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Sample records for casogastrointestinal estromal tumor

  1. Tumor gástrico estromal como causa de sangrado digestivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Arroyo-Martínez; Humberto Álvarez-Pertuz; Jorge Acuña-Calvo

    2006-01-01

    Los tumores gastrointestinales de la mesénquima (llamado tumores del músculo liso) se han clasificado como benignos (leiomiomas) o malignos (leiomiosarcomas). Más recientemente se les ha denominado Tumores Gástricos Estromales o GIST (Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors). En estos tumores pueden abarcar desde la faringe hasta el canal anal, ya que comparten su origen embriológico. Los GIST muestran una gran variedad de manifestaciones clínicas, como lo son: sangrado digestivo, obstrucción o perfo...

  2. Tumor gástrico estromal como causa de sangrado digestivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Arroyo-Martínez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Los tumores gastrointestinales de la mesénquima (llamado tumores del músculo liso se han clasificado como benignos (leiomiomas o malignos (leiomiosarcomas. Más recientemente se les ha denominado Tumores Gástricos Estromales o GIST (Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors. En estos tumores pueden abarcar desde la faringe hasta el canal anal, ya que comparten su origen embriológico. Los GIST muestran una gran variedad de manifestaciones clínicas, como lo son: sangrado digestivo, obstrucción o perforación intestinal, anemia, dolor abdominal, masa abdominal, pérdida de peso, entre otras, de las cuales el sangrado digestivo es la presentación más común. La incidencia de estos tumores es infrecuente, oscila entre el 0,1% y el a 3% de las neoplasias malignas gastrointestinalesi y son notables por la dificultad con la cual se puede realizar un diagnóstico patológico contundente de malignidad, ya que su histología es muy variable. Aquellos con metástasis a otros órganos o invasión por continuidad a órganos vecinos son claramente malignos; pero entre los otros tumores estromales, solo aquellos con 2 ó más características de alto riesgo, como lo son: presencia de un alto conteo de mitosis por campo, pleomorfismo nuclear marcado, margen infiltrativo, coagulación espontánea, necrosis del tumor y gran tamaño, son considerados como malignos. Aquellos con una sola característica son clasificados como potencialmente malignos. El diagnóstico preoperatorio puede resultar difícil y a menudo se realiza transoperatoriamente. Los estudios de imágenes, estudios con contraste y endoscópicos pueden ayudar en el diagnóstico de la masa tumoral. La resección quirúrgica con propósito curativo es el tratamiento de elección. Se presenta aquí el caso de una paciente de 39 años, sin antecedentes personales patológicos de importancia, quien ingresa al Servicio de Emergencias del Hospital San Rafael de Alajuela con historia de hematemesis, dolor

  3. Tumor estromal gastrointestinal em cães: estudo clínico-anatomopatológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Leandro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os tumores estromais gastrointestinais (GIST são incomuns e apresentam elevada similaridade histológica com as neoplasias de músculo liso e de nervo periférico. Este trabalho relata e caracteriza GIST em cães do ponto de vista epidemiológico, clínico-laboratorial, anatomopatológico e imuno-histoquímico, com base na análise retrospectiva de três cães, machos, com média de idade de 10 anos, variando de porte médio a grande e peso médio de 18.5±6kg. As alterações clínicas foram progressivas e inespecíficas de quadro gastrointestinal crônico, tais como prostração, anorexia, perda de peso e melena. Anemia não regenerativa e leucocitose foram os principais achados laboratoriais. Macroscopicamente, os tumores apresentavam média de 19cm no eixo maior, localizados em jejuno e ceco, com a superfície ulcerada, e exibiam áreas de necrose. Na avaliação microscópica, os casos apresentaram proliferação de células fusiformes, arranjadas em feixes longos densamente celulares, que foram vimentina e CD117 positivas, com diferenciação neural (S100 positivo, muscular (actina e desmina positivas e anaplásica, cuja morfologia caracteriza neoplasias malignas com sobrevida de um dia a 12 meses. O GIST deve ser um dos diagnósticos diferenciais a serem considerados entre as neoplasias mesenquimais do trato gastrointestinal que acometem cães, e o diagnóstico final necessita de imuno-histoquímica.

  4. Hemorragia digestiva provocada por tumor estromal gastrointestinal avançado de duodeno Gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by advanced duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumor

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    Ruy Jorge Cruz Jr

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O tumor estromal gastrointestinal (GIST é neoplasia pouco freqüente, sendo rara a combinação de acometimento duodenal e hemorragia digestiva, por isso apresenta-se este relato. RELATO DO CASO: Homem de 64 anos admitido com quadro de dor abdominal, melena e tumoração palpável em epigástrio e hipocôndrio esquerdo, sendo notado um tumor de paredes espessadas e conteúdo cístico na tomografia computadorizada de abdome, em topografia de cauda pancreática. Encontrado na laparotomia de urgência tumor em quarta porção duodenal com invasão de cólon em ângulo esplênico, sendo realizada ressecção em bloco do duodeno acometido, segmento de cólon transverso e descendente, com boa evolução pós-operatória. Diagnosticado por imunoistoquímica GIST de duodeno com invasão de parede colônica, sendo o tratamento complementado com mesilato de imatinib. CONCLUSÃO: A hemorragia digestiva é uma das possíveis complicações do GIST. Apenas o tratamento cirúrgico precoce é capaz de prevenir as graves complicações do choque hemorrágico.BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST represents an uncommon form of neoplasm. The combination of duodenal GIST and gastrointestinal bleeding consist of a rare presentation for such tumors. AIM: To report duodenal GIST case complicated by gastrointestinal bleeding. CASE REPORT: A 64-year-old male was admitted presenting abdominal pain, melena and a palpable mass in epigastrium and left upper abdomem regions. CT scan reveled a thick wall tumor containing cystic content in the pancreatic tail topography. At emergency laparotomy, a tumor in the fourth portion of the duodenum presenting colonic invasion in splenic flexure was found. En-bloc resection of the tumor was carried out, included the fourth portion of the duodenum and the transverse and descending colon, without postoperative complications. Immunohistochemical staining of the resected specimen confirmed the diagnosis of

  5. Aspectos tomográficos do tumor estromal gastrintestinal de origem gástrica: estudo de 14 casos Tomographic findings of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a 14-case study

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    Gustavo Lemos Pelandré

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os achados tomográficos do tumor estromal gastrintestinal de origem gástrica. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: No período de janeiro de 1999 a dezembro de 2006, foram selecionados 14 pacientes com diagnóstico histopatológico e imuno-histoquímico de tumor estromal gastrintestinal gástrico que apresentavam tomografia computadorizada realizada anteriormente ao tratamento. As variáveis tomográficas analisadas foram: topografia da lesão, dimensões, homogeneidade, contornos, limites, morfologia, padrão e intensidade do realce pelo meio de contraste venoso, padrão de crescimento, invasão de órgãos adjacentes, presença de ulceração, fístula, calcificações, infiltração da gordura mesentérica, linfonodomegalias e metástases a distância. RESULTADOS: Os tumores foram localizados no corpo (57,1% ou fundo gástrico (42,9%, com dimensões variando entre 6,0 e 23,0 cm (média de 11,5 cm. O crescimento foi predominantemente extraluminal (57,1% ou intra/extraluminal (35,7%. O realce pelo contraste venoso foi discreto em 50% dos casos, moderado em 50% e heterogêneo em 64,3%. Foram ainda observadas hipodensidade central em 64,3% dos casos, invasão de órgãos adjacentes em 42,9% e metástases hepáticas em 7,2%. CONCLUSÃO: No presente estudo, a maioria dos tumores localizava-se no corpo gástrico, com tamanho médio de 11,5 cm, apresentando área hipodensa central, realce heterogêneo pelo meio de contraste e crescimento predominantemente extraluminal.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the tomographic findings of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients with histopathologically and immunohistochemically confirmed gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors, who had already been submitted to computed tomography scans before the treatment, were evaluated in the period between January 1999 and December 2006. The following tomographic variables were analyzed: lesion topography

  6. Borderline gastric stromal tumor: diagnosis by ultrasound and computed tomography; Tumor estromal borderline del estomago diagnostico por imagen en ecografia y TC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijoo, R.; Rubio, P. J.; Lopez, J. I.; Borderias, A.; Placeres, A. [Hospita San Jorge. Huesca (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are a type of undifferentiated stromal tumor that is recently being diagnosed more frequently owing to the introduction of new immunohistochemical techniques. Their main feature, indispensable for the definitive diagnosis, is immunohistochemical evidence of the presence of CD34-positive cells. We present a case of GIST of borderline malignancy involving the outer wall of the stomach, describing the ultrasound and computed tomography images and their correlation with the pathological features. (Author) 8 refs.

  7. Development of nano radiopharmaceutical based on Bevacizumab labelled with Technetium-99m for early diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor; Desenvolvimento de nanorradiofarmaco a base de Bevacizumabe marcado com tecnecio-99m para diagnostico precoce do tumor estromal gastrointestinal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Thais Ligiero

    2015-06-01

    The development of new radiopharmaceuticals is an essential activity to improve nuclear medicine, and essential for the early and effective diagnosis of oncological diseases. Among the various possibilities current research in the world, the radiopharmaceuticals to chemotherapeutic base may be the most effective in detecting tumors, particularly Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST), the Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma and neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors. However, difficulties in directing, as well as adhesion of the radiopharmaceutical in the desired location, are currently the main problems in the early detection and treatment of some of these tumors. Advances in the field of nanotechnology, particularly in recent years, indicate significant contribution to overcoming these obstacles, particularly in the implementation of molecular barriers as well as the functionalization of the nanoparticles, thereby improving targeting by the use of surface nucleotides, and the increased adhesion, which facilitates the release of the drug and therefore increases the chances of early diagnosis and more effective treatment. This study aimed to the production, characterization and evaluation of cytotoxicity, as well as in vivo biodistribution test Bevacizumab nanoparticles labeled with Technetium-99m radionuclide for detection of type GIST tumors. Bevacizumab was encapsulated in the form of nanoparticles by the emulsification method using double poly-acetic acid and polyvinyl alcohol polymers (PLA / PVA) at a concentration of 2% of the monoclonal antibody. The characterization of the nanoparticles was performed by the technique of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cytotoxicity assessment was performed by XTT assay with various cell lines of solid tumor cells. The labeling with technetium-99m was done by the direct method, and its yield determined by paper chromatography using paper Whatmam 1 as the stationary phase and acetone as mobile phase. In the biodistribution study

  8. Micropunción estromal anterior en la queratopatía bullosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Francés Muñoz, Ester

    2005-01-01

    RESUMEN Objetivos: Evaluar los efectos terapéuticos, investigar el mecanismo de acción de la micropunción estromal anterior en pacientes con queratopatía bullosa y realizar una correlación clínico-patológica en los pacientes a los que posteriormente se realice una queratoplastia. Desarrollar un modelo experimental de descompensación corneal en el conejo y estudiar en él, el efecto de la micropunción estromal anterior. Introducción .La queratopatía bullosa es una de las principales indic...

  9. Romanian - Swiss cooperative research programme "Environmental Science and Technology in Romania" (ESTROM)

    OpenAIRE

    PANIN, Nicolae; Giger, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The Romanian Ministry for Education, Research and Youth (MECT), the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and the Swiss National Science Foundation had launched in 2004 the Romanian-Swiss research programme known as “Environmental Science and Technology in Romania” (ESTROM). ESTROM was established as a pilot programme of scientific co-operation between Swiss Research and Education Units with similar ones from Romania in the fram...

  10. Implante de segmentos de anel estromal em ceratocone: resultados e correlações com a biomecânica corneana pré-operatória

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Ambrósio Jr.; José Salgado Borges; Cláudia Costa-Ferreira; Vinícius Coelho; Renata Siqueira da Silva; Bruno Valbon; Jorge Augusto Siqueira; Guillermo Coca Velarde

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Verificar os resultados da cirurgia de implante de segmentos de anel estromal para ceratocone e as possíveis correlações existentes entre o resultado cirúrgico e o estado biomecânico da córnea no pré-operatório. MÉTODOS: Dezenove olhos de 19 pacientes com ceratocone foram avaliados antes e 12 meses após a cirurgia de implante de segmento anel estromal. O implante de um ou dois segmentos de anel de Ferrara foi realizado de acordo com o nomograma, considerando-se espessura da córnea, ...

  11. Hiperplasia estromal pseudoangiomatosa de la mama (PASH): presentación de dos casos Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Machado; Alejandrina Garzón; Verónica Muñoz; Ma. Guadalupe Flores Turk

    2009-01-01

    La hiperplasia estromal pseudoangiomatosa (PASH) es una lesión mamaria benigna infrecuente, que afecta comúnmente a mujeres premenopáusicas y que se presenta como un nódulo único, móvil, de consistencia firme y por lo general unilateral. Hay un sobrecrecimiento benigno de tejido conectivo fibroso de la mama que produce numerosos espacios que semejan estructuras vasculares. En la actualidad, la alternativa diagnóstica la provee la punción biopsia percutánea eco-dirigida o por estereotaxia, la ...

  12. Tumorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prause, J.U.; Heegaard, S.

    2005-01-01

    oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer......oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer...

  13. Hiperplasia estromal pseudoangiomatosa de la mama (PASH: presentación de dos casos Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Machado

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La hiperplasia estromal pseudoangiomatosa (PASH es una lesión mamaria benigna infrecuente, que afecta comúnmente a mujeres premenopáusicas y que se presenta como un nódulo único, móvil, de consistencia firme y por lo general unilateral. Hay un sobrecrecimiento benigno de tejido conectivo fibroso de la mama que produce numerosos espacios que semejan estructuras vasculares. En la actualidad, la alternativa diagnóstica la provee la punción biopsia percutánea eco-dirigida o por estereotaxia, la que permite determinar la naturaleza de la lesión y descartar patología maligna, como el angiosarcoma, a fin de evitar la realización de biopsias quirúrgicas innecesarias. Presentamos dos casos que fueron categorizados en el control inicial por mamografía como BI-RADS 4c, lo que determinó la realización de una punción biopsia.Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH is a rare benign breast lesion, which commonly affects premenopausal women. It occurs as a single node, which is mobile, firm and usually unilateral. PASH is characterized by a benign overgrowth of fibrous connective tissue of the breast, which produces numerous spaces resembling vascular structures. The diagnostic alternative is currently provided by the ultrasound guided percutaneous biopsy or stereotactic biopsy, which determines the nature of the lesion and rules out malignancy, such as angiosarcoma, in order to avoid unnecessary surgical biopsies. We present two lesions that were classified as BI-RADS 4c in the initial control by mammography, which led to a needle biopsy.

  14. Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008479 Preliminary study of MR elastography in brain tumors. XU Lei(徐磊), et al.Neurosci Imaging Center, Beijing Tiantan Hosp, Capital Med Univ, Beijing 100050.Chin J Radiol 2008;42(6):605-608. Objective To investigate the potential values of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for evaluating the brain tumor consistency in vivo. Methods Fourteen patients with known solid brain tumor (5 male, 9 female; age range: 16-63 years)

  15. Nuevo dispositivo para el aislamiento de la fracción estromal vascular a partir de lipoaspirados humanos: método de obtención y análisis de calidad celular

    OpenAIRE

    S. Dos-Anjos; J. Mercader; Katz, A. J.; Llull, R.

    2013-01-01

    El tejido adiposo obtenido mediante liposucción es una fuente idónea para aislar células con potencial terapéutico, las denominadas células de la fracción estromal vascular (FEV), que incluyen células madre mesenquimales. Estas células se han convertido en una de las principales herramientas de terapia celular autóloga para diversas aplicaciones médicas, y en los últimos años se han ido desarrollando diversas tecnologías para su aislamiento y uso clínico. En este trabajo presentamos un nuevo ...

  16. Extrusão do anel intra-estromal corneano e vascularização do túnel Extrusion and vascularization of the intrastromal corneal ring tunnel

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    Larissa Casteluber

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar e discutir os aspectos de um caso clínico em que foi observada a formação de neovascularização no túnel do anel intra-estromal corneano. Trata-se de paciente com ectasia corneana 4 anos após LASIK, comprovada pela paquimetria e topografia, e submetido ao implante de anel intra-estromal corneano. No terceiro ano de acompanhamento após implante do anel intraestromal, com o paciente em uso de lente de contato gelatinosa, verificou-se extrusão de um segmento e neovascularização no túnel. Removeu-se o segmento afetado, realizou-se fotocoagulação vascular, observando-se regressão completa do quadro neovascular.The purpose of this paper is to describe the clinical aspects of one case with deep corneal vascularization after corneal ring implantation to treat corneal ectasia due to LASIK 4 years before. The corneal ectasia diagnostic was performed by corneal pachimetry and topography. Intrastromal corneal ring segment was implanted. On the third year of follow-up, extrusion of one segment was noted and deep corneal neovascularization was found. The segment was removed, laser photocoagulation was applied and complete vascular regression was observed.

  17. Nuevo dispositivo para el aislamiento de la fracción estromal vascular a partir de lipoaspirados humanos: método de obtención y análisis de calidad celular

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    S. Dos-Anjos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El tejido adiposo obtenido mediante liposucción es una fuente idónea para aislar células con potencial terapéutico, las denominadas células de la fracción estromal vascular (FEV, que incluyen células madre mesenquimales. Estas células se han convertido en una de las principales herramientas de terapia celular autóloga para diversas aplicaciones médicas, y en los últimos años se han ido desarrollando diversas tecnologías para su aislamiento y uso clínico. En este trabajo presentamos un nuevo método rápido, sencillo y eficiente para el aislamiento de células de la FEV mediante un dispositivo médico cerrado que permite recoger y procesar lipoaspirados humanos en el mismo procedimiento quirúrgico de manera coste-efectiva. Además describimos los métodos llevados a cabo para cuantificar la calidad, seguridad y eficacia del inóculo celular obtenido.

  18. Tumores em bovinos encontrados em abatedouros frigoríficos

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    Bianca Tessele

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Numa pesquisa em abatedouros a procura de lesões em bovinos, realizada de janeiro de 2011 a julho de 2014, 544 foram encontradas, das quais 65 eram neoplasmas. Quarenta e dois porcento desses tumores eram de origem mesenquimal; 37% eram epiteliais; 14,5% eram derivados da crista neural; 5% eram tumores do cordão sexual; e 1,5 eram tumores originários do sistema nervoso periférico. O tumor mais frequentemente encontrado foi o linfoma (28% de todos os tumores, a maioria dos casos como parte do complexo leucose bovina enzoótica. O carcinoma de células escamosas foi o segundo tumor mais frequente (15% de todos os tumores. É chamada a atenção para a frequência desses tumores e para a sua importância no diagnóstico diferencial no abatedouro frigorífico entre eles e outras lesões importantes, incluindo as lesões granulomatosas da tuberculose. Houve uma ocorrência significativa do feocromocitoma adrenal (13% de todos os tumores. Papilomatose representou apenas 3% de todos os tumores. Como papilomas são comuns em bovinos, seu baixo número nesse estudo pode ser explicado pelo fato de que eles não são usualmente diagnosticados no exame post mortem (quando o couro já foi retirado da carcaça, mas sim no exame ante mortem, como ocorreu na maioria dos casos deste estudo. Tumores encontrados com menor frequência (cada um perfazendo entre 1.5 e 3% de todos os tumores incluíram adenocarcinoma apócrino misto da cauda, adenocarcinoma mamário, adenocarcinoma uterino, carcinoma de células renais, fibroma interdigital, hemangiossarcoma, leiomioma uterino, lipoma, lipossarcoma, mesotelioma, neurofibroma, tumor de células da granulosa, tumor estromal gastrointestinal, tumores hepáticos, tumores melanocíticos, e tumores pulmonares primários. Pretende-se que os resultados dessa pesquisa possam ajudar na identificação das lesões na inspeção oficial em matadouros frigoríficos.

  19. Hyperandrogenism produced by ovarian tumors in women at different life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fux-Otta, Carolina; Szafryk de Mereshian, Paula; López de Corominas, Mónica; Fuster, Margarita; López, Carlos R

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: evaluar las diferentes manifestaciones del hiperandrogenismo tumoral de origen ovárico en distintos grupos etarios. Diseño: reporte de casos.Lugar de trabajo: centros académicos.Pacientes: son reportadas tres pacientes con exceso de andrógenos. Resultados: describimos una paciente de 10 años con hiperandrogenemia y signos de masculinización secundarios a un tumor de células de Leydig; otra paciente, en edad fértil, con un tumor carcinoide de ovario asociado a hiperplasia estromal que se manifestó con signos de masa abdominal y de virilización. El tercer caso una mujer, en etapa postmenopáusica con alopecia severa, tenía un tumor de células esteroideas, raro en este grupo etario. onclusión: la evaluación de una mujer con signos y síntomas de virilización debe incluir una detallada historia clínica, examen físico y apropiados dosajes hormonales, especialmente si existe dificultad en establecer su origen cuando los estudios imagenológicos son normales.

  20. Fracción vascular estromal de tejido adiposo: cómo obtener células madre y su rendimiento de acuerdo a la topografía de las áreas donantes: estudio preliminar

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    K. A. Almeida

    Full Text Available La obtención de tejido adiposo supone un nuevo y prometedor mercado de trabajo para los cirujanos plásticos, ya que los bancos de tejidos escogerán de forma acertada la grasa como el medio más fácil para obtener fuentes de células madre de alto rendimiento, en la medida en que este tejido es capaz de producir al menos cinco veces más unidades formadores de colonias (UFCs que la médula ósea. El objetivo del presente trabajo es mostrar lo que se puede esperar del tejido adiposo como origen de células adultas de fracción vacular estromal (FVE, y señalar las mejores áreas del cuerpo humano para ser elegidas como donantes de tejido adiposo, extraído mediante liposucción. Describimos la rutina seguida para la obtención de células de FVE mediante la digestión de las muestras de tejido adiposo humano con colagenasa. En el momento de su recolección, esas células presentaban una viabilidad de 92+/- 1% basada en exclusión por Azul de Trypan. Las células de FVE recontadas después de permanecer 48 horas en medio de cultivo de Eagle modificado por Dulbecco (DMEM, dentro de una cámara de Neubauer, tras lo cual el rendimiento medio de las células de FVE fue de 7,2 +/- 1,3 x 103 células por mililitro de tejido lipoaspirado. En conclusión, pensamos que supone un desafío en la actualidad el mejorar las estrategias para la obtención de células de FVE. Este trabajo, por ahora preliminar, muestra que las células de FVE pueden ser fácilmente obtenidas por medio de lipoaspiración. La comparación entre las diferentes áreas donantes, mostró un rendimiento 22% más alto para las células de FVE cuando el tejido adiposo había sido obtenido del tronco, en comparación a cuando lo había sido de los miembros.

  1. Tumor misto de células musculares lisas e do estroma endometrial uterino: relato de caso Mixed endometrial stromal and smooth muscle tumor of the uterus: case report

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    Luiz Gustavo Oliveira Brito

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os tumores mistos de células musculares lisas e do estroma endometrial uterino, caracterizados pela presença de componentes de ambas as linhagens, coexistindo em proporções quase equivalentes, são neoplasmas raros. Possuem potencial biológico incerto e se comportam de acordo com o componente estromal. A imuno-histoquímica é uma grande aliada no diagnóstico microscópico, pois a clínica e os exames de imagem não ajudam a diferenciá-los de outras doenças uterinas. Descrevemos o caso de uma paciente cuja hipótese diagnóstica era de leiomioma uterino e que, após cirurgia, foi diagnosticada pelo estudo anatomopatológico como tumor misto de células musculares lisas e do estroma endometrial uterino.Mixed tumors of uterine smooth muscle and endometrial stromal cells, which are characterized by the presence of components from both cell lineages with similar proportions, are rare neoplasms. Their biological potential is uncertain, and they behave according to the stromal component. Immunohistochemistry is an important ally in microscopic diagnosis, because symptoms and imaging exams do not help in the differentiation from other uterine diseases. We describe a case of a patient who had been previously diagnosed with uterine leiomyoma, and after surgery, the anatomopathological study revealed a mixed tumor of uterine smooth muscle and endometrial stromal cells.

