine is being developed. Development of the organic-cooled Th/ 233 U fuelled reactor may greatly extend fuel resources. (N.D.H.)

  4. Anthropogenic Decline of Ecosystem Services Threatens the Integrity of the Unique Hyrcanian (Caspian Forests in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardavan Zarandian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The unique Hyrcanian (Caspian forests of northern Iran provide vital ecosystem services for local and global communities. We assess the status and trends of key ecosystem services in this region where native forest conversion has accelerated to make way for housing and farm development. This is a mountainous forested area that is valuable for both conservation and multiple human uses including recreation and farming. It contains globally significant natural habitats for in situ conservation of biological diversity. A rapid, qualitative, and participatory approach was used including interviews with local households and experts in combination with assessment of land use/cover remote sensing data to identify and map priority ecosystem services in the Geographic Information System (GIS. Based on the interests of the beneficiaries, eight priority services (food production, water supply, raw materials, soil conservation, water regulation, climate regulation, biodiversity, and recreation were identified and mapped. The results indicate the current typical spatial distribution of the provided services based on structural characteristics of the study landscape and their changing trends through a comparison of past, present and future land use, and land cover. Although food production and recreation have greatly increased in recent decades, the other services, in particular timber production, biodiversity, and water purification and supply are being gradually lost. The results of this study and of others elsewhere should raise awareness of ecosystem service status and trends and the value of examining these since they provide much of the information to inform natural resources policy and decision making. The declines in supply of key ecosystem services both within and outside the protected area are creating conflicts within communities as well as impacting on the integrity of the area and careful planning and conservation is required to provide win

  5. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation - Quarantine treatment of agricultural products for export and import by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Kang, H. J.; Chung, H. W.; Roh, M. J. [Kyungbuk National University, Taegu (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export, some selected agricultural products, such as apple and pear, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MeBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach. Current quarantine activities were examined and the related limitations were investigated. Quarantine-related pests were investigated on their radiosensitivity and disinfestation effects by both treatments. The pests in apple and pear, Tetranychus urticae Koch, Panonychus ulmis Koch revealed a 100% mortality at around 17 days after irradiation of 3 kGy but it was too high dose for apple and pear. Tetranychus urticae Koch, Panonychus ulmi Koch from both apple and pear showed an increased mortality when exposed to 1 {approx} 2 kGy irradiation, resulting in apparent mortality 1 month later. 1 {approx} 2 kGy irradiation could be recommended for apple and pear. Current fumigation was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused the detrimental effects on physical quality of agricultural produce. Whereas, irradiation doses suitable for controlling the pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the samples. 40 refs., 64 figs., 160 tabs. (Author)

  6. Scenarios for Russia's natural gas exports to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paltsev, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Russia is an important energy supplier as it holds the world's largest natural gas reserves and it is the world's largest exporter of natural gas. Despite a recent reduction in Russia's exports to Europe, it plans to build new pipelines. We explore the long-term (up to 2050) scenarios of Russian natural gas exports to Europe and Asia using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy. We found that over the next 20–40 years natural gas can still play a substantial role in Russian exports and there are substantial reserves to support a development of the gas-oriented energy system both in Russia and in its current and potential gas importers. Based on the considered scenarios, Russia does not need any new pipeline capacity to the EU unless it wants to diversify its export routes to supply the EU without any gas transit via Ukraine and Belarus. Asian markets are attractive to Russian gas and substantial volumes may be exported there. Relatively cheap shale gas in China may sufficiently alter the prospects of Russian gas, especially in Asian markets. In the Reference scenario, exports of natural gas grow from Russia's current 7 Tcf to 11–12 Tcf in 2030 and 13–14 Tcf in 2050. Alternative scenarios provide a wider range of projections, with a share of Russian gas exports shipped to Asian markets rising to more than 30% by 2030 and almost 50% in 2050. Europe's reliance on LNG imports increases, while it still maintains sizable imports from Russia. - Highlights: • In the Reference scenario exports of natural gas grow from Russia’s current 7 Tcf to 11–12 Tcf in 2030 and 13–14 Tcf in 2050. • In alternative scenarios a share of Russian exports to Asian markets is rising to about 30% by 2030 and 50 % in 2050. • Cheap shale gas in China can sufficiently alter Russian natural gas export. • Reduction in nuclear generation in Europe can lead to increased exports of natural gas from

  7. Brand Marketing Strategies in the Export of Maoming Litchi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The thesis gives the brief overview of the development of Maoming litchi industry:it has the largest scale base and the output keeps going up;it has varieties of species and lots of famous special products;its standardized mass production ensures the safety of the products;the products go to market early with a broad range of sales;it has industrialized fruit production and deep product processing technology. After an introduction to the general situation of the export of litchis in China,the thesis introduces the current situation of the export of litchis in Maoming in terms of the continuously increasing exportations and the continuous expansion of the market and then,based on these,the thesis analyzes the existing problems in the export of Maoming Litchi:first,lack of brand awareness results in products with no brand;second,the instability of quality acts as a drawback to the exportation;third,fresh litchis are the main exportations,and the packaging and transportation technology of products are weak and thus the overseas markets are by no means well-explored. In order to adapt to the accelerating economic globalization,seize new opportunities for economic development,promote litchi exports from sluggish to healthy development and thus come to the successful transition of Maoming City as an agricultural city to a strong city in agricultural science and technology,corresponding strategies of the brand marketing of Maoming Litchi are put forward in the thesis:first,to enhance brand awareness and make it a famous brand;second,to build bases for litchis’ export and make Chinese litchis known worldwide;third,to pay intensive attention to the preservation of litchis and propel industrial management;fourth,to improve the market distribution system and open up the international market.

