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Sample records for caspian export development

  1. Long-term competition between gas infrastructures developments in Asia. The constraints on the Siberia and Caspian export development by cross-border pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D.; Locatelli, C.; Mima, S.

    2000-09-01

    Despite the effects of the recent financial crisis, the problem of satisfying the energy requirements of the emerging economies in Asia remains the principal challenge in the first half of the 21. century. The competition between sources of supply is influenced by the nature of the transport infrastructures used in their exportation and by the associated economic and geopolitical conditions: capital intensiveness, rigidity, country-risk, etc... The aim of the study is the position that could be occupied by major continental infrastructures in trade within the Asian continent, in view of the economic institutional and geopolitical restraints that would appear more favourable to projects based on LNG. Developments in Siberia and Central Asia will be heavily influenced by the geographical remoteness and organizational weakness of the countries in that area. (A.L.B.)

  2. Techno-economic modelling to strategize energy exports in the Central Asian Caspian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakdolotov, Aidyn; Miglio, Rocco De; Akhmetbekov, Yerbol; Baigarin, Kanat

    2017-04-01

    This paper studies the concept of energy security from export-oriented countries' point of view. It aims to test the effects of long-term energy export strategies in the Central Asian Caspian (CAC) region, by exploring the trade-offs between a "risk" indicator and some key variables of the energy system such as the total cost, the quantities exported, and the corresponding revenues. Risk reduction goals are combined with securing a minimum level of revenues from the hydrocarbon exports goals. It is also attempted to provide a definition and a quantification of a risk indicator on the basis of four components. The analysis makes use of a techno-economic energy system model to quantitatively evaluate the response of the energy sector to energy security risks, and its sensitivity to different export strategies.

  3. Ovarian development of Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus, in southern Caspian Sea: A histological and ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Akhoundian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The histology and ultrastructure of the ovarian maturation process in Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus, was studied. A total 170 female specimens were collected from the Gharasoo River, Bandar Turkmen, the southern Caspian Sea to evaluate its maturation cycle. Based on the results, its ovarian follicle’s development could classified into six stages by distinct characteristics. Minimum and maximum diameter of oocytes were recorded in the chromatin-nucleolus and maturation stages as 56.34±3.74 and 918.83±14.82 µm, respectively. The zona radiata was observed from the cortical alveoli stage and its maximum diameter measured in the secondary vitellogenesis stage as 93.11±23.0 µm. Gonadosomatic index (GSI reached to its peak in mid-March and its sharp drop in the late April showed its spawning period from late March or early April till the end of April. A positive correlation was found between the GSI and HSI in the vitellogenesis stage. The results also revealed Caspian roach as iteroparous synchronous spawner.

  4. The Trans-Caspian energy route: Cronyism, competition and cooperation in Kazakh oil export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliyev, Farid [School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen (Germany)], E-mail: f.guliyev@jacobs-university.de; Akhrarkhodjaeva, Nozima [School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The article delineates the major national, regional and international level stakeholders in the westward Trans-Caspian transportation of Kazakh oil, supplemented with a discussion of the prospect of expansion of the Trans-Caspian/South Caucasus corridor in light of the presumably harmful effect of the war between Russia and Georgia in August 2008. It demonstrates that while foreign companies have been backed by their respective governments, national firms have also enjoyed considerable state support, partly due to their close links to the interests of state elites in Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. It appears that most companies along the shipping line either belong to the governments of Kazakhstan or Azerbaijan, directly or indirectly (through subsidiaries), or enjoy favoritism and a near monopoly in their markets (crony capitalism). Some of these firms are privately owned but registered in offshore tax havens, while some others have rather obscure ownership structures and corporate profiles. It suggests that cronyism and state capture comprise that politico-economic environment within which the future of Caspian transport systems will have to be decided.

  5. The Trans-Caspian energy route. Cronyism, competition and cooperation in Kazakh oil export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliyev, Farid; Akhrarkhodjaeva, Nozima [School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The article delineates the major national, regional and international level stakeholders in the westward Trans-Caspian transportation of Kazakh oil, supplemented with a discussion of the prospect of expansion of the Trans-Caspian/South Caucasus corridor in light of the presumably harmful effect of the war between Russia and Georgia in August 2008. It demonstrates that while foreign companies have been backed by their respective governments, national firms have also enjoyed considerable state support, partly due to their close links to the interests of state elites in Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. It appears that most companies along the shipping line either belong to the governments of Kazakhstan or Azerbaijan, directly or indirectly (through subsidiaries), or enjoy favoritism and a near monopoly in their markets (crony capitalism). Some of these firms are privately owned but registered in offshore tax havens, while some others have rather obscure ownership structures and corporate profiles. It suggests that cronyism and state capture comprise that politico-economic environment within which the future of Caspian transport systems will have to be decided. (author)

  6. Techno-economic modelling to strategize energy exports in the Central Asian Caspian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidyn Bakdolotov

    2017-04-01

    The analysis makes use of a techno-economic energy system model to quantitatively evaluate the response of the energy sector to energy security risks, and its sensitivity to different export strategies.

  7. Cruising round the Caspian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Paul

    1996-12-31

    The combined offshore potential of Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, could result in the Caspian becoming one of the world`s most important oil and gas producing regions. Foreign companies are committed to investing over 30 billion dollars in various oil and gas developments in the region over the coming decades but Russian policy aims could create problems. Difficulties are already being experienced over pipelines for the export of oil and gas from the region. The conflict in Chechnya has thrown doubt on the export of oil from Baku via the Russian pipeline and an alternative route using a refurbished pipeline through Georgia to the Black Sea is becoming an increasingly important option. Turkmenistan, the world`s fourth largest natural gas producer, relies on a pipeline owned by the Russian Gazprom to supply its main customers in Azerbaijan, Georgia and Ukraine but on a number of occasions in recent years Gazprom has refused to carry the gas. The provision of alternative pipelines to Iran and Pakistan has attracted the support of foreign investors. Further problems could arise over arguments as to whether the Caspian is an inland sea or a lake. The resolution of this question will determine exploitation rights of the five littoral states with Russia, backed by Iran, having a major stake in the outcome. (UK)

  8. EITI and sustainable development: Lessons and new challenges for the Caspian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ospanova, Saule; Ahmadov, Ingilab; Wilson, Emma

    2013-03-01

    EITI requires countries to declare the revenues they receive from companies in the oil, gas and mining sectors, and for companies to declare what they pay. This paper highlights key issues and challenges related to implementing EITI, and suggests several ways for these new rules to help reduce poverty, improve lives and ensure that extractive industries operate in a sustainable, environmentally responsible way. Focusing on three countries of the Caspian Sea Region - Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, the paper will be of particular interest to those preparing for, and attending, the EITI conference in Sydney in May 2013. It will also inform the public and stakeholders working towards EITI implementation in the Caspian Region, and contributes to on-going debates on EITI and sustainable development more broadly.

  9. Development of integrated marine monitoring network on southern coastline of Caspian sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Najafi-Jilani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of water surfaces through permanent measurement of hydrodynamic and meteorological data is one of the main requirements in safe and sustainable water management. The Caspian Sea, the major surface water body in Iran, significantly affects more than 600 km of urban and industrial coastline. In the present work, an integrated marine monitoring network for the entire southern coastline of the Caspian Sea was developed. The main design concerns centered on the network measuring components and data recording, checking, filtering, gap recognition, and transferring systems. Four coastal monitoring stations were assigned, along with two regional collecting stations and one central data station for gathering, checking and delivering recorded data at different access levels. Applicable guidelines on selection of measuring devices for both shallow and deep water zones are presented herein.

  10. CASPIAN BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES

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    M. K. Guseynov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We present the data on the biological resources of the Caspian Sea, based on the analysis of numerous scientific sources published between years of 1965 and 2011. Due to changes in various biotic and abiotic factors we find it important to discuss the state of the major groups of aquatic biocenosis including algae, crayfish, shrimp, pontogammarus, fish and Caspian seal. Methods. Long-term data has been analyzed on the biology and ecology of the main commercial fish stocks and their projected catches for qualitative and quantitative composition, abundance and biomass of aquatic organisms that make up the food base for fish. Results and discussion. It has been found that the widespread commercial invertebrates in the Caspian Sea are still poorly studied; their stocks are not identified and not used commercially. There is a great concern about the current state of the main commercial fish stocks of the Caspian Sea. A critical challenge is to preserve the pool of biological resources and the restoration of commercial stocks of Caspian fish. For more information about the state of the marine ecosystem in modern conditions, expedition on Caspian Sea should be carried out to study the hydrochemical regime and fish stocks, assessment of sturgeon stocks, as well as the need to conduct sonar survey for sprat stocks. Conclusions. The main condition for preserving the ecosystem of the Caspian Sea and its unique biological resources is to develop and apply environmentally-friendly methods of oil, issuing concerted common fisheries rules in various regions of theCaspian Sea, strengthening of control for sturgeon by all Caspian littoral states. The basic principle of the protection of biological resources is their rational use, based on the preservation of optimal conditions of their natural or artificial reproduction. 

  11. Caspian Sea Regional Security in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMullin, Robert

    2003-01-01

    .... The major issues impacting the littoral states of Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, and Iran include delimitation of the Caspian's surface waters and seabed; energy export (pipeline) routes...

  12. Caspian games: A dynamic bargaining game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Dennis Wright

    This Dissertation was written under the direction of Professor P.Terrence Hopmann. In this work, the author seeks to identify the independent variables affecting the outcome of three key decisions required of the international consortiums constructing Caspian oil export pipelines. The first of involves whether or not the enterprises developing the pipelines to export Kazakh oil, the Caspian Pipeline Consortium ("CPC"), and Azeri oil, the Azerbaijan International Operating Consortium ("CPC"), cooperate by utilizing the same route or utilize separate energy export corridors. Second, I analyzed how the actual Main Export Pipeline route ("MEP") for Azeri oil was selected by the AIOC. Finally, I tried to understand the factors driving the residual equity positions in each consortium. I was particularly interested in the equity position of Russian state and commercial interests in each consortium. I approached the puzzle as a multilevel bargaining problem. Hence, the preferences of each relevant actor (state and corporate levels) were assessed. The covering theory utilized was rational choice. An application of game theoretic modeling, particularly Bayesian analysis (used as a metaphor), accounted for the learning process resulting from the strategic interaction between actors. I sought to understand greater the refinement of each actor's perception of counterpart preferences. Additionally, the Gordon Constant Growth Model ("CGM") and the Sharp's Capital Asset Pricing Model ("CAPM") were utilized to relate multinational actors preferences, achieving a cost of capital based hurdle rate, to political risk. My end findings demonstrate this interrelationship and provide a clear argument for great power states to persuade newly developing Caspian states to adopt a more transparent, and credible approach to corporate governance. This revised state strategy will reduce multinationals' perception of political risk, lower firms' cost of capital (hurdle rate), and increase the

  13. Russian-Iranian relations in the Caspian Region: results and prospects

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    Sergey Sergeevich Zhiltcov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The collapse of the USSR affected the Russian-Iranian relations, governed by bilateral agreements during several centuries. The emergence of “new” independent states in the region, such as Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, changed the geopolitical situation and put a question of the legal status of the Caspian Sea. Russian-Persian and Soviet-Iranian agreements had a centuries-old tradition but they did not draw up a legal status of the Caspian Sea or clarify the procedures of subsursafe management. Those agreements governed only laid down rules of navigation and fishery, without touching the issues of oil and gas field exploration, production and transportation, including pipelines on the floor of the Caspian Sea. It did not fit political and economic interests of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan and stimulate them to unilateral actions. Russia and Iran in turn insisted on saving the former rules and agreements. The absence of Convention on legal status of the Caspian Sea introduced uncertainty in the principles of oil and gas development and export, pushing Caspian countries toward making unilateral decisions. Russia and Iran kept close positions, insisting on following the former agreements. The other Caspian countries did not support that position and adopted a policy aimed at division of the Caspian Sea and asserting a certain control over its hydrocarbons. Close Russian and Iranian positions on legal status of the Caspian Sea became a strong deterrent for Caspian countries to let them divide the sea into national sectors and launch pipeline plans on the floor of the Caspian Sea. As the result Russian and Iranian relations had stabilizing effect in the Caspian region. At the same time, the Russian Federation aimed at following a flexible policy, taking into account the interests of the other Caspian countries. The settlement of the legal status of the Caspian Sea with Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan let Russia improve the

  14. Software exporting: a developing country advantage

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    Hossein Askari

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Software exports have the potential to make a significant contribution to the economies of developing countries and to the global IT industry. Developing countries have demonstrated a comparative advantage in this export sector and the global IT industry can benefit from this developing country advantage. Today, IT is high investment, high risk, and high reward and has graduated from being a critical support function to a key partner, sometimes responsible for directing the strategy of an enterprise. Business and technology managers cannot afford to miss the opportunities provided by the comparative advantage of developing countries in the IT arena.

  15. [Features of sexual development of adolescent boys in cities of Caspian region of the Republic of Kazakhstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurmangaliev, O M; Gumarova, Zh Zh; Zasorin, B V

    2014-01-01

    The complex estimation of parameters of the sexual development of adolescent boys aged 14-16 years had been done in cities of Aktay and Atyrau, in Caspian region of Western Kazakhstan. Adolescent boys in cities of Caspian region of the Republic of Kazakhstan were found to have tendency to the delayed puberty according to Tanner score. Retarded sexual development is manifested by the some retardation in growth of genitals and escutcheon, in comparison with their peers from control group. The absence of differences in general physical development, as evidenced by anthropometry data, does not exclude the specific (elective) character of the impact of urbanogenic factors on growing male body, which is typical impact of hard metals salts.

  16. Export diversification in Uganda : developments in non-traditional agricultural exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Tjalling

    2001-01-01

    Over the last two decades agricultural export diversification has been pushed as an economic development strategy for sub-Saharan Africa. This paper looks at Uganda, where nontraditional agricultural export commodities have been (re)-introduced since Museveni came to power in 1986. The most

  17. Accessing export markets: a developing country producers’ perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mbithi, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews several of the principal driving factors in export-orientated agriculture in developing countries. There is sometimes debate over developing countries that may be food deficient having segments of their agricultural sector focusing on export instead of producing food entirely for domestic markets. Exportorientated high-value agriculture maximises returns (price) to smallholders, which in turn improves their food purchasing power, leading to poverty alleviation. It also faci...

  18. A study on packaging factors influencing on export development

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    Mina Mohammadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Packaging is an important instrument of commerce and trade in the world, it plays essential role in increasing sales and export and thus it maximizes profits generated in enterprises. Hence, the appropriate packaging for the producer generates necessary incentives for production, partly preserves them against zany opponents, and finally provides the customer with much more variety and choosing the right products. Packaging in fact, is a major contributor to the performance of customer relationship management. This survey determines five packaging factors influencing on export development including communications, infrastructure, awareness, design and technical extraction. Through the implementation of principal component analysis, the effective role of packaging components on exports is measured. Exploratory research model indicates that all five packing components were effective in export development of food industry.

  19. Caspian Region in the System of International Regions

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    Kosov Gennadiy Vladimirovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The given research paper presents an attempt to analyze the Caspian region from the point of view of its cross-border specifics. In contrast to the traditional understanding of the Caspian region as the region of heightened geopolitical significance the authors analyze its peculiarities and potential in the context of the cross-border cooperation dynamics. It is especially emphasized that the Caspian region may be considered as a cross-border region which, despite the substantial similarities is different from international transnational regions. The authors focus attention on a key contradiction of the Caspian region. On the one hand, national interests and foreign policy of the states-members of the Caspian region (Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan have a national country and regional importance, since their implementation will form an effective regional security system. On the other hand, the Caspian region attracts the attention of the world powers, becoming a subject of their interest, as it is of great importance for world energy markets and has status of a transit zone between Europe and Asia. For Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan the Caspian status is combined with their most important characteristic of post-Soviet states - shared long historical stage of development within the Soviet Union. The article distinguished and analyzed four main periods of establishment of cross-border cooperation in the Caspian region. The national specificity of modernization reforms in all the countries of the Caspian region have interrelations with further development of cross-border cooperation, the priority of that performs convergence of Caspian states on a number of strategic issues, including economic cooperation and security.

  20. Exports, government size and economic growth (Evidence from Iran as a developing oil-export based economy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Dizaji (Sajjad Faraji)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this study, I investigate the short run and long run effects of government size and exports on the economic growth of Iran as a developing oil export based economy for the period of 1974 to 2008. For this purpose I use the bounds testing approach to cointegration and error correction

  1. Formation and development of hightechnology export corporate potential

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    Yevgen Panchenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the essence and peculiarities of high-Technology products exports in conditions of global competition with performed classification of its models on a corporate level. Peculiarities of corporate motivation of exporting high-technology products have been determined. Interconnection between innovation management system in transnational corporations and their capabilities of strengthening their competitive positions on world markets of high-technology products has been shown. Tendencies of fixing studies and developments during the last decade of leading companies, along with their influence on corporate innovative potential have been studied. On the example of aerospace sector of Ukraine, possibilities of strengthening the influence of high-technology export on rising of national economy international competitiveness have been determined. The need has been proved, and the ways have been shown for attraction of international investments into hightechnology sectors of Ukrainian economy through improvement of business conduct area, defense of intellectual property rights, and development of cooperation between national and transnational companies. Directions of use of integration factors of rising of volumes of export of high-technology Ukrainian products on the basis of developing cooperation of national enterprises with Russian partners have been shown.

  2. PHYTOPLANKTON OF CASPIAN

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    Aysha Sharapatinovna Gasanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The composition of the species of the phytoplankton in the Russian sector of the Caspian Sea in conditions of transgression, anthropogenic and chemical contamination has been studied.Location.The Russian sector of the Caspian SeaMethods. The phytoplankton samples were collected at the depths of 8 – 50m by the use of the Nansen bathometer and subsequently were fixed in 4% formalin. The office processing was carried out in a box of Nozhotta type, which has the volume of 0.1 ml and the triplicate surface, under the light microscope of Biolam P15. The system of domestic diamotologists was used during the classification of Bacillariaphyta, as for the classification of Dinophyta, the Dodge scheme was applied. Cyanophyta algae were classified according to the system of A.A. Elenkina with the amendments adopted by A.I. Proshkin-Lavrenko and V.V. Makarova. The classification of the Chlorophyta division has been done according to the Smith system.Results, main conclusions. Presented the taxonomic structure and the lists of species of the phytoplankton community in the sea coastal shallow waters Russian sector of the Caspian Sea have been presented. A high floristic diversity and domination of small cell forms are characteristics of the modern structure of the coastal shoal waters of the Dagestan part of the Caspian Sea. The auttaclimatizant of 1934, Pseudosolenia calcaravis, has not been discovered in the plankton of the researched water area. The phytoplankton community has been represented by 58 species of six groups: Cyanophyta, Bacillariaphyta, Dinophyta, Euglenophyta, Chlorophyta and the small flagellate. Bacillariaphyta were the basis of both the taxonomic diversity and the biomass. Cyanophita prevailed in number.

  3. Globalisation determinants of export-led development of Ukrainian agricultural sector

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliia Karasova

    2014-01-01

    This article describes globalisation preconditions for export in the agricultural sector of Ukraine. The summarised results of the previous research highlight the essential characteristics of the export-led activity concept, establish the current trends, factor conditions and the impact of globalisation on the development of agricultural exports. The article also shows the dynamics and peculiarities of goods and geographical structure of agrarian exports. The areas and causes of Ukraine’s vul...

  4. Supply Side Constraints on Export Development in Jamaica

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    Marie Freckleton

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina los impedimientos por el lado de la oferta que afectan al desarollo de la exportación en Jamaica. El análisis se basa en un examen de exportadores jamaicanos no tradicionales. Los resultados indican que los exportadores jamaicanos hacen frente a impedimientos significativos por el lado de la oferta incluyendo la falta de acceso a capital, insuficiencia de innovaciones, altos costos energéticos y deficiencias infraestructurales. El artículo concluye que en el caso de los países en vías de desarollo afectados por impedimientos por el lado de la oferta se hace necesario tomar medidas que les permitan la ventaja de acceder a los mercados disponibles. En el caso de Jamaica, las medidas requeridas para aliviar los impedimientos por el lado de la oferta incluyen el establecimiento de instituciones financieras de riesgo, el estímulo de la innovación y el desarrollo de la infraestructura. English: This article examines the supply side constraints affecting export development in Jamaica. The analysis is based on a survey of non-traditional exporters. The results of the survey indicates that Jamaican exporters face significant supply side constraints including lack of access to capital, insufficient innovation, high energy costs and infrastructural deficiencies. The article concludes that in the cases of those developing countries facing binding supply side constraints, measures to relax such constraints are necessary to allow them to take full advantage of available market access. In the case of Jamaica, measures required to relax supply side constraints include establishment of venture capital institutions, stimulation of innovation and upgrading of infrastructure.

  5. Globalisation determinants of export-led development of Ukrainian agricultural sector

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    Nataliia Karasova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes globalisation preconditions for export in the agricultural sector of Ukraine. The summarised results of the previous research highlight the essential characteristics of the export-led activity concept, establish the current trends, factor conditions and the impact of globalisation on the development of agricultural exports. The article also shows the dynamics and peculiarities of goods and geographical structure of agrarian exports. The areas and causes of Ukraine’s vulnerability in the global agro-food market have been established. The work also deals with the directions of export-led activity development in the context of economic globalisation

  6. The monitoring system of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanova, Luydmila; Khachaturov, Vladimir; Zlotov, Aleksandr

    2010-05-01

    The monitoring system of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea The Caspian Sea is the largest closed reservoir in the world, which washes the western part of Kazakhstan. The area of water territory is 371,000 sq km; the sea level is lower than the level of the ocean on 28.5 m (1971). Maximum depth is 1,025m (in the southern part); the Kazakhstan part is not deep, and the depth of the North Caspian sea is about 15-20 m. The Caspian Sea is divided according to physical and geographical conditions to 3 parts - North Caspian, Middle Caspian and South Caspian Sea. Fauna is represented by 1809 species, 415 of which belong to the vertebrates, 101 species of fish, it also has the majority of the world's sturgeon, freshwater fish - roach, carp, pike, saltwater fish - carp, mullet, sprats, Kutum, bream, salmon, perch, pike, mammal - caspian seal. The plant world is represented by 728 species, of which algae are dominated - blue-green, diatoms, red, brown, Stoneworts and others, from flowering - eelgrass and seagrass. Development of sea oil-and-gas deposits of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian sea entails increase of anthropogenous pressure on the environment. According to preliminary estimates, the volume of recoverable hydrocarbon resources in the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea is about 8.0 billion tons per year. The impact of terrestrial and marine infrastructure, oil and gas facilities on natural systems is reflected in discharges and emissions into the environment of gaseous, solid and liquid pollutants, consumption of natural resources for industrial, farm and household needs, and violation of coastal landscapes. Dangerous influence on the environment is burning natural oil gas on torches. In this regard, there is a need for a system of state monitoring. In a basis of environmental monitoring system of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea has been put an ecosystem approach, creation of an automated system on the basis of GIS technologies and modeling of forecasts of

  7. Geochemical Changes in the Caspian Salt Marshes Due to the Sea Level Fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasimov, N.S.; Gennadiev, A.N.; Kasatenkova, M.S.; Lychagin, M.Y.; Kroonenberg, S.B.; Koltermann, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Caspian Sea is subject to alternating transgressions and regressions that exert a strong impact on the topography, sediments, vegetation, and soils in coastal zones. The last transgression of the Caspian Sea (1978-1995) caused the development of a marsh-lagoon system along the accumulative

  8. How empowering small and mid-cap firms develops national exports

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    Faramarz Nikseresht

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having a sustainable growth in economy of developing countries requires appropriate infrastructures and part of it depends on gaining market share in international market. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find out the effects of various factors on helping export for small and mid-cap firms. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 70 questions and distributes it among some randomly selected small and mid-cap firms. The study considers whether or not improving relationships between countries positively influences on empowering firms and export capabilities. In addition, the study also considers whether or not improving national strategies for developing exports positively influences on empowering firms and export capabilities. The study also tries to find out whether or not changes on rules and regulations harms export capabilities. Using structural equation modeling, the study confirms that empowering small and mid-cap firms contributes the whole economy through boosting export.

  9. CRUDE OIL TRANSPORT FROM THE CASPIAN SEA REGION TO EUROPE

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    Adam Przybyłowski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world, despite the growing importance and scale of the use of renewable energy , conventional energy resources still play a huge role. The European Union countries are dependent on the oil imports and the their main supplier of crude oil and natural gas has been the Russian Federation. After the collapse of the Soviet Union , the Caspian Sea region has become an alternative to Russian energy resources. The Unit-ed States , European Union, China and many other countries have shown their interest about this region. Despite a relatively large oil and natural gas reserves, the export of the-se commodities to the West is still problematic. Based on the available data and infor-mation, the publication explores the issue of energy resources transport directions with a particular emphasis on the crude oil from the Caspian Sea region to Europe.

  10. 78 FR 35263 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... the LNG at the time of export. The Application was filed under section 3 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA... not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. Current Application The current Application is filed in... Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

  11. Causality Relationship Between Import, Export and Growth Rate in Developing Countries

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    Serhat YUKSEL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we tried to determine the relationship between imports, exports and growth rate in developing countries. Within this scope, 6 developing countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, Malaysia, Mexico and Turkey were analyzed in this study. In order to achieve this purpose, annual data for the periods between 1961 and 2014 was tested by using Engle Granger co-integration analysis, Vector Error Correction Model and Toda Yamamoto causality analysis. According to the result of the analysis, it was determined that there is not any relationship among three variables in Brazil and Mexico. On the other hand, we defined that increase in export causes higher growth rate in Argentina. Moreover, it was concluded that there is a causal relationship from import to export in China and Turkey. Furthermore, it was determined that export causes higher import in Malaysia. Therefore, it can be concluded that the relationship between import, export and growth rate is not same for all developing countries..

  12. Caspian sea: petroleum challenges; Mer Caspienne: enjeux petroliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Caspian sea is one of the world areas the most promising in terms of investments and petroleum development. This study presents the petroleum challenges generated by this hydrocarbons reserve. The first part discusses the juridical status (sea or lake), the petroleum and the gas reserves, the ecosystem and the today environment (fishing and caviar), the geostrategic situation and the transport of gas and oil. It provides also a chronology from 1729 to 2005, a selection of Internet sites, books and reports on the subject and identity sheets of the countries around the Caspian sea. (A.L.B.)

  13. Tendencies of Development of Export Potential of the Fat-and-oil Industry

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    Voloshchuk Tetyana H.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article marks that the products of the fat-and-oil industry is an important component of the Ukrainian export. It generalises views of domestic and Russian scientists with respect to interpretation of the “export potential” notion. It offers the author’s definition of the export potential of a fat-and-oil enterprise (corporation as a maximal ability of a specific structure of the fat-and-oil industry to ensure the priority positions at the relevant segment of the foreign market during a long period of time. It specifies the role of the export potential in foreign economic activity of enterprises of the fat-and-oil industry. It provides a list of major domestic exporters of sunflower oil. It justifies a hierarchical structure of the export potential of a fat-and-oil enterprise. It shows dynamics of sunflower oil export during 2010 – 2011 and 2011 – 2012 marketing years. It develops justified recommendations on increase of the export potential of the fat-and-oil industry and enterprises in particular.

  14. Export strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage

    2002-01-01

    It is argued here that traditional export strategy research (encompassing the study of internationalization processes and export performance) is characterized by weak theoretical foundations and could benefit from a reorientation towards a dynamic capabilities perspective (DCP). We seek to draw...... on insights from DCP in order to devise a theoretical basis that could enrich export strategy research. Although our development of DCP insights builds on previous work, it also adds a crucial distinction between knowledge stocks and informational architecture. Changes in architecture are of greater...... importance. Following this elaboration of the dynamic capabilities perspective, we outline some implications and guidelines for future export strategy research....

  15. Caspian energy: Oil and gas resources and the global market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, M.P.; Houweling, H.

    2003-01-01

    his article develops several concepts of critical geopolitics and relates them to the energy resources of the Caspian Region. Energy resources beyond borders may be accessed by trade, respectively by conquest, domination and changing property rights. These are the survival strategies of human groups

  16. The phenomenon of bloom development of the invasive potentially toxic dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polygramma in deep water areas of the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautova, L. A.; Kravchishina, M. D.; Silkin, V. A.; Lisitzin, A. P.

    2017-06-01

    This work presents the first data on the occurrence of the invasive, potentially toxic dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polygramma in the composition of plankton phytocenoses in the Caspian Sea. It was revealed that G. polygramma plays the key role in the quantitative characteristics of summer plankton phytocenoses and its bloom during the summer seasons of 2010 and 2013 was comparable in biomass (15-16 g/m3) to a "red tide." In addition, the correlation between the G. polygramma bloom and the wind upwelling system in the eastern mid-Caspian region was established. For the first time, it is suggested that "bloom" of G. polygramma can also occur in deep-water halistatic areas (Derbent depression), remote from the upwelling system.

  17. FORMATION OF EFFICIENCY OF NORTHERN CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Shaboyants

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern part of Caspian sea is the richest on biological efficiency. Rich with biogene elements and an organic substratum of water of Northern Caspian sea render a great influence on a variety of flora and fauna of all Caspian sea. Now researches of elements of an ecosystem of northern part of Caspian sea in the conditions of planned and conducted on a shelf of the sea and sites litoral oil-and-gas production and presence of other elements of an anthropogenous press, are extremely important.

  18. Performance and suggested alternative strategies in developing Indonesian cocoa export business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Dradjat

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This research focussed on the export development of cocoa bean with respect to its export growth, values and competitiveness. Based on this deve-lopment, the aim of this research is to propose alternative development strategies of export business for cocoa bean in the future. The Analysis Hierarchie Process (AHP framework of export business of cocoa bean was arranged consecutively from formulation of focuss or goals, identification of affecting factors and actors, deter mination of actor objectives, and recognition of alternative strategies needed. Each component of goals, factors, actors, objectives, and alternative strategies were valued on the basis of their importance using Saaty scales. Results of interviews with experts were analyzed using AHP technique. The development of cocoa bean export from 2000 to 2006 showed the competitiveness position of Indonesia in the world market was fairly good. In order to increase the growth and values of cocoa bean export, the experts consider the role of government as regulators and facilitators is very important. The government became the main actor for the export development through de/regulation related to the cocoa bean commodity. The objectives of actors could be achieved by combining strategies (i provision of fund in national and regional budget, as well as other sources (ii implementation of recomended technologies of cocoa, (iii acceleration of replanting program, (iv improvement of research productivity in producing high yielding plant materials, (v development of transportation facilities from farms to harbours, (vi development of farmers’ organization and partnerships as well as strategic alliance, and (viii pests and diseases control. Key words: Cocoa bean, expor, role of government, objectives and strategies.

  19. Perception of Export Barriers in a High-Tech Sector in a Less Developed Country: The Case of ICT SMEs in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Richardson

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates which export barriers are most pressing to small and medium sized enterprises (SME) in a high-tech sector in a developing-country. It also examines whether exporters and non-exporters perceive different export barriers as being more pressing to their export development/initiation. The unit of analysis is SMEs in Malaysia’s information and communications technology (ICT) sector. The findings suggest that the high cost of exporting is the most severe problem facing firm...

  20. Geo-economy of the Caspian basin; Geoeconomie du bassin caspien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raballand, G

    2003-05-15

    The Caspian area is essential for the development of the central Asia countries and Caucasus. Excepted the Iran and the Russia, these areas economy is poor. The hydrocarbons exploitation should reinforce the economic weight of these States. The author analyzes the Caspian area economies and shows that the basin economies are confronted with three handicaps, and that even with different economic ways, the soviet economic system is still present in the basin. (A.L.B.)

  1. Inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export of influenza A nucleoprotein and nuclear export protein as a novel target for antiviral drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutiwitoonchai, Nopporn; Mano, Takafumi; Kakisaka, Michinori; Sato, Hirotaka; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Osada, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Osamu; Yokoyama, Masaru; Sato, Hironori; Aida, Yoko

    2017-07-01

    An anti-influenza compound, DP2392-E10 based on inhibition of the nuclear export function of the viral nucleoprotein-nuclear export signal 3 (NP-NES3) domain was successfully identified by our previous high-throughput screening system. Here, we demonstrated that DP2392-E10 exerts its antiviral effect by inhibiting replication of a broad range of influenza A subtypes. In regard to the molecular mechanism, we revealed that DP2392-E10 inhibits nuclear export of both viral NP and nuclear export protein (NEP). More specifically, in vitro pull-down assays revealed that DP2392-E10 directly binds cellular CRM1, which mediates nuclear export of NP and NEP. In silico docking suggested that DP2392-E10 binds at a region close to the HEAT9 and HEAT10 domains of CRM1. Together, these results indicate that the CRM1-mediated nuclear export function of influenza virus represents a new potential target for antiviral drug development, and also provide a core structure for a novel class of inhibitors that target this function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. EVALUATING AND DEVELOPING LOGISTICS SYSTEM FOR EXPORTING SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (CASE STUDY IN YOGYAKARTA PROVINCE AND ADJACENT AREAS, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizkie Syahputera

    2013-05-01

    The recommendations are established by developing 5th party logistics, constructing clear and market responsive regulations, and improving the facilities of transport infrastructure. Keywords: SME, logistics, Indonesia, export.

  3. Increase of Exports as a Potential Factor for Sustainable Economic Development of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Myrvete Badivuku - Pantina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kosovo as the newest state in the region, in the economic aspect represents an economic complex with considerable potential of human, economic and demographic resources, having an open economy and entirely Euro integrated, with the central position in Balkan Peninsula. As a new state Kosovo is going through a transition phase and is found in an unsatisfactory position, therefore a serious professional intervention by the competent mechanisms is necessary towards finding an adequate solution which enables a speedier economic, social and cultural development, thus accessing into economic and political integrations in the region and in Europe. Kosovo economy during 2012 was characterised by a positive norm of growth. The real norm of economic growth in the country reached the figure of 2.9 per cent. The slowest developments in the regional and European markets during this year appeared as a challenge for the general economic activity in the country. In 2012, a decrease was marked from several important sources of financing in the country, especially the foreign direct investments. A reduction was also characterised in export of goods, but, growth of export of the services neutralised the effect of decrease of goods export. Kosovo suffers from the negative trade balance, implying that Kosovo depends on imports, whereas its opportunities to export local products into foreign market are very low. With intention of improving the competitive position of Kosovar enterprises, and for increasing export into world market, the existing economic policies need to be amended and supplemented and the institutional functioning needs to be improved as well. The aim of this study is to provide a realistic overview of the economic situation of Kosovo through an overall analysis and to also give recommendations with intention of improving the trade balance in favour of increase of Kosovar export in the future.

  4. Export and Competitiveness of Indonesian Coffee Bean in International Market: Strategic Implication for the Development of Organic Coffee Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Drajat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Indonesian coffee bean export from 1995 to 2004was not satisfactory. This implied that there were problems of the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. This study was expected to come up withsome views related with the problem. This study was aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export in international markets. Somepolicy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition,this study was aimed to deliver some arguments referring to organic coffee development as an alternative export development. Data used in this study wastime series data ranging from 1995 to 2004 supported with some primary data.The export data were analyzed descriptively and the Revealed ComparativeAdvantage (RCA Index employed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. The results of the analysis gave some conclusions, asfollows : (1 The export of Indonesian coffee bean was product oriented notmarket oriented. (2 The Indonesian coffee bean export was characterized withlow quality with no premium price, different from that of Vietnam coffee export. (3 Besides quality, the uncompetitive Indonesian coffee export was related to market hegemony by buyers, emerging issue of Ochratoxin A. contamination and high cost economy in export. (4 The competitiveness of Indonesian coffee export was lower than those other countries, such as Columbia,Honduras, Peru, Brazil, and Vietnam. (5 Indonesia still held opportunity todevelop organic coffee for export. Some policy implications emerged from thediscussion were as follows : (1 The Government should facilitate market development through the provisions of market information and export incentives.(2 The Government should develop and applied national standard of coffeebean referring to that of international, as well as, improve processing technology equipments in the farm level for both wet and dry process. (3 Besides improving quality, the improvement

  5. Exploring effective factors on privatization, firm performance and export development: Evidence from steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Seyedaliakbar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Privatization means establishing a new system based on the market mechanisms and consequently making a change, alteration in different aspects of economy and is a process in which the government can examine the possibility of transferring the duties and facilities to the private sector on any level and if necessary, exerts such transfer. On the other hand, exports in industry sector can be a noticeable point for the economic growth of any country. Enhancing the exports of the steel industry of the country can have a principal role in the economic pursuit of the country’s non-oil products. Such an enhancement brings about a positive effect in the efficiency of the stocks within the financial markets by developing the steel industry. Researchers of this field claim that privatization in the steel industry results in the further development of the steel stock market and exports. This paper presents a comprehensive survey on factors influencing on privatization of the firms in steel industry. The study has designed a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributed it among some experts who worked for Mobarakeh steel producer in Iran. Using principle component analysis, the survey has concluded that export activities were influenced the most by six major factors including creativity, technological limitation, opportunities and challenges, being up to date, customer orientation and financial sanction. Moreover, firm performance was influenced by two major factors of stakeholder’s satisfaction and organizational culture. Finally, two factors of rationalism and market orientation influenced the most on privatization.

  6. Small and medium-sized enterprises in the export-oriented strategy of Ukraine’s development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Yevdokymova

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the role of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in the economic development of Ukraine, as it enters the world arena through its export potential. The author accentuates the diverse methods, ways and areas of economic policy for improving the export performance of SMEs. In particular, attention is centered on the support of SMEs by governments, international organizations and associations of entrepreneurs-exporters. In the opinion of the author, it is imperative to analyze the global experience in improving and stimulating SME exports not only in the economically developed countries, but also in those that are at such a political and socioeconomic stage of development as Ukraine is today. The author lists the policy areas for improving SME exports and their essence and outlines the prospects for their further development.

  7. Caspian Oil and Gas: Production and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelb, Bernard A

    2005-01-01

    .... The Caspian Sea region historically has been an oil and natural gas producer, but many believe that the region contains large reserves of oil and gas capable of much greater production than at present...

  8. Influence of Intermediaries on the Efficiency of Export of Small and Medium Business Production in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzik Miqael Suvaryan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium business plays an important role in the national economies of developing countries. From this perspective, to create an effective system for exports is of key importance for these countries. The article provides the basis for the implementation of intermediary export organizations and systems for their interaction with small and medium business entities. On the example of Armenia, the authors proved that the introduction of intermediary organizations to enhance the participation of small and medium business in export operations is expedient. These organizations may be implemented in other developing countries. We used methods of analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, comparative method, statistical analysis and others. The authors proposed three possible options for establishing intermediary export organizations in developing countries.. Firstly, we considered the intermediary export organizations, established and managed directly by the state. Secondly, intermediary export organizations may be created by uniting of small and medium enterprises (SMEs of a particular industry in association. And the final option is the commercial intermediary organizations for export. By applying a comparative cost analysis of direct and indirect exports, the authors have developed a method for assessing the effectiveness of interaction of intermediary export organizations with small and medium-sized businesses. We defined the following components of the total exports costs: the costs of warehousing, packaging, transportation, information collection, contracts, search for the shadow broker and interaction with him/her, marketing, export documentation, broker services, banking and insurance services, personnel costs, operation of the structure, tax and customs payments. We have analysed possible changes in these costs and defined the value of the cost changes total indicator that shows more effective indirect exports. . The study defines the

  9. 77 FR 55197 - LNG Development Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... Development Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From Canadian and Domestic Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 25-Year... export Application, DOE will consider any issues required by law or policy. To the extent determined to...

  10. Caspian Energy Transportation Routes : Determining Main Export Pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Malikov, Khagani

    2006-01-01

    現在、世界を主に左右しているのはペルシャ湾のエネルギー供給であるが、この地方は常に不安定で、治安が悪い、ロシアの石油も、外資系企業に対するロシア政府の姿勢やその他の政治的・経済的問題のため、アクセスしにくい。したがって、安定したビジネスをするために、多くの石油会社はカスピ海に関心をもつようになった。また、このカスピ海はヨーロッパとアジアを結ぶところに位置し、中央アジアのエネルギー資源をヨーロッパに中継する場所としても重要である。本論文では、カスピ海地域の経済発展に役立つ可能性をもつ輸出パイプラインの問題およびこの地域のいくつかの代替的なパイプラインに関する問題を論じた。すなわち、西向きルートとそれの建設や投資の問題である。さらに、カスピ海沿岸諸国の例としてロシアとイランが進めるパイプライン・プロジェクトの問題を検討した。...

  11. Export-led growth as a determinant of social development in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, M

    1991-01-01

    Costa Rica has put considerable effort into the development of education, health care, housing and social security. In order to be sustainable, this process requires that the output of such sectors as agriculture and manufacturing expands over time. The article examines the growth of the Costa Rican economy in a long run perspective, with an emphasis on foreign trade policy. The fate of the Costa Rican economy has been highly dependent on the exports of primary products, mainly coffee and bananas, for more than a century. This, however, has created a very vulnerable economy. As a result, during the 1960s, a new development strategy emerged: production of manufactures for the Central American Common Market (CACM). At the end of the 1970s, the prices of traditional export fell and the CACM more or less collapsed. The Central American economies were thrown into an acute crisis, aggravated by faculty domestic economic policies, which also jeopardized social development. This necessitated a stabilization effort on the one hand, and the development of a new trade strategy--promotion of non-traditional exports--on the other. It would appear that both efforts have been successful, although not without difficulties.

  12. Export and Competitiveness of Indonesian Coffee Bean in International Market: Strategic Implication for the Development of Organic Coffee Bean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bambang Drajat; Adang Agustian; Ade Supriatna

    2007-01-01

    .... Some policy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition, this study was aimed to deliver some arguments referring to organic coffee development as an alternative export development...

  13. THE IMPACT OF CHINA´S ACCESSION TO WTO ON THE EXPORTS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. SHAFAEDDIN

    2002-01-01

    Using the "revealed competitive advantage indices" for exports and imports, the paper is devoted to the analyses of the vulnerability of selected developing countries if China´s competitive position is improved due to its entry to WTO. In contrast to the existing literature which concentrates on labour-intensive products as a group, this paper considers products at a disaggregate level since products in the same group are not often homogeneous. In labour-intensive manufactured goods, China co...

  14. THE EURASIA CANAL AS A FACTOR OF ECONOMIC PROSPERITY FOR THE CASPIAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Bekturganov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasia Canal is a proposed direct water transport connection between the Caspian Sea and the Azov and Black Sea basin. The completion of construction of the Eurasia Canal will significantly increase non-oil and gas export, and it will lead to the emergence of more than 200 thousand jobs in the South of Russia, Kazakhstan and other countries of the Caspian region. A significant part of the cargo traffic between China and the countries of the European Union, which have ports on the Mediterranean Sea, will be transported via this new trans-Eurasian route that includes the Eurasia Canal.

  15. Perception of Export Barriers in a High-Tech Sector in a Less Developed Country: The Case of ICT SMEs in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Richardson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates which export barriers are most pressing to small and medium sized enterprises (SME in a high-tech sector in a developing-country. It also examines whether exporters and non-exporters perceive different export barriers as being more pressing to their export development/initiation. The unit of analysis is SMEs in Malaysia’s information and communications technology (ICT sector. The findings suggest that the high cost of exporting is the most severe problem facing firms in the sample, with cultural differences posing the least important obstacle. Furthermore, with just two exceptions, there are no statistically significant differences in the perceptions of export barriers between exporting and non-exporting firms.

  16. Caspian Sea Level and Cosmo-Geophysical Processes: Satellite and Terrestrial Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaftan, Vladimir; Lebedev, Sergey; Komitov, Boris

    The Caspian Sea basin appears to be a giant water collection of the largest European rivers and underground stream flows. That is exactly why Caspian Sea level changes are revealed as an indicator of regional climate changes. Instrumental tide gauge observations continue about two centuries at the Caspian Sea shore. At the last centuries the changes of the Sea level were going on unpredictably - from the fast shallow (- 5 cm/y.) to the catastrophic rise (12 cm/y.). The end of the last century was finished by unexpected sharp change of the fast rise to the equally fast lowering with the velocity of 1.5 cm/y. Caspian Sea researches about regularities of its level were carried out continuously by using of terrestrial observation techniques. The closed relationships between level changes, solar activity and Earth’s rotation variation were estimated over the period of the last centuries. The last decades are characterized by the intensive development of satellite and space observation techniques. Nowadays the accuracy and spatial-temporal resolution of sea level and cosmo-geophysical processes observation is considerably increased. Now the more informative means of the Caspian Sea level study are satellite altimetry of TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2 missions. At the last decades the Earth’s rotation parameters are determining permanently using such recent measurement techniques as GNSS and VLBI. The last of them provides the 10.7 cm solar flux observation. Therefore the large current data amount ensuring the study of cause-and-effect relations between the Caspian Sea level and geophysical processes of global and space scales is collected today. The results of the resent precise observation data analysis with high resolution as well as the long Caspian Sea level time-series combining terrestrial and space observation are proposed to the research community. Spectral characteristics of the Caspian Sea level changes, Earth’s rotation parameters (LOD), solar

  17. Information and analysis document. Hydrocarbons of the Caspian sea: actors and stakes; Dossier d'information et d'analyse. Les hydrocarbures de mer Caspienne: acteurs et enjeux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P.

    1998-03-01

    The Caspian sea basin constitutes an important petroleum reserve from which the exploration and development just begin. It should provide near 5 % of the world petroleum offer in 2015. To evaluate the stakes of the situation, the author presents an analysis of the Caspian sea reserves in three main parts: the Caspian sea hydrocarbons and the energy geo-politics, the realizations and the projects of the transport infrastructures, the international participations in the main petroleum and gaseous contracts. (A.L.B.)

  18. Development of technology for washed minced fish production from low-profit objects of fishing in the Volga-Caspian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukatova M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objects of the study are as follows: rudd and goldfish, samples of food minced made of them without washing, after single and double washings. To study the organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters the conventional methods of the fishing industry have been used. At the LLC "Astrakhan fisheries" two experimental batches of minced rudd and goldfish with double washing by water using a food additive "Omfresh plus" have been made in the amount of 1.0 % by weight of the meat. The yield of washed minced food from rudd is 41.4 %, from silver carp – 41.0 %. Some decrease in water content, water-holding capacity and formalin-titratable nitrogen in minced fish after each washing step has been established. Studying the organoleptic characteristics has shown that the frozen minced briquettes are cuboids, have clean surface with the presence of minor irregularities, colour – light gray, dense texture. On physical and chemical parameters the food washed mince correspond to GOST R 55505–2013 "Frozen food fish forcemeat. Specifications". Water content is 79–82 %, sodium chloride – 0,17–0,35 %, and water-holding capacity – at over 50 %. The proven technology of manufacturing washed minced from goldfish and rudd can be put into production for the purpose of deep processing of unprofitable species of the Volga-Caspian Basin and getting washed minced food and culinary products based on it.

  19. ZOOBENTHOS OF THE MIDDLE CASPIAN. BENTHOS COMMUNITIES OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Guseinova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Industrialization of Caspian oil and gas supplies requires a serious approach to the problem of protecting and preserving the region’s unique environment that, in fact, represents a property of international commons. The article studies into the impact of the Caspian modified waters on the benthos faunistic composition.Methods. Zooplancton and zoobenthos hydrobiology material was collected in the Central Caspian survey loop. Samples were collected in spring and summer in 2002 – 2007 in the western part of the Caspian Sea (Dagestan offshore location of the Caspian Sea from Smirnovsky Midstream Sandbank and Pearl Bank till Derbent latitude on “Tsada” vessel. They were collected from 25 stations located on ten standard parallel latitude logs with depth scope of 8–100 m from 0, 10, 25, 100 m horizons. These samples were used as a material for characterizing phyto- and zooplankton.Results. The benthic can be considered the most stable communities of the marine environment as they are the most resilient to quantity and modifications. Heterogeneous and variable ecosystem (biotope is typical of the areas with strong currents as the organic quality, quantity and physic-chemical properties are marked by variability.Location. The Caspian zoobenthos state as well as the features of the Caspian Sea benthos communities characterize the ecology of the Caspian Sea and give a true view of the situation in the drilling sites. This will help predict and avert negative effect of hydrocarbon production on the Caspian Sea ecosystem. Main conclusions. Water modification must be intensive, long-lasting and frequent for it to have an impact on benthos.

  20. Pipeline Policy of Kazakhstan in the Caspian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiya Andreyevna Parkhomchik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers promising development trends for oil and gas infrastructure in the country, as well as defines problem issues of existing pipelines using. At this point, the author notes that the key values for subsequent increase of transport and logistics facilities in Kazakhstan are both implementation of the multi-vector policy in the sphere of pipeline routes diversification and targeted development of cooperation with foreign partners in the oil and gas industry. The article also notes that the geopolitical features of the Caspian region have a direct impact on the formation of country’s strategic course the in the field of pipeline transport.

  1. Export Brand Development of China: Lessons Learned and Implications for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Bai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study of Chinese enterprises’ export brand development process. It describes the measures for dealing with their weaknesses, using case study methodology combined with the comparative method, analyzes the development of key Chinese enterprises’ internationalization, and summarizes three typically successful internationalization models currently used: Haier model, Huawei model and Lenovo model. Haier followed the “first easy later hard” approach, that means it went first to developed countries, and then entered the developing countries as the second step. Huawei on the contrary, followed the way of “rural surrounding the urban”, which means that it went to the developing countries first, and then entered the developed countries second. Lenovo realized their enterprise and brand internationalization success by acquiring IBM PC division with its “innovative and entrepreneurial spirit”.