  2. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  3. Breast cancer and the stromal factor: The "prometastatic healing process" hypothesis El factor estromal en el cáncer de mama: La hipótesis del "proceso cicatrizal prometastásico"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Wernicke

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between axillary status and several histological features of breast carcinomas has been well established, however stromal changes have rarely been analyzed. Detailed clinicopathological review of 1803 patients with infiltrating breast carcinoma was performed. Stromal myxoid changes (SMC, size (T2-T3: > 2 cm, T1c: 1-2 cm, T1 a-b: La correlación entre estado axilar y varias características histológicas de los carcinomas de mama está bien establecida, sin embargo los cambios estromales rara vez fueron analizados. En el presente trabajo se realizó una revisión detallada de las características clínico-patológicas de 1803 pacientes con carcinoma infiltrante de mama. Los cambios mixoides estromales (SMC, el tamaño tumoral (T2-T3: > 2 cm, T1c: 1-2 cm, T1 a-b: < 1 cm, el foco fibroso, la edad, embolizaciones tumorales linfovasculares, infiltracion linfocitaria tumoral (TIL, multifocalidad, grado histológico (G, los receptores estrogénicos (RE y los receptores progestacionales (RP y HER2 fueron semicuantificados en dos o tres grados y correlacionados con el estado axilar. El estudio multivariante demostró la asociación entre SMC grado 3 seguido por el tamaño tumoral T2-T3, G3, foco fibroso, T1c, embolizaciones tumorales linfovasculares, SMC2, TIL2, G2, multifocalidad y presencia de ganglios axilares metastásicos (p < 0.0001. Asimismo pudo comprobarse una asociación inversa entre RE+++ y RP+++ (p < 0.0001 con la presencia de metástasis axilares. Nuestros hallazgos sugieren un rol crítico del estroma peritumoral en el desarrollo de metástasis. Estas alteraciones estromales deberían, en nuestra opinión, constar en los informes de patología quirúrgica dado que son de fácil evaluación y aportan importante información acerca de la biología y agresividad tumoral. Además podrían convertirse, en un futuro, en el blanco de nuevas terapéuticas.

  4. Fracción vascular estromal de tejido adiposo: cómo obtener células madre y su rendimiento de acuerdo a la topografía de las áreas donantes: estudio preliminar Fração vascular estromal de tecido adiposo: como obter células-tronco e seu rendimiento de acordo com a topografia as áreas doadoras: nota prévia Stromal vascular fraction from fat tissue: obtaining stem cells and their yield according to the topography of the donor areas: previous note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Almeida

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available La obtención de tejido adiposo supone un nuevo y prometedor mercado de trabajo para los cirujanos plásticos, ya que los bancos de tejidos escogerán de forma acertada la grasa como el medio más fácil para obtener fuentes de células madre de alto rendimiento, en la medida en que este tejido es capaz de producir al menos cinco veces más unidades formadores de colonias (UFCs que la médula ósea. El objetivo del presente trabajo es mostrar lo que se puede esperar del tejido adiposo como origen de células adultas de fracción vacular estromal (FVE, y señalar las mejores áreas del cuerpo humano para ser elegidas como donantes de tejido adiposo, extraído mediante liposucción. Describimos la rutina seguida para la obtención de células de FVE mediante la digestión de las muestras de tejido adiposo humano con colagenasa. En el momento de su recolección, esas células presentaban una viabilidad de 92+/- 1% basada en exclusión por Azul de Trypan. Las células de FVE recontadas después de permanecer 48 horas en medio de cultivo de Eagle modificado por Dulbecco (DMEM, dentro de una cámara de Neubauer, tras lo cual el rendimiento medio de las células de FVE fue de 7,2 +/- 1,3 x 103 células por mililitro de tejido lipoaspirado. En conclusión, pensamos que supone un desafío en la actualidad el mejorar las estrategias para la obtención de células de FVE. Este trabajo, por ahora preliminar, muestra que las células de FVE pueden ser fácilmente obtenidas por medio de lipoaspiración. La comparación entre las diferentes áreas donantes, mostró un rendimiento 22% más alto para las células de FVE cuando el tejido adiposo había sido obtenido del tronco, en comparación a cuando lo había sido de los miembros.The harvest of adipose tissue will be a promising labor marketing for plastic surgeons, since tissue banks will certainly choose fat as the easiest way to obtain a high-yield source of stem cells, as this type of tissue can produce al

  5. Hypothalamic tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complications of brain surgery may include: Bleeding Brain damage Death (rarely) Infection Seizures can result from the tumor or from any surgical procedure on the brain. Hydrocephalus can occur with some tumors and ...

  6. Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wilms tumor is 1 pound at diagnosis. Some children also may have nausea, stomach pain, high blood pressure (hypertension), blood in the urine, loss of appetite, or fever. Even though Wilms tumors often are ...

  7. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  9. Mifepristone inhibits MPA-and FGF2-induced mammary tumor growth but not FGF2-induced mammary hyperplasia La mifepristona inhibe el crecimiento de carcinomas mamarios inducidos por MPA o por FGF2 pero no las hiperplasias mamarias inducidas por FGF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Cerliani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated a crosstalk between fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 and progestins inducing experimental breast cancer growth. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of FGF2 and of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA on the mouse mammary glands and to investigate whether the antiprogestin RU486 was able to reverse the MPA- or FGF2-induced effects on both, mammary gland and tumor growth. We demonstrate that FGF2 administered locally induced an intraductal hyperplasia that was not reverted by RU486, suggesting that FGF2-induced effects are progesterone receptor (PR-independent. However, MPA-induced paraductal hyperplasia was reverted by RU486 and a partial agonistic effect was observed in RU486-treated glands. Using C4-HD tumors which only grow in the presence of MPA, we showed that FGF2 administered intratumorally was able to stimulate tumor growth as MPA. The histology of FGF2-treated tumors showed different degrees of gland differentiation. RU486 inhibited both, MPA or FGF2 induced tumor growth. However, only complete regression was observed in MPA-treated tumors. Our results support the hypothesis that stromal FGF2 activates PR inducing hormone independent tumor growth.Hemos demostrado previamente que la vía de señalización del factor de crecimiento fibroblástico 2 (FGF2 interactúa con la vía de los receptores de progesterona (RP induciendo el crecimiento del cáncer de mama experimental, y hemos postulado que el FGF2 estromal activaría los RP en los tumores hormono independientes. El objetivo de este trabajo es comparar los efectos del FGF2 y del acetato de medroxiprogesterona (MPA en la glándula mamaria de ratón e investigar si el antiprogestágeno RU486 induce la regresión del tumor hormono dependiente C4-HD que crece con MPA o con la administración intratumoral de FGF2. Demostramos que la administración diaria local de FGF2 induce una hiperplasia intraductal mamaria que no es revertida por el

  10. Pindborg tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliaperoumal, Santhosh Kumar; Gowri, S.; Dinakar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references. PMID:27041911

  11. Pindborg tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Kumar Caliaperoumal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT, also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references.

  12. Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... impairment, and behavioral changes. Tumors can also either produce excessive amounts of hormone or limit how much hormone is produced. The hormones most commonly affected include: growth hormone (regulates body height and structure), prolactin (controls ...

  13. Ear Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, procedures, news and more, written in everyday language. * This is ... the Ears, Nose, and Throat Additional Content Medical News Ear Tumors ... NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. DOCTORS: Click ...

  14. Tumor Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... much of the tumor tissue has normal breast (milk) duct structures Nuclear grade : an evaluation of the ...

  15. Pituitary tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough of its hormones. This condition is called hypopituitarism . The causes of pituitary tumors are unknown. Some ... Cyst Endocrine glands Gigantism Growth hormone test Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I Prolactin blood test ...

  16. Wilms' Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... team and have training in child development, recreation, psychology or social work. If your child must remain ... conditions/wilms-tumor/basics/definition/CON-20043492 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of ...

  17. Ependymal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Timothy J

    2003-12-01

    Ependymal tumors are rare malignancies that arise from the cells that line the ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord. Although they are more common in children, adults may also be effected by ependymal tumors. Prognosis is dependent on tumor location, histology, especially for myxopapillary tumors that tend to occur in the lumbar spine, extent of surgical resection, and stage of disease. Standard therapy consists of complete resection when feasible. The exact role of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with radiographically confirmed complete resection is poorly defined. Patients with known residual disease may benefit from local radiation therapy, but the extent of radiation field and total dose are controversial. Even in patients treated with involved field radiotherapy, most relapses occur within the original tumor bed, thus local control remains the biggest obstacle to effective therapy. Chemotherapy has little impact against this tumor and has no role in the adjuvant setting, outside of a well designed clinical trial, with the possible exception of children younger than 5 years in an effort to delay radiation. A minority of patients may respond to one of several chemotherapy regimens at the time of recurrence, but the impact of this therapy is limited. Newer treatment strategies are needed.

  18. Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System Purchase WHO Blue Book NBTS Official Statement Questions and ... Privacy Copyright Site Search Search term Submit Submit Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr

  19. Testicular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Rosti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Germ cell tumors of the testes represent a unique paradigm of diseases which can be cured even in extremely advanced phase. Unfortunately, this makes them unique among adult solid tumors. Seminoma and non seminoma are relatively rare with approximatively 25,000 patients in Europe per year, but numbers are increasing world wide. Different strategies are needed depending on stage and prognostic scores. Seminoma is extremely sensitive to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, while all germ cell tumors show a very good response to chemotherapy. Clinical stage I seminoma is currently treated with radiation, single course carboplatin or surveillance policy. Clinical stage I non seminoma can also be approached with different strategies such as retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, observation or one-two courses of standard chemotherapy. Stage II seminoma may be treated with either radiation or chemotherapy, while for all advanced stages chemotherapy is mandatory. Since the mid-eighties PEB (Cisplatin, Etoposide and Bleomycin is the regimen of choice and no other schedule has proved superior in terms of efficacy. Surgery on the residual disease is crucial to the whole strategy and should be performed or attempted in all cases. Consequently, the correct treatment strategy for these tumors does not depend only on the ability of a single physician, but on a skilled team specialized in this particular tumor. Second line therapies (VeIP, PEI, TIP can cure 25%–40% of patients, but improved strategies for resistant tumors are desperately needed. High-dose chemotherapy has shown very good results in some studies while being less impressive in others. In any case, it should remain an option for relapsing patients and could be used in some cases of upfront chemotherapy in patients with slow marker decline, but this should only be considered in referring centers.

  20. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-06-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach.

  1. Tumor thrombus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravina, Mudalsha; Hess, Søren; Chauhan, Mahesh Singh;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Thrombosis in cancer may manifest itself as venous thromboembolic disease or tumor thrombosis (TT). We present our experience with incidentally detected TT on FDG PET/CT in 21 oncologic patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all FDG PET/CT examinations during a 5-year......-one patients were included; the most common malignancies were renal cell carcinoma (n=6), hepatocellular carcinoma (n=3), and lung cancer (n=3). Indication for the scan was initial staging (n=15) and suspected recurrence (n=6). Several vessels were affected, the most common was the inferior vena cava (n=14......), but most other major branches of the venous vasculature was represented, and some patients had thrombi in several vessels. FDG uptake was linear in 7 patients, linear with a dilated vessel in 6 patients, and focal in 7 patients. The mean SUVmax of the primary tumors was 10.3 (range, 2.6-31.2; median, 6...

  2. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  3. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  4. Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  5. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  6. Pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poussaint, Tina Y. [Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children' s Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Among all causes of death in children from solid tumors, pediatric brain tumors are the most common. This article includes an overview of a subset of infratentorial and supratentorial tumors with a focus on tumor imaging features and molecular advances and treatments of these tumors. Key to understanding the imaging features of brain tumors is a firm grasp of other disease processes that can mimic tumor on imaging. We also review imaging features of a common subset of tumor mimics. (orig.)

  7. Teratoid Wilms′ tumor - A rare renal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratoid Wilms′ tumor is an extremely rare renal tumor. We report a case of unilateral teratoid Wilms′ tumor in a 4-year-old girl. The patient was admitted with a right-sided abdominal mass. The mass was arising from the right kidney. Radical nephrectomy was done and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Histopathology report showed teratoid Wilms′ tumor.

  8. Cholecystokinin expression in tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2016-01-01

    in different neuroendocrine tumors; cerebral gliomas and astrocytomas and specific pediatric tumors. Tumor hypersecretion of CCK was recently reported in a patient with a metastatic islet cell tumor and hypercholecystokininemia resulting in a novel tumor syndrome, the cholecystokininoma syndrome. This review...... presents an overview of the cell-specific biogenesis of CCK peptides, and a description of the CCK expression in tumors and of the cholecystokininoma syndrome. Finally, assays for the diagnosis of CCK-producing tumors are reviewed....

  9. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Lung Carcinoid Tumor Treating Lung Carcinoid Tumors Surgery to Treat Lung Carcinoid Tumors Surgery is the ... be cured by surgery alone. Types of lung surgery Different operations can be used to treat (and ...

  10. Tumors and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  11. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on how many people survive this type of ...

  12. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  13. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  14. Updates in Orbital Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nila; F.Moeloek

    1993-01-01

    Orbital anatomy, the clinical features of orbital tumors, the recent development of the diagnosis and management of orbital tumors were described. The incidence of orbital tumors in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital in the past years were introduced. The principle of management of orbital tumors and their prognosis were discussed.

  15. Epidemiology of Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Katharine A

    2016-11-01

    Brain tumors are the commonest solid tumor in children, leading to significant cancer-related mortality. Several hereditary syndromes associated with brain tumors are nonfamilial. Ionizing radiation is a well-recognized risk factor for brain tumors. Several industrial exposures have been evaluated for a causal association with brain tumor formation but the results are inconclusive. A casual association between the common mutagens of tobacco, alcohol, or dietary factors has not yet been established. There is no clear evidence that the incidence of brain tumors has changed over time. This article presents the descriptive epidemiology of the commonest brain tumors of children and adults.

  16. Supratentorial tumors; Supratentorielle Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.; Dillmann, K.; Roth, C.; Backens, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Saarland, Homburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a routine diagnostic measure for a suspected intracerebral mass. Computed tomography is usually also indicated. Further diagnostic procedures as well as the interpretation of the findings vary depending on the tumor location. This contribution discusses the symptoms and diagnostics for supratentorial tumors separated in relation to their intra- or extracranial location. Supratentorial tumors include astrocytoma, differentiated by their circumscribed and diffuse growth, ganglioglioma, ependyoma, neurocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), oligodendroglioma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET), meningoangiomatosis, pineal tumors, hamartoma, lymphoma, craniopharyngeoma and metastases. The supratentorial extracranial tumors include the choroid plexus, colloid cysts, meningeoma, infantile myofibromatosis and lipoma. The most common subforms, especially of astrocytoma, will also be presented. (orig.)

  17. Cardiac Tumors; Tumeurs cardiaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laissy, J.P.; Fernandez, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bichat Claude Bernard, Service d' Imagerie, 76 - Rouen (France); Mousseaux, E. [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou (HEGP), Service de Radiologie Cardio Vasculaire et Interventionnelle, 75 - Paris (France); Dacher, J.N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Charles Nicolle, 75 - Rouen (France); Crochet, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital Laennec, Centre Hemodynamique, Radiologie Thoracique et Vasculaire, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2004-04-01

    Metastases are the most frequent tumors of the heart even though they seldom are recognized. Most primary cardiac tumors are benign. The main role of imaging is to differentiate a cardiac tumor from thrombus and rare pseudo-tumors: tuberculoma, hydatid cyst. Echocardiography is the fist line imaging technique to detect cardiac tumors, but CT and MRl arc useful for further characterization and differential diagnosis. Myxoma of the left atrium is the most frequent benign cardiac tumor. It usually is pedunculated and sometimes calcified. Sarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant tumor and usually presents as a sessile infiltrative tumor. Lymphoma and metastases are usually recognized by the presence of known tumor elsewhere of by characteristic direct contiguous involvement. Diagnosing primary and secondary pericardial tumors often is difficult. Imaging is valuable for diagnosis, characterization, pre-surgical evaluation and follow-up. (author)

  18. Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors: Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) have long fascinated clinicians and investigators despite their relative rarity. Their clinical presentation varies depending upon whether the tumor is functional or not and also according to the specific hormonal syndrome produced. Tumors may be sporadic or inherited but little is known about their molecular pathology, especially the sporadic forms. Chromogranin A appears to be the most useful serum marker for diagnosis, staging and monitoring. Initially, t...

  19. Pituitary Tumors: Condition Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and metabolism. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is involved in growth, body temperature, and heart rate. Nonfunctioning pituitary tumors (also called nonsecretory tumors) do not produce hormones. They can press on or damage the pituitary ...

  20. Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, Tanner; Parwani, Anil

    2012-06-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors exist as a part of the Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor family. These tumors most commonly arise in the chest wall and paraspinal regions; cases with a renal origin are rare entities, but have become increasingly reported in recent years. Although such cases occur across a wide age distribution, the average age for a patient with a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor is the mid- to late 20s, with both males and females susceptible. Histologically, these tumors are characterized by pseudorosettes. Immunohistochemically, CD99 is an important diagnostic marker. Clinically, these are aggressive tumors, with an average 5-year disease-free survival rate of only 45% to 55%. Given that renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor bears many similarities to other renal tumors, it is important to review the histologic features, immunostaining profile, and genetic abnormalities that can be used for its correct diagnosis.

  1. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.F.; Hemais, P.M.P.G.; Aymore, I.L.; Carmo, M.C.R. do; Cunha, M.E.P.R. da; Resende, C.M.C.

    Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it. Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed.

  2. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you insights into your child's treatment. LEARN MORE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Cancer Foundation joins the PBTF Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  3. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Roberts; Dianne M. Runk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Originally described in 1838 by Muller, phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm which represents roughly 0.3–0.9% of all breast cancers. Phyllodes tumor are divided into benign, borderline and malignant histologic categories. Malignant phyllodes tumor represent anywhere from 10–30% of all phyllodes tumors. This group has both the potential to recur locally and metastasize, however not all malignant phyllodes behave this way. The challenge lays in predicting which tumo...

  4. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeraj; Sahai, Sharad; Singh, Sourav; Singh, Smita

    2011-01-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare entity and represents less than 1% of all odontogenic tumors. Dr. J J Pindborg (1958) first described four cases of this unusual lesion; subsequently Shafer et al coined the term Pindborg tumor. This lesion is a locally aggressive benign odontogenic neoplasm arising from epithelial tissue. It occurs most commonly in 4th-5th-6th decade of life and bears no gender predilection. A case of CEOT in a 50-year-old male arising in the left body region is described. PMID:22639521

  5. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambet eTeesalu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  6. Tumors in invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tascedda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tumors are ectopic masses of tissue formed by due to an abnormal cell proliferation. In this review tumors of several invertebrate species are examined. The description of tumors in invertebrates may be a difficult task, because the pathologists are usually inexperienced with invertebrate tissues, and the experts in invertebrate biology are not familiar with the description of tumors. As a consequence, the terminology used in defining the tumor type is related to that used in mammalian pathology, which can create misunderstandings in some occasions.

  7. Benign ear cyst or tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteomas; Exostoses; Tumor - ear; Cysts - ear; Ear cysts; Ear tumors; Bony tumor of the ear canal ... bony tumors of the ear canal (exostoses and osteomas) are caused by excess growth of bone. Repeated ...

  8. Genital soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmeester, John K; Fritchie, Karen J

    2015-07-01

    Mesenchymal neoplasms of the vulvovaginal and inguinoscrotal regions are among the most diagnostically challenging specimens in the pathology laboratory owing largely to their unique intersection between general soft tissue tumors and relatively genital-specific mesenchymal tumors. Genital stromal tumors are a unique subset of soft tissue tumors encountered at this location, and this group includes fibroepithelial stromal polyp, superficial (cervicovaginal) myofibroblastoma, cellular angiofibroma, mammary-type myofibroblastoma, angiomyofibroblastoma and aggressive angiomyxoma. Aside from the striking morphologic and immunophenotypic similarity that is seen with these entities, there is evidence that a subset of genital stromal tumors may be linked genetically. This review will focus on simplifying this group of tumors and provide the pathologist or dermatopathologist with practical management information. Smooth muscle tumors of the external genitalia will also be discussed.

  9. Pulmonary neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caplin, M E; Baudin, E; Ferolla, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary carcinoids (PCs) are rare tumors. As there is a paucity of randomized studies, this expert consensus document represents an initiative by the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society to provide guidance on their management. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bibliographical searches were...... carried out in PubMed for the terms 'pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors', 'bronchial neuroendocrine tumors', 'bronchial carcinoid tumors', 'pulmonary carcinoid', 'pulmonary typical/atypical carcinoid', and 'pulmonary carcinoid and diagnosis/treatment/epidemiology/prognosis'. A systematic review...... of the relevant literature was carried out, followed by expert review. RESULTS: PCs are well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors and include low- and intermediate-grade malignant tumors, i.e. typical (TC) and atypical carcinoid (AC), respectively. Contrast CT scan is the diagnostic gold standard for PCs...

  10. Epilepsy and Brain Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-yi Sha

    2009-01-01

    @@ Epidemiology It is estimated 61,414 new cases of primary brain tumors are expected to be diagnosed in 2009 in the U.S. The incidence statistic of 61,414 persons diagnosed per year includes both malignant (22,738) and non-malignant (38,677) brain tumors. (Data from American Brain Tumor Association). During the years 2004-2005, approximately 359,000 people in the United States were living with the diagnosis of a primary brain or central nervous system tumor. Specifically, more than 81,000 persons were living with a malignant tumor, more than 267,000 persons with a benign tumor. For every 100,000 people in the United States, approximately 131 are living following the diagnosis of a brain tumor. This represents a prevalence rate of 130.8 per 100,000 person years[1].

  11. Uterine primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminimoghaddam, Soheila; Seifirad, Soroush; Abbasi Dezfouli, Golbahar; Abbasi, Neda; Zare Mehrjardi, Ali; Razavi, Seyed Mohsen; Mahmoudzadeh, Fatemeh

    2015-04-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors are fairly rare in uterus. A case of uterine body primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a 32-year-old Iranian woman is presented. The patient was admitted with abdominal pain and fever and underwent emergency exploratory surgery with total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic lymph node dissection. Posterior wall of the uterus was necrotic and ruptured and a huge tumor disrupted the uterine body. The tumor was strongly positive for CD99, NSE, and chromogranin; No reaction was seen for CD10, CD45 and myogenin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an uterine body primitive neuroectodermal tumor and the second report of uterine primitive neuroectodermal tumor from Iran.

  12. Targeted tumor radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unak Perihan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted tumor radiotherapy is selectively delivery of curative doses of radiation to malignant sites. The aim of the targeted tumor radiotherapy is to use the radionuclides which have high LET particle emissions conjugated to appropriate carrier molecules. The radionuclides are selectively collected by tumor cells, depositing lethal doses to tumor cells while no admission occur to normal cells. In theory, targeted radiotherapy has several advantages over conventional radiotherapy since it allows a high radiation dose to be administered without causing normal tissue toxicity, although there are some limitations in the availability of appropriate targeting agents and in the calculations of administered doses. Therefore, for routine clinical applications more progress is still needed. In this article, the potential use of targeted tumor radiotherapy is briefly reviewed. More general aspects and considerations, such as potential radionuclides, mechanisms of tumor targeting was also outlined.

  13. Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhaniya Shikha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT is a rare tumorous form of calcifying odontogenic cyst and only a small number of cases have been described. It is a locally invasive neoplasm that is characterized by ameloblastoma-like epithelial islands, ghost cells and dentinoid. The present report describes a case of a 21-year-old male with a tumor in the posterior region of the mandible, showing features of DGCT.

  14. Olfactory ensheathing cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippili Kaushal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs are found in the olfactory bulb and olfactory nasal mucosa. They resemble Schwann cells on light and electron microscopy, however, immunohistochemical staining can distinguish between the two. There are less than 30 cases of olfactory groove schwannomas reported in the literature while there is only one reported case of OEC tumor. We report an OEC tumor in a 42-year-old male and discuss the pathology and origin of this rare tumor.

  15. Canine mammary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenmo, Karin

    2003-05-01

    The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status. This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation. Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs. Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious. Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling. Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women.