  8. Live animal and meat export value chains for selected areas in Ethiopia: Constraints and opportunities for enhancing meat exports

    OpenAIRE

    Getachew, Legese; Hailemariam, Teklewold; Dawit, Alemu; Asfaw, Negassa

    2008-01-01

    The Ethiopian live animal and meat export marketing system is operating in an environment characterized by several constraints that needs the attention and action of the government and other non-governmental development organizations. Despite the reported high livestock population of the country, the major meat and live animal exporters are complaining of shortage of supply and inferior quality of animals (especially shoats). The problem could be because of the constraints in the marketing sy...

  9. USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS-TECHNIQUES IN SOUTH EAST CASPIAN COASTAL CHANGES DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Mousavi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to detect the shoreline changes along Miankaleh peninsula promontory of the Gorgan Bay entrance over the last three decades (1975-2002. For this purpose satellite data including LANDSAT ETM+, TM, SPOT, ASTER L1A and RADARSAT have been analyzed. SPOT-Pan data were georeferenced with respect to 1 : 50 000 topographic maps using a Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM projection, then all the needed data sets were registered to the SPOT-Pan image. The hydrological data showed a rapid rise of the Caspian Sea level by 2.6 m between “1975-1996”.

  10. Dioctophyme renale in Vulpes vulpes from the Caspian Sea littoral of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajialilo, Elham; Mobedi, Iraj; Masoud, Jafar; Hasanpour, Hamid; Mowlavi, Gholamreza

    2015-05-01

    During a long term of road survey for detection of the zoonotic helminthes in carnivores, a male Vulpes vulpes was naturally found infected by Dioctophyme renale in Caspian Sea littoral in Iran. Since the parasite transmission usually occurs through consumption of fish and other accidental food items, investigation of the worm amongst fish-eating animals in the areas with potential circulation of the helminth life cycle, has been regarded as a public health importance so far. Concerning the rout of parasite transmission to humans, different epidemiological aspects should be studied in the country. Present paper describes a destructive lesion of the kidney in the fox due to D. renale after almost a decade of monitoring for the parasite reservoirs in the region.

  11. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOILS OF ECOTONE COMMUNITIES’ TAMARISK THICKETS OF NORTHWEST CASPIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Yasulbutaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article results of comparative estimation of soil biological activity indicators on the basis of studying intensity of vegetative organic and cellulose decomposition and also oxygen consumption in zone of shrubby thickets and open steppe of West Caspian are given. Rates of vegetative organic decomposition in soils of experience sites have made 5,23 and 5,67 mg·g-1·24 h-1 and didn't differ on sites. Intensity of cellulose decomposition in open site was above and has made 6,02 mg·g-1·24 h-1 against 4,16 mg·g-1·24 h-1 in soil of site with shrubby thickets. The estimation of intensity soil oxygen consumption hasn't shown an essential difference on sites.

  12. Morphological variability of Liza aurata (Risso, 1810, along the southern Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyn Khayyami

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variability of Liza aurata (Risso, 1810, was studied in traditional morphometric measurements in 25 morphological characters from 90 specimens in three fishery areas in the southern Caspian Sea (Guilan, Mazandaran and Golestan. Univariate analysis of variance showed significant differences between the means of the three groups for 22 out of 25 standardized morphometric measurements. In discriminant function analysis (DFA, the proportion of individuals correctly classified into their original groups was 100%. Principal component analysis results (PCA for morphometric data indicated that samples of Guilan and Mazandaran showed high degree of overlap and these two regions were highly different from Golestan. The dendrogram derived from cluster analysis showed that the samples of L. aurata from Guilan and Mazandaran had same clade while both were obviously distinct from Golestan.

  13. [Role of Aeromonas in the monitoring of a hydroecosystem in the Volga-Caspian area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhova, O V; Lartseva, L V; Lisitskaia, I A

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives data obtained over many years on the quantity of bacteria of the genus Aeromonas in the hydroecosystems of the delta of the Volga and Caspian Sea and in commercial fishes (sturgeon (Acipenseridae), pike perch (Stizostedion), carp (Cyprinus carpio), silurus (Silurus glanis), etc.). It provides a detailed analysis of their seasonal trends and spatial distribution, markers of their pathogenicity, and antibiotic resistance. The findings suggest that Aeromonas is a causative agent of sapronoses and meets the criteria for natural focal infections. They show a wide range of tolerance to the abiotic factors of hydroecosystems, as well as mixotrophy and autrophic nutrition in the environment and they are of great sanitary and hygienic importance.

  14. Meat export competitiveness of European Union countries on global markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Bojnec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to provide insight into the export competitiveness of meat products of the European Union (EU-27 member states on global markets. The revealed comparative advantage index is used to analyze the levels, compositions, and evolutions in patterns of development in the export competitiveness of meat products and their levels of stability at the product level. Except for some niche meat products, a larger number of the EU-27 member states have experienced comparative disadvantages on global markets over the analysed years of 2000 to 2011. The revealed comparative advantages on the global markets are the most robust for Ireland, Spain, the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Denmark, Poland, Cyprus and Hungary. The revealed comparative advantage indices and their survival rates differ across the meat product groups. The heterogeneity in export competitiveness of the EU-27 member states suggests the importance of the differentiation of meat products in competitive export specialization on global markets.