  2. THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF AMOSC FROM THE THEORIES OF EXPORT BASIS AND POLES OF GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Cezar Arend

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Development is very present in speeches, discussions and studies by different institutions and an area that is gaining ground is the regional development. From this observation, we sought to identify the presence of theoretical preconditions that influence the development of a region, taking as reference the theories of the export basis and growth poles. The chosen area was the Association of Municipalities of West Santa Catarina - AMOSC - that parts from West Santa Catarina, known by the presence of meat (poultry and pigs processing agribusiness. Its effective occupation occurred after the arrival of immigrants from Rio Grande do Sul and market-oriented economic activities began with the timber and, subsequently, with diversified agricultural production, carried out on small rural properties. The business capital was the basis for the implementation of refrigerators for the processing of meat and swine products and the expansion of agribusiness occurred from the integration with the farmers who supplied the raw material for the industry. Regarding the theories analyzed, it was found that the agribusiness of meat processing and meat products played the role of industry-driving; in other words, boosted the development of other activities and industries. Agribusiness also represents the export basis, which promoted the economic expansion of AMOSC.

  3. Development of a Multiplex PCR Method to Detect Fungal Pathogens for Quarantine on Exported Cacti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun ji Cho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Major diseases in grafted cacti have been reported and Fusarium oxysporum, Bipolaris cactivora, Phytophthora spp. and Collectotrichum spp. are known as causal pathogens. These pathogens can lead to plant death after infection. Therefore, some European countries have quarantined imported cacti that are infected with specific fungal pathogens. Consequently, we developed PCR detection methods to identify four quarantined fungal pathogens and reduce export rejection rates of Korean grafted cacti. The pathogen specific primer sets F.oF-F.oR, B.CF-B.CR, P.nF-P.nR, and P.cF-P.CR were tested for F. oxysporum, B. cactivora, P. nicotinae, and P. cactorum, respectively. The F.oF-F.oR primer set was designed from the Fusarium ITS region; the B.CF-B.CR and P.nF-P.nR primers respectively from Bipolaris and Phytophthora ITS1; and the P.cF-P.CR primer set from the Ypt1protein gene region. The quarantine fungal pathogen primer pairs were amplified to the specific number of base pairs in each of the following fungal pathogens: 210-bp (F. oxysporum, 510-bp (B. cactivora, 313-bp (P. nicotinae, and 447-bp (P. cactorum. The detection limit for the mono- and multiplex PCR primer sets was 0.1 ng of template DNA under in vitro conditions. Therefore, each primer set successfully diagnosed contamination of quarantine pathogens in export grafted cacti. Consequently, our methodology is a viable tool to screen contamination of the fungal pathogen in exported grafted cacti.

  4. Export and Economic Growth in the Case of the Manufacturing Industry: Panel Data Analysis of Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Kılavuz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between growth in export and economic growth, which is called “Export-led Growth Hypothesis” in the literature, is still a current issue in both the theoretical and empirical literature. In the present study, the effect of different classifications of export and import on economic growth in 22 developing countries in the 1998–2006 period was tested based on two models, via panel data analysis. According to the results of the first model, the analysis of which included variables such as high and low-tech manufacturing industry exports, investment and population, it was found that only two variables, high-tech manufacturing industry export and investment, have a positive and significant effect on growth. In addition to the first model which included the analysis of all variables, the second model investigated the effect of high and low-tech manufacturing industry imports on growth. The findings revealed that only high-tech manufacturing industry export, investment and low-tech manufacturing industry import have a positive and significant effect on growth.

  5. Determining the effective indices on export development of Iran’s office furniture thereby analytical hierarchy process (AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Alizadeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Furniture industry is one of the most important employment and wealth productive industries, and also one major category in developing countries. This study aimed on determining the effective indices on export development of office furniture throughout the analytical hierarchy process (AHP and also by group decision. For this, imports and exports of office furniture were determined through visiting the custom office of Islamic Republic of Iran. By then, after initial studies, furniture industry and relevant experts were interviewed to recognize the effective indices on export development, and specified indices were categorized on six main groups and forty-eight sub-index. After receiving the comments of experts, degree of importance of indices and sub-indices determined thereby Expert Choice software. Results showed that raw material and product has been chosen among the major indices. Among the 48 influential sub-indices also product designing, guaranty and costumer services, quality control, custom tariffs, and strategic marketing had highest value-weighted priorities in export development of office furniture, respectively. Regarding to government’s policies and decisions in wood raw materials extent, monetary and banking system and marketing infrastructures, to maintain the productivity competitiveness of Iran’s furniture industry in first step, and to achieve to the export markets in second step, full cooperation of government with furniture industry is necessary provision for participating of this industry in global markets.

  6. PHO1 Exports Phosphate from the Chalazal Seed Coat to the Embryo in Developing Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzaki, Evangelia; Baroux, Célia; Jung, Ji-Yul; Poirier, Yves

    2017-10-09

    Seed production requires the transfer of nutrients from the maternal seed coat to the filial endosperm and embryo. Because seed coat and filial tissues are symplasmically isolated, nutrients arriving in the seed coat via the phloem must be exported to the apoplast before reaching the embryo. Proteins implicated in the transfer of inorganic phosphate (Pi) from the seed coat to the embryo are unknown despite seed P content being an important agronomic trait. Here we show that the Arabidopsis Pi exporters PHO1 and PHOH1 are expressed in the chalazal seed coat (CZSC) of developing seeds. PHO1 is additionally expressed in developing ovules. Phosphorus (P) content and Pi flux between the seed coat and embryo were analyzed in seeds from grafts between WT roots and scions from either pho1, phoh1, or the pho1 phoh1 double mutant. Whereas P content and distribution between the seed coat and embryo in fully mature dry seeds of these mutants are similar to the WT, at the mature green stage of seed development the seed coat of the pho1 and pho1 phoh1 mutants, but not of the phoh1 mutant, retains approximately 2-fold more P than its WT control. Expression of PHO1 under a CZSC-specific promoter complemented the seed P distribution phenotype of the pho1 phoh1 double mutant. CZSC-specific down-expression of PHO1 also recapitulated the seed P distribution phenotype of pho1. Together, these experiments show that PHO1 expression in the CZSC is important for the transfer of P from the seed coat to the embryo in developing seeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of Exports and Imports of Kosova with European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Myrvete Badivuku-Pantina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Kosova, within the nine years period, has moved from a post conflict country to a country considered to be in transition. Kosova has passed from its determination for reconstruction of the country to the orientation towards economic development and integration to European structures. But economic development is not yet sufficient in order to address challenges that Kosova is facing, such as high percentage of unemployment and high deficit of trade exchange. The unemployment rate in Kosova is the most concerning economic issue. Unemployment norms move from about 30 % (IMF to 40% (SOK, 2006. High deficit of recurrent accounts also present a great concern for Kosova economy, which has been evaluated to be 17.3% of gross domestic production (GDP following receipt of assistance from abroad, and decrease of trade deficit remains one of economic priorities in Kosova. Current ways of cooperation between countries are based on ignoring existing borders and mutual cooperation among people of the world, based on freedom and equality among entities of market economy. Kosova supports open economic policies and it achieved to sign some of Free Trade Agreements (FTA with regional countries of western Balkans. It is expected that Kosova will endorse other FTA also with other countries in the region and wider since these actions are to be taken in order to support economic development of Kosova. In the post war period, the main trade partner of Kosova has been European Union (Germany, Greece, Slovenia, Italy, and Austria, whose participation in general import of Kosova for 2004 was 26.7%, while this integration in general export of Kosova in 2004 was 28.7%. The purpose of this study is that I wanted to present importance of trade cooperation of Kosova with UE countries and offer information of the course of imports and exports of Kosova with EU countries, as well as to analyze possibilities and advantages that this cooperation offers for economic development of

  8. Insurability of export credit risks

    OpenAIRE

    Alsem, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the market for export credit insurance. Governments of all developed countries oer exporting companies export credit (re)insurance, either directly or indirectly. This raises the questions 1. What are the key determinants of export credit risk insurability by the private market? 2. Which export credit risks can be covered by the private market? We provide an answer to these questions by means of a literature review and an extensive field study, with special...

  9. Oil price and the development of financial intermediation in developing oil-exporting countries: Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinazaekpere Nwani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between crude oil price and financial sector intermediary development in Nigeria over the period 1975–2011, using the autoregressive distributed lag approach to cointegration analysis. Four measures of financial intermediary development are used including an index of financial intermediary development constructed from three indicators of financial intermediary development using principal component analysis. The results show that crude oil price is a key driver of financial intermediary development in Nigeria. A positive and significant long run relationship between financial intermediary development and crude oil price coexists with a negative short run relationship. The results show that even if we control for economic growth, inflation and trade openness, crude oil price still has significant influence on the development of financial intermediation in Nigeria. The findings of this study have important policy implications for financial intermediary development in Nigeria and other developing oil-exporting countries.

  10. Reckless lending: how Canada's Export Development Corporation puts people and environment at risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report documents the negative impacts of several projects financed by Canada's Export Development Corporation (EDC), how these investments put people and the environment at risk, and highlights the need for ensuring that EDC, an agency of the Canadian Government, is compelled to uphold public policies and international standards protecting human rights, the environment and the social needs of communities. By way of proving its case, authors of this report describe several international projects --the Three Gorges Dam in China; the Urra Hydro Project in Colombia; the Marcopper Mine in the Philippines; the BioBio Dam in Chile; the Ok Tedi Copper Mine in Papua New Guinea; the Yacyreta Dam in Argentina and Paraguay; and CANDU reactors in Argentina, China, Romania, South Korea and Turkey -- as proof of human rights violations and environmental disasters in which EDC has been an accessory. It is emphasized that unlike the World Bank and the U.S. export credit agencies, EDC is not required to undertake environmental assessment, or to take into account the impact on human rights or communities of project which they help to finance. The authors recommend amendments to the Export Development Act that would require the EDC to disclose information about proposed project at least 60 days before approval by the Board, including description of the project, the terms of financing, along with any environmental, social and human rights information collected. EDC should be required to establish an autonomous accountability mechanism, using the mechanisms of the World Bank Group as a model to track and guide EDC's policy implementation, and to receive and address complaints from external parties affected by EDC-supported activities. EDC should require social, environmental and human rights assessments, using World Bank standards and methodology as the base, and ensure implementation of recommendations by separately specifying them in the contract. EDC should not be

  11. Gender identification of Caspian Terns using external morphology and discriminant function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Bluso, J.D.; Yee, J.L.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2008-01-01

    Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia) plumage characteristics are sexually monochromatic and gender cannot easily be distinguished in the field without extensive behavioral observations. We assessed sexual size dimorphism and developed a discriminant function to assign gender in Caspian Terns based on external morphology. We collected and measured Caspian Terns in San Francisco Bay, California, and confirmed their gender based on necropsy and genetic analysis. Of the eight morphological measurements we examined, only bill depth at the gonys and head plus bill length differed between males and females with males being larger than females. A discriminant function using both bill depth at the gonys and head plus bill length accurately assigned gender of 83% of terns for which gender was known. We improved the accuracy of our discriminant function to 90% by excluding individuals that had less than a 75% posterior probability of correctly being assigned to gender. Caspian Terns showed little sexual size dimorphism in many morphometries, but our results indicate they can be reliably assigned to gender in the field using two morphological measurements.

  12. Conceptual study: Klaipeda import export oil terminal development for Lithuanian Republic Energy Ministry, Klaipeda State Oil Terminal. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    The Lithuanian Republic Energy Ministry and Klaipeda State Oil Terminal (KSOT) are evaluating the technical and commercial feasibility of developing an oil and products transshipment terminal and storage facility on a designated site north of Klaipeda, Lithuania. In support of the evaluation, a Conceptual Study was performed with two principal objectives: First, to examine technical feasibility of the project and suitability of the site for such a facility; second, to develop conceptual configurations for the facility, performing sufficient conceptual engineering to support a preliminary estimate of initial capital costs to construct the terminal and ancillary facilities. The report summarizes the major conclusions and recommendations resulting from the study.

  13. SPIDERS (ARANEI OF NORTH CASPIAN COAST AND ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ponomare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Araneofauna of Peri-Caspian is fragmentary studied. A literature contains faunistic data for the North-West Caspian and Volga River delta. Several faunistic records and new species were earlier described from the North Caspian. Spiders of Mangyshlak are insufficiently studied. The aim of this wark is summation of available data on araneofauna of coast and islands of North Peri-Caspian with more detailed analisys of spiders of North Caspian islands. Location. Russia: Astrakhan Region, Dagestan, Kalmykia; Kazakhstan: Atyrau and Mangystau Regions.Methods. Investigations include Caspian coastal zone with width about 20 km from Makhachkala (western coast to Tyub Kurgan (eastern coast and islands of the Caspian Sea: Nordovyi, Tyuleniy, Chechen, Kulaly. Pitfall traps and manual collection were used during 1975–1985 and 2009–2013.Results and main conclusions. Annotated check-list of 325 species of spiders from 31 families is made for North Caspian coast and islands. Species of the families Gnaphosidae (67 species, Salticidae (46 species и Lycosidae (37 species are dominated. Three hundred four species are known from coastal (width 20 km zone (from Makhachkala to Tyub Kurgan and 132 species were found on islands. North-Eastern Peri-Caspian coast contents 198 species, Volga River delta – 134 species, coast of North and North Eastern Caspian – 98 species. Number of species on Caspian islands: Nordovyi – 30, Tuleniy – 83, Chechen – 66, Kulaly – 43. Each island has its special araneofauna. There are significant differences in fauna composition of different parts of coastal zone.

  14. Developing TheoreticalMethodological Approaches to Assessment of Export Potential of Ukrainian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyushenko Igor Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the existing theoretical-methodological approaches to the analysis and assessment of export potential. The opinions by scientists regarding the disclosure of the categorial content of the concept of «export potential» have been considered, an own definition of the indicated economic category has been suggested. The main types of analytical procedures for assessment have been classified, some authorial methodical approaches to determine the level of export potential have been analyzed. The export potential of a hypothetical enterprise has been calculated by the selected methodologies of assessment. The urgency of improving and refining existing methods to implement more detailed and quantitative analysis has been substantiated. It has been suggested to implement a prognosis assessment of export potential of enterprises by combining the results of several methodologies in the aggregate indicator of export potential efficiency. A prognosis model for the dynamics of export potential of a hypothetical enterprise has been built, value of the aggregate indicator has been calculated on the basis of three selected valuation methodologies.

  15. Morphometric analysis of olfactory organ and telencephalon in maturing and mature migrants of Caspian lamprey (Caspiomyzon wagneri, Kessler 1870

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Namdariyan Rad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to provide a detailed information about changes of the olfactory organ and telencephalon morphology in spring and fall spawning run maturing and mature Caspian lamprey, Caspiomyzon wagneri, in the Shirud River, Sothern Caspian Sea basin, Iran. A total of 71 maturing and mature fish were collected during their spawning migration. The results showed that the thickness of the olfactory epithelium and the density of ciliated olfactory receptor cells (ORC were lower in mature migrants. In addition, the nasal cavity, relative weight of olfactory organ and relative telecephalon area in mature migrants were larger indicating its more sensitivity to external queues. Based on the results, the olfactory organ and telencephalon of maturing migrants of Caspian lamprey have not developed completely and needs a period of rest in the river to its full development for spawning.

  16. Analysis of domestic price and inflation determinants in Iran (as a developing oil-export based economy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Dizaji (Sajjad Faraji)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The objective of this study is to examine and investigate both behaviour and determinants of domestic prices and inflation rate in Iran as a developing oil export based economy. I apply two models; the first model is for investigating the main determinants of domestic prices

  17. Monthly variations of the Caspian sea level and solar activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, P. R.; Pasechnik, M. N.

    The connection between 11-year cycle of solar activity and the Caspian sea level is investigated. Seasonal changes of the Caspian sea level and annual variations of the sea level with variations of solar activity are studied. The results of the verifications of the sea level forecasts obtained with application of the rules discovered by the authors are given.

  18. Export spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choquette, Eliane; Meinen, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the importance of export spillovers in a firm's decision to enter specific export markets and extends the current state of the literature by assessing different mechanisms through which they may occur, namely (i) labour movement, (ii) intra-industry spillovers and (iii) inter......-industry linkages. We do so by exploiting a unique data set covering the universe of manufacturing firms in Denmark for the period 1995–2006 which combines transaction-level export data, firm accounting data, employer–employee linked data and information from yearly input–output tables. We corroborate...... the literature on export spillovers by presenting robust evidence of destination-specific export spillovers. The results suggest that labour mobility as well as intra- and inter-industry linkages (backward linkages) are important channels for export spillovers, while presenting heterogeneous effects across firms...

  19. Foreign capital and the impact of exchange rate adjustments in oil-exporting developing countries with an application to Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadjuddin, A.

    1989-01-01

    The efficacy of exchange rate adjustments as an instrument of economic policy in developing countries has long been the subject of considerable controversy. Theoretical treatments of currency devaluation generally conclude that it improves the trade balance and stimulates economic activity. However, this traditional view has been challenged in recent years on the grounds that trade flows, including factor imports, are relatively insensitive to price and exchange rate changes, especially in developing countries. This study analyzes the effects of exchange rate changes in oil exporting developing countries which host foreign capital by using a modified model of the Krugman-Taylor (l978) and Barbone-Batiz (1987) types. It is shown that the impact of devaluation on GNP is influenced by (a) the initial state of the current account balance, (b) the elasticity of demand for non-oil exports, (c) the elasticity of demand for final good imports, (d) the foreign ownership effects, and (e) the impact of devaluation on the government revenues. Devaluation can lead to an increase in national output, but only if the elasticity effects in the non-oil export sector and in the final good imports are large enough to dominate the government revenue effect, the foreign-ownership effect in the oil sector and the impact of any initial current account deficit. The model was applied to the economy of Indonesia, an oil exporting developing country. The net effect of devaluation on national output is known to be contradictory following devaluation, thus supporting the structuralist view that devaluation has negative real effects in this country, at least in the short run. It was also found that the estimated price elasticities of non-oil imports and exports are low in the short-run. Devaluation would lead to improvement in the non-oil trade account in the long run after devaluation.

  20. Tracking the Global Distribution of Persistent Organic Pollutants Accounting for E-Waste Exports to Developing Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Knut; Armitage, James M; Wania, Frank; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C

    2016-01-19

    Elevated concentrations of various industrial-use Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been reported in some developing areas in subtropical and tropical regions known to be destinations of e-waste. We used a recent inventory of the global generation and exports of e-waste to develop various global scale emission scenarios for industrial-use organic contaminants (IUOCs). For representative IUOCs (RIUOCs), only hypothetical emissions via passive volatilization from e-waste were considered whereas for PCBs, historical emissions throughout the chemical life-cycle (i.e., manufacturing, use, disposal) were included. The environmental transport and fate of RIUOCs and PCBs were then simulated using the BETR Global 2.0 model. Export of e-waste is expected to increase and sustain global emissions beyond the baseline scenario, which assumes no export. A comparison between model predictions and observations for PCBs in selected recipient regions generally suggests a better agreement when exports are accounted for. This study may be the first to integrate the global transport of IUOCs in waste with their long-range transport in air and water. The results call for integrated chemical management strategies on a global scale.

  1. Seven deadly secrets : what the Export Development Canada does not want you to know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coumans, C.; Drost, N.; Glynn, T.; Quevillon, M.; Roth, S.; Tricarico, A.

    2003-01-01

    Export Development Canada (EDC) is a financial institution, owned by the Canadian government, which lends money to thousands of Canadian companies interested in international business opportunities. This report describes 7 projects that are being pursued by Canadian companies that will have negative impact on the environment and local communities. The projects include: (1) the Alumysa aluminum smelter in Chile, (2) the Cernavoda nuclear reactor in Romania, (3) the Goro nickel mine in Kanaky - New Caledonia, (4) the Inco nickel mine in Indonesia, (5) the OCP pipeline in Ecuador, (6) the Rosia Montana gold and silver mine in Romania, and (7) the Tambogrande gold, silver, copper and zinc mine in Peru. EDC has recently adopted a policy on disclosure, in part due to the controversy over its association with the Three Gorges Dam in China. However, the authors argue that the disclosure policy has had little impact as the above mentioned case studies indicate that there are serious environmental, social and human rights issues that have not been addressed. This report presents the authors' recommendations regarding: individual transaction reporting; environmental and social reporting; treatment of confidential information; accountability; retroactive disclosure; and access to information. 233 refs., 17 figs., 3 appendices.

  2. Do multinationals beat down developing countries' export prices? The impact of FDI on net barter terms of trade

    OpenAIRE

    Wacker, Konstantin M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the economic relationship between foreign direct investment to developing countries and the export prices of the latter, measured by terms of trade. It is first shown that economic theory suggests such a relationship for various reasons but is inconclusive about the direction of the effect. To address this open issue empirically, I analyze data on more than 50 developing countries throughout the period 1980 - 2008 using dynamic panel data methods. The results show that mul...

  3. Biostratigraphy of the Middle and Upper Pleistocene of the Caspian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomchenko, D.; Yanina, T.

    2012-04-01

    Khazar epoch, and two stages during Khvalynian epoch. Subcomplexes are used to define beds. We established the lower and upper Baku layers for Baku horizon, the lower and upper Urundjik layers for Urundjik horizon, the lower, middle and upper New Caspian layers for New Caspian horizon. From the point of view of palaeogeography they correspond to divers (for example, the beginning and the end) phases of the transgressions and there stages. Mollusc associations show the facies diversity of all from established subdivisions. The index and characteristic (controlling) species are distinguished for all stratigraphic units. Type localities for faunas, faunal complexes and subcomplexes were suggested for distinguished stratigraphic units. All of them are located in well stratified sections, available for investigation and previously thoroughly studied. Besides malacofauna they contain other fossil remains (ostracodes, foraminifers, pollen, carpologic material etc.), the data on which, as well as on paleomagnetism, absolute chronology, lithology and geomorphology, were taken into consideration for their selection. The propositional biostratigraphic scheme is the ecostratigraphic and paleoevents scheme too, because the all distinguished stratigraphic units are related to palaeogeographic events at variable hierarchical levels (transgression, stage, phase) in the development of the Caspian Sea.

  4. Biogeographic classification of the Caspian Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fendereski, F.; Vogt, M.; Payne, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Like other inland seas, the Caspian Sea (CS) has been influenced by climate change and anthropogenic disturbance during recent decades, yet the scientific understanding of this water body remains poor. In this study, an eco-geographical classification of the CS based on physical information derived...... to differences in climate and geochemical factors such as distance from river, water depth and currents. A comparison of the annual and monthly mean Chl a concentrations between the different ecoregions shows significant differences (Kruskal–Wallis rank test, P

  5. Development and evaluation of a questionnaire for assessment of determinants of weight disorders among children and adolescents: The Caspian-IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The developed questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for assessment of the determinants of weight disorders in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents in the MENA.

  6. Modelling seasonal circulation and thermohaline structure of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gunduz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The wind- and buoyancy-driven seasonal circulation of the Caspian Sea is investigated for a better understanding of its basin-wide and mesoscale dynamics, mixing and transport. The model successfully reproduces the following basic elements of the circulation: the southward-flowing current systems along the eastern and western coasts, the upwelling along the eastern coast, the cyclonic circulation in the Middle Caspian Sea (MCS, especially in winter, and the cyclonic and anticyclonic cells of circulation in the South Caspian Sea (SCS. The observed seasonal variability of sea level and sea surface temperature (SST is well reproduced. Mesoscale structures, not always evident from hydrographic observations, are identified.

  7. The development and projection of exports of selected agricultural and alimentary commodities from the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents partial results of a statistical analysis of export indicators of selected agricultural and alimentary categories of products from the Czech Republic according to countries in a reference period 1993−2002. The analysis includes short-run prediction based on applied modes of developmental tendencies of assessed phenomena.

  8. Investigating the effect of ecommerce on export development of rose water and essences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nataghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There are some issues in marketing, supply and after-sales services for customers in global markets for production of rose water and essences extracts. Despite the fact that the products are genuine, there is a downward trend for the production of rose water and essences extracts in recent years. The present study aims to evaluate the identified structural barriers affecting exports of rose water and essences of Kashan to United Arabic Emirates. The population consisted of 77 managers of exporter companies in Kashan. Self-made questionnaire approved by supervisor to be valid and reliable, were distributed. The study tried to deliver a model for barriers to e-commerce in the context of Iran's rose water and essences extracts Export by examining different models of and studied in the field of electronic commerce and the application and advantages of systems based on it. The study also tried to identify current obstacles in the way of electronic commerce in export of rose water and essences extracts by using the questionnaire as an indicator in five-point Likert scale. There were three factors associated with the proposed model. Barriers to electronic commerce in export of rose water and essences extracts were determined in the order of priority as follows: 1 Problems and obstacles related to information infrastructure, 2 problems related to legislative, legal and secure infrastructure, 3 problems and obstacles to human, educational, cultural and behavioral infrastructure, 4 problems related to infrastructure of customs, trade and taxation, 5 internet problem, 6 Problems related to technical and hardware infrastructure, 7 Problems related to financial and software infrastructure.

  9. Microseismicity and seismotectonics of the South Caspian Lowlands, NE Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Nemati, Majid; Hollingsworth, James; Zhan, Zhongwen; Bolourchi, Mohammad Javad; Talebian, Morteza

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the microseismicity and seismotectonics of the eastern South Caspian Sea region, where the East Alborz mountains descend to meet the South Caspian Lowlands of NE Iran. To better understand the present-day tectonics and seismicity of this region, which includes the cities of Gorgan and Gonbad-e-Qabus (combined population 500 000), we installed a temporary local seismic network across the area for 6 months between 2009 and 2010. We analysed the seismicity and focal ...

  10. Marine influx hits Caspian Sea at the Pleistocene transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Iuliana; Van Baak, Christiaan; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Hoyle, Thomas; Krijgsman, Wout; Mulch, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Landlocked basins like the Caspian Sea are highly sensitive to changes in their hydrological budget, especially at times of disconnection from the global oceans. Modifications to the balance of river runoff, evaporation and precipitation are hence transferred quickly to changes in water lever while subsequent reconnection to open marine conditions may result in complete environmental turnover. Here we reconstruct hydrological and environmental changes in the Caspian Sea basin, using compound-specific hydrogen isotope (δD) data on excellently preserved long chain n-alkanes and alkenones. These biomarkers were extracted from Pliocene to Pleistocene successions, including the Productive Series, Akchagylian and Apsheronian (as in the regional Caspian Basin nomenclature). Terrestrial plant wax long chain n-alkanes δDvalues reflect continental hydrological changes in the region surrounding the Caspian Sea. δDvalues of long chain alkenones, in contrast, are derived from haptophyte algae within the basinal water column and typically reflect changes in δD of Caspian Sea water. The δD valuesof the terrestrial long chain n-alkanes show a variation of 55‰ from as high as -120 ‰ at the base of the sampled section (at ˜ 3.55 Ma) to as low as -175 ‰ in the youngest part (at ˜ 2.2 Ma). The change towards constant δDn-alkane values around -175 ‰ appears to be correlated with the occurrence of alkenones in the sampled section suggesting a newly installed connection of the Caspian Sea with a marine basin at that time. This observation is supported by δDalkenone values of around -190 ‰ being similar to age-equivalent δDalkenone values recorded in the marine realm. Based on the appearance of alkenones in the Caspian Basin sections and on their δD values we conclude that during Akchagylian, at ˜2.5 Ma, the Caspian Sea became connected to the open ocean, permitting the influx of marine biota into the basin.

  11. Feedbacks between water and energy balances, storage development, and aquatic ecosystems on the export of silicate weathering products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, J.; Santini, T.; Dere, A. L. D.; Jarihani, B.

    2016-12-01

    The controls on solute export from catchments are often difficult to isolate, given large variations in geology, climate, vegetation, and hydrology between catchments. Here, we evaluate the controls on solute export in two adjacent catchments with similar catchment sizes, climate, topography, and geology. Despite these similarities, slight differences in aspect result in distinct energy balances, which in turn impact seasonal and annual water balances, vegetation, and storage. As a result, different concentration - discharge relationships emerge for almost all major ions, which for one catchment is dominated almost entirely by silicate weathering, and the other with silicate weathering modified at lower flow by base cation enrichment. This is related to the greater development of water storage and release as discharge in the case of the former, while in the latter the greater evapotranspiration demand limits the water available for storage and discharge release. Despite the influence of silicate weathering on most major ions, concentration - discharge relationships for Si itself, as well as the Si concentration relationships with other ions, are not consistent with weathering, and instead appear to be heavily modified by aquatic ecosystem uptake (biofilms), highlighting the potential misuse of Si concentrations in rivers as a conservative tracer of silicate weathering. However, despite the differences in the influence of silicate weathering on the major ion concentrations, potential feedbacks between the water and energy balance partitioning, storage, and catchment respiration may conspire to export total loads with a consistent partitioning of weathering products, including Si. This work highlights the important role of water and energy balances, and related evolution of catchment storage, vegetation, and aquatic ecosystems, in determining riverine solute export.

  12. High-throughput SNP-genotyping analysis of the relationships among Ponto-Caspian sturgeon species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastorguev, Sergey M; Nedoluzhko, Artem V; Mazur, Alexander M; Gruzdeva, Natalia M; Volkov, Alexander A; Barmintseva, Anna E; Mugue, Nikolai S; Prokhortchouk, Egor B

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Legally certified sturgeon fisheries require population protection and conservation methods, including DNA tests to identify the source of valuable sturgeon roe. However, the available genetic data are insufficient to distinguish between different sturgeon populations, and are even unable to distinguish between some species. We performed high-throughput single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-genotyping analysis on different populations of Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii), Persian (A. persicus), and Siberian (A. baerii) sturgeon species from the Caspian Sea region (Volga and Ural Rivers), the Azov Sea, and two Siberian rivers. We found that Russian sturgeons from the Volga and Ural Rivers were essentially indistinguishable, but they differed from Russian sturgeons in the Azov Sea, and from Persian and Siberian sturgeons. We identified eight SNPs that were sufficient to distinguish these sturgeon populations with 80% confidence, and allowed the development of markers to distinguish sturgeon species. Finally, on the basis of our SNP data, we propose that the A. baerii-like mitochondrial DNA found in some Russian sturgeons from the Caspian Sea arose via an introgression event during the Pleistocene glaciation. In the present study, the high-throughput genotyping analysis of several sturgeon populations was performed. SNP markers for species identification were defined. The possible explanation of the baerii-like mitotype presence in some Russian sturgeons in the Caspian Sea was suggested. PMID:24567827

  13. Late Quaternary chronology of paleo-climatic changes in Caspian Sea region based on Lower Volga sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanov, Redzhep; Yanina, Tamara; Murray, Andrew; Svitoch, Alexander; Tkach, Nikolai

    2017-04-01

    Lower Volga is a unique region for understanding the history of the Caspian Sea in the Pleistocene, its correlation of paleogeographic events with glacial-interglacial rhythms of the East European Plain and the global and regional climate changes. The reason is representativeness of Quaternary sections, their completeness, presence of both marine and subaerial sediments, paleontological richness of the materials and available for study. The purpose of this work is to reconstruct the paleogeographic events in the Late Pleistocene of the Lower Volga region on the basis of summarizing the study results for the Srednyaya Akhtuba reference section. Located near city of Volgograd, at Khvaynian plain natural outcrop of Srednyaya Akhtuba section, reveals in a series of exposures a unique to the region series of marine Caspian continental deposits with four levels of buried soil horizons and loess. The results were obtained during 2015 and 2016 complex field research with application of lithological, paleopedological, paleontological, paleocryological, OSL-dating, paleomagnetic methods, that allowed more fundamental approach to the chronological assessment of individual horizons. The structure of the Srednyaya Akhtuba reference section reflects a number of paleogeographic stages of development of the study area. The oldest phase (layers 22-19) is not characterized by OSL dating or faunal material. Based on the sequence of dated layers, we assume its Middle Pleistocene age (MIS-6 stage), corresponding to Moscow stage of the Dnieper glaciation of the East European Plain and the final stage of Early Khazarian transgressive era of Caspian sea. The next stage (layers 18-14), represented by three horizons of paleosols, refers to the first half of the Late Pleistocene (MIS 5). Epoch of soil formation, based on the results the OSL-dating, can be referred to the warm sub-stages (MIS 5c and 5a), with unstable climatically transitional phase from Mikulino (Eemian) interglacial to the

  14. Hydrology and water resources in Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi Moghaddam, Kourosh

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation is the main driver of the water balance variability of the water over space and time, and changes in precipitation have very important implications for hydrology and water resources. Variations in precipitation over daily, seasonal, annual, and decadal time scales influence hydrological variability over time in a catchment. Flood frequency is affected by changes in the year-to-year variability in precipitation and by changes in short-term rainfall properties. Desiccation of the Caspian Sea is one of the world's most serious ecosystem catastrophes. The Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) caught under 10 m depth using bottom trawl net by research vessel during winter 2012, summer and winter 2013 and spring 2014 in east, central and west of southern parts of Caspian Sea, then, their diets were investigated. During 136 trawling in the aimed seasons, Persian sturgeon with 1 to 2 years old and 179.67 × 0.2 g (body weight) and 29.97 ± 0.4 cm (Total length) captured. Examination of stomach contents in the sturgeon specimens revealed that the food spectrum was composed of bony fishes (Neogobius sp., Atherina sp. and Clupeonella delicatula), invertebrates belonging to the family Ampharetidae polychaeta worms including (Hypanai sp. and Nereis diversicolor), various crustaceans (Gammarus sp. and Paramysis sp.). Investigation on stomach contents of sturgeon Acipenser persicus caught under 10 m depth in 2012 to 2013 surveys showed that there is significant difference in the consumed food. The most food diversity have been observed in winter 2013, also Polychaeta is the primary consumed food and crustacean is the secondary one (P > 0.05), no new types of food (such as bony fishes or benthics) have been observed on food chain of Acipenser persicus and shows no significant difference (P > 0.05).

  15. Hydrology and water resources in Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Haddadi Moghaddam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation is the main driver of the water balance variability of the water over space and time, and changes in precipitation have very important implications for hydrology and water resources. Variations in precipitation over daily, seasonal, annual, and decadal time scales influence hydrological variability over time in a catchment. Flood frequency is affected by changes in the year-to-year variability in precipitation and by changes in short-term rainfall properties. Desiccation of the Caspian Sea is one of the world's most serious ecosystem catastrophes. The Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus caught under 10 m depth using bottom trawl net by research vessel during winter 2012, summer and winter 2013 and spring 2014 in east, central and west of southern parts of Caspian Sea, then, their diets were investigated. During 136 trawling in the aimed seasons, Persian sturgeon with 1 to 2 years old and 179.67 × 0.2 g (body weight and 29.97 ± 0.4 cm (Total length captured. Examination of stomach contents in the sturgeon specimens revealed that the food spectrum was composed of bony fishes (Neogobius sp., Atherina sp. and Clupeonella delicatula, invertebrates belonging to the family Ampharetidae polychaeta worms including (Hypanai sp. and Nereis diversicolor, various crustaceans (Gammarus sp. and Paramysis sp.. Investigation on stomach contents of sturgeon Acipenser persicus caught under 10 m depth in 2012 to 2013 surveys showed that there is significant difference in the consumed food. The most food diversity have been observed in winter 2013, also Polychaeta is the primary consumed food and crustacean is the secondary one (P > 0.05, no new types of food (such as bony fishes or benthics have been observed on food chain of Acipenser persicus and shows no significant difference (P > 0.05.

  16. Nuclear trade between developing countries. Argentina, Brazil and India as new exporters of nuclear technology. Nuklearhandel zwischen Entwicklungslaendern. Argentinien, Brasilien und Indien als neue Exportstaaten von Kerntechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, K.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of nuclear south-south cooperation is based on the evaluation of official documents (the texts of laws, of contracts for nuclear cooperation treaties, safeguard treaties, official government policy speeches etc.). These data were supplemented by numerous interviews with representatives of atomic energy authorities, foreign ministries, nuclear industries, members of parliament, representatives of the nuclear energy opposition movement and military representatives in the three states and by interviews with representatives of the IAEO and OPANAL in Mexico. The study deals with each country in turn: Chapter 2 gives an overview of the Indian nuclear energy programme and India's nuclear export activity and export policy. Chapter 3 analyzes Brazil's nuclear energy policy and Brazilian export capacities, exports and export policy in the nuclear sector. Chapter 4 looks at the development of the Argentinian nuclear energy programme and the crisis in it, at Argentina's nuclear export activities and its export policy and technology transfer policy in this field. Chapter 5 analyzes separately relations between Argentina and Brazil on nuclear cooperation, since they differ considerably from the two countries' relations with other Third World countries on this topic. The appendix documents the most important contractual agreements and government policy declarations on nuclear cooperation between the two states. (orig.).

  17. Developing innovative training protocol for export personnel in the fashion industries through “Extro Skills” project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, M.; Avădanei, M. L.; Ciobanu, L.; Loghin, M. C.; Ionesi, D. S.; Loghin, E.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the objectives, the planned outputs and the innovative aspects of the project entitled “Developing new skills for the extroversion specializations of fashion industry in Europe”, acronym EXTRO SKILLS, which is co-financed by the European Commission under the Erasmus+ Programme, Key Action 2 - Strategic Partnerships. This is a 30 months project and started on December 1-st, 2015. The project aims to bridge the gap between fashion industries and lack of specific expertise and experts of SMEs in these industries. Fashion industries require a more qualified workforce and, therefore, the availability of adequately skilled workers and trained and qualified personnel for their export and fashion marketing departments has become one of the major issues. The new curricula that will be developed in the project will offer essential transversal skills for a quick and qualified response to the international trade and market demands and for enhancing the extroversion and the competitiveness of the fashion industry. The learning content will be tailored to the needs of export and fashion marketing personnel. The constitution of the partnership was based on the cooperation between education and employment in order to better achieve the objectives of the project. The project consortium includes six partners from five countries (Greece, Belgium, Romania, Spain and UK).

  18. Cryptic Ponto-Caspian Bighead Gobies (genus Ponticola, Gobiidae, Perciformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Alexandrovich Medvedev

    2015-11-01

    In this way, P. iljini, P. gorlap, and P. kessleri represent a group of distinct allopatric cryptic species with very low morphological divergence. The start of the divergence between P. kessleri and the Caspian species can be dated no earlier than the end of the Miocene (5.8-5.0 million years ago when the Pontian sea-lake has divided into two separate brackish pools: the later Pontian sea-lake basin and Babadzhanskoe sea-lake in the southern part of the Caspian depression. But, at the same time, it can be dated not later than Pleistocene (2.0-0.7 Ma, when the last connection of the Caspian and the Black Sea through the Manych has been stopped. The ancestors of P. iljini could penetrate to the east coast of the Caspian Sea during the period of the largest transgressions, Akchagyl (2.5-2.0 Ma or Apsheron (2.0-0.7 Ma. Their isolation in the Mangyshlak Peninsula region from other Caspian Bighead goby populations has been provided by two hypersaline bays, limiting the peninsula from the north (Mërtvyj Kultuk and Kajdak bays with salinity of 30 ‰ and above and from the south (Kara-Bogaz-Gol Bay with salinity of 300-350 ‰ and above, as well as the lack of a network of rivers on the peninsula.

  19. Impact of tropical forage seed development in villages in Thailand and Laos: Research to village farmer production to seed export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed of 6 forage varieties, Mulato II hybrid brachiaria, Cayman hybrid brachiaria, Mombasa guinea, Tanzania guinea, Ubon stylo and Ubon paspalum, are currently being produced by more than 1000 smallholder farmers in villages in northeast Thailand and northern Laos, under contract to Ubon Forage Seeds, Faculty of Agriculture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Thailand. The seed is mainly exported overseas (95% and the remainder is sold within Thailand. Tropical Seeds LLC, a subsidiary of the Mexican seed company, Grupo Papalotla, employs the seed producing and seed research group, Ubon Forage Seeds, to manage seed production, seed sales and export, and to conduct research on new forage species. This paper discusses in detail how the development in villages of a smallholder farmer seed production program has had positive social and economic outcomes for the village seed growers and enabled farmers in other countries to receive high quality forage seeds. The strong emphasis on seed quality, high purity, high vigor and high germination, has had a large impact on tropical pastures in more than 20 tropical countries in Asia, Africa, the Pacific and Central and South America.

  20. Caspian energy and legal disputes: prospects for settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogutcu, Mehmet

    2003-07-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of the Caspian energy prospects and politics on the global scene with a particular emphasis on the legal disputes and their impact on business operations. It also elaborates on the investment environment, the geopolitical stakes and country positions for each key player as they relate to the legal arguments that are randomly advanced according to the perceived national interests. Turkey position as a consumer, transit country and security provider for Caspian energy shipments in relation to other major players active in the region is also of special interest to the paper. The paper puts forth a series of ideas for reaching a settlement of the disputes in the Caspian region. (author)

  1. Introduction of some Entomobryidae species (Collembola from different Caspian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliyeh Yahyapoor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Entomobryidae is a group of Collembola which is also called "slender springtails". They are considered as a group of springtails characterized as having an enlarged fourth abdominal segment and a well-developed furcula. Fourth segmented antenna always is present. The species in this family may be heavily scaled and can be very colorful. They can be found throughout the world in a wide range of habitats but most species live in leaf litter, on the soil surface, under the bark of trees, in the forest canopy or in caves. In order to investigate the fauna of the Entomobryidae, different soil samples were taken from leaf litter in Caspian regions located in Mazandaran province (orchards, agricultural crops and forests. The Collembola specimens were extracted by heat in Berlise funnel during 1388-1390. Furthermore, some specimens were caught by pitfall traps. In general, five genera and five species were collected among which three species (indicated by * were new for Iran. The specimens belonging to the genus Lepidocyrtus (Bourlet, 1839 were not matched with available taxonomic keys. The identified species were as follows: Entomobrya atrocincta *, E. multifasciata*, Seria domestica*, Heteromurus major, Pseudosinella octopunctata.

  2. Export and Competitiveness of Indonesian Coffee Bean in International Market: Strategic Implication for the Development of Organic Coffee Bean

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Drajat; Adang Agustian; Ade Supriatna

    2007-01-01

    The performance of Indonesian coffee bean export from 1995 to 2004was not satisfactory. This implied that there were problems of the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. This study was expected to come up withsome views related with the problem. This study was aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export in international markets. Somepolicy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition,this study was aimed to deliver some arguments r...

  3. Export and Competitiveness of Indonesian Coffee Bean in International Market: Strategic Implication for the Development of Organic Coffee Bean

    OpenAIRE

    Drajat, Bambang; Agustian, Adang; Supriatna, Ade

    2007-01-01

    The performance of Indonesian coffee bean export from 1995 to 2004was not satisfactory. This implied that there were problems of the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. This study was expected to come up withsome views related with the problem. This study was aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export in International markets. Somepolicy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition,this study was aimed to deliver some arguments r...

  4. Markups and Exporting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a method to estimate markups using plant-level production data. Our approach relies on cost minimizing producers and the existence of at least one variable input of production. The suggested empirical framework relies on the estimation of a production function and provides...... estimates of plant- level markups without specifying how firms compete in the product market. We rely on our method to explore the relationship be- tween markups and export behavior. We find that markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity; that exporters charge...

  5. Preliminary Study of Development of the Organization of Rare-Earth Exportation Countries (OREEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kamei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The largest two sectors emitting CO2 in the world are electricity generation and land-transportation. Therefore, nuclear power plays an important role in generating electricity with low CO2 emission. An important aspect needs to be considered to ensure environmental sustainability is nuclear non-proliferation and less amount of radioactive waste generated. Thus the use of "thorium" as nuclear fuel has received increasing interest because thorium produces little amount of plutonium and very little amount of long-lived minor actinide. However, thorium cannot be used immediately due to its lack of fissile isotope indispensable to start fission reaction. At the same time, electric vehicle and hybrid-vehicle become more popular as low-carbon automobiles. Rare-earth elements are indispensable for manufacturing these low-carbon automobiles. However the problem with rare-earth production is its radioactive by-product of "thorium". Since the largest potential of consuming thorium by nuclear power still needs several decades for commercializing, there becomes a discrepancy in consumption and production of thorium causing unused stockpile of thorium. Several countries have announced to supply rare-earth but this cannot be safely and economically done unless thorium problem is solved. In this paper, an international framework called the "OREEC: Organization of Rare-Earth Exportation Countries" is proposed as a solution to this issue. The OREEC has mainly three functions: (1 ThAX, which is a financial collecting method, (2 Th FREE label, which is certification of adequate treatment of thorium and (3 The Bank, which stores separated thorium.

  6. Development of post-harvest protocol of okra for export marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhall, R K; Sharma, S R; Mahajan, B V C

    2014-08-01

    The study was carried out on the harvesting and handling methods of okra with the objective to maintain the best quality of pods from harvesting to end consumer especially for export marketing. For that purpose okra cv. 'Punjab-8' pods were harvested with minimum handling (least injuries to the pubescence on the ridges of pod) and normal handling (no safety taken to prevent injuries on pods). Pods were precooled at 15 ± 1ºC, 90-95% RH; jumble packed in the CFB boxes of 2.0 Kg capacity and than stored at 8 ± 1ºC, 90-95% RH. The quality parameters of okra namely texture, chlorophyll content, physiological loss in weight, rotting percentage and general appearance were studied. The pods harvested with minimum handling and field packaging can retain their green colour, crisp texture (maximum force to puncture pod = 500.2 g) with minimum rotting (3.0%) and physiological loss in weight (15.8%) and good appearance upto 13 days of cold storage whereas normal handled pods can be stored upto 5 days at 8 ± 1ºC, 90-95% RH and thereafter lost their general appearance on the 7th day of storage and were discarded. Therefore, in order to maintain high quality of okra from harvesting to the final destination (consumer), the okra pods should be harvested with minimum handling followed by field packaging in CFB boxes.

  7. On the origin of salt in the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, Nikolay; Esin, Nikolay V.; Yanko-Hombach, Valentina

    2017-04-01

    A very serious problem associated with the evolution of the Caspian Sea, is the appearance of salt in it with a chemical composition that is different from the ocean salt (Svitoch, 2014). There are several hypotheses proposed to explain the specified properties. In each of them states that the salt entered the sea from the Arctic or Indian oceans or from the Mediterranean Sea, and then it was subsequently reworked by numerous evaporations. But they do not explain the mechanism of salt accumulation in the Caspian lowlands and its chemical composition changes. In recent years, our studies have shown that after Paratethys disconnecting from the Mediterranean Sea the transgressions of the Black and Caspian seas occurred as a result of periodic melting of the continental ice. The flow of water through the mountain range from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea led to the formation of the Bosphorus Strait. The erosive lowering of the river bed flowing out of the Black Sea is gradually lowered limit of the possible filling of the seas Paratethys descendants. A mathematical reconstruction of the Sarmatian Sea in current relief showed that the theoretical contours of the sea very well coincide with the contours obtained according to the natural geological research. This shows that over the past 14 million years the significant changes in the landscape of the Black Sea-Caspian lowlands in the whole did not happen. The results allow creating a new understanding of the dynamics of the coasts and seas levels, and the origin of salt in the Caspian Sea. In our opinion the oceanic salt in the Caspian Sea remained since Paratethys connection with the Mediterranean Sea. As a result of tectonic processes of the Alps formation there was a gradual separation of the Paratethys from the Mediterranean Sea. As a result of negative freshwater balance the water in the Caspian depression evaporated with continuous (some time) inflow of salt water from the ocean. Thus, water evaporated and

  8. [IMPACT OF CASPIAN SEA LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS ON THE EPIZOOTIC ACTIVITY OF THE CASPIAN SANDY NATURAL PLAGUE FOCUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, N V; Udovikov, A I; Eroshenko, G A; Karavaeva, T B; Yakovlev, S A; Porshakov, A M; Zenkevich, E S; Kutyrev, V V

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that in 1923-2014 the sharp aggravations of the epizootic situation of plague in the area of its Caspian sandy natural focus after long interepizootic periods are in time with the ups of the Caspian Sea in the extrema of 11-year solar cycles. There were cases of multiple manifestations of plague in the same areas in the epizootic cycles of 1946-1954, 1979-1996, 2001, and 2013-2014. The paper considers the possible role of amebae of the genus Acanthamoeba and nematodes, the representatives of the orders Rhabditida and Tylenchida in the microfocal pattern of plague manifestations.

  9. HIGH-RESOLUTION SEISMIC VELOCITY AND ATTENUATION MODELS OF THE CAUCASUS-CASPIAN REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellors, R; Gok, R; Pasyanos, M; Skobeltsyn, G; Teoman, U; Godoladze, T; Sandvol, E

    2008-07-01

    The southwest edge of Eurasia is a tectonically and structurally complex region that includes the Caspian and Black Sea basins, the Caucasus Mountains, and the high plateaus south of the Caucasus. Using data from 25 broadband stations located in the region, new estimates of crustal and upper mantle thickness, velocity structure, and attenuation are being developed. Receiver functions have been determined for all stations. Depth to Moho is estimated using slant stacking of the receiver functions, forward modeling, and inversion. Moho depths along the Caspian and in the Kura Depression are in general poorly constrained using only receiver functions due to thick sedimentary basin sediments. The best fitting models suggest a low velocity upper crust with Moho depths ranging from 30 to 40 km. Crustal thicknesses increase in the Greater Caucasus with Moho depths of 40 to 50 km. Pronounced variations with azimuth of source are observed indicating 3D structural complexity and upper crustal velocities are higher than in the Kura Depression to the south. In the Lesser Caucasus, south and west of the Kura Depression, the crust is thicker (40 to 50 km) and upper crustal velocities are higher. Work is underway to refine these models with the event based surface wave dispersion and ambient noise correlation measurements from continuous data. Regional phase (Lg and Pg) attenuation models as well as blockage maps for Pn and Sn are being developed. Two methods are used to estimate Q: the two-station method to estimate inter-station Q and the reversed, two-station, two event method. The results are then inverted to create Lg and Pg Q maps. Initial results suggest substantial variations in both Pg and Lg Q in the region. A zone of higher Pg Q extends west from the Caspian between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus and a narrow area of higher Lg Q is observed.