  16. Tumor cell metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Garcia, Susana; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan; B´ez-Viveros, José Luis; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a genetic disease that is caused by mutations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and stability genes. The fact that the metabolism of tumor cells is altered has been known for many years. However, the mechanisms and consequences of metabolic reprogramming have just begun to be understood. In this review, an integral view of tumor cell metabolism is presented, showing how metabolic pathways are reprogrammed to satisfy tumor cell proliferation and survival requirements. In tumor cells, glycolysis is strongly enhanced to fulfill the high ATP demands of these cells; glucose carbons are the main building blocks in fatty acid and nucleotide biosynthesis. Glutaminolysis is also increased to satisfy NADPH regeneration, whereas glutamine carbons replenish the Krebs cycle, which produces metabolites that are constantly used for macromolecular biosynthesis. A characteristic feature of the tumor microenvironment is acidosis, which results from the local increase in lactic acid production by tumor cells. This phenomenon is attributed to the carbons from glutamine and glucose, which are also used for lactic acid production. Lactic acidosis also directs the metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells and serves as an additional selective pressure. Finally, we also discuss the role of mitochondria in supporting tumor cell metabolism. PMID:22057267

  17. TUMORES ANEXIALES Y EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Tapia M.,Mauricio; Orellana H.,Ricardo; Cisterna C,Patricio; Gazitúa P,Raimundo; Sepúlveda A.,Rodrigo

    2005-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la frecuencia de tumores anexiales en el embarazo, la histología tumoral y los resultados perinatales. Pacientes y método: Análisis retrospectivo de 33 pacientes con diagnóstico de tumor anexial y embarazo atendidas en el Servicio de Obstetricia del Hospital San Juan de Dios entre febrero de 2001 a julio de 2004. Resultados: La asociación tumor anexial y embarazo fue 1 en 424 embarazos. El tipo histológico más frecuente fue el cistoadenoma seroso (19,2%). La cirugía no alter...

  18. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Vimal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented.

  19. [Prognosis in tumor diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, G

    1983-01-01

    This essay on prognosis in tumor diagnosis pathology resp. tumor etiology, cancerogenesis and molecular oncology is the authors personal opinion. Generally tumor diagnosis improves with progress in histo- and cytological methods for example in tumors of the APUD-system and precancerous lesions especially of the breast. Fundamental principle of developed tumor diagnosis is the knowledge of malignant transformation. Its profits favours the etiology in cancerogenesis and e.g. non Hodgkin lymphomas (Burkitt lymphoma, adult T-cell lymphoma) and to result from new methods in molecular biology and viral genetics (DNS-hybridizing, -recombination and gene technology). With the beginning century a stepwise fitted diagnosis of malignant lymphomas is evident up to monoclonal dedifferentiated lymphoid cells and their multifarious phenotypical markers. This concept may be of general significance in tumor diagnosis already indicated in prelymphomas. Finally the present prognosis of tumor diagnosis is evaluated by contents, tasks and strategies of its corresponding research lines in clinical and experimental tumor pathology resp. its organization.

  20. Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Won-Jong [Uijongbu St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyunggido, 480-821 (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthopaedic Hospital, Orthopedic Oncology, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2004-11-01

    To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)

  1. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P;

    2007-01-01

    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  2. Atypically localized glomus tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meric Ugurlar

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: When a painful mass is found in the body, glomus tumors should be kept in mind. The consideration of symptoms, including pain, temperature sensitivity, point tenderness, and discoloration, common characteristics of glomus tumors, may aid diagnosis. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(3.000: 112-117

  3. [Circulating "tumor markers" in gastrointestinal tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlinghaus, P; Lamerz, R

    1991-09-01

    Tumor markers (TM) of the neoplastic cell can be divided into non-shedded substances and antigens shedded in blood, urine or other body fluids. For clinicians circulating TM are more important. All relevant circulating TM are not useful in screening of asymptomatic patients because of insufficient sensitivity and specificity. With caution they are useful in the observation of risk groups. Circulating TM have their main significance as additional parameters in monitoring symptomatic patients with malignancies. Several follow up determinations are more important than one single measurement. During follow up of tumor patients TM should not be checked automatically if there are no diagnostic or therapeutical consequences. The clinically most important circulating TM in non-hormone secreting tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are the oncofetal antigens CEA and AFP and antigens defined by monoclonal antibodies e. g. CA 19-9 and CA 72-4. AFP is the primary TM in hepatocellular carcinoma, often elevated in hepatoblastoma and always normal in cholangiocellular carcinoma. CEA is the TM of first choice in patients with colorectal carcinomas and liver metastasis. CA 19-9 is TM of first choice in pancreatic carcinoma and additionally of diagnostic value in cholangiocellular carcinoma and tumors of the bile ducts. In cancer of the stomach CA 19-9 and CEA are secondary TM in combination with CA 72-4 as primary TM. Care should be taken that slight and moderate elevations of TM can be observed in benign diseases of liver, pancreas and bowel.

  4. Familial pituitary tumor syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Marianne S; McDonald, Kerrie L; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J; Robinson, Bruce G

    2009-08-01

    The vast majority of pituitary tumors are benign and occur sporadically; however, they can still result in significant morbidity and even premature mortality through mass effects and hormone dysfunction. The etiology of sporadic tumors is still poorly understood; by contrast, advances have been made in our understanding of familial pituitary adenoma syndromes in the past decade. Currently, four genes are known to be associated with familial pituitary tumor syndromes: MEN1, CDKN1B, PRKAR1A and AIP. The first three genes are associated with a variety of extrapituitary pathologies, for example, primary hyperparathyroidism with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, which might aid identification of these syndromes. By contrast, AIP mutations seem to occur in the setting of isolated familial pituitary adenomas, particularly of the growth-hormone-secreting subtype. Awareness and identification of familial pituitary tumor syndromes is important because of potential associated pathologies and important implications for family members. Here, we review the current knowledge of familial pituitary tumor syndromes.

  5. Merkel cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, M; Watanabe, H; Kobayashi, H; Ohnishi, Y; Shitara, A; Nitto, H

    1987-06-01

    A Merkel cell tumor appeared on the left cheek of an 83-year-old female was reported. The tumor was located mainly in the dermis and infiltrated to the subcutaneous adipose tissue with an involvement of the blood vessels and lymphatics at the periphery. Electron-microscopically, few of the dense-cored granules and the single globular aggregates of intermediate filaments at the nuclear indentations were observed. Electron-microscopic uranaffin reaction proved positive reaction on the dense-cored granules. Half of the cytoplasmic border was smooth, while the rest had short projections. Desmosomes or junctional complexes were not detected among the tumor cells. Immunohistochemically, the cytoplasm of tumor cell showed positive reaction to both neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and keratin. The single globular positive spots of the latter were localized in accordance with the aggregates of intermediate filaments. These findings suggested a neurogenic origin with double differentiation, epithelial and neuroendocrine, of the Merkel cell tumor.

  6. Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors Tumores carcinoides digestivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Varas Lorenzo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: carcinoid tumors (CTs represent the commonest neuroendocrine tumors. Those in the gastrointestinal tract are diagnosed in surgical specimens, clinically, and using imaging techniques (endoscopy, echoendoscopy, CT, Octreoscan, etc.. The goal of this retrospective study was to review a personal series of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, and to compare it to those in the literature. Patients and methods: the medical records of 40 Caucasian patients with over 50 gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors (including multiple cases who were seen for a period of 16 years (1994-2009 were reviewed. Results: mean age at presentation was 52 years, 50% were females, and mean tumor size was 9.9 mm. Most were gastroduodenal (42.5% or rectal (30%, and were treated endoscopically. Metastases and carcinoid syndrome (CS were seen in 5% of patients. Survival at study endpoint was 85%. Conclusions: age and gender were consistent with the literature. There was an increase in gastroduodenal (multifocal and rectal carcinoids, likely because the series was essentially endoscopical in nature (bias. There was a lower rate of CS and higher survival, likely due to earlier diagnosis and treatment.Objetivo: los tumores carcinoides (TC son los tumores neuroendocrinos más frecuentes. Los digestivos se diagnostican en las piezas quirúrgicas, en la clínica, y mediante los métodos de imagen (endoscopia, ecoendoscopia, TAC y Octreoscan, etc.. El objetivo de este trabajo retrospectivo fue revisar una serie personal de tumores carcinoides digestivos y compararla con la literatura. Pacientes y métodos: se revisaron las historias clínicas de 40 pacientes de raza blanca con más de 50 tumores carcinoides digestivos, algunos múltiples, observados durante 16 años (1994-2009. Resultados: la edad media de presentación fue 52 años, 50% mujeres, con un tamaño medio del tumor de 9,9 mm. La mayoría eran gastroduodenales (42,5% y rectales (30% y fueron tratados por vía endosc

  7. Iatrogenic Tumor Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Ma; Ping Bai

    2008-01-01

    Iatrogenic tumor implantation is a condition that results from various medical procedures used during diagnosis or treatment of a malignancy. It involves desquamation and dissemination of tumor cells that develop into a local recurrence or distant metastasis from the tumor under treatment. The main clinical feature of the condition is nodules at the operation's porous channel or incision, which is easily diagnosed in accordance with the case history. Final diagnosis can be made based on pathological examination. Tumor implantation may occur in various puncturing porous channels, including a laparoscopic port, abdominal wall incision, and perineal incision, etc. Besides a malignant tumor,implantation potential exists with diseases, such as a borderline tumor and endometriosis etc. Once a tumor implantation is diagnosed, or suspected, surgical resection is usually conducted.During the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, avoiding and reducing iatrogenic implantation and dissemination has been regarded as an important principle for surgical treatment of tumors. In a clinical practice setting, if possible, excisional biopsy should be employed, if a biopsy is needed. Repeated puncturing should be avoided during a paracentesis. In a laparoscopic procedure, the tissue is first put into a sample bag and then is taken out from the point of incision. After a laparoscopic procedure, the peritoneum, abdominal muscular fasciae, and skin should be carefully closed, and/or the punctured porous channel be excised. In addition, the sample/tissue should be rinsed with distilled water before surgical closure of the abdominal cavity,allowing the exfoliated tumor cells to swell and rupture in the hypo-osmolar solution. Then surgical closure can be conducted following a change of gloves and equipment. The extent of hysteromyomectomy should as far as possible be away from the uterine cavity. The purpose of this study is to make clinicians aware of the possibility of tumor implantation

  8. The management of parotid tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang Yan Yu

    2008-01-01

    @@ The majority of salivary gland tumors are of epithelial origin. Parotid gland is the most common location of the tumors. Surgery is the main modality for the management of parotid tumors. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy etc are the auxiliary modalities.

  9. Treatment Options for Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Health Professional Pituitary Tumors Treatment Pituitary Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Pituitary Tumors ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  10. Myoepithelial Tumors: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Vickie Y

    2015-09-01

    Primary myoepithelial neoplasms of soft tissue are uncommon, and have been increasingly characterized by clinicopathologic and genetic means. Tumors are classified as mixed tumor/chondroid syringoma, myoepithelioma, and myoepithelial carcinoma, and they share morphologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic features with their salivary gland counterparts. However, soft tissue myoepithelial tumors are classified as malignant based on the presence of cytologic atypia, in contrast to the criterion of invasive growth in salivary gland sites. This review discusses the clinicopathologic and morphologic characteristics, distinct variants, and currently known genetic alterations of myoepithelial neoplasms of soft tissue, skin, and bone.

  11. Laryngeal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Fábio M; Fontana, Ciro W; Kroef, Ricardo G; Barra, Marinez B; Detânico, Felipe O; Herter, Nilton T

    2014-12-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor seldom involves the larynx, as only about 50 to 60 cases have been described in the literature. Even though these tumors are often not aggressive, they have the potential for invasion and local recurrence. We describe the case of a 27-year-old man who was admitted to an emergency department with signs of upper airway obstruction secondary to an obstructive mass. Histology identified the mass as an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the subglottis. The patient underwent an emergency tracheotomy followed by a partial laryngectomy. During 14 months of follow-up, he remained free of active disease.

  12. Uterine mesenchymal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil A Sangle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine mesenchymal tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that can frequently be diagnostically challenging. Differentiation between the benign and malignant counterparts of mesenchymal tumors is significant due to differences in clinical outcome, and the role of the surgical pathologist in making this distinction (especially in the difficult cases cannot be underestimated. Although immunohistochemical stains are supportive toward establishing a final diagnosis, the morphologic features trump all the other ancillary techniques for this group of neoplasms. This review therefore emphasizes the key morphologic features required to diagnose and distinguish uterine mesenchymal tumors from their mimics, with a brief description of the relevant immunohistochemical features.

  13. SURVIVIN AND TUMOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文哲; 宋燕; 叶剑桥; 邱东涛

    2003-01-01

    As a new member of IAP (inhibitors of apoptosis protein) family, survivin has potent anti-apoptotic activities, and involves in the mitosis and angiogenesis. Researches have demonstrated that surviving is a tumor-specific anti-apoptotic factor, expressed in fetal tissues, and common human cancers, while not in normal, terminally differentiated adult tissues. The overexpression of survivin in tumor tissues is correlated with poor prognosis of the patients. Survivin can be used as a prognostic factor and a new target in tumor targeting therapy.

  14. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  15. Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Neutrophils in Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehong Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distinct tumor microenvironment forms in each progression step of cancer and has diverse capacities to induce both adverse and beneficial consequences for tumorigenesis. It is now known that immune cells can be activated to favor tumor growth and progression, most probably influenced by the tumor microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils can exert protumoral functions, enhancing tumor cell invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix remodeling, while inhibiting the antitumoral immune surveillance. Considering that neutrophils in inflammatory environments recruit macrophages and that recruited macrophages affect neutrophil functions, there may be various degrees of interaction between tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. Platelets also play an important role in the recruitment and regulation of monocytic and granulocytic cells in the tumor tissues, suggesting that platelet function may be essential for generation of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. In this review, we will explore the biology of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils and their possible interactions in the tumor microenvironment. Special attention will be given to the recruitment and activation of these tumor-associated cells and to the roles they play in maintenance of the tumor microenvironment and progression of tumors.

  16. Brain Tumor Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meningitis Brain swelling Stroke Excess fluid in the brain Coma Death Recovery Time Recovery time depends on: The procedure performed. The part of the brain where the tumor is/was located. The areas ...

  17. Nonislet Cell Tumor Hypoglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonislet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH is a rare cause of hypoglycemia. It is characterized by increased glucose utilization by tissues mediated by a tumor resulting in hypoglycemia. NICTH is usually seen in large mesenchymal tumors including tumors involving the GI tract. Here we will discuss a case, its pathophysiology, and recent advances in the management of NICTH. Our patient was diagnosed with poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus. He continued to be hypoglycemic even after starting continuous tube feeds and D5W. General workup for hypoglycemia was negative and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF II was in the normal range. Hypoglycemia secondary to “big” IGF II was considered, and patient was started on steroids. His hypoglycemia resolved within a day of treatment with steroids. Initially patient had hypoglycemia unawareness, which he regained after maintaining euglycemia for 48 hours.

  18. Osteochondroma (Bone Tumor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be the most common benign bone tumor, accounting for 35% to 40% of all benign bone ... imaging scans. Doctors may also request computed tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to ...

  19. GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMOR (GIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eTornillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild-type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other entities, have been discovered (e.g. succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data.

  20. [Metastatic bronchial carcinoid tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouledrak, K; Walter, T; Souquet, P J; Lombard-Bohas, C

    2016-02-01

    Bronchial carcinoids are uncommon pulmonary neoplasms and represent 1 to 2 % of all lung tumors. In early stage of disease, the mainstay and only curative treatment is surgery. Bronchial carcinoids are generally regarded as low-grade carcinomas and metastatic dissemination is unusual. The management of the metastatic stage is not currently standardized due to a lack of relevant studies. As bronchial carcinoids and in particular their metastatic forms are rare, we apply treatment strategies that have been evaluated in gastrointestinal and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. However, bronchial carcinoids have their own characteristic. A specific therapeutic feature of these metastatic tumors is that they require a dual approach: both anti-secretory for the carcinoid syndrome, and anti-tumoral.

  1. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained...

  2. Brain Tumors and Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help calm the mind. Meditation, guided imagery, music therapy, and yoga are just a few worth investigating. Home Donor and Privacy Policies Find Resources Disclaimer Donate Subscribe Login American Brain Tumor Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. Ste ...

  3. [Radiation induced tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Bayard, L; Delgado López, L; Tirado Bejarano, C; Gómez Puerto, A; García Fernández, J L

    1998-04-01

    Radiations at cellular level produce different effects, depending on type of radiation and irradiated tissue. The radiation-induced cancers are associated to non-letals genetics mutations, and to classify like radiation induced tumors is necessary that appear in the treatment volume, a long latency period (years), histolo-different to the primary lesion, enough doses quantitatively and that exists a greater incidence in the irradiated populations. The genetics mutations affect at tumoral suppressors gen(Gen RB I, p53, BRCA I, BRCA 2) and repressors gen (hMSH 2, hMLH I,...), they could be longer and multifocals mutations, and produce lack of cellular control and a greater predisposition to develop tumors and a probable risk of increment of radiosensitivity. We present some of the more representatives studies about radiation-induced tumors.

  4. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained......'s disease and 7 acromegaly with adenomas containing ACTH. The cholecystokinin peptides from the tumors were smaller and less sulfated than cholecystokinin from normal pituitary glands. We conclude that ACTH-producing pituitary cells may also produce an altered form of cholecystokinin....

  5. Giant Intradiverticular Bladder Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Mohamad Syafeeq Faeez Md; Aziz, Ahmad Fuad Abdul; Ghani, Khairul Asri Mohd; Siang, Christopher Lee Kheng; Yunus, Rosna; Yusof, Mubarak Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 74 Final Diagnosis: Giant intradiverticular bladder tumor with metastasis Symptoms: Hematuria Medication:— Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Urology Objective: Rare disease Background: Intradiverticular bladder tumors are rare. This renders diagnosis of an intradiverticular bladder tumor difficult. Imaging plays a vital role in achieving the diagnosis, and subsequently staging of the disease. Case Report: A 74-year-old male presented to our center with a few months history of constitutional symptoms. Upon further history, he reported hematuria two months prior to presentation, which stopped temporarily, only to recur a few days prior to coming to the hospital. The patient admitted to having lower urinary tract symptoms. However, there was no dysuria, no sandy urine, and no fever. Palpation of his abdomen revealed a vague mass at the suprapubic region, which was non tender. In view of his history and the clinical examination findings, an ultrasound of the abdomen and computed tomography (CT) was arranged. These investigations revealed a giant tumor that seemed to be arising from a bladder diverticulum, with a mass effect and hydronephrosis. He later underwent operative intervention. Conclusions: Intradiverticular bladder tumors may present a challenge to the treating physician in an atypical presentation; thus requiring a high index of suspicion and knowledge of tumor pathophysiology. As illustrated in our case, CT with its wide availability and multiplanar imaging capabilities offers a useful means for diagnosis, disease staging, operative planning, and follow-up. PMID:28246375

  6. Tumores cartilaginosos da laringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomé Robert

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Os tumores cartilaginosos da laringe são raros, sendo a cartilagem cricóide a mais acometida. A raridade desses tumores tem como conseqüência experiência limitada e, portanto, o conhecimento a respeito destas neoplasias apresenta pontos obscuros. Objetivo: Apresentar os resultados cirúrgicos bem como o seguimento a longo prazo de 6 pacientes com tumores cartilaginosos da laringe, 4 condrossarcomas de baixa malignidade e 2 condromas. Forma de estudo: Retrospectivo não randomizado. Material e método: Cinco dos tumores acometiam a cartilagem cricóide e 1 a tireóide. Os pacientes foram submetidos a laringectomia parcial (4 e total (2, com seguimento de 6 a 30 anos (média-19,5 anos. Resultados: Nenhum dos pacientes apresentou metástase ou morte relacionada ao tumor. A sobrevida alcançada por 5 anos foi de 100% e a por 20 anos, 67%, sendo a comorbidade responsável por tal decréscimo. Conclusões: Nossos resultados reforçam o conceito de que a laringectomia conservadora seja a modalidade ideal de tratamento, reservando a ressecção total para tumores extensos ou casos de recorrência. Há indícios de que 5 anos pode não ser tempo suficiente para observar recorrência no condrossarcoma de baixo grau de malignidade.

  7. [Enophthalmos in an orbital tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Bianca; Szabo, I; Nicula, Cristina; Popescu, Livia Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Enophtalmus is an unusual sign of the orbital tumors often represented by proptosis. One patient with enophtalmus and intraorbital tumor and aplasy is presented. The treatment of choice of orbital tumor is complete surgical excision and careful follow-up. Considering the more aggressive course followed by recurrent tumor, correct diagnosis and management is essential.

  8. Brain tumors in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Ghodsi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain tumors in infants have different clinical presentations, anatomical distribution, histopathological diagnosis, and clinical prognosis compared with older children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done in patients <12 months old who were operated on for primary brain tumor in Children's Hospital Medical Center since 2008 to 2014. Results: Thirty-one infants, 20 males and 11 females, with the mean age of 7.13 months (0.5–12 were enrolled. There were 16 supratentorial and 15 infratentorial tumors. The presenting symptoms included increased head circumference (16; bulge fontanel (15; vomiting (15; developmental regression (11; sunset eye (7; seizure (4; loss of consciousness (4; irritability (3; nystagmus (2; visual loss (2; hemiparesis (2; torticollis (2; VI palsy (3; VII, IX, X nerve palsy (each 2; and ptosis (1. Gross total and subtotal resection were performed in 19 and 11 cases, respectively. Fourteen patients needed external ventricular drainage in the perioperative period, from whom four infants required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. One patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting without tumor resection. The most common histological diagnoses were primitive neuroectodermal tumor (7, followed by anaplastic ependymoma (6 and grade II ependymoma. The rate of 30-day mortality was 19.3%. Eighteen patients are now well-controlled with or without adjuvant therapy (overall survival; 58%, from whom 13 cases are tumor free (disease free survival; 41.9%, 3 cases have residual masses with fixed or decreased size (progression-free survival; 9.6%, and 2 cases are still on chemotherapy. Conclusion: Brain tumors in infants should be treated with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy when necessary.

  9. Metastatic Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Haciyakupoglu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumor is secondary spread to the central nervous system of primer systemic cancers originating from tissues other than the central nervous system. In adults; there are metastases respectively from lungs, breasts, malign melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, colon and thyroid cancers. 30-60% of lung cancers metastasis to the brain. In children there are quite a few cerebral metastases. Most commonly leukemia, lymphoma, osteogenic sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and germ cell tumors metastasis to the brain. %50 of malign melanoma, lung, breast and colon cancers intend to make multipl metastases but renal cell cancers intend to make solitary metastasis.While lung cancers metastasis to brain in 6-9 months after the definitive diagnosis, renal cancers in 1 year, colon cancers in 2 years, breast cancers and malign melanoma in 3 years metastasis to brain. In 6% of cases there are cerebral metastasis while there isn’t a symptom of a primary tumor. For treatment corticosteroids, surgery, Radiotherapy(RT, Chemotherapy(CT and Stereotactic Radiosurgery(SRS can be implemented. Small cell lung cancers, lymphoma, germ cell tumors are sensitive to RT and CT. Non small cell lung cancers, renal, colon cancers and malign melanoma are radioresistant. The purposes in the surgery of the metastatic brain tumors are; total resection of tumors without neurologic deficits, decreasing the intracranial pressure and decreasing the dose of postoperative radiotherapy. Key Words: Metastatic brain tumors, Stereotactic radiosurgery, Malign melanoma, Lung cancers, Renal cell carcinoma, Radiotherapy, Chemotherapy [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 191-202

  10. Pituitary gland tumors; Hypophysentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten Hypophysentumoren und deren Differenzialdiagnosen mit Augenmerk auf die

  11. Thermoradiotherapy of malignant tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Kazuo; Itami, Jun; Arimizu, Noboru (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Uno, Takashi; Toita, Takafumi; Shiina, Takeki; Mikuriya, Shuuichi; Yamada, Tsunehisa

    1991-06-01

    From October 1986 to June 1989, 79 patients with malignant tumors were treated by radiation therapy combined with hyperthermia at National Medical Center Hospital. Seventy two patients (male: 48, female: 23) were evaluable. Average age was 62.4 years old (ranged 20-81 years old). Irradiation was delivered twice to fifth weekly in tumor doses of 50 to 60 Gy (TDF 82-122). We used 3 types of hyperthermic equipment, Thermotron RF8, BSD 1000 System and Endoradiotherm 100A. Hyperthermia was initiated within 30 minutes following irradiation, most of the patients being treated with adequate equipment, 41-44degC, for 60-70 minutes every 72 hours. Fifteen of 71 patients (20.8%) showed a complete response and 36 patients (50%) showed a partial response, so effective rate was 70.8% of all. In superficial tumors, 4 of 21 patients (21.5%) showed a complete response and 8 of 21 patients showed a partial response, effective rate was 63.2% of all. In deep seated tumor, 10 of 46 patients (21.7%) showed a complete response and 25 of all patients showed a partial response, so effective rate was 76.1% of all. Five patients were heated following only intra-tumor injection of OK-432 and its effective rate was 75%. We think that this modality of therapy will be effective in cases which heating area had been irradiated over tolerable doses. CR rate of superficial tumors according to intra-tumor center temperature tends to higher in the cases of higher tumor temperature. In deep seated tumor, 11 patients (23.9%) had reached over 43degC, 29 patients (63.0%) heated 41-43degC, 6 patients (13.0%) heated under 41degC and CR rate of each group were 36.4%, 17.2%, 16.7%, respectively. We think that thermotherapy with irradiation is an effective therapy in the treatment of malignancies but the improvement of heating equipment will be expected. (author).