  15. China's "Exported Carbon" Peak: Patterns, Drivers, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Zhifu; Meng, Jing; Green, Fergus; Coffman, D'Maris; Guan, Dabo

    2018-05-01

    Over the past decade, China has entered a "new normal" phase in economic development, with its role in global trade flows changing significantly. This study estimates the driving forces of Chinese export-embodied carbon emissions in the new normal phase, based on environmentally extended multiregional input-output modeling and structural decomposition analysis. We find that Chinese export-embodied CO2 emissions peaked in 2008 at a level of 1,657 million tones. The subsequent decline in CO2 emissions was mainly due to the changing structure of Chinese production. The peak in Chinese export-embodied emissions is encouraging from the perspective of global climate change mitigation, as it implies downward pressure on global CO2 emissions. However, more attention should focus on ensuring that countries that may partly replace China as major production bases increase their exports using low-carbon inputs.

  16. The Export Administration Act of 1979 and Computer Exports to China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perez, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    .... The statute that regulates computer exports, the Export Administration Act of 1979 (EAA79), has been interpreted both strictly and loosely by policymakers, executive agencies, and export control regimes...

  17. Succession of Hydrocarbon Degradation and Microbial Diversity during a Simulated Petroleum Seepage in Caspian Sea Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S.; Stagars, M.; Wefers, P.; Schmidt, M.; Knittel, K.; Krueger, M.; Leifer, I.; Treude, T.

    2016-02-01

    Microbial degradation of petroleum was investigated in intact sediment cores of Caspian Sea during a simulated petroleum seepage using a sediment-oil-flow-through (SOFT) system. Over the course of the SOFT experiment (190 days), distinct redox zones established and evolved in the sediment core. Methanogenesis and sulfate reduction were identified to be important processes in the anaerobic degradation of hydrocarbons. C1 to C6 n-alkanes were completely exhausted in the sulfate-reducing zone and some higher alkanes decreased during the upward migration of petroleum. A diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria was identified by 16s rRNA phylogenetic studies, some of which are associated with marine seeps and petroleum degradation. The δ13C signal of produced methane decreased from -33.7‰ to -49.5‰ indicating crude oil degradation by methanogenesis, which was supported by enrichment culturing of methanogens with petroleum hydrocarbons and presence of methanogenic archaea. The SOFT system is, to the best of our knowledge, the first system that simulates an oil-seep like condition and enables live monitoring of biogeochemical changes within a sediment core during petroleum seepage. During our presentation we will compare the Caspian Sea data with other sediments we studied using the SOFT system from sites such as Santa Barbara (Pacific Ocean), the North Alex Mud Volcano (Mediterranean Sea) and the Eckernfoerde Bay (Baltic Sea). This research was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SPP 1319) and DEA Deutsche Erdoel AG. Further support came from the Helmholtz and Max Planck Gesellschaft.

  18. Studi Pengambilan Keputusan Investasi Dengan Risiko Pada Pengembangan Proyek Caspian Tower, Grand Sungkono Lagoon Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenny Herwitasari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Proyek Caspian Tower, Grand Sungkono Lagoon yang bertempat di Jl. Abdul Wahab Siamin Surabaya merupakan gabungan fungsi hunian apartemen dan pusat perbelanjaan (mall. Pembangunan Caspian Tower ini sangat menarik karena mencoba menggabungkan dua market properti yang berbeda. Perbedaan market properti tersebut memunculkan risiko dan tingkat pengembalian investasi yang berbeda satu sama lain sehingga membuat proyek ini menarik untuk dianalisa risiko terhadap investasinya, karena dimungkinkan terjadi saling melemahkan atau memperkuat satu dengan lainnya. Oleh karena itu perlu untuk dilakukan studi lebih lanjut untuk menentukan apakah fungsi bangunan tersebut merupakan yang terbaik sebagai keputusan investasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan keputusan terbaik dalam investasi dilihat dari risiko dan tingkat keuntungan yang didapat. Untuk menentukan fungsi bangunan terbaik, dianalisa 2 alternatif lain selain penggabungan antara apartemen dan mall, yaitu pembangunan perkantoran dan pembangunan hotel. Dari hasil kuesioner yang disebar, didapatkan hasil probabilitas untuk apartemen dan mall: optimis= 70,7%, moderat= 20,1%, pesimis= 9,2%; Perkantoran: optimis= 57,1%, moderat= 28,6%, pesimis= 14,3%; Hotel: optimis= 64,8%, moderat= 23%, pesimis= 12,2%. Berdasarkan perhitungan NPV risiko, didapatkan keputusan investasi terbaik adalah investasi apartemen dan mall dengan NPV risiko sebesar Rp.341.209.972.609,37 yang lebih besar dibandingkan dengan hasil NPV risiko perkantoran dan hotel yaitu sebesar Rp. 326.927.631.618,04 dan Rp. 321.827.486.548,59. Dari hasil analisa investasi dan analisa risiko dapat disimpulkan bahwa alternatif investasi yang menghasilkan tingkat keuntungan pada risiko yang bisa diterima paling besar adalah alternatif apartemen dan mall. Sedangkan alternatif investasi yang menghasilkan tingkat keuntungan pada risiko yang bisa diterima paling rendah adalah alternatif hotel.