  10. Evaluation of wind induced currents modeling along the Southern Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohluly, Asghar; Esfahani, Fariba Sadat; Montazeri Namin, Masoud; Chegini, Fatemeh

    2018-02-01

    To improve our understanding of the Caspian Sea hydrodynamics, its circulation is simulated with special focus on wind-driven currents of its southern basin. The hydrodynamic models are forced with a newly developed fine resolution wind field to increase the accuracy of current modeling. A 2D shallow water equation model and a 3D baroclinic model are applied separately to examine the performance of each model for specific applications in the Caspian Sea. The model results are validated against recent field measurements including AWAC and temperature observations in the southern continental shelf region. Results show that the 2D model is able to well predict the depth-averaged current speed in storm conditions in narrow area of southern coasts. This finding suggests physical oceanographers apply 2D modeling as a more affordable method for extreme current speed analysis at the continental shelf region. On the other hand the 3D model demonstrates a better performance in reproducing monthly mean circulation and hence is preferable for surface circulation of Caspian Sea. Monthly sea surface circulation fields of the southern basin reveal a dipole cyclonic-anticyclonic pattern, a dominant eastward current along the southern coasts which intensifies from May to November and a dominant southward current along the eastern coasts in all months except February when the flow is northward. Monthly mean wind fields exhibit two main patterns including a north-south pattern occurring at warm months and collision of two wind fronts especially in the cold months. This collision occurs on a narrow region at the southern continental shelf regions. Due to wind field complexities, it leads to a major source of uncertainty in predicting the wind-driven currents. However, this source of uncertainty is significantly alleviated by applying a fine resolution wind field.

  11. Active geodynamics of the Caucasus/Caspian region educed from GPS, and seismic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadirov (Kadirov), Fakhraddin; Floyd, Michael; Reilinger, Robert; Alizadeh, Akif; Guliyev, Ibrahim; Mammadov, Samir; Safarov, Rafig

    2017-04-01

    N-S oriented strike-slip fault. The similar deformation pattern along the eastern and central GCFTB segments raises the possibility that major earthquakes may also occur in eastern Azerbaijan. However, the eastern segment of the GCFTB has no record of large historic earthquakes, and is characterized by thick, highly saturated and over-pressured sediments within the Kura Depression and adjacent Caspian Basin that may inhibit elastic strain accumulation in favour of fault creep, and/or distributed faulting and folding. Thus, while our analyses suggest that large earthquakes are likely in central and western Azerbaijan, it is still uncertain whether significant earthquakes are also likely along the eastern segment, and on which structure. Ongoing and future focused studies of active deformation promise to shed further light on the tectonics and earthquake hazards in this highly populated and developed part of Azerbaijan.

  12. Macrophytobenthos of the Caspian Sea: Diversity, distribution, and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanian, O. V.

    2016-05-01

    In the Russian sector of the northern and middle Caspian Sea, 36 species of macroalgae have been identified. The green and red algae from the mesosaprobic group are dominant. An increase in the number of green algae species is revealed. The distribution of macroalgae is inhomogeneous. It is confined to the solid substrate and epiphyton. The biomass of seaweeds reaches 1.5 kg/m2. Climate change has little influence on the appearance of new species in the northern Caspian Sea, but new invaders can appear in the Middle and Southern Caspian. The distribution of aquatic and coastal hygrophytic vegetation shows considerable spatial dynamics due to fluctuations in the level and salinity of the Caspian Sea. The biomass of aquatic vegetation varies in a wide range from 0.5 to 10.0 kg/m2. Spatially detailed mathematical models adequately reflect the changes in key species of aquatic plants in space and time. It is shown that expansion of the zone of the seagrass Zostera noltii to shallow water areas is occurring at present, as well as shrinkage of the range of the dominant littoral aquatic plant Phragmites australis.

  13. Developing an Evaluating System to Improve Efficiency, Effectiveness and Governance in the Public Sector: the Case of the Program of Subsidies to Exporting Companies in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico Lustosa da Costa; José Cezar Castanhar; Daniela Gomes Castanhar Reyes; Gustavo Oliveira Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Improving a country’s export is widely acknowledged as a strategic issue. For a developing country, the benefits are multiple: expand the markets for goods and services to a global scale contributing to job creation, set technological and management standards for the sectors of the economy and reduce the country’s external vulnerabilities by generating reserves. Those benefits justify the adoption of public policies to support and foster exports, but it is essential to ensure that the res...

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPORTS, CREDIT RISK AND CREDIT GUARANTEES

    OpenAIRE

    Rienstra-Munnicha, Paul; Turvey, Calum G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an understanding of how the export credit worthiness of an importing country affects export sales of agricultural and other manufactured products and how export credit guarantees or insurance can mitigate risks of non-payment. A theoretical model is developed. It shows how risk mitigation through export credit insurance could increase exports to high risk importing countries. The key result is that the export response curve is more inelastic in the presence of payment risk...

  15. Reasons and Predictions of The Caspian Sea Water Level Fluctuations: Impact of Climate Factors and Man's Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, M.; Shiklomanov, I.; Yezhov, A.; Georgievsky, V.; Shalygin, A.

    The Caspian Sea - the largest lake in the world - has no connection with the Ocean and is lower than its surface. Fluctuations of the Sea level are very significant: during the period of instrumental observations (since 1830) the level amplitude was 3.78 m with maximum of -25.22 m in 1882 and minimum of -29.00 m in 1978. These fluctuations lead to a great damage for the economy of five countries sharing its coast (Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan). Deep knowledge of hydrological and hydrodynamic Sea regime and scientifically justified forecasts of possible changes in its level, taking into account variability in climate and future climate change, are re- quired for undertaking urgent measures for protection of coastal territories. The inter- national research project CASSEAS, carried out in 1997-2000 within the framework of the INCO-COPERNICUS programme by the scientists of 5 countries: France, Rus- sia, Germany, Turkmenistan and UK, was devoted to these problems. Research made within the Project made it possible to get new precise data on all water balance com- ponents of the Caspian Sea for 1880-1996; moreover, all water balance components for 1940-1996 were computed independently. It was shown that the Sea level fluctua- tions depended on the water balance almost completely. Assessment of possible future runoff changes in the Caspian Sea basin was made using the mathematical model of runoff formation developed at the SHI. Several scenarios from a range of GCMs and on the basis of paleoclimatic reconstructions were used as the models of the future climate for the nearest 3 decades. Besides changes in climate characteristics, three variants were accepted for the future water use in the basins of rivers discharging to the Caspian Sea. All scenarios gave similar results for changes in annual river inflow to the Caspian Sea: its increase would be from 5% to 10% by 2030. The same scenarios, used to estimate changes in precipitation onto the Sea

  16. Evaluation of Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) and snowy plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus) nesting on modified islands at the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, California—2016 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, C. Alex; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Strong, Cheryl; Trachtenbarg, David; Shore, Crystal A.

    2017-05-08

    Executive SummaryIn order to address the 2008/10 and Supplemental 2014 NOAA Fisheries Biological Opinion for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) developed and have begun implementation of Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) management plans. This implementation includes redistribution of the Caspian terns in the Columbia River estuary and the mid-Columbia River region to reduce predation on salmonids listed under the Endangered Species Act. Key elements of the plans include (1) reducing nesting habitat for Caspian terns in the Columbia River estuary and the mid-Columbia River region, and (2) creating or modifying nesting habitat at alternative sites within the Caspian tern breeding range. USACE and Reclamation developed Caspian tern nesting habitat at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge (DENWR), California, prior to the 2015 nesting season. Furthermore, to reduce or eliminate potential conflicts between nesting Caspian terns and threatened western snowy plovers (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus), nesting habitat for snowy plovers also was developed. Seven recently constructed islands within two managed ponds (Ponds A16 and SF2) of DENWR were modified to provide habitat attractive to nesting Caspian terns (5 islands) and snowy plovers (2 islands). These 7 islands were a subset of 46 islands recently constructed in Ponds A16 and SF2 to provide waterbird nesting habitat as part of the South Bay Salt Pond (SBSP) Restoration Project.We used social attraction methods (decoys and electronic call systems) to attract Caspian terns and snowy plovers to these seven modified islands, and conducted surveys between March and September of 2015 and 2016 to evaluate nest numbers, nest density, and productivity. Results from the 2015 nesting season, the first year of the study, indicated that island modifications and social

  17. The effects of oil shocks on government expenditures and government revenues nexus in Iran (as a developing oil-export based economy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Dizaji (Sajjad Faraji)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe main purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamic relationship between government revenues and government expenditures in Iran as a developing oil export based economy. Moreover, I want to know how government expenditures and revenues respond to oil price (revenue) shocks. I

  18. Standards and Development : Perspectives from Kenya’s Horticultural Export Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Otieno (Gloria)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis examines perspectives on standards and development in Kenya’s horticulture sector. The debate on standards and development is at the forefront of global policy discussions. The proliferation of trade standards is often seen as a threat to poor countries that will diminish

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL SECONDARY RAW MATERIAL MARKET AS A FACTOR OF DIVERSIFICATION OF KAZAKHSTAN’S EXPORT POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Konurbaeva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Products of the recycling of livestock should become the most important part of the Kazakhstani export potential. Using recycled materials in the finished production cycle would significantly diversify the export component of national agro-industrial sector of the Republic.The article proposes an approach to the placement of industries, processing secondary raw materials in order to obtain market product with high added value, which will result in implementing the existing potential of the agricultural sector of the state.

  20. Examining the role of export competitive advantages on export performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganeh Alimohammadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of export competitive advantage on export performance in food industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 280 randomly selected experts in food industry and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.827. The study has applied factor analysis to find important factors influencing export performance. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity have been performed to validate the results and they both validated the questionnaire. The results of the survey have determined six effective groups including product development, e-commerce, marketing planning, organizational performance, competitiveness and supply chain management.

  1. Investigating a Random Walk in Air Cargo Exports of Fresh Agricultural Products: Evidence from a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawanga Freddie Festo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s exports of fresh agricultural products by air from Uganda have been increasing and making a significant contribution to her International trade. Products include mostly fish, flowers, papain, and vanilla constituting over 95% of all air exports. Farming of the items is mainly by small scale farmers who depend on the natural climate of the country. Consequently, monthly yields are also climate dependent making individual export volumes unpredictable. In spite of these uncertainties, this study was intended to investigate possible existence of a model in the trends. Monthly data were collected from Uganda Civil Aviation Authority from 2009 to 2012. Analysis was by using ARIMA Approach with the help of Eviews 8. Visually the data exhibited irregular patterns and without a trend or seasonality. First order differencing stationarised the data and the residuals had a random non-significant noise suggesting a Random Walk Model expressed as ARIMA (0, 1, 0 and a negative drift. The model shows a link between current and one lag export volumes and the negative drift is a convergence of successive differences in export volumes. These findings have policy implications in expansion and forecasting of the exports potential of applicability of Random Walk Theory in practice.

  2. FEATURES OF MICROELEMENT STRUCTURE OF BODIES AND FABRICS OF THE CASPIAN SEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Nozdrina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Caspian seal - this is the only marine mammal in the Caspian Sea, a unique endemic species, which is listed in the Red Book of World Conservation Union as a species under threat. Over-exploitation of the Caspian seal population fisheries, the impact of invasive species, disease, pollution and other factors lead to a substantial reduction in population size. Since the beginning of the twentieth century and the present strength of the Caspian seal population has declined almost to 2-2,5 times.

  3. SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF PERSPECTIVE TRENDS IN ECOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RETRACTED ARTICLEAim. The main purpose of the ecological and biological research (EBR of the Caspian Sea is the information and technical support of decision-making to ensure the environmental management in the region taking into account the increase of anthropogenic impact and change in climatic conditions.Methods. As a basis, we have adopted the method of theoretical and mathematical generalization of a number of scientific papers and systematic analysis of the proposed solutions.Results. Analysis and mathematical processing of published literature sources has convincingly demonstrated the need for international cooperation to optimize the ecological and biological research. It has also confirmed the usefulness of the ecological and biological studies of the Caspian Sea in different directions, and the distribution of effort (cost between them requires coordinated management.Conclusion. It is shown that the data obtained by EBI have both rapid and long-term value. In the future, it is rational to develop suitable approaches to unified structuring of the EBR data, including their spatial and timing. An important task is to create a single interstate information space on the results of EBR using information and communication technologies.

  4. Molecular analysis of phylogeographic subspecies in three Ponto-Caspian sturgeon species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Dudu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sturgeons (Order Acipenseriformes represent an extremely valuable natural resource that is now facing depletion. In the current study we evaluate if the traditional classification in subspecies of Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, Acipenser stellatus and Huso huso, endemic to Ponto-Caspian region is sustained by molecular analysis and if these represent Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs that should be managed separately in conservation programs. To examine the classification of taxonomic entities we sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial control region in case of three sturgeon species that inhabit the North-western of Black Sea and migrate for reproduction in the Lower Danube. Beside these sequences, we used previously published sequences from sturgeon individuals sampled in the Black Sea, Azov Sea and Caspian Sea. We determined the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation, conducted a Population Aggregation Analysis (PAA and inferred an intraspecific molecular phylogeny and haplotype network. The results indicated a low level of genetic differentiation between the geographically designated subspecies and did not support a significant divergence or reciprocal monophyly between them. Our results confirm previous genetic studies with smaller samples sizes, but additional analyses including nuclear markers should be conducted for proper recommendations aiming at the development of conservation programs.

  5. Lithospheric Velocity Structure of the Anatolain plateau-Caucasus-Caspian Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gok, R; Mellors, R J; Sandvol, E; Pasyanos, M; Hauk, T; Yetirmishli, G; Teoman, U; Turkelli, N; Godoladze, T; Javakishvirli, Z

    2009-04-15

    Anatolian Plateau-Caucasus-Caspian region is an area of complex structure accompanied by large variations in seismic wave velocities. Despite the complexity of the region little is known about the detailed lithospheric structure. Using data from 29 new broadband seismic stations in the region, a unified velocity structure is developed using teleseismic receiver functions and surface waves. Love and Rayleigh surface waves dispersion curves have been derived from event-based analysis and ambient-noise correlation. We jointly inverted the receiver functions with the surface wave dispersion curves to determine absolute shear wave velocity and important discontinuities such as sedimentary layer, Moho, lithospheric-asthenospheric boundary. We combined these new station results with Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment results (29 stations). Caspian Sea and Kura basin underlained by one of the thickest sediments in the world. Therefore, short-period surface waves are observed to be very slow. The strong crustal multiples in receiver functions and the slow velocities in upper crust indicate the presence of thick sedimentary unit (up to 20 km). Crustal thickness varies from 34 to 52 km in the region. The thickest crust is in Lesser Caucasus and the thinnest is in the Arabian Plate. The lithospheric mantle in the Greater Caucasus and the Kura depression is faster than the Anatolian Plateau and Lesser Caucasus. This possibly indicates the presence of cold lithosphere. The lower crust is slowest in the northeastern part of the Anatolian Plateau where Holocene volcanoes are located.

  6. Using sustainable development actions to promote the relevance of mountain wines in export markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça António R.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED, 1987. For the business community, sustainability is more than mere window-dressing. By adopting sustainable practices, companies can gain a competitive edge, increase their market share, and boost shareholder value (IISD, 2013. The wine industry has incorporated sustainability into its business strategy for a long time. In the USA, several industry organizations promoted its adoption by both grape growers and winemakers. In mountain wine regions, sustainability becomes more important as these regions generally struggle with reduced competitiveness due to inherent difficulties such as accessibility, remoteness, sparseness of business and population, topography and pedoclimatology (EUROMONTANA 2005. Therefore, any improvement in sustainability is a key factor for the viability of mountain wine producers. Sogrape Vinhos farms 480 ha of mountain vineyards in DWR securing the quality base of grapes for its SANDEMAN Port and CASA FERREIRINHA Douro wines. The company continuously adopted sustainable practices across the whole value chain, from grape to glass. This paper illustrates how a simple, but comprehensive, sustainability assessment, as proposed by a US-based award, can be used to monitor and improve sustainable development practices for a wine business set in an adverse environment, while raising awareness in a key market for wines produced in a mountain vineyard area such as the DWR.

  7. The potent lever of toil: nursing development and exportation in the postcolonial Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, Barbara L

    2010-09-01

    Although the colonial relationship between the Philippines and the United States precipitated nurse education and migration patterns that exist today, little is known about the factors that sustained them. During the first half of the twentieth century, for example, the Philippines trained its nurse workforce primarily for domestic use. After the country's independence in 1946, however, that practice reversed. Nurse education in the Philippines was driven largely by US market demand in tandem with local messages linking work and nationalism and explicit policies to send nurses abroad. As these ideologies and practices became firmly entrenched, nurse production not only exceeded the country's numerical requirements but focused largely on preparing practitioners for the health care needs of developed nations rather than the public health needs of the indigenous population. This historical trend has important present-day ramifications for the Philippines, whose continued exodus of nurses threatens its public health.

  8. The Potent Lever of Toil: Nursing Development and Exportation in the Postcolonial Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Although the colonial relationship between the Philippines and the United States precipitated nurse education and migration patterns that exist today, little is known about the factors that sustained them. During the first half of the twentieth century, for example, the Philippines trained its nurse workforce primarily for domestic use. After the country's independence in 1946, however, that practice reversed. Nurse education in the Philippines was driven largely by US market demand in tandem with local messages linking work and nationalism and explicit policies to send nurses abroad. As these ideologies and practices became firmly entrenched, nurse production not only exceeded the country's numerical requirements but focused largely on preparing practitioners for the health care needs of developed nations rather than the public health needs of the indigenous population. This historical trend has important present-day ramifications for the Philippines, whose continued exodus of nurses threatens its public health. PMID:20634458

  9. Different Habitats of Iran and Southern Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mirzajani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive traits of seven amphipods from northern parts of Iran at 11 localities were studied in order to find feasible species for usage in aquaculture industries. The results revealed that the breeding season for Gammarus lacustris and G. paricrenatus from high latitudes was limited to a few months from May to June. Breeding activity of G. komareki from some springs was observed throughout the year, while Obesogammarus acuminatus and G. aequicauda from southern wetlands of the Caspian sea and Pontogammarus maeoticus and P. borceae from southern Caspian sea shore showed various patterns. The mean egg number of O. acuminatus and G. aequicauda species was the highest with 49.8 and 37.7, respectively, while this value for G. komareki and P. maeoticus was the lowest with an average of 8.8 eggs. Reproductive strategy was found to be related to habitat characteristics such as chemical factors, substrate status, and the epifaunal living.

  10. Modeling anomalous surface - wave propagation across the Southern Caspian basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priestly, K.F.; Patton, H.J.; Schultz, C.A.

    1998-01-09

    The crust of the south Caspian basin consists of 15-25 km of low velocity, highly attenuating sediment overlying high velocity crystalline crust. The Moho depth beneath the basin is about 30 km as compared to about 50 km in the surrounding region. Preliminary modeling of the phase velocity curves shows that this thick sediments of the south Caspian basin are also under-lain by a 30-35 km thick crystalline crust and not by typical oceanic crust. This analysis also suggest that if the effect of the over-pressuring of the sediments is to reduce Poissons` ratio, the over-pressured sediments observed to approximately 5 km do not persist to great depths. It has been shown since 1960`s that the south Caspian basin blocks the regional phase Lg. Intermediate frequency (0.02-0.04 Hz) fundamental mode Raleigh waves propagating across the basin are also severely attenuated, but the low frequency surface waves are largely unaffected. This attenuation is observed along the both east-to-west and west-to-east great circle paths across the basin, and therefore it cannot be related to a seismograph site effect. We have modeled the response of surface waves in an idealized rendition of the south Caspian basin model using a hybrid normal mode / 2-D finite difference approach. To gain insight into the features of the basin which cause the anomalous surface wave propagation, we have varied parameters of the basin model and computed synthetic record sections to compare with the observed seismograms. We varied the amount of mantel up-warp, the shape of the boundaries, the thickness and shear wave Q of the sediments and mantle, and the depth of the water layer. Of these parameters, the intermediate frequency surface waves are most severely affected by the sediments thickness and shear wave attenuation. fundamental mode Raleigh wave phase velocities measure for paths crossing the basin are extremely low.

  11. Caspian Sea Environmental Security Game: 16-17 November 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    natural gas in the world, behind the Gulf region and Siberia . Drilling for oil in the region is not new. Oil derricks dotted the landscape during the...climate change and ozone layer protection, and signed but not ratified that on biodiversity . Iran Iran borders the Caspian Sea for a distance of 740 km...treaty, ozone layer protection, wetlands; biodiversity , climate change, desertification, environmental modification, Law of the Sea, and marine life

  12. Amphistome Species in Cattle in South Coast of Caspian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Halajian, A.; A Eslami; SZ Coskun; Nikpey, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Knowledge about the amphistomid fauna in Iranian domestic ruminants depends on the studies conducted almost 30 years ago. The last situation in cattle is introduced here in the provinces in south coast of Caspian Sea. Methods Amphistomid species were collected from cattle at slaughter houses of the provinces Gilan and Mazanderan in 2010. Median sagittal sections were prepared by the conventional method. Species were identified by the histomorphological pecularities of the muscular ...

  13. Geochemistry of hydrocarbons of the Terek-Caspian trough

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    N.Sh. Yandarbiev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the Terek-Caspian oil and gas bearing basin of the Eastern Ciscaucasia, oil deposits occur in a wide stratigraphic range of rocks of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section, from the Jurassic, at depths from 5800 to 200 m. In the sedimentary section, carbonate and terrigenous Middle Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, Oligocene-Lower Miocene and Miocene oil-mother rocks are distinguished. Organic matter from them have different geochemical characteristics and different maturity to realize the generation potential. The article presents the results of a comprehensive study of potential petroleum-bearing rocks and hydrocarbon fluids from the Terek-Sunzha folded zone of the Terek-Caspian Trough, including lithological, chemical-bituminological, pyrolytic, chromatographic and chromatographic-mass spectrometry investigations. A detailed description of hydrocarbon fluids at the molecular level and genetic correlations of oil-oil and oil-organic matter are given. Specific features of the oil deposits of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section are noted. Among the studied bitumens, the chromatographic characteristics of the extractable organic matter from the Khadum carbonate-clayey deposits and oils from the Cretaceous and Neogene reservoirs are most similar. The composition of a complex natural mixture of hydrocarbons from various sources, with different maturation during the geological history of the region, does not allow making unambiguous conclusions about the source or sources of hydrocarbons for the deposits of the Terek-Caspian Trough.

  14. FEATURES OF TRANSPORT OF CERTAIN ELEMENTS IN WATER NORTH CASPIAN

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    E. V. Chujko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Major influence on the form of migration of trace elements in the North Caspian has Volga runoff. The bulk of the elements in the Volga waters carried in the suspended solids. The exception is zinc, transports mainly in dissolved form.In article presents the results of a study of dissolved and suspended forms of zinc, copper, lead, and manganese in the surface water of the North Caspian Sea from 2002 to 2009. On the basis of the received data the ratio of dissolved and suspended forms of trace elements studied. According to calculations, the bulk of the copper, lead and manganese is carried in the suspended solids. Zinc migrates mainly in dissolved form. The dominant form of migration of the metal increases, depending on the season. For zinc, the migrant in the ionic state, and for copper, lead, manganese, transferring primarily in suspension, in the autumn period the increase in the proportion of dissolved (Zn and suspended forms (Cu, Pb, Mn, respectively. Increase in the proportion of ionic forms of metals in the North Caspian occurred episodically in local areas. Over the entire study period the greatest number of excess dissolved form of weighted metal observed in the central part of the shallow zone predustevogo space p. Volga near the exit of the Kirov and Belinsky channels.

  15. Demand Uncertainty: Exporting Delays and Exporting Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of the resolution of uncertainty found in models with heterogeneity...... to forecast unknown demands in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit....... This prediction reconciles the high rate of exit seen in the first years of exporting. Finally, when faced with multiple destinations to which they can export, many firms will choose to sequentially export in order to slowly learn more about its chances for success in untested markets....

  16. The 2000 canine distemper eptdemic in Caspian seals (Phoca caspica): pathology and analysis of contributory factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, T.; Kennedy, S.; Barret, T.; Bildt, van de M.W.G.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Bren, S.D.; Codd, G.A.; Duck, C.; Deaville, R.; Eybatov, T.; Forsyth, M.A.; Foster, G.D.; Jepson, P.D.; Kydyrmatov, A.; Mitrofanov, I.; Ward, C.J.; Wilson, S.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.

    2006-01-01

    More than 10,000 Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) were reported dead in the Caspian Sea during spring and summer 2000. We performed necropsies and extensive laboratory analyses on 18 seals, as well as examination of the pattern of strandings and variation in weather in recent years, to identify the

  17. The 2000 canine distemper epidemic in Caspian seals (Phoca caspica): Pathology and analysis of contributory factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Kuiken (Thijs); S.W. Kennedy (Seamus); T. Barrett (Thomas); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); S.D. Borgsteede (Sander); S.D. Brew (S.); G.A. Codd (G.); C. Duck; R. Deaville; T. Eybatov; M.A. Forsyth (M.); G. Foster (Geoffrey); A. Kydyrmanov; I. Mitrofanov; C.J. Ward (C.); S. Wilson (Susan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractMore than 10,000 Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) were reported dead in the Caspian Sea during spring and summer 2000. We performed necropsies and extensive laboratory analyses on 18 seals, as well as examination of the pattern of strandings and variation in weather in recent years, to

  18. A REMARKABLE FEATURE OF BIODIVERSITY OF THE COASTAL, MARINE AND ISLAND ECOSYSTEMS OF THE CASPIAN SEA. A NEW LOOK AT THE AGE OF ISLANDS AND LEVEL MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurahmanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. During the 2009-13 period of time joint efforts of eco-eographical faculty of Dagestan State University and the Institute of Applied Ecology of the Republic of Dagestan made large-scale comprehensive studies of flora and fauna of coastal and island ecosystems of the Middle Caspian. The program of the expedition involves the establishment of species diversity of animal and plant life of the population of the study area. The main purpose of this article is to establish the reasons for the high proportion of the indigenous component of the aquatic biota and causal interpretation discovered during research expeditions of the endemism among taxa of an island fauna and flora.Methods. Expedition research covered the western and eastern coast of the Middle Caspian, and the major islands (Chechen Island, Tyleniy, Nordova, Kulaly of this part of the sea. In faunal studies traditional methods, such as hand-picking, mowing, light traps with quartzemitters, ground traps were used. A new version of the field collecting entomological material was tested: Barber trapsin combination with LED lamps. The last only switched on at night.Location of traps recorded by GPS-navigator. Traps Barbera functioned throughout the expedition period. Removal of the collected material was performed at intervals of 3 days. The need for a causal interpretation of the contemporary configuration of habitat in the species composition of the biota of the study area, has led us to develop a hydrodynamic GIS model of the Middle and North of the Caspian sea. To solve this problem prepared three-dimensional model of the bottom of the Middle and North of the Caspian sea in GIS "Map 2011". The base level of the Caspiansea in this simulation adopted the mark -28 m Matrix, ensuring the functioning of the hydrodynamic GIS model based on approximately twenty thousand marks depths.Results. According to the results of pre-processing of field data set, the General picture of

  19. New trade theory, non-price competitiveness and export performance

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasoglou, Panayiotis; Bardaka, Ioanna

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a demand function for Greece's exports of manufactures according to New Trade Theory. Non-price competitiveness plays a vital role in explaining export performance and failure to include it in the export equation may lead to mis-specification error. Foreign income has a moderately high effect on exports in the long run and no effect in the short run. Exports are also sensitive to domestic and competitors' prices in the long run, but cost and price competitiveness elasticit...

  20. Iran’s policy in the Caspian region at the present stage: results and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Hosseinzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important players in the geopolitical process in the Caspian region is Iran. In this article, we consider Iran’s policy on a wide range of problems in the Caspian Sea region that the country has been following since the collapse of the Soviet Union. For more than two decades, one of the important tasks of the Iranian Foreign Ministry was to define the international legal regime of the Caspian Sea, which was complicated by the geopolitical changes in the region associated with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of new Caspian states - Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan. Initially, Iran tried to justify the division of the sea, based on the former Soviet-Iranian agreements. However, the new Caspian states believed that the geopolitical status underwent fundamental changes and the previous contracts couldn’t justify modern challenges. In this connection, the tasks of preserving the national interest to the maximum extent and at the same time maintaining constructive relations with other Caspian states, especially with the Russian Federation, became urgent for Iran’s policy. Environmental pollution and lack of financial and technological resources for energy extraction are a serious problem for Iran in the Caspian Sea. The Islamic Republic of Iran is still at the stage of research into the extraction of energy resources in the region and has not entered the mass production stage due to international sanctions. However, after the agreement with the “5+1” and the lifting of sanctions, Iran has the opportunity to extract oil and gas from the Caspian. The activities of Western companies and their close cooperation with the new Caspian states are also a problem for Iran. The military presence of the West, especially the United States, in the Caspian region is considered a direct security threat from the Iranian point of view, and Iran has serious objections and fears in this regard.  

  1. Export Margins, Price and Quantity of Belarus’s Export Growth

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    Otamurodov Shavkat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the sources of Belarus’s export growth and decomposes export growth into extensive and intensive margins. This study also aims to determine export margins for intermediate and final goods and to determine the price and quantity components of the intensive export margin. In order to achieve the desired objectives, we use two methods for decomposing export growth, the count method and the export shares method. We analyse Belarus's export growth using export data at the HS-6 digit level for the 2004-2014 period. Our results show that Belarus's exports grew mainly due to growth in the price margin during the studied period 2004-2014. However, the extensive margin was important in export growth to some extent. Comparing the growth rate across final and intermediate goods reveals that although the share of final products in Belarus’s exports is not very big (18.9% in 2014, the average annual growth in exports of final products is higher than that of intermediate goods. Our investigation also shows that Belarus produces a wide range of commodities, but the share of the most of these commodities is not large; its exports depend on a restricted range of commodities. Moreover, most of the commodities are exported to Russia and Ukraine. Our results give us reason to assume that finding new markets for their new products is one of the main challenges for developing countries wishing to increase their exports by an extensive margin. This has important implications for how policy makers promote the trade and diversification of exports.

  2. INFLUENCE OF SALINITY ON DISTRIBUTION OF MACROPHITO- AND ZOO-BENTHOS POPULATIONS OF THE NORTHERN PART OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. CHIZENKOVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of research done by CaspNIRKh on the development and spatial distribution of macrophyto-and zoobenthos in the northwestern part of the Caspian Sea are presented. Data on seasonal and long-term dynamics of biomass and species composition of phytocenosis together with other environmental factors such as salinity and a type of sediments show the state of benthic ecosystems in that part of the sea. Data obtained on the development of benthic communities reveal eutrophic areas for feeding commercially valuable fish species and estimate the carrying capacity of the sea (when introducing artificially reared juveniles.

  3. Analysis of the development of export prices of selected agricultural and food commodities in the Czech Republic

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    Milan Palát

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the description of average level, variability and developmental trends the export prices of selected agricultural and food commodities in the Czech Republic with differentiation according to particular countries within the defined reference period 1993–2002. Thre is also presented the short-time point and interval extrapolation prediction of studied events. Methods of regression and correlation analysis and developmental trends were applied for the mathematical-statistical analysis.

  4. A DEAD box RNA helicase is essential for mRNA export and important for development and stress responses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhizhong; Dong, Chun-Hai; Lee, Hojoung; Zhu, Jianhua; Xiong, Liming; Gong, Deming; Stevenson, Becky; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2005-01-01

    An Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, cryophyte, was isolated and found to have an enhanced cold stress-induction of the master regulator of cold tolerance, C-repeat binding factor 2 (CBF2), and its downstream target genes. The mutant is more tolerant to chilling and freezing stresses but is more sensitive to heat stress. Under warm but not cold growth temperatures, the mutant has a reduced stature and flowers earlier. Under long day conditions, flowering of the mutant is insensitive to vernalization. The mutant is also hypersensitive to the phytohormone abscisic acid. The mutation was found in a DEAD box RNA helicase gene that is identical to the previously identified low expression of osmotically responsive genes 4 (LOS4) locus, which was defined by the los4-1 mutation that reduces cold regulation of CBFs and their target genes and renders Arabidopsis plants chilling sensitive. We show evidence suggesting that the CRYOPHYTE/LOS4 protein may be enriched in the nuclear rim. In situ poly(A) hybridization indicates that the export of poly(A)+ RNAs is blocked in the cryophyte/los4-2 mutant at warm or high temperatures but not at low temperatures, whereas the los4-1 mutation weakens mRNA export at both low and warm temperatures. These results demonstrate an important role of the CRYOPHYTE/LOS4 RNA helicase in mRNA export, plant development, and stress responses.

  5. Developing an Evaluating System to Improve Efficiency, Effectiveness and Governance in the Public Sector: the Case of the Program of Subsidies to Exporting Companies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Lustosa da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving a country’s export is widely acknowledged as a strategic issue. For a developing country, the benefits are multiple: expand the markets for goods and services to a global scale contributing to job creation, set technological and management standards for the sectors of the economy and reduce the country’s external vulnerabilities by generating reserves. Those benefits justify the adoption of public policies to support and foster exports, but it is essential to ensure that the resources invested in these programs are being effectively used, requiring the design and implementation of evaluation systems. This article aims to present and discuss an evaluation model for PROEX, Brazilian Program for Supporting Exports. The model proposed include definition and calculation of a set of indicators that will allow the monitoring of the extent to which the program is achieving its main objectives. We believe that the evaluation model proposed will help to improve the efficiency, effectiveness and governance of the Program.

  6. Preconditioning of the background error covariance matrix in data assimilation for the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcucci, Rossella; D'Amore, Luisa; Toumi, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    Data Assimilation (DA) is an uncertainty quantification technique used for improving numerical forecasted results by incorporating observed data into prediction models. As a crucial point into DA models is the ill conditioning of the covariance matrices involved, it is mandatory to introduce, in a DA software, preconditioning methods. Here we present first studies concerning the introduction of two different preconditioning methods in a DA software we are developing (we named S3DVAR) which implements a Scalable Three Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation model for assimilating sea surface temperature (SST) values collected into the Caspian Sea by using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) with observations provided by the Group of High resolution sea surface temperature (GHRSST). We also present the algorithmic strategies we employ.

  7. Impact of wood pellets export on the development of their production in Serbia with the effects of substituting enegry from fossil fuels and reduction of carbon dioxide emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavonjić Branko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of researching the impact of export on the production of wood pellets as well as the situation on the market for this wood fuel in Serbia. Objective of the research was to produce scientifically and professionally founded conclusions and the related adequate recommendations to the decision makers in order to improve the situation on wood pellets market in Serbia and eliminate the existing problems which significantly burden and slow down this development. Special objective of the research was to observe the contributions of wood pellets to the mitigation of climate changes using Serbia as the example. Results of the conducted research show that the expansion of the consumption (demand increase in the European Union countries in the last fifteen years and the related increase of export from Serbia are the most significant factors which have influenced the development of wood pellets production in Serbia. Parameters of econometric model of the impact of export on the increase of production show that production increase of 1.17% can be expected with the increase of export of 1%. Thus, the number of wood pellet producers has rapidly increased in the last ten years, from 2 producers in 2006 to 52 active producers in 2016. Increase of the number of producers was also accompanied by the increase of the installed capacities. At the end of 2015, total installed capacities for wood pellet production in Serbia reached 550 thousand tons, and the realized production was 229 thousand tons, or 41.6% of the installed capacity. Consumption of wood pellets in Serbia in the last four years achieved significant increase and reached the level of 89 thousand tons in 2015. However, concerning the segment of wood pellets consumption in Serbia, the situation is still unsatisfactory despite the fact that the consumption has been increasing year after year. Average price of 1 kWh of energy from wood pellets exported from Serbia was in the

  8. Baseline study of US industry solar exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobius, T M; Levi, R S; Bereny, J A

    1980-10-01

    This study is a detailed aggregate profile of US solar export activity in 1979 based on a survey of all segments of the solar industry. It identifies the dollar volume of exports by technology: (1) solar heating and cooling products; (2) wind products; (3) photovoltaics; (4) solar thermal electric; (5) OTEC and biomass; and (6) support products and services. The study offers to government and industry groups, for the first time, comprehensive information with which to formulate export goals and assistance measures based on the current realities of the solar export marketplace. Specific and aggregate recommendations which can lead to identification of realistic solar export opportunities and development of solar export markets are included.

  9. The Caspian Sea: legal challenges of delimitation between littoral states

    OpenAIRE

    Ramazanova, Emilia

    2012-01-01

    Before Soviet Union had collapsed the legal status and delimitation were more or less clear between the USSR and Iran. At present this issue has an importance for five countries: Russia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. The legal status of the Sea is unclear. If it is a sea then the Law of the Sea Convention must be applied. It becomes more problematic because of the fact that only Russia has ratified the UNCLOS and the Caspian is not wider than 200 miles to establish the EEZ. I...

  10. Microseismicity and seismotectonics of the South Caspian Lowlands, NE Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Majid; Hollingsworth, James; Zhan, Zhongwen; Bolourchi, Mohammad Javad; Talebian, Morteza

    2013-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the microseismicity and seismotectonics of the eastern South Caspian Sea region, where the East Alborz mountains descend to meet the South Caspian Lowlands of NE Iran. To better understand the present-day tectonics and seismicity of this region, which includes the cities of Gorgan and Gonbad-e-Qabus (combined population 500 000), we installed a temporary local seismic network across the area for 6 months between 2009 and 2010. We analysed the seismicity and focal mechanisms together with data from the permanent networks of the Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran (IGUT) and the International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), based in Tehran. Microseismicity is focused primarily on the Shahrud fault system, which bounds the east Alborz range to the south. Relatively few earthquakes are associated with the Khazar thrust fault, which bounds the north side of the range. A cluster of shallow microseismicity (Khazar fault (within the South Caspian Lowlands; SCL), an area typically thought to be non-deforming. This area coincides with the location of three relatively deep thrust earthquakes (Mw 5.3-5.5) which occurred in 1999, 2004 and 2005. Inversion of teleseismic body waveforms allows us to constrain the depth of these earthquakes at 26-29 km. Although significant sedimentation throughout the SCL obscures any expression of recent fault activity at the surface, focal mechanisms of well-located events from the shallow cluster of micro-seismicity show a significant component of left-lateral strike-slip motion (assuming slip occurs on NE-SW fault planes, typical of active faults in the region), as well as a small normal component. Inversion of traveltimes for well-located events in our network yields a velocity structure for the region, and a Moho depth of 41 km. The pattern of deep thrust and shallow normal seismicity could be explained by bending of the rigid South Caspian crust as it underthrusts the East

  11. Wind Wave Numerical Modeling in the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, R.; Ardalan, A. A.; Hasanlou, M.

    2017-09-01

    Numerical simulation results of wind wave in the Caspian Sea by using wind forcing data are presented. The numerical modeling which is applied in this study is based on numerical spectral wave model which is based on Navier-Stokes equations. It solves these equations through each of mesh elements. Moreover, in this model high-resolution unstructured grid for the Caspian Sea has been used in order to reach finer accuracy. The wind forcing data are given from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The measurement data, which are gained from Ports and Marine Organisation (PMO) of Iran, are used in order to estimate the accuracy of the model. The results have shown better accuracy in comparison with PMO simulation. Mean of the coefficient of determination (R-squared) for significant wave height in this simulation is 0.8059, though, in PMO simulation this coefficient is reported 0.7056. Better accuracy requires more measurement data and also finer resolution of bathymetry data.

  12. WIND WAVE NUMERICAL MODELING IN THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mahmoodi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation results of wind wave in the Caspian Sea by using wind forcing data are presented. The numerical modeling which is applied in this study is based on numerical spectral wave model which is based on Navier-Stokes equations. It solves these equations through each of mesh elements. Moreover, in this model high-resolution unstructured grid for the Caspian Sea has been used in order to reach finer accuracy. The wind forcing data are given from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. The measurement data, which are gained from Ports and Marine Organisation (PMO of Iran, are used in order to estimate the accuracy of the model. The results have shown better accuracy in comparison with PMO simulation. Mean of the coefficient of determination (R-squared for significant wave height in this simulation is 0.8059, though, in PMO simulation this coefficient is reported 0.7056. Better accuracy requires more measurement data and also finer resolution of bathymetry data.

  13. SPECIES COMPOSITION OF PSAMMOPHILIC CILIATES OF SUMGAIT CASPIAN COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kh. Alekperov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Comparative data on the species composition and species saprobic indicators of the psammon ciliates from Sumgait coast of the Caspian Sea are given.Methods. “Alive” samples were collected using a small clean plastic wide mouth bottles. Further processing was carried out under laboratory conditions. Small quantities of soil were examined under a binocular microscope MBS-9 . Ciliates detected microvessel caught and fixed castors for further impregnation kinetoma silver nitrate (Chatton et Lwoff, 1930 or silver proteinate. To determine the keys for ciliates used Foyssner’s major publications (Foissner et al., 1991, 1992, 1999 and “Free-living ciliates Atlas” (Alekperov, 2005.Results. We observed 75 species of ciliates during the studies, which species composition and distribution of the collection points are shown in table 1. Diagrams with average data were made relations groups psammophilous ciliates indicators saprobity different zones for each of the sites investigated Sumgait coast.Main conclusions. Environmental analysis using benthic ciliates indicators saprobity different zones showed that as expected, the industrial zone of Sumgayit coast coast, despite the decline in recent years, the total amount of pollution that is still highly contaminated portion of the coastal zone of the Caspian Sea.

  14. Exporter Price Premia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Sørensen, Allan

    This paper provides new evidence on manufacturing firms' output prices: in Denmark, on average, exported varieties are sold at a lower price (i.e. a negative exporter price premium) relative to only domestically sold varieties. This finding stands in sharp contrast to previous studies, which have...... found positive exporter price premia. We also document that the exporter price premium varies substantially across products (both in terms of sign and magnitude). We show that in a standard heterogeneous firms model with heterogeneity in quality as well as production efficiency there is indeed no clear......-cut prediction on the sign of the exporter price premium. However, the model unambiguously predicts a negative exporter price premium in terms of quality-adjusted prices, i.e. prices per unit of quality. This prediction is broadly borne out in the Danish data: while the magnitude of the premium varies across...

  15. Can the Ocean's Heat Engine Control Horizontal Circulation? Insights From the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Nicolas; Zika, Jan; Toumi, Ralf

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the role of the ocean's heat engine in setting horizontal circulation using a numerical model of the Caspian Sea. The Caspian Sea can be seen as a virtual laboratory—a compromise between realistic global models that are hampered by long equilibration times and idealized basin geometry models, which are not constrained by observations. We find that increases in vertical mixing drive stronger thermally direct overturning and consequent conversion of available potential to kinetic energy. Numerical solutions with water mass structures closest to observations overturn 0.02-0.04 × 106 m3/s (sverdrup) representing the first estimate of Caspian Sea overturning. Our results also suggest that the overturning is thermally forced increasing in intensity with increasing vertical diffusivity. Finally, stronger thermally direct overturning is associated with a stronger horizontal circulation in the Caspian Sea. This suggests that the ocean's heat engine can strongly impact broader horizontal circulations in the ocean.

  16. Exporting and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    . To enlarge the body of empirical evidence, we use an extensive 2005–2012 firm-level panel data set from Vietnam and separate out productivity effects of exporting due to self-selection. This allows us to conclude that firms actually learn by exporting. We also examine how this learning takes place. Our...... findings suggest that productivity gains are associated with moving to larger scale for foreign-owned firms with little evidence of subsequent learning on export markets. We find strong evidence to suggest that private domestic firms learn and accumulate knowledge from export markets with learning...

  17. Do Cement Boulders Mimic Natural Boulders for Macro-Invertebrates in the Southern Caspian Sea?

    OpenAIRE

    Pourjomeh, Fatemeh; Shokri, Mohammad Reza; Kiabi, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    The macro-invertebrates on natural (rock) and artificial (cement) boulders were compared along the southern Caspian Sea and the effect of structural features of boulders (i.e. orientation, facing, surface complexity, the degree of exposure to the wave action) on macro-invertebrate communities were investigated. Ten locations with rock walls in the southern Caspian Sea were investigated in which the isolated boulders of natural and artificial types with similar dimensions were haphazardly ...

  18. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan GholamReza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978 has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006 and future (2025-2100 time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3. The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21. The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82 between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  19. Genetic variation among agamid lizards of the trapelus agiliscomplex in the caspian-aral basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macey, J. Robert; Ananjeva, Natalia B.

    2004-05-19

    Allozyme variation is examined in eight populations of Trapelus from the Caspian-Aral Basin of the former USSR. Thirty-one loci (15 variable) exhibit remarkably low levels of genetic variation with only a Nei's genetic distance of 0.117 across 2500 km. An isolated population on the European side of the Caspian Sea is found to phenetically cluster inside the Asian populations examined, suggesting that it should not be considered taxonomically distinct.

  20. A postulate for tiger recovery: the case of the Caspian Tiger

    OpenAIRE

    Driscoll, C.A.; I. Chestin; H. Jungius; O. Pereladova; Y. Darman; E. Dinerstein; J. Seidensticker; Sanderson, J; Christie, S; Luo, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent genetic analysis has shown that the extinct Caspian Tiger (P. t. virgata) and the living Amur Tigers (P. t. altaica) of the Russian Far East are actually taxonomically synonymous and that Caspian and Amur groups historically formed a single population, only becoming separated within the last 200 years by human agency. A major conservation implication of this finding is that tigers of Amur stock might be reintroduced, not only back into the Koreas and China as is now proposed, but also ...

  1. Historical Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrological Processes of the Ponto-Caspian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriche, Sifan A.; Singarayer, Joy S.; Coe, Michael T.; Nandini, Sri; Prange, Matthias; Cloke, Hannah; Lunt, Dan

    2017-04-01

    The Ponto-Caspian basin is one of the largest basins globally, composed of a closed basin (Caspian Sea) and open basins connecting to the global ocean (Black and Azov Sea). Over the historical time period (1850-present) Caspian Sea levels have varied between -25 and -29mbsl (Arpe et al., 2012), resulting in considerable changes to the area of the lake (currently 371,000 km2). Given projections of future climate change and the importance of the Caspian Sea for fisheries, agriculture, and industry, it is vital to understand how sea levels may vary in the future. Hydrological models can be used to assess the impacts of climate change on hydrological processes for future forecasts. However, it is critical to first evaluate such models using observational data for the present and recent past, and to understand the key hydrological processes driving past changes in sea level. In this study, the Terrestrial Hydrological Model (THMB) (Coe, 2000, 2002) is applied and evaluated to investigate the hydrological processes of the Ponto-Caspian basin for the historical period 1900 to 2000. The model has been forced using observational reanalysis datasets (ERA-Interim, ERA-20) and historical climate model data outputs (from CESM and HadCM3 models) to investigate the variability in the Caspian Sea level and the major river discharges. We examine the differences produced by driving the hydrological model with reanalysis data or climate models. We evaluate the model performance compared to observational discharge measurements and Caspian Sea level data. Secondly, we investigated the sensitivity of historical Caspian Sea level variations to different aspects of climate changes to examine the most important processes involved over this time period.

  2. EXPORT STRATEGY BASED ON MARKET RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian-Liviu OLARU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A strategy is a general plan aimed to develop a business. Even export firm that wants to develop and prosper needs some form of strategy. A company's strategic fit with the trading environment has to be continuously reconsidered because it is likely to erode. Managers should be well informed in order to develop their judgment and understanding of the driving forces that shape the business environment. The greatest mistakes are made by exporters who think they know a foreign market as well as they know their local one, only to find after an ill-fated export launch, that they do not.

  3. Impact of Export Instability on Economic Growth in Tanzania | Kweka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is consistent with the findings in most commodity-dependent developing countries that export instability is detrimental to economic growth. Reducing export instability is possible through diversification of the export basket and destination markets, with policy attention on resolving constraints to domestic production for ...

  4. Unlocking export potential and the influence of country specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Export growth is integral to Ethiopia's development agenda. But, notwithstanding various trade policy reforms, exports have not lived up to expectations. This paper examines the gap between Ethiopia's actual and potential exports and the extent to which country-specific social, political and institutional factors have impacted ...

  5. Impact of manufactured goods' exports on economic growth: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of exports on growth has for a long time enmeshed in controversy partly due to both positive and negative effects empirically established in the literature. Still, most studies in developing countries have left detailed examination of exports' components and domestic institutions unexplored in the export-growth ...

  6. Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz, Antonio; Newman, Carol; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the learning-by-exporting (LBE) hypothesis in the Mozambican context. Due to the presence of the ‘Born-Global’ phenomenon among exporters, we address the endogeneity introduced by self-selection, combining a generalised Blinder–Oaxaca approach with results from...

  7. Amphistome Species in Cattle in South Coast of Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Halajian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge about the amphistomid fauna in Iranian domestic ruminants depends on the studies conducted almost 30 years ago. The last situation in cattle is introduced here in the provinces in south coast of Caspian Sea.Methods: Amphistomid species were collected from cattle at slaughter houses of the provinces Gilan and Mazanderan in 2010. Median sagittal sections were prepared by the conventional method. Species were identified by the histomorphological pecularities of the muscular argans.Results: Five amphistomid speciesrum Carmyerius spatiosus and Gastrothylax compressus, recovered. Calicophoron calicophorum is a new species for Iran. Criteria used in identification of the species were illustrated.Conclusion: Iran has a rich amphistomid fauna and mostly under the influence of oriental conditions.

  8. Amphistome species in cattle in South coast of caspian sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Sz; Eslami, A; Halajian, A; Nikpey, A

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about the amphistomid fauna in Iranian domestic ruminants depends on the studies conducted almost 30 years ago. The last situation in cattle is introduced here in the provinces in south coast of Caspian Sea. Amphistomid species were collected from cattle at slaughter houses of the provinces Gilan and Mazanderan in 2010. Median sagittal sections were prepared by the conventional method. Species were identified by the histomorphological pecularities of the muscular argans. Five amphistomid species, Paramphistomum cevri, P. gotoi, Calicophoron calicophorum, Carmyerius spatiosus and Gastrothylax compressus, recovered. Calicophoron calicophorum is a new species for Iran. Criteria used in identification of the species were illustrated. Iran has a rich amphistomid fauna and mostly under the influence of oriental conditions.