  12. Extraovarian granulosa cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Prabir

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Extraovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT is a very uncommon tumor, assumed to arise from the ectopic gonadal tissue along the embryonal route of the genital ridge. One such rare case of extraovarian GCT was encountered in a 58-year-old female who presented with a large intraabdominal lump. Computerized tomography revealed one large retroperitoneal mass measuring 15cm x 16cm and another mesenteric mass of 8cm x 5cm size. The patient had a history of hysterectomy with bilateral salpingooophorectomy 20 years ago for uterine leiomyoma. Ultrasonography-guided aspiration smears revealed cytological features suggestive of GCT. Histopathological examination of the excised masses showed features of adult-type GCT. Because metastatic epithelial tumors, particularly from the ovaries, may show identical morphology, immunostains for inhibin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA were performed. The tumor showed positivity for inhibin while EMA was negative thus confirming the diagnosis of GCT. As this patient had no previous history of GCT and was oophorectomized 20 years ago, the tumor was considered as extraovarian. A diagnosis of extraovarian GCT should be carried out after excluding any previous history of GCT of the ovary. Immunostains help to differentiate GCTs from other neoplasms.

  13. Endolymphatic sac tumor : a rare cerebellopontine angle tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST are rare papillary tumors of the temporal bone. Previously named as aggressive papillary middle ear tumors, they have recently been shown to arise from the endolymphatic sac. They are a rare in cerebello-pontine angle (CPA. We present a case of an ELST who presented as a CPA tumor with hydrocephalus. He underwent a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt initially. On exploration of the CP angle, the tumor was found to be extremely vascular. He was re-explored following embolization, and a subtotal excision of the tumor was done. Extensive petrous bone infiltration and vascularity of the tumor makes total excision almost impossible with high risk of cranial nerve deficits, excessive blood loss and CSF leak. This tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular CPA tumors which erode the petrous temporal bone. The relevant literature is reviewed.

  14. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  15. Renal Tumor Biopsy Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhang; Xue-Song Li; Li-Qun Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To review hot issues and future direction of renal tumor biopsy (RTB) technique.Data Sources:The literature concerning or including RTB technique in English was collected from PubMed published from 1990 to 2015.Study Selection:We included all the relevant articles on RTB technique in English,with no limitation of study design.Results:Computed tomography and ultrasound were usually used for guiding RTB with respective advantages.Core biopsy is more preferred over fine needle aspiration because of superior accuracy.A minimum of two good-quality cores for a single renal tumor is generally accepted.The use of coaxial guide is recommended.For biopsy location,sampling different regions including central and peripheral biopsies are recommended.Conclusion:In spite of some limitations,RTB technique is relatively mature to help optimize the treatment of renal tumors.

  16. NO, Immunosuppression and Tumor Immmunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hegardt, Pontus

    2002-01-01

    This study aims at clarifying the role of NO in the immunosuppression induced by in vivo tumor growth and by tumor immunotherapy, and determining whether the inhibition of NO production can be used as an adjuvant in tumor immunotherapy. We have shown previously that tumor cells, glioma (N32) and colon carcinoma (H1D2), when genetically engineered to express such immune stimulatory cytokines as IFN-g and IL-18, induce strong anti-tumor immune response, in immunized tumor-free rats, whereas onl...

  17. Serodiagnosis for Tumor Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Brian J.; Labo, Nazzarena; Miley, Wendell J.; Whitby, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The known human tumor viruses include the DNA viruses Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus, Merkel cell polyomavirus, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis B virus. RNA tumor viruses include Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-1 and hepatitis C virus. The serological identification of antigens/antibodies in plasma serum is a rapidly progressing field with utility for both scientists and clinicians. Serology is useful for conducting seroepidemiology studies and to inform on the pathogenesis and host immune response to a particular viral agent. Clinically, serology is useful for diagnosing current or past infection and for aiding in clinical management decisions. Serology is useful for screening blood donations for infectious agents and for monitoring the outcome of vaccination against these viruses. Serodiagnosis of human tumor viruses has improved in recent years with increased specificity and sensitivity of the assays, as well as reductions in cost and the ability to assess multiple antibody/antigens in single assays. Serodiagnosis of tumor viruses plays an important role in our understanding of the prevalence and transmission of these viruses and ultimately in the ability to develop treatments/preventions for these globally important diseases. PMID:25843726

  18. Intracardiac tumor causing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Jordan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The following report describes the case of newborn girl with an asymptomatic systolic murmur, which on imaging revealed a nearly obstructive mass in the left-ventricular outflow tract. The mass was resected and found to be consistent with a rhabdomyoma. Here, we describe the pathologic and clinical characteristics of this tumor.

  19. Radioembolization of liver tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoven, AF

    2016-01-01

    Radioembolization is a therapy during which radioactive microspheres are administered through a microcatheter placed in the hepatic arterial vasculature in order to irradiate liver tumors from within. In the past decennium, this treatment has evolved as a safe and effective treatment option for pati

  20. Targeting thapsigargin towards tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Nhu Thi Quynh; Paulsen, Eleonora Sandholdt; Sehgal, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    substrates for either prostate specific antigen (PSA) or prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) prodrugs were created, which selectively affect prostate cancer cells or neovascular tissue in tumors. One of the prodrug is currently tested in clinical phase II. The prodrug under clinical trial has been...

  1. Tumor interstitial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.

    2013-01-01

    secretion, non-classical secretion, secretion via exosomes and membrane protein shedding. Consequently, the interstitial aqueous phase of solid tumors is a highly promising resource for the discovery of molecules associated with pathological changes in tissues. Firstly, it allows one to delve deeper...

  2. Tumor ablations in IMRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roberto Blanco Sequeiros

    2002-01-01

    @@ IntroductionMagnetic resonance imaging based guidance control and monitoring of minimally invasive intervention has developed from a hypothetical concept to a practical possibility. Magnetic-resonance-guided interstitial therapy in principle is defined as a treatment technique for ablating deepseated tumors in the human body.

  3. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Roberts

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Despite biopsy proven malignant phyllodes tumor, it was near impossible to predict such a rapid course of disease progression in our patient. Our case illustrates the unpredictable nature of this disease in general and it possibly sheds light on a variant of the disease which had undergone an aggressive transformation.

  4. Ghost Cell Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Jason; Cohen, Molly D; Ramer, Naomi; Payami, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Ghost cell tumors are a family of lesions that range in presentation from cyst to solid neoplasm and in behavior from benign to locally aggressive or metastatic. All are characterized by the presence of ameloblastic epithelium, ghost cells, and calcifications. This report presents the cases of a 14-year-old girl with a calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) and a 65-year-old woman with a peripheral dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT) with dysplastic changes, a rare locally invasive tumor of odontogenic epithelium. The first patient presented with a 1-year history of slowly progressing pain and swelling at the left body of the mandible. Initial panoramic radiograph displayed a mixed radiolucent and radiopaque lesion. An incisional biopsy yielded a diagnosis of CCOT. Decompression of the mass was completed; after 3 months, it was enucleated and immediately grafted with bone harvested from the anterior iliac crest. The second patient presented with a 3-month history of slowly progressing pain and swelling at the left body of the mandible. Initial panoramic radiograph depicted a mixed radiolucent and radiopaque lesion with saucerization of the buccal mandibular cortex. An incisional biopsy examination suggested a diagnosis of DGCT because of the presence of ghost cells, dentinoid, and islands of ameloblastic epithelium. Excision of the mass with peripheral ostectomy was completed. At 6 and 12 months of follow-up, no evidence of recurrence was noted.

  5. [2 infrequent vulvar tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, G; Benavides, A; Villanueva, M E

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of malignant vulvar tumors are presented: a malignant Melanoma and a case of Carcinoma of the Bartholin Gland. Both were diagnosticated during 1993 in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Dr. Félix Bulnes Cerda Hospital. Clinical and anatomophatological aspects are studied.

  6. Advances of Tumor Hyperthermia and Tumor Immunology in Translational Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Hooshang Lahooti

    2015-01-01

    Hyperthermia is another important method in the treatment of tumors, secondary to surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and biotherapy. It has been demonstrated the efficacy and versatility of hyperthermia in a lot of randomized trials across various primary cancers. Both heat shock proteins (HSPs) and dendritic cells (DCs) are greatly affected by hyperthermia and closely related to the tumor immunology. Nowadays, tumor hyperthermia and tumor immunology have been attached much attention in the ...

  7. Rare and Challenging Tumor Entity: Phyllodes Tumor of the Prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bannowsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic epithelial-stromal tumors of the prostate are rare, with 82 cases reported in literature. These cases have been published under a variety of diagnoses, including phyllodes tumor and prostatic stromal proliferation of uncertain malignant potential as well as a malignant tumor called “prostatic stromal sarcoma”. We report a case of a 60-year-old man with the histological diagnosis of phyllodes tumor of the prostate in transurethral resection specimen.

  8. Rare and Challenging Tumor Entity: Phyllodes Tumor of the Prostate

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Bannowsky; Andreas Probst; Helmut Dunker; Tillmann Loch

    2009-01-01

    Cystic epithelial-stromal tumors of the prostate are rare, with 82 cases reported in literature. These cases have been published under a variety of diagnoses, including phyllodes tumor and prostatic stromal proliferation of uncertain malignant potential as well as a malignant tumor called “prostatic stromal sarcoma”. We report a case of a 60-year-old man with the histological diagnosis of phyllodes tumor of the prostate in transurethral resection specimen.

  9. Epidemiological features of brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumors account for 1.4% of all cancers and 2.4% of all cancer-related deaths. The incidence of brain tumors varies and it is higher in developed countries of Western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. In Serbia, according to data from 2009, malignant brain tumors account for 2. 2 of all tumors, and from all cancer­related deaths, 3.2% is caused by malignant brain tumors. According to recent statistical reports, an overall incidence of brain tumors for benign and malignant tumors combined is 18.71 per 100,000 persons/year. The most common benign brain tumor in adults is meningioma, which is most present in women, and the most common malignant tumor is glioblastoma, which is most present in adult men. Due to high mortality, especially in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma and significant brain tumor morbidity, there is a constant interest in understanding its etiology in order to possibly prevent tumor occurrence in future and enable more efficient treatment strategies for this fatal brain disease. Despite the continuously growing number of epidemiological studies on possible factors of tumor incidence, the etiology remains unclear. The only established environmental risk factor of gliomas is ionizing radiation exposure. Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields via cell phone use has gained a lot of attention as a potential risk factor of brain tumor development. However, studies have been inconsistent and inconclusive, so more definite results are still expected.

  10. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davies, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare neoplasms accounting for less than 5% of pancreatic malignancies. They are broadly classified into either functioning tumors (insulinomas, gastrinomas, glucagonomas, VIPomas, and somatostatinomas) or nonfunctioning tumors. The diagnosis of these tumors is difficult and requires a careful history and examination combined with laboratory tests and radiologic imaging. Signs and symptoms are usually related to hormone hypersecretion in the case of functioning tumors and to tumor size or metastases with nonfunctioning tumors. Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice even in the face of metastatic disease. Further development of novel diagnostic and treatment modalities offers potential to greatly improve quality of life and prolong disease-free survival for patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors.

  11. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertoli-stromal cell tumor; Arrhenoblastoma; Androblastoma; Ovarian cancer - Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor ... The Sertoli cells are normally located in the male reproductive glands (the testes). They feed sperm cells. The Leydig cells, also ...

  12. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davies, Karen

    2009-04-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare neoplasms accounting for less than 5% of pancreatic malignancies. They are broadly classified into either functioning tumors (insulinomas, gastrinomas, glucagonomas, VIPomas, and somatostatinomas) or nonfunctioning tumors. The diagnosis of these tumors is difficult and requires a careful history and examination combined with laboratory tests and radiologic imaging. Signs and symptoms are usually related to hormone hypersecretion in the case of functioning tumors and to tumor size or metastases with nonfunctioning tumors. Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice even in the face of metastatic disease. Further development of novel diagnostic and treatment modalities offers potential to greatly improve quality of life and prolong disease-free survival for patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors.

  13. Biopsy in Musculoskeletal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharehdaghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of bone tumors is based on careful evaluation of clinical, imaging and a pathologic findings. So the biopsy of bone and soft tissue sarcomas is the final step in evaluation and a fundamental step in the diagnosis of the lesion. It should not be performed as a shortcut to diagnosis (1. The biopsy should be performed in order to confirm the diagnosis and differentiate among few diagnoses after careful staged studies. Real and artificial changes in imaging studies will be superimposed after performing biopsy, which may alter the interpretation if done after biopsy is taken (1. The correct management of a sarcoma depends on the accurate diagnosis. Inadequate, inapprppriate, or inaccurate non-representative biopsy leads to poorer outcome in terms of survivorship and limb salvage. An incorrect, unplanned incision and biopsy may unnecessarily contaminate uninvolved compartments which may convert a salvageable limb to amputation. Anatomic approach along with the proper biopsy techniques may lead to success or catastrophe. It is clear that in patients with inappropriate biopsy, the chance of the need to change the treatment to more radical than would originally be expected is significantly higher. Also it is more probable to need to  convert curative to palliative treatment and to require adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with inappropriate biopsies. Patients with sarcoma are best served by early referral to a specialized center where staged investigations and biopsy can be performed with minimal morbidity (3. Open biopsy is still considered the gold standard; however, recent studies suggest comparable results with percutaneous core needle biopsy. Our study on 103 consecutive CNB and open biopsy showed comparable results as well. Surgeons need to answer to two questions prior to performing a biopsy: 1-          Where is the best part of the lesion to be biopsied? 2-          What is the safest route without contaminating

  14. Tumor suppressor and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juliette Martin; Jean-Frangois Dufour

    2008-01-01

    A few signaling pathways are driving the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. Each of these pathways possesses negative regulators. These enzymes, which normally suppress unchecked cell proliferation, are circumvented in the oncogenic process, either the over-activity of oncogenes is sufficient to annihilate the activity of tumor suppressors or tumor suppressors have been rendered ineffective. The loss of several key tumor suppressors has been described in hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we systematically review the evidence implicating tumor suppressors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  15. Radiological review of pleural tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binit Sureka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors of the pleura are not uncommon and diagnosis is clinched by combined imaging and clinical correlation. Malignant tumors are more common than benign tumors. Initial imaging modalities are chest radiography and Computed Tomography (CT. Further characterization may be required using Ultrasoundgraphy (USG, Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI and PET-CT. Biopsy remains gold standard. This article highlights various common and uncommon tumors of pleura and characteristic imaging findings.

  16. Bednar Tumor: An Uncommon Entity

    OpenAIRE

    Gayathri P Amonkar; Asha Rupani; Ajay Shah; Ramesh Deshpande

    2016-01-01

    Bednar tumor is an uncommon variant of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Also known as pigmented dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, this tumor is of intermediate grade. It is seen in adults and has a predisposition to affect the shoulder region. We report a rare case of Bednar tumor in a 40-year-old female patient. The diagnosis of Bednar tumor must be considered while reporting pigmented subcutaneous spindle cell lesions.

  17. Metastasis and circulating tumor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalum, van G.; Holland, L.; Terstappen, L.W.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a prominent cause of death worldwide. In most cases, it is not the primary tumor which causes death, but the metastases. Metastatic tumors are spread over the entire human body and are more difficult to remove or treat than the primary tumor. In a patient with metastatic disease, circulati

  18. Tumor Microenvironment in the Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorger, Mihaela [Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Leeds, St. James’s University Hospital, Beckett Street, Leeds, LS9 7TF (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-22

    In addition to malignant cancer cells, tumors contain a variety of different stromal cells that constitute the tumor microenvironment. Some of these cell types provide crucial support for tumor growth, while others have been suggested to actually inhibit tumor progression. The composition of tumor microenvironment varies depending on the tumor site. The brain in particular consists of numerous specialized cell types such as microglia, astrocytes, and brain endothelial cells. In addition to these brain-resident cells, primary and metastatic brain tumors have also been shown to be infiltrated by different populations of bone marrow-derived cells. The role of different cell types that constitute tumor microenvironment in the progression of brain malignancies is only poorly understood. Tumor microenvironment has been shown to be a promising therapeutic target and diagnostic marker in extracranial malignancies. A better understanding of tumor microenvironment in the brain would therefore be expected to contribute to the development of improved therapies for brain tumors that are urgently required due to a poor availability of treatments for these malignancies. This review summarizes some of the known interactions between brain tumors and different stromal cells, and also discusses potential therapeutic approaches within this context.

  19. Apoptosis in irradiated murine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, L C; Ang, K K; Schultheiss, T E; Milas, L; Meyn, R E

    1991-09-01

    Early radiation responses of transplantable murine ovarian (OCaI) and hepatocellular (HCaI) carcinomas were examined at 6, 24, 48, 96, and 144 h after single photon doses of 25, 35, or 45 Gy. Previous studies using tumor growth delay and tumor radiocurability assays had shown OCaI tumors to be relatively radiosensitive and HCaI tumors to be radioresistant. At 6 h, approximately 20% of nuclei in OCaI tumors showed aberrations characteristic of cell death by apoptosis. This contrasted to an incidence of 3% in HCaI tumors. Mitotic activity was eliminated in OCaI tumors but was only transiently suppressed in HCaI tumors. At 24-96 h, OCaI tumors continued to display apoptosis and progressive necrosis, whereas HCaI tumors responded by exhibiting marked pleomorphism. Factors other than mitotic activity may influence tumor radiosensitivity, and one of these may be susceptibility to induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death), because this was a prominent early radiation response by the radiosensitive OCaI tumors.

  20. Tumor uptake of radioruthenium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S C; Richards, P; Meinken, G E; Larson, S M; Grunbaum, Z

    1980-01-01

    The use of ruthenium-97 as a scintigraphic agent, particularly for tumor localization, is investigated. The tumor uptake of ruthenium chloride and ruthenium-labelled transferrin is evaluated and their application as tumor-imagine agents is compared to gallium-67 citrate. (ACR)

  1. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makidono, Akari; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Mori, Miki; Yagata, Hiroshi; Onoda, Yui; Kikuchi, Mari; Nozaki, Taiki; Saida, Yukihisa; Nakamura, Seigo; Suzuki, Koyu

    2013-07-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare fibroepithelial lesion and particularly uncommon in adolescent girls. It is thought to arise from the periductal rather than intralobular stroma. Usually, it is seen as a well-defined mass. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth is extremely rare. Here we report a girl who has a phyllodes tumor with intraductal growth.

  2. Notch Signaling and Brain Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockhausen, Marie; Kristoffersen, Karina; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2011-01-01

    Human brain tumors are a heterogenous group of neoplasms occurring inside the cranium and the central spinal cord. In adults and children, astrocytic glioma and medulloblastoma are the most common subtypes of primary brain tumors. These tumor types are thought to arise from cells in which Notch...

  3. Retroperitoneal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapsy Poonamalle P

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT is a neoplasm of unknown etiology occurring at various sites. By definition, it is composed of spindle cells (myofibroblasts with variable inflammatory component, hence the name is IMT. Case presentation The present case is of a 46 years old woman presented with a history of flank pain, abdominal mass and intermittent hematuria for last 6 months. The initial diagnosis was kept as renal cell carcinoma. Finally, it turned out to be a case of retroperitoneal IMT. The patient was managed by complete surgical resection of the tumor. Conclusion IMT is a rare neoplasm of uncertain biological potential. Complete surgical resection remains the mainstay of the treatment.

  4. [Retroperitoneal Tumor: Neurofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lada, Paul Eduardo; Marriot, Daniela; Sanchez Tasonne, Carlos; Sanchez, Martin; Caballero, Fabian; Massa, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The neurofibroma is a benign tumor that grows from the sheath of the peripheral nerves, which is often localized on superficial tissues, especially in isolated forms. The neurofibromas can be of two types, localized or diffuse, the last one closely related to Von Recklinghausen disease or NF-1. We described a 37 years old male e patient, 37 years without symptoms, and the computed tomography scan (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor in proximity to the right kidney, the psoas muscle, the spine and compressing the cava vein, but cannot be accurately determinate the invasion of these structures. We review the differential diagnosis, therapeutic and the management of this disease in this clinical case.

  5. Pediatric Suprasellar Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Heather J; George, Emilie; Settler, Allison; Schwartz, Theodore H; Greenfield, Jeffrey P

    2016-10-01

    The various childhood suprasellar tumors, while pathologically distinct, present similar clinical and surgical challenges as a result of their common anatomic location. These lesions are in close proximity to or may invade the optic nerve and chiasm, pituitary gland and infundibulum, hypothalamus, and third ventricle, leading to presenting features including visual field loss, impairment in visual acuity, endocrine dysfunction, and hydrocephalus. Though many suprasellar lesions are relatively benign in pathology, treatment may be complicated by high surgical morbidity resulting from damage to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Here we review the most frequent pediatric lesions occurring in the suprasellar region: craniopharyngioma, chiasmatic glioma, germ cell tumor, Rathke cleft and arachnoid cysts, pituitary adenoma, and histiocytosis. This review outlines both common presenting features and differentiating aspects of these lesions. It also includes classic radiographic presentations and treatment considerations for each lesion.

  6. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Palaskar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is an uncommon lesion of unknown cause. It encompasses a spectrum of myofibroblastic proliferation along with varying amount of inflammatory infiltrate. A number of terms have been applied to the lesion, namely, inflammatory pseudotumor, fibrous xanthoma, plasma cell granuloma, pseudosarcoma, lymphoid hamartoma, myxoid hamartoma, inflammatory myofibrohistiocytic proliferation, benign myofibroblatoma, and most recently, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. The diverse nomenclature is mostly descriptive and reflects the uncertainty regarding true biologic nature of these lesions. Recently, the concept of this lesion being reactive has been challenged based on the clinical demonstration of recurrences and metastasis and cytogenetic evidence of acquired clonal chromosomal abnormalities. We hereby report a case of inflammatory pseudotumor and review its inflammatory versus neoplastic behavior.

  7. [Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumor)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, G A; Donati, M; Faiss, S; Jenner, R M; Niehaus, K J; Oldhafer, K J

    2014-02-01

    Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma or Klatskin tumors are a rare entity arising from the extrahepatic bile duct bifurcation. Considering the close anatomical relationship of the bile duct bifurcation with the portal vein bifurcation and hepatic arteries, surgical treatment is demanding. With an incidence of only 2-4 cases/100,000 population/year patients should be referred to a specialized center. The tumors are usually poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas growing diffusely along the duct and also the perineural sheath. Only radical surgery offers a curative option and currently surgical strategy usually consists of en bloc resection of the bile duct, extended liver resection and portal vein resection. Proximal and lateral safety margin R0 resections are technically very demanding procedures because of the local anatomy.

  8. Retroperitoneal calcifying fibrous tumor mimicking an adrenal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Erica C; Sciallis, Andrew P; Miller, Barbra S

    2016-06-01

    Establishing the etiology of a retroperitoneal tumor may be difficult due to close proximity of multiple organs. Evaluation of retroperitoneal tumors often leads to surgery, many times to obtain a definitive diagnosis and rule out malignancy. Calcifying fibrous tumors (CFT) are very rare soft tissue tumors occurring most often in young patients. They are most often found arising in the thoracic cavity, mediastinum, abdominal cavity and extremities and usually have a benign clinical course. Macrocscopically, the tumors are well circumscribed and firm with a white-tan appearance. Histologically, CFT comprised a hypocellular proliferation of bland spindle cells, densely hyalinized collagen, chronic lymphoplasmacytic inflammation and dystrophic calcifications. Other considerations in the pathologic differential diagnosis include solitary fibrous tumor and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.