  19. Long-term and seasonal Caspian Sea level change from satellite gravity and altimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. L.; Wilson, C. R.; Tapley, B. D.; Save, H.; Cretaux, Jean-Francois

    2017-03-01

    We examine recent Caspian Sea level change by using both satellite radar altimetry and satellite gravity data. The altimetry record for 2002-2015 shows a declining level at a rate that is approximately 20 times greater than the rate of global sea level rise. Seasonal fluctuations are also much larger than in the world oceans. With a clearly defined geographic region and dominant signal magnitude, variations in the sea level and associated mass changes provide an excellent way to compare various approaches for processing satellite gravity data. An altimeter time series derived from several successive satellite missions is compared with mass measurements inferred from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data in the form of both spherical harmonic (SH) and mass concentration (mascon) solutions. After correcting for spatial leakage in GRACE SH estimates by constrained forward modeling and accounting for steric and terrestrial water processes, GRACE and altimeter observations are in complete agreement at seasonal and longer time scales, including linear trends. This demonstrates that removal of spatial leakage error in GRACE SH estimates is both possible and critical to improving their accuracy and spatial resolution. Excellent agreement between GRACE and altimeter estimates also provides confirmation of steric Caspian Sea level change estimates. GRACE mascon estimates (both the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) coastline resolution improvement version 2 solution and the Center for Space Research (CSR) regularized) are also affected by leakage error. After leakage corrections, both JPL and CSR mascon solutions also agree well with altimeter observations. However, accurate quantification of leakage bias in GRACE mascon solutions is a more challenging problem.

  20. Heavy metals and arsenic content in water along the southern Caspian coasts in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Mohammad; Zamani, Abbasali; Parizanganeh, Abdolhossein; Khosravi, Younes; Badiee, Hamid

    2018-06-06

    Due to the importance of pollution monitoring in marine ecosystems and lack of a coherent and systematic investigation of heavy metal ions along the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, in the present study, the amount of these metals and As ions in coastal waters along its 780-km-long coast in Iran have been studied. Heavy metals (cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, mercury, lead) and a poisonous metalloid (arsenic) were selected in 59 sampling stations and determined using differential pulse polarography method. The multivariate statistical tools were applied to describe and interpret the experimental data. The overall mean concentrations of studied metals (in microgram per liter; μg L -1 ) in the samples were found in the order Zn (10.9) > Ni (7.4) > Cu (5.5) > Pb (1.9) > Hg (1.4) > As (1.3) > Co (1.1) > Cd (0.2). The results when compared with reported international standards confirmed that the sampled waters do contain some of these elements above the suggested maximum permissible limits. Hg and Cu were detected in 54.2 and 72.9% of the samples, almost all above the permissible limits. Ni, Zn, Pb, and Co were detected in 100, 96.6, 93.2, and 88.1%, respectively, while 8.5, 22.0, 3.4, and 1.7% were above the permissible limits. Cd and As were present in 61 and 93% of the samples, and their concentrations were higher than the rate presented by Russian System of Management Chemicals (RSMC). In addition, spatial distribution of heavy metal concentrations showed that Gorgan Bay is an ecosystem serving as a filter, trapping natural and anthropogenic materials that are brought from industrial, commercial, and urbanized areas. The multivariate data analysis reveals that Caspian Sea is contaminated by both anthropogenic as well as pedo-geochemical sources.

  1. La evolución de las exportaciones de bienes de China: una visión panarómica = Chinese goods exports development: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Salvador Chamorro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de reforma económica que ha experimentado la economía de China es uno de los fenómenos de mayor relevancia en la evolución de la Economía Mundial en los últimos treinta años y, sin duda, seguirá siéndolo en el futuro. Dentro de este proceso, la apertura al exterior, que el gobierno chino inició en 1978, ha situado al país en un lugar de máxima relevancia dentro de los flujos comerciales y financieros internacionales. En este contexto, el objetivo de este trabajo es intentar realizar un análisis general de la evolución del comercio exterior de China en las últimas décadas, prestando especial atención a sus exportaciones de bienes y poniendo énfasis en los cambios experimentados durante los últimos años.The process of economic reform that has experienced the Chinese economy is one of the most important events in the evolution of the World Economy in the past 30 years, and will undoubtedly remain so in the future. Within this economic reform, the opening process that the Chinese Government began in 1978, has put the country in a place of utmost importance in the international trade and financial flows. In this context, this paper try to perform an analysis of the evolution of China's foreign trade in recent decades, with particular attention to its exports and emphasizing the changes in recent years

  2. La evolución de las exportaciones de bienes de China: una visión panarómica = Chinese goods exports development: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Salvador Chamorro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El proceso de reforma económica que ha experimentado la economía de China es uno de los fenómenos de mayor relevancia en la evolución de la Economía Mundial en los últimos treinta años y, sin duda, seguirá siéndolo en el futuro. Dentro de este proceso, la apertura al exterior, que el gobierno chino inició en 1978, ha situado al país en un lugar de máxima relevancia dentro de los flujos comerciales y financieros internacionales. En este contexto, el objetivo de este trabajo es intentar realizar un análisis general de la evolución del comercio exterior de China en las últimas décadas, prestando especial atención a sus exportaciones de bienes y poniendo énfasis en los cambios experimentados durante los últimos años. Abstract The process of economic reform that has experienced the Chinese economy is one of the most important events in the evolution of the World Economy in the past 30 years, and will undoubtedly remain so in the future. Within this economic reform, the opening process that the Chinese Government began in 1978, has put the country in a place of utmost importance in the international trade and financial flows. In this context, this paper try to perform an analysis of the evolution of China's foreign trade in recent decades, with particular attention to its exports and emphasizing the changes in recent years.