  9. Mexico: Imports or exports?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, J. [Mexico Energy Regulatory Commission, Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    This presentation provides an overview of Mexico's energy sector. Proven oil reserves place Mexico in ninth position in the world and fourth largest in natural gas reserves. Energy is one of the most important economic activities of the country, representing 3 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Oil exports represent 8.4 per cent of total exports. Approximately 40 per cent of total public investment is earmarked for energy projects. The author discusses energy resources and energy sector limitations. The energy sector plan for the period 2001-2006 is discussed. Its goals are to ensure energy supply, to develop the energy sector, to stimulate participation of Mexican enterprises, to promote renewable energy sources, and to strengthen international energy cooperation. The regulatory framework is being adapted to increase private investment. Some graphs are presented, displaying the primary energy production and primary energy consumption. Energy sector reforms are reviewed, as are electricity and natural gas reforms. The energy sector demand for 2000-2010 and investment requirements are reviewed, as well as fuel consumption for power generation. The author discusses the National Pipeline System (SNG) and the bottlenecks caused by pressure efficiency in the northeast, flow restriction on several pipeline segments, variability of the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) own use, and pressure drop on central regions. The entire prospect for natural gas in the country is reviewed, along with the Strategic Gas Program (PEG) consisting of 20 projects, including 4 non-associated natural gas, 9 exploration and 7 optimization. A section dealing with multiple service contracts is included in the presentation. The authors conclude by stating that the priority is a national energy policy to address Mexico's energy security requirements, to increase natural gas production while promoting the diversification of imports, and a regulatory framework to be updated in light of

  10. Towards a militarization of the Caspian sea? The CASFOR project; Vers une militarisation de la mer Caspienne? Le projet de la CASFOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafalian, A

    2005-10-15

    The CASFOR ('Caspian Force') is a project of joint military force between all Caspian surrounding states proposed by Russia to secure the Caspian sea area and to preserve Russia's influence in this fragmented and opened geopolitical space. The Caspian sea is a strategic area because of its oil resources but also because of important traffics in arms and drugs. (J.S.)

  11. Recognition and ranking of customer financing methods in international trade: An approach to customers’ satisfaction in the Export Development Bank of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Heidari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important events in the present era is the rapid development of international trade and the presence of countries in different areas of international trade. This issue has posed various new challenges for countries in recent years. Management of these challenges has mostly been done with the intention to achieve two objectives of economic development and promotion to different areas of international economics and global trade. Nowadays, getting customers’ satisfaction is one of the most important principles in the competition among customer-oriented organizations because customers are the main motive for commercial organizations which seek major improvements for progress. Therefore, in this kind of market-based economy, banking system which is thought as one of the main constituents of the economy of every country and bears great responsibilities is not an exception to the above-mentioned principle. The purpose of this study was recognizing and ranking of customer’s financing methods in international trade with an approach to customers’ satisfaction. To achieve this purpose, the research questions were tested in a descriptive method of survey type. The statistical population of this study consisted of all the staff working in all branches of the Export Development Bank of Iran. The sample of the study which was selected according to cluster random sampling method consisted of 217 staff of the Export Development Bank. The data gathering instrument for this study was a questionnaire including 16 questions with a reliability of 0.85. According to the findings, the indexes of open account, prepayment, letter of credit, and documentary collection are considered as customer financing methods in international trade. Based on the ranking presented by the method of TOPSIS, open account and prepayment had the respective higher ranks at the traditional payment system and letter of credit and documentary collection took priority over

  12. Photovoltaic systems for export application. Informal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, J.; Campbell, H.; Sajo, A.; Sanz, E. [Univ. of Lowell, MA (United States)

    1988-01-31

    One approach to improving the competitiveness of photovoltaic systems is the development of designs specifically for export applications. In other words, where is it appropriate in a system design to incorporate components manufactured and/or assembled in the receiving country in order to improve the photovoltaic exports from the US? What appears to be needed is a systematic method of evaluating the potential for export from the US of PV systems for various application in different countries. Development of such a method was the goal of this project.

  13. Guide to software export

    CERN Document Server

    Philips, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    An ideal reference source for CEOs, marketing and sales managers, sales consultants, and students of international marketing, Guide to Software Export provides a step-by-step approach to initiating or expanding international software sales. It teaches you how to examine critically your candidate product for exportability; how to find distributors, agents, and resellers abroad; how to identify the best distribution structure for export; and much, much more!Not content with providing just the guidelines for setting up, expanding, and managing your international sales channels, Guide to Software

  14. NEW DATA ABOUT COMPOSITION, GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND POSSIBLE WAYS OF FORMING OF DARKLING BEETLES FAUNA (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE IN PERI-CASPIAN AND ISLAND CASPIAN ECOSYSTEMS. PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim is study of biological diversity of the Caspian coasts and islands ecosystems, the composition, especially geographical distribution and possible ways of forming of darkling beetles fauna (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae.Methods. We used the traditional methods of collecting (hand collecting, soil traps, light traps, processing and material definition. List discussed tenebrionid fauna is composed using Abdurakhmanov and Medvedev (1994, Abdurakhmanov and Nabozhenko (2011.Results. The paper includes a comparative analysis of darkling beetles (341 species of 17 regions of 5 Caspian countries. Diversity of Tenebrionidae of the Caspian islands Chechen (32 species, Tyuleniy (29 species, Nordovyi (24 species, Kulaly (16 species is discussed for the first time. Faunistic base of discussed ecosystems includes species with turanian (sensu lato, 204 species, steppe (42 species, caucasian (30 species, including subendemics of the Caucasus, mediterranean (19 species, western asian (17 species biogeographic complexes with background of widespread euro-siberian, transpalearctic, paleotropical species. Сonnections and relations of regional and island faunas are discussed.Main conclusions. Results of the study will be a step in the determination of age of the islands through the biological diversity and the coastal level regime of the Caspian Sea, as well as possible changes in the population structure of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae on island ecosystems.

  15. Geodynamical Nature of the Formation of Large Plates of Platforms, Jointed in North Caspian Oil and Gas Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitov, Nassipkali; Tulegenova, Gulmira P.

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the problems of tectonic zoning and determination of geodynamical nature of the formation of jointed tectonic structures within the North Caspian oil and gas basin, represented by Caspian Depression of Russian platform of East European Pre-Cambrian Craton and plate ancient Precambrian Platform stabilization and Turan…

  16. Valie EXPORT Society. Overlok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Valie EXPORT Society asutasid 23. okt. 1999. a. Frankfurdis Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets, kui olid külastanud austria naiskunstniku Valie Exporti näitust. Rühmituse aktsioonide kirjeldus

  17. Valie EXPORT Society Rooseumis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Malmös Rooseumi Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuses näitus "Baltic Babel". Projekt koosneb Läänemeremaade linnades tegutsevate innovatiivsete gruppide aktsioonidest. Kuraator Charles Esche. Esinejatest (Eestist Valie Export Society: Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit)

  18. Exploitative Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Elena; Lopes Bento, Cindy; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies...... and learning about new markets ? R&D investments and marketing investments, in search of novel insights into the content and process underlying learning by exporting. We draw from organizational learning theory for predicting changes in both R&D and marketing investment patterns that accompany firm entry......, it is predominantly the marketing-related investment decisions associated with starting to export that lead to increases in firm productivity. We conclude that learning-by-exporting might be more properly characterized as ?learning about and exploiting new markets? rather than ?learning about new technologies...

  19. Export Controls and Nonproliferation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    slowing or preventing the spread of capabili- ties to develop and produce weapons of mass destruction. Nevertheless, reduc- ing the burdens of export...Chief U.S. NegotiatorPurchase International Peace for Safe and Secure Dismantlement of Nu- clear Weapons.Lawrence Scheinman5 Sergio C. Trindade ...controls could be ad- increase the cost and the difficulty of produc- dressed by the imposition of rigid rules ing these weapons, and they may buy

  20. Extrusion tectonics and subduction in the eastern South Caspian region since 10 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, James; Jackson, James; Walker, Richard; Nazari, Hamid

    2008-10-01

    We examine active deformation of the region surrounding theeastern South Caspian Sea using a combination of seismic, geological,geodetic, and geomorphological data. Global positioning system(GPS) velocities indicate a westward component of motion ofthe South Caspian basin, relative to Eurasia and central Iran.We identify major zones of shear (the Ashkabad and Shahrud faultzones) that accommodate this westward extrusion on either sideof the South Caspian block. Estimates of total strike-slip motioncould, at present-day slip rates derived from GPS observations,be achieved in ~10 m.y. Therefore, the northwest extrusion ofthe South Caspian region, which is accommodated by subductionbeneath the North Caspian region (stable Eurasia) along theApsheron-Balkan sill, may also date from that time. This suggeststhat the onset of subduction may be older than previous estimates(ranging from 1.8 to 5.5 Ma). Our results are summarized ina new kinematic model that significantly clarifies the activetectonics of this complicated region.

  1. The Caspian energy game: views from the United States and United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, H

    2003-07-01

    The importance of the Caspian Sea region to energy production is increasing and the forces influencing it are changing. The attention on this region focuses on its oil and natural gas reserves. A series of interviews with Western experts mainly from the United States and United Kingdom, including those in international organizations, academia, policy institutions, and government and industry officials identified key trends and issues that are important to their future policies and the significance of the Caspian oil and gas to the world energy market. The overriding issues are: The influence of Russia on regional security, stability, and the transportation of oil and gas products in the Caspian region. The outcome of the test between the United States and Iraq and the major effects it could have on commercial interests in the region and on who will be the major actors. Tensions caused by Iran refusal to settle the international demarcation of the Caspian Sea. Turkey position as a player, the affect of its new islamic-dominated government and its energy policies. Europe need to import gas and to diversify its supply. The construction of a pipeline to China. The impact of September 11, 2001 and terrorism on the Caspian region issues. The stability of the former Soviet Republics in the region. (author)

  2. The export strategy in the modern system of public administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii Ivashchuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available he article reveals theoretical approaches to interpretation and formation of the concept of macro strategic hierarchy and one of its the most important elements – export strategy. There was made a critical research of the existing scientific studies devoted to the problem of the efficient use and development of the national export potential. There was improved the existing system of factors that influence the formation of the export strategy, determined the key current imbalances of the Ukrainian export flows and offered the directions concerning the improvement of the existing practices of domestic export strategy formation with a view to levelling negative effects. KEY WORDS: public administration.

  3. Protectionism through Exporting: Subsidies with Export Share Requirements in China

    OpenAIRE

    Defever, Fabrice; Riaño, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    We study the effect of subsidies subject to export share requirements (ESR) that is, conditioned on a firm exporting at least a given fraction of its output - on exports, the intensity of competition and welfare, through the lens of a two-country model of trade with heterogeneous firms. Our calibrated model suggests that this type of subsidy boosts exports more and provides greater protection for domestic firms than a standard unconditional export subsidy, albeit at a substantial welfare cost.

  4. Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution of Oil-Gas Industry Emissions from North Caspian region of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakarin, E.; Balakay, L.; Mirkarimova, B.; Mahura, A.; Baklanov, A.; Sorensen, J. H.

    2012-04-01

    The Atyraus region (Republic of Kazahstan) is occupied with more than 60 oil-gas fields which are actively developing. Moreover, a new world largest field so-called Kashagan has been discovered on the Caspian Sea shelf and its exploitation is planned by the end of 2012. In our study, this region has been selected as a source region of sulphates emissions accounting about 15 tons (2009 estimates). Three locations have been chosen in the region covering adjacent Caspian Sea aquatoria, and emissions were equally distributed among these locations (with an emission rate of 4.72*10-4 kg/sec). From original sulphates emissions between 46-82% are subjected to atmospheric transport away from the sources. Releases were considered to be continuous. The long-term modelling of atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition of sulphates was done employing the Lagrangian type model called DERMA, run at the NEC SX6 supercomputing facilities. After each day of release the atmospheric transport has been tracked for the next 2 week period. Input meteorological 3D fields were obtained from the ECMWF data archives. The generated output included air concentration (at model levels), time integrated air concentration, dry and wet deposition (at the surface). The results of dispersion modelling had been post-processed and integrated into GIS environment (using ArcGIS). These have been further used to calculate annual averaged and summary concentration and deposition fields for administrative regions, counties and cities of Kazakhstan, as well as territories of the neighboring countries. It has been found that on an annual scale, the dominating atmospheric transport of pollution from the Atyraus region is toward east and north-east, mostly due to prevailing westerlies. Although on a hemispheric scale, the wet deposition dominates over dry (63 vs. 37%), for Kazakhstan the wet deposition contribution is slightly larger (65%). For Turkmenistan, dry deposition is almost twice higher compared

  5. Impact of the European Russia drought in 2010 on the Caspian Sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arpe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological budgets of the Volga basin (VB and the Caspian Sea (CS have been analysed. The components of the water balance for the CS were calculated for the period 1993 to 2010 with emphasis on summer 2010 when a severe drought developed over European Russia.

    A drop in precipitation over the VB in July 2010 occurs simultaneously with a decrease in evaporation for the same area, an increase of evaporation over the CS itself and a drop of the Caspian Sea level (CSL. The drop in the precipitation over the VB cannot lead to an instantaneous drop of the CSL because the precipitated water needs some months to reach the CS. The delay is estimated here to be 1 to 3 months for excessive precipitation in summer, longer for deficient precipitation and for winter cases. However, the evaporation over the CS itself is considered to be responsible for a simultaneous drop of the CSL from July to September 2010. The impact on the CSL from the precipitation deficit over the VB occurs in the months following the drought. The water deficit from July to September 2010 calculated from the anomalous precipitation minus evaporation over the VB would decrease the CSL by 22 cm, of which only 2 cm had been observed until the end of September (observed Volga River discharge anomaly. So the remaining drop of 20 cm can be expected in the months to follow if no other anomalies happen. In previous studies the precipitation over the VB has been identified as the main cause for CSL changes, but here from a 10 cm drop from beginning of July to end of September, 6 cm can be directly assigned to the enhanced evaporation over the CS itself and 2 cm due to reduced precipitation over the CS.

    Further periods with strong changes of the CSL are also investigated, which provide some estimates concerning the accuracy of the analysis data. The investigation was possible due to the new ECMWF interim reanalysis data which are used to provide data also for sensitive

  6. Fractal geometry methods and neurocomputing for Caspian sea level forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimova, L.; Mukhamejanova, S.; Makarenko, N.

    2003-04-01

    In this paper a method of natural dynamical systems forecasting is proposed. This method is a result of combination of topological dynamics and deterministic chaos theories. The technique enables reconstructing a universal model of the process in question from the given data directly, which is implemented by embedding the investigated time series into Euclidean space of the proper dimension. Such a model can preserve characteristics of the attractor of a dynamical system, which is supposed to generate the time series and allows constructing a correct scheme of local multidimensional prediction. The predictor is described by a continuous nonlinear function with number of its arguments depending on embedding dimension. An artificial neural network is used to approximate the function. The method is illustrated on the example of Caspian Sea level. It is the largest intercontinental reservoir without water flow, which demonstrates the unique evolution on an extent of a huge time interval, represented by the recurrent change of transgressive and regressive phases, that is noticed in illegible traces of paleodata, scanty historical information and also monitoring on short instrumental period. The instrumental time series contain not enough values to trace the global variations of the sea level. That is why we use these measurements together with historical records. The second data are preliminary processed with the fractal interpolation procedure. This is done in order to make the two series have equal time resolutions. The appropriateness of such an interpolation is verified with the help of Hurst method. We apply the delay coordinate transformation with different delay parameters instead of the canonical Takens reconstruction procedure for embedding the time series into Euclidean space. This technique is called irregular embedding and allows investigating multicyclic dynamical systems. For the problem of Caspian sea level forecasting we use a version of the irregular

  7. The ecological problems of rivers of Georgia (the Caspian Sea basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurab Lomsadze

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demands of fresh water in the world threaten the biodiversity and the supply of water for food production and other vital human needs. Providing adequate quantities of pure, fresh water for humans and their diverse activities is the major problem worldwide. In spite of the fact that Georgia is considered rather rich of fresh water resources our research showed that the major rivers of The Caspian Sea basin are polluted with different contaminants like, nitrates, ammonium nitrogen. Heavy metals, oil products, pesticides and other toxic chemicals. From researched rivers the most polluted are Mashavera and Kazretula (Bolnisi Municipality. They are mainly contaminated with toxic releases of joint-stock company, Madneuli's activities. The rivers are also polluted from other plants, agricultural activities and farms. To protect the public and the environment from toxic releases the government should prevent pollution by requiring industries to reduce their use of toxic chemicals and restore and strengthen protection for all water objects. Concerted actions are needed to safely manage the use of toxic chemicals and develop monitoring and regulatory guidelines. The principles and practices of sustainable development will help to contain or eliminate risks resulting from the chemical pollution.

  8. HIGH-RESOLUTION SEISMIC VELOCITY AND ATTENUATION MODELS OF THE CAUCASUS-CASPIAN REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellors, R; Gok, R; Sandvol, E

    2007-07-10

    The southwest edge of Eurasia is a tectonically and structurally complex region that includes the Caspian and Black Sea basins, the Caucasus Mountains, and the high plateaus south of the Caucasus. Crustal and upper mantle velocities show great heterogeneity in this region and regional phases display variations in both amplitudes and travel time. Furthermore, due to a lack of quality data, the region has largely been unexplored in terms of the detailed lithospheric seismic structure. A unified high-resolution 3D velocity and attenuation model of the crust and upper mantle will be developed and calibrated. This model will use new data from 23 new broadband stations in the region analyzed with a comprehensive set of techniques. Velocity models of the crust and upper mantle will be developed using a joint inversion of receiver functions and surface waves. The surface wave modeling will use both event-based methods and ambient noise tomography. Regional phase (Pg, Pn, Sn, and Lg) Q model(s) will be constructed using the new data in combination with existing data sets. The results of the analysis (both attenuation and velocity modeling) will be validated using modeling of regional phases, calibration with selected events, and comparison with previous work. Preliminary analyses of receiver functions show considerable variability across the region. All results will be integrated into the KnowledgeBase.

  9. How foreign-born workers foster exports

    OpenAIRE

    Marchal, Léa; Nedoncelle, Clément

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the export-enhancing effect of foreign workers at the firm level. We first develop a theoretical framework of heterogeneous firms, assuming that foreign workers allow for productivity gains and convey valuable information on foreign markets. We illustrate that foreign workers foster exports at the extensive and the intensive margins. This effect can be decomposed in a general effect - to which any foreign worker contributes - and a destination-specific effect - to which only fo...

  10. IMPROVING ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC ISSUES OF EXPORT CREDIT INSURANCE AND INVESTMENT IN RUSSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kadyrbaev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article are considered problem of Russian export development and export Russian investments. The Russian government work actively to increase Russian non-energy export and allocate huge funds for this. Activity of Export Insurance Agency of Russia (EXIAR are examined severally

  11. Trade Promotion Organizations (TPOs Role in Laying the Groundwork for an Export Promotion Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OCTAVIAN-LIVIU OLARU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most countries focus on strategies for export development and promotion, given the importance of national goals and, in many cases, limited resources. A TPO has a significant role in laying the groundwork for an export promotion program. TPOs should pay close attention to the trade information needs of exporters and have appropriate mechanisms for acquiring such information systematically and disseminating it in a timely way. Moreover, a TPO provides basic and useful support to the export community if it can facilitate contacts between foreign buyers and exporters. Developing the export promotion program is one of the basic requirements when the TPO formulates its support program for the export sector.

  12. Diagnostics of the Enterprise Export Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrynkovskyy Ruslan M.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to form and develop theoretical and methodological foundations for diagnostics of the enterprise export potential, which should be understood as a process of identification, analysis and assessment of the level of potential possibility and readiness of the enterprise to implement export activities taking into account the impact of interrelated internal variables (goals, technology, structure, tasks, educational and professional potential of the staff and factors of the enterprise external environment (customers, competitors, suppliers, intermediaries, contact audience, etc. in order to ensure a qualitatively new level of its development and formation of its prospects. It is determined that the key business indicators of the system for diagnostics of enterprise export potential are: the level of enterprises competitiveness in the international (global market; the level of competitiveness of enterprise products; the level of competitiveness of enterprise export products; the level of enterprise resource opportunities; the level of enterprise export performance. Prospects for further research in this direction are to develop a classification (specifically detailed list of objectives of the enterprise diagnostics by the level of detail (element, partial, complex, taking into account diagnostics of export potential of the enterprise as part of diagnostic objective.

  13. A postulate for tiger recovery: the case of the Caspian Tiger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Driscoll

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent genetic analysis has shown that the extinct Caspian Tiger (P. t. virgata and the living Amur Tigers (P. t. altaica of the Russian Far East are actually taxonomically synonymous and that Caspian and Amur groups historically formed a single population, only becoming separated within the last 200 years by human agency. A major conservation implication of this finding is that tigers of Amur stock might be reintroduced, not only back into the Koreas and China as is now proposed, but also through vast areas of Central Asia where the Caspian tiger once lived. However, under the current tiger conservation framework the 12 “Caspian Tiger States” are not fully involved in conservation planning. Equal recognition as “Tiger Range States” should be given to the countries where the Caspian tiger once lived and their involvement in tiger conservation planning encouraged. Today, preliminary ecological surveys show that some sparsely populated areas of Central Asia preserve natural habitat suitable for tigers. In depth assessments should be completed in these and other areas of the Caspian range to evaluate the possibility of tiger reintroductions. Because tigers are a charismatic umbrella species, both ecologically and politically, reintroduction to these landscapes would provide an effective conservation framework for the protection of many species in addition to tigers. And for today’s Amur Tigers this added range will provide a buffer against further loss of genetic diversity, one which will maintain that diversity in the face of selective pressures that can only be experienced in the wild.

  14. Association of ghrelin with cardiometabolic risk factors in Iranian adolescents: the CASPIAN-III study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmat, Ramin; Shafiee, Gita; Qorbani, Mostafa; Azizi-Soleiman, Fatemeh; Djalalinia, Shirin; Esmaeil Motlagh, Mohammad; Ardalan, Gelayol; Ahadi, Zeinab; Safari, Omid; Safiri, Saeid; Kelishadi, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Current evidence suggests that ghrelin could contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults, but limited experience exists in adolescents. This study aims to explore the association of ghrelin levels with the MetS components among Iranian adolescents. Methods: In this case-control study, 32 adolescents with MetS and 148 healthy controls were selected randomly from the childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non communicable disease (CASPIAN-III) study. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria modified for children and adolescents. Anthropometric measures (including body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC] and waist to height ratio [WHtR]), blood pressure (BP) and biochemical data (including fasting blood sugar [FBS], triglyceride [TG], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], total cholesterol [TC] and gerlin) were measured. Results: Total ghrelin level was significantly higher in students without MetS compared to those with MetS (748.89 ± 85.04 vs. 728.72 ± 90.36 [pg/mL]; P adolescents. PMID:27777695

  15. Learning by Exporting, Importing or Both?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeets, Valérie; Warzynski, Frederic

    of the origin of imports and the destination of exports. We find that both imports from countries with abundant and cheap labor like China and from countries with similar level of development matter, although the mechanism through which productivity is affected is likely to be different. In addition, exporting......In this paper, we analyze the relationship between exporting/importing status and firm productivity. We use a rich product-firm-level dataset providing both revenue and quantities of all products for a large panel of Danish manufacturing firms over the period 1998-2005 and link it to another...... dataset describing firms' international trade transactions by product. We use our detailed product level information to compute a firm level deflator and avoid the criticism of biased estimates due to the use of industry level deflator. We find that both importing and exporting behaviours are strongly...

  16. Cooperation of nuclear manpower development between Viet Nam and Korea in order to enhance establishment of infrastructure in exporting nuclear technology to Viet Nam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. J.; Han, K. W.; Park, J. K.; Kim, Y. T.; Nam, Y. M.; Jang, Y. H.; Yang, M. H

    2003-08-15

    Through this project, KAERI provided OJT Programme to 3 nuclear experts of Viet Nam at the KAERI for 3 months as a cooperation of human resource development in the field of nuclear policy, nuclear safety analysis and thermo hydraulic. We could have publicity activities of S/W and H/W then achieve an advantage position of economical and technical in exporting nuclear technology to Viet Nam. Also we have provided a training course and seminar for a high-level delegation of nuclear policy decision makers, which is consisted of 5 deputy ministers and general directors of Viet Nam in Korea. Thus we could have Vietnamese who are favoring Korea. The KAERI will also prepare a data base of trained Vietnamese in Korea for the maximum utilization of them in cooperating with Viet Nam. We accomplished the cooperation of human resource development and providing program and curriculum of the nuclear education and training in Viet Nam. Furthermore, it is expected that the enhancement of nuclear technical cooperation between Viet Nam and Korea and the nuclear human resource development.

  17. Marketing technologies for building competitiveness of companies export

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tatyana Tsygankova; Anna Ishchenko

    2017-01-01

    In context of post-industrial development of global economy, escalating competition in international goods markets, the definition of competitive export is proposed based upon both existing criteria...

  18. 77 FR 25681 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ...; export brokerage; foreign marketing and analysis; foreign market development; overseas advertising and... rice marketers; invoicing (billing) foreign buyers; collecting (letters of credit and other financial...

  19. FEATURES DELINEATION AND USE OF SPECIALLY PROTECTED THE CASPIAN LOWLAND THE REPUBLIC OF DAGHESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Kurbanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Questions of delimitation of state property on specially protected areas land of the Caspian lowland in Daghestan need further study. It is Requires the definition of the status of land of recreational zones of the coast of the Caspian sea, including coastal and border strips, legal and logical resolution of the millet for the management of these lands as Federal property. It is Necessary to accelerate the work on the delimitation of the remaining areas of land in this zone, to take inventory, to put these lands on cadastral registration and to sign lease agreements with businesses on these lands. 

  20. Extrusion tectonics and subduction in the eastern South Caspian region since 10 Ma: REPLY

    OpenAIRE

    Hollingsworth, James; Jackson, James; Walker, Richard; Nazari, Hamid

    2009-01-01

    In our paper (Hollingsworth et al., 2008), we present a model of how the distribution of active faults in northeast Iran might accommodate both the northward motion of Central Iran and the westward motion of the South Caspian region, relative to Eurasia. We suggest the westward expulsion of the South Caspian region is accommodated by slip on the right-lateral Ashkabad and left-lateral Shahrud faults, which results in east-west extension along its eastern margin in the central Kopeh Dagh mount...

  1. Satellite Survey of Inner Seas: Oil Pollution in the Black and Caspian Seas

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Mityagina; Olga Lavrova

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses our studies of oil pollution in the Black and Caspian Seas. The research was based on a multi-sensor approach on satellite survey data. A combined analysis of oil film signatures in satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and optical imagery was performed. Maps of oil spills detected in satellite imagery of the whole aquatic area of the Black Sea and the Middle and the Southern Caspian Sea are created. Areas of the heaviest pollution are outlined. It is shown that the mai...

  2. New species from family Gasterosteidae in ichthyofauna of the Caspian Sea basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Shikhshabekov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is described a new genus and species - Gasterosteus Aculeatus for the Dagestan part of the Middle Caspian from the genus Gasterosteus species Aculeatus, which differs from other kinds of family Gasterosteidae by presence of three needles on the back part of the body and by some ecological features. This species is well enough described in other southern reservoirs. In comparison of external attributes of the three-needle stickle-back of the Caspian and other southern reservoirs no special differences are revealed.

  3. CURRENT STATE OF WATER BIORESOURCES OF THE VOLGA AND CASPIAN SEA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Vasileva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of current degraded state of aquatic biological resources of the Volga-Caspian Sea basin and provides specific data on commercial stocks of fish. The main reasons for decrease in natural stocks of ichthyofauna are regulation and pollution of the spawning rivers, adverse hydrological conditions, injudicious hunting, poaching pressure. To improve the state of natural stocks of fish it is necessary to increase their reproduction and implement measures to restore and rational exploitation of aquatic bioresources of the Volga- Caspian Sea basin.

  4. On the need for the organization of integrated monitoring of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Kostianoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the organization of comprehensive monitoring of the Caspian Sea. We discuss the goals and objectives of the environmental monitoring, as well as the functions of federal services and agencies in the organization and implementation of the monitoring. The basic characteristics of the marine observation network in the seas of Russia are shown. We discuss modern satellite environmental monitoring methods, as well as specific applications of satellite data for the study and monitoring of the Caspian Sea region. Particular attention is given to satellite monitoring of oil pollution of the sea.

  5. Proceedings of the wind energy industry conference : develop, innovate, export : held in conjunction with Quebec's first wind energy industry gala; Comptes rendus du colloque sur l'industrie eolienne : developper, innover, exporter : tenue en conjonction avec le premier gala quebecois de l'industrie eolienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This conference was dedicated to the wind energy industry and business opportunities in Quebec, the rest of Canada and abroad. It was held in conjunction with Quebec's first wind energy industry gala which highlighted the organizations and individuals that have made outstanding contributions to the wind power sector in Quebec over the past three years. The entire conference focused on current and future requests for proposals in Quebec, innovation, and exports. Some fifteen reputed speakers shared their knowledge and experience regarding technological development and technical support available in Quebec. It was intended to clarify current and future issues affecting the wind power industry and to build key relations with leading wind energy players. The sessions of the conference were entitled: the wind energy industry in Quebec and Canada; issues surrounding requests for proposals; the players involved in the request for proposals; visual impacts of wind farms; data transmission during wind farm construction; innovating to move ahead of the crowd; innovation in practice; exporting as a means of development; and, exports in practice. A tour of the Baie-des-Sable wind farm was also provided. The conference featured 24 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. An Introduction to Export Assistance in the Internet Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanathan, Somasundaram; Rask, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Governments and other non-profit organizations have been providing information-oriented services for long to encourage exports. The primary targeted recipient of such services is Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME's). The effectiveness of such activities has been researched extensively until...... is provided over the Internet. For the research community, this presents an opportunity to document and explain the developments. Our objective in this paper is three fold. Firstly, we in this paper review 25 export assistance web sites and summarize the Internet related developments. Secondly, we use Rask......'s (2002) model about web marketing strategies for conceptualizing the Internet related developments associated with export assistance. Finally, we highlight the implications of providing export assistance over the Internet. Those interested in export assistance research and those providing export...

  7. An Introduction to Export Assistance in the Internet Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanathan, Somasundaram; Rask, Morten

    Governments and other non-profit organizations have been providing information-oriented services for long to encourage exports. The primary targeted recipient of such services is Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME's). The effectiveness of such activities has been researched extensively until...... is provided over the Internet. For the research community, this presents an opportunity to document and explain the developments. Our objective in this paper is three fold. Firstly, we in this paper review 25 export assistance web sites and summarize the Internet related developments. Secondly, we use Rask......'s (2002) model about web marketing strategies for conceptualizing the Internet related developments associated with export assistance. Finally, we highlight the implications of providing export assistance over the Internet. Those interested in export assistance research and those providing export...

  8. Institutional co-innovation in value chain development: A comparative study of agro-export products in Uganda and Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H.J. Helmsing (Bert); W. Enzama (Wilson)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractInstitutional development has attracted more attention in the past two decades. However, institutional theory finds itself in a pre-consolidated phase and there are many theoretical and methodological challenges. One is to respond to the question whether institutional change is a

  9. Institutional co-innovation in value chain development. A comparative study of agro-export products in Uganda and Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H.J. Helmsing (Bert); W. Enzama (Wilson)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Institutional development has attracted more attention in the past two decades. However, institutional theory finds itself in a pre-consolidated phase and there are many theoretical and methodological challenges. One is to respond to the question whether

  10. Exporting the Saemaul spirit: South Korea’s Knowledge Sharing Program and the ‘rendering technical’ of Korean development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucette, Jamie; Müller, Anders Riel

    2016-01-01

    revolution in values that inculcated the ‘can-do’ spirit in poor rural villagers and allowed them to escape poverty and stagnation. We argue that the emphasis of this narrative on the spiritual, voluntary, and value-oriented nature of the movement has been used to ‘render technical’ Korea’s development...

  11. West Angeles Community Development Corporation final technical report on export market feasibility planning and research for the solar medical autoclave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, G.D.

    1998-04-20

    This report summarizes core findings from an investigation performed by the staff of West Angeles Community Development Corporation (CDC) regarding the feasibility of marketing the Solar Medical Autoclave (``autoclave``) in South Africa. The investigation was completed during 1997, the period prescribed by the Grant Award made by the U.S. Department of Energy on January 1, 1997, and was monitored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  12. Export-Led Growth Hypothesis: Evidence from Agricultural Exports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Granger causality test results revealed no any support of the export-led growth (ELG) hypothesis for Tanzania. However, the growth-led exports (GLE) hypothesis for Tanzania was supported by the results of this study, implying that the government of Tanzania needs to promote growth in order to generate exports.

  13. Composition of Exports and Export Performance of Eurozone Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierts, Peter; Van Kerkhoff, Henk; De Haan, Jakob

    This article investigates to what extent the composition of exports is related to the export performance of eurozone countries using a data set on exports from the oldest eurozone countries to their top 20 trade partners for the period 1988-2009. The results suggest that a higher share of high

  14. Composition of Exports and Export Performance of Eurozone Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierts, P.J.; Kerkhoff, H.; de Haan, J.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates to what extent the composition of exports is related to the export performance of eurozone countries using a data set on exports from the oldest eurozone countries to their top 20 trade partners for the period 1988-2009. The results suggest that a higher share of high

  15. Exporting to Russia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on extensive fieldwork conducted in Central Asia to explore food exports to Russia. It takes its theoretical starting point in global value chain theory and pinpoints chain entry barriers relating to financing, transportation and standards. The article also proposes rethinking...

  16. PLANKTON OF UST-KURA REGION OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Dzhalilov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Plankton of Ust-Kura region of the Caspian Sea is studied in 2009–2011. Forty-eight species of planktonic ciliates, 17 species of Cladocera, 3 species of rotifers and 2 species of copepods are registered during the studies. Species diversity of all groups strongly influences the Kura River defining seawater desalination this site. The vast majority of species of plankton community refers to freshwater representatives or eurybiontic species able to exist in a wide range of salinity.Methods.Collected samples for evaluation were examined diatomaceous plankton partially invivo, and then fixed with 4% formalin with addition of dye "Benqalrose". Further processing of the samples was carried out under laboratory conditions.Results. During the study 43 species of ciliates, 3 species of rotifers, 17 species of Cladocera and 2 species of copepods and their larval stages was noted (Table 1 . As seen from Table 1, the distribution of planktonic ciliates to collection points was fairly even and ranged from a minimum number of species reported by Article 1 (22 species to a maximum at station 5 (31 species. It should also be noted that the vast majority mentioned in plankton ciliates are typical planktontam is distributed fairly evenly throughout the studied waters. Random plankton species, such as representatives of Condylostoma and Amphisiella were marked in shallow water stations 4 and 5. Apparently their presence in the samples is due to the temporary transfer of benthic plankton under the influence of the wave factor.

  17. The value chain and e-business in exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of the possibilities and challenges facing the application of e-business in the Ghanaian exporting sector. The paper also ascertains, from a value chain perspective, the extent of e-business usages within two export organizations...... in Ghana's Non-traditional Export (NTE) sector. The two export firms profiled were from the private and governmental/public sectors of Ghana's NTE sector. Design/methodology/approach: The paper adopted a case study approach. This approach was chosen in view of its ability to contribute to deep and detailed...... was analysed thematically. Findings: Across the various value chain activities, the private sector firm showed deeper e-business use concentration than the governmental export organization. More importantly, across the two cases, the value chain activities of export organizations in developing economies...

  18. Terms and formation of export potential of the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Chernish

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the concept of the export potential, the approaches to its definition and the conditions of its formation at an enterprise. The authors identify the levers that will stimulate the development of the export potential at an enterprise. The paper shows the need to improve and increase the export potential for the most promising entering foreign markets, the emergence of opportunities to compete in international markets. The authors introduce four scientific and technical approaches to determine the export potential. Such approaches consider the potential in terms of four definitions: structural, causal, functional and comparative. The article proposes the description of the factors influencing upon the formation of the export potential at an enterprise. It is proved that despite of the changes in the environment the export potential remains unchanged, it says about the necessity to create and maintain it all the at an enterprise for further development.

  19. ACCUMULATION OF SOME TRACE ELEMENTS IN SEDIMENTS AND MACROBENTHOS OF THE NORTHERN CASPIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Makhlun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted studying of concentration of trace elements in sediments, mollusks, macrophytes of the Northern Caspian sea. Authentic distinctions in utilizing ability of the studied elements by benthos organisms depending on a site and the maintenance of elements in sediments were established.

  20. Russia and the Caspian Sea: Projecting Power or Competing for Influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Bioterrorizm: mesto deystviy – Kaspiy” (“Bioterrorism in Action in the Caspian), Krasnaya Zvezda, June 25, 2004. Voyennyy Vestnik Yuga Rossii...11438895@egNews. 70. BBC Monitoring, Interfax-AVN military news agency, Moscow, 1305GMT, November 6, 2012. 71. BBC Monitoring, Voyennyy Vestnik Yuga Rossii

  1. Native carbonoxidation microorganisms in bioremedetion Northern Caspian sea from oil pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gridneva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 26 strains microorganisms - degradation oil have been isolated from shelf water North Caspian. The high emulsifying ability relative to benzine, kerosene and diesel-fuel oil relevantly were possessed the 11 strains. The 4 cultures exhibiting degradation of oil rates 43-49 %, respectively, were selected.

  2. Monitoring of pasture ecosystems efficiency of the Northwest coast of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Yahiyaev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For the reason monitoring of productivity of pasture ecosystems explored North-West seaside Caspian epidemic deathes. Saline mode, contents humus, microelements is determined. It Is Installed that big part of topsoil of the studied zones Daghestan is presented by low-productive land, which productivity depends on complex as natural, so and аanthropogenic factors.

  3. The 2000 canine distemper epidemic in Caspian seals (Phoca caspica): pathology and analysis of contributory factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiken, T; Kennedy, S; Barrett, T; Van de Bildt, M W G; Borgsteede, F H; Brew, S D; Codd, G A; Duck, C; Deaville, R; Eybatov, T; Forsyth, M A; Foster, G; Jepson, P D; Kydyrmanov, A; Mitrofanov, I; Ward, C J; Wilson, S; Osterhaus, A D M E

    2006-05-01

    More than 10,000 Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) were reported dead in the Caspian Sea during spring and summer 2000. We performed necropsies and extensive laboratory analyses on 18 seals, as well as examination of the pattern of strandings and variation in weather in recent years, to identify the cause of mortality and potential contributory factors. The monthly stranding rate in 2000 was up to 2.8 times the historic mean. It was preceded by an unusually mild winter, as observed before in mass mortality events of pinnipeds. The primary diagnosis in 11 of 13 seals was canine distemper, characterized by broncho-interstitial pneumonia, lymphocytic necrosis and depletion in lymphoid organs, and the presence of typical intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple epithelia. Canine distemper virus infection was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction products. Organochlorine and zinc concentrations in tissues of seals with canine distemper were comparable to those of Caspian seals in previous years. Concurrent bacterial infections that may have contributed to the mortality of the seals included Bordetella bronchiseptica (4/8 seals), Streptococcus phocae (3/8), Salmonella dublin (1/8), and S. choleraesuis (1/8). A newly identified bacterium, Corynebacterium caspium, was associated with balanoposthitis in one seal. Several infectious and parasitic organisms, including poxvirus, Atopobacter phocae, Eimeria- and Sarcocystis-like organisms, and Halarachne sp. were identified in Caspian seals for the first time.

  4. Hydrological hydrochemical and toxicological regime of fishery basins of Ural part of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologo-hydrochemical regime of the Caspian sea, its biological productivity and trophic structure of ecosystem of basin essentially depends on natural-climatic factors forming liquid and biogen flow at water scoop of the basin.

  5. Ecological prognosis modelling of benthos state in the Northern Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurahmanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There’s made an attempt in the work to estimate the bentos population of the Northern Caspian Sea by mathematic modelling methods. At use of the given method probably considerably to improve the forecast of the general admissible fishes in this area.

  6. Solar-forced 2600 BP and Little Ice Age highstands of the Caspian Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroonenberg, S.B.; van der Borg, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067895298

    2007-01-01

    The level of the Caspian Sea, the largest inland sea in the world, has fluctuated capriciously in history, with amplitudes up to 3 m in the last century, to 25 m in the last millennium, and to over 150 m since the Last Glacial. There is little consensus about the causes, and forecasts are

  7. SAFETY PROBLEMS IN THE CASPIAN REGION IN THE CONTEXT OF CHANGE OF THE GEOPOLITICAL SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Abdullayev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to research of geopolitical processes in Caspian region and to questions of regional security. In article is analyzed the influence on a situation in the region of the western countries. The questions connected with deliveries of hydrocarbonic resources from the countries of the Middle East are considered.

  8. Nutritional stress affects corticosterone deposition in feathers of Caspian tern chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Allison G. L.; Kitaysky, Alexander S.; Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    Stressful environmental conditions affect the adrenocortical function of developing animals, which can have consequences for their fitness. Discovery of the avian stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) in feathers has the potential to broaden the application of endocrine research in ecological and evolutionary studies of wild birds by providing a long-term measure of CORT secretion. Mechanisms of CORT deposition in feathers are not well known and few studies have related feather CORT to circulating plasma CORT during feather growth. Our objective was to experimentally test the validity of using feather CORT as a measure of CORT secretion in developing birds experiencing nutritional stress. Caspian tern Hydroprogne caspia chicks were fed ad libitum or restricted (35% less than ad libitum) diets for four weeks. We measured CORT in feathers from these chicks to examine the relationship between feather CORT concentrations and nutritional limitation, circulating plasma CORT, and feather development. We found that feather CORT was higher in controls fed ad libitum than in restricted individuals, despite higher levels of plasma CORT in restricted chicks compared to controls. Feather mass and growth rates were strongly and positively related to feather CORT concentrations in both treatments. This is the first experimental study to show that feather CORT concentrations can be lower in response to nutritional stress, even when plasma CORT concentrations are elevated. Our results indicate that CORT deposition in feathers may be confounded when feather mass and growth rates are compromised by nutritional stress. We conclude that feather CORT can be used for assessing nutritional stress in growing birds, but the direction of response depends on how strongly stress affects feather development.

  9. Globalisation and Ireland's export performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ruane, Frances; Siedschlag, Iulia; Murphy, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED This paper provides empirical evidence on Ireland?s export performance in the context of increased globalisation over the past ten years. Using insights from recent contributions to international trade and economic growth theories, we first examine patterns and changes of revealed comparative advantages for Ireland?s exports of goods and services. We then investigate whether Irish exports have specialised in fast growing industries and markets in world exports over the period. Th...

  10. Determinants of Tanzanian Export Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Rollo Valentina.

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses firm level data to study the pricing behavior of Tanzanian exporters. The important question of how exporting firms make pricing decisions has not received significant attention in the trade literature which is more focused on factors that determine export flows. The results of the paper show that the free on board price of Tanzanian exports is differentiated both across exporters—within product destination pairs—and across markets—within firm product pairs. Moreover contrasti...

  11. Experience, age and exporting performance in UK SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Love, James H.; Roper, Stephen; Zhou, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We consider the determinants of SME exporting performance using a survey of internationally engaged UK SMEs. We first develop a model incorporating organisational and prior managerial learning effects. Our empirical analysis then allows us to identify separately the positive effects on exporting from the international experience of the firm and the negative effects of firm age. Positive exporting effects also result from grafted knowledge – acquired by the recruitment of management with prior...

  12. Innovation and Export of Vietnam’s SME Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Ngoc Anh; Pham, Quang Ngoc; Nguyen, Dinh Chuc; Nguyen, Duc Nhat

    2007-01-01

    Innovation has long been considered an important factor for creating and maintaining the competitiveness of nations and firms. Common knowledge stands that innovation is the cause of the increase of exports. However, contradicting empirical evidences are reported in the literature on the causality between innovation and export. In this paper we examine whether innovation performed by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) enhances their exporting likelihood in the context of a developing country...

  13. Package power stations for export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The cheap and efficient generation of power is an essential requirement for the success and prosperity of any community and is especially important to third world countries. It is therefore logical that the more technologically advanced nations should seek to produce power stations for the developing countries. Power plant can now be designed into a packaged form that may be readily exported and commissioned. This valuable and interesting collection of papers were originally presented at a seminar organised by the Power Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include the developing world market for packaged power stations using indigenous fuels; multi-fuel systems for power generation; packaging, modularisation, and containerisation of equipment for power boilers for export; compact coal-fired industrial plant; rural woodburning power stations; biomass gasification based power generation technology and potential; gas fed reciprocating engine development; packaged heavy duty gas turbines for power generation; and criteria for assessing the appropriateness of package power technologies in developing countries.

  14. FAUNA OF COLEPTERA,TENEBRIORIDAE OF ARID COASTAL AND ISLAND ECOSYSTEMS OF THE CASPIAN SEA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the given paper is to expose species structure and geographical distribution of Coleoptera, Tenebrioridae (C, T of coastal and island ecosystem of the Caspian Sea. The given report is compiled of the matcrials, collected in different periods by authors (1961-2013 in the Caucasian part of the Caspian Sea, in the south of the European part of the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, islands (the Chechen island, the Nord island. The Tuleniyisland. The Kulaly island, collective materials (ZIN; RAS, museum of Zoology of MSU, Institute NAN of Azerbaijan, National museum of Georgia and materials published (Kryzhanovsky, 1965, Medvedev, 1987, 1990; Medvedev, Nepesova, 1990; Shuster, 1934; Kaluzhnaya, 1982; Arzanov and others, 2004, Egorov, 2006.Methods. We used the traditional methods of collecting (hand picking, traps soil, soil traps light amplification light traps, processing and material definition. List of species composition discussed fauna composed by modern taxonomy using directories. Location. Coastal and island ecosystems of the Caspian sea.Results. Species structure and data on general and regional distribution of C,T of coastal and island ecosystems of the Caspian Sea is represented in the paper. Faund discussed is widely represented in the fauna of arid regions of land, especially in the fauna of subtropical deserts and semideserts.Main conclusions. Results of the study will be a step in the determination of age of the islands through the biological diversity and the consequent level regime of the Caspian Sea, as well as possible changes in the population structure of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae on island ecosystems.

  15. Mitochondrial phylogeography illuminates the origin of the extinct caspian tiger and its relationship to the amur tiger

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Roca, Alfred L; Luo, Shujin; Macdonald, David W; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) flourished in Central Asian riverine forest systems in a range disjunct from that of other tigers, but was driven to extinction in 1970 prior to a modern molecular evaluation...

  16. Exporting Humanist Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The article is a chapter in the catalogue for the Danish exhibition at the 2016 Architecture Biennale in Venice. The catalogue is conceived at an independent book exploring the theme Art of Many - The Right to Space. The chapter is an essay in this anthology tracing and discussing the different...... values and ethical stands involved in the export of Danish Architecture. Abstract: Danish architecture has, in a sense, been driven by an unwritten contract between the architects and the democratic state and its institutions. This contract may be viewed as an ethos – an architectural tradition...... with inherent aesthetic and moral values. Today, however, Danish architecture is also an export commodity. That raises questions, which should be debated as openly as possible. What does it mean for architecture and architects to practice in cultures and under political systems that do not use architecture...

  17. EXPORT BASIS AND FORMATION OF AZERBAIJAN ENERGY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Iousoubov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a current situation in national economy and export  of Azerbaijan, budget policy in oil production countries and reveals that nowadays an increase of export potential and diversification of export basis must be one of the main purposes of foreign economy strategy of any state.The paper also shows the necessity to form a State system for encouraging export and national economy in Azerbaijan and prospects of its development and considers an influence of world financial crisis on energy policy of the country.

  18. Moving Forward with Export Oriented Shipbuilding Industries in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, N. M. G.

    2012-10-01

    In the recent time, shipbuilding has been considered as a thrust sector in the economy of Bangladesh. But, there exist various problems that obstruct the development of this sector especially for export oriented shipbuilding. In this paper, the general shipbuilding related problems along with its nature have been identified. The prospects of export oriented shipbuilding in context of global and international demand have been highlighted. Also, the present initiatives towards export oriented shipbuilding has been focused. Finally some recommendations have been put forward in this paper in order to hold a firm position in world shipbuilding market by export oriented shipbuilding industry in Bangladesh.

  19. Estimating the import content of Argentine exports

    OpenAIRE

    Anos-Casero, Paloma; de Astarloa, Bernardo Diaz

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent efforts toward collecting evidence of vertical specialization for developed economies, scarce work has been dedicated to developing economies and to Argentina, in particular. The key contribution of this paper is to provide comparable estimates of vertical specialization as reflected in the imported content of exports in Argentina. Drawing on the 1997 input-output matrix for...

  20. Power and Energy: Geopolitical Aspects of the Transnational Natural Gas Pipelines from the Caspian Sea Basin to Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ability to monitor Chinese moves in the region. And its highlands also overlook China’s Tarim Basin , part of the Contentious Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous...GEOPOLITICAL ASPECTS OF THE TRANSNATIONAL NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM THE CASPIAN SEA BASIN TO EUROPE by Ildiko Benke June 2010 Thesis...Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Power and Energy: Geopolitical Aspects of the Transnational Natural Gas Pipelines from the Caspian Sea Basin to

  1. Modeling caspian sea water level oscilLations Under Diffrent Scenarioes of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GholamReza Roshan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978 has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in thecoastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was stimulated. Variations in environmentalparameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, tmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for bothpast (1951-2006 and future (2025-2100 time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software(version 5.3. The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site has increased by ca. 0.17ºC per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21. The Caspian Sea water level has increasedby ca. +36 mm per decade (r=0.82 between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64ºC and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin,temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78ºC and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels projectfuture water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  2. Fixed export cost heterogeneity, trade and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This paper presents a new and simple heterogeneous-firms specification. We develop a symmetric two......-country intra-industry trade model where firms are of two different marginal costs types and where fixed export costs are heterogeneous across firms. This model traces many of the stylized facts of international trade. However, we find that with heterogeneous fixed export costs there exists a positive bilateral...