  9. Characterization of the Tumor Secretome from Tumor Interstitial Fluid (TIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) surrounds and perfuses bodily tumorigenic tissues and cells, and can accumulate by-products of tumors and stromal cells in a relatively local space. Interstitial fluid offers several important advantages for biomarker and therapeutic target discovery, especially for cancer. Here, we describe the most currently accepted method for recovering TIF from tumor and nonmalignant tissues that was initially performed using breast cancer tissue. TIF recovery is achieved by passive extraction of fluid from small, surgically dissected tissue specimens in phosphate-buffered saline. We also present protocols for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of snap-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor sections and for proteomic profiling of TIF and matched tumor samples by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) to enable comparative analysis of tumor secretome and paired tumor tissue.

  10. TRUS Findings of Prostate Tumor or Tumor Like Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hak Jong; Jang, Jung Min; Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Tumors or tumor-like lesions in the prostate raise questions concerning their histogenesis and they may have prognoses dissimilar to those of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Several neoplasms involving the prostate have been described and characterized in recent years. In addition to adenocarcinoma, they include mucinous cyst adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine cancer, lymphoma, spindle cell neoplasm, squamous cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) mimicking malignancy. In addition, infectious conditions such as tuberculosis and some stages of prostatic abscess can also mimic prostate tumors. Radiologic findings overlap and have limited roles in the diagnoses of these entities. However, knowledge of these variable tumors and tumor-like conditions is helpful when making accurate radiologic diagnoses, which have important clinical implications for treatment and prognosis. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and available pathologic images of unusual tumors and tumor- like lesions are demonstrated in this article

  11. Cardiac tumors: echo assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankad, Rekha; Herrmann, Joerg

    2016-12-01

    Cardiac tumors are exceedingly rare (0.001-0.03% in most autopsy series). They can be present anywhere within the heart and can be attached to any surface or be embedded in the myocardium or pericardial space. Signs and symptoms are nonspecific and highly variable related to the localization, size and composition of the cardiac mass. Echocardiography, typically performed for another indication, may be the first imaging modality alerting the clinician to the presence of a cardiac mass. Although echocardiography cannot give the histopathology, certain imaging features and adjunctive tools such as contrast imaging may aid in the differential diagnosis as do the adjunctive clinical data and the following principles: (1) thrombus or vegetations are the most likely etiology, (2) cardiac tumors are mostly secondary and (3) primary cardiac tumors are mostly benign. Although the finding of a cardiac mass on echocardiography may generate confusion, a stepwise approach may serve well practically. Herein, we will review such an approach and the role of echocardiography in the assessment of cardiac masses.

  12. [Resection of Klatskin tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehofer, D; Kamphues, C; Neuhaus, P

    2012-03-01

    Curative treatment of Klatskin tumors by radical surgical procedures with surgical preparation distant to the tumor region results in 5-year survival rates of 30-50%. This requires mandatory en bloc liver resection and resection of the extrahepatic bile duct often together with vascular resection. Nevertheless, the ideal safety margin of 0.5-1 cm remote from the macroscopic tumor extensions cannot be achieved in all cases. Based on hilar anatomy the probability of an adequate safety margin is higher using extended right hemihepatectomy together with portal vein resection compared to left hemihepatectomy. However, due to severe atrophy of the left liver lobe solely left-sided hepatectomy is feasible in some patients. In cases of eligibility for both procedures right hemihepatectomy is preferentially used due to the higher oncological radicality if sufficient liver function is present. Postoperative hepatic insufficiency and bile leakage after demanding biliary reconstruction, often with several small orifices, contribute to the postoperative complication rate of this complex surgical disease pattern.

  13. Mouse Leydig Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Syong Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin is a natural pure compound extracted from Cordyceps sinensis (CS. We have demonstrated that CS stimulates steroidogenesis in primary mouse Leydig cell and activates apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. It is highly possible that cordycepin is the main component in CS modulating Leydig cell functions. Thus, our aim was to investigate the steroidogenic and apoptotic effects with potential mechanism of cordycepin on MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. Results showed that cordycepin significantly stimulated progesterone production in dose- and time-dependent manners. Adenosine receptor (AR subtype agonists were further used to treat MA-10 cells, showing that A1, A 2A , A 2B , and A3, AR agonists could stimulate progesterone production. However, StAR promoter activity and protein expression remained of no difference among all cordycepin treatments, suggesting that cordycepin might activate AR, but not stimulated StAR protein to regulate MA-10 cell steroidogenesis. Meanwhile, cordycepin could also induce apoptotic cell death in MA-10 cells. Moreover, four AR subtype agonists induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and four AR subtype antagonists could all rescue cell death under cordycepin treatment in MA-10 cells. In conclusion, cordycepin could activate adenosine subtype receptors and simultaneously induce steroidogenesis and apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells.

  14. [Intraductal papillary mucinous pancreas tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maev, I V; Kaziulin, A N; Kucheriavyĭ, Iu A

    2008-01-01

    Data of the literature on the epidemiology, patogenesis, diagnosis, peculiarities of the symptoms and the treatment of the intraduct papillar pancreatic tumor, are analyzed in this review. These tumors are rare, there are up to 1% of the exocrine pancreatic tumors. Intraduct proliferation of the mucin producing cells, that are disposed as papillars is typical of these tumors. There are the symptoms of the acute or chronic pancreatitis, sometimes the diagnosis of this tumor is accidental. The main diagnostic methods are ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT). Endoluminal ultrasound (EUS) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) are the main methods to reveal the intraduct growth. The surgical treatment is necessary for these patients.

  15. Tumors of the optic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Heegaard, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    A variety of lesions may involve the optic nerve. Mainly, these lesions are inflammatory or vascular lesions that rarely necessitate surgery but may induce significant visual morbidity. Orbital tumors may induce proptosis, visual loss, relative afferent pupillary defect, disc edema and optic...... atrophy, but less than one-tenth of these tumors are confined to the optic nerve or its sheaths. No signs or symptoms are pathognomonic for tumors of the optic nerve. The tumors of the optic nerve may originate from the optic nerve itself (primary tumors) as a proliferation of cells normally present...... in the nerve (e.g., astrocytes and meningothelial cells). The optic nerve may also be invaded from tumors originating elsewhere (secondary tumors), invading the nerve from adjacent structures (e.g., choroidal melanoma and retinoblastoma) or from distant sites (e.g., lymphocytic infiltration and distant...

  16. [Surgical therapy of proximal extrahepatic bile duct tumors (Klatskin tumors)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, S; Gassel, H-J; Thiede, A

    2007-08-01

    Due to their anatomical position, the tendency of early infiltrative growth and their poor prognosis without treatment, klatskin tumors are challenging concerning diagnosis and therapy. In contrast to other tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, for which exact diagnostic and stage dependent therapeutic guidelines could be formulated, clear recommendations for klatskin tumors are missing. Thus, survival rates after local resection, e. g. resection of the bile duct bifurcation alone, show high rates of R1/2 resection and early tumor recurrence. With an additional hepatic resection formally curative resections and long-term survival can be improved. Extended liver resections including the portal vein provide the highest rates of R0 resections for hilar carcinomas of the extrahepatic bile duct. Survival rates after liver transplantation for klatskin tumors are not yet convincing. Promising first results have been reported for the combination of neoadjuvant treatment and liver transplantation and might show future perspectives for the treatment of klatskin tumors.

  17. Imaging in Pediatric Infratentorial Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hajiahmadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial tumors are the second cause of malignancies in childhood following leukemia. The overall incidence varies between 1:20000 and 1:100000 in different series. They are the most common solid tumors that occur in childhood .The most important diagnostic feature of an intracranial mass is its location. They can be supratentorial or infratentorial. With the exception of the first year of life, infratentorial brain tumors are more frequent than supratentorial tumors in the first decade of life. In particular, these are cerebellar low-grade astrocytomas, medulloblastomas, brain stem gliomas and ependymomas of the fourth ventricle. .Posterior fossa tumors also are readily identified with both CT and MRI. Spectroscopy in the analysis of brain tumors has recently come on the scene but may be of limited practical value when it comes to differentiating tumors. However, CT and especially MRI are the primary imaging modalities for the investigation of brain tumors. Sonography can be used in the neonates. With modern imaging, it is relatively easy to detect the presence of a tumor in most patients. The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the imaging features of various infratentorial brain tumors to make a clue for differentiation them by these features.

  18. Mechanisms of Metastatic Tumor Dormancy

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    Mary Osisami

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tumor metastasis can occur years after an apparent cure due to a phenomenon known as metastatic tumor dormancy; in which tumor masses or individual tumor cells are growth restricted for extended periods of time. This period of dormancy is induced and maintained by several mechanisms, including: (1 Tumor microenvironment factors such as cytokine expression, immunosurveillance and angiogenesis; (2 Metastasis suppressor gene activity; and (3 Cancer therapeutics. Disseminated tumor cells (DTC are the key cells that result in dormant tumors. However, many challenges exist towards isolating DTCs for mechanistic studies. The main DTC that may represent the dormant cell is the cancer stem cells (CSC as they have a slow proliferation rate. In addition to limited knowledge regarding induction of tumor dormancy, there are large gaps in knowledge regarding how tumors escape from dormancy. Emerging research into cancer stem cells, immunotherapy, and metastasis suppressor genes, may lead to new approaches for targeted anti-metastatic therapy to prevent dormancy escape. Overall, an enhanced understanding of tumor dormancy is critical for better targeting and treatment of patients to prevent cancer recurrence.

  19. Imaging tumors of the patella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casadei, R., E-mail: roberto.casadei@ior.it [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Kreshak, J., E-mail: j.kreshak@yahoo.com [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Rinaldi, R. [Department of Radiology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Rimondi, E., E-mail: eugenio.rimondi@ior.it [Department of Radiology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Bianchi, G., E-mail: giuseppe.bianchi@ior.it [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Alberghini, M., E-mail: marco.alberghini@ior.it [Department of Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Ruggieri, P. [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Vanel, D., E-mail: daniel.vanel@ior.it [Department of Radiology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    Background: Patellar tumors are rare; only a few series have been described in the literature and radiographic diagnosis can be challenging. We reviewed all patellar tumors at one institution and reviewed the literature. Materials and methods: In an evaluation of the database at one institution from 1916 to 2009, 23,000 bone tumors were found. Of these, 41 involved the patella. All had imaging studies and microscopic diagnostic confirmation. All medical records, imaging studies, and pathology were reviewed. Results: There were 15 females and 26 males, ranging from 8 to 68 years old (average 30). There were 30 benign tumors; eight giant cell tumors, eight chondroblastomas, seven osteoid osteomas, two aneurysmal bone cysts, two ganglions, one each of chondroma, exostosis, and hemangioma. There were 11 malignant tumors: five hemangioendotheliomas, three metastases, one lymphoma, one plasmacytoma, and one angiosarcoma. Conclusion: Patellar tumors are rare and usually benign. As the patella is an apophysis, the most frequent lesions are giant cell tumor in the adult and chondroblastoma in children. Osteoid osteomas were frequent in our series and easily diagnosed. Metastases are the most frequent malignant diagnoses in the literature; in our series malignant vascular tumors were more common. These lesions are often easily analyzed on radiographs. CT and MR define better the cortex, soft tissue extension, and fluid levels. This study presents the imaging patterns of the more common patellar tumors in order to help the radiologist when confronted with a lesion in this location.

  20. What is a pediatric tumor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jaume Mora1,21Department of Oncology, 2Developmental Tumor Biology Laboratory, Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Fundacio Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Working together with medical oncologists, the question of whether a Ewing sarcoma in a 25-year-old is a pediatric tumor comes up repeatedly. Like Ewing's, some tumors present characteristically at ages that cross over what has been set as the definition of pediatrics (15 years, 18 years, or 21 years?. Pediatric oncology textbooks, surprisingly, do not address the subject of defining a pediatric tumor. They all begin with an epidemiology chapter defining the types of tumors appearing at distinct stages of childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Describing the epidemiology of tumors in relation to age, it becomes clear that the disease is related to the phenomenon of aging. The question, however, remains: is there a biological definition of what pediatric age is? And if so, will tumors occurring during this period of life have anything to do with such biological definition? With the aim of finding an objective definition, the fundamental concepts of what defines "pediatrics" was reviewed and then the major features of tumors arising during development were analyzed. The tumors were explored from the perspective of a host immersed in the normal process of growth and development. This physiological process, from pluripotential and undifferentiated cells, makes possible the differentiation, maturation, organization, and function of tissues, organs, and apparatus. A biological definition of pediatric tumors and the infancy–childhood–puberty classification of developmental tumors according to the infancy–childhood–puberty model of normal human development are proposed.Keywords: growth and development, pediatric tumor, infant, childhood and adolescence, pubertal tumors

  1. Advances of Tumor Hyperthermia and Tumor Immunology in Translational Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Lahooti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is another important method in the treatment of tumors, secondary to surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and biotherapy. It has been demonstrated the efficacy and versatility of hyperthermia in a lot of randomized trials across various primary cancers. Both heat shock proteins (HSPs and dendritic cells (DCs are greatly affected by hyperthermia and closely related to the tumor immunology. Nowadays, tumor hyperthermia and tumor immunology have been attached much attention in the field of translational medicine. In this article, the action mechanism and immunological effects of hyperthermia, activation of HSPs and DCs as well as HSP- and DC-based cancer vaccine were reviewed from the perspective of translational medicine.

  2. A rare tumor of the lung: inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammas Nawal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a rare benign lesion whose tumor origin is now proven. It represents 0.7% of all lung tumors. We report the case of a three-year-old child who suffered from a chronic cough with recurrent respiratory infections. Chest X-ray and computed tomography revealed the presence of a left lower lobe lung mass. After pneumonectomy, histological examination combined with immunohistochemical study discovered an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8722069326962972.

  3. Advances of Tumor Hyperthermia and Tumor Immunology in Translational Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hooshang Lahooti

    2015-01-01

    Hyperthermia is another important method in the treatment of tumors, secondary to surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and biotherapy. It has been demonstrated the efifcacy and versatility of hyperthermia in a lot of randomized trials across various primary cancers. Both heat shock proteins (HSPs) and dendritic cells (DCs) are greatly affected by hyperthermia and closely related to the tumor immunology. Nowadays, tumor hyperthermia and tumor immunology have been attached much attention in the field of translational medicine. In this article, the action mechanism and immunological effects of hyperthermia, activation of HSPs and DCs as well as HSP- and DC-based cancer vaccine were reviewed from the perspective of translational medicine.

  4. Multiparametric classification links tumor microenvironments with tumor cell phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Gligorijevic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While it has been established that a number of microenvironment components can affect the likelihood of metastasis, the link between microenvironment and tumor cell phenotypes is poorly understood. Here we have examined microenvironment control over two different tumor cell motility phenotypes required for metastasis. By high-resolution multiphoton microscopy of mammary carcinoma in mice, we detected two phenotypes of motile tumor cells, different in locomotion speed. Only slower tumor cells exhibited protrusions with molecular, morphological, and functional characteristics associated with invadopodia. Each region in the primary tumor exhibited either fast- or slow-locomotion. To understand how the tumor microenvironment controls invadopodium formation and tumor cell locomotion, we systematically analyzed components of the microenvironment previously associated with cell invasion and migration. No single microenvironmental property was able to predict the locations of tumor cell phenotypes in the tumor if used in isolation or combined linearly. To solve this, we utilized the support vector machine (SVM algorithm to classify phenotypes in a nonlinear fashion. This approach identified conditions that promoted either motility phenotype. We then demonstrated that varying one of the conditions may change tumor cell behavior only in a context-dependent manner. In addition, to establish the link between phenotypes and cell fates, we photoconverted and monitored the fate of tumor cells in different microenvironments, finding that only tumor cells in the invadopodium-rich microenvironments degraded extracellular matrix (ECM and disseminated. The number of invadopodia positively correlated with degradation, while the inhibiting metalloproteases eliminated degradation and lung metastasis, consistent with a direct link among invadopodia, ECM degradation, and metastasis. We have detected and characterized two phenotypes of motile tumor cells in vivo, which

  5. Imaging Tumor Necrosis with Ferumoxytol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Aghighi

    Full Text Available Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO are promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. USPIO mediated proton relaxation rate enhancement is strongly dependent on compartmentalization of the agent and can vary depending on their intracellular or extracellular location in the tumor microenvironment. We compared the T1- and T2-enhancement pattern of intracellular and extracellular USPIO in mouse models of cancer and pilot data from patients. A better understanding of these MR signal effects will enable non-invasive characterizations of the composition of the tumor microenvironment.Six 4T1 and six MMTV-PyMT mammary tumors were grown in mice and imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. R1 relaxation rates were calculated for different tumor types and different tumor areas and compared with histology. The transendothelial leakage rate of ferumoxytol was obtained by our measured relaxivity of ferumoxytol and compared between different tumor types, using a t-test. Additionally, 3 patients with malignant sarcomas were imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. T1- and T2-enhancement patterns were compared with histopathology in a descriptive manner as a proof of concept for clinical translation of our observations.4T1 tumors showed central areas of high signal on T1 and low signal on T2 weighted MR images, which corresponded to extracellular nanoparticles in a necrotic core on histopathology. MMTV-PyMT tumors showed little change on T1 but decreased signal on T2 weighted images, which correlated to compartmentalized nanoparticles in tumor associated macrophages. Only 4T1 tumors demonstrated significantly increased R1 relaxation rates of the tumor core compared to the tumor periphery (p<0.001. Transendothelial USPIO leakage was significantly higher for 4T1 tumors (3.4±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100cm3 compared to MMTV-PyMT tumors (1.0±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100 cm3. Likewise, ferumoxytol imaging in patients showed similar findings with

  6. NANOROBOTS IN BRAIN TUMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Tarannum, Garje Dattatray H

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanomedicine is the process of diagnosing, treating, and preventing disease and traumatic injury, of relieving pain, and of preserving and improving human health, using molecular tools and molecular knowledge of the human body. In the relatively near term, nanomedicine can address many important medical problems by using nanoscale-structured materials and simple nanodevices that can be manufactured today, including the interaction of nanostructured materials with biological systems. The authors predict that technology-assisted medicine and robotics in particular, will have a significant impact over the next few decades. Robots will augment the surgeon’s motor performance, diagnosis capability, and senses with haptics (feel, augmented reality (sight, and ultrasound (sound. Robotic devices have been used in cardiac surgery, urology, fetal surgery, pediatrics, neurosurgery, orthopedics, and many other medical disciplines. In this article, we present the Nanorobot drug delivery to brain tumor, paying special attention to the transformation trends of organizations, and the integration of robots in brain tumor and underscoring potential repercussions which may deserve more attention and further research.

  7. Tumor triquilemal proliferante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulin Yu-Tseng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El tumor triquilemal proliferante es una dermatosis tumoral poco frecuente y derivada de la capa externa de la raíz del folículo piloso. Generalmente, es de características benignas, tiende a ser recidivante y se han reportado casos de transformaciones malignas en la bibliografía mundial. El caso trata de una paciente femenina de 59 años, con una neoformación exofítica nodular lobulada de crecimiento lento en piel cabelluda, de 5 años de evolución, con recidivas después de 3 cirugías. No se documentó compromiso óseo ni cerebral en los estudios de gabinete. La biopsia mostró proliferación de nidos de células escamosas en dermis, separados por bandas de tejido fibroso de la epidermis. El abordaje quirúrgico es el tratamiento de elección de esta patología.

  8. Pericytes limit tumor cell metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xian, Xiaojie; Håkansson, Joakim; Ståhlberg, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Previously we observed that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) deficiency in beta tumor cells facilitates metastasis into distant organs and local lymph nodes. Here, we show that NCAM-deficient beta cell tumors grew leaky blood vessels with perturbed pericyte-endothelial cell-cell interactions...... and deficient perivascular deposition of ECM components. Conversely, tumor cell expression of NCAM in a fibrosarcoma model (T241) improved pericyte recruitment and increased perivascular deposition of ECM molecules. Together, these findings suggest that NCAM may limit tumor cell metastasis by stabilizing...... the microvessel wall. To directly address whether pericyte dysfunction increases the metastatic potential of solid tumors, we studied beta cell tumorigenesis in primary pericyte-deficient Pdgfb(ret/ret) mice. This resulted in beta tumor cell metastases in distant organs and local lymph nodes, demonstrating a role...

  9. Primary renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, V; Talwar, V; Dodagoudar, C; Singh, S; Sharma, A; Patnaik, N

    2015-01-01

    Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the kidney is a rare entity. Very few cases of primary renal PNET have been reported to date. Most literature about rPNET is isolated case reports. We report a case of rPNET in a 39-year-old male with a pre-operative diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma with renal vein thrombosis. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy with thrombolectomy, and histopathological examination revealed a highly aggressive tumor composed of monotonous sheets of round cells. Tumor cells were positive for CD 99 and FLI-1, hence confirming the diagnosis of Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor. Post-surgery, patient was given VAC/IE-based adjuvant chemotherapy. In view of highly aggressive nature of this tumor, prompt diagnosis and imparting effective chemotherapy regimen to the patient is required, and it is important to differentiate PNET from other small round-cell tumors because of different therapeutic approach.

  10. Glutamate antagonists limit tumor growth

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Neuronal progenitors and tumor cells possess propensity to proliferate and to migrate. Glutamate regulates proliferation and migration of neurons during development, but it is not known whether it influences proliferation and migration of tumor cells. We demonstrate that glutamate antagonists inhibit proliferation of human tumor cells. Colon adenocarcinoma, astrocytoma, and breast and lung carcinoma cells were most sensitive to the antiproliferative effect of the N...

  11. Differentiated thyroid tumors: surgical indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, R; Monacelli, M; Santoprete, S; Triola, R; Conti, C; Pecoriello, R; Favoriti, P; Di Patrizi, M S; Barillaro, I; Boccolini, A; Avenia, S; D'Ajello, M; Sanguinetti, A; Avenia, N

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid gland tumors represent 1% of malignant tumors. In Italy their incidence is in constant growth. The aggressiveness depends on the histological type. The relative non-aggressive grade of different forms of tumors is the basis for discussing the treatment of choice: total thyroidectomy vs lobectomy with or without lymphadenectomy of the sixth level in the absence of metastasis. Authors report about their experience, and they advocate, given the high percentage of multicentric forms, total thyroidectomy as treatment of choice.

  12. Self-scaling tumor growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegel, Jürgen

    We study the statistical properties of the star-shaped approximation of in vitro tumor profiles. The emphasis is on the two-point correlation structure of the radii of the tumor as a function of time and angle. In particular, we show that spatial two-point correlators follow a cosine law....... Based on this similarity, we provide a Lévy based model that captures the correlation structure of the radii of the star-shaped tumor profiles....

  13. Surgical Treatment in Uveal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Gündüz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment in uveal tumors can be done via iridectomy, partial lamellar sclerouvectomy (PLSU and endoresection. Iridectomy is done in iris tumors without angle and ciliary body involvement. PLSU is performed in tumors with ciliary body and choroidal involvement. For this operation, a partial thickness scleral flap is dissected, the intraocular tumor is excised, and the flap is sutured back in position. PLSU surgery is done in iridociliary and ciliary body tumors with less than 3 clock hours of iris and ciliary body involvement and in choroidal tumors with a base diameter less than 15 mm. However, it can be employed in any size tumor for biopsy purposes. Potential complications of PLSU surgery include vitreous hemorrhage, cataract, retinal detachment, and endophthalmitis. Endoresection is a technique whereby the intraocular tumor is excised using vitrectomy techniques. The rationale for performing endoresection is based on the fact that irradiated uveal melanomas may be associated with exudation and neovascular glaucoma and removing the dead tumor tissue may contribute to better visual outcome. There are some centers where endoresection is done without prior radiotherapy. Allegedly, avoidance of radiation retinopathy and papillopathy are the main advantages of using endoresection without prior radiotherapy. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 29-34

  14. Monitoring Radiographic Brain Tumor Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Sampson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining radiographic progression in primary malignant brain tumors has posed a significant challenge to the neuroncology community. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, WHO Grade IV through its inherent heterogeneous enhancement, growth patterns, and irregular nature has been difficult to assess for progression. Our ability to detect tumor progression radiographically remains inadequate. Despite the advanced imaging techniques, detecting tumor progression continues to be a clinical challenge. Here we review the different criteria used to detect tumor progression, and highlight the inherent challenges with detection of progression.