  3. Exporting environmental products: A small business's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.

    1992-01-01

    If the last year and a half are any indication it would appear that the early 1990's will be to international trade what the early 1980's were to entrepreneurship. Embraced by the popular and business press and encouraged by the administration, exporting has become one of the most talked about topics in business today. As manufacturers, consultants and service providers we are continually told that to survive in the world marketplace we must think globally and compete aggressively. There can be no doubt that export markets, always an interesting sector of business, have become both more important and exciting in recent years. On January 1, 1993 the unified common market of the European Community will officially open for business. Although most of the significant changes in that market have already taken place or been agreed upon, this historic event - creating the single largest market among industrial nations - will undoubtedly have an effect on how we as exporters do business in Europe. The Free Trade Agreement with Canada has been in effect for over two years now and there have been and will continue to be many benefits for us. In developing and newly capitalist countries we can point to Czechoslovakia and Hungary as the first of several potentially lucrative markets. Mexico, in the spotlight due to the new Free Trade initiative, will be a strong new export market in our own backyard. And finally the so called mini-dragons of Southeast Asia cannot be ignored. Whether or not they choose to create a formal trading bloc, their ever increasing foreign reserves should be looked at with hungry, but cautious eyes. In this paper the author identifies a large and ever increasing world of customers beyond our national borders and identifies how those companies and individuals in the environmental products market can benefit greatly

  4. An analysis on the export license criteria for NSG control items in the US and Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Rok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-01

    Korea has taken steps to join the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) which is a major part of the international nuclear export control regime. In this connection, it is an urgent task to build a new Korean nuclear export control system that includes NSG guidelines and control items. In addition, it is necessary to review the developed supplier countries` experience in the field of export control. The main purpose of this study is to analyze how the US and Japan have controlled the items listed in NSG part 1 and 2 guidelines. To this end, various relevant regulations of the US and Japan were studied. Among those regulations, the US Export Administration Regulation, US 10 CFR 110 and 810, and the Japan`s Export Administration Order are included. Through the review process, this study identified NSG items which are controlled in the export control systems of the US and Japan. Furthermore, this study summarized and compared the export license criteria that must be satisfied before exporting each NSG item in the two countries. The export license criteria consist of permitted destinations, document requirements, and types of license. The results of this study are expected to contribute to establishing an appropriate Korean nuclear export control system and could be used as references to the practical export licensing policies of the US and Japan. 6 tabs., 13 refs., (Author) .new.

  5. An analysis on the export license criteria for NSG control items in the US and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Rok

    1995-06-01

    Korea has taken steps to join the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) which is a major part of the international nuclear export control regime. In this connection, it is an urgent task to build a new Korean nuclear export control system that includes NSG guidelines and control items. In addition, it is necessary to review the developed supplier countries' experience in the field of export control. The main purpose of this study is to analyze how the US and Japan have controlled the items listed in NSG part 1 and 2 guidelines. To this end, various relevant regulations of the US and Japan were studied. Among those regulations, the US Export Administration Regulation, US 10 CFR 110 and 810, and the Japan's Export Administration Order are included. Through the review process, this study identified NSG items which are controlled in the export control systems of the US and Japan. Furthermore, this study summarized and compared the export license criteria that must be satisfied before exporting each NSG item in the two countries. The export license criteria consist of permitted destinations, document requirements, and types of license. The results of this study are expected to contribute to establishing an appropriate Korean nuclear export control system and could be used as references to the practical export licensing policies of the US and Japan. 6 tabs., 13 refs., (Author) .new

  6. Creative destruction and export patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2014-01-01

    varieties obsolete. For a given technology (variety) production costs decrease after an infant period due to learning. While all firms are assumed to be symmetric in a life-cycle perspective, at a given point in time firms of different ages differ in productivity, firm size, product quality, and export...... behavior. The model highlights a process of creative destruction, which allows firms to produce in a finite span of periods determined by the intensity of product and process innovations. The model predicts a wide range of export behavior of the individual firm during its life cycle depending...

  7. 75 FR 44761 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... sales prices and/or minimum target sales prices, and other terms of sales in the Export Markets... canned salmon in the Export Markets, selling strategies for the Export Markets, sales for the Export... described below for the following Export Trade and Export Markets: Export Trade Products Shelf stable non...

  8. Export-Led Growth Hypothesis: Evidence from Agricultural Exports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the nature and direction of causality in Tanzania between economic growth and agricultural exports along with some selected variables such as labour force and domestic investment. The analysis for this study was carried out using time series data for the period of 1980 to 2013. The data series were ...