  3. Intra-regional agricultural exports in the East African community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study used panel data from UNCOMTRADE, International Financial Statistics and World Development Indicators for the period 2000 – 2012 on the five EAC members. The intra-EAC agricultural exports depended on various factors, including GDP of exporter, GDP of the importer, Exchange rate, distance between the ...

  4. Impact of Transport Costs on Vietnamese Textile Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Huong, Trinh Thi Thu

    2017-01-01

    Transport cost is a critical component that structure price of goods at destination points in international trade. This research explored and analysed transport cost and its impact on export by investigating the relationship between transport cost and export of textile (a specific sector) in Vietnam (a developing country) from 2012 to 2014.

  5. Effects of dietary peppermint (Mentha piperita) on growth performance, chemical body composition and hematological and immune parameters of fry Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; Abedian Amiri, Armin; Zorriehzahra, Jalil; Nematolahi, Amin; Esteban, Maria Ángeles

    2015-08-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is a very popular herb. While numerous effects have been described in mammals, its effects on fish have received so far limited attention. The effects of dietary administration of peppermint on fry Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) were studied. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0% (control), 1%, 2% and 3% of peppermint extracts for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases of growth parameters (WG and SGR), mucus skin (protein concentration, alkaline phosphatase and antimicrobial activity) and seric (lysozyme and IgM) and blood leucocyte respiratory burst activities and different hematological parameters (number of red and white cells, seric hemoglobin and hematocrit content) were recorded in fry fish fed supplemented diets. However, the dietary peppermint supplements have different effects on the number of blood leucocytes depending on the leucocyte cell type. While no significant differences were observed in the number of blood monocytes and eosinophils, the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes was increased and decreased, respectively, on fish fed peppermint enriched diets, respect to the values found in control fish. Present results corroborate that dietary administration of peppermint promotes growth performance and increases the main hematological and immune humoral (both mucosal and systemic) parameters of fry Caspian white fish. This study may provide new applications of peppermint and, at the same time, promote rational development and utilization of peppermint resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Soviet energy export prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Tony

    1991-05-01

    The Soviet Union produces 20% of world energy but since 1988 this is in decline. Awakening consumerism and a sea-change in the structure of foreign trade and internal investment are placing this key industry into unprecedented uncertainty. The difference between success and failure goes beyond the 1988 peak of six million barrels daily of exports in oil equivalent. The article quantifies the key areas of energy uncertainty as equal in volume to total OPEC output and sees the long-term changes of success more than ever dependent on coordinated planning and investment as well as on market reality. (Author).

  7. Danish Exports and Danish Bilateral Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John

    Danish bilateral development assistance is aimed at reducing poverty in the partner countries. Even so, bilateral assistance may have secondary, or knock-on, effects, which are beneficial for Denmark. An important secondary effect is the prospect of increased export from Denmark to the partner co...

  8. CASPIAN SEA LEVEL PREDICTION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK AND EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Makarenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibility of using nonlinear modeling for prediction of the Caspian Sea level. Phase space geometry of the of a model can be reconstructed by the embedology methods. Dynamical invariants, such as the Lyapunov exponents, the Kaplan-Yorke dimension, and the prediction horizon were estimated from reconstruction. Fractal and multifractal analyses were carried out for various time intervals of the Caspian Sea level and multifractal spectra were calculated. Then, historical data resolution was improved with the help of fractal approximation. The EMD method was used to reduce noise of the time series. Global nonlinear predictions were made with the help of Artificial Neural Network for combinations of different empirical modes.

  9. The Review of Ecological and Genetic Research of Ponto-Caspian Gobies (Pisces, Gobiidae in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Goran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Ponto-Caspian gobies (monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis, round goby Neogobius melanostomus and bighead goby Ponticola kessleri have recently caused dramatic changes in fish assemblage structure throughout European river systems. This review provides summary of recent research on their dietary habits, age and growth, phylogenetic lineages and gene diversity. The principal food of all three species is invertebrates, and more rarely fish, which depends on the type of habitat, part of the year, as well as the morphological characteristics of species. According to the von Bertalanffy growth model, size at age is specific for the region, but due to its disadvantages it is necessary to test other growth models. Phylogenetic analysis of monkey goby and round goby indicates separation between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea haplotypes. The greatest genetic diversity is found among populations of the Black Sea, and the lowest among European invaders. The lack of molecular research on bighead goby requires further studies.

  10. Migration of some metals in the ecosystem of the Caspian sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplygin, Wladimir A.; Tanasova, Anastasia S.; Ershova, Tatiana S.; Zaitsev, Vyacheslav F.; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2017-04-01

    The content of heavy metals in aquatic organisms of the Caspian sea is connected with the increase of anthropogenic load on aqueous ecosystems, what leads to the disruption of the natural cycle of chemical elements. Heavy metals in small concentrations are included in an organism and are involved in various metabolic processes. One of the reasons for the high content of metals in the body of hydrobionts is the accumulation of the last in the food web and functional disturbance in all parts of the ecosystem. The aim of this work was to trace the migration of some metals in trophic chains in the ecosystem of the Caspian sea. The objects of the study were: various types of soils of the Caspian sea molluscs of the genus Didacna, fish - gobies ceneйcTвa Gobiidae and liver of Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, mammal - the liver of the Caspian seal Phoca caspica. The main burden of the accumulation of trace elements takes on the liver, which is a functional depot of many metals and is characterized by high metabolic activity in which there is a filtering and transformation of substances. The content of heavy metals in the objects of study were determined by atomic absorption method. The results are presented in mg/kg dry matter. The results showed that the level of accumulation of heavy metals in different types of soils of the Caspian sea was within the limits of environmental standards for bottom sediments taken in the Netherlands (2009) and heavy metal concentrations in silt and sand soil were below background values (according Verkhnevolzhskaya exploration of the enterprise and the Institute of water problems Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia). It should be noted that silty and sandy soils have a similar distribution pattern of heavy metals. A number of decrease the content of heavy metals in different soils of the Caspian sea were as follows: Silty and sandy soils: Zn>Ni>Pb>Co>Cd>Hg. The metals content in mollusks decreases in the series: Zn

  11. Sublethal effect of nanosilver on the structure of gill of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sharifian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Widespread use of nanosilver can be led the contamination of aquatic environment and impact on living organisms such as fishes. We investigated histopathological changes in the gills tissue of Caspian roach fingerlings after two weeks exposure to sublethal concentrations of nanosilver. Following one and two weeks exposure, necrosis, shortening of secondary lamellae, edema, destruction of epithelial lamella, shortening of secondary lamellae, epithelial lifting and curling of secondary lamellae were observed in gill tissues. This observation showed that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of nanosilver is caused damages in the gill tissues of Caspian roach. The results demonstrated direct correlation of gill tissue damage and toxin exposure i.e. increasing nanosilver concentration is caused more tissue damage. Hence, histopathological changes of gill can considered as a proper indicator for nanosilver contamination of aquatic environments.

  12. Snack Consumption among Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bahreynian, Maryam; Qorbani, Mostafa; Heshmat, Ramin; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Djalalinia, Shirin; Ardalan, Gelayol; Kasaeian, Amir; Najafi, Fereshteh; Asayesh, Hamid; Larijani, Bagher; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to assess the frequency of consuming different types of snacks among Iranian students according to socio-economic status (SES) of their living region.Methods: Data were obtained from the fourth national school-based surveillance survey entitled CASPIAN-IV study. Overall, 14880 school students, aged 6-18 years, were selected through multistage, cluster sampling from rural and urban areas of the of 30 provinces of Iran. The World Health Organization Global School St...

  13. Distribution of hydrocarbons in water and bottom sediments of the Northern and Middle Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovskaya, I. A.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Ostrovskaya, E. V.

    2017-07-01

    A study of two classes of hydrocarbons (HCs)—aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic—in suspended matter of the surface waters and bottom sediments of the Northern and Middle Caspian Sea (R/V Nikifor Shurekov, October 2015) is described. It has been determined that oil pollution transported by river runoff and fluid streams flowing from sedimentary formations in the northeastern part are the main sources of hydrocarbons in the river-sea boundaries of the Volga, Terek, and Sulak rivers.

  14. Russian Pharmaceutical Companies Export Potential in Emerging Regional Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna Sapir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes a diverse range of the enterprise’s export potential growth factors in emerging pharmaceutical clusters of Central European Russia. Classification and comparative analysis were used to identify export potential attributes (production, finance, labor and marketing, which have allowed to reveal the strong connection of cluster and regional factor groups with the results of export performance. The purpose of the study is to provide exports-seeking pharmaceutical companies with a set of tools to enhance their export potential. The hypothesis that the cumulative impact of the specified attributes leads to the strengthening of pharmaceutical cluster export potential and promotes an effective integration of the region in the world economic space, is developed and tested. The methodology combines the geo-economy-based theory with the theory of clusters competitive advantages. The impacts of export potential growth factors are estimated by using an econometric model based on math statistics. Thus, five Russian regional pharmaceutical clusters (Belgorod, Kaluga, Moscow, Oryol, Yaroslavl are shown. Findings identify an objective causal link between enterprise export potential growth and competitiveness factors of cluster origin (network business chains, production functions interconnectedness and flexibility, production localization. An action plan for the purpose of the maximum use of competitive advantages of the cluster organization for export activities of the entities of the pharmaceutical industry is developed. Conclusions and recommendations of the study are intended to enterprises in pharmaceutical industry and regions’ public authorities, implementing cluster development strategies. It is thus essential to improve marketing and organizational innovations, reduction of commercial expenses under the cluster environment, development of drugs production and delivery chains from R&D to end-users in order to enjoy greater

  15. Verification of Flood Wave Propagation Model of the Caspian Sea Based on the Satellite Altimetry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Sergey

    In this research simple flood wave propagation model was based the Saint-Venant equations represented a good way to describe problems concerning with flood waves propagations in open channels. For solution of this task the Caspian Sea was approximated as channel with a rectangular section. Channel axis coincided with the sea longitudinal axis or location of descending pass 092 of satellites TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1/2. Altimetric measurements of this satellites permit to define more exactly empiric parameters of the flood wave (propagation speed amplitude et al.) which are solution of the model. Also it allows estimating of effective evaporation. In this approach it is possible to consider as an integrated difference between sea surface heights between previous and the subsequent cycles altimetric measurements. Results of calculations have confirmed well conformity given calculated by other researchers and the model. As is shown than interannual variability of flood wave speed in the North Caspian was well correlated with interannual the Caspian Sea level variability. This study was supported by the grant of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.

  16. Caspian Sea Oil – Still the Great Game for Central Eurasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Gunder Frank

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A book with a foreword by Pat Clawson of the National Defense University and editor of ORBIS, and dedicated to Ronald Reagan and Target Ozxal, announces its U.S. far-right wing political pedigree literally up front. However the book is chock full of information, alas most already well known to anyone even remotely familiar with the problematique under review; but it also offers some incisive analysis. The twelve contributed chapters by fourteen authors and coauthors are divided into three parts dedicated to examining and analyzing the general history and mutual background of the Caspian Sea region; to the ?ve littoral states of Azerbaijan, Russia, Iran, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan; and to three ‘external’ interested states, the United States, Turkey, and Georgia. Nonetheless, the review by each author goes well beyond the nominative boundaries assigned to him or her and trespasses over into the topics, territories and their relations assigned to other authors. Quite prop-erly so, in view of the mutually complex real-life interrelations in the Caspian Sea Basin, so that no topic or state could be adequately understood in itself other than in relation to the others. Indeed, we are witnessing the contemporary continuation of the nineteenth century “Great Game” for the control of Central Eurasia. However, the oil connection also reaches well beyond Caspian Sea and must make this book pertinent also to readers of this journal.

  17. Establishment and characterization of Caspian horse fibroblast cell bank in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar Amoli, Abdolreza; Mohebali, Nazanin; Farzaneh, Parvaneh; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Seyed Abolhassan; Nikfarjam, Laleh; Ashouri Movasagh, Sepideh; Moradmand, Zahra; Ganjibakhsh, Meysam; Nasimian, Ahmad; Izadpanah, Mehrnaz; Vakhshiteh, Faezeh; Gohari, Neda Sadat; Masoudi, Najmeh Sadat; Farghadan, Maryam; Mohamadi Moghanjoghi, Shiva; Khalili, Masoud; Khaledi, Kourosh J

    2017-04-01

    Caspian horse, a rare horse breed found in 1965 by Louise Firouz in northern Iran, is a small horse which is reported to be in danger of extinction in its original homeland. There seems to be a great need to prevent extinction of this valuable horse. In this study, 51 fibroblast cell lines from Caspian horse ear marginal tissue were successfully established by sampling 60 horses using primary explant technique. Cells were authenticated and growth curve was plotted. According to results obtained, population doubling time (PDT) was calculated 23 ± 0.5 h for all cell lines. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (multiplex PCR) revealed that cell lines had no cross-contamination with other species. Bacteria, fungi, and mycoplasma contamination were checked using standard methods such as PCR, direct culture, and Hoechst staining. In addition to providing a valuable source for genomic, postgenomic, and somatic cloning researches, the established cell lines would preserve Caspian horse genetic resources. It will also create an accessible database for researchers.

  18. Trust – the key to organic export to Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    The demand for organic food products is on the rise – also in developing countries. Especially organic products from developed countries are in demand since they represent trust and credibility. This is an opportunity that Danish organic exporters should seize.......The demand for organic food products is on the rise – also in developing countries. Especially organic products from developed countries are in demand since they represent trust and credibility. This is an opportunity that Danish organic exporters should seize....

  19. Virtual water exported from Californian agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Johansson, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    In an increasingly teleconnected world, international trade drives the exchange of virtual land and water as crops produced in one region are consumed in another. In theory, this can be an optimal use of scarce resources if crops are grown where they can most efficiently be produced. Several recent analyses examine the export of land and water from food production in developing countries where these resources may be more abundant. Here we focus on a developed region and examine the virtual export of land and water from California, the leading agricultural state in the US and the leading global producer of a wide range of fruit, nut, and other specialty crops. As the region faces a serious, ongoing drought, water use is being questioned, and water policy governance re-examined, particularly in the agricultural sector which uses over three-quarters of water appropriations in the state. We look at the blue water embodied in the most widely grown crops in California and use network analysis to examine the trading patterns for flows of virtual land and water. We identify the main crops and export partners representing the majority of water exports. Considered in the context of tradeoffs for land and water resources, we highlight the challenges and opportunities for food production systems to play a sustainable role in meeting human needs while protecting the life-support systems of the planet.

  20. EMPLOYMENT EFFECT OF INDONESIA’S NON-OIL EXPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Feriyanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian government needs both domestic and foreign investments to accelerate its economic development. The investments enable promoting export and creating higher employment level. This research uses a path analysis method to analyze time series data of the period 1990 to 2009. It finds that both domestic and foreign direct investments significantly and positively influence Indonesia’s non-oil exports. In addition, it suggests that non-oil export performance can eventually lead to an increase in employment level in Indonesia. The policy implication of these results is that Indonesian government should encourage investment to promote export and absorb more labor. Keywords: Foreign direct investment, domestic investment, non-oil export, labor absorptionJEL classification numbers: F42, F43

  1. Russian gas exports have potential to grow through 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Rafael [Instituto Complutense de Estudios Internacionales (ICEI), Faculty of Economics, Department of Applied Economics I, Complutense University, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcon, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    This paper analyzes the potential for Russian gas export growth through the next decade and concludes that supply for exports will continue to grow, albeit moderately. The greater or lesser intensity of that growth will depend on the evolution of both production and internal consumption. From the production side, the pace of growth depends on the status of gas reserves and, more importantly, on the investment program pursued by the State-owned gas giant Gazprom. From the demand side, evolution depends on the way Russia's wide potential for gas savings is managed. Through this analysis, we find three likely scenarios for Russian gas exports. In the most positive, diversification of exports will be possible. In the most negative, Russia will have scant opportunity to develop an export diversification strategy. (author)

  2. The south's timer export potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Granskog

    1986-01-01

    Exports of southern wood products have bccil dcclirling since 1980, following a dramatic rise during the 1970s. The value of these exports rose from near the $50 million level in the early 1970s to almost $500 million in 1980, but has dropped by more than a third since then. Now, however, changing monetary conditions appear to be turning the trend upward again....

  3. Insurability of export credit risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.; Antufjew, J.; Huizingh, K.R.E.; Koning, Ruud H.; Sterken, E.; Woltil, M.

    2003-01-01

    Firms exporting their goods and services abroad face risks that are different from the risks faced by firms who do not engage in international trade. It is common practice to allow the receiving party to pay in instalments. The exporting firm faces credit risk, but as in most countries, Dutch firms

  4. Innovation and internationalization through exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassiman, B.; Golovko, E.

    2011-01-01

    Successful product innovation leads to the decision by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to enter the export market. We argue that in addition to a direct effect of innovation on exports, product innovation, through its effect on firm productivity, increases the likelihood of the firm entering the

  5. Exporting EU Liberalism Eastwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Tesser

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is much more to liberalism in the post communist context than has been acknowledged. A sizeable effort has indeed emerged to transplant a relatively coherent liberal ideology to the region, one exported not merely through the conditionality of international financial institutions, but also through the conditionality and socialization of organizations like the NATO, OSCE, EU, and the Council of Europe. ‘EU liberalism’ includes the ‘standard’ liberal emphasis on individual rights, the rule of law, constitutional democracy, freedom, and market economics as well as support for minority rights, and a seemingly schizophrenic emphasis on economic integration that involves, first bringing down borders for the free movement of people, goods, capital, and services between member states, and second, market regulation to diminish the social downsides of capitalism. This paper outlines EU liberalism’s emergence and its application to Central and East European countries.

  6. FEATURES OF MIGRATION OF HEAVY METALS IN THE NORTHERN CASPIAN ECOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. V. Chujko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Study of the forms of migration of heavy metals in water of the Northern part of the Caspian Sea, the characteristics of their accumulation in sediments and fish fauna are presented.Methods. The western part of the North Caspian Sea is investigated in 2002–2009. Complex of sampling, transportation, storage and handling of samples was carried out in accordance with the regulations and methods of measurement.Results. The main share of elements in sea water was transferred as a part of suspended particles. Most often ionic forms of migration of metals dominated over weighed in the central part of a shallow zone of pre-mouth of Volga River. The greatest number of cases of excess was recorded by metals of maximum-permissible concentration in the central part of the studied water area with depths from 5 m to 10 m. It is established that the index of impurity of waters of the changed in the range from 0,2 (waters alone to 3,4 (the polluted waters. The surface water of the water area is located in the western part of the studied area. The greatest coefficients of ground accumulation (CGA are characteristic for iron and the manganese, the least for Zincum. The western part of the studied water area belongs to areas with the greatest values of CGA of metals in the north part of the Caspian Sea: zone near Island Chechen and the region of Volga-Caspian Channel. Cases of excess of the admissible residual concentration for lead and cadmium are noted in Neogobius fluviatilis and sprat ordinary practically in 50 % of cases, and in 35 % in Rutilus caspicus. Most often all studied hydrobionts containing metals in concentration above admissible residual concentration were met in zone before mouth of Volga River.Main conclusions. The main form of migration of heavy metals in the water of the north part of the Caspian Sea is suspension. The largest accumulation of heavy metals was found in the sediments of the western part of the area. The content

  7. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  8. Prediction of the Export and Fate of Global Ocean Net Primary Production: The EXPORTS Science Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Siegel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean ecosystems play a critical role in the Earth’s carbon cycle and the quantification of their impacts for both present conditions and for predictions into the future remains one of the greatest challenges in oceanography. The goal of the EXport Processes in the Ocean from Remote Sensing (EXPORTS Science Plan is to develop a predictive understanding of the export and fate of global ocean net primary production (NPP and its implications for present and future climates. The achievement of this goal requires a quantification of the mechanisms that control the export of carbon from the euphotic zone as well as its fate in the underlying twilight zone where some fraction of exported carbon will be sequestered in the ocean’s interior on time scales of months to millennia. Here we present a measurement / synthesis / modeling framework aimed at quantifying the fates of upper ocean NPP and its impacts on the global carbon cycle based upon the EXPORTS Science Plan. The proposed approach will diagnose relationships among the ecological, biogeochemical and physical oceanographic processes that control carbon cycling across a range of ecosystem and carbon cycling states leading to advances in satellite diagnostic and numerical prognostic models. To collect these data, a combination of ship and robotic field sampling, satellite remote sensing and numerical modeling is proposed which enables the sampling of the many pathways of NPP export and fates. This coordinated, process-oriented approach has the potential to foster new insights on ocean carbon cycling that maximizes its societal relevance through the achievement of research goals of many international research agencies and will be a key step towards our understanding of the Earth as an integrated system.

  9. Mitochondrial Phylogeography Illuminates the Origin of the Extinct Caspian Tiger and Its Relationship to the Amur Tiger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Carlos A.; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Roca, Alfred L.; Luo, Shujin; Macdonald, David W.; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) flourished in Central Asian riverine forest systems in a range disjunct from that of other tigers, but was driven to extinction in 1970 prior to a modern molecular evaluation. For over a century naturalists puzzled over the taxonomic validity, placement, and biogeographic origin of this enigmatic animal. Using ancient-DNA (aDNA) methodology, we generated composite mtDNA haplotypes from twenty wild Caspian tigers from throughout their historic range sampled from museum collections. We found that Caspian tigers carry a major mtDNA haplotype differing by only a single nucleotide from the monomorphic haplotype found across all contemporary Amur tigers (P. t. altaica). Phylogeographic analysis with extant tiger subspecies suggests that less than 10,000 years ago the Caspian/Amur tiger ancestor colonized Central Asia via the Gansu Corridor (Silk Road) from eastern China then subsequently traversed Siberia eastward to establish the Amur tiger in the Russian Far East. The conservation implications of these findings are far reaching, as the observed genetic depletion characteristic of modern Amur tigers likely reflects these founder migrations and therefore predates human influence. Also, due to their evolutionary propinquity, living Amur tigers offer an appropriate genetic source should reintroductions to the former range of the Caspian tiger be implemented. PMID:19142238

  10. Mitochondrial phylogeography illuminates the origin of the extinct caspian tiger and its relationship to the amur tiger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Driscoll

    Full Text Available The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata flourished in Central Asian riverine forest systems in a range disjunct from that of other tigers, but was driven to extinction in 1970 prior to a modern molecular evaluation. For over a century naturalists puzzled over the taxonomic validity, placement, and biogeographic origin of this enigmatic animal. Using ancient-DNA (aDNA methodology, we generated composite mtDNA haplotypes from twenty wild Caspian tigers from throughout their historic range sampled from museum collections. We found that Caspian tigers carry a major mtDNA haplotype differing by only a single nucleotide from the monomorphic haplotype found across all contemporary Amur tigers (P. t. altaica. Phylogeographic analysis with extant tiger subspecies suggests that less than 10,000 years ago the Caspian/Amur tiger ancestor colonized Central Asia via the Gansu Corridor (Silk Road from eastern China then subsequently traversed Siberia eastward to establish the Amur tiger in the Russian Far East. The conservation implications of these findings are far reaching, as the observed genetic depletion characteristic of modern Amur tigers likely reflects these founder migrations and therefore predates human influence. Also, due to their evolutionary propinquity, living Amur tigers offer an appropriate genetic source should reintroductions to the former range of the Caspian tiger be implemented.

  11. Mitochondrial phylogeography illuminates the origin of the extinct caspian tiger and its relationship to the amur tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Roca, Alfred L; Luo, Shujin; Macdonald, David W; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) flourished in Central Asian riverine forest systems in a range disjunct from that of other tigers, but was driven to extinction in 1970 prior to a modern molecular evaluation. For over a century naturalists puzzled over the taxonomic validity, placement, and biogeographic origin of this enigmatic animal. Using ancient-DNA (aDNA) methodology, we generated composite mtDNA haplotypes from twenty wild Caspian tigers from throughout their historic range sampled from museum collections. We found that Caspian tigers carry a major mtDNA haplotype differing by only a single nucleotide from the monomorphic haplotype found across all contemporary Amur tigers (P. t. altaica). Phylogeographic analysis with extant tiger subspecies suggests that less than 10,000 years ago the Caspian/Amur tiger ancestor colonized Central Asia via the Gansu Corridor (Silk Road) from eastern China then subsequently traversed Siberia eastward to establish the Amur tiger in the Russian Far East. The conservation implications of these findings are far reaching, as the observed genetic depletion characteristic of modern Amur tigers likely reflects these founder migrations and therefore predates human influence. Also, due to their evolutionary propinquity, living Amur tigers offer an appropriate genetic source should reintroductions to the former range of the Caspian tiger be implemented.

  12. Exporting: an avenue for dairy cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Spatz, Karen J.; Brainich, Eric

    1990-01-01

    One avenue of growth for U.S. dairy cooperatives is exporting. Long- term market development is one ingredient for success in international sales. Given possible trade liberalization, cooperatives should evaluate their position in the global marketplace and develop a plan to ensure growth and stability for members. The first part of this report evaluates world dairy market conditions. It looks at trends in world trade and cost of production and policies of major milk-producing countries. Vari...

  13. The Analysis of World Experiences in Promoting Export Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotysh Olena M.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a theoretical analysis of the scientific approaches to defining concepts such as «exports» and «export activity». The results of the study helped to reveal that these concepts are identical, although this approach is criticized by many scientists. In the publication presented, the export activity is understood as a combination of actions on the part of the enterprises – foreign economic actors, involved in organizational arrangements aimed at preparation and marketing of goods to foreign economic actors. The article calculates the macro indicators in dynamics in order to characterize the status of Ukraine’s export activities. Its main development tendencies have been identified, the main challenges and directions for further development have been indicated. The article provides the international experience in promoting exports worldwide, the main tasks and functions of export promotion institutions have been explained, thus creating possibility to form recommendations for further actions on the part of the State to support and develop the export activity of Ukraine.

  14. Adjusting export tax rebates to reduce the environmental impacts of trade: Lessons from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peng; Mao, Xianqiang; Corsetti, Gabriel

    2015-09-15

    Export tax rebates are an important policy instrument for stimulating exports, which many developing countries make use of. However, excessive export tax rebates and inappropriate structural arrangements can lead to over-production in highly polluting industries and cause the environment to deteriorate. This paper, taking China as the study case, tests and verifies the statistical significance of the causal relationship between export tax rebates and pollution emissions. With a computable general equilibrium modeling, the current study further analyzes the effectiveness of export tax rebate adjustments aimed at alleviating environmental pressure for different time periods. It is found that before 2003, export tax rebates primarily promoted exports and boosted foreign exchange reserves, and highly polluting sectors enjoyed above-average export tax rebates, which led to increased pollution emissions. Between 2003 and 2010, the export tax rebate system was reformed to reduce support for the highly polluting export sectors, which led to decreases in emissions. Canceling export tax rebates for highly polluting sectors is shown to be the most favorable policy choice for improving the environmental performance of China's international trade. This study can serve as reference for other developing countries which similarly rely on export tax rebates, so that they can adjust their policies so as to combine economic growth with pollution control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An empirical study to determine the critical success factors of export industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Babakhani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exporting goods and services play an important role on economy of developing countries. There are many countries in the world whose economy is solely based on exporting raw materials such as oil and gas. Many believe that countries cannot develop their economy as long as they rely on exporting one single group of raw materials. Therefore, there is a need to help other sectors of industries build good infrastructure for exporting diversified products. In this paper, we perform an empirical analysis to determine the critical success factors on exporting different goods. The results are analyzed using some statistical non-parametric methods and some useful guidelines are also suggested.

  16. Effect of dietary tryptophan and betaine on tolerance of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus to copper toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Fatahi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated effects of dietary tryptophan (TRP and betaine (BET on copper (Cu toxicity tolerance in the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus. The Caspian roach fingerlings were fed diets containing 0, 0.25 and 0.5% TRP or 0, 0.5 and 1 % BET and combination of TRP and BET. Specimens were exposed to Cu (0.8 ppm after either 30 or 60 days feeding. Mortality was recorded in each treatment 48 h after the Cu exposure. TRP decreased significantly fish mortality. However, BET had no significant effect on fish mortality. Specimens fed on the diet supplemented with 0.25% TRP had the lowest mortality among the treatments. It is concluded that 0.25% TRP reduces mortality of Caspian roach during Cu exposure.

  17. Integrated Use of Satellite Altimetry in the Investigation of the Meteorological, Hydrological, and Hydrodynamic Regime of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Lebedev Andrey G. Kostianoy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oscillations in the Caspian Sea level represent the result of mutually related hydrometeorological processes, which proceed not only in the sea catchment area but also far beyond it. The change in the tendency of mean sea level variations that occurred in the mid 1970s, when a long-term level fall was replaced by a rapid and significant rise, represents an important indicator of the changes in the natural regime of the Caspian Sea. Therefore, sea level monitoring and long-term forecast of sea level changes represent an extremely important task. The aim of this publication is to show the results of the application of satellite altimetry methods to the investigation of seasonal and interannual variability of the sea level, wind speed and wave height in different parts of the Caspian Sea and Kara-Bogaz-Gol Bay, and the Volga River level. The work is based on the 1992 - 2006 TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 datasets.

  18. THE ANALYSIS OF THE RUSSIAN RAW MATERIALS EXPORTING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Didenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a methodology for assessing the strategy of export-raw material orientation of the Russian economy, from the point of impact on the social sphere, directly to the person. The dynamics of oil production in Russia, dynamics of export of Russian oil, the price of oil on the world market and the dynamics of the social sphere in Russia were analyzed using data for 1990–2012.The purpose of this article is to study the possibilities of raw material export-oriented strategy of Russia. Possibility raw export-oriented strategy was evaluated dependence of the social sphere - the index GINI, the average wage of household savings from the development of fuel – energy complex. Finding the functional dependence of each of these indicators of social sphere both of oil production and oil exports from Russia plus the price of oil on the world market were tasks.Empirical estimates show the ability of the raw material export-oriented strategy of the Russian economy to ensure the development of the social sphere of the country under condition increasing in the growth rate of energy consumption. Resource-rich countries should pursue a policy of reducing their exports and thus increase their domestic consumption.

  19. THE MOST APPLICABLE SAMPLE OF PROTECTIONISM: EXPORT-ORIENTED INDUSTRIALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar ERYIGIT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A developing country may have two different paths aimed at industrialization policies according to it’s foreign trade perspective. The first one is import substitution industrialization based on protectionism and the second one is the policy of export-oriented industrialization aimed at integration in the international economy. Export-oriented industrialization is a strategy related to the world for connecting local economy to global economy. At the same time, countries that have to shape their allocation of resources according to foreign demand are compulsory to be open for international trade. The reason is that this strategy reaches to success if developed countries open their markets to developing or less developed countries. Whereas, it’s clearly known that developed countries open their market to other develop countries. But in Turkey, when the import substitution industrialization policies that has been applied since 1963 started to be inadequate, export-oriented industrialization policy was adopted with the decision taken within the framework of the Stabilization Program on January 24th 1980 and while the significant increases were performed in Turkey’s export volume as a result of positive developments created by these policies, the composition of export products has changed. The best evidence of this change is incredible progress that is seen in export item of manufacturing industry which is one of the most important industrial sectors in the economic structure.

  20. Assessment of Caspian Seal By-Catch in an Illegal Fishery Using an Interview-Based Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Dmitrieva

    Full Text Available The Caspian seal (Pusa caspica has declined by more than 90% since 1900 and is listed as endangered by IUCN. We made the first quantitative assessment of Caspian seal by-catch mortality in fisheries in the north Caspian Sea by conducting semi-structured interviews in fishing communities along the coasts of Russia (Kalmykia, Dagestan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. We recorded a documented minimum by-catch of 1,215 seals in the survey sample, for the 2008-2009 fishing season, 93% of which occurred in illegal sturgeon fisheries. Due to the illegal nature of the fishery, accurately quantifying total fishing effort is problematic and the survey sample could reflect less than 10% of poaching activity in the north Caspian Sea. Therefore total annual by-catch may be significantly greater than the minimum documented by the survey. The presence of high by-catch rates was supported independently by evidence of net entanglement from seal carcasses, during a mass stranding on the Kazakh coast in May 2009, where 30 of 312 carcasses were entangled in large mesh sturgeon net remnants. The documented minimum by-catch may account for 5 to 19% of annual pup production. Sturgeon poaching therefore not only represents a serious threat to Caspian sturgeon populations, but may also be having broader impacts on the Caspian Sea ecosystem by contributing to a decline in one of the ecosystem's key predators. This study demonstrates the utility of interview-based approaches in providing rapid assessments of by-catch in illegal small-scale fisheries, which are not amenable to study by other methods.

  1. Export of electronics equipment waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDou, Joseph; Lovegrove, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Electronics equipment waste ("e-waste") includes discarded computers, computer monitors, television sets, and cell phones. Less than 10% of e-waste is currently recycled. The United States and other developed countries export e-waste primarily to Asia, knowing it carries a real harm to the poor communities where it will be discarded. A 2006 directive bans the use of lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, and certain brominated flame retardants in most electronics products sold in the EU. A similar directive facilitates the development and design of clean electronics products with longer lifespans that are safe and easy to repair, upgrade, and recycle, and will not expose workers and the environment to hazardous chemicals. These useful approaches apply only regionally and cover only a fraction of the hazardous substances used in electronics manufacture, however. There is an urgent need for manufacturers of electronics products to take responsibility for their products from production to end-of-life, and for much tighter controls both on the transboundary movement of e-waste and on the manner in which it is recycled. Manufacturers must develop clean products with longer lifespans that are safe and easy to repair, upgrade, and recycle and will not expose workers and the environment to hazardous chemicals.

  2. Analysis of Fiji’s Export and Its Impact on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivneil Kumar Raj

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Exports are vital for Fiji’s economy as it contributes significantly to its gross domestic product (GDP and economic growth. The export data over the years show very slow growth and is gradually increasing. Fiji’s GDP data show that GDP is gradually increasing. Thus, Fiji’s economic growth is also increasing at a steady rate. This study aims to measure the relationship between exports and economic growth in Fiji. A regression analysis on data collected for Fiji from 2000-2015 shows that there is a strong positive relationship between exports and economic growth. Thus, when exports increase, economic growth also increases. Potential sectors that can be further developed to boost Fiji’s exports are sugar, garment, tourism and agriculture. The government should restrict imports through import quotas, tariffs and embargoes and give subsidies and tax incentives to potential export sectors to boost domestic production and increase exports. The government’s motive is to increase export incentives and promote Fiji made products both locally and overseas. Thus, this leads to an increase in exports, improves the trade balance and economic growth. This research article was undertaken to carry out research to investigate the link between Fiji’s export and economic growth and highlight ways and potential sectors to increase Fiji’s export and reduce imports.

  3. The Intrinsic Analysis in C. S. Lewis’s Novel Prince Caspian (Book 2 In The Chronicles Of Narnia)

    OpenAIRE

    Bukit, Andre Yamme Resa

    2014-01-01

    Novel is one of the literary which not only concern an interesting story, but it also contain a moral message for the readers. The paper entitles “The Intrinsic Analysis in C. S. Lewis’s Novel Prince Caspian (Book 2 In The Chronicles Of Narnia)” is about the intrinsic elements in a literary work consist of theme, plot, character, style, setting and point of view. Prince Caspian is the continued novel of “The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe (Book 1 In The Chronicles Of Narnia)” that written b...

  4. Overseas links as export conduits

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley, Aoife

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between exports and overseas links using data from the UK Community Innovation Survey. Overseas vertical and horizontal links are associated with an average increase in export intensity of 74 and 156 percent for vertical and horizontal overseas links respectively. Firm size shows no significant interactions with overseas links. The data suggests that overseas links are a relatively infrequent form of conducting trade. My findings support the role of Go...

  5. Exporting Culture: a Requirement for Competitive Internationalization*

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra G., Jaime H.

    2005-01-01

    his paper proposes a concept of “culture for internationalization” and “exporting culture” –a highly relevant concept for developing countries’ firms that are likely to follow a gradualinternationalization process– based on the strong relationship binding the concept proposed to strategy and systemic competitiveness. These three items are paramount to Understand the conditions underlying internationalizationas it is characterized by particular traits that make it a key alternative for a firm...

  6. India's IT export boom: Challenges ahead

    OpenAIRE

    K. J. Joseph; K.N. Harilal

    2001-01-01

    Given the manifold ways, in which the information technology could contribute to human welfare, the developing countries have invested in Information Technology (IT) as a short cut to prosperity. India too has not been left much behind in this bandwagon and series of initiatives were made by the government to promote the IT sector in India. These efforts seem to have paid rich dividend in terms of IT sector emerging as one of the vibrant components in India's export basket. Moreover India has...

  7. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  8. Caspian White Fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) as a host for Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, M; Zamani, H; Hosseini, S M; Haghighi Karsidani, S; Bergmann, S M

    2014-06-04

    Rutilus frisii kutum is a fish of the Cyprinidae Family which is native in Caspian Sea and commercially cultured in Iran. This study was conducted to investigate susceptibility of Caspian White Fish to Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus (SVCV) infection and to evaluate influence of different challenge routes on virulence of the virus. Fingerlings were infected by immersion, intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection, cohabitation and orally. Dead and surviving fish were collected for histological examination as well as for virus re-isolation by cell culture, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerization Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) analysis. The results indicated that immersion was the best infectious route of transmission with the highest mortality, whereas oral transmission showed the lowest mortality. The virus was also re-isolated from dead fish and identified by IFAT. In addition, histopathological changes including branchial, hepatic and splenic necrosis as well as glomerulonephritis and necrosis in kidney were observed in diseased fish tissues but not in the survivors. RT-PCR on samples obtained from surviving fish tissues detected viral genome in the fish surviving from immersion, i.p. injection and cohabitation challenges but not in the fish infected orally. In conclusion, Caspian White Fish are susceptible to infection by SVCV and virulence of the virus could be influenced by route of transmission. In addition, SVCV could persist in surviving fish, which may serve as reservoirs of the virus, transmitting infection to healthy fish population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Satellite Survey of Inner Seas: Oil Pollution in the Black and Caspian Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mityagina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses our studies of oil pollution in the Black and Caspian Seas. The research was based on a multi-sensor approach on satellite survey data. A combined analysis of oil film signatures in satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR and optical imagery was performed. Maps of oil spills detected in satellite imagery of the whole aquatic area of the Black Sea and the Middle and the Southern Caspian Sea are created. Areas of the heaviest pollution are outlined. It is shown that the main types of sea surface oil pollution are ship discharges and natural marine hydrocarbon seepages. For each type of pollution and each sea, regions of regular pollution occurrence were determined, polluted areas were estimated, and specific manifestation features were revealed. Long-term observations demonstrate that in recent years, illegal wastewater discharges into the Black Sea have become very common, which raises serious environmental issues. Manifestations of seabed hydrocarbon seepages were also detected in the Black Sea, primarily in its eastern part. The patterns of surface oil pollution of the Caspian Sea differ considerably from those observed in the Black Sea. They are largely determined by presence of big seabed oil and gas deposits. The dependence of surface oil SAR signatures on wind/wave conditions is discussed. The impact of dynamic and circulation processes on oil films drift and spread is investigated. A large amount of the data available allowed us to make some generalizations and obtain statistically significant results on spatial and temporal variability of various surface film manifestations.The examples and numerical data we provide on ship spills and seabed seepages reflect the influence of the pollution on the sea environment.

  10. FDI as an Export-Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajderllari, Luljeta; Karantininis, Konstantinos; Lawson, Lartey Godwin

    towards countries with large exports of agri-food, thereby supporting the hypothesis that FDI is used as an export-platform. FDI is coupled with high exports from Denmark, probably of raw or semi-processed food products for further processing and exports. We also find that FDI is higher in countries...

  11. The community of phytoplankton of the Dagestan area of Caspian Sea in the new ecological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Gasanova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The materials about the phytoplankton composition and distribution in the Daghestan region of the Caspian Sea in connection with changing hydrologicaly-hydrochemical regime in conditions of anthropological and biological environment are presented. It was shown, that the change of water regime brought to alterations in floristic composition of sea weeds and succession of phytoplankton change group. Water biocoenosises of different seacoast zone distinguished specific characterdynamics. Introduction of Mnemiopsis leidyi (A. Agassiz influences on phytoplankton association structure

  12. The long-term variability of chemical structure of deep-water basins of the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Ekaterina

    2017-04-01

    The Caspian Sea is a unique water object: the biggest lake on Earth, so large that it actually functions as a sea, but totally isolated from the World Ocean and extremely responsive to the climatic changes. The Caspian Sea is characterized by periodical large-scale sea level oscillations - it is one of the manifestations of multidecadal climatic fluctuations on East European Plain. In order to monitor the environmental conditions staff of the Laboratory of Hydrochemistry of Russian Federal Research Institution of Fisheries and Oceanography (FSBSI "VNIRO") in collaboration with other russian scientific institutions conducts annual research cruises to the Caspian Sea. For the last 40 years natural and anthropogenic climatic changes caused a stable stratification of the water column in both Caspian basins and the nourishment depletion of the photic layer, created and annually aggravated by the biological pump. The data, collected in annual expeditions since 1995, shows the progressing hypoxia below the depth of 400 meters and the formation of hydrogen sulfidic contamination in bottom waters. The cumulative effect of natural variability and extremely intensive anthropogenic stress creates a very depressing environment for all the aquatics, from phytoplankton to unique commercial species. In the last 20 years the level of the Caspian Sea has lowered for 2,5 meters. This is a result of changes in the water balance of the Caspian Sea, that includes the decrease of freshwater income. In long-term perspective this leads to an increase in surface water density and in winter convection depth. However up until 2016 the stratification of the water column stayed stable, so the deep waters were isolated form the atmosphere. Annual monitoring since 1995 has shown gradual oxygen depletion and intensive accumulation of biogenic elements. In 2016 concentrations of phosphate and nitrate were the highest ever registered for the Caspian Sea. The analysis of the research conducted in

  13. Exporting DBCP and other banned pesticides: consideration of ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, L K; Frank, A L

    1999-01-01

    Many developed countries permit the export of pesticides that are banned, restricted, or unregistered within their own borders. This practice, which leads to the exposure of agricultural workers in developing countries to high levels of pesticides that are not permitted in the country of manufacture, raises many ethical issues as well as economic, social, political, and public health issues. Worldwide attempts to control export of such pesticides, through the FAO/UNEP Prior Informed Consent program, moves this issue in the right direction. This article explores the current U.S. and international practices, using the specific example of export of DBCP to banana-producing countries. The actions taken by multinational corporations, manufacturers of the pesticides, and public health officials in both the exporting and importing countries are explored, along with the impacts on workers, local economies, governments, and the environment.

  14. Do multinational retailers affect the export competitveness of host countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Cheptea

    2014-01-01

    The accelerated overseas expansion of multinational retailers (MRs) over the last decade transformed these companies into major regional and global actors. In this paper we question how MRs arriving in foreign markets affect the export performance of local firms. We develop a theoretical framework that explains the mechanisms by which multinational retailers establishing outlets abroad impact the export performance of local firms and test its predictions empirically for the agri-food sector. ...

  15. THE MOST APPLICABLE SAMPLE OF PROTECTIONISM: EXPORT-ORIENTED INDUSTRIALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Pinar ERYIGIT; Serkan CURA; Öznur MERT

    2014-01-01

    A developing country may have two different paths aimed at industrialization policies according to it’s foreign trade perspective. The first one is import substitution industrialization based on protectionism and the second one is the policy of export-oriented industrialization aimed at integration in the international economy. Export-oriented industrialization is a strategy related to the world for connecting local economy to global economy. At the same time, countries that have to shape the...

  16. Vietnam's Export Performance in the Face of China's Competitive Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi Anh-Dao

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines Vietnam's export performance in the face of China's emergence as a major competitor in global markets. We first use Constant Market Share analysis to investigate the influence of the factors determining ex-post export performance of Vietnam and China for the years 1997–2004. External trade indicators are then calculated in order to examine their specialization profiles. The paper suggests that, although China has become a huge competitor for the developing economies, this ...

  17. Foreign direct investment, exports and imports in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco-López, Penélope

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the liberalisation of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Mexico since the late-1980s, and its relationships with exports and imports. Such a process has eased the access of multinational corporations (MNCs) to the country, which has promoted exports. However, it has also resulted in a higher import content and the displacement of local firms, which has limited Mexico's economic development through the balance of payments constraint. The analysis is supported by the existen...

  18. Export, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth Inter-Linkages: The Case of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudzevičiūtė Gitana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper has aimed to examine the causal relationships between energy consumption – economic growth, export – energy consumption and export – economic growth in Lithuania during the period of 1998 – 2015. Descriptive statistics analysis and econometric techniques have been applied for this purpose. Granger causality test has been used to a time series data set to determine the causality between variables. The results of Granger causality test have shown unidirectional causality running from GDP to energy consumption, from export to GDP and from export to energy consumption. It is obvious that GDP and export play significant roles in accelerating energy consumption in Lithuania. The determination of the causal links between energy consumption – economic growth, export – economic growth and energy consumption – export has provided policy makers with the main insights to formulate future policy directions for sustainable economic development in Lithuania.

  19. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation - Quarantine treatment of agricultural products for export and import by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Kang, H. J.; Chung, H. W.; Roh, M. J. [Kyungbuk National University, Taegu (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export, some selected agricultural products, such as apple and pear, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MeBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach. Current quarantine activities were examined and the related limitations were investigated. Quarantine-related pests were investigated on their radiosensitivity and disinfestation effects by both treatments. The pests in apple and pear, Tetranychus urticae Koch, Panonychus ulmis Koch revealed a 100% mortality at around 17 days after irradiation of 3 kGy but it was too high dose for apple and pear. Tetranychus urticae Koch, Panonychus ulmi Koch from both apple and pear showed an increased mortality when exposed to 1 {approx} 2 kGy irradiation, resulting in apparent mortality 1 month later. 1 {approx} 2 kGy irradiation could be recommended for apple and pear. Current fumigation was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused the detrimental effects on physical quality of agricultural produce. Whereas, irradiation doses suitable for controlling the pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the samples. 40 refs., 64 figs., 160 tabs. (Author)

  20. Trade-fishing and the dynamics of bream numbering of Dagestan coastline of Caspian Sea and delta water body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Idrisova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analys of the trade-fishing is presented. The leading position of bream in the tradefishing catches of Dagestan and its age staff are shown. The numbering and biomass of bream of Dagestan coastline of Caspian Sea and delta water body are calenlated according to different methods.

  1. Holocene vegetation history and sea level changes in the SE corner of the Caspian Sea : Relevance to SW Asia climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leroy, S.A.G.; Kakroodi, A.A.; Kroonenberg, S.; Lahijani, H.K.; Alimohammadian, H.; Nigarov, A.

    2013-01-01

    The palynological investigation of core TM (27.7 m long) taken in a dried out lagoon reveals both Holocene vegetation history in the north-eastern foothills of the Alborz Mountains and past water level changes of the Caspian Sea (CS). The delay in woodland expansion at the beginning of the Holocene,

  2. The Catacomb cultures of the North-West Caspian steppe : C-14 chronology, reservoir effect, and paleodiet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shishlina, N. I.; van der Plicht, J.; Hedges, R. E. M.; Zazovskaya, E. P.; Sevastyanov, V. S.; Chichagova, O. A.

    2007-01-01

    For the Bronze Age Catacomb cultures of the North-West Caspian steppe area in Russia, there is a conflict between the traditional relative archaeological chronology and the chronology based on radiocarbon dates. We show that this conflict can be explained largely by the fact that most dates have

  3. Small-scale stratigraphy in a large ramp delta: recent and Holocene sedimentation in de the Volga delta, Caspian Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overeem, I.; Kroonenberg, S.B.; Veldkamp, A.; Groenesteijn, K.; Rusakov, G.V.; Svitoch, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Volga delta differs from all other major deltas in the world by its extremely gentle onshore and offshore gradient (similar to 5 cm/km) and by being affected by the rapid sea-level changes of the Caspian Sea, at rates up to a hundred times the global sea-level rise. This paper reports (1) the

  4. THE ACTION OF OIL, GAS CONDENSATE, DRILLING CUTTINGS AND DRILLING MUD ON THE BIOTA OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Abdusamadov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducted experimental studies on the effect of crude oil, gas condensate, drilling muds and cuttings on the zooplankton, on the plant pigments of phytoplankton, on the saprophytic microflora, as well as on representatives of ichthyofauna of the Caspian sea.

  5. Meat export competitiveness of European Union countries on global markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Bojnec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to provide insight into the export competitiveness of meat products of the European Union (EU-27 member states on global markets. The revealed comparative advantage index is used to analyze the levels, compositions, and evolutions in patterns of development in the export competitiveness of meat products and their levels of stability at the product level. Except for some niche meat products, a larger number of the EU-27 member states have experienced comparative disadvantages on global markets over the analysed years of 2000 to 2011. The revealed comparative advantages on the global markets are the most robust for Ireland, Spain, the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Denmark, Poland, Cyprus and Hungary. The revealed comparative advantage indices and their survival rates differ across the meat product groups. The heterogeneity in export competitiveness of the EU-27 member states suggests the importance of the differentiation of meat products in competitive export specialization on global markets.