  15. Tumors of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Rasmussen, Peter Kristian; Heegaard, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the lacrimal gland comprise a wide spectrum, of which the most common demonstrate epithelial and lymphoid differentiation. The diagnosis of lacrimal gland tumors depends primarily on histological evaluation, as do the choice of treatment and prognosis. For some lacrimal gland neoplasms......, such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, the outlook is grave. Optimal treatment for several lacrimal gland tumors is also a matter of controversy. However, recent progress has been made in the molecular and genetic understanding of tumorigenesis for such lesions. This article presents an overview of the histopathology...... of lacrimal gland tumors, together with their epidemiological features, clinical characteristics, and treatment strategies....

  16. Tumors of the sublingual gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Bjørndal, K; Agander, T K

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the salivary glands are a heterogeneous group of diseases most often originating in the major salivary glands. Only a minor proportion of mainly malignant tumors arise in the sublingual gland. Due to the rarity of sublingual gland tumors (SGTs), little is known about the clinicopathologic...... (ACC). Patient demography was similar to salivary gland tumors in other locations. All fine needle aspiration cytologies (FNACs) interpreted as benign were from ACCs. Metastatic disease was found in 12.5 % of ACCs at diagnosis with one third of all ACC patients having metastases at the end of follow...

  17. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in pituitary tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Patnaik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is the bleeding into the subarachnoid space containing cerebrospinal fluid. The most common cause of SAH is trauma. Rupture of aneurysms, vascular anomalies, tumor bleeds and hypertension are other important etiologies. SAH in the setting of pituitary tumor can result from various causes. It can be due to intrinsic tumor related pathology, injury to surrounding the vessel during the operative procedure or due to an associated aneurysm. We discuss the pathological mechanisms and review relevant literature related to this interesting phenomenon. Early and accurate diagnosis of the cause of the SAH in pituitary tumors is important, as this influences the management.

  18. Therapeutic Trial for Patients With Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumor and Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-25

    Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Ewing Sarcoma of Bone or Soft Tissue; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  19. Pediatric Mediastinal Tumors and Tumor-Like Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Achint K; Sargar, Kiran; Restrepo, Carlos S

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the imaging findings of pediatric mediastinal tumors and tumor-like lesions. The classification of the mediastinum is discussed with normal imaging appearance of the thymus in pediatric age group followed by a discussion on multiple mediastinal lesions in different compartments with emphasis on their imaging characteristics.

  20. Childhood brain tumor epidemiology: a brain tumor epidemiology consortium review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly J; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Ostrom, Quinn T; Langer, Chelsea E; Turner, Michelle C; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L; Lupo, Philip J; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A; Scheurer, Michael E

    2014-12-01

    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histologic subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(12); 2716-36. ©2014 AACR.

  1. Cathepsins mediate tumor metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong-Jun; Tan; Zheng-Ke; Peng; Jin-Ping; Lu; Fa-Qing; Tang

    2013-01-01

    Cathepsins are highly expressed in various human cancers, associated with tumor metastasis. It is superfamily, concluding A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, L, K, O, S, V, and W family members. As a group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases, each member has a different function, playing different roles in distinct tumorigenic processes such as proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and invasion. Cathepsins belong to a diverse number of enzyme subtypes, including cysteine proteases, serine proteases and aspartic proteases. The contribution of cathepsins to invasion in human cancers is well documented, although the precise mechanisms by which cathepsins exert their effects are still not clear. In the present review, the role of cathepsin family members in cancer is discussed.

  2. Solitary fibrous tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manlio Mencoboni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm which may be found everywhere in the body. It is now distinguished into two forms, pleural and extrapleural, which morphologically resemble each other. Abdomi­nal localizations are quite rare, with 10 cases only reported in bladder; rarely they can be source of paraneoplastic syndromes (i.e., hypoglycemia secondary to insulin-like growth factor. In April 2006 a 74-year-old white male presented with chills, diaphoresis and acute abdominal pain with hematuria. At admission in emergency he underwent an abdominal X-ray (no pathological findings and an ultrasound examination of the kidneys and urinary tract, which revealed a pelvic hyperechogenic neoformation measuring approximately 10¥8¥7 cm, compressing the bladder. Blood chemistry at admission revealed only a mild neutrophilic leucocytosis (WBC 16600, N 80%, L 11%, elevated fibrinogen and ESR, and hypoglycemia (38 mg/dL. Macro­scopic hematuria was evident, while urinocolture was negative. Contrast enhanced CT scan of the abdomen and pelvic region revealed a large round neoformation dislocating the bladder, with an evident contrast-enhanced periphery and a central necrotic area. Continuous infusion of glucose 5% solution was necessary in order to maintain blood glucose levels above 50 mg/dL. The patient underwent complete surgical resection of an ovoidal mass coated by adipose tissue, with well delimited margins; histological findings were consistent with solitary fibrous tumor (SFT. Hypoglycemia resolved completely with removal of the growth. In this case report we describe a SFT growing in the bladder, a quite rare localization, which presented a unique hypoglycemia. In contrast to the majority of cases reported in the literature, the behavior of this SFT was not aggressive, and, since the patient is still alive, surgical resection was considered conclusive.

  3. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Eun, Tchoong Kie; Cha, Seong Sook; Han, Sang Suk; Chung, Duck Hwan [Inje College, Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-04-15

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a neoplasm of young individuals that occurs predominantly in the supratentorial compartment. Authors experienced three cases of primitive neuroectodermal tumor. On the brain CT scans, all three cases reveal the large, irregular, hyperdense mass lesions with calcifications and cystic or necrotic areas, and show dense heterogeneous contrast enhancement.

  4. Tumors STING adaptive antitumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, Vincenzo

    2014-11-20

    Immunotherapy is revolutionizing the treatment of cancer patients, but the molecular basis for tumor immunogenicity is unclear. In this issue of Immunity, Deng et al. (2014) and Woo et al. (2014) provide evidence suggesting that dendritic cells detect DNA from tumor cells via the STING-mediated, cytosolic DNA sensing pathway.

  5. [Local treatment of liver tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, T.K.; Skjoldbye, Bjørn Ole

    2008-01-01

    Local treatment of non-resectable liver tumors is common. This brief review describes the local treatment techniques used in Denmark. The techniques are evaluated according to the evidence in literature. The primary local treatment is Radiofrequency Ablation of both primary liver tumors and liver...

  6. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  7. Management of salivary gland tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andry, Guy; Hamoir, Marc; Locati, Laura D.; Licitra, Lisa; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2012-01-01

    Surgery after proper imaging (MRI or CT scan) is the main stay of treatment for salivary gland tumors. Although excision margins should be >= 5 mm for malignant tumors in cases of parotid gland carcinoma, the facial nerve should be preserved whenever it is not infiltrated. Adjuvant external radiatio

  8. TUMOR OVARIUM: PREDIKSI KEGANASAN PRABEDAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I NYOMAN GEDE BUDIANA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Untuk meningkatkan kelangsungan hidup penderita kanker ovarium, dilakukan upaya untukmemprediksi keganasan tumor tersebut sebelum dilakukan pembedahan, karena adanya perbedaanpenanganan pada tumor jinak dan kanker ovarium. Terdapat berbagai modalitas untuk mendeteksikeganasan tumor ovarium prabedah. Mulai dari pemeriksaan klinis melalui anamnesis danpemeriksaan fisik, serta pemeriksaan penunjang seperti petanda tumor dan ultrasonografi. Untukmeningkatkan akurasi dalam mendeteksi keganasan tumor ovarium prabedah, dibuat berbagai sistemskoring. Indeks keganasan Sudaryanto, memakai batasan total skor e” 3 menunjukkan risiko keganasantinggi, sedangkan total skor < 3 menunjukkan risiko keganasan rendah. Melalui pemeriksaan USG,dibuat sistem skoring morfologi berdasarkan struktur permukaan dalam tumor, ketebalan dinding,septa, dan echogenitas tumor yang disebut indeks morfologi Sassone-Timor Tritsch. Denganmenggunakan batas skor 9, ditetapkan skor < 9 menunjukkan prediksi jinak dan skor e” 9 menunjukkanprediksi ganas. Batasan ini memiliki sensitifitas 94%, spesifisitas 87%, nilai duga positif 60%, dannilai duga negatif 93,6%. Metode lainnya adalah Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI. RMI mengintegrasikanstatus menopause penderita, temuan USG, dan kadar CA 125 serum. Nilai cut-off 200 digunakanuntuk membedakan tumor ovarium yang jinak dan ganas serta mempunyai sensitifitas 87% danspesifisitas 97%. The Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA merupakan upaya koreksi RMIdengan menambahkan biomarker human protein epididymis 4 (HE4 dan menghilangkan USG. Untukmemprediksi kanker ovarium tipe epitel, ROMA mempunyai sensitifitas dan spesifisitas masingmasingsebesar 89% dan 83%. Jadi, terdapat berbagai modalitas untuk memprediksi keganasantumorovarium dengan akurasi berbeda-beda. Penerapannya disesuaikan dengan sarana dan prasaranayangtersedia sesuai dengan kondisi tempat pelayanan kesehatan.

  9. Benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Suk Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasms of the lacrimal drainage system are uncommon, but potentially life-threatening and are often difficult to diagnose. Among primary lacrimal sac tumors, benign mixed tumors are extremely rare. Histologically, benign mixed tumors have been classified as a type of benign epithelial tumor. Here we report a case of benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac.

  10. Pathogenesis and progression of fibroepithelial breast tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Arno

    2006-01-01

    Fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumor are fibroepithelial breast tumors. These tumors are biphasic, i.e. they are composed of stroma and epithelium. The behavior of fibroadenomas is benign, whereas phyllodes tumors can recur and even metastasize. Classification criteria for both tumors show considerable

  11. [Radiological evaluation of congenital tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado del Hoyo, A; Ruiz Martín, Y; Lancharro Zapata, Á; Marín Rodríguez, C; Gordillo Gutiérrez, I

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we consider tumors that are diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first three months of life. This is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with special biological and epidemiological characteristics that differentiate them from tumors arising in children or adults. In the last two decades, the prenatal detection of congenital tumors has increased due to the generalized use of prenatal sonographic screening. Advances in imaging techniques, especially in fetal magnetic resonance imaging, have enabled improvements in the diagnosis, follow-up, clinical management, and perinatal treatment of these tumors. This image-based review of the most common congenital tumors describes their histologic types, locations, and characteristics on the different imaging techniques used.

  12. The history of tumor virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Ronald T; Butel, Janet S

    2008-10-01

    In the century since its inception, the field of tumor virology has provided groundbreaking insights into the causes of human cancer. Peyton Rous founded this scientific field in 1911 by discovering an avian virus that induced tumors in chickens; however, it took 40 years for the scientific community to comprehend the effect of this seminal finding. Later identification of mammalian tumor viruses in the 1930s by Richard Shope and John Bittner, and in the 1950s by Ludwik Gross, sparked the first intense interest in tumor virology by suggesting the possibility of a similar causal role for viruses in human cancers. This change in attitude opened the door in the 1960s and 1970s for the discovery of the first human tumor viruses--EBV, hepatitis B virus, and the papillomaviruses. Such knowledge proved instrumental to the development of the first cancer vaccines against cancers having an infectious etiology. Tumor virologists additionally recognized that viruses could serve as powerful discovery tools, leading to revolutionary breakthroughs in the 1970s and 1980s that included the concept of the oncogene, the identification of the p53 tumor suppressor, and the function of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor. The subsequent availability of more advanced molecular technologies paved the way in the 1980s and 1990s for the identification of additional human tumor viruses--human T-cell leukemia virus type 1, hepatitis C virus, and Kaposi's sarcoma virus. In fact, current estimates suggest that viruses are involved in 15% to 20% of human cancers worldwide. Thus, viruses not only have been shown to represent etiologic agents for many human cancers but have also served as tools to reveal mechanisms that are involved in all human malignancies. This rich history promises that tumor virology will continue to contribute to our understanding of cancer and to the development of new therapeutic and preventive measures for this disease in the 21st century.

  13. A New Type of Uterine Trophoblastic Tumor: Epithelioid Trophoblastic Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Langdi Fan; Zhanhong Wang; Xiurong Wang; Yingge Xing

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe a case of a patient with an epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) and review the literature regarding this new type of uterine trophoblastic tumor which is being reported with increasing frequency.There have been only 42 cases described in the world literature.METHODS Routine sections of the tumor were prepared and stained with H&E. Using the SP method, immunohistochemical staining, for AE1/AE3,hPL, PLAP, and α-inhibin antigens was conducted.RESULTS The patient was a 34 years old female who had delivered 12 years previously. She presented with amenorrhea for three months and vaginal irregular bleeding for 2 months. Her serum hCG level was 2,240 IU/L. After diagnostic curettage, an ETT was identified, and total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAHBSO) performed.On microscopic examination it was found that the tumor was composed of chorionic-type intermediate- trophoblastic cells. The tumor cell nests were distributed in a geographical pattern. Some cells were filled with an eosinophilic hyalinized degenerative material. Study of the immunophenotype of the tumor showed that AE1/AE3, hPL, hCG, and α-inhibin were positively expressed.CONCLUSION This is the 4th case report of an ETT in China. The tumor was identified as a new type of trophoblastic tumor combined with a focal chorioepithelioid carcinoma, a condition that is extremely rare. It consists of chorionic-type intermediate-trophoblastic cells, and is considered to have a Iowgrade of malignancy. ETT should be differentiated from a placenta-site trophoblastic tumor, placenta-site nodule, chorioepithelioid carcinoma, and cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

  14. SIRT1, Is It a Tumor Promoter or Tumor Suppressor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Xia Deng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available SIRT1 has been considered as a tumor promoter because of its increased expression in some types of cancers and its role in inactivating proteins that are involved in tumor suppression and DNA damage repair. However, recent studies demonstrated that SIRT1 levels are reduced in some other types of cancers, and that SIRT1 deficiency results in genetic instability and tumorigenesis, while overexpression of SIRT1 attenuates cancer formation in mice heterozygous for tumor suppressor p53 or APC. Here, I review these recent findings and discuss the possibility that activation of SIRT1 both extends lifespan and inhibits cancer formation.

  15. Tumor cerebral e gravidez Brain tumors and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Lynch

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico de um tumor cerebral durante a gravidez é um fato raro que coloca a mãe e o concepto em risco de vida. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a melhor forma de conduzir uma paciente grávida portadora de um tumor cerebral. MÉTODO: Realizamos análise retrospectiva dos prontuários e imagens de seis pacientes grávidas portadoras de tumor cerebral. RESULTADOS: Vários tipos histológicos de tumor cerebral podem estar associados à gravidez. O meningioma é o mais freqüente. Nessa série não observamos óbito cirúrgico materno. Em duas pacientes, o parto ocorreu antes da craniotomia e em outras quatro o parto foi realizado após a neurocirurgia. CONCLUSÃO: O momento mais adequado para a realização da craniotomia para remoção tumoral irá depender da gravidade do quadro neurológico, do tipo histológico presumível da lesão, e da idade gestacional do embrião.BACKGROUND: Despite not being a common fact, the occurrence of brain tumors during pregnancy poses a risk to both the mother and infant. AIM: To identify the best medical procedure to be followed for a pregnant patient harboring a brain tumor. METHOD: The records of 6 patients with brain tumors, diagnosed during pregnancy were examined. RESULTS: Several types of brain tumors have been associated with pregnancy, but the meningioma is, by far, the most frequent. It seems that pregnancy aggravates the clinical course of intracranial tumors. There were no operative mortality in these series. In 2 patients the labor occurred before the craniotomy and in others, the delivery occurred after the surgery. CONCLUSION: The best moment to recommend the craniotomy and the neurosurgical removal of the tumor will depend of the mother’s neurological condition, the tumor histological type as well as the gestational age.

  16. Parallel evolution of tumor subclones mimics diversity between tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Pierre; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Gerlinger, Marco;

    2013-01-01

    obtained 48 biopsies from eight stage III and IV clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) and used DNA copy-number analyses to compare biopsies from the same tumor with 440 singletumor biopsies from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of TCGA and multi-region ccRCC samples...... revealed segregation of samples from the same tumor into unrelated clusters. 25% of multi-region samples appeared more similar to unrelated samples than to any other sample originating from the same tumor. We find that the majority of recurrent DNA copy number driver aberrations in single biopsies...

  17. Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrenal tumor - Cushing syndrome ... Cushing syndrome is a disorder that occurs when your body has a higher than normal level of the ... or cancerous (malignant). Noncancerous tumors that can cause ... Adrenal adenomas Micronodular hyperplasia Cancerous tumors that ...

  18. What Are the Symptoms of Pituitary Tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What are the symptoms of pituitary tumors? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Symptoms of Functioning Tumors The symptoms of functioning tumors ...

  19. Tumor targeting via integrin ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya Kiran eMarelli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells.

  20. [Orbital tumor emergencies in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morax, S; Desjardins, L

    2009-05-01

    Emergencies in childhood orbital tumorals are rare. The absolute emergency involves malignant primary orbital tumors, such as rhabdomyosarcoma or secondary malignant tumors (metastatic neuroblastoma, leukemia), involving a vital prognosis requiring prompt diagnosis. Delayed emergencies are usually vascular lesions. Among these lesions, immature orbital hemangioma, with a good prognosis, must be distinguished from orbital adnexal lymphangiomas, which are less frequent but can lead to dramatic cosmetic and functional disorders. In rare cases, they can be responsible for sudden, painful proptosis, due to orbital hemorrhage, with a risk of optic nerve compression, requiring emergency surgical treatment. Neurogenous lesions, either isolated, such as in gliomas, or associated with a systemic disease, such as Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis, threaten the functional prognosis. Diagnosis of pediatric orbital tumors is based on a good clinical examination, precise imaging investigations, and evaluation of the locoregional extension of the tumor. Biopsy is required in emergency situations, when rhabdomyosarcoma is suspected, in order to start the chemotherapy. However, the biopsy can be superfluous, and even useless or dangerous, when clinical and imaging investigations are sufficient to provide a diagnosis of capillary hemangioma, lymphangioma, or metastatic tumor from an abdominal malignancy. Treatment is closely related to the etiopathogenesis of the tumor. The outcomes are vital, functional and cosmetic. They may require orbital surgery (biopsy, tumoral resection, orbital decompression in case of a compressive hemorrhage), systemic corticotherapy (as in immature adnexal hemangioma), radiation, and chemotherapy (rhabdomyosarcoma, secondary malignant tumor). These diseases require a pediatric ophthalmological medical center specializing in orbital surgery, with close collaboration of multiple specialists such as onco-pediatricians and neurosurgeons.

  1. Intraosseous calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kler Shikha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The calcifying odontogenic cyst was first reported by Gorlin et al . in 1962. It had been classified as a neoplasm related to the odontogenic apparatus because of its histological complexity and morphological diversity until it was renamed as a calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor by the WHO, in 2005. Here we describe a case of mandibular calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor in a 75-year-old male, which was present since five years, with a history of occurrence after the extraction of teeth in the involved region. The lesion was surgically removed and a histopathological examination revealed a cystic tumor with predominance of ghost cells and some amount of dentinoid tissue.

  2. [Phyllodes tumor: diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, A; Bravo, G; Uribe, A; Viada, R; Capetillo, M; Villarroel, T

    1995-01-01

    We reviewed 1.178 benign tumors treated between 1981/93 among which 39 appeared with a Phylodes Tumors diagnosis, disregarding 5 of them because they did not have a precise description and histologic classification, studying 34 proved cases which represented 2.89% of all benign tumors; if we add 89% cancers in these years, we have 2.074 and the relation becomes 1.64% of the total. We found 22 benign phylodes (64.7%) 7 border line (20.5%) and 5 malignant (14.8%) whose clinic, histologic and evolutive characteristics are presented in this paper.

  3. Solid tumor cytogenetics: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjangud, Gouri; Amarillo, Ina; Rao, P Nagesh

    2011-12-01

    Conventional cytogenetics in conjunction with Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) continues to remain an important and integral component in the diagnosis and management of solid tumors. The ability to effectively detect the vast majority of clinically relevant chromosomal aberrations with a rapid-to-acceptable turnaround time makes them the most cost-effective screening/detection tool currently available in modern pathology. In this review, we describe a representative set of solid tumors in which chromosomal analysis and/or FISH plays a significant role in the routine clinical management of solid tumors.

  4. Uncommon liver tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Hung; Chiu, Nai-Chi; Yeh, Yi-Chen; Kuo, Yu; Yu, Sz-Shian; Weng, Ching-Yao; Liu, Chien-An; Chou, Yi-Hong; Chiou, Yi-You

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Beside hepatocellular carcinoma, metastasis, and cholangiocarcinoma, the imaging findings of other relatively uncommon hepatic lesions are less discussed in the literature. Imaging diagnosis of these lesions is a daily challenge. In this article, we review the imaging characteristics of these neoplasms. Methods: From January 2003 to December 2014, 4746 patients underwent liver biopsy or hepatic surgical resection in our hospital. We reviewed the pathological database retrospectively. Imaging of these lesions was reviewed. Results: Imaging findings of uncommon hepatic lesions vary. We discuss the typical imaging characteristics with literature review. Clinical and pathological correlations are also described. Primary hepatic lymphoma consists only of 1% of the extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and is defined as the one involving only the liver and perihepatic lymph nodes within 6 months after diagnosis. Combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CC) shares some overlapping imaging characteristics with both HCC and cholangiocarcinoma because of being an admixture of them. Angiosarcoma is the most common hepatic mesenchymal tumor and is hypervascular in nature. Inflammatory pseudotumor is often heterogeneous on ultrasonography and with enhanced septations and rims in the portovenous phase after contrast medium. Angiomyolipoma (AML) typically presents with macroscopic fat components with low signal on fat-saturated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and presence of drainage vessels. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is thought of as a counterpart to the pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Most of the IPNBs secrete mucin and cause disproportional dilatation of the bile ducts. Mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) contains proteinaceous and colloidal components without ductal communication and characterizes with hyperintensity on T1-weighted imaging. Other extremely rare lesions, including epithelioid

  5. Brain tumor survivors speak out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson-Green, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    Although progress has been made in the treatment of childhood brain tumors,work remains to understand the complexities of disease, treatment, and contextual factors that underlie individual differences in outcome. A combination of both an idiographic approach (incorporating observations made by adult survivors of childhood brain tumors) and a nomothetic approach (reviewing the literature for brain tumor survivors as well as childhood cancer survivors) is presented. Six areas of concern are reviewed from both an idiographic and nomothetic perspective, including social/emotional adjustment, insurance, neurocognitive late effects, sexuality and relationships, employment, and where survivors accessed information about their disease and treatment and possible late effects. Guidelines to assist health care professionals working with childhood brain tumor survivors are offered with the goal of improving psychosocial and neurocognitive outcomes in this population.

  6. Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rotating around you, the x-ray tube and electronic x-ray detectors are located opposite each other ... breathe is impaired, such as current or former cigarette smokers. When part of the tumor persists after ...

  7. Desmoid tumors and deep fibromatoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlemmer, Marcus

    2005-06-01

    Desmoid tumors (also called deep fibromatoses) are rare benign tumors associated with pregnancy and Gardner syndrome. These tumors are characterized by bland-appearing fibroblasts, indistinct margins, and an ability to cause pathology by local invasion and recurrence. They arise in the abdominal cavity, in the abdominal wall, or in the extremities/trunk, each with a slightly different biologic behavior. Though they are not cancer and do not metastasize, desmoids can cause significant morbidity and occasionally death through local/regional invasion of critical structures. Treatment primarily is surgical, although radiation or systemic therapy can be beneficial to the patient when surgery is not feasible. This article highlights the biology and clinical features of desmoid tumors.

  8. Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ovarian germ cell tumor are swelling of the abdomen or vaginal bleeding after menopause. Ovarian germ cell ... if you have either of the following: Swollen abdomen without weight gain in other parts of the ...

  9. Infantile pericardial round cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K H Sridevi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac malignancies presenting in infancy are rare. Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT is a rare occurrence in this age group. No case of intrapericardial DSRCT has been reported in the literature in infants.