  9. Evaluation of lysozyme, complement C3, and total protein in different developmental stages of Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Razieh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, non–specific immune parameters in fertilized eggs, eyed embryos, larvae 10, 25, 50, 60, and 70 days post hatch (DPH, and female broodstock of Caspian kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum (Kamensky, were evaluated. The lysozyme activity, complement C3, and total protein levels were measured with the turbidimetric, immunoturbidimetric, and Bradford methods, respectively. The results showed that lysozyme levels decreased from levels noted in the fertilized eggs until the larvae were 10 days old. Subsequently, significant increases in lysozyme levels were observed until 70 DPH. An increasing trend of complement component C3 was noted from the levels in fertilized eggs to 10 DPH, following which it decreased significantly. Total protein levels differed significantly in early developmental stages of Caspian kutum. The higher values of complement component C3 than of lysozyme in the early life stages could be indicative of the former’s more fundamental role.

  10. FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF SHRUB COMMUNITIES IN THE FORMATION OF MOSAIC ECOTONE COMMUNITIES OF COASTAL ECOSYSTEM OF NORTHWEST OF THE CASPIAN LOWLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-R. D. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

     animals is functionally related to growing trees and shrubs – the types and gradient salinity, degree of aridity, featuresof the macro- and mesorelief of territory under the Northwest Caspian lowland.Main conclusions. In arid zones of the Northwest Caspian lowland as agent cenosoeducational process are overgrown and some specimens of tree and shrub of tamarisk and nitraria. They form a complex mosaic ecotone relief with various types of water-salt regime of soils, vegetation and structure of the animal population. Phytogenic mosaicism vegetation of cover, obligated growing here owes treelike shrubs, is an important determinant of species diversity, especially plant phenology and productivity of pastures, the over biological diversity and the structure of the animal population of arid areas of west Caspian lowland. An important regulatory inf luence on the development of processes has biogeocenotic animals and participation in a single complex with the main cenosoeducational system is thicket of shrubs. In theoreticalterms, quantitative evalution processes cenosoeducational features comprehensive environment is forming activity of animals and plants and their cenotic complexes represent an important functional characteristic of arid lands of the territory. Comprehensive, scientific substantiation, properly planned development of these paeticularysensitive man of semidesert systems, prediction of their changes in the short and in the long term is impossible without knowledge of the mechanisms their functioning and stability.

  11. Cryptic species of Ponto-Caspian bighead goby of the genus Ponticola (Gobiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasil'eva, E. D.; Schwarzhans, Werner; Medvedev, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    . gorlap which inhabits the northern, western, and southern Caspian Sea. These three allopatric species have ctenoid scales to varying degrees on the crown and nape (100% presence in P. kessleri and complete absence in P. iljini), and there are small differences in the shape of the head, the thickness...... of the beginning of divergence of the considered three cryptic species, as well as isolating barriers that led to allopatric speciation, are discussed....

  12. Peculiar features of histopathological changesincase of helminthoses in mero-consortia of the caspian seal (PusaCaspica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Demidenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The papercovers the study of peculiarfeatures of histopathological changesunderaction of two helminthspeciesin tissues of meroconsortia of the Caspian seal: liver, gall bladder, pancreas, and stomach. Significant changesin the seorgans accompanied by appearance of capsules, inflammatory infiltration, and occurrence of abscesses were recorded. The se peculiarities should be considered as a manifestation of morpho-functional compensation generated in the process of mutual adaptation of organisms of the host and parasite.

  13. RESULTS OF THE STUDY ORIBATIDMITEIN THE COASTAL AREA OF THE NORTH-WEST OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Grikurova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim . Studied the fauna of the soil mites of coastal and island ecosystems of the North-Western part of the Caspian sea (Bryansk spit, Strategiczne, Islands seal, Chechen and Nordby. Found 49 species and 39 genera and subgenera, and 24 families. Species composition of oribatidmite of theNorth-western part of the Caspian Sea remains not completely studied. The aim of the work was to study the species composition of oribatidmite ecosystems of the North-Western part of the Caspian Sea. Location. Coastal ecosystems north-western part of the Caspian Sea.Methods. The selection of soil samples in different habitats and MicroStation is the basis for studying the biodiversity and abundance of soil microarthropod. To extract small soil organisms method was used electoral forcing, which is based on the use of negative phototaxis soil organisms. When the definition of oribatid mites used the microscope MBI-6, Olympus CH-20.Results. As a result of studies 41 species of oribatidmites, 9 of which – new forthe fauna of the Caucasus, 17 species – new for the fauna of Dagestan, one species – new to science were identified. There sults can be used to compile regionallists, inventories and will be included in the list of directories oribatidmite of Caucasus.Main conclusions. There sults showed that for both are as of studies - 9 species, exclusively in coastal ecosystems of Bryansks pit 24 species, found only in ecosystems Staroterechnogo 9 species are common.

  14. Impacts of Korea's Exchange Rate Uncertainty on Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Sik Kim

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of two types of uncertainty related to the real effective exchange rate (REER in Korea for export trends. To decompose uncertainties into two types of component, I propose an advanced generalized Markov switching model, as developed by Hamilton (1989 and then expanded by Kim and Kim (1996. The proposed model is useful in uncovering two sources of uncertainty: the permanent component of REER and the purely transitory component. I think that the two types of uncertainties have a different effect on export trends in Korea. The transitory component of REER has no effect on the export trend at 5-percent significance, but the permanent component has an effect at this level. In addition, the degree of uncertainty, consisting of low, medium and high uncertainty in the permanent component, and low, medium and high uncertainty in transitory component of REER, also has different effects on export trends in Korea. Only high uncertainty in permanent components effects export trends. The results show that when the policy authority intends to prevent the shrinkage of exports due to the deepening of uncertainties in the foreign exchange market, the economic impacts of its intervention could appear differently according to the characteristics and degree of the uncertainties. Therefore, they imply that its economic measures, which could not grasp the sources of uncertainties properly, may even bring economic costs.