  6. Empirical analysis of Macedonian export structure: The role of metal industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarov Darko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the Macedonian export structure and export performance by using several indexes: product complexity, export sophistication, export diversity, and export ubiquity for the period 1995-2014. The empirical analysis is based on the application of product space methodology (based on network theory developed by Hidalgo et al. (2007 with data from UN comtrade database. Moreover, the paper analyzes the performance of metal industry and its productivity as one of the biggest exporting sector and investigates its capacity for further product diversification. The estimated results indicate that Macedonian export basket is highly concentrated (the top ten products have nearly half of the total country's export and more than 70 percent of the export goes to several countries and more importantly the export structure is composed of products with low complexity level. Additionally, the results show that the export structure is less diversified, making the economy very sensitive on the external shocks. On the other side, the analysis of metal industry performance indicates that this industry has comparative advantages (RCA=2.16 and more importantly it has strong capacity for further diversification by building new capabilities for production of more complexed products. So, the suggestion to policymakers in Macedonia is to be created an active industrial policy that will stimulate the structural transformation of metal industry towards products with higher value added.

  7. An analysis on the export license criteria for NSG control items in the US and Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Rok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-01

    Korea has taken steps to join the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) which is a major part of the international nuclear export control regime. In this connection, it is an urgent task to build a new Korean nuclear export control system that includes NSG guidelines and control items. In addition, it is necessary to review the developed supplier countries` experience in the field of export control. The main purpose of this study is to analyze how the US and Japan have controlled the items listed in NSG part 1 and 2 guidelines. To this end, various relevant regulations of the US and Japan were studied. Among those regulations, the US Export Administration Regulation, US 10 CFR 110 and 810, and the Japan`s Export Administration Order are included. Through the review process, this study identified NSG items which are controlled in the export control systems of the US and Japan. Furthermore, this study summarized and compared the export license criteria that must be satisfied before exporting each NSG item in the two countries. The export license criteria consist of permitted destinations, document requirements, and types of license. The results of this study are expected to contribute to establishing an appropriate Korean nuclear export control system and could be used as references to the practical export licensing policies of the US and Japan. 6 tabs., 13 refs., (Author) .new.

  8. Unraveling a new lineage of Hydrobiidae genera (Caenogastropoda: Truncatelloidea from the Ponto-Caspian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Delicado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analyses of the highly diverse (non-marine aquatic gastropod family Hydrobiidae Stimpson, 1865 have revealed seven main lineages, most of which represent subfamilies. The subfamily Pseudamnicolinae Radoman, 1977, and specifically the genus Pseudamnicola Paulucci, 1878 (mainly inhabiting western and central Mediterranean regions, contributes substantially to this hydrobiid richness. Most of its congeners have been described in terms of their shell and penis features, which are of limited diagnostic value. Hence, the taxonomic status of some Pseudamnicola species needs to be revised, particularly of those inhabiting marginal regions, such as the Ponto-Caspian domain, largely occupied by the subfamily Pyrgulinae Brusina, 1882. Here we present a molecular phylogeny including species of both subfamilies along with extended morphological descriptions to confirm assignments of the Iranian species Pseudamnicola zagrosensis Glöer & Pešić, 2009; Sarkia kermanshahensis Glöer & Pešić, 2009 (originally within Pseudamnicola and P. saboori Glöer & Pešić, 2009. Our COI-based tree rejects these assignments suggesting a new potential lineage, sister to the pyrgulinid species, and comprising three genera: Shadinia Akramowski, 1976, Intermaria gen. nov. and Persipyrgula gen. nov. These genera differ molecularly by 3.6%–8.5%, and are diagnosable by penis, female genitalia and radula features. Our findings evidence the high morphological variability of pyrgulinid species and provide insight into the origins and evolution of the freshwater Ponto-Caspian fauna.

  9. HYDROCARBON POLLUTION IN THE NORTH-WESTERN PART OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Ostrovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The paper is aimed to estimate the current level of hydrocarbon pollution of the marine environment in the North-Western part of the Caspian Sea.Methods. The paper discusses the results of three-year studies conducted in 2012-2014 within the framework of Roshydromet’s Programme of monitoring of transboundary waters of the Caspian Sea. Spatial distribution of concentrations of hydrocarbons (total and polyaromatic in water and bottom sediments of the area was analysed. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons were determined by means of infrared spectrometry and PAHs – of gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.Results. The range of the total hydrocarbons in the area’s water is from slight traces to 240 µg/l, in sediments – from traces to 114 µg/g (dry weight. Total concentrations of PAHs in water varied from traces to 321 ng/l, in sediments – from traces to 699 ng/g (dry weight. For the source identification, data of satellite monitoring of the area were used. The data showed increasing input of hydrocarbons coming into the marine environment with discharges from vessels.Conclusion. The results of these studies are compared to those of previous research and show that the level of hydrocarbons in the area is typical for slightly polluted areas.

  10. ESPECIALLY VEGETATION ISLANDS OF NORTHWEST OF THE CASPIAN SEA(SEAL, CHECHEN ISLAND, NORDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Soltanmuradova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim The identification of the species flora of Northwest islands of the Caspian Sea.Methods. The collection of useful material were implemented by route-forwarding method. For collect and herbarization of theplants were used the traditional equipments necessary for fioristic studies. For identifying plants in the laboratory conditions were used by binocular MBS-2, and in the field conditions were used by magnifiers with eight-fold increase.Results. Flora of the islands of the Northwest of the Caspian Sea counts 269 species of higher plants, belonging to 49 families and 186 geniuses: the Seals – 32 families, the Nordova – 26 families, 57 geniuses, 65 species.Main conclusions. All the leading families of the islands are specific for Iran-Turan and Mediterranean of floristic areas. Also shared with the Central Asian deserts are families Tamaricaceae, Frankeniaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Apiaceae, Boraginaceae, and the geniuses Halocnemum, Halopeplis, Suaeda.

  11. The Export Administration Act of 1979 and Computer Exports to China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perez, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    .... The statute that regulates computer exports, the Export Administration Act of 1979 (EAA79), has been interpreted both strictly and loosely by policymakers, executive agencies, and export control regimes...

  12. The Impact of Firm’s Export Competencies on Export Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kaplan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of employees’ export experience and knowledge, firms’ export experience, firms’ export market information, firms’ export commitment on marketing planning capabilities and export performance and the relationship between marketing planning capabilities and export performance. To test hypotheses the data were collected from a sample of 153 firms operating in the automotive part industry in Turkey via structured questionnaire. Results reveal that employees’ export experience and knowledge, firms’ export experience, firms’ export market information, firms’ export commitment are found to be positively related with the marketing planning capabilities and the export performance. Beside, marketing planning capability is found to be related positively with export performance. 

  13. Unilateral Trade Preferences in the EU: An Empirical Assessment for the Case of Mozambican Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Cirera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral trade preferences are one of the most important instruments offered by developed countries to foster developing country exports. This paper analyzes the impact of unilateral trade preferences on developing countries by focusing on the experience of Mozambique. In this paper, we analyze whether unilateral preferences offered by the EU are “valuable” for Mozambican exporters based on the impact on preferential margins, utilization rates, and export prices. We use a detailed dataset with cif unit values at HS8-digits level covering the period 2000–2007. Our findings indicate that (i for a large number of product lines, export margins are zero; (ii utilization rates are generally high; however, (iii this does not translate into a positive price margins captured by Mozambican exporters compared to MFN competitors. These findings cast doubts on the “value” of preferences and their potential impact on developing country exports.

  14. Petroleum geology and resources of the North Caspian Basin, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    The North Caspian basin is a petroleum-rich but lightly explored basin located in Kazakhstan and Russia. It occupies the shallow northern portion of the Caspian Sea and a large plain to the north of the sea between the Volga and Ural Rivers and farther east to the Mugodzhary Highland, which is the southern continuation of the Ural foldbelt. The basin is bounded by the Paleozoic carbonate platform of the Volga-Ural province to the north and west and by the Ural, South Emba, and Karpinsky Hercynian foldbelts to the east and south. The basin was originated by pre-Late Devonian rifting and subsequent spreading that opened the oceanic crust, but the precise time of these tectonic events is not known. The sedimentary succession of the basin is more than 20 km thick in the central areas. The drilled Upper Devonian to Tertiary part of this succession includes a prominent thick Kungurian (uppermost Lower Permian) salt formation that separates strata into the subsalt and suprasalt sequences and played an important role in the formation of oil and gas fields. Shallow-shelf carbonate formations that contain various reefs and alternate with clastic wedges compose the subsalt sequence on the 1 basin margins. Basinward, these rocks grade into deep-water anoxic black shales and turbidites. The Kungurian salt formation is strongly deformed into domes and intervening depressions. The most active halokinesis occurred during Late Permian?Triassic time, but growth of salt domes continued later and some of them are exposed on the present-day surface. The suprasalt sequence is mostly composed of clastic rocks that are several kilometers thick in depressions between salt domes. A single total petroleum system is defined in the North Caspian basin. Discovered reserves are about 19.7 billion barrels of oil and natural gas liquids and 157 trillion cubic feet of gas. Much of the reserves are concentrated in the supergiant Tengiz, Karachaganak, and Astrakhan fields. A recent new oil discovery

  15. Dissemination of Zoonotic Antibiotic Resistant Serotypes of Salmonella by Caspian Pond Turtles, Golestan and Mazandaran Provinces, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Namroodi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonella spp. are widespread zoonotic pathogens with economic importance for both humans and animals. They are categorized as the natural flora of the gastrointestinal tract of many reptiles. Human salmonellosis acquired from contact with reptiles is a well-recognized medical problem. Objective: The frequency of Salmonella contamination in Caspian pond turtles was surveyed to evaluate the danger of exposure or disease risk for humans as these species are abundant around the villages in Golestan and Mazandaran provinces. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty fecal samples from Caspian pond turtles were tested by standard bacteriological methods and positive samples were serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests on isolated Salmonella strains were also performed. Results: Out of 150 samples, 54 turtles were detected to be contaminated with Salmonella. Of the 54 Salmonella isolates, 38.8% (21/54 were serotyped as S. typhimurium; 35.1% (19/54 as S. enterica subsp. enterica; 9.2% (5/54 as S. enterica subsp. salamae; 9.2% (5/54 as S. enterica subsp. arizona; and 7.4% (4/54 as S. enterica subsp. houtenae. Female (28/80, 35% and male (26/74, 35.1% turtles showed equal incidence of Salmonella spp. contamination. Resistance was mostly observed against ampicillin (37% followed by tetracycline (33.3%, nalidixic acid (7.4%, ciprofloxacin (5.5%, and cotrimoxazole (3.7%. The highest susceptibility was observed against gentamicin (100% and trimethoprim (98.1%. Conclusion: Our findings confirmed that people who are in close exposure to Caspian pond turtles and their feces are at the risk of Salmonella contamination. Accordingly, fundamental principles of hygiene should be applied in human contact with Caspian pond turtles. Furthermore, people should be educated about the Salmonella contamination which may occur through Caspian pond turtles.

  16. La evolución de las exportaciones de bienes de China: una visión panarómica = Chinese goods exports development: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Salvador Chamorro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El proceso de reforma económica que ha experimentado la economía de China es uno de los fenómenos de mayor relevancia en la evolución de la Economía Mundial en los últimos treinta años y, sin duda, seguirá siéndolo en el futuro. Dentro de este proceso, la apertura al exterior, que el gobierno chino inició en 1978, ha situado al país en un lugar de máxima relevancia dentro de los flujos comerciales y financieros internacionales. En este contexto, el objetivo de este trabajo es intentar realizar un análisis general de la evolución del comercio exterior de China en las últimas décadas, prestando especial atención a sus exportaciones de bienes y poniendo énfasis en los cambios experimentados durante los últimos años. Abstract The process of economic reform that has experienced the Chinese economy is one of the most important events in the evolution of the World Economy in the past 30 years, and will undoubtedly remain so in the future. Within this economic reform, the opening process that the Chinese Government began in 1978, has put the country in a place of utmost importance in the international trade and financial flows. In this context, this paper try to perform an analysis of the evolution of China's foreign trade in recent decades, with particular attention to its exports and emphasizing the changes in recent years.

  17. La evolución de las exportaciones de bienes de China: una visión panarómica = Chinese goods exports development: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Salvador Chamorro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de reforma económica que ha experimentado la economía de China es uno de los fenómenos de mayor relevancia en la evolución de la Economía Mundial en los últimos treinta años y, sin duda, seguirá siéndolo en el futuro. Dentro de este proceso, la apertura al exterior, que el gobierno chino inició en 1978, ha situado al país en un lugar de máxima relevancia dentro de los flujos comerciales y financieros internacionales. En este contexto, el objetivo de este trabajo es intentar realizar un análisis general de la evolución del comercio exterior de China en las últimas décadas, prestando especial atención a sus exportaciones de bienes y poniendo énfasis en los cambios experimentados durante los últimos años.The process of economic reform that has experienced the Chinese economy is one of the most important events in the evolution of the World Economy in the past 30 years, and will undoubtedly remain so in the future. Within this economic reform, the opening process that the Chinese Government began in 1978, has put the country in a place of utmost importance in the international trade and financial flows. In this context, this paper try to perform an analysis of the evolution of China's foreign trade in recent decades, with particular attention to its exports and emphasizing the changes in recent years

  18. Creative destruction and export patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2014-01-01

    varieties obsolete. For a given technology (variety) production costs decrease after an infant period due to learning. While all firms are assumed to be symmetric in a life-cycle perspective, at a given point in time firms of different ages differ in productivity, firm size, product quality, and export...... behavior. The model highlights a process of creative destruction, which allows firms to produce in a finite span of periods determined by the intensity of product and process innovations. The model predicts a wide range of export behavior of the individual firm during its life cycle depending...

  19. An Analysis on Export-Oriented Growth Model: Based on Turkish Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz ZÜNGÜN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available According to foreign trade perspective, a developing country can follow two different paths aimed at industrialization policies: Import substitution industrialization based on protectionism and export-oriented industrialization aimed at integration in international economy. Turkey applied both of them for developing its economy. When import substitution industrialization policies applied in our country since 1963 became inadequate, export-oriented industrialization policy was adopted with decisions taken within the Stabilization Program on January 24th 1980. Positive developments created by these policies provided significant increases in Turkey’s export volume. The best evidence of this change is the incredible progress of export item in manufacturing industry.

  20. Phytoplankton and zooplankton samples taken from Russian vessels in the Caspian, Black, Azov, Barents, Kara, and White Seas from 1999 to 2011 (NODC Accession 0117462)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruises took place from July 1999 to October 2011 in the Caspian, Black, Azov, Barents, Kara and White Seas. Russian vessels were used to collect data in the open...

  1. Impacts of Korea's Exchange Rate Uncertainty on Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Sik Kim

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of two types of uncertainty related to the real effective exchange rate (REER in Korea for export trends. To decompose uncertainties into two types of component, I propose an advanced generalized Markov switching model, as developed by Hamilton (1989 and then expanded by Kim and Kim (1996. The proposed model is useful in uncovering two sources of uncertainty: the permanent component of REER and the purely transitory component. I think that the two types of uncertainties have a different effect on export trends in Korea. The transitory component of REER has no effect on the export trend at 5-percent significance, but the permanent component has an effect at this level. In addition, the degree of uncertainty, consisting of low, medium and high uncertainty in the permanent component, and low, medium and high uncertainty in transitory component of REER, also has different effects on export trends in Korea. Only high uncertainty in permanent components effects export trends. The results show that when the policy authority intends to prevent the shrinkage of exports due to the deepening of uncertainties in the foreign exchange market, the economic impacts of its intervention could appear differently according to the characteristics and degree of the uncertainties. Therefore, they imply that its economic measures, which could not grasp the sources of uncertainties properly, may even bring economic costs.

  2. Export and Metabolism of Carbon in Urban Watersheds: Climate Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. M.; Kaushal, S.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers export and transform globally-significant quantities of carbon from watersheds to coastal ecosystems. Urbanization and climate change influence these fluxes by altering the hydrologic regime, water temperature, and anthropogenic sources of organic matter. Here, we quantify export and metabolism of carbon in highly urbanized, coastal watersheds, and evaluate the importance of physical drivers linked to climate and land use. Using a combination of discrete-samples, continuous water quality sensors, lab experiments, and modeling, we quantified rates of DOC, DIC, and CO2 export as well as changes in DOC quality and in-stream metabolism in four highly developed watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay over three years. Annual DOC and DIC exports from the four watersheds varied from 9 to 23 and 19 to 59 Kg ha-1yr-1 respectively. The range of daily CO2 concentrations was 0.01 to 2.6mg L-1, equivalent to between 0.37 and 53% of daily DOC export across all streams and dates. All sites were net-heterotrophic for the majority of the year (NEP0) during spring and early summer. There was a significant (Purban watersheds can export significant amounts of DOC, DIC, and CO2 to coastal zones. The influence of urbanization on coastal water quality and greenhouse gases may be exacerbated by climate change as temperatures and storm frequency continue to rise.

  3. The influence of export skills on export performance: A case study of export companies in East Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roholah Majlesara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to build a theoretical framework that identifies the influence of export skills on export performance in export companies in East Azerbaijan, Iran. It also inquires into the priority of the skills. The data obtained by a questionnaire filled in by 65 producing-exporting companies in East Azerbaijan. The results of the data analysis indicated that export skills have significant influence on export performance of producing-exporting companies. Based on the results of the data analysis it can be argued that international finance and risk management skills, international trade research skills, international marketing skills, and international trade regulations skills are the most effective factors in export performance. The findings of the study and their implications are explained in detail.

  4. Global distribution and sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen export to the coastal zone: Results from a spatially explicit, global model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, E.L.; Harrison, J.A.; Kroeze, C.; Bakker, E.J.; Seitzinger, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Here we describe, test, and apply a spatially explicit, global model for predicting dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export by rivers to coastal waters (NEWS-DIN). NEWS-DIN was developed as part of an internally consistent suite of global nutrient export models. Modeled and measured DIN export

  5. Heavy metal concentrations in gill and liver tissues of Rutilus kutum and Chelon aurata in the coast of Babolsar, southern Caspian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Kardel; Farzaneh Mirzapour; Shila Omidzahir; Maryam Akhoundian

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in the aquatic ecosystems is a main concern which threats human health. In this study two commercial fish species, Rutilus kutum and Chelon aurata were selected for assessing heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Zn) concentrations in gill and liver tissues at Babolsar’s coast, the southern Caspian Sea, Iran. Babolsar is one of the important fishery stations in the southern Caspian Sea. The results showed that liver tissue of C. aurata significantly accumulated higher concentration of...

  6. Characteristics of benthos of the North-eastern Caspian Sea, technology of its recovery and impact of the oil and gas extraction on the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurahmanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article is in details considered the technology of investigation and an oil recovery in the eastern part of Northern Caspian Sea. It is shown that the most negative influence will test the benthos of the water area. Materials on structure, seasonal dynamics and biomass of groundorganisms of eastern part of the Northern Caspian Sea are resulted.

  7. Past and future impact of North Atlantic teleconnection patterns on the hydroclimate of the Caspian catchment area in CESM1.2.2 and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandini, Sri

    2017-04-01

    The Caspian Sea level has undergone dramatic variations of more than 3 m during the past century with important implications for the life of coastal people, economy and the ecosystem. The origin of these variations as well as future changes in the Caspian water budget are still a matter of debate. In this study, we examine the influence of the major seasonal North Atlantic teleconnection patterns, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the East Atlantic pattern (EA), the Scandinavian pattern (SCA), and the North Sea Caspian Pattern (NCP), on Caspian hydroclimate variability from 1850-2000 CE. Numerical experiments at different atmospheric grid resolutions (2° and 1°) are carried out with the coupled Community Earth System Model (CESM1.2.2). We test model skills under different resolutions through validation against observational data by various statistical methods (Empirical Orthogonal Functions, Taylor diagrams, linear regressions and Spearman rank correlation). Results reveal the strongest simulated signal in winter (DJF) with high explained variances for 1° CESM1.2.2 NAO (39%) and EA (15.7%), similar to observational data. The model is unable to reproduce the SCA pattern in the third EOF, which is found in the observations. The modelled NAO has a strong influence on winter temperature and rainfall over the Caspian catchment area. A strong winter NCP induces above-average 2-meter temperatures over north Caspian region and lower-than-normal precipitation over the eastern Caspian sea. Our study suggests that the 1° version of CESM1.2.2 (with CAM5 atmosphere physics) shows adequate performance with respect to teleconnection maps during the historical period. Lastly, 1° model climate projections (2005-2100 CE) are performed with different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) to examine potential changes in the teleconnection patterns and their influence on the Caspian region.

  8. Occurrence and Intensity of some Parasitic Worms in Acipenser gueldenstaedti, A. nudiventris and Huso huso (Chondrostei: Acipenseridae) from the Southwest of the Caspian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    SATTARI, Masoud; MOKHAYER, Baba

    2014-01-01

    Sturgeons are the most important fish in the Caspian Sea, but there are only a few reports about their parasite communities in the southern part of this sea. In this study, 102 samples of 3 sturgeon species, namely Acipenser gueldenstaedti (n = 78), A. nudiventris (n = 18) and Huso huso (n = 6), were caught from 3 geographical locations in the southwest of the Caspian Sea (Guilan Province, Iran) from April 1999 to February 2001. Eight worm species including 3 nematodes [Cucullanus sphaeroce...

  9. Occurrence and Intensity of some Parasitic Worms in Acipenser gueldenstaedti, A. nudiventris and Huso huso (Chondrostei: Acipenseridae) from the Southwest of the Caspian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    SATTARI, Masoud

    2005-01-01

    Sturgeons are the most important fish in the Caspian Sea, but there are only a few reports about their parasite communities in the southern part of this sea. In this study, 102 samples of 3 sturgeon species, namely Acipenser gueldenstaedti (n = 78), A. nudiventris (n = 18) and Huso huso (n = 6), were caught from 3 geographical locations in the southwest of the Caspian Sea (Guilan Province, Iran) from April 1999 to February 2001. Eight worm species including 3 nematodes [Cucullanus sphaeroce...

  10. Canada: expanding nuclear fuel exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paehlke, R.

    1978-01-01

    Uranium is soon to be a very big business in Canada and most of the expansion is bound for export markets. The expansions that are planned are both in uranium mining and in fuel processing. Almost all environmental problems associated with the nuclear fuel cycle thus far in Canada have been associated with these two phases of the cycle: mining and processing. The water in Elliot Lake has been found to have high concentrations of radium and the drinking water of Serpent River, Ontario--downwater from Elliot Lake--has been found to be contaminated by excess radioactivity. Buildings in both Port Hope, Ontario, and Uranium City, Saskatchewan (near Eldorado's Saskatchewan minesite), have excess radiation counts attributable to radon and radon daughter gases. Several aspects of the expansion are currently undergoing environmental impact assessment. Far and away the most careful and balanced inquiry is the Saskatchewan government-appointed inquiry under Mr. Justice E. D. Bayda of the Saskatchewan Appeals Court. This inquiry is, in the first instance, examining a proposal by Amok Ltee., a consortium of a French multinational and the French government, to develop a $135 million uranium mine and mill at Cluff Lake in the northern portion of Saskatchewan. But the inquiry is considering all aspects and implications of the full nuclear fuel cycle. The second stage of the uranium boom in Canada centers on processing. Here two major new plants are proposed by Eldorado Nuclear: one at Port Granby, Ontario; the second at Varman, Saskatchewan. Several massive nuclear power stations are planned east of Toronto, but nuclear opposition is growing in Canada. (MCW)

  11. Geopolitics and energy diplomacy in Central Asia and the Caspian

    OpenAIRE

    Shaymergenov, Timur

    2006-01-01

    It has become obvious today that the global energy market is hugely unbalanced not only by the exorbitant oil prices, but also by mounting military and political tension in the Middle East, the largest oil producer, and the rapidly disappearing oil reserves of the major oil consumers. The growing fuel consumption all over the world-in developed and developing countries alike-is another reason for these processes and the principles according to which the world market functions today. Huge amou...

  12. Second Thoughts on Exporter Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    Empirical literature has established a positive link between firm productivity and export status, yet notable exceptions exist. The present paper shows that the underlying theory (Melitz, 2003) is in fact able to accommodate the rule as well as the exception. The fulcrum of the argument is the te...

  13. Nuclear Export of Messenger RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Katahira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex.

  14. Firm Size and Export Intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Verwaal (Ernst); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a unifying theory, explaining the different relationships between firm size and export intensity that have been found in previous studies. We propose that transaction costs economies and different types of resources induce a moderating effect on the firm size and

  15. Export Intermediation and the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    2005-01-01

    It is claimed that the remarkable growth in numbers of connected firms to the Internet marks a radical shift in current organisation of international business channels. For export intermediaries these new possibilities pose a threat to their current market position. However, virtual market presence...

  16. Intra population polymorphism of Caspian gull (Larus cachinnans from the North-Western Coast of the Azov Sea (oological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Dubinina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of a long term study of nesting colonies of the Caspian gull (Larus cachinnans Pallas, 1811 on the islands of the Molochniy Liman and in Obitochnaya Bay (Azov Sea, in the South of Ukraine (Zaporizhia region, conducted between 1988 and 2013. A description of the size and coloring of eggs of Caspian gull was conducted by generally accepted methods. We measured 1000 eggs from 5 colonies of Caspian gulls. The background coloration of the eggs’ shells was classified into 7 types, the pattern of markings on the surface of the shells was classified into 4 types. In the nesting colonies, comprising different nesting settlements, the study tested differences in the distribution of typical and atypical coloring types and patterns on the surface of the shells. The background color and character of the shell marking patterns is dominated by eggs of phenotypes 3 and 4: gray-green, with a pattern of spots, of medium size (5–60% and brown, with a pattern of large spots (2–40%. In different settlements the Caspian gull egg sizes vary in length and diameter of 54.5–86.3 x 39.2–60.4 mm, volume 61.7–113.7 cm3 and index of roundness 63.6–85.3%. The study revealed that the linear dimensions of eggs also depend on the number of birds in the nesting colonies. We found that morphological and dimensional characteristics of Caspian gull eggs can vary at certain intervals and characterize individual colonies, settlements and populations. Based on cluster analysis, conducted in terms of the average of the linear sizes of eggs of Caspian gull from several populations within the range of the species, the study identified three groups of colonies – Danube-Sivash, Azov-Black Sea and Caucasus-Caspian. In region of the Azov-Black Sea, the greatest similarity was shown between the settlements of Sivash and the South of Crimea, which in turn is similar to Lebiyazhyi Islands and Kaniv Nature Reserve (river Dnipro. A related link

  17. Refining climate change projections for organisms with low dispersal abilities: a case study of the Caspian whip snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlean, Tiberiu C; Gherghel, Iulian; Papeş, Monica; Strugariu, Alexandru; Zamfirescu, Ştefan R

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming is one of the most important threats to biodiversity. Ectothermic organisms such as amphibians and reptiles are especially vulnerable as climatic conditions affect them directly. Ecological niche models (ENMs) are increasingly popular in ecological studies, but several drawbacks exist, including the limited ability to account for the dispersal potential of the species. In this study, we use ENMs to explore the impact of global climate change on the Caspian whip snake (Dolichophis caspius) as model for organisms with low dispersal abilities and to quantify dispersal to novel areas using GIS techniques. Models generated using Maxent 3.3.3 k and GARP for current distribution were projected on future climatic scenarios. A cost-distance analysis was run in ArcGIS 10 using geomorphological features, ecological conditions, and human footprint as "costs" to dispersal of the species to obtain a Maximum Dispersal Range (MDR) estimate. All models developed were statistically significant (P<0.05) and recovered the currently known distribution of D. caspius. Models projected on future climatic conditions using Maxent predicted a doubling of suitable climatic area, while GARP predicted a more conservative expansion. Both models agreed on an expansion of suitable area northwards, with minor decreases at the southern distribution limit. The MDR area calculated using the Maxent model represented a third of the total area of the projected model. The MDR based on GARP models recovered only about 20% of the total area of the projected model. Thus, incorporating measures of species' dispersal abilities greatly reduced estimated area of potential future distributions.

  18. Refining climate change projections for organisms with low dispersal abilities: a case study of the Caspian whip snake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu C Sahlean

    Full Text Available Climate warming is one of the most important threats to biodiversity. Ectothermic organisms such as amphibians and reptiles are especially vulnerable as climatic conditions affect them directly. Ecological niche models (ENMs are increasingly popular in ecological studies, but several drawbacks exist, including the limited ability to account for the dispersal potential of the species. In this study, we use ENMs to explore the impact of global climate change on the Caspian whip snake (Dolichophis caspius as model for organisms with low dispersal abilities and to quantify dispersal to novel areas using GIS techniques. Models generated using Maxent 3.3.3 k and GARP for current distribution were projected on future climatic scenarios. A cost-distance analysis was run in ArcGIS 10 using geomorphological features, ecological conditions, and human footprint as "costs" to dispersal of the species to obtain a Maximum Dispersal Range (MDR estimate. All models developed were statistically significant (P<0.05 and recovered the currently known distribution of D. caspius. Models projected on future climatic conditions using Maxent predicted a doubling of suitable climatic area, while GARP predicted a more conservative expansion. Both models agreed on an expansion of suitable area northwards, with minor decreases at the southern distribution limit. The MDR area calculated using the Maxent model represented a third of the total area of the projected model. The MDR based on GARP models recovered only about 20% of the total area of the projected model. Thus, incorporating measures of species' dispersal abilities greatly reduced estimated area of potential future distributions.

  19. 75 FR 12433 - National Export Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Administration's goal of doubling exports over the next 5 years by working to remove trade barriers abroad, by... assisting with financing, and in general by pursuing a Government-wide approach to export advocacy abroad...

  20. Research on Food Quality Security of China’s Food Import and Export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengling Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article researches quality and safety of food at home and abroad on the basis of present situation, cause and effect, from the point of import and export of food quality and safety in China, by combining with economic theories and empirical analysis, from a macro perspective study of China’s import and export food safety issues impact on economic and social development, and study the experience of other developed countries advanced management experience in the quality and safety of food imports and exports. Finally, after the combination of the analysis, make recommendations to protect China’s import and export food safety measures and provide policy proposals.

  1. Export channel pricing management for integrated solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Roine, Henna; Sainio, Liisa-Maija; Saarenketo, Sami

    2012-01-01

    This article studies systems integrators' export channel pricing management for integrated solutions. We find support from our empirical case study for the notion that a systems integrator's export channel pricing strategy is multidimensional and dependent on international pricing environment and partner characteristics and that export partnerships have unique implications on a systems integrator's pricing process. The results show that giving up pricing control in export channel context may ...

  2. The Economic and social impact of export processing zones : the case of Malaysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Sivalingam, G

    1994-01-01

    Export processing zones (EPZs) or free zones as they are called in Malaysia have played an important role in promoting manufactured exports. The Malaysian Government enacted the Investment Incentive Act in 1968 to promote the growth and development of labour-intensive export-oriented industrializaton. However, it was not until 1971 that the Free Trade Zone Act was passed to create EPZs, which were especially attractive to foreign investors.

  3. Export and import activity of the wine industry: tendencies, current risks

    OpenAIRE

    Bondarenko Svitlana Anatoliyivna; Nizyayeva Viktoria Romanivna

    2017-01-01

    The article studies state of wine industry’s export-import activity, analyzes tendencies, which provide to reveal peculiar regulations andmain modern risks, which are necessary to be considered for appropriate level of the sector export capability. Export-import activity of wine industry is analyzed; capacity dynamics and market openness degree are estimated. It has been proved that redulatory impact on the winemaking and wine industry development has to be based, on the onehand, on the work ...

  4. Time Series Analysis of Export Demand Equations: A Cross-Country Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Montenegro; Abdelhak S Senhadji

    1999-01-01

    The paper estimates export demand elasticities for a large number of developing and industrial countries, using time-series techniques that account for the nonstationarity in the data. The average long-run price and income elasticities are found to be approximately -1 and 1.5, respectively. Thus, exports do react to both the trade partners' income and to relative prices. Africa faces the lowest income elasticities for its exports, while Asia has both the highest income and price elasticities....

  5. 19 CFR 351.514 - Export subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export subsidies. 351.514 Section 351.514 Customs... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.514 Export subsidies. (a) In general. The Secretary will consider a subsidy to be an export subsidy if the Secretary determines that eligibility for...

  6. 7 CFR 948.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 948.17 Section 948.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.17 Export. Export means the shipment of potatoes to any destination...

  7. 7 CFR 959.18 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 959.18 Section 959.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 959.18 Export. Export means to ship onions to any destination which is not within...

  8. Vietnam : Export Performance in 1999 and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    Changes in trade policies have been an essential component of the "doi moi" policy implemented by the Government of Vietnam since 1986. Over the years, most export quotas have been lifted and export taxes have been reduced to generally low levels. In addition, export activities by the private sector (both domestic and foreign) have been increasingly encouraged, thus breaking the trade mono...

  9. 7 CFR 927.12 - Export market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export market. 927.12 Section 927.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.12 Export market. Export market means any destination which...

  10. 19 CFR 351.520 - Export insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export insurance. 351.520 Section 351.520 Customs... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate to...

  11. 77 FR 22191 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Export Control Classification Number...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Export Control Classification Number 0Y521 Series, Items..., which amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by establishing a new Export Control... because it provides a significant military or intelligence advantage to the United States or because...

  12. USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS-TECHNIQUES IN SOUTH EAST CASPIAN COASTAL CHANGES DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Mousavi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to detect the shoreline changes along Miankaleh peninsula promontory of the Gorgan Bay entrance over the last three decades (1975-2002. For this purpose satellite data including LANDSAT ETM+, TM, SPOT, ASTER L1A and RADARSAT have been analyzed. SPOT-Pan data were georeferenced with respect to 1 : 50 000 topographic maps using a Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM projection, then all the needed data sets were registered to the SPOT-Pan image. The hydrological data showed a rapid rise of the Caspian Sea level by 2.6 m between “1975-1996”.

  13. Source characterization of selected North Caspian events from the relative excitation of regional phases. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niazi, M.

    1981-11-01

    Seismograms of seven recent events (presumed underground nuclear explosions) which occurred during 1976-1979 in the North Caspian Sea region of the western Soviet Kazakh are compared at regional distances for their relative source excitation characteristics. The body wave magnitude estimates of these events range from 5.1 to 6.0. The data consist of analog and digital records collected at stations ranging in instrumental sophistication from temporary sites with single component smoke drum capability to those of SRO, ASRO and array (ILPA) configurations with digitally recorded down-hole observations. The amplitude and frequency measurements of the analog seismograms for the first arrival and the peak amplitude of P coda as well as for the clear S wave signals recorded for different events at the same station are compared.

  14. SOME INFORMATION ON HYDROLOGICAL AND HYDROCHEMICAL REGIME OF THE DAGESTAN SECTOR OF CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Guseynov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The paper assesses the chemical bases of biological productivity of the Dagestan sector of the Caspian Sea in terms of increasing the Volga runoff and sea transgression. The aim of this paper is to reveal the data on the spatial distribution and seasonal dynamics of some hydrological and hydro-chemical parameters. Materials and methods. Material for the study was collected with bathometer of Nansen in spring and summer during routine monitoring activities in the waters of the Dagestan sector of the Caspian Sea. Determination of hydrological and hydrochemical elements was carried out according to the "Guidelines for Maritime and hydrochemical research." Results. In summer, surface water temperature ranged from 22.9 to 25,9˚C, in spring, the average temperature was 17˚C. Temperature rise was observed on the horizon of 20.0 35,0m and was 5,1˚C in spring and in summer the temperature rose up to 8,2˚C. The vertical temperature changes were characterized by a decrease with depth. The greatest seasonal temperature gradients were recorded in the Northern Zone. Salinity has been characterized by spatial heterogeneity due to the uneven distribution of river waters. Lowest salinity has been recorded in the area of the mouth of Terek river, the highest in the southern part of the water area. Seasonal fluctuations in salinity in the surveyed area were insignificant and amounted 0,02 ‰. The vertical distribution of oxygen in the surveyed area was high throughout the water column. The pH value of the water area has increased as a result of the active photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton and increased from north to south from 8.12 / 8.05 to 8.45 / 8.53 in the spring / summer seasons, respectively. The distribution of phosphates in the water area was uneven and depended on the influx of continental waters and the degree of eutrophication. Because of the active photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton, the nitrates in the upper layer were almost

  15. PHYTOPLANKTON SPECIES COMPOSITION OF THE RUSSIAN SECTOR OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Gasanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Annotation. The taxonomic structure and the lists of species of the phytoplankton community in the Russian sector of the Caspian Sea have been presented. The dominant complexes have been detected. The predominance of small-cell types is characteristic of the modern structure of the summer phytoplankton. A high floristic diversity has been observed. Bacillariaphyta were the dominants. They made 42% of the species diversity. Cyanophyta algae were the basis of the group, whereas Bacillariaphyta were the basis of the biomass.Abstract. Aim.The composition of the species of the phytoplankton in the Russian sector of the Caspian Sea in conditions of transgression, anthropogenic and chemical contamination has been studied. Location. Russian sector of the Caspian Sea.Methods. The phytoplankton samples were collected at the depths of 8–100m and at the levels of 0, 10, 25, 50, 100 m by the use of the Nansen bathometer and subsequently were fixed in 4 % formalin. The fixed samples were kept in the dark for at least 15 days. The material was concentrated by the common method of deposition. The office processing was carried out in a box of Nozhotta type, which has the volume of 0.1 ml and the triplicate surface, under the light microscope of Biolam P15. The system of domestic diamotologists was used during the classification of Bacillariaphyta, as for the classification of Dinophyta, the Dodge scheme was applied. Cyanophyta algae were classified according to the system of A.A. Elenkina with the amendments adopted by A.I. Proshkina-Lavrenko and V.V. Makarova. The classification of the Chlorophyta division has been done according to the Smith system.Results. Presented the taxonomic structure and the lists of species of the phytoplankton community in the Russian sector of the Caspian Sea have been presented. The dominant complexes have been detected. A high floristic diversity of 71 species as well as the form and the variety of microalgae of 5

  16. The mechanical properties of Acer velutinum var. glabrescens wood growing in different regions of Caspian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fardad golbabaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The major engineering properties of Acer velutinum var. glabrescens wood growing in different regions of Caspian forests (North of Iran was determined. Test materials were selected randomly from Acer velutinum var. glabrescens tree plantation and the test specimens were prepared according to ASTM D-143 standard. Mechanical and physical properties were measured on both green and air-dried samples (12% moisture content. The results of the measurement were statistically analyzed based on randomized block design and factorial experiment. The influence of specimen locations at different stem heights was examined. Based on the results of this study, Significant areas of habitat in the area, Maple Vysr Mazandaran species most resistant of the Maple Sangdeh Frame has the lowest resistance. Keywords: Maple, statice bending, compression parallel to grain, compression perpendicular to grain, tension perpendicular to grain, Acer velutinum var. glabrescens.

  17. 75 FR 11842 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export management; export... marketing activities; b. Collect information on trade opportunities in the Export Markets and distribute... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 10-00002...

  18. 7 CFR 1493.470 - Evidence of export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Supplier Credit Guarantee Program Operations § 1493.470 Evidence of export. (a) Report of export. The... determined by the GSM to be in the best interests of CCC. (c) Export sales reporting. Exporters may have a...

  19. Geophysical evidence for gas hydrates in the deep water of the South Caspian Basin, Azerbaijan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaconescu, C.C. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; National Institute for Earth Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Kieckhefer, R.M. [Chevron Overseas Petroluem Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States); Knapp, J.H. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    2001-07-01

    New 2-D seismic reflection data from the South Caspian Sea, offshore Azerbaijan, document for the first time in the deep water (up to 650m) of this area, the presence of gas hydrates. Geophysical evidence for gas hydrates consists of a shallow (300-500m below seafloor) zone of pronounced high velocity ({approx}2,100m/s) as compared with the surrounding sediments (1550-1600m/s). This zone appears on the seismic data as a depth-limited ({approx}200m thick) layer extending down the flank of an elongated structural high, and displays seismic blanking effects on the sedimentary section. A strong positive-polarity (R{sub c}{approx}0.123) reflector marks the top of this velocity anomaly, and is interpreted as the top of the gas hydrate layer. Similarly, a high-amplitude (R{sub c}{approx}0.11), negative polarity reflector coincides with the base of the high velocity layer, and is interpreted as the base of the hydrate zone. Both the top and bottom of the hydrate layer approximately parallel the seafloor bathymetry, and cut discordantly across the stratigraphic section, suggesting that the two reflectors are thermobaric and not stratigraphic interfaces. Decreasing amplitude with offset at the base of the gas hydrate layer may indicate the accumulation of free gas beneath this interface. These gas hydrates fall within the hydrate stability field predicted from thermobaric modelling for the South Caspian Basin, but typically in thinner layers than would be expected from theoretical calculations. The minimum predicted water depth that allows hydrate formation is {approx}150m, and the maximum predicted thickness of the gas hydrate stability field is {approx}1350m. (Author)

  20. Long-term and seasonal Caspian Sea level change from satellite gravity and altimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. L.; Wilson, C. R.; Tapley, B. D.; Save, H.; Cretaux, Jean-Francois

    2017-03-01

    We examine recent Caspian Sea level change by using both satellite radar altimetry and satellite gravity data. The altimetry record for 2002-2015 shows a declining level at a rate that is approximately 20 times greater than the rate of global sea level rise. Seasonal fluctuations are also much larger than in the world oceans. With a clearly defined geographic region and dominant signal magnitude, variations in the sea level and associated mass changes provide an excellent way to compare various approaches for processing satellite gravity data. An altimeter time series derived from several successive satellite missions is compared with mass measurements inferred from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data in the form of both spherical harmonic (SH) and mass concentration (mascon) solutions. After correcting for spatial leakage in GRACE SH estimates by constrained forward modeling and accounting for steric and terrestrial water processes, GRACE and altimeter observations are in complete agreement at seasonal and longer time scales, including linear trends. This demonstrates that removal of spatial leakage error in GRACE SH estimates is both possible and critical to improving their accuracy and spatial resolution. Excellent agreement between GRACE and altimeter estimates also provides confirmation of steric Caspian Sea level change estimates. GRACE mascon estimates (both the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) coastline resolution improvement version 2 solution and the Center for Space Research (CSR) regularized) are also affected by leakage error. After leakage corrections, both JPL and CSR mascon solutions also agree well with altimeter observations. However, accurate quantification of leakage bias in GRACE mascon solutions is a more challenging problem.

  1. TRANSFORMATION OF RUSSIAN CASPIAN PASTURE ECOSYSTEMS UNDER THE NEW SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Lazareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the modern vegetation of the Russian Caspian Sea region. On its basis we identified the trend of pasture degradation under the new socio-economic conditions. Materials andMethodology. The article presents statistical data on the dynamics of livestock in arid, humid and contemporary, transitional climatic cycles. The first (1987 cycle is characterized by the highest, the second (1995 by the lowest and third (2014 by increasing load of cattle pasture. Furthermore, these periods have coincided with the change of political situation in the country. The study of key areas of vegetation pastures was carried out according to the "Field geobotany" guideline (1974 by expeditionary and stationary methods.Results. Years of research have allowed following the dynamics of pasture conditions for faulty stages in different types of vegetation to determine the modern state under the influence of modern grazing pressure. It was found that the indicators of pasture digression are species composition as well as other derivatives of plant communities. In the steppe cenoses the weak stage is indicated by caespitosa cereals, the average – domination of xerophilic semishrubs, very strong - ephemera, ephemeroids, harmful and poisonous plants. In the zonal suffrutescent deserts degradation becomes clearly apparent in the severe stages of failure. According to the degree of failure layering, complexity and productivity of plant communities are reduced.Conclusion. Currently, as a result of the increasing livestock population, the northern part of the Caspian (Sarpinskaya lowlands, is characterized by moderate and severe stages of desertification. In the next five years, the region can once again become a zone of ecological disaster as in the late 80s of the twentieth century.

  2. The “Caspian Case” and Its Aftermath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The article investigates the role of conventional news media in framing the 2012 sanctions against medical professionals who provided gender-confirming treatment to transgender people outside the purview of the state-funded and licensed Sexological Clinic in Copenhagen. This framing is contrasted...... articles, commenting, and discussing new developments – on Facebook? How do they use Facebook as a platform for sharing information within the trans community and articulating concerns about the case and its broader implications?...... with transgender people’s use of social media – Facebook in particular – as a forum for responding to the media coverage. This article raises the following questions: How do Denmark’s established news media represent and frame the 2012 case? How do transgender people engage with this news coverage – sharing...

  3. Phases definition in marketing export process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Dragan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The result of export marketing process depends on its five phases. The first phase-revision of export capacities, inner view on advantages and defects of company concerning export possibilities. The second phase-identification of export strategy market penetration. The forth phase-preparing for the marketing campaign (action. The fifth phase-carrying out the above mentioned activities. This study shows the structure and contents of the mentioned phases. At the end, export marketing analyzed DPV is given as the example.

  4. Export Performance: Influence of Intangible Resources, Dynamic Capabilities and Entrepreneurial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertina Paula Monteiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the determinants that influence international performance, in particular exports, is vital to the survival and expansion of enterprises and the consequent economic growth of exporting countries that are heavily dependent of international markets. Thus this study focuses mainly on how resources and capabilities enable companies to achieve competitive advantage and superior performance in foreign markets. This research builds upon the Resource-Based View (RBV and Dynamic Capabilities View (DCV premise that companies’ intangible resources influence the development of important capabilities to export performance. Thus, we developed and tested a model entailing knowledge and business relationships positive impact on entrepreneurial orientation and dynamic capabilities, which translates positively in exports’ performance. Results of a survey of a sample of 265 exporting companies in the north of Portugal confirm six out of the ten proposed hypothesis and confirm that export performance is directly impacted by dynamic capabilities and entrepreneurial orientation and indirectly by knowledge and business relationships. Contrary to hypothesized, entrepreneurial orientation is influenced directly only by dynamic capabilities, as business relationships and knowledge do not have a direct significant impact but indirectly through dynamic capabilities.

  5. Marketing technologies for building competitiveness of companies export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Tsygankova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In context of post-industrial development of global economy, escalating competition in international goods markets, the definition of competitive export is proposed based upon both existing criteria – sustainability, effectiveness, adaptivity and fair competition, and on those described in the work – ecological performance, service maintenance, brand awareness and high technology. Given that, it is proved that with the aim of detailing the elements of competitive export, the latter should be typified depending upon the performer (export competitiveness of a company, country, region and subject (export competitiveness of goods, services, rights upon intellectual property objects, keeping in mind universal and specific features of export criteria proposed to be characterised through a range of indices on corporate and state levels. Groups of factors affecting export competitiveness building are systematized (institutional, financial and economic, marketing, foreign trade, scientific and technological, resource-related and social and ecological. Marketing technologies are typified on corporate level under the following criteria: novelty, object, creative component availability, internationalization stages, international marketing forms, digitalization level, management functions, customer-centreness scale, international marketing activity stages, financial security, specific features of intercorporate coordination. The practice of applying international marketing technologies by companies is investigated. In context of necessity to overcome crisis phenomena and increase competitive export volume, an assessment is made of integrating national manufacturing into regulated global chains of creating added value with the relevant rating, in particular, depending upon the available potential, minimality of technical and organizational changes, marketing relevancy, enabling to determine the manufacturing areas most prepared to cooperation, and

  6. NAS Panel faults export controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A study prepared by a top-level panel says that current export controls on militarily sensitive U.S. technology may be “overcorrecting” previous weaknesses in that system, resulting in “a complex and confusing control system” that makes it more difficult for U.S. businesses to compete in international markets. Moreover, this control system has “an increasingly corrosive effect” on U.S. relations with allies. The panel recommended that the United States concentrate more effort on bringing about uniformity in the export control policies of countries belonging to the Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls (CoCom), i.e., most of the member nations in NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and Japan.The 21-member panel was appointed by the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP), a joint unit of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The panel, composed of administrators, researchers, and former government officials, was chaired by AGU member Lew Allen, Jr., director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, Calif.) and former chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force. Their report was supported by NAS funds, by a number of private organizations (including AGU), by the U.S. Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and State, by the National Science Foundation, and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  7. FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF SHRUB COMMUNITIES IN THE FORMATION OF MOSAIC ECOTONE COMMUNITIES OF COASTAL ECOSYSTEM OF NORTHWEST OF THE CASPIAN LOWLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-R. D. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

     animals is functionally related to growing trees and shrubs – the types and gradient salinity, degree of aridity, featuresof the macro- and mesorelief of territory under the Northwest Caspian lowland.Main conclusions. In arid zones of the Northwest Caspian lowland as agent cenosoeducational process are overgrown and some specimens of tree and shrub of tamarisk and nitraria. They form a complex mosaic ecotone relief with various types of water-salt regime of soils, vegetation and structure of the animal population. Phytogenic mosaicism vegetation of cover, obligated growing here owes treelike shrubs, is an important determinant of species diversity, especially plant phenology and productivity of pastures, the over biological diversity and the structure of the animal population of arid areas of west Caspian lowland. An important regulatory inf luence on the development of processes has biogeocenotic animals and participation in a single complex with the main cenosoeducational system is thicket of shrubs. In theoreticalterms, quantitative evalution processes cenosoeducational features comprehensive environment is forming activity of animals and plants and their cenotic complexes represent an important functional characteristic of arid lands of the territory. Comprehensive, scientific substantiation, properly planned development of these paeticularysensitive man of semidesert systems, prediction of their changes in the short and in the long term is impossible without knowledge of the mechanisms their functioning and stability.

  8. Directions of Improving the Financial Support of Export Activity of Innovative Companies in Russia and Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valeryevna Nikulina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions the support of export activity is an important component of economic policy in foreign countries and Russia. Export activity of the innovative companies has special value for Russia. Consideration of financial support export activities of innovative companies gains particular relevance in the functioning of Russia in the WTO. The purpose of this study is the development and validation of practical advice on formation of an effective system of stimulating the export activities of innovative companies based on the use of financial instruments by adhering to the WTO principles and modalities. The authors used statistical analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of the instruments and the comparison to identify weaknesses in the Russian financial instruments to support exports. In determining the main directions of improving, the study used the method of forecasting on the basis of the results of the analysis and comparison. The article described the main instruments of financial support of innovation activities in Russia. The authors carried out a comparative analysis of the system to stimulate export activities in Russia and abroad. The article developed and substantiated recommendations on the formation of an effective system of state support for export of innovative companies. Conclusions drew that the Russian system of financial support of export activities requires adjusting in accordance with the rules of the WTO and the OECD, the extension of existing instruments through the use of “green” subsidies and the creation of a unified export Agency.