  10. What Are Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... system, also known as the digestive system. The gastrointestinal system The gastrointestinal (GI) system (or digestive system) processes ... in “ How are gastrointestinal stromal tumors diagnosed? ” Other gastrointestinal tract cancers It is important to understand that GISTs ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: desmoid tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The most common symptom of desmoid tumors is pain. Other signs and symptoms, which are often caused ... occur during a person's lifetime, called somatic mutations. A somatic mutation in one copy of ...

  12. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

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    Mohammed E. A. Shayoub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment.

  13. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfarouk, Khalid O., E-mail: khalid.alfarouk@act.sd [Department of Biotechnology, Africa City of Technology, Khartoum (Sudan); Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan); Muddathir, Abdel Khalig [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan); Shayoub, Mohammed E. A. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2011-01-20

    Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment.

  14. Tracking Tumor Evolution through Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Mitch

    2016-04-01

    A recent study suggests that many cancers undergo neutral evolution, with all key mutations present at the start of malignancy. New mutations acquired along the way don't confer any advantages on tumor cells.

  15. Determinación inmunohistoquímica y utilidad pronóstica del receptor del factor de crecimiento epidérmico en los tumores estromales gastrointestinales Immnunohistochemical expression of epidermal growth factor and its prognostic value for gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Padilla

    2008-12-01

    ímicos: CD117+, 85,7%. PDGFRA+, 85,7%. CD34+, 77,1%. EGFR+, 62,9%. S100+, 34,3%. Actina+, 20%. Vimentina+, 100%. p53+, 40%. ki67+, 10,71 ± 10,82. La expresión de EGFR no se relacionó con la recidiva y/o mortalidad del enfermo, p = 0,156, y p = 0,332, respectivamente. El índice mitótico se relacionó con la mortalidad del enfermo, p = 0,02, y recidiva neoplásica, p = 0,013. Conclusión: en nuestra muestra no existió relación entre la inmunotinción de EGFR y el pronóstico del tumor estromal gastrointestinal.Introduction: the epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR (HER-1, is a tyrosine kinase receptor. EGFR activation plays an important role in increased cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and decreased apoptosis. Our objective was to study EGFR immunoexpression in GIST, as well as its prognostic value. Patients and method: a retrospective study that included all patients operated on with a histologic diagnosis of GIST at Department of Surgery, Hospital General, Ciudad Real, between 1995 and 2007. Clinical features: age, sex, manifestations, mortality, recurrence. Pathological features: origin, size, tumoral necrosis, mitotic index, cell type. Immunohistochemical features: vimentin, (V9, Dako A/s; smooth muscle actin (HHF-35, Biogenex; CD34 (QBEND/10; S100 (Policlonal Dako A/S, CD117, (c-kit Rabbit, antihuman polyclonal antibody, 1:600; PDGFR-alfa (Rabbit polyclonal antibody, 1:50, Sta. Cruz Biotechnology. Prognostic molecular features: P-53, PAb240 (DakoCytomation 1:75; Ki-67, clona MIB1 (Dako, 1:120 y (EGFR pharmDx™ Dako Autostainer (Dako, Denmark. Malignancy critera: Fletcher's critera. Results: from 1995 to 2007, 35 GISTs were resected in our Department. Mean age: 61.11 ± 11.02, with a female predominance of 62.9%. Initial clinical manifestation included digestive hemorrhage in 40%. Median follow-up was 28 months (3-133. Mortality was 54.3%, and recurrence rate was 40%. The most frequent origin was the stomach, 51.4%, (18. There was tumor necrosis in 57.1% (20

  16. Laparoscopic Nephrectomy for Wilms Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Andolfi C; Randi B; Ruggeri G.; Lima M.

    2014-01-01

    Wilms tumor is the most frequent primary renal malignancy in children. The surgical resection is traditionally performed through laparotomy. The advent of laparoscopic surgery for benign renal lesions has led the surgeon to use a minimal invasive approach for the nephroblastoma. We describe a 9-months-old girl who presented with a left renal mass. A laparoscopic resection of the tumor with left radical nephroureterectomy was performed. The specimens were removed in an endoscopic bag through a...

  17. Ossifying renal tumor of infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelling, Johannes; Schröder, Annette; Stein, Raimund; Rösch, Wolfgang H

    2007-06-01

    A renal ossifying tumor of infancy is a rare event with few cases having been published, and the etiology has not yet been established. We report on two new cases of this unusual neoplasm. A 2-year-old boy presented with intermittent painless gross hematuria. After several diagnostic procedures, an open pyelolithotomy was performed and the histological diagnosis of renal tumor of infancy was finally made. The history of the second case is very similar. An 8-week-old infant presented with gross hematuria. As in the first case, an open pyelolithotomy was performed and a tumor entirely covered with blood clots was found in the renal pelvis and completely removed. A histological diagnosis of renal ossifying tumor of infancy was made. Using the literature available, the histological criteria and biological behavior are discussed, together with the diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for this tumor. In infants with gross hematuria and a calcified (non-)invasive mass in the pelvi-calceal system, renal ossifying tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis. MRI or CT scan offers a good diagnostic guide.

  18. Unraveling tumor grading and genomic landscape in lung neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, Giuseppe; Papotti, Mauro; Rindi, Guido; Scarpa, Aldo

    2014-06-01

    Currently, grading in lung neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is inherently defined by the histological classification based on cell features, mitosis count, and necrosis, for which typical carcinoids (TC) are low-grade malignant tumors with long life expectation, atypical carcinoids (AC) intermediate-grade malignant tumors with more aggressive clinical behavior, and large cell NE carcinomas (LCNEC) and small cell lung carcinomas (SCLC) high-grade malignant tumors with dismal prognosis. While Ki-67 antigen labeling index, highlighting the proportion of proliferating tumor cells, has largely been used in digestive NETs for assessing prognosis and assisting therapy decisions, the same marker does not play an established role in the diagnosis, grading, and prognosis of lung NETs. Next generation sequencing techniques (NGS), thanks to their astonishing ability to process in a shorter timeframe up to billions of DNA strands, are radically revolutionizing our approach to diagnosis and therapy of tumors, including lung cancer. When applied to single genes, panels of genes, exome, or the whole genome by using either frozen or paraffin tissues, NGS techniques increase our understanding of cancer, thus realizing the bases of precision medicine. Data are emerging that TC and AC are mainly altered in chromatin remodeling genes, whereas LCNEC and SCLC are also mutated in cell cycle checkpoint and cell differentiation regulators. A common denominator to all lung NETs is a deregulation of cell proliferation, which represents a biological rationale for morphologic (mitoses and necrosis) and molecular (Ki-67 antigen) parameters to successfully serve as predictors of tumor behavior (i.e., identification of pathological entities with clinical correlation). It is envisaged that a novel grading system in lung NETs based on the combined assessment of mitoses, necrosis, and Ki-67 LI may offer a better stratification of prognostic classes, realizing a bridge between molecular alterations

  19. Posterior Fossa Tumor in Children

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    Seyed Mahmoud TABATABAEI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Tabatabaei SM, Seddighi A, Seddighi AS. Posterior Fossa Tumor in Children. Iran. J. Child. Neurol 2012;6(2: 19-24. Objective Primary brain tumors are the most common solid neoplasms of childhood, representing 20% of all pediatric tumors. The best current estimates place the incidence between 2.76 and 4.28/100,000 children per year. Compared with brain tumors in adults, a much higher percentage of pediatric brain tumors arise in the posterior fossa. Infratentorial tumors comprise as many as two thirds of all pediatric brain tumors in some large series. Tumor types that most often occur in the posterior fossa include medulloblastoma, ependymoma, cerebellar astrocytoma and brainstem glioma. Materials & Methods All pediatric cases of posterior fossa tumor that were considered for surgery from 1981 to 2011 were selected and the demographic data including age, gender and tumor characteristics along with the location and pathological diagnosis were recorded. The surgical outcomes were assessed according to pathological diagnosis. Results Our series consisted of 84 patients (52 males, 32 females. Cerebellar symptoms were the most common cause of presentation (80.9% followed by headache (73.8% and vomiting (38.1%. The most common histology was medulloblastoma (42.8% followed by cerebellar astrocytoma (28.6%, ependymoma (14.3%, brainstem glioma (7.2% and miscellaneous pathologies (e.g., dermoid,  andtuberculoma (7.2%. Conclusion The diagnosis of brain tumors in the general pediatric population remains challenging. Most symptomatic children require several visits to a physician before the correct diagnosis is made. These patients are often misdiagnosed for gastrointestinal disorders. Greater understanding of the clinical presentation of these tumors and judicious use of modern neuroimaging techniques should lead to more efficacious therapies.References 1. Mehta V, Chapman A, McNeely PD, Walling S, Howes WJ. Latency between

  20. Necessity of Microdissecting Different Tumor Components in Pulmonary Tumor Pyrosequencing

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    Dahui Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microdissection is a useful method in tissue sampling prior to molecular testing. Tumor heterogeneity imposes new challenges for tissue sampling. Different microdissecting methods have been employed in face of such challenge. We improved our microdissection method by separately microdissecting the morphologically different tumor components. This improvement helped the pyrosequencing data analysis of two specimens. One specimen consisted of both adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine components. When both tumor components were sequenced together for KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog gene mutations, the resulting pyrogram indicated that it was not a wild type, suggesting that it contained KRAS mutation. However, the pyrogram did not match any KRAS mutations and a conclusion could not be reached. After microdissecting and testing the adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine components separately, it was found that the adenocarcinoma was positive for KRAS G12C mutation and the neuroendocrine component was positive for KRAS G12D mutation. The second specimen consisted of two morphologically different tumor nodules. When microdissected and sequenced separately, one nodule was positive for BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 V600E and the other nodule was wild type at the BRAF codon 600. These examples demonstrate that it is necessary to microdissect morphologically different tumor components for pyrosequencing.

  1. Kidney Tumors | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric kidney tumors fall into four primary categories: Wilms tumors (~85% of all cases), clear cell sarcomas of the kidney (~5%), congenital mesoblastic nephromas (~4%), and rhabdoid tumors of the kidney (~3%). The TARGET initiative is investigating three of these tumor types.

  2. Multiple rectal carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Momoko; Ikawa, Osamu; Taniguchi, Hiroki; Kawamura, Takuji; Katsura, Kanade

    2016-08-01

    We report multiple rectal carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins who, respectively, had 42 and 36 carcinoid tumors in the lower rectum. This is the first report about carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins. Both twins developed a similar number of rectal carcinoids with a similar distribution. Investigation of their genetic background may provide information about the origin of these tumors.

  3. Mediastinal tumors. Report of 29 operated patients.

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    Antonio Ríos Rodríguez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgery is the unique possibility of cure of survival with life quality for patients with tumor or mediastinal mass. Objective: To describe the results of surgical procedures in patients with mediastinal tumor. Methods: Descriptive, retrospective study of 29 patients operated after being diagnosed with mediastinal tumor in a period of 17 years (1986-2002. Studied variables were: tumor´s locus in the mediastinum, tumor nature, histological diagnosis and strategies regarding surgical approach. Findings: There was a prevalence of benign tumors (81,8% and the most frequent locus was anterior mediastinum. Conclusions: These findings agree with previous studies, mainly regarding tumors´ locus and nature.

  4. Glomus tumor of penis- A rare case

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    Madhuri S. Kate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomus tumors are rare, painful, and benign soft tissue tumors of the skin arising from the glomus body, an arteriovenous thermoregulatory structure. This lesion is usually found on the extremities. Glomus tumor involving the external genital organs including penis is extremely rare. Until now, only few cases have been reported in the available literature. A 22 year old male patient presented with a painful nodule over the penis. The pathologic diagnosis was glomus tumor of the glans penis. We report herewith a case of glomus tumor of penis diagnosed on histopathologic examination. Glomus tumor, being a benign neoplasm, complete extirpation of the glomus tumor is the treatment of choice.

  5. Focus on treatment of lung carcinoid tumor

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    Noel-Savina E

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Elise Noel-Savina,1 Renaud Descourt2 1Pulmonary Service, 2Thoracic Oncology Service, Hospital de la Cavale Blanche, CHU – Brest, Brest, France Abstract: Bronchial typical carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine bronchopulmonary tumors with a low-grade malignancy, and an atypical carcinoid is an intermediate form of these tumors. There is a lack of knowledge on the optimal treatment for these tumors. The surgical treatment of choice consists of a lobectomy supplemented by dissection. The benefit of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is unclear. Targeted therapy could be used in this condition, but there is a lack of research recommending it. Keywords: carcinoid tumor, neuroendocrine tumor, bronchopulmonary tumor, treatment

  6. The ING tumor suppressor genes: status in human tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérillon, Claire; Bigot, Nicolas; Pedeux, Rémy

    2014-04-01

    ING genes (ING1-5) were identified has tumor suppressor genes. ING proteins are characterized as Type II TSGs since they are involved in the control of cell proliferation, apoptosis and senescence. They may also function as Type I TSGs since they are also involved in DNA replication and repair. Most studies have reported that they are frequently lost in human tumors and epigenetic mechanisms or misregulation of their transcription may be involved. Recently, studies have described that this loss may be caused by microRNA inhibition. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on ING functions, their involvement in tumor suppression and, in order to give a full assessment of the current knowledge, we review all the studies that have examined ING status in human cancers.

  7. Askin's Tumor: A Dual Case Study

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    Bikash Shrestha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Askin's tumor is a rare tumor arising from the chest wall. It is a subset of Ewing sarcoma characterized histologically by the presence of small round blue cells. It is a highly malignant tumor with guarded prognosis, which is dependent upon the extension of tumor at the time of diagnosis. A dual paper of Askin's tumors in young boys is being presented here.

  8. Value of diffusion weighted MRI in differentiating benign from malignant bony tumors and tumor like lesions

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    Samir Zaki Kotb

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: DWI has been proven to be highly useful in the differentiation of benign, malignant bone tumors and tumor like bony lesions. Measurement of ADC values improves the accuracy of the diagnosis of bone tumors and tumor like lesions. Moreover, measurement of ADC values can be used in the follow up of tumors and their response to therapy.

  9. Recurrence of Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor: A Rare Pancreatic Tumor

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    Chandra Punch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas (SPTP is a rare disease of young females that does not usually recur after resection. Here we report a case of an elderly female with history of SPTP ten years ago who presented with anorexia and a palpable left lower quadrant abdominal mass. Imaging revealed metastatic disease and US-guided biopsy of the liver confirmed the diagnosis of SPTP. Due to her advanced age and comorbidities, she elected to undergo hospice care. The objective of this case report is to increase awareness of this tumor and its possibility of recurrence, necessitating further guidelines for follow-up.

  10. Circulating Fibronectin Controls Tumor Growth

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    Anja von Au

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fibronectin is ubiquitously expressed in the extracellular matrix, and experimental evidence has shown that it modulates blood vessel formation. The relative contribution of local and circulating fibronectin to blood vessel formation in vivo remains unknown despite evidence for unexpected roles of circulating fibronectin in various diseases. Using transgenic mouse models, we established that circulating fibronectin facilitates the growth of bone metastases by enhancing blood vessel formation and maturation. This effect is more relevant than that of fibronectin produced by endothelial cells and pericytes, which only exert a small additive effect on vessel maturation. Circulating fibronectin enhances its local production in tumors through a positive feedback loop and increases the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF retained in the matrix. Both fibronectin and VEGF then cooperate to stimulate blood vessel formation. Fibronectin content in the tumor correlates with the number of blood vessels and tumor growth in the mouse models. Consistent with these results, examination of three separate arrays from patients with breast and prostate cancers revealed that a high staining intensity for fibronectin in tumors is associated with increased mortality. These results establish that circulating fibronectin modulates blood vessel formation and tumor growth by modifying the amount of and the response to VEGF. Furthermore, determination of the fibronectin content can serve as a prognostic biomarker for breast and prostate cancers and possibly other cancers.

  11. Max Wilms and his tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffensperger, John

    2015-02-01

    The most common cancer of the kidney in infants and children is named for Max Wilms, a German surgeon. How did this eponym come about? There were excellent reviews of this lesion before Wilms, a second year surgical assistant, published "Die Mischgeschwulste Der Niere" or The Mixed Tumors of the Kidney in 1899. At thirty two years of age, he demonstrated a masterful knowledge of pathology and embryology. Wilms' career was cut short when he became septic after operating on a prisoner of war during WWI. The survival rate for children with Wilms tumor was dismal until William Ladd, at the Boston Children's hospital introduced rational surgical treatment. By mid century, Robert Gross achieved a 47% survival rate with surgery combined with postoperative radiation. Sydney Farber treated Wilms tumors with Actinomycin-d and opened the door to cancer chemotherapy. With protocols developed by the National Wilms Tumor Study Group, the survival rate of children with Wilms tumors reached 90% by the end of the twentieth century.

  12. Tumor ablation with irreversible electroporation.

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    Bassim Al-Sakere

    Full Text Available We report the first successful use of irreversible electroporation for the minimally invasive treatment of aggressive cutaneous tumors implanted in mice. Irreversible electroporation is a newly developed non-thermal tissue ablation technique in which certain short duration electrical fields are used to permanently permeabilize the cell membrane, presumably through the formation of nanoscale defects in the cell membrane. Mathematical models of the electrical and thermal fields that develop during the application of the pulses were used to design an efficient treatment protocol with minimal heating of the tissue. Tumor regression was confirmed by histological studies which also revealed that it occurred as a direct result of irreversible cell membrane permeabilization. Parametric studies show that the successful outcome of the procedure is related to the applied electric field strength, the total pulse duration as well as the temporal mode of delivery of the pulses. Our best results were obtained using plate electrodes to deliver across the tumor 80 pulses of 100 micros at 0.3 Hz with an electrical field magnitude of 2500 V/cm. These conditions induced complete regression in 12 out of 13 treated tumors, (92%, in the absence of tissue heating. Irreversible electroporation is thus a new effective modality for non-thermal tumor ablation.

  13. Awake craniotomy for tumor resection

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    Mohammadali Attari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of brain tumors, especially those located in the eloquent areas such as anterior temporal, frontal lobes, language, memory areas, and near the motor cortex causes high risk of eloquent impairment. Awake craniotomy displays major rule for maximum resection of the tumor with minimum functional impairment of the Central Nervous System. These case reports discuss the use of awake craniotomy during the brain surgery in Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. A 56-year-old woman with left-sided body hypoesthesia since last 3 months and a 25-year-old with severe headache of 1 month duration were operated under craniotomy for brain tumors resection. An awake craniotomy was planned to allow maximum tumor intraoperative testing for resection and neurologic morbidity avoidance. The method of anesthesia should offer sufficient analgesia, hemodynamic stability, sedation, respiratory function, and also awake and cooperative patient for different neurological test. Airway management is the most important part of anesthesia during awake craniotomy. Tumor surgery with awake craniotomy is a safe technique that allows maximal resection of lesions in close relationship to eloquent cortex and has a low risk of neurological deficit.

  14. Notch Signaling in Neuroendocrine Tumors

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    Judy Sue Crabtree

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoids and neuroendocrine tumors (NETs are a heterogeneous group of tumors that arise from the neuroendocrine cells of the GI tract, endocrine pancreas and the respiratory system. NETs remain significantly understudied with respect to molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, particularly the role of cell fate signaling systems like Notch. The abundance of literature on the Notch pathway is a testament to its complexity in different cellular environments. Notch receptors can function as oncogenes in some contexts, and tumor suppressors in others. The genetic heterogeneity of NETs suggests that to fully understand the roles and the potential therapeutic implications of Notch signaling in NETs, a comprehensive analysis of Notch expression patterns and potential roles across all NET subtypes is required.

  15. Tumors of the orbit; Orbitatumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Forell, Wibke [Klinikum der Univ. Mainz (Germany). Inst. fuer Neuroradiologie

    2008-09-15

    This short review will present an overview not only of the findings in imaging, but the main clinical symptoms of the different orbital space occupying lesions, (not only different tumors, but even tumor-like lesions), as those should be included in differential diagnostic consideration. This should lead to a targeted diagnostic procedure in the individual patient. Basic knowledge of orbital anatomy is as important as the knowledge of the pros and contra's of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which should influence the examination protocol. Imaging findings of the most important tumors/lesions of the globe, the intraconal and extraconal space as well as of the optic nerve are presented with different examples (without any demand of completeness). (orig.)

  16. Immunological treatment of liver tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maurizio Chiriva-Internati; Fabio Grizzi; Cynthia A Jumper; Everardo Cobos; Paul L Hermonat; Eldo E Frezza

    2005-01-01

    Although multiple options for the treatment of liver tumors have often been described in the past, including liver resection, radiofrequency ablation with or without hepatic pump insertion, laparoscopic liver resection and the use of chemotherapy, the potential of immunotherapy and gene manipulation is still largely unexplored.Immunological therapy by gene manipulation is based on the interaction between virus-based gene delivery systems and dendritic cells. Using viruses as vectors, it is possible to transduce dendritic cells with genes encoding tumor-associated antigens, thus inducing strong humoral and cellular immunity against the antigens themselves.Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy have the disadvantage of destroying healthy cells, thus causing severe side-effects. We need more precisely targeted therapies capable of killing cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. Our goal is to establish a new treatment for solid liver tumors based on the concept of cytoreduction,and propose an innovative algorithm.

  17. Small intestinal tophus mimicking tumor

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    Pragya Katoch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 72 year old male with hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2 and previous gouty arthritis presented with weight loss, nausea, and vomiting. Ultrasound and CT scanning of the abdomen revealed a circumscribed tumor mass of the jejunum, 3.7 cm in diameter. Microscopic examination of the resected jejunum revealed the tumor to be a gouty tophus. To the best of our knowledge, three cases of tophi in the large intestine have previously been reported but none in the small intestine.

  18. Laparoscopic Nephrectomy for Wilms Tumor

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    Andolfi C

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Wilms tumor is the most frequent primary renal malignancy in children. The surgical resection is traditionally performed through laparotomy. The advent of laparoscopic surgery for benign renal lesions has led the surgeon to use a minimal invasive approach for the nephroblastoma. We describe a 9-months-old girl who presented with a left renal mass. A laparoscopic resection of the tumor with left radical nephroureterectomy was performed. The specimens were removed in an endoscopic bag through a low suprapubic incision. The patient had an uncomplicated recovery. Minimally invasive techniques may be considered for resection of nephroblastoma if oncologic principles are carefully followed.

  19. Malignant renal tumors in children

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    Justin Scott Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Renal malignancies are common in children. While the majority of malignant renal masses are secondary to Wilms tumor, it can be challenging to distinguish from more aggressive renal masses. For suspicious renal lesions, it is crucial to ensure prompt diagnosis in order to select the appropriate surgical procedure and treatment. This review article will discuss the common differential diagnosis that can be encountered when evaluating a suspicious renal mass in the pediatric population. This includes clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, malignant rhabdoid tumor, renal medullary carcinoma and lymphoma. 

  20. Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor of tongue

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    Shan-Yin Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor (ECMT is a rare entity of the dorsal tongue first described in 1995. Herein, we report a rare case of lingual ECMT in a 41-year-old man. Patient presented with an asymptomatic, small nodule (0.5 cm in diameter in the anterior tongue. The pathological findings showed uni-lobular proliferation of fusiform cells, arranged in net-like sheets or swirls, in a chondromyxoid background. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for S-100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, but negative for epithelial markers. Familiarity with this entity helps pathologists make a correct diagnosis.

  1. Localization of spinal tumors by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Sakamoto, Yuji; Kojima, Ryutaro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Bussaka, Hiromasa

    1989-02-01

    Exact localization of the spinal tumors is particularly important for differential diagnosis and surgery. Therefore, it was attempted to evauate the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in localizing the spinal tumors exactly. Nineteen cases of spinal cord tumors, being localized in the intradural extramedullary, extradural and both intradural and extradural spaces, were studied with MRI. Intradural extramedullary tumors showed small CSF spaces just below and above the tumor which were demonstrated as CSF intensity on T1 and T2 weighted images. Although extradural tumors did not show CSF spaces, there was extradural sign or dural density between the tumor and the spinal cord. Intradural and extradural tumors were outlined as having both characteristics. Signal intensities of the spinal tumors were not characteristic for specific histology. Gd-DTPA was quite useful for accurate localization of the tumors. In comparison with myelography, MRI was superior to myelography in extradural tumors and equally useful for intradural and extradural tumors, but it was less diagnostic in intradural extramedullary tumors. In general, MRI was quite useful in localizing the spinal tumors exactly and the accuracy of MRI was quite high. In the near future this technique will replace myelography and other radiologic methods.