  15. Quantification of climatic feedbacks on the Caspian Sea level variability and impacts from the Caspian Sea on the large-scale atmospheric circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpe, Klaus; Tsuang, Ben-Jei; Tseng, Yu-Heng; Liu, Xin-Yu; Leroy, Suzanne A. G.

    2018-05-01

    With a fall of the Caspian Sea level (CSL), its size gets smaller and therefore the total evaporation over the sea is reduced. With a reduced evaporation from the sea, the fall of the CSL is weakened. This creates a negative feedback as less evaporation leads to less water losses of the Caspian Sea (CS). On the other hand, less evaporation reduces the water in the atmosphere, which may lead to less precipitation in the catchment area of the CS. The two opposite feedbacks are estimated by using an atmospheric climate model coupled with an ocean model only for the CS with different CS sizes while keeping all other forcings like oceanic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and leaf area index the same from a global climate simulation. The investigation is concentrated on the medieval period because at that time the CSL changed dramatically from about - 30 to - 19 m below the mean ocean sea level, partly man-made. Models used for simulating the last millennium are not able to change the size of the CS dynamically so far. When results from such simulations are used to investigate the CSL variability and its causes, the present study should help to parameterize its feedbacks. A first assumption that the total evaporation from the CS will vary with the size of the CS (number of grid points representing the sea) is generally confirmed with the model simulations. The decrease of grid points from 15 to 14, 10, 8 or 7 leads to a decrease of evaporation to 96, 77, 70 and 54%. The lower decrease than initially expected from the number of grid points (93, 67, 53 and 47%) is probably due to the fact that there would also be some evaporation at grid points that run dry with a lower CSL but a cooling of the CS SST with increasing CS size in summer may be more important. The reduction of evaporation over the CS means more water for the budget of the whole catchment of the CS (an increase of the CSL) but from the gain through reduced evaporation over the CS, only 70% is found to remain in

  16. RNA Export through the NPC in Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Masumi; Inose, Haruko; Masuda, Seiji

    2015-03-20

    In eukaryotic cells, RNAs are transcribed in the nucleus and exported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. The RNA molecules that are exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm include messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), and viral mRNAs. Each RNA is transported by a specific nuclear export receptor. It is believed that most of the mRNAs are exported by Nxf1 (Mex67 in yeast), whereas rRNAs, snRNAs, and a certain subset of mRNAs are exported in a Crm1/Xpo1-dependent manner. tRNAs and miRNAs are exported by Xpot and Xpo5. However, multiple export receptors are involved in the export of some RNAs, such as 60S ribosomal subunit. In addition to these export receptors, some adapter proteins are required to export RNAs. The RNA export system of eukaryotic cells is also used by several types of RNA virus that depend on the machineries of the host cell in the nucleus for replication of their genome, therefore this review describes the RNA export system of two representative viruses. We also discuss the NPC anchoring-dependent mRNA export factors that directly recruit specific genes to the NPC.

  17. Municipal solid waste management on the south coastline of the Caspian Sea (Golestan, Mazandaran, and Guilan Provinces of Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduli, Mohammad Ali; Bidhendi, Gholamreza Nabi; Nasrabadi, Touraj; Hoveidi, Hassan

    2007-12-01

    The Caspian region (including the Golestan, Mazandaran, and Guilan provinces of Iran) occupies 58,678 square kilometers (22,651 square miles) and has a population of 6,270,192, according to the census of 1996. This part of Iran is attractive to tourists because of its proximity to the Caspian Sea. In addition, the region boasts invaluable forests and grasslands, and is the exclusive producer in the country of key agricultural crops like rice and tea. The lack of systematic solid waste management has put this region on the edge of irreparable environmental damage. The large number and dispersion of open-dumping landfills, as well as the faded role of functional elements like waste minimization and processing, have sped up the environmental deterioration. This article evaluates the current status of solid waste management in the Caspian region and suggests practical alternatives. As a result of a field and desk study, the authors offer some instructions for separation of putrescibles, paper and cardboard, plastics, and so forth. Finally, after considering all aspects of the environmental impact assessments for different alternatives, the authors recommend the construction of two compost-producing facilities in Golestan province with a combined capacity of 500 metric tons per day and a total cost of $60,000, and four incineration sites in southern and southwestern parts of the region (Mazandaran and Guilan provinces) with a total capacity of 2,000 metric tons per day and total cost of $75 million.

  18. The effect of water temperature on food transit time and digestive enzymes activity in Caspian kutum (Rutilus kutum larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Ghysvandi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effects of water temperature on digestive enzymes activity and food transit time in Caspian kutum (Rutilus kutum larvae. Caspian kutum larvae (532 ± 0.05 and 543 ± 0.02 mg were divided into two groups with three replicates and reared at different water temperature i.e. 25.6 ± 0.4°C (T1 and 18.4 ± 0.1°C (T2. At the end of the experiment, sampling of intestine was performed at 0, 1, 3, 5, 8, 16, 24 and 30 h after feeding from each treatment. In T2, food was observed until 24 h after feeding and the intestine was empty 29 h after feeding, while in T1 19 h after feeding the intestine was empty. Digestive enzymes activities were higher in T2 treatment. The peaks of trypsin and alkaline phosphatase enzymes activity were found 8 h after feeding in T1, while occurred 16 h after feeding in T2. The highest chymotrypsin and alpha-amylase enzymes activity were observed 5 and 8h after feeding in T1 and T2, respectively. These results confirmed remarkable effects of temperature on food transit time and digestive enzymes activity of Caspian kutum.