  9. The "Hamburger Connection" as Ecologically Unequal Exchange: A Cross-National Investigation of Beef Exports and Deforestation in Less-Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    This study explores Norman Myers's concept of the "hamburger connection" as a form of ecologically unequal exchange, where more-developed nations are able to transfer the environmental costs of beef consumption to less-developed nations. I used ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to test whether deforestation in less-developed…

  10. Peculiar features of histopathological changesincase of helminthoses in mero-consortia of the caspian seal (PusaCaspica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Demidenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The papercovers the study of peculiarfeatures of histopathological changesunderaction of two helminthspeciesin tissues of meroconsortia of the Caspian seal: liver, gall bladder, pancreas, and stomach. Significant changesin the seorgans accompanied by appearance of capsules, inflammatory infiltration, and occurrence of abscesses were recorded. The se peculiarities should be considered as a manifestation of morpho-functional compensation generated in the process of mutual adaptation of organisms of the host and parasite.

  11. Dead wood characteristics influencing macrofungi species abundance and diversity in Caspian natural beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) forests

    OpenAIRE

    Kiomars Sefidi; Vahid Etemad

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: This study aimed to examine the dead wood inhabiting macrofungi communities occurring on dead beech and hornbeam trees in Caspian forests. Area of study: The Kheiroud forest in the north of Iran. Material and Methods: Data from 205 sampling dead tree were analyzed by means of Generalized Linear Models (GLM) to test the effects of decay stage, DBH, Length or Height on macrofungi diversity. Additionally, tree species, dead wood size, log position, decay stage were used a...

  12. RESULTS OF THE STUDY ORIBATIDMITEIN THE COASTAL AREA OF THE NORTH-WEST OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Grikurova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim . Studied the fauna of the soil mites of coastal and island ecosystems of the North-Western part of the Caspian sea (Bryansk spit, Strategiczne, Islands seal, Chechen and Nordby. Found 49 species and 39 genera and subgenera, and 24 families. Species composition of oribatidmite of theNorth-western part of the Caspian Sea remains not completely studied. The aim of the work was to study the species composition of oribatidmite ecosystems of the North-Western part of the Caspian Sea. Location. Coastal ecosystems north-western part of the Caspian Sea.Methods. The selection of soil samples in different habitats and MicroStation is the basis for studying the biodiversity and abundance of soil microarthropod. To extract small soil organisms method was used electoral forcing, which is based on the use of negative phototaxis soil organisms. When the definition of oribatid mites used the microscope MBI-6, Olympus CH-20.Results. As a result of studies 41 species of oribatidmites, 9 of which – new forthe fauna of the Caucasus, 17 species – new for the fauna of Dagestan, one species – new to science were identified. There sults can be used to compile regionallists, inventories and will be included in the list of directories oribatidmite of Caucasus.Main conclusions. There sults showed that for both are as of studies - 9 species, exclusively in coastal ecosystems of Bryansks pit 24 species, found only in ecosystems Staroterechnogo 9 species are common.

  13. Refining Climate Change Projections for Organisms with Low Dispersal Abilities: A Case Study of the Caspian Whip Snake

    OpenAIRE

    Tiberiu C. Sahlean; Iulian Gherghel; Monica Papeş; Alexandru Strugariu; Ştefan R Zamfirescu

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming is one of the most important threats to biodiversity. Ectothermic organisms such as amphibians and reptiles are especially vulnerable as climatic conditions affect them directly. Ecological niche models (ENMs) are increasingly popular in ecological studies, but several drawbacks exist, including the limited ability to account for the dispersal potential of the species. In this study, we use ENMs to explore the impact of global climate change on the Caspian whip snake (Dolichop...

  14. Clean coal technology: Export finance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    Participation by US firms in the development of Clean Coal. Technology (CCT) projects in foreign countries will help the United States achieve multiple national objectives simultaneously--addressing critical goals related to energy, environmental technology, industrial competitiveness and international trade. US participation in these projects will result in an improved global environment, an improvement in the balance of payments and an increase in US jobs. Meanwhile, host countries will benefit from the development of economically- and environmentally-sound power facilities. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Public Law 101-549, Section 409) as supplemented by a requirement in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486, Section 1331(f)) requires that the Secretary of Energy, acting through the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Subgroup on Clean Coal Technologies, submit a report to Congress with information on the status of recommendations made in the US Department of Energy, Clean Coal Technology Export Programs, Report to the United States Congress, February 1992. Specific emphasis is placed on the adequacy of financial assistance for export of CCTS. This report fulfills the requirements of the Act. In addition, although this report focuses on CCT power projects, the issues it raises about the financing of these projects are also relevant to other CCT projects such as industrial applications or coal preparation, as well as to a much broader range of energy and environmental technology projects worldwide.

  15. Multivariate Cointegration and Causality between Exports, Electricity Consumption and Real Income per Capita: Recent Evidence from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janesh Sami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current literature on the relationship between electricity, exports and economic growth is mixed. This paper examines the relationship between exports, electricity consumption and real income per capita in Japan using time series data from 1960-2007.We applied bounds testing procedure developed by Pesaran et al(2001 and found that there is cointegrating relationship between electricity consumption ,exports and economic growth. On establishing cointegration, the causal relationship electricity consumption, exports and economic investigation was investigated within a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM framework. We found that in the long run, there is causality from exports and real GDP per capita to electricity consumption.

  16. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Model of Flood Wave Propagation on the Caspian Sea and its Verification Based on the Satellite Altimetry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    In this research simple flood wave propagation model was based the Saint-Venant equations represented a good way to describe problems concerning with flood waves propagations in open channels. For solution of this task the Caspian Sea was approximated as channel with a rectangular cross-section. Channel axis coincided with the sea longitudinal axis or location of descending pass 092 of satellites TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) and Jason- 1/2 (J1/2). Altimetric measurements of this satellites permit to define more exactly empiric parameters of the flood wave (propagation speed amplitude et al.) which are solution of the model. Also it allows estimating of effective evaporation. In this approach it is possible to consider as an integrated difference between sea surface heights between previous and the subsequent cycles altimetric measurements. Results of calculations have confirmed well conformity given calculated by other researchers and the model. As is shown than interannual variability of flood wave speed in the North Caspian was well correlated with interannual the Caspian Sea level variability.

  18. The Impact of Agricultural Exports on Economic Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahanga Verter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the backbone of Nigeria’s socioeconomic development. This paper investigates the impact of agricultural exports on economic growth in Nigeria using OLS regression, Granger causality, Impulse Response Function and Variance Decomposition approaches. Both the OLS regression and Granger causality results support the hypothesis that agricultural exports- led economic growth in Nigeria. The results, however, show an inverse relationship between the agricultural degree of openness and economic growth in the country. Impulse Response Function results fluctuate and reveal an upward and downward shocks from agricultural export to economic growth in the country. The Variance Decomposition results also show that a shock to agricultural exports can contribute to the fluctuation in the variance of economic growth in the long run. For Nigeria to experience a favourable trade balance in agricultural trade, domestic processing industries should be encouraged while imports of agricultural commodities that the country could process cheaply should be discouraged. Undoubtedly, this measure could drastically reduce the country’s overreliance on food imports and increase the rate of agricultural production for self-sufficiency, exports and its contribution to the economic growth in the country.

  19. Export Potential of the Enterprise: Essence and Methodological Bases of the Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnyk Olga G.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical and methodological aspects of the analysis of the enterprise’s export potential and the methodological basis for its measurement. Analyzing and summarizing scientific works on the problem, the views of researchers on the definition of the concept of “export potential of the enterprise” are systematized. The article considers the economic content of the enterprise’s export potential from the standpoint of the system-structural approach defining it as a complex systemic formation of interrelated and interacting elements of economic and non-economic origin, internal and external action. It is found out that in the international economic space the export potential of the enterprise acquires new qualitative features reflecting not just the resource potential of the national economic entity but also the needs and interests of foreign countries and their economic agents. It is identified that the functional role of the export potential is to implement the targets of the foreign economic activity of the enterprise. The nature of these targets can be different and is formed on the principle of ensuring the needs of external markets. The level of satisfaction of these needs by an individual enterprise can be evaluated through such indicators as the volume of exports, the quality of exported products, the level of export diversification, which determine the result of the export activity and in relation to its purpose serve as a criterion of the efficiency of the enterprise’s export potential. As a result of the study, the components of the export potential of the enterprise are singled out, and a model of their interrelationships is presented. The prospects of the research are connected with branch aspects of the formation of the enterprise’s export potential allowing to highlight its structural elements and directions of development.

  20. Economic Integration and New Export Opportunities for the Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Volchkova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At a time when oil prices are low, non-oil exports are important for the members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU. This study assesses the effects of the EAEU’s economic integration on the development of new exports. EAEU countries are far behind global export leaders in several categories according to the revealed comparative advantage, used by the Hausmann-Klinger method to assess national export baskets. Belarus exports the most products, and Russia and especially Armenia and Kazakhstan export notably fewer. The comparative advantages of Kazakhstan and Russia are concentrated mainly in minerals, chemical products and metals. The export structure for the other EAEU countries is more diverse, with a high share of foodstuffs in Armenia and textiles in Belarus. Kazakhstan and, to a greater extent, Belarus and Russia show a rather complex export basket, significantly ahead of Armenia according to this indicator. For the EAEU as an independent participant, its trade complexity index is higher than that for its member countries individually. This article uses the Hausmann-Klinger methodology to identify the future comparative advantages of the EAEU countries. These are product groups, towards which a structural transformation of the EAEU exports most likely occurs. The research focuses on the integration aspect of possible non-oil exports, seeking to identify goods, including chemicals and textiles, that can eventually provide a comparative advantage for the EAEU as a whole. Most of the products considered have a greater economic complexity than those in the EAEU’s current export basket, so would improve its overall export structure.

  1. A Comparative Analysis of the Impact of Agricultural Exports on Economic Growth of ECOWAS Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Kojo Edeme

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Towards the acceleration of the attainment of sustainable growth, most countries have focused on agricultural exports as a means of driving their economy. Developing countries of Africa are highly dependent on the agricultural sector and agricultural exports are a major determinant of economic growth of these countries. However, the impact of agricultural exports on economic growth of ECOWAS countries remains unclear. This study therefore evaluates the impact of agricultural exports on the economic growth of fifteen ECOWAS countries using panel data for the period 1980–2013. Variables employed are labour force participation rate, capital stock, agricultural exports, non-agricultural exports, inflation and economic growth. The results of the fixed-effect model show that agricultural exports have not impacted significantly on the economic growth of ECOWAS countries such as Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria with respect to the Republic of Benin, which is the selected baseline. The study also analysed the country combined effect of the agricultural exports and found that it was significant but the rate of impact was weak. The study recommends, among others, that even though agricultural exports had a significant impact on economic growth, there is still a need for ECOWAS governments to improve their agricultural sector as its significance is more noticeable in some countries such as Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria.

  2. Export Potential of the Russian Automobile Industry: Evaluation of Directions and Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Borisovich Zuev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Automobile industry is among the priority industries in Russia from the perspective of non-oil export development. It appears to be very timely to evaluate its export potential due to a significant contraction of the Russian car market and excessive idle capacity of the industry. The paper is based on international Export Decision Support Models and on the analysis of a vast amount of international economic indicators. It aims to identify the most attractive countries for Russia’s passenger automobiles and trucks exports and to evaluate the potential increases in absolute physical volumes of export growth. The three-stage procedure eliminates unattractive markets. The first stage filter removes from consideration countries with high political and commercial risk and with low macroeconomic size. The second filter is for export opportunity assessment. And the third filter describes the level of availability from the point of view of logistics costs and trade barrier. 17 countries which fail the selection were enrolled in the list due to potentially promising markets for Russian products. Then the total export potential was calculated on the basis of Russian potential share in a particular country taking into account index trade availability and the average price of a car imported to each country. As a result, top-5 countries for Russian cars and trucks exports are found, and aggregate export potential is estimated at 194 thousand passenger vehicles and 30 thousand trucks per year for the next few years.

  3. SERVICE TRADE AND NON-OIL EXPORT IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmaduabuchukwu Mkpado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper was set to examine the relationship between different aspects of service trade and non oil export in Nigeria as well as assess the impact of capacity development on value of service trade and the implications for improving value of non oil export in Nigeria. Secondary data 1980 to 2010 were used. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and regression analysis. Results show that total service trade value in Nigeria has increased from $1126.59 million in 1980 to $3076.19 million in 2010. Significant correlations existed between the total value of service trade and all the types of service trade except with other service trade value. Road network, government (domestic capital expenditure on services, agricultural credit and domestic service GDP positively determine exportable services. Recommendations include improvement of service GDP and agricultural credit/loan facilities.

  4. Impact of diseases on export and smallholder production of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C; Kema, Gert H J; Ma, Li-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most valuable primary agricultural commodities. Exported fruit are key commodities in several producing countries yet make up less than 15% of the total annual output of 145 million metric tons (MMT). Transnational exporters market fruit of the Cavendish cultivars, which are usually produced in large plantations with fixed infrastructures and high inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation. In contrast, smallholders grow diverse cultivars, often for domestic markets, with minimal inputs. Diseases are serious constraints for export as well as smallholder production. Although black leaf streak disease (BLSD), which is present throughout Asian, African, and American production areas, is a primary global concern, other diseases with limited distributions, notably tropical race 4 of Fusarium wilt, rival its impact. Here, we summarize recent developments on the most significant of these problems.

  5. Milestones of European Integration: Which matters most for Export Openness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiller, Sanne; Kruse, Robinson

    and the Netherlands are the Euro introduction, the Maastricht Treaty, the Exchange Rate Mechanism I and the merge of EFTA and EEC to the European Economic Area, respectively. Our empirical results have important implications for inner-European economic development, as export openness feeds back into growth......The European integration process has removed barriers to trade within Europe. We analyze which integration step has most profoundly influenced the trending behavior of export openness. We endogenously determine the single most decisive break in the trend, account for strong cross...

  6. An Analysis of Wood Pellets For Export: A Case Study of Sweden as an Importer

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.B. Aruna; Jan G. Laarman; Philip A. Araman; Frederick Cubbage

    1997-01-01

    North America is a major producer of wood pellets, and the principal market for them is domestic residential wood heating. To date, the export market for wood pellets is small. On the other hand , several developments are occurring that may be increasing the foreign demand for biomass fuels. A few North American companies are considering Sweden as a potential export...

  7. Trade, jobs, and wages: Does exporting matter for the poor in South ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Trade, jobs, and wages: Does exporting matter for the poor in South Africa? Hélène Mayrand and Edgard Rodriguez. GGP One-pager series. Toward inclusive growth. In today's globalized world, exporting is one of the key policy strategies to promote employment and higher wages in developing countries. Liberalization of ...

  8. Climate, environmental change and taphonomic processes in the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene of the South-West Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, T. M. V.; Leroy, S.; Lopez-Merino, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Caspian Sea is the largest endorheic lake in the world and is highly sensitive to climate change. During the Pliocene, a thick series of sediments was deposited in the South Caspian Basin that now contains important oil and gas reserves. A reliable, well-dated climate and palaeoenvironment proxy record was created for the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene of the South Caspian Basin in Azerbaijan. We assessed climate cyclicity at the Milankovitch level to test whether a link could be demonstrated between climate and sedimentation patterns in Azerbaijan's primary hydrocarbon producing formations (Productive Series) as well as in the top seal (Akchagyl Formation). Magnetostratigraphy and radiometric dating (40Ar/39Ar on volcanic ashes) of the quasi-marine Akchagyl Formation assigned this section to the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene. Palaeoenvironments were reconstructed using palynology (pollen and dinocysts) and supported by particle size analysis and XRF/stable isotopes. Pollen is used to interpret terrestrial vegetation successions (as a proxy for catchment climate) and dinocysts for conditions within the water body itself (linked to degree of fresh water input, base level variation and inter-basin connectivity). The Akchagyl pollen record shows cyclic vegetation patterns related to obliquity-scale climate forcing. Dinocysts and geochemical proxies also respond to climatic influence, but their behaviour is more strongly influenced by connectivity between the Caspian Sea and adjacent basins. New methods were explored to constrain problems of reworking in deltaic facies deposited during the Pliocene. In particular, quality of the environmental signal was assessed using fluorescence microscopy, as delta assemblages can be dominated by older reworked palynomorphs, obscuring the contemporary environmental signal. Serious issues relating to depositional environments and taphonomy within the Productive Series were highlighted. This must be understood before the local

  9. Price and Income Elasticities of Russian Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardina Algieri

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gauges export demand elasticities for Russia using an Error Correction technique within a cointegration framework. An extended version of the Imperfect Substitutes Model has been implemented to estimate the sensitivity of Russian exports without oil components to price and to Russian and world income. Our results suggest a robust and negative long run cointegration relationship between the real effective exchange rate, defined as the weighted average of the rouble’s exchange rates versus a basket of the three currencies with the largest share in the trade turnover adjusted to incorporate inflation rate differences (the ratio of the domestic price indices to the foreign price indices, and Russian exports. An increase in exports by 24% is caused by a real depreciation by 10%. Furthermore, a 10% growth in world income leads to a 33% rise in exports. Finally, exports drop by 14% whenever a 10% increase in domestic income occurs

  10. Lithuanian Exporters in the Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Rasteniene, Ausra

    2016-01-01

    Using Enterprise Survey data covering the period 2001–2011, the paper investigates the export behavior of Lithuanian firms and changes herein before, during and after the financial crisis. The primary objective is to investigate if there are changes in export behavior such as frequency, intensity......, value and structure, hence focus lies on the results obtained with the standard enterprise survey data that is annual and collected before and after the crisis. The findings show that in a quantitative perspective the financial crisis has only a marginal impact on the long run exporting behavior...... of Lithuanian firms. There are no significant changes in number of exporters and exported percentage and only a small but negative effect on exported value when using simple ANOVA (F-test) analysis or more advanced regression analysis for repeated cross sections and panel data. The impact of the crisis falls...

  11. An Investigation into Factors Impacting on Exports from South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manufacturers face vigorous competition in local and export markets and need to have a genuine competitive advantage in order to grow. The South African government has recognised the importance of developing national manufacturing capacity as a means of increasing employment and reducing poverty. To this end ...

  12. Economic Analysis of Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Export Marketing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive and quantitative analytical techniques i.e. cluster analysis; Gross Margin and Logistic regression .... enterprise. Cluster Analysis. It was hypothesized that “The export marketing channels of fresh fruits and vegetables in Tanzania are not vertically integrated”. Different ..... industry, Journal of Development studies.

  13. Ghanaian Craft Exporters in the Global Market: Binding and Missing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 068

    demonstrates that the ability of small enterprises to develop ties with industry actors (locally and globally) offers ..... Artisans Ghana (ATAG), an official of the Ministry of Trade and Industry in charge of craft export promotion and .... in Brazil and Pakistan, where local firms operating in industrial clusters invested in productive.

  14. Export Marketing Involvement of African Small and Medium Size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent to which small and medium size enterprises (SME's) are engaged in marketing their products in foreign markets is an important factor that can increase their performance in those markets. This study examined the Export marketing involvement of SMEs from the Least Developed Countries using the case study of ...

  15. Pakistan seafood exports: Quick scan of the EU market potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijl, van der W.; Duijn, van A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The Asian region is a major supplier of fish products to the EU market. The aquaculture sector in some Asian countries has become an important producer as well as exporter of white fish and shrimp, especially during the past five years. Within the Asian region CBI is currently developing an

  16. Switching between Domestic Market Activity, Export and FDI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiller, Sanne; Yalcin, Erdal

    -concentration trade-off with a stochastic productivity evolution, we analyze the transition dynamics between domestic market serving, exporting and FDI. We find that a stochastic productivity development generates hysteresis, and thereby confirm a general real option result. Market serving mode switching is driven...

  17. The attitudes of old and young Kenyan garment export processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the current depressing social and economic challenges continue to mount on developing countries today, the younger generation is continuously finding itself pushed into the Export Processing Zones (EPZ) labor market. However, it has not been clear as to how the existing EPZ working conditions influence the ...

  18. British Columbia log export policy: historical review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig W. Shinn

    1993-01-01

    Log exports have been restricted in British Columbia for over 100 years. The intent of the restriction is to use the timber in British Columbia to encourage development of forest industry, employment, and well-being in the Province. Logs have been exempted from the within-Province manufacturing rule at various times, in varying amounts, for different reasons, and by...

  19. What Factors Underlie Vertical and Horizontal Export Diversification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University

    FDI was found to be a key factor to speed-up vertical and horizontal export diversification in East Asia, but only for vertical ..... Source: Own calculation based on the data obtained from UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics (2004) ... developed abroad, these countries managed to improve their production function substantially in ...

  20. Using LMS Method in Smoothing Reference Centile Curves for Lipid Profile of Iranian Children and Adolescents: A CASPIAN Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hoseini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: LMS is a general monitoring method for fitting smooth reference centile curves in medical sciences. They provide the distribution of a measurement as it changes according to some covariates like age or time. This method describes the distribution of changes by three parameters; Mean, Coefficient of variation and Cox-Box power (skewness. Applying maximum penalized likelihood and spline function, the three curves are estimated and fitted and optimum smoothness is expressed by three curves. This study was conducted to provide the percentiles of lipid profile of Iranian children and adolescents by LMS.

     

    Methods: Smoothed reference centile curves of four groups of lipids (triglycerides, total-LDL- and HDL-cholesterol were developed from the data of 4824 Iranian school students, aged 6-18 years, living in six cities (Tabriz, Rasht, Gorgan, Mashad, Yazd and Tehran-Firouzkouh in Iran. Demographic and laboratory data were taken from the national study of the surveillance and prevention of non-communicable diseases from childhood (CASPIAN Study. After data management, data of 4824 students were included in the statistical analysis, which was conducted by the modified LMS method proposed by Cole. The curves were developed with a degree of freedom of four to ten with some tools such as deviance, Q tests, and detrended Q-Q plot were used for monitoring goodness of fit models.

     

    Results: All tools confirmed the model, and the LMS method was used as an appropriate method in smoothing reference centile. This method revealed the distributing features of variables serving as an objective tool to determine their relative importance.

     

    Conclusion: This study showed that the triglycerides level is higher and

  1. Exporting by Migrants and Indigenous Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas; Pişkinsüt Şengüler, Ece

    2016-01-01

    Migrants may become entrepreneurs in their host countries. They may utilize their dual embeddedness in both the home country and the host country, and also use transnational links to gain a competitive advantage in exporting compared to indigenous entrepreneurs. Migrant entrepreneurs’ advantage may...... around the world was surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, which reports on migration and exporting. Hierarchical linear modeling shows that migrant entrepreneurs export more than indigenous entrepreneurs, especially in the first generation, and especially among educated and male migrants...

  2. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intence competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities.Keywords: Exports, Wages, Human Capital, Rent Sharing, Matched Worker-Firm DataJEL Classification: J30, F10, I20...

  3. Molecular investigation of luxA gene to identify luminescent bacteria in Caspian sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mohseni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioluminescence is a chemical reaction that causes light emission in the living organisms. Luminous bacteria are the most abundant bioluminescent organisms in natural environments. Biochemical tests are used for identification of luminous bacteria. However, molecular characterization of luxA gene could be suitable for investigation of luminescent bacteria due to differences in the sequences. In this study, the results of identification of luminescent bacteria were compared to the results of biochemical tests and PCR amplification of luxA using designed specific primers. In addition, thr results were confirmed by sequencing of 16S rDNA gene in the isolated luminescent bacteria. Samples of sea water were collected from several locations of southern shores of the Caspian sea. Luminous bacteria were isolated using specific cultures SWB and SWA. Then, morphological and physiological characterization of the isolates was identified. Specific primers for amplification of luxA were designed and synthesized after classification of luminescent bacteria according to the sequence of luxA. Polymerase chain reaction for luxA and 16S rDNA genes was performed after nucleic acid extraction of bacteria. Sequencing of 16S rDNA gene was obtained and then phylogenetic tree was constructed. Nine strains of luminescent bacteria were isolated from the Caspian sea. According to the results of biochemical tests, 5 strains belonged to the Photobacterium genus and 4 strains belonged to the Vibrio genus. Also, luxA PCR amplification of Aliivibrio, Photobacterium and Vibrio was done in order to specify primers luxA1, luxA2 and luxA3, respectively. In addition, BLAST subroutine of the 16S rDNA sequences revealed that the isolates were most similar to Photobacterium leiognathi with 99% homology. Results of isolates determination are according to the biochemical tests, molecular investigation of PCR luxA using specific primer and 16S rDNA analyses was correspondent. Therefore

  4. 78 FR 35195 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... reactors, nuclear enrichment and reprocessing facilities, heavy water production facilities, related... authority for exports of special nuclear material, source material, byproduct material, deuterium, and...

  5. Export-Orientation of Foreign Manufacturing Affiliates in India: Factors, Tendencies and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Prakash PRADHAN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an important development issue in the literature of international production, namely, what motivates market-seeking foreign direct investment (FDI to undertake export activities. It is well recognized in the concerned literature that export-oriented FDI is more beneficial for the host country than purely domestic market-seeking FDI. However, the existing literature has not examined those factors that could motivate existing market-seeking FDI into export activities. The present study addresses this issue and identifies factors encouraging market-seeking FDI to take up export activities. The empirical analysis of exportorientation of foreign firms in Indian manufacturing across 17 Indian industries during 1991–2005 has brought out several policy issues important for increasing export-orientation of foreign firms in a developing country like India.

  6. Summer eczema in exported Icelandic horses: influence of environmental and genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björnsdóttir Sigríður

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A cross sectional study was designed to estimate the prevalence of summer eczema (a chronic, recurrent seasonal dermatitis in exported Icelandic horses and the influence of environmental and genetic factors on the development of the disease. Among 330 horses, which had been exported to Germany, Denmark and Sweden, 114 (34.5% were found to have clinical signs of summer eczema. The prevalence was highest 2 years after export and the exposure to the biting midges Culicoides spp., was found to be the main risk factor for developing the disease. Genetic influence on the sensitivity for the disease was not established. It was concluded that exported Icelandic horses are predisposed for summer dermatitis and the fact that they are not introduced to the antigens of the biting midges early in live, due to it's absence in Iceland, is likely to explain the high prevalence of the disease after export.

  7. The Effect of Credit on the Export Performance of Colombian Exporters

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Danielken; Roa, Monica

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we use Colombian manufacturing data on exports and external financing for the period 1998 - 2006 to estimate the credit elasticity of exports. We use bank-firm linked data to construct a supply side instrument for a manufacturer's demand of credit, which we use to address the reverse causality between a manufacturer's export revenue and its demand for credit. We find that access to credit produces a significant increase on a manufacturer's export revenue explained by the positiv...

  8. Superstar Exporters: An Empirical Investigation of Strategic Interactions in Danish Export Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciliberto, Federico; Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    to export to a given market. Next, we run two counterfactual exercises. We show that failing to account for the strategic interaction among superstar exporters leads to: (i) overstating the probability that firms would start exporting to a market following tariff elimination by 8 percentage points; and, (ii...

  9. 7 CFR 1488.9a - Evidence of export for commodities delivered before export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Documents Required for Financing § 1488.9a Evidence... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export for commodities delivered before export. 1488.9a Section 1488.9a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued...

  10. Export performance and investment in R&D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Valdemar; Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Dilling-Hansen, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of R&D in the export behaviour of Danish firms. Export behaviour is defined as the export intensity and the likelihood of a firm being an exporter. In the theoretical part of the paper it is argued that export and being R&D active are endogenous with respect to each o...

  11. Determinants of export demand and their stability in Ghana | Osei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the study examines the factors that determine export demand in Ghana for the period 1970 to 2011. Using Johansen cointegration methodology, export demand is cointegrated with real effective exchange rate, domestic export prices, world export prices and real world income. The export demand function exhibits ...

  12. Nuclear RNA export and its importance in abiotic stress responses of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnusamy, V; Gong, Z; Zhu, J-K

    2008-01-01

    Transduction of developmental and environmental cues into the nucleus to induce transcription and the export of RNAs to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) play pivotal roles in regulation of gene expression. The process of bulk export of mRNAs from nucleus to cytoplasm is highly conserved across eukaryotes. Assembly of export-competent mRNA ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) is coupled with both transcription and mRNA processing. The export-competent mRNP consists of mRNAs and a dozen nucleocytoplasmic shuttling nuclear proteins, including RNA export factors (Mex67-Mtr2 heterodimer, Npl3), poly(A)-binding proteins, DEAD-box protein 5 (Dbp5), and nucleoporins (NUPs) in yeast. Mobile NUPs help docking of mRNP to the NPC nuclear basket. A partially unfolded mRNP complex appears to be pulled through the NPC by using energy from Dbp5-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis. Dbp5 probably catalyzes the release of mRNA from mRNP in the cytoplasm. In contrast to bulk export of mRNAs by a Mex67-Mtr2/Npl3-dependent pathway, a specific subset of mRNA export under stress and export of microRNAs are mediated through the karyopherin (importin beta) family of proteins in a Ran-GTPase-dependent pathway. Our knowledge of mRNA export mechanisms in flowering plants is in its infancy. Some proteins of the NUP107-160 complex, NUPs and DEAD-box proteins (DBPs), have been studied in flowering plants. Arabidopsis NUP160/SAR1 plays a critical role in mRNA export, regulation of flowering, and hormone and abiotic stress responses, whereas NUP96/ SAR3/MOS3 is required for mRNA export to modulate hormonal and biotic stress responses. DEAD-box proteins have been implicated in mRNA export and abiotic stress response of yeast and higher plants. Arabidopsis DBP CRYOPHYTE/LOS4 plays an important role in mRNA export, abiotic stress response, germination, and plant development. Further studies on various components of nuclear mRNA export in plants during nonstress and stress conditions will be necessary to

  13. Efficiency of state financial support of export activity of small and medium businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur R. Urumov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to assess the effectiveness and role of state financial support of export activities of small and medium enterprises. Methods regression analysis abstractlogical method method of comparison. Results the need is identified to evaluate the impact of state programs of export support on the results of export operations as a mechanism for assessing the efficiency of public spending in this area. The institutions are analyzed of state support of export of small and medium businesses production in the USA and India. It is revealed that in the US the main tool of support are export credits and guarantees while in India the emphasis is on the promotion of products to the world markets. To assess the effectiveness of public expenditure on export support the data were collected and systematized on the total volume of export and the costs of its support in the United States and India. The project revealed the presence of a time lag between these indices. When building a regression model the method of least squares was applied on the basis of which three hypotheses were investigated namely those taking into account and not taking into account the presence of the time lag between variables. As a result of constructing the model it was found that in the U.S. the increase in budget spending on export support to 1mln leads to an increase in export volume to 2mln. In India the corresponding figure was 10mln. The analysis of the Russian practice of the state support of export of the small and medium businesses production showed a lack of systematic approach and poor development of the small business sector compared to the studied countries. Scientific novelty the positive relationship was revealed between the costs of exports support and export sales in the United States and India. The necessity was grounded of state the financial support of export activities of small and medium enterprises in Russia as well as product promotion through sectoral

  14. Exporting dams: China's hydropower industry goes global.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kristen; Bosshard, Peter; Brewer, Nicole

    2009-07-01

    In line with China's "going out" strategy, China's dam industry has in recent years significantly expanded its involvement in overseas markets. The Chinese Export-Import Bank and other Chinese financial institutions, state-owned enterprises, and private firms are now involved in at least 93 major dam projects overseas. The Chinese government sees the new global role played by China's dam industry as a "win-win" situation for China and host countries involved. But evidence from project sites such as the Merowe Dam in Sudan demonstrates that these dams have unrecognized social and environmental costs for host communities. Chinese dam builders have yet to adopt internationally accepted social and environmental standards for large infrastructure development that can assure these costs are adequately taken into account. But the Chinese government is becoming increasingly aware of the challenge and the necessity of promoting environmentally and socially sound investments overseas.

  15. Biosynthesis of bismuth nanoparticles using Serratia marcescens isolated from the Caspian Sea and their characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, P; Faramarzi, M A; Sepehrizadeh, Z; Mofid, M R; Bazaz, R D; Shahverdi, A R

    2012-06-01

    Today, synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) using micro-organisms has been receiving increasing attention. In this investigation, a bismuth-reducing bacterium was isolated from the Caspian Sea in Northern Iran and was used for intracellular biosynthesis of elemental bismuth NPs. This isolate was identified as non-pigmented Serratia marcescens using conventional identification assays and the 16s rDNA fragment amplification method and used to prepare bismuth NPs. The biogenic bismuth NPs were released by liquid nitrogen and highly purified using an n-octanol water two-phase extraction system. Different characterisations of the purified NPs such as particle shapes, size and purity were carried out with different instruments. The energy-dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns demonstrated that the purified NPs consisted of only bismuth and are amorphous. In addition, the transmission electron micrograph showed that the small NPs formed larger aggregated NPs around <150 nm. Although the chemical syntheses of elemental bismuth NPs have been reported in the literature, the biological synthesis of elemental bismuth NPs has not been published yet. This is the first report to demonstrate a biological method for synthesising bismuth NPs and their purification with a simple solvent partitioning method.

  16. Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Stricto in Dogs and Jackals from Caspian Sea Region, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirzad GHOLAMI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from dogs and jackals in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, and using partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1.Methods: E. granulosus isolates (n = 15 were collected from 42 stray dogs and 16 jackals found in south of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran. After morphological study, the isolates were genetically characterized using consensus sequences (366bp of the cox1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of cox1 nucleotide sequence data was performed using a Bayesian Inference approach.Results: Four different sequences were observed among the isolates. Two genotypes [G1 (66.7% and G3 (33.3%] were identified among the isolates. The G1 sequences indicated three sequence profiles. One profile (Maz1 had 100% homology with reference sequence (AN: KP339045. Two other profiles, designated Maz2 and Maz3, had 99% homology with the G1 genotype (ANs: KP339046 and KP339047. A G3 sequence designated Maz4 showed 100% homology with a G3 reference sequence (AN: KP339048.Conclusion: The occurrence of the G1 genotype of E. granulosus sensu stricto as a frequent genotype in dogs is emphasized. This study established the first molecular characterization of E. granulosus in the province.

  17. The oogenic cycle of the Caspian bent-toed gecko, Cyrtopodion caspium (Squamata: Gekkonidae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Hojati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caspian bent-toed gecko, Cyrtopodion caspium, is one of the commonest lizards in northern Iran. It is nocturnal, anthropophile and oviparous. In this study, the reproductive cycle of this species was studied by focusing on oogenesis, from April 5 to October 20, 2011. In total, 70 adult females were obtained from Mazandaran, one of the northern provinces of Iran where the climate is temperate. Ovaries were removed and processed for histological and morphometric studies. The results show that oocyte growth starts in late April and ends in August. Mating starts in spring, especially at the beginning of May, with oviposition occurring from late May to mid August. Females lay 1-2 eggs per clutch with the possibility of producing a secondary clutch later in the season. Maximum reproductive activity occurs in May and peaks in June. There was no significant difference between right and left side of reproductive system. With oogenesis occurring from April through July, C. caspium follows an oogenic cycle typical for temperate species.

  18. Spatial Distribution Pattern of Cyanobactrial Blooms in Caspian Sea Using MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Masoud

    In the southern part of Caspian Sea, two monstreous Cyanobactrial algal bloom were occurred in Aug-Sep 2005 and Aug 2010. Two ship transects were planed in Aug 2010 and physic-chemical parameters were measured along these transects by Iranian Fisheries Research and Training Organization (IFRTO). Concurrent MODIS data were collected from NASA Direct Active Archive Center (DAAC). Satellite data analysis showed that field chlorophyll have very good correlation with MODIS Chl-a, NDVI and FAI. FAI has the best correlation with field chlorophyll. MODIS NDVI, FAI and FLH vs MODIS Chl-a showed classified patches for non-bloomed off-shore and coastal waters, and bloomed regions. Also, nLw in blue-green-red spectrum over bloomed regions have specific shape and could be identified from non-bloomed regions. Howerev, two algorithms based on MODIS FAI, NDVI, FLH and Chl-a as: Chl-a > 4 mg m-3, FLH FAI 0 were defined and satellite images were classified based on these algorithms. The results showed that classification algorithms for off-shore waters are accurately show the bloom regions but are not valid for coastal waters because of high concentrations of suspended matters which reflect in NDVI images.

  19. Mushroom Poisoning in the Southwest Region of the Caspian Sea, Iran: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Badsar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mushroom poisoning as a medical emergency can be a challengingproblem for physicians. Despite the vast resources of poisonous mushrooms inIran, few studies have been done in this regard, especially in the southwest regionof the Caspian Sea that is very suitable for mushroom growth. Therefore, the aimof this study was to evaluate our experience with mushroom poisoning in thisregion.Methods: This retrospective study reviewed the records of 102 patients who wereadmitted to the Emergency Department of Razi Hospital of Rasht, the only referraldepartment in this region, from May 2006 to May 2011. Data were analyzed byChi-square test, ANOVA, and student’s t-test.Results: The patients’ age ranged from 13 to 75 years and 47 of them were maleand the rest 55 were female. Overall, 57.8% of mushroom poisoning casesoccurred in patients from urban areas. Most incidences were reported betweenSeptember and October, the rainy season in Guilan. Except for four patients withtachycardia, others had stable vital signs. The most frequent symptoms (86.4%were nausea and vomiting. Complete blood cell count revealed that 28.4% of thepatients had leukocytosis but all of them had platelet counts of less than 100000.Conclusions: This study showed that all cases had mild to moderate symptomsthat were treated by simple supportive therapies. This suggested that mushroomspecies in our region are less dangerous but further studies need to establish whattoxins and species are responsible for mushroom toxicity.

  20. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on brain histopathology of Caspian Sea Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiee, Farzaneh; Samiee, Keivandokht

    2017-01-01

    There is limited research on the effect of electromagnetic field on aquatic organisms, especially freshwater fish species. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (50 Hz) exposure on brain histopathology of Cyprinus carpio, one of the important species of Caspian Sea with significant economic value. A total of 200 healthy fish were used in this study. They were classified randomly in two groups: sham-exposed group and experimental group, which were exposed to five different magnetic field intensities (0.1, 1, 3, 5, and 7 mT) at two different exposure times (0.5 and 1 h). Histologic results indicate that exposure of C. carpio to artificial ELF-EMF caused severe histopathological changes in the brain at field intensities ≥3 mT leading to brain necrosis. Field intensity and duration of exposure were key parameters in induction of lesion in the brain. Further studies are needed to elucidate exact mechanism of EMF exposure on the brain.

  1. Dietary Habits and Health Related Behaviors in Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN- IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azizi-Soleiman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity has a growing global epidemic with several risk factors including lifestyle habits, physical activity, and prolonged screen time. This study aimed to compare the dietary habits and self-reported health behaviors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional nationwide study was conducted in the framework of the fourth survey of a national school-based surveillance program, entitled Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non‑communicable disease (CASPIAN-IV Study. Participants were 14,880 students aged 6-18 years from 30 provinces in Iran. The World Health Organization- Global Student Health Survey questionnaire was utilized to assess their relationship with peers, body image, dietary, life-style and smoking habits, physical activity, and violence behaviors. Apart from the questionnaire, additional information on dietary habits was obtained as well. The Chi-square test and the student t-test were used to compare the groups. Results: Boys had higher proportions of obesity (P

  2. Foreign Direct Investment and export performance: The Peruvian experience in the framework of APEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Carhuaricra Ubillus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research measures the impact of APEC economies FDI on Peru's total exports. Solving this question will help us understand the effect that this FDI has on the Peruvian economy through its export capacity, as well as determine whether or not this FDI stimulates an export-oriented industrialization. Using data from  Proinversion, Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism (MINCETUR, Central Reserve Bank, SUNAT, the World Bank and StatsAPEC we developed an ordinary least squares (OLS model  and observed that APEC economies FDI has a positive effect on exports. Specifically, an increase in 1 million soles of APEC FDI generates an increase of 44.37 million soles in exports. However, this positive effect has a decreasing marginal returrn as the investment stock rises.

  3. Enhancing Foreign Consumer Acceptance The Role of Capabilities of Creating Export-Market Oriented Products in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Firmanzah Firmanzah

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to measure the effects of SMEs capabilities on their export performance. This paper offers a model to test the effects of the capabilities of creating export-market oriented products (EMOPs) on increasing SMEs’ export performance. Six hypotheses are developed to analyze causal effects of variables. Using 387 Indonesian SMEs as sample, hypotheses testing highlight the importance of SMEs’ capabilities of building export-market oriented products, which highly fo...

  4. Relationships Between Firm Characteristics and Export Constraints ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationships Between Firm Characteristics and Export Constraints in SME Exporters. Zororo Muranda. Abstract. No Abstract Available Zambezia (2003), XXX (i): 89-107. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/zjh.v30i1.6737.

  5. Determinants Of Vertical And Horizontal Export Diversification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This implies that not all types of natural resource endowment have a 'Dutch disease' effect. While inflation, exchange rate, and foreign aid variables have a mixed effect on vertical and horizontal export diversification, political instability however has a strong adverse effect on export diversification; especially for SSA. The key ...

  6. The Export Promoting Effect of Emigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiller, Sanne

    The theoretical claim that ethnic networks encourage trade has found broad empirical support in the literature on migration, business networks and international trade. Ethnic networks matter for the exporting firm, as they exhibit the potential to lower fixed and variable cost of exporting. This ...

  7. Export subsidies, countervailing duties, and welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ter Wang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a simple Cournot duopoly model, this paper provides an important policy implication for trade disputes involving export subsidies. In this paper, the possibility that a foreign export subsidy could benefit the domestic country as well as the foreign country by appropriately using countervailing duties is identified.

  8. 77 FR 16768 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 20 RIN 0551-AA70 Export Sales Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Office of... frozen box/primal cuts) and distillers dried grain (DDG) to the Export Sales Reporting Requirements, is... from the Office of Management and Budget. DATES: As of March 22, 2012, the proposed rule published...

  9. Export Specialisation and Local Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naude, Wim; Bosker, Maarten; Matthee, Marianne

    This paper aims to provide empirical evidence on whether export specialization or diversification is better for local economic growth. Using export data from 354 magisterial districts of South Africa for 1996 and 2001 we estimate spatial growth regressions that include measures of the degree of

  10. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of tax...

  11. Export marketing strategies: A global communication emphasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper will give a general overview of what is meant by globalisation as well as factors encouraging the globalisation concept. ... If the social aspects are ignored in communicating the values, the business is destined to fail. ... Therefore Exporters are encouraged not to be myopic in managing the export business.

  12. SEA LEVEL AND PALAEOCLIMATIC CHANGES IN THE SOUTH AND MIDDLE CASPIAN SEA REGION SINCE THE LATEGLACIAL FROM PALYNOLOGICAL ANALYSES OF MARINE SEDIMENT CORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Leroy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of pollen, spores, non-pollen palynomorphs and dinocyst analyses made in the last two decades is proposed here. Building on spare palynological analyses before 1990, a series of new projects have allowed taking cores in the deeper parts of the Caspian Sea, hence providing access to low-stand sediment. However, still nowadays no complete record exists for the Holocene. The first steps towards quantification of the palynological spectra have been taken. Some of the most urgent problems to solve are the uncertainties related to radiocarbon dating, which are especially acute in the Caspian Sea.

  13. Parasitic worms of Acipenser stellatus, A. gueldenstaedtii, A. nudiventris and Huso huso (Chondrostei: Acipenseridae) from the southwest shores of the Caspian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Noei, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Sturgeons are the most important fish in the Caspian Sea, but there are only a few reports on their parasite communities in the southern part of this sea. In this study, a total of 93 individuals of four sturgeonspecies, namely Acipenser stellatus (n= 60), A.gueldenstaedtii (n = 12), A. nudiventris (n = 9) and Huso huso (n = 12), were caught in 2 geographical regions from the southwest of the Caspian Sea (Guilan Province,Iran) from March 2010 thtough May 2011. After recording biometric charac...

  14. A European Dilemma: The EU Export Control Regime on Dual-Use Goods and Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Hamed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Export controls for dual-use items are an important constituent element of both the security policies of state exporters and WMD non-proliferation efforts. Dual-use goods and technologies can be used for both civil and military purposes, which requires careful oversight over their export to countries that are considered unfriendly or have ambiguous foreign policy attitudes. By their very nature, dual-use items may be used both to further legitimate ends, like promoting technological development and strengthening economic ties, and to aid in unwarranted acts. State exporters are faced with the responsibility of balancing the security objectives pertaining to exports of dual-use items with the competitiveness of local economies. The paper discusses the EU export control regime and EU membership in international export control groups. In doing so, comparative and normative research methods are chosen to analyze existing literature on Council Regulation 428/2009 and other international export control groups, including the Wassenaar Arrangement, the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR, the Australia Group (AG and the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG. The paper will conclude by identifying shortcomings and addressing possible amendments to the regulation.

  15. The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on the Export Performance: Empirical Evidence for Western Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Nasir Selimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently there are many authors that have studied and analyzed the impact of foreign direct investments (FDI on the export performance. They have different opinions about the effect of foreign direct investments on the export performance. Some of them in their papers conclude that FDI have positive effect on the export performance and some not. There are also findings that FDI do not have any impact on the export performance. Of course for economic benefit of host country it is not important only the amount of FDI, but also their structure. To measure the effect of FDI on the export performance is not easy. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to analyze empirically the foreign direct investments and exports performance during the period of 1996-2013 in Western Balkan countries. The paper also investigates for the fixed effects and individual heterogeneity across countries and years. Based on the panel regression techniques and Least Square Dummy Variable (LSDV regression method, FDI positively affect export performance in the sample countries in various model specifications. The results and conclusions of this paper we hope that will help everybody who are interested and studying this matter, especially the policy makers.  The last ones have the obligation to facilitate and promote the export if they award confirm that FDI contribute on developing their economy.

  16. Influence of export control policy on the competitiveness of machine tool producing organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrstrom, Jeffrey D.

    The possible influence of export control policies on producers of export controlled machine tools is examined in this quantitative study. International market competitiveness theories hold that market controlling policies such as export control regulations may influence an organization's ability to compete (Burris, 2010). Differences in domestic application of export control policy on machine tool exports may impose throttling effects on the competitiveness of participating firms (Freedenberg, 2010). Commodity shipments from Japan, Germany, and the United States to the Russian market will be examined using descriptive statistics; gravity modeling of these specific markets provides a foundation for comparison to actual shipment data; and industry participant responses to a user developed survey will provide additional data for analysis using a Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. There is scarce academic research data on the topic of export control effects within the machine tool industry. Research results may be of interest to industry leadership in market participation decisions, advocacy arguments, and strategic planning. Industry advocates and export policy decision makers could find data of interest in supporting positions for or against modifications of export control policies.

  17. Attributing land-use change carbon emissions to exported biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikku, Laura, E-mail: laura.saikku@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, P.O Box 65, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Soimakallio, Sampo, E-mail: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Pingoud, Kim, E-mail: kim.pingoud@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    In this study, a simple, transparent and robust method is developed in which land-use change (LUC) emissions are retrospectively attributed to exported biomass products based on the agricultural area occupied for the production. LUC emissions account for approximately one-fifth of current greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing agricultural exports are becoming an important driver of deforestation. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies due to their significant deforestation in recent years. According to our study, in 2007, approximately 32% and 15% of the total agricultural land harvested and LUC emissions in Brazil and Indonesia respectively were due to exports. The most important exported single items with regard to deforestation were palm oil for Indonesia and bovine meat for Brazil. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effectively worldwide, leakage of emissions should be avoided. This can be done, for example, by attributing embodied LUC emissions to exported biomass products. With the approach developed in this study, controversial attribution between direct and indirect LUC and amortization of emissions over the product life cycle can be overcome, as the method operates on an average basis and annual level. The approach could be considered in the context of the UNFCCC climate policy instead of, or alongside with, other instruments aimed at reducing deforestation. However, the quality of the data should be improved and some methodological issues, such as the allocation procedure in multiproduct systems and the possible dilution effect through third parties not committed to emission reduction targets, should be considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions from land use changes are highly important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Attribution of land use changes for products is difficult. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple and robust method is developed to attribute land use change emissions.

  18. Macroeconomic Effects of Export Demand in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji Adesola Adesoye

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the macroeconomic effects of aggregate export demand in Nigeria using annual time series data between 1970 and 2013. The paper made use of the ordinary least square method to analyse the long-run relationship for the period under study. The empirical results confirm that there exists a unique and significant long-run equilibrium relationship among export volume, world income, crude oil price, domestic output, exchange rate and cost of doing business. The estimated results show that domestic income has the highest elasticity, followed by world’s output and cost of doing business, which all report positive relations. Other macroeconomic factors reported negative relationship with aggregate export volume. Thus, an important policy implication of our findings is that stabilizing Nigeria’s export earnings potential by counteracting the external factors that influence adversely the Nigerian exports such as crude oil price and cost of doing business.

  19. 75 FR 80456 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...; collection of information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export... marketing activities and collect information on trade opportunities in the Export Markets and distribute... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of application (Application...

  20. The role of canine distemper virus and persistent organic pollutants in mortality patterns of Caspian seals (Pusa caspica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C Wilson

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants are a concern for species occupying high trophic levels since they can cause immunosuppression and impair reproduction. Mass mortalities due to canine distemper virus (CDV occurred in Caspian seals (Pusa caspica, in spring of 1997, 2000 and 2001, but the potential role of organochlorine exposure in these epizootics remains undetermined. Here we integrate Caspian seal mortality data spanning 1971-2008, with data on age, body condition, pathology and blubber organochlorine concentration for carcases stranded between 1997 and 2002. We test the hypothesis that summed PCB and DDT concentrations contributed to CDV associated mortality during epizootics. We show that age is the primary factor explaining variation in blubber organochlorine concentrations, and that organochlorine burden, age, sex, and body condition do not account for CDV infection status (positive/negative of animals dying in epizootics. Most animals (57%, n = 67 had PCB concentrations below proposed thresholds for toxic effects in marine mammals (17 µg/g lipid weight, and only 3 of 67 animals had predicted TEQ values exceeding levels seen to be associated with immune suppression in harbour seals (200 pg/g lipid weight. Mean organonchlorine levels were higher in CDV-negative animals indicating that organochlorines did not contribute significantly to CDV mortality in epizootics. Mortality monitoring in Azerbaijan 1971-2008 revealed bi-annual stranding peaks in late spring, following the annual moult and during autumn migrations northwards. Mortality peaks comparable to epizootic years were also recorded in the 1970s-1980s, consistent with previous undocumented CDV outbreaks. Gompertz growth curves show that Caspian seals achieve an asymptotic standard body length of 126-129 cm (n = 111. Males may continue to grow slowly throughout life. Mortality during epizootics may exceed the potential biological removal level (PBR for the population, but the low

  1. The role of canine distemper virus and persistent organic pollutants in mortality patterns of Caspian seals (Pusa caspica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Susan C; Eybatov, Tariel M; Amano, Masao; Jepson, Paul D; Goodman, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants are a concern for species occupying high trophic levels since they can cause immunosuppression and impair reproduction. Mass mortalities due to canine distemper virus (CDV) occurred in Caspian seals (Pusa caspica), in spring of 1997, 2000 and 2001, but the potential role of organochlorine exposure in these epizootics remains undetermined. Here we integrate Caspian seal mortality data spanning 1971-2008, with data on age, body condition, pathology and blubber organochlorine concentration for carcases stranded between 1997 and 2002. We test the hypothesis that summed PCB and DDT concentrations contributed to CDV associated mortality during epizootics. We show that age is the primary factor explaining variation in blubber organochlorine concentrations, and that organochlorine burden, age, sex, and body condition do not account for CDV infection status (positive/negative) of animals dying in epizootics. Most animals (57%, n = 67) had PCB concentrations below proposed thresholds for toxic effects in marine mammals (17 µg/g lipid weight), and only 3 of 67 animals had predicted TEQ values exceeding levels seen to be associated with immune suppression in harbour seals (200 pg/g lipid weight). Mean organonchlorine levels were higher in CDV-negative animals indicating that organochlorines did not contribute significantly to CDV mortality in epizootics. Mortality monitoring in Azerbaijan 1971-2008 revealed bi-annual stranding peaks in late spring, following the annual moult and during autumn migrations northwards. Mortality peaks comparable to epizootic years were also recorded in the 1970s-1980s, consistent with previous undocumented CDV outbreaks. Gompertz growth curves show that Caspian seals achieve an asymptotic standard body length of 126-129 cm (n = 111). Males may continue to grow slowly throughout life. Mortality during epizootics may exceed the potential biological removal level (PBR) for the population, but the low frequency of

  2. Natural and anthropogenic influences on depositional architecture of the Ural Delta, Kazakhstan, northern Caspian Sea, during the past 70 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarelli, Frederico M.; Cantelli, Luigi; Barboza, Eduardo G.; Gabbianelli, Giovanni

    2017-05-01

    This paper focuses on the Ural Delta in the northern zone of the Caspian Sea, an area with particular characteristics, where intense influence from anthropogenic and natural factors exists, which acts on the fragile delta system. We built a database to integrate the data from the published sources, bathymetric survey, and recent images in the geographical information system (GIS) environment. The results were linked to the Caspian Sea level (CSL) curve, which had many variations, changing the Ural Delta system's dynamics and in its architecture. In addition, the anthropogenic changes contribute to shaping the actual Ural Delta architecture. Through the link between the results and CSL, we reconstructed an evolution model for the Ural Delta system for the last century and identified three different architectures for the Ural Delta, determined by the energy that acted on the system in the last century and by the anthropogenic changes. This work identifies six different delta phases, which are shaped by CSL changes during the last 70 years and by anthropogenic changes. The delta phases recognized are: i) a Lobate Delta phase, shaped during high CSL before 1935; ii) Natural Elongate Delta 1935-1950 formed during rapid CSL fall; iii) Anthropogenic Elongate Delta 1950-1966, formed during rapid CSL fall and after the Ural-Caspian Sea canal construction, which modified the sedimentary deposition on the delta; iv) Anthropogenic Elongate Delta 1966-1982 shaped during low CSL phase; v) Anthropogenic Elongate Delta 1982-1996 formed during a rapid CSL rise phase; and vi) Anthropogenic Elongate Delta 1996-2009 shaped during high CSL that represent the last phase and actual Ural Delta architecture.

  3. CHARACTERISTICS ЩА REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS OF CASPIAN SEAL (PHOCA CASPICA, GMELIN, 1788 IN THE CONDITIONS OF ANTHROPOGENIC PRESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Volodina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. To study the morpho-functional state of reproductive organs of different-age specimens of the Caspian seal. Methods. We have analyzed the organs of the reproductive system of 26 females and 19 males of the Caspian seal, 29 of which are sexually mature specimens and 18 specimens are not sexually mature. The biological material was sampled during specialized research expeditions to the pre-winter herds in October-November 2012, 2014, 2015. The treatment of samples was carried out in accordance with the standard histology techniques.  Results. In organs of the reproductive system of investigated fishes scientists have revealed various pathologies. Sexually maturity of males in testicles had the next violations: hyalinosis of the vessel walls: the absence of the layer of spermatogone: pyknosis of kernels of sperm. Pathologies in tests of immature males were not essential. Sexually maturity females had the signs of glandular endometrial hyperplasia. It is noted the signs of sclerous-cystous ovaries. In the uterus of immature females were revealed pathological changes due to inflammatory reaction; in the feeding substance of the ovaries it was discovered a significant number of interstitial glands. Such violations were registered by a number of authors under chronic intoxication (ecotoxicity. Main conclusions. Immature individuals have not expressed pathological changes, which are less expressed than in older age groups. Increased elimination of germ cells is a result of the damaging effects on the reproductive system of animals. Arduous duty of functioning may cause of the violation of the reproductive potential of the population,that on the background of ecological problem can lead to further reduction in the number of Caspian seal.

  4. Exports of plants for power generation industry. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicki, S.

    1985-10-01

    Development is discussed of exports of power plants and power plant equipment from Poland. Activities of the Megat Union of Machines and Equipment for Power Generation and the Megadex Company for supply of power generation equipment founded in 1976 are described. From 1976 to 1984 exports to COMECON countries increased from 1.3 million rubles to 21.5 million rubles; exports to other countries increased from US 48.6 million to US 166.9 million. Major export projects are described: supply of 2 power blocks with pulverized-fuel boilers (2x55 MW) to the Barauni plant in India, 2 boiler systems for the Paras and Bhusaval plants in India, electrical equipment for the Koradi power plant in India, 5 power plants with a total rated power of 900 MW in Yugoslavia, 1 power plant with a rated power of 2x210 MW in Yatagan, Turkey, construction of a coal-fired power plant with a rated power of 1050 MW in Prunerov, Czechoslovakia, consisting of 5 units each with a rated power of 210 MW (the largest coal-fired power plant in Czechoslovakia), supply of a power block with a rated power of 210 MW to the Yatagan plant in Turkey, supply of 2 coal-fired boilers to the Rourkela power plant in India, construction of a power plant with a rated power of 3x210 MW in Kemerkoey and a coal transport system from the Husamlar mine to the plant in Turkey.

  5. Detecting privatization factors on promoting exports of steel companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen SeyedAliAkbar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Privatization is considered as the transfer of business from the government to the private sector. This process is often accomplished in an attempt to reduce the size of government, increase the productivity and export activities. There is no doubt that in an export oriented economy, government tries to promote expert based activities by making necessary changes on rules and regulations. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors on promoting export in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some experts active in steel industry. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy is equal to 0.839 and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity yields an approximation Chi-Square value of 2485.02 (Sig. = 0.000, df = 276. Using principle component analysis with Varimax rotation, the study has detected five important factors including human resources development, productivity management, marketing management, creating competitive environment and building necessary infrastructures, which influence the most on export activities.

  6. Comparison of waterborne and intraperitoneal exposure to fipronil in the Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii on acute toxicity and histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Alijani Ardeshir

    Full Text Available Fipronil is an effective insecticide widely used in agriculture with potential ecotoxicological consequences. The median lethal dose (LD50 and concentration (LC50 of fipronil in 16.3 g Caspian white fish, Rutilus frisii kutum fingerlings were determined. To determine the LD50, a total of 133 fish were assigned to 19 tanks (7 fish/tank including one control and 6 treatment groups (300, 450, 550, 650, 750, 850 mg/kg. Fish were injected intraperitoneally and monitored at 96 h. The LD50 of fipronil was 632 mg/kg suggesting it was slightly toxic to the Caspian white fish. To determine LC50, 114 fish were assigned to 19 tanks (6 fish/tank including one control and 6 treatment groups (300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 μg/L. The LC50 of fipronil was 572 μg/L, which was highly toxic to the fish. The degree of tissue change (DTC in vital organs from moribund fish exposed via waterborne exposure showed severe damage (DTC: 71 ± 52 for 700 μg/L in the gill, including aneurisms, extensive fusion and necrosis. The fish exposed through the intraperitoneal route seemed to have severe lesions (DTC: 66 ± 50 for 750 mg/kg in the kidney, involving hemorrhage, tubular degeneration and necrosis. The liver had no significant differences in DTC values between the two routes and showed pyknosis and sinusoid dilation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining did not show any histological alterations in the brain but nissl staining showed some alterations in distribution of purkinje cells. Generally, this study showed that the route of exposure to fipronil not only affects its acute toxicity but also determines the main target organs of toxicity and histopathological alterations in Caspian white fish. Keywords: Fipronil, Caspian white fish, Acute toxicity, Administration route

  7. Mass Evolution of Mediterranean, Black, Red, and Caspian Seas from GRACE and Altimetry: Accuracy Assessment and Solution Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, B. D.; Luthcke, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    We present new measurements of mass evolution for the Mediterranean, Black, Red, and Caspian Seas as determined by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) GRACE time-variable global gravity mascon solutions. These new solutions are compared to sea surface altimetry measurements of sea level anomalies with steric corrections applied. To assess their accuracy, the GRACE and altimetry-derived solutions are applied to the set of forward models used by GSFC for processing the GRACE Level-1B datasets, with the resulting inter-satellite range acceleration residuals providing a useful metric for analyzing solution quality.

  8. Kebijakan Rusia Menerapkan Sistem Caspian Pipeline Consorsium (Cpc) Dalam Kerjasama Dibidang Energi Migas Dengan Khazakhstantahun 2010-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Agfa, Robi; Afrizal,

    2016-01-01

    This research describes the policy of Rusia implemented the Caspian Pipeline Concorcium system in oil cooperation Rusia with Khazakhstan in 2010-2014. Oil one of most important for human and nowdays every states need a oil with politics oil. Khazakhstan are one of most country in Centre Asia Region that have big potency in oil, its make a Rusia to create a agreement wiyth Khazakahstan.The research method used was a qualitative with descriptive as a technic of the research. Writer collects dat...

  9. Caucasus and the petroleum stakes of Caspian Sea; Le Caucase et les enjeux petroliers de la Mer Caspienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalillosoltan, N. [Universite de Franche Comte, 25 - Montbeliard (France); Faculte de Droit de Besancon, 25 (France)

    2001-07-01

    The splitting of the former USSR block in 1991 has generated a shock wave in the Caucasus area with the will of all ex-soviet republics to reach their complete independence. Because of the historical and geographical complexity of Caucasus, both geopolitical and human, this disorder has generated even more hazardous results, enhanced by the coveted oil and gas reserves of the Caspian Sea. This article analyses the petroleum stakes as factors of rivalry and instability (sovereignty of oil and gas fields, rivalries about the exploitation and transport of hydrocarbons), but also as factors of cooperation and re-composition. (J.S.)

  10. China’s wood furniture manufacturing industry: industrial cluster and export competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hongqiang; Ji, Chunyi; Nie, Ning; Hong, Yinxing

    2012-01-01

    China is the largest furniture exporter in the world. Its wood furniture industry has become an important part of the country’s forestry economic development. Hence, investigating China’s furniture industry cluster and export competitiveness is favorable for the sustainable development of China’s forestry industry. This study indicates that, under the guidance of the export-oriented strategy of China’s reform and opening up for 30 years, the country’s furniture industry has formed three big i...

  11. A comparative study on export control systems of nuclear technology in ROK and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae, Jae Woong; Shin, Dong Hoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Perfect removal of transferred technology is impossible because it is impossible to find all copies of technologies such as files and documents. International community concerns about Terrorists' acquirement of nuclear technologies related to nuclear reactors, enrichment and reprocessing Facilities and heavy water production facilities, which can be used for production of nuclear weapons. Non-state actors as well as concerning countries have tried to possess nuclear technology for developing nuclear weapons. Non-state actors' activities threaten global nuclear security. Korea exported four nuclear power plants to UAE and a research reactor to Jordan. Non-state actors may try to procure nuclear equipment and technology from Korean nuclear industries. Therefore, the export control system should be enhanced for national nuclear security and safety. In this study, the export control system of Korea and the United States were compared concerning to nuclear technology. In summary, controlled activities related to nuclear technology are treated more variously and more diverse activities are controlled in the United States than In Korea. Catch-all control will lose its effectiveness without this. Related to the control of ITT (Intangible Technology Transfer), Korea and the United States are trying to amend the export control regulation. Both of them are trying to control intangible technology transfers effectively. Revised Foreign Trade Act in Korea is expected to introduce a more rigorous system of nuclear technology controls. It focuses on nationality rather than residence. The revised law may face into other problems such as dual nationals like as the United States. However, this satisfies legislative requirements for control of a deemed export. The revised law will enter into force in 2014. Accurate meanings of technology and export will be defined soon in the enforcement decree and the public notice before 2014. However, it is hard to revise the definition

  12. Nuclear export controls and the CTBT: Where we`ve been and challenges ahead -- Views of an engineer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundy, A.S.

    1998-09-01

    The paper discusses the following topics: the importance of export controls; the uniqueness of nuclear weapons and their export control requirements; ``dual-use`` controls; and recent developments in nonproliferation beyond export control. Also discussed are some non-obvious challenges which include computer modeling and visualization, and fissile material availability and instant nukes. The author concludes by asking the Nuclear Suppliers Group to consider whether there are ways to make its controls more effective.

  13. Latitudinal distributions of particulate carbon export across the North Western Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigcorbé, Viena; Roca-Martí, Montserrat; Masqué, Pere; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia; Rutgers van der Loeff, Michiel; Bracher, Astrid; Moreau, Sebastien

    2017-11-01

    234Th-derived carbon export fluxes were measured in the Atlantic Ocean under the GEOTRACES framework to evaluate basin-scale export variability. Here, we present the results from the northern half of the GA02 transect, spanning from the equator to 64°N. As a result of limited site-specific C/234Th ratio measurements, we further combined our data with previous work to develop a basin wide C/234Th ratio depth curve. While the magnitude of organic carbon fluxes varied depending on the C/234Th ratio used, latitudinal trends were similar, with sizeable and variable organic carbon export fluxes occurring at high latitudes and low to negligible fluxes occurring in oligotrophic waters. Our results agree with previous studies, except at the boundaries between domains, where fluxes were relatively enhanced. Three different models were used to obtain satellite-derived net primary production (NPP). In general, NPP estimates had similar trends along the transect, but there were significant differences in the absolute magnitude depending on the model used. Nevertheless, organic carbon export efficiencies were generally models from Dunne et al. (2005) (D05), Laws et al. (2011) (L11) and Henson et al. (2011) (H11) were also compared to our 234Th-derived carbon exports fluxes. D05 and L11 provided estimates closest to values obtained with the 234Th approach (within a 3-fold difference), but with no clear trends. The H11 model, on the other hand, consistently provided lower export estimates. The large increase in export data in the Atlantic Ocean derived from the GEOTRACES Program, combined with satellite observations and modeling efforts continue to improve the estimates of carbon export in this ocean basin and therefore reduce uncertainty in the global carbon budget. However, our results also suggest that tuning export models and including biological parameters at a regional scale is necessary for improving satellite-modeling efforts and providing export estimates that are more

  14. Quantitative Risk Assessment for African Horse Sickness in Live Horses Exported from South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan S Sergeant

    Full Text Available African horse sickness (AHS is a severe, often fatal, arbovirus infection of horses, transmitted by Culicoides spp. midges. AHS occurs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and is a significant impediment to export of live horses from infected countries, such as South Africa. A stochastic risk model was developed to estimate the probability of exporting an undetected AHS-infected horse through a vector protected pre-export quarantine facility, in accordance with OIE recommendations for trade from an infected country. The model also allows for additional risk management measures, including multiple PCR tests prior to and during pre-export quarantine and optionally during post-arrival quarantine, as well as for comparison of risk associated with exports from a demonstrated low-risk area for AHS and an area where AHS is endemic. If 1 million horses were exported from the low-risk area with no post-arrival quarantine we estimate the median number of infected horses to be 5.4 (95% prediction interval 0.5 to 41. This equates to an annual probability of 0.0016 (95% PI: 0.00015 to 0.012 assuming 300 horses exported per year. An additional PCR test while in vector-protected post-arrival quarantine reduced these probabilities by approximately 12-fold. Probabilities for horses exported from an area where AHS is endemic were approximately 15 to 17 times higher than for horses exported from the low-risk area under comparable scenarios. The probability of undetected AHS infection in horses exported from an infected country can be minimised by appropriate risk management measures. The final choice of risk management measures depends on the level of risk acceptable to the importing country.

  15. Current and Future Challenges for Asian Nonproliferation Export Controls: A Regional Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Scott

    2004-01-01

    .... However, the effectiveness of export control as a tool for limiting the spread of sensitive technologies and weaponry has been compromised by globalization and a complex array of international developments...

  16. Groundwater Head Control of Catchment Nitrate Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolff, A.; Schmidt, C.; Rode, M.; Fleckenstein, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated nutrient fluxes from agricultural catchments affect downstream water resources. A method to assess nutrient fluxes is the evaluation of the export regime. The export regime classifies the relation between concentration and discharge and integrates mobilization as well as retention processes. Solutes can be exported chemostatically (variance of concentration regimes of nitrate in a series of neighboring sub-catchments of the Central German River Bode catchment. We found an accretion pattern of nitrate with increasing concentration when discharge is increasing and thus a chemodynamic export regime. Here we follow a nested approach and have a closer look at the controls of nitrate export in the small (1.4 km2) headwater catchment of the Sauerbach stream. The Sauerbach catchment is dominated by agricultural land use and is characterized by tile drains. We hypothesize that discharge as well as nitrate export is controlled by the groundwater head variability over time. To that end we follow a joint data analysis of discharge, groundwater heads and nitrate concentrations in groundwater, tile drains and surface water. At the gauging station the nitrate export is chemodynamic exhibiting the typical accretion pattern also found at the larger scale. Our data analysis shows that nitrate export regime is in two ways controlled by the depth to groundwater and the groundwater head variability: Discharge increases with increasing groundwater heads due to the activation of tile drains. On the other hand, depth to groundwater and passage through the unsaturated zone is the major control of aquifer nitrate concentration. At wells with larger depth to groundwater nitrate concentrations are significantly lower than at more shallow wells indicating retention processes in the unsaturated zone. Therefore the concentration in the stream increases with increasing heads since the activated tiles drain shallow groundwater with higher nitrate concentrations. We can thus show that the

  17. SPAWNING IN CONDITION OF THE NORTH-WESTERN PART OF THE MIDDLE CASPIAN OF BLACK SEA ACCLIMATIZED FAMILY MUGILIDAE. TWO SPECIES OF THE GENUS LIZA (L. AURATUS AND (L. SALIENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R Adueva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the number of migration changes, adaptive and plastic peculiarities of Mugilidae family two species of grey mullet from Liza family the acclimatization of which in the Caspian Sea formed the shoal of quite valuable marketable fish. Grey mullet sexual puberty in the Caspian Sea happens at the age of 3 or 4. The length and the rate of growth increases. The weight of the Caspian-sea grey mullet is bigger than that of the Black-sea grey mullet.

  18. Damages to soil and tree species by cable-skidding in Caspian forests of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavankar, Farzam; Bonyad, Amir E.; Nikooy, Mehrdad; Picchio, Rodolfo; Venanzi, Rachele; Calienno, Luca

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: The main aims of this study were to determine of damage level to residual stand and soil disturbance from mechanized selection logging. Area of study: Mixed beech stands in Caspian forests, northern Iran. Material and methods: Point-transect and systematic plot sampling were used for assessing damages to soil and trees, respectively. Main results: 89% of forest soil area was undisturbed or shallow disturbed, and 5.2% was deep disturbed. Soil bulk density of top 10 cm in the winching corridors, ruts and skid trails were increased 10.7%, 20.6% and 32.1% respectively than controlled area. Frequency of damages to regeneration and trees were 12% and 11.2%. The frequency of damages to regeneration was increased with increasing of their heights, but frequency of damages to trees was decreased with increasing of their diameter. The most type of damages was bole wounds in sizes of 100 to 200 cm2 within 1 m from the ground level, and deep wounds. The frequency of damages was different in tree species (p = 0.001). The mean size of bole wounds was 174 cm2, and the mean height of bole wounds was 70 cm from ground level. The intensity of wounds on trees bole were decreased with increasing of their heights from ground level (p = 0.02), while their sizes were increased (p = 0.001). Research highlights: Winching of logs was the main cause of damages to soil and residual stand. The detailed planning strategy will reduce damage to level which is acceptable and predictable.

  19. Microbial Community Response to Simulated Petroleum Seepage in Caspian Sea Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Knittel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic microbial hydrocarbon degradation is a major biogeochemical process at marine seeps. Here we studied the response of the microbial community to petroleum seepage simulated for 190 days in a sediment core from the Caspian Sea using a sediment-oil-flow-through (SOFT system. Untreated (without simulated petroleum seepage and SOFT sediment microbial communities shared 43% bacterial genus-level 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic units (OTU0.945 but shared only 23% archaeal OTU0.945. The community differed significantly between sediment layers. The detection of fourfold higher deltaproteobacterial cell numbers in SOFT than in untreated sediment at depths characterized by highest sulfate reduction rates and strongest decrease of gaseous and mid-chain alkane concentrations indicated a specific response of hydrocarbon-degrading Deltaproteobacteria. Based on an increase in specific CARD-FISH cell numbers, we suggest the following groups of sulfate-reducing bacteria to be likely responsible for the observed decrease in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentration in SOFT sediments: clade SCA1 for propane and butane degradation, clade LCA2 for mid- to long-chain alkane degradation, clade Cyhx for cycloalkanes, pentane and hexane degradation, and relatives of Desulfobacula for toluene degradation. Highest numbers of archaea of the genus Methanosarcina were found in the methanogenic zone of the SOFT core where we detected preferential degradation of long-chain hydrocarbons. Sequencing of masD, a marker gene for alkane degradation encoding (1-methylalkylsuccinate synthase, revealed a low diversity in SOFT sediment with two abundant species-level MasD OTU0.96.

  20. The Competitiveness of Romanian Services Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Grigorovici

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Romania carried on significant progresses in its intercession to fetch up the gaps towards the European Union concerning the services compartment, the balance of those being of almost 10% from the total Romanian export, during the first semester of 2007. In 2006, the export of services increased with 45% comparatively to the year before, consolidating the status of our country as a services exporter. The IT left its mark on the structure and organizing method of the tertiary compartment and ameliorated the form in which the services were performed in the context of enhanced electronic transfers.

  1. Exporting licensing regulations affecting US geothermal firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-01

    This document presents a brief introduction and overview of the Department of Commerce's Export Administration Regulations which might affect potential US geothermal goods exporters. It is intended to make US geothermal firms officials aware of the existence of such regulations and to provide them with references, contacts and phone numbers where they can obtain specific and detailed information and assistance. It must be stressed however, that the ultimate responsibility for complying with the above mentioned regulations lies with the exporter who must consult the complete version of the regulations.

  2. Extensive Margins of Offshoring and Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    This paper derives new comparative statics within a two-country version of the recent offshoring model by Antràs, Fort, and Tintelnot (2014) with nonprohibitive costs of exporting final goods. One key finding is that an asymmetric trade liberalisation might very well imply that the fractions...... of offshorers and exporters increase in one country and decrease in the other country. This model outcome occurs when competition enhances in a country experiencing a decline in its costs of international trade. The fractions of offshorers and exporters certainly increase in a small open economy experiencing...

  3. Import-push or Export-pull?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import- "push" hypothesis as well as the export- "pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade......Does the selection effect of trade work solely through competition from imports, or does the export market further contribute to firm selection? This paper provides a re-interpretation of the different mechanisms in terms of selection on profitability - rather than productivity - and derives novel...

  4. Import-push or Export-pull?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import-"push" hypothesis as well as the export-"pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade......Does the selection effect of trade work solely through competition from imports, or does the export market further contribute to firm selection? This paper provides a re-interpretation of the different mechanisms in terms of selection on profitability - rather than productivity - and derives novel...

  5. State support of the high-tech exports: comparative analysis and lessons for Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgen Panchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the natural increase in the share of high-tech exports in the overall world exports and trade in general is revealed. The trends in geographical and industrial developments of a high-tech exports in 2004-2015 are shown in the world, developed countries and the EU. Based on the study of dynamics of the high-tech exports of the leading countries in general, as well as engineering products segment, the basic models of state regulation in this sphere are identified i.e. active dirigisme, moderate dirigisme and liberalism. The experience of maintaining a high-tech exports to the US, Germany, Britain, Japan, South Korea and China is summarized. The tendencies of high-tech exports of Ukrainian enterprises in industries such as aerospace engineering, electronics and telecommunications, scientific instruments, computer and office appliances, as well as military industrial products were analyzed. The directions of forming the state support of domestic exporters of high-tech products were identified.

  6. Essays on China’s Exports to East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Qian

    exports to Ethiopia, including their increased market shares and expanded product penetrations. It further provides formal measures of “sophistication” of Chinese exports to this market, relative to both exports sourced from other major exporters such as the EU, and China’s overall exports. Findings...... investigate why China’s exports to Ethiopia are less sophisticated as compared to its overall exports in both across- and within-product dimensions, an observation that might help explain rapid expansions of Chinese exports. Using detailed customs export statistics from China, identifiable by Chinese...... index and preferences should be attached to the within-product measures. The last paper in this thesis departs from the Ethiopia focus in order to investigate how China’s expanded exports to the EAC impacted the EAC’s traditional export supplier, notably the EU. This is an equally important issue...

  7. Determination of danger categories of chisel waste, which are made by investigation and operation of oil-and-gas deposits in the Caspian Sea basin by calculation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gadzhiyev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article there is undertaken the attempt to define danger categories of the chisel solutions formed at investigation and operation of oil-and-gas deposits in Caspian sea basin by making calculations. Definition of a danger category was made in view of their initial structure and at various stages of drilling.

  8. Ground communities of the Dagestan coast of Caspian Sea in conditions of transgression of the sea and invasy of the Ctenophora Mnemiopsis Leidyi (A. Agassiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Ustarbekov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Benthic biocenoses of the Dagestan area of the Caspian Sea were studied. Considered distribution, composition and structure benthic in connection with observed change in environmental conditions. Special attention is given influence Mnemiopsis leidyi (A. Agassiz on condition zoobenthic.

  9. The effects of different levels of Beta Plus on growth performance, microbial flora and blood parameters of Caspian trout, Salmo caspius (Kessler, 1877

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Krimzadeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Beta plus probiotic, a mixture of Bacillius leicheniformic and Bacillius subtilis, on the growth performance and intestinal microbial flora of Caspian trout (Salmo caspius. A basal diet was formulated and supplemented with Beta plus at 0, 0.5 and 1 g kg-1, leading to three experimental diets. Each experimental diet was randomly assigned to quadruple 1500 L tanks. The Caspian trout with an initial weight of 108.7 ± 1.8 g were randomly distributed in the experimental tanks. The results showed that inclusion of dietary Beta plus significantly increased the final weight and specific growth rate (SGR of Caspian trout compared to those the control treatment. The feed conversion ratio (FCR was also improved significantly after probiotic administration to the experimental fish. However, the body composition and blood parameters were not influenced by the probiotic inclusion. Total count of Gram positive and negative bacteria in the intestine of the fish increased by feeding on diet contained 1 g kg-1 Beta Plus (P<0.05. In conclusion, administration of the probiotic Beta plus can improve the nutrient efficiency and growth performance of Caspian trout confirming the positive effect of a mixture of Bacillus spp.

  10. NEW DATA ON COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NOCTUID MOTHS (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE OF THE ISLANDS TULENEI, CHECHEN AND NORDOVIY OF THE NORTH-WESTERN CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The work gives the species composition and geographical distribution of the noctuid moths (Lepidoptera,Noctuidae of the islands Tulenei, Chechen and Nordoviy of the north-western Caspian sea. Provides a list of common species of moths for all three of the Islands, as well as the list of rare with small populations of species.

  11. Intraperitoneal fipronil effects on liver histopathological, biochemistry and morphology in Caspian kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum (Kamenskii, 1901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alijani Ardeshir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fipronil is a relatively new insecticide in agriculture with health and environmental effects. This is the first report studying effect of fipronil on fish administered via intraperitoneal route. Intraperitoneal LD50  of fipronil in 16.3 g Caspian kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum, fingerlings was determined using a total of 133 fish in 19 tanks (7 fish/tank including one control and 6 treatment groups (300, 450, 550, 650, 750, 850 mg/kg. Fish were injected intraperitoneally and monitored at 96 h. The LD50 of fipronil was 632 mg/kg in Caspian kutum. Sub-lethal test doses of 10, 20, and 30% of the LD50 at 96 h were used to assess the effect of fipronil on the fish’s liver.  The blood plasma of 90 fish were used (18 at each test dose and in controls on days 7 and 14 for biochemistry. The hepatosomatic index (HSI of the livers were obtained and histopathology done on the same days. Pyknosis, sinusoid dilation and vacuolization were common histological changes, and these changes became more severe in a time and dose dependent manner. This dependence was also observed for HSI and the liver biochemical test (alanine and aspartate transaminase. Liver histological alterations showed that fipronil can be a potential factor in liver carcinoma.

  12. Morphological variations in stomata, epidermal cells and trichome of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. in Caspian ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Akbarinia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many rare and important species such as sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. in Caspian ecosystem which could be regarded as unique characteristics by plant biologists. Habitat destruction had strong adverse effects on sweet chestnut in the Hyrcanian forest. Unfortunately, had been adequate research on the species. In our current research, trichome and stomata morphology of C. sativa in the Hyrcanian forest were surveyed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and the results were compared with that of the European C. sativa. Furthermore, phenotypic variation of the three natural populations of the species (Siahmazgi, Ghalerodkhan and Visrod was evaluated by stomata morphometrics. Large and small diameters of stomata, area and frequency of stomata and stomata area index were studied. Finally, nested ANOVA was performed. The results showed that stomata type was anomocytic with simple Unicellular, Stellate and fasciculate trichomes on the abaxial surface. There were clear differences between Caspian and European populations of sweet chestnut. As for population variability, statistical analysis of stomata diameters showed significant differences. The three Hyrcanian populations, however, could not be separated. In line with past research, the Ghalerodkhan population showed clear variation but verifying, the hypothesis molecular markers are necessary.

  13. The Balance-of-Payments-Constrained Growth Model and the Limits to Export-Led Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Blecker

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how A. P. Thirlwall's model of balance-of-payments-constrained growth can be adapted to analyze the idea of a "fallacy of composition" in the export-led growth strategy of many developing countries. The Deaton-Muellbauer model of the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS is used to represent the adding-up constraints on individual countries' exports, when they are all trying to export competing products to the same foreign markets (i.e. newly industrializing countries are exporting similar types of manufactured goods to the OECD countries. The relevance of the model to the recent financial crises in developing countries and policy alternatives for redirecting development strategies are also discussed.

  14. Exporting "failure": why research from rich countries may not benefit the developing world Exportando "fracasso": porquê a pesquisa de países desenvolvidos pode não beneficiar os países em desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jaime Miranda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The '10/90 gap' was first highlighted by the Global Forum for Health Research. It refers to the finding that 90% of worldwide medical research expenditure is targeted at problems affecting only 10% of the world's population. Applying research results from the rich world to the problems of the poor may be a tempting, potentially easy and convenient solution for this gap. This paper had the objective of presenting arguments that such an approach runs the risk of exporting failure. Health interventions that are shown to be effective in the specific context of a Western industrialized setting will not necessarily work in the developing world.La brecha 10/90, establecida por el Global Forum for Health Research, enfatiza que el 90% del gasto global en investigación médica está orientada a problemas que afectan solo al 10% de la población mundial. El aplicar los resultados de investigaciones de los países desarrollados a los problemas de los países pobres podría resultar en un una solución conveniente, potencialmente fácil y tentadora para esta brecha. En este artículo, argumentamos que tal aproximación acarrea el riesgo de exportar fracasos. Las intervenciones de salud que demuestran ser efectivas en el contexto de un país desarrollado no implican, necesariamente, que funcionará en los países en desarrollo.O "gap 10/90" foi inicialmente apontada pelo Global Forum for Health Research. Refere-se ao achado de que 90% dos gastos mundiais em pesquisa médica é voltada a problemas que afetam apenas 10% da população mundial. Resultados de pesquisa aplicáveis provenientes dos países ricos aos problemas dos pobres poderiam ser uma solução tentadora, conveniente e potencialmente fácil para solução desse gap. O artigo teve por objetivo apresentar argumentos de que tal abordagem acarretaria o risco de exportar fracassos. Intervenções em saúde que se mostram efetivas no contexto específico de um país ocidental industrializado

  15. Automatic Export of PubMed Citations to EndNote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Sue; Gurdal, Osman; Gall, Carole

    2010-04-01

    The export of MEDLINE references to EndNote can be accomplished in various ways. Unlike Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed does not have a direct export feature to EndNote. Until recently, PubMed references had to be saved as a text file to import into EndNote. Now, the automatic export of PubMed references can be done using Internet Explorer (IE) or Mozilla Firefox Web browsers. The development and teaching of seamless citation management is a value-added service to health professionals.

  16. The topology of African exports: Emerging patterns on spanning trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Tanya; Ferreira, Manuel Ennes

    2016-11-01

    This paper is a contribution to interweaving two lines of research that have progressed in separate ways: network analysis of international trade and the literature on African trade and development. Gathering empirical data on African countries has important limitations and so does the space occupied by African countries in the analysis of trade networks. Here, these limitations are dealt with by the definition of two independent bipartite networks: a destination share network and a commodity share network. These networks-together with their corresponding minimal spanning trees-allow to uncover some ordering emerging from African exports in the broader context of international trade. The emerging patterns help to understand important characteristics of African exports and its binding relations to other economic, geographic and organizational concerns as the recent literature on African trade, development and growth has shown.

  17. Migrant entrepreneurship, economic activity and export performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Baklanov, Nikita; Brambini-Pedersen, Jan Vang

    Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship) suggest that migrant entrepreneur play an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants...... and non-migrants and is primarily anecdotal in nature (Saxenian, 2002; 2006, Ruzzlier et al, 2007; Honig and Drori, 2010, Drodi et al, 2010)). This paper aims at reducing this gap by mapping the recent changes in the role of migrant entrepreneurs as a source of increased economic activity and export...... in across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different ethnic categories that exports. The Danish context provides unique data allowing for a comparison across migrants and non-migrants, across sectors and across time. The paper reveals that migrants play a decreasing...

  18. How Important is Export-Platform FDI?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geishecker, Ingo; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    This paper investigates the link between export performance and multinational enterprise presence utilizing trade and industry data for Polish manufacturing industries for the years 1994-2002. Decomposing trade into final and intermediate goods and assessing the impact of foreign-owned capital...... on the respective export performance of Polish industries, we suggest a significant role of export-platform FDI into Poland, while the importance of FDI for vertical integration is limited suggesting that the sourcing of intermediate goods from Poland primarily occurs through arm's-length contractual outsourcing...... instead of in-house sourcing of multinational enterprises. The paper also suggests that over the sample period, where Poland has evolved into a relatively stable economic environment, the role of export-platform FDI has increased significantly.  ...

  19. Specialization across goods and export quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alcalá, Francisco

    .... In equilibrium, each country exports a range of qualities for each good that overlaps with the ranges of other countries following patterns that relate to wage differences, trade frictions, and absolute advantage...

  20. How do exporters respond to antidumping investigations?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Yi; Tao, Zhigang; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    .... antidumping investigations. We find that antidumping investigations cause a substantial decrease in the total export volume at the HS-6 digit product level, and that this trade-dampening effect is due to a significant decrease...

  1. Equipment Manufacturers, Importers, and Exporters: Frequent Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the US continues to phase out HCFCs, equipment manufacturers, importers, and exporters will need to adapt to the changing market demand for equipment. This page provides these groups with information on their responsibilities under the regulations.

  2. Quantifying the potential export flows of used electronic products in Macau: a case study of PCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Danfeng; Song, Qingbin; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Jinhui; Duan, Huabo; Wang, Jinben; Wang, Chao; Wang, Xu

    2017-12-01

    The used electronic product (UEP) has attracted the worldwide attentions because part of e-waste may be exported from developed countries to developing countries in the name of UEP. On the basis of large foreign trade data of electronic products (e-products), this study adopted the trade data approach (TDA) to quantify the potential exports of UEP in Macau, taking a case study of personal computers (PCs). The results show that the desktop mainframes, LCD monitors, and CRT monitors have more low-unit-value trades with higher trade volumes in the past 10 years, while the laptop and tablet PCs, as the newer technologies, owned the higher ratios of the high-unit-value trades. During the period of 2005-2015, the total mean exports for used laptop and tablet PCs, desktop mainframes, and LCD monitors were approximately 18,592, 79,957, and 43,177 units, respectively, while the possible export volume of used CRT monitors was higher, up to 430,098 units in 2000-2010. Noticed that these potential export volumes could be the lower bound because not all used PCs may be shipped using the PC trade code. For all the four kinds of used PCs, the majority (61.6-98.82%) of the export volumes have gone to Hong Kong, followed by Mainland China and Taiwan. Since 2011, there was no CRT monitor export; however, the other kinds of used PC exports will still exist in Macau in the future. The outcomes are helpful to understand and manage the current export situations of used products in Macau, and can also provide a reference for other countries and regions.

  3. Export opportunities for Czech companies in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Otta, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of the theses is to analyze economic cooperation of Czech republic and Canada. There is a particular information about Canadian economical and political setting as well as local business environment. The theses places emphasis on how to help Czech exporters trading with Canada, and gives complete overview of opportunities for export, entrance to the market and helps to understand local business customs.

  4. Multinational Retailers and Home Country Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Cheptea, Angela; Emlinger, Charlotte; Latouche, Karine

    2012-01-01

    This paper questions whether the overseas expansion of a country’s retailers fosters overall bilateral exports towards these host markets. To address this question, we consider an empirical trade model, where the foreign sales of multinational retailers reduce the fixed and variable trade costs of their co-national firms towards the same destination markets. We test our model with data on bilateral exports on a large panel of countries and the foreign sales of world’s largest one hundred reta...

  5. Non-price competitiveness of exports from emerging countries

    OpenAIRE

    Benkovskis, Konstantins; Wörz, Julia

    2013-01-01

    We analyse EMEs global competitiveness whereby we explicitly take account of non-price aspects of competitiveness building on the methodology developed in Feenstra (1994) and Broda and Weinstein (2006) and the extension provided in Benkovskis and Wörz (2012). We construct an export price index which adjusts for changes in the set of competitors (variety) and changes in non-price factors (quality in a broad sense) for a set of nine large emerging economies (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, Ind...

  6. A new South Africa: coal exports in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botha, R.F. [Ministry of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa)

    1995-11-01

    Discusses aspects of the coal industry in South Africa particularly in the light of the recent political changes i.e. the ending of apartheid and the election of the South African Government of National Unity. Areas covered include: increased foreign investment; the Government`s Reconstruction and Development Programme; improved health and safety; production of coal based liquid fuels; coal reserves; power generation; and exports and terminal facilities.

  7. Top-down and bottom-up interactions influence fledging success at North America’s largest colony of Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, Stefanie; Roby, Daniel D.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2017-01-01

    Our study investigated the influence of bottom-up and top-down drivers on the declining fledging success at a once thriving breeding colony of Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia). Situated at the mouth of the Columbia River, OR, East Sand Island (ESI) is home to the largest Caspian tern breeding colony in North America. Since 2001, the decline in fledging success of Caspian terns at ESI has been associated with a significant increase in average river discharge during May and June. During the years 2001–2011, the abundance of forage fish available to terns in the estuary was inversely related to river discharge. This relationship also apparently affected the reliance of nest predators on the tern colony as a food source, resulting in increased disturbance and decreased fledging success at the tern colony in years of higher river discharge. There was a significant longitudinal increase in disturbance rates by bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) during June for terns nesting at the ESI colony, and eagle disturbance rates were positively associated with May river discharge. We also found a significant increase in kleptoparasitism rates of terns by hybrid glaucous-winged/western gulls (Larus glaucescens x Larus occidentalis) since 2001, and Caspian tern fledging success at ESI decreased with increasing average annual rates of gull kleptoparasitism. Our results support the hypothesis that the decline in Caspian tern fledging success at this large estuarine colony was primarily driven by the interaction of bottom-up and top-down factors, influencing tern fledging success through the food supply and triggering potential predators to identify the tern breeding colony as an alternative source of prey.

  8. The effect of sublethal concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of crude oil on the chemosensory function of Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus (YAKOVLEV, 1870).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Ebrahim; Abtahi, Behrooz; Hashtroudi, Mehri Seyed; Mohaddes, Effat; Døving, Kjell B

    2015-08-01

    The water-soluble fraction of crude oil is a complex and toxic mixture of hydrocarbons. Because aquatic organisms directly encounter it, the water-soluble fraction plays an important role in the toxicity of crude oil in aquatic environments. To determine whether fish are attracted to or avoid the water-soluble fraction, Caspian roaches (Rutilus caspicus) were exposed to different concentrations of the water-soluble fraction in a choice maze apparatus. The results showed that Caspian roaches can detect and avoid 2 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction. To study the effect of the water-soluble fraction on the olfactory function of fish, Caspian roaches were exposed to 3.2 mg/L and 16 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction for 96 h; afterward, exposed fish encountered food extract in a choice maze apparatus. The present study showed that the water-soluble fraction significantly impairs the olfactory function of roaches. To investigate the effect of olfactory system dysfunction on the feeding behavior of fish, Caspian roaches were exposed to 3.2 mg/L and 16 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction. After 4 d, 8 d, and 12 d of exposure, the feeding behavior toward the food extract was tested. The results showed that both 3.2 mg/L and 16 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction suppress the feeding behavior of Caspian roaches. The present study demonstrates that sublethal concentrations of crude oil's water-soluble fraction impair the olfactory function of fish and consequently suppress the feeding behavior. © 2015 SETAC.

  9. 75 FR 54857 - President's Export Council, Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Recruitment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... possible adverse impact export controls may have on U.S. industry. The PECSEA provides the Government with... satellites, high performance computers, telecommunications, aircraft, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals. To...

  10. 75 FR 47548 - President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Recruitment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... possible adverse impact export controls may have on U.S. industry. The PECSEA provides the Government with... satellites, high performance computers, telecommunications, aircraft, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals. To...

  11. THE IMPACT OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT ON EXPORT PERFORMANCE: CASE OF EUROPEAN TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Mitic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important conditions for succesful prosess of economy restructuring and efficient return into the global market framework of transition countries from Central and Eastern Europe, including Balkans region, is opening of these economies towards foreign investors. Export orientation of multinational companies has a significant impact on transition economies, especially from the Balkans, which are still fragile and exposed to different pressures. European integration processes also had the great effect, especially on the changes in the foreign trade exchange of transition economies and countries which were able to strengthen the exports sector and provide high level of exports, have gone through the process of transition more quickly and easily. The research presented in this paper is focused on the effects of foreign direct investments (FDI in the last two decades, regarding relation of FDI to the export of goods and high-tech exports in transition economies, based on correlation analysis and including time-lag of one year. This analysis is covering eleven transition countries that are currently at different levels of economic development. As an imperative and guideline for the future, remains the focus on export oriented foreign direct investments, in order to harmonize two strategies on two fields: export competitiveness and attracting FDI.

  12. An application of seasonal ARIMA models on group commodities to forecast Philippine merchandise exports performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natividad, Gina May R.; Cawiding, Olive R.; Addawe, Rizavel C.

    2017-11-01

    The increase in the merchandise exports of the country offers information about the Philippines' trading role within the global economy. Merchandise exports statistics are used to monitor the country's overall production that is consumed overseas. This paper investigates the comparison between two models obtained by a) clustering the commodity groups into two based on its proportional contribution to the total exports, and b) treating only the total exports. Different seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models were then developed for the clustered commodities and for the total exports based on the monthly merchandise exports of the Philippines from 2011 to 2016. The data set used in this study was retrieved from the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) which is the central statistical authority in the country responsible for primary data collection. A test for significance of the difference between means at 0.05 level of significance was then performed on the forecasts produced. The result indicates that there is a significant difference between the mean of the forecasts of the two models. Moreover, upon a comparison of the root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) of the models, it was found that the models used for the clustered groups outperform the model for the total exports.

  13. Export of carbon from chloroplasts at night

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleucher, J.; Vanderveer, P.J.; Sharkey, T.D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Hexose export from chloroplasts at night has been inferred in previous studies of mutant and transgenic plants. The authors have tested whether hexose export is the normal route of carbon export from chloroplasts at night. The authors used nuclear magnetic resonance to distinguish glucose (Glc) made from hexose export and Glc made from triose export. Glc synthesized in vitro from fructose-6-phosphate in the presence of deuterium-labeled water had deuterium incorporated at C-2, whereas synthesis from triose phosphates caused C-2 through C-5 to become deuterated. In both tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and bean (phaseolus vulgaris L.), Glc from sucrose made at night in the presence of deuterium-enriched water was deuterated only in the C-2 position, indicating that >75% of carbon is exported as hexoses at night. In darkness the phosphate in the cytosol was 28 mM, whereas that in the chloroplasts was 5 mW, but hexose phosphates were 10-fold higher in the cytosol than in the chloroplasts. Therefore, hexose phosphates would not move out of chloroplasts without the input of energy. The authors conclude that most carbon leaves chloroplasts at night as Glc, maltose, or higher maltodextrins under normal conditions.

  14. Sudanese live sheep and mutton exports competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babiker Idris Babiker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector of Sudan provides livelihood for about 17% of the population. Sudanese livestock products meet the domestic demand for meat in addition to a substantial excess for export amounting to about 22% of total country exports. It contributes about 19% of GDP. Sheep marketing in Sudan is characterised by traditional operations and is informally organised, although, recently there are great efforts by the formal livestock authorities to organise some secondary and terminal livestock markets. These markets are deficient in basic infrastructures and systematic marketing research. The system as a whole is faced by various complex obstacles and constraints, which decrease the contribution of livestock in general, and sheep in particular, to the national economy, and suppress the optimum exploitation of this resource. These obstacles are represented in the lack of transportation networks that connect the production and consumption centres to break the seasonality of supply that creates shortages and high prices at the consumption centres. This paper employs the policy analysis matrix (PAM technique to examine the Sudanese live sheep and mutton competitiveness in the international market. The results indicated that the market price was greater than the border price implying a positive incentive as an implicit subsidy to the live sheep exporter. The mutton exporters were found subsidised as well. The international value added (IVA indicted a positive foreign exchange earnings or savings. Exported live sheep and mutton coefficient of competitiveness (CIC implied that sheep and mutton exports are profitable and internationally competitive.

  15. 75 FR 8040 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ...; Akulurak LLC, Seattle, Washington; Romanzoff Fishing Company, Seattle, Washington; Beauty Bay Washington... prices at which export product will be sold in export markets; b. Establish standard terms of sale of export product; c. Establish standard quality grades for export product; d. Establish target prices for...

  16. 27 CFR 28.267 - Exportation from interior port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exportation from interior... Exportation from interior port. Where a shipment made under this part is to be exported to a contiguous... exportation at an interior customs port. Subject to such approval, the inspection and supervision of lading...

  17. Firm-Level Determinants of Exporting Behaviour: Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper uses firm-level panel data to investigate the exporting behaviour of the Kenyan manufacturing firms. Using probit and tobit regression models, the results obtained show that factors determining the decision to export are different from those affecting the share exported. Likewise, factors determining exporting ...

  18. Causality between Exports and Economic Growth: Investigating Suitable Trade Policy for Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujaat ABBAS

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates causal relationship between GDP and exports for the period of 1975 to 2010. The aim of this study is to check affectivity of export promotion policy adopted by Pakistan during 1990s. Johansen test of Cointegration and Granger Causality employed to determine short run and long run causality. The result of Cointegration reveals existence of one positive cointegrating equation. The result of Causality test show short run and long run causality run from GDP to exports. The result concludes that both in short and long run only growth in production cause exports growth. Government should attempt to develop production side, which in long run develop trade and economy.

  19. Oceanographic and meteorological data from meteorological sensors and bottle/rosette/net and CTD taken from Russian vessels in the Caspian, Azov and Black Seas from 1897 to 2012 (NODC Accession 0117429)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruises took place from May 1897 to December 2012 in the Caspian, Azov and Black Seas. Russian vessels were used to collect data in the open sea. Small boats were...

  20. Oceanographic and meteorological data from various meteorological sensors and bottle/rosette/net taken from several Russian vessels in Caspian, Black and Azov Seas from 18 April, 1952 to 7 December, 2012 (NCEI Accession 0117731)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruises took place from 18 April 1952 to 7 December 2012 in Caspian, Black and Azov Seas. Various vessels were used to collect data in the open sea. Data collection...