  19. Nuclear Export of Messenger RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Katahira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex.

  20. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy. This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  1. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy.This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  2. Nuclear Export of Messenger RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katahira, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex. PMID:25836925

  3. Export Intermediation and the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    2005-01-01

    It is claimed that the remarkable growth in numbers of connected firms to the Internet marks a radical shift in current organisation of international business channels. For export intermediaries these new possibilities pose a threat to their current market position. However, virtual market presence...

  4. Global Landslide Catalog Export

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) was developed with the goal of identifying rainfall-triggered landslide events around the world, regardless of size, impacts or...

  5. Australian coal exports - threat to market share

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, P

    1989-10-01

    Australian coal exports fell 3% for the fiscal year ending June 1989, but at just under 100mt, they make Australia the world's leading coal exporter. Figures for production, consumption and exports are given. Industrial and structural changes within the industry are discussed. It is concluded that the industry and unions must improve structures and communication if potential production and exports are to be achieved. 2 figs.

  6. Chinese Competition and Brazilian Exports of Manufactures

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rhys

    2014-01-01

    In recent years concerns have been raised over the impact of Chinese competition on Latin American exports, particularly those from Mexico. This article shows that Brazilian manufactured exports too have been negatively affected, and that this has been reflected in the “primarization” of Brazilian exports and a declining share in the import markets of its major customers. A variety of different indicators were used to analyse the extent to which Brazilian exports have faced competition from C...

  7. Export channel pricing management for integrated solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Roine, Henna; Sainio, Liisa-Maija; Saarenketo, Sami

    2012-01-01

    This article studies systems integrators' export channel pricing management for integrated solutions. We find support from our empirical case study for the notion that a systems integrator's export channel pricing strategy is multidimensional and dependent on international pricing environment and partner characteristics and that export partnerships have unique implications on a systems integrator's pricing process. The results show that giving up pricing control in export channel context may ...

  8. Research on Food Quality Security of China’s Food Import and Export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengling Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article researches quality and safety of food at home and abroad on the basis of present situation, cause and effect, from the point of import and export of food quality and safety in China, by combining with economic theories and empirical analysis, from a macro perspective study of China’s import and export food safety issues impact on economic and social development, and study the experience of other developed countries advanced management experience in the quality and safety of food imports and exports. Finally, after the combination of the analysis, make recommendations to protect China’s import and export food safety measures and provide policy proposals.

  9. Testing times for Southern African exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    With South African coal exports projected to increase by more than 35% over the next decade, will the development of the country's infrastructure be ready? A combination of derailments, bad weather and a lack of capacity on the Transnet Freight Rail (TFR) rail network seriously curtailed shipments in 2008 and 2009. It had been hoped that Richards Bay Coal Terminal(RPCT) would now be able to make use of its expanded capacity but a serious transport strike may encourage traders to switch to Mozambican ports.

  10. Exporting nuclear engineering and the government's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schill, H.

    1986-01-01

    The reasons for the government's positive attitude to nuclear engineering exports are explained, especially with regard to them being a compensation of the decreasing domestic demand. The federal government considers such exports to be necessary and correct for economical and energy-political reasons. Their contribution reaches from accompanying measures to the provision of state guarantees of export financing activities. (UA) [de

  11. Firm-level volatility and exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vannoorenberghe, G.C.L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows that the share of exports in the total sales of a firm has a positive and substantial impact on the volatility of its sales. Decomposing the volatility of sales of exporters between their domestic and export markets, I show using an identification strategy based on a firm-specific

  12. 75 FR 12433 - National Export Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Order 13534 of March 11, 2010 National Export Initiative By the authority vested in me as President by... performance will, in turn, create good high-paying jobs. The National Export Initiative (NEI) shall be an Administration initiative to improve conditions that directly affect the private sector's ability to export. The...

  13. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216 Section 28.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Wine With Benefit of Drawback § 28.216...

  14. 77 FR 16768 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 20 RIN 0551-AA70 Export Sales... Sales Reporting Requirements, is being withdrawn. The Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) is currently...: Contact Peter W. Burr, Branch Chief, Export Sales Reporting Branch, Import Policies and Export Reporting...

  15. 78 FR 35195 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 48 CFR Parts 925, 952, and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export... Energy (DOE) is proposing to amend the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export... comments, identified by ``DEAR: Export Control and RIN 1991-AB99,'' by any of the following methods...

  16. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 923.15 Section 923.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship cherries...

  17. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head...

  18. 7 CFR 958.14 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 958.14 Section 958.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.14 Export. Export...

  19. 7 CFR 945.14 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 945.14 Section 945.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.14 Export. Export...

  20. 77 FR 73627 - 2012 LNG Export Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 2012 LNG Export Study AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of availability of 2012 LNG Export Study and request for comments. Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. [FE Docket No. 10-161-LNG] and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC. Lake Charles Exports, LLC.... [FE Docket...