  2. Unarmed, tumor-specific monoclonal antibody effectively treats brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, John H.; Crotty, Laura E.; Lee, Samson; Archer, Gary E.; Ashley, David M.; Wikstrand, Carol J.; Hale, Laura P.; Small, Clayton; Dranoff, Glenn; Friedman, Allan H.; Friedman, Henry S.; Bigner, Darell D.

    2000-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often amplified and rearranged structurally in tumors of the brain, breast, lung, and ovary. The most common mutation, EGFRvIII, is characterized by an in-frame deletion of 801 base pairs, resulting in the generation of a novel tumor-specific epitope at the fusion junction. A murine homologue of the human EGFRvIII mutation was created, and an IgG2a murine mAb, Y10, was generated that recognizes the human and murine equivalents of this tumor-specific antigen. In vitro, Y10 was found to inhibit DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation and to induce autonomous, complement-mediated, and antibodydependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Systemic treatment with i.p. Y10 of s.c. B16 melanomas transfected to express stably the murine EGFRvIII led to long-term survival in all mice treated (n = 20; P < 0.001). Similar therapy with i.p. Y10 failed to increase median survival of mice with EGFRvIII-expressing B16 melanomas in the brain; however, treatment with a single intratumoral injection of Y10 increased median survival by an average 286%, with 26% long-term survivors (n = 117; P < 0.001). The mechanism of action of Y10 in vivo was shown to be independent of complement, granulocytes, natural killer cells, and T lymphocytes through in vivo complement and cell subset depletions. Treatment with Y10 in Fc receptor knockout mice demonstrated the mechanism of Y10 to be Fc receptor-dependent. These data indicate that an unarmed, tumor-specific mAb may be an effective immunotherapy against human tumors and potentially other pathologic processes in the “immunologically privileged” central nervous system. PMID:10852962

  3. Surgical management of pediatric brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Gregory G; Jackson, Eric M; Magge, Suresh N; Storm, Phillip B

    2007-12-01

    Brain tumors are the most common cause of cancer-related death and the second most common form of cancer in pediatric patients. Many of these tumors are treated primarily with surgery, either alone or in combination with radiation or chemotherapy. Recent advances have lead to greater survival and decreased morbidities in childhood brain tumor patients. A full understanding of the biology and primary treatment modalities for the particular tumor are essential for any professional treating these patients, including the neurosurgeon. Each tumor type has features in common with, and unique from, other tumors that need to be understood prior to undertaking a rational treatment plan. This article summarizes some of these features.

  4. [Ultrasonographic study of rectal carcinoid tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, M; Fujita, N; Matsunaga, A; Ando, M; Tominaga, G; Noda, Y; Kobayashi, G; Kimura, K; Yuki, T; Ishida, K; Yago, A; Mochizuki, F; Chonan, A

    1996-11-01

    To compare intraluminal ultrasonographic (ILUS) findings with histological findings of rectal carcinoid tumors, 35 patients with rectal carcinoid tumors were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1) The rectal wall was visualized as a seven- or nine-layer structure by means of ILUS in 81% of the patients. 2) The possibility that the thin hyperechoic third layer above the tumor on ILUS corresponds to the muscularis mucosae and fibrointerstitium above the tumor histologically. 3) In cases with relatively high internal echoes, the amount of fibrointerstitium exceeded that of tumor cells histologically. 4) In cases with nonuniform internal echo patterns, tumor cells were separated by thick fibrointerstitium forming nodular nests.

  5. Surgery of Glomus Jugulare Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, Roberto; Righini, Stefano; Destito, Domenico; Raucci, Aldo Falco; Colombo, Stefano

    2003-08-01

    The treatment of choice for glomus jugulare tumors is still controversial. High rates of morbidity, incomplete resection, and the aggressive behavior of these tumors are the main arguments for advocates of primary radiotherapy. However, constant refinements in skull base techniques have made complete resection of these lesions a realistic goal. The high probability of achieving local control of these tumors by surgery has convinced us to support this option strongly. Between 1993 and 2000 we diagnosed 52 glomus tumors of the temporal bone. Of these patients, only 42 had a class C lesion (glomus jugulare) and were included in this study; 37 of these patients underwent surgery, 10 of whom had intracranial extension of the disease. The overall resection rate was 96 %. Facial nerve function at 1 year was House-Brackmann grade I to II in 52 % of patients and grade III or better in 84 % of patients. Hospitalization was shorter than 14 days in 33 patients (89 %). All patients with pharyngolaryngeal palsy had sufficient compensation at discharge. Twelve vocal chord Teflon injections were performed after surgery to reduce hoarseness and aspiration. No patient died. No relapse was observed (mean follow-up, 4.9 years).

  6. Mechanisms of tumor cell necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskuryakov, Sergey Y; Gabai, Vladimir L

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, necrosis, unlike apoptosis, was considered as passive and unregulated form of cell death. However, during the last decade a number of experimental data demonstrated that, except under extreme conditions, necrosis may be a well-regulated process activated by rather specific physiological and pathological stimuli. In this review, we consider mechanisms and the role of necrosis in tumor cells. It became recently clear that the major player in necrotic cascade is a protein kinase RIP1, which can be activated by number of stumuli including TNF, TRAIL, and LPS, oxidative stress, or DNA damage (via poly-ADP-ribose polymerase). RIP1 kinase directly (or indirectly via another kinase JNK) transduces signal to mitochondria and causes specific damage (mitochondrial permeability transition). Mitochondrial collapse activates various proteases (e.g., calpains, cathepsin) and phospholipases, and eventually leads to plasma membrane destruction, a hallmark of necrotic cell death. Necrosis, in contrast to apoptosis, usually evokes powerful inflammatory response, which may participate in tumor regression during anticancer therapy. On the other hand, excessive spontaneous necrosis during tumor development may lead to more aggressive tumors due to stimulatory role of necrosis-induced inflammation on their growth.

  7. Neuroradiology of primitive neuroectodermal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinshaw, D.B. Jr.; Thompson, J.R.; Hasso, A.N.; Ashwal, S.

    1983-05-01

    The neuroradiological findings in four cases of primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cerebrum are described. These highly malignant neoplasms of childhood present as large, enhancing cerebral masses with extensive neovascularity. Cerebrospinal fluid seeding is common and distant extraneural metastases may occur.

  8. Leptomeningeal Metastases in Solid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Karakolevska-Ilova

    2014-12-01

    CONCLUSION: The prognostic factors associated with survival in patients with LM metastasis are not certain as well as right treatment for these patients which is still a big challenge. Due to the lack of randomized studies and especially of studies referring to one specific primary tumor, there is currently no generally accepted standard of care in the treatment of LM metastases.

  9. Evolution of Avian Tumor Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virus-induced neoplastic diseases of poultry, namely Marek’s disease (MD), induced by a herpesvirus, and the avian leukosis and reticuloendotheliosis induced by retroviruses, can cause significant economic losses from tumor mortality as well as poor performance. Successful control of MD is and has ...

  10. Studies on tumor induced angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, J L; Ambrus, C M; Forgach, P; Stadler, S; Halpern, J; Sayyid, S; Niswander, P; Toumbis, C

    1992-01-01

    Methods were developed to test angiogenic response to human tumor implants and various biologic agents in the cornea of rabbits and non-human primates (Macaca arctoides). Crude PDGF preparations were found to have significant angiogenic effect. Purified, recombinant PDGF preparations were also effective inhibitors (e.g. pentoxifylline (Px) (which also were found to release PgI2 and t-PA) inhibited human tumor implant induced angiogenesis and reduced spontaneous metastases in 3 transplantable murine tumors (Furth-Columbia Wilms' tumor in Furth-Wistar rats, C-1300 neuroblastoma in A/J mice and HM-Kim mammary carcinoma in Wistar rats) but not in the NIH adenocarcinoma in Balb/c mice. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC), a metal complexing agent with special affinity to copper and anti-thyroid as well as, immune stimulating activity was shown to be anti-angiogenic and to potentiate the effect of Px. The anti-fibrinolytic agents epsilon amino caproic acid (EACA) and tranaxamic acid (t-AMCHA) were anti-angiogenic. DDTC and Px were synergistic from this point of view.

  11. Tumor raro em mediastino: hamartoma

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Saad Júnior; José Donato de Próspero; Roberto Gonçalves; Jorge Henrique Rivaben; Fabiano Alves Squeff

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper we report a case of mediastinal tumor which we believe has never been reported. Since surgical treatment, the patient presented good evolution. We discuss the presentation, differential diagnosis and therapy. Finally, we stress the importance of the pathologic findings.

  12. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality.

  13. Ghrelin and gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang-Zhen; Liu, Dong; Kang, Wei-Ming; Yu, Jian-Chun; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Ye, Xin; Li, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin, as a kind of multifunctional protein polypeptide, is mainly produced in the fundus of the stomach and can promote occurrence and development of many tumors, including gastrointestinal tumors, which has been proved by the relevant researches. Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs, about 80%), as the most common mesenchymal tumor, also develop in the fundus. Scientific research has confirmed that ghrelin, its receptors and mRNA respectively can be found in GISTs, which demonstrated the existence of a ghrelin autocrine/paracrine loop in GIST tissues. However, no reports to date have specified the mechanism whether ghrelin can promote the occurrence and development of GISTs. Studies of pulmonary artery endothelial cells in a low-oxygen environment and cardiac muscle cells in an ischemic environment have shown that ghrelin can activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signaling pathway. Moreover, some studies of GISTs have confirmed that activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway can indeed promote the growth and progression of GISTs. Whether ghrelin is involved in the development or progression of GISTs through certain pathways remains unknown. Can we find a new target for the treatment of GISTs? This review explores and summaries the relationship among ghrelin, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and the development of GISTs.

  14. [The systematization of APUD tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubenov, T; Terziev, I

    1995-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in neuroendocrine transmission of peptides, underlying the so-called classification of multiple endocrine neoplasms (MEN), are described. Three cases from the clinical practice are followed up where facilitation of the diagnosis and the results of treatment are related to the tumor markers' values.

  15. Desmoid Tumor of the Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerleman, Roxana; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Detlefsen, Sönke

    2015-01-01

    Desmoid tumors, also known as desmoid-type fibromatoses or aggressive fibromatoses, are clonal fibroblastic proliferations that arise in the deep soft tissues. They are characterized by infiltrative growth, a tendency toward local recurrence and the inability to metastasize. We present a case of ...

  16. Fever and abdominal tumoral masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin C. Dima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available 49 year-old man presented to our clinic for pain in the right hypochondrium, diarrhea, and fever. The clinical examination highlights a tumoral formation in the right side of the abdomen, with firm consistency, poorly defined margins, and present mobility in the deep structures. On biological exams, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, inflammatory syndrome, and hypoalbuminaemia were identified. The first computed tomography exam described parietal thickening of the ascending colon, with infiltrative aspect, and multiple local adenopathies, lomboaortic and interaortocave. Moreover, four nodular liver tumors, with hypodense image in native examination, were identified. The lab tests for infectious diseases were all inconclusives: three hemocultures, three stool samples, and three coproparasitological exams were all negatives. Interdisciplinary examinations, internal medicine and infectious diseases, sustained the diagnosis of colonic neoplasm with peritumoral abscess and liver pseudo-tumoral masses. The colonoscopy did not revealed any bowel lesions relevant for neoplasia. This result as well as the bio-clinical context imposed abstention from surgical intervention. Wide spectrum antibiotics and symptomatic treatment were initiated. But, ten days after hospitalization, the second computed tomography exam showed reduction of the ascending colon wall thickness associated with significant increases of the liver tumors is so revealed. The investigations for other possible etiologies were so continued.

  17. Pituitary tumor apoplexy Apoplexia em tumor hipofisário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia V. Chang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary tumor apoplexy is a medical emergency due to acute infarction or hemorrhage in the pituitary gland. In this review, the authors discuss the sellar anatomy, the pituitary gland and adenomas' vascularization and the general aspects of the syndrome such as its ethiopatogenesis, predisposing factors, clinical features, treatment and prognosis.A apoplexia em tumor hipofisário é uma emergência médica decorrente do infarto agudo ou hemorrágico na glândula hipófise. Nesta revisão os autores discutem a anatomia da região selar, a vascularização da hipófise e adenomas hipofisários, e demais aspectos da síndrome como etiopatogenia, fatores predisponentes, quadro clínico, tratamento e prognóstico.

  18. Diagnostic Study of Tumor Characteristics in Patients With Ewing's Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  19. Stages of Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... potential tumor include pain or swelling in the abdomen. Ovarian low malignant potential tumor may not cause ... include the following: Pain or swelling in the abdomen . Pain in the pelvis. Gastrointestinal problems, such as ...

  20. Patient-Derived Antibody Targets Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on an antibody derived from patients that killed tumor cells in cell lines of several cancer types and slowed tumor growth in mouse models of brain and lung cancer without evidence of side effects.

  1. Syndrome-Associated Tumors by Organ System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Raul S; Riddle, Nicole D

    2016-06-01

    Certain tumors suggest the possibility of a patient harboring a genetic syndrome, particularly in children. Syndrome-associated tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, gynecologic tract, heart, lungs, brain, eye, endocrine organs, and hematopoietic system will be briefly discussed.

  2. Biological stoichiometry in tumor micro-environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kareva

    Full Text Available Tumors can be viewed as evolving ecological systems, in which heterogeneous populations of cancer cells compete with each other and somatic cells for space and nutrients within the ecosystem of the human body. According to the growth rate hypothesis (GRH, increased phosphorus availability in an ecosystem, such as the tumor micro-environment, may promote selection within the tumor for a more proliferative and thus potentially more malignant phenotype. The applicability of the GRH to tumor growth is evaluated using a mathematical model, which suggests that limiting phosphorus availability might promote intercellular competition within a tumor, and thereby delay disease progression. It is also shown that a tumor can respond differently to changes in its micro-environment depending on the initial distribution of clones within the tumor, regardless of its initial size. This suggests that composition of the tumor as a whole needs to be evaluated in order to maximize the efficacy of therapy.

  3. Biological stoichiometry in tumor micro-environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareva, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Tumors can be viewed as evolving ecological systems, in which heterogeneous populations of cancer cells compete with each other and somatic cells for space and nutrients within the ecosystem of the human body. According to the growth rate hypothesis (GRH), increased phosphorus availability in an ecosystem, such as the tumor micro-environment, may promote selection within the tumor for a more proliferative and thus potentially more malignant phenotype. The applicability of the GRH to tumor growth is evaluated using a mathematical model, which suggests that limiting phosphorus availability might promote intercellular competition within a tumor, and thereby delay disease progression. It is also shown that a tumor can respond differently to changes in its micro-environment depending on the initial distribution of clones within the tumor, regardless of its initial size. This suggests that composition of the tumor as a whole needs to be evaluated in order to maximize the efficacy of therapy.

  4. Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cord Tumors Treatment Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment Childhood Brain Stem Glioma ... Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors may begin in embryonic (fetal) cells that remain in the brain after birth. ...

  5. Intrasellar malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayenbühl, N; Heppner, F; Yonekawa, Y; Bernays, R L

    2007-02-01

    Intracranial malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) and intrasellar schwannomas are rare tumors. We describe a case of an intrasellar schwannoma with progression to a MPNST, a finding that, although very rare, extends the differential diagnosis of intrasellar lesions.

  6. Dendritic cells are stressed out in tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, Tomasz; Zou, Weiping

    2015-09-01

    A recently paper published in Cell reports that dendritic cells (DCs) are dysfunctional in the tumor environment. Tumor impairs DC function through induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress response and subsequent disruption of lipid metabolic homeostasis.

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Treatment Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Extragonadal Germ ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  8. [Tumors of the ovaries in zebus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, N; Zhelev, V; Angelov, A K

    1983-01-01

    In a total of 112 slaughtered sterile cows of the Zebu cattle, originating from the Camaguey region, Cuba, 25 tumors were found in 22 animals (in three of the cows the tumors were bilateral). Histologically, the tumors were differentiated as follows: 1 papillary adenoma, 6 papillary cystadenomas, 1 adenocarcinoma, 1 papillary adenocarcinoma, 8 granulosocellular tumors, 1 thecoma, 2 luteomas, 4 hemangiomas, and 1 angiocarcinoma. In two of the cases, beside tumors there were in the ovaries parovarian cysts. The differentiation of the tumors were made on the basis of the international histologic classification of tumors of the World Health Organization. Most frequently, the tumors turned out to be granulosocellular ones as well as papillary cystadenomas and hemangiomas.

  9. Targeting tumor microenvironment: crossing tumor interstitial fluid by multifunctional nanomedicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Omidi

    2014-06-01

    Results: We reviewed all relevant literature for the impacts of tumor interstitium and microvasculature within the TME as well as the significance of the implemented strategies. Results: While tumorigenesis initiation seems to be in close relation with an emergence of hypoxia and alterations in epigenetic/genetic materials, large panoplies of molecular events emerge as intricate networks during oncogenesis to form unique lenient TME in favor of tumor progression. Within such irregular interstitium, immune system displays defective surveillance functionalities against malignant cells. Solid tumors show multifacial traits with coadaptation and self-regulation potentials, which bestow profound resistance against the currently used conventional chemotherapy and immunotherapy agents that target solely one face of the disease. Conclusion: The cancerous cells attain unique abilities to form its permissive microenvironment, wherein (a extracellular pH is dysregulated towards acidification, (b extracellular matrix (ECM is deformed, (c stromal cells are cooperative with cancer cells, (d immune system mechanisms are defective, (e non-integrated irregular microvasculature with pores (120-1200 nm are formed, and (h interstitial fluid pressure is high. All these phenomena are against cancer treatment modalities. As a result, to control such abnormal pathophysiologic traits, novel cancer therapy strategies need to be devised using multifunctional nanomedicines and theranostics.

  10. Embolismo tumoral pulmonar microvascular en paciente con tumor urotelial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Escalante Yangüela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Los embolismos tumorales pulmonares (ETP representan una causa poco frecuente de disnea en pacientes oncológicos. La mayoría se diagnostican en pacientes con tumores avanzados, sobre todo localizados en mama, pulmón o estómago. Existen pocos casos publicados en pacientes con tumores uroteliales. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 69 años, sin diagnóstico previo de cáncer, que ingresó por disnea subaguda, con sospecha clínica inicial de tromboembolismo pulmonar (TEP. El paciente falleció al 5º día del ingreso. En la autopsia se comprobó la existencia de un tumor en pelvis renal izquierda con metástasis hepáticas y linfoganglionares múltiples y una extensa embolia pulmonar microvascular que afectaba a gran parte de los capilares y vasos sanguíneos de mediano calibre de ambos pulmones. Los ETP se consideraron responsables de la insuficiencia respiratoria progresiva y se interpretaron como la causa última de la muerte. La presentación clínica más frecuente de los ETP es la disnea, a menudo se confunden con el TEP y el diagnóstico no resulta fácil. Su pronóstico es muy malo, con una elevadísima mortalidad y su confirmación habitualmente es post-mortem.

  11. Imaging Tumor Cell Movement In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Entenberg, David; Kedrin, Dmitriy; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Sahai, Erik; Condeelis, John; Segall, Jeffrey E

    2013-01-01

    This unit describes the methods that we have been developing for analyzing tumor cell motility in mouse and rat models of breast cancer metastasis. Rodents are commonly used both to provide a mammalian system for studying human tumor cells (as xenografts in immunocompromised mice) as well as for following the development of tumors from a specific tissue type in transgenic lines. The Basic Protocol in this unit describes the standard methods used for generation of mammary tumors and imaging th...

  12. Glomus Tumor Presenting as Raynaud's Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Abdelrahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomus tumors are rare tumors that often include hands and feet; they present characteristically with paroxysmal pain, exquisite point tenderness, and cold sensitivity. Such diagnosis needs to be confirmed by imaging like ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for glomus tumors. There are only few case reports of glomus tumors in association with Raynaud’s phenomenon; this is considered to be the 4th case.

  13. Fluorescent Nanoparticle Uptake for Brain Tumor Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Tréhin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate delineation of tumor margins is vital to the successful surgical resection of brain tumors. We have previously developed a multimodal nanoparticle CLIO-Cy5.5, which is detectable by both magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence, to assist in intraoperatively visualizing tumor boundaries. Here we examined the accuracy of tumor margin determination of orthotopic tumors implanted in hosts with differing immune responses to the tumor. Using a nonuser-based signal intensity method applied to fluorescent micrographs of 9L gliosarcoma green fluorescent protein (GFP tumors, mean overestimations of 2 and 24 µm were obtained using Cy5.5 fluorescence, compared to the true tumor margin determined by GFP fluorescence, in nude mice and rats, respectively. To resolve which cells internalized the nanoparticle and to quantitate degree of uptake, tumors were disaggregated and cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Nanoparticle uptake was seen in both CD11b+ cells (representing activated microglia and macrophages and tumor cells in both animal models by both methods. CD11b+ cells were predominantly found at the tumor margin in both hosts, but were more pronounced at the margin in the rat model. Additional metastatic (CT26 colon and primary (Gli36 glioma brain tumor models likewise demonstrated that the nanoparticle was internalized both by tumor cells and by host cells. Together, these observations suggest that fluorescent nanoparticles provide an accurate method of tumor margin estimation based on a combination of tumor cell and host cell uptake for primary and metastatic tumors in animal model systems and offer potential for clinical translation.

  14. Intraosseous glomus tumor of the fibula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, W.J. [Catholic Univ. of Korea, Gyunggido (Korea). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery; Mirra, J.M. [Orthopaedic Oncology, Orthopaedic Hospital, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Anders, K.H. [Dept. of Pathology, Kaiser Permanente, Woodland Hills, CA (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Glomus tumor is a rare, benign vascular tumor and intraosseous glomus tumor, which arises primarily within bone, is even rarer. Fewer than 20 cases have been reported in the literature. We present the case of a 34-year-old woman with glomus tumor primarily in the midshaft of the fibula that radiologically mimicked chondromyxoid fibroma, aneurysmal bone cyst or adamantinoma, together with a review of other reported cases. (orig.)

  15. Extrahepatic bile duct neurilemmoma mimicking Klatskin tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Fereshteh; Dorudinia, Atosa; Goravanchi, Farhood; Rahimi, Farzaneh

    2007-04-01

    Neurilemmoma rarely develops in the biliary tree. Here, we report a 39-year-old Iranian woman with neurilemmoma in the extrahepatic bile duct presenting with progressively deepening jaundice. On the basis of clinical and radiological features, this tumor was initially suspected as Klatskin tumor. Histologically, the tumor was a typical neurilemmoma. Immunostaining showed that tumor cells were strongly and diffusely positive for S-100 protein, which supported the diagnosis of neurilemmoma. Neurilemmoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of obstructive jaundice.

  16. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Dipankar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET is a small round cell malignant tumor of neuroectodermal origin. Most of the PNETs occur in the central nervous system (CNS. PNETs recognized outside of CNS are diagnosed as peripheral PNET (pPNET. This tumor which expresses MIC-2 gene (CD99 seems to be least aggressive after complete tumor resection. We describe a rare case of PNET in a young girl.

  17. Human neutrophils facilitate tumor cell transendothelial migration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wu, Q D

    2012-02-03

    Tumor cell extravasation plays a key role in tumor metastasis. However, the precise mechanisms by which tumor cells migrate through normal vascular endothelium remain unclear. In this study, using an in vitro transendothelial migration model, we show that human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) assist the human breast tumor cell line MDA-MB-231 to cross the endothelial barrier. We found that tumor-conditioned medium (TCM) downregulated PMN cytocidal function, delayed PMN apoptosis, and concomitantly upregulated PMN adhesion molecule expression. These PMN treated with TCM attached to tumor cells and facilitated tumor cell migration through different endothelial monolayers. In contrast, MDA-MB-231 cells alone did not transmigrate. FACScan analysis revealed that these tumor cells expressed high levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) but did not express CD11a, CD11b, or CD18. Blockage of CD11b and CD18 on PMN and of ICAM-1 on MDA-MB-231 cells significantly attenuated TCM-treated, PMN-mediated tumor cell migration. These tumor cells still possessed the ability to proliferate after PMN-assisted transmigration. These results indicate that TCM-treated PMN may serve as a carrier to assist tumor cell transendothelial migration and suggest that tumor cells can exploit PMN and alter their function to facilitate their extravasation.

  18. Pulmonary carcinoid tumor associated with nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePace, N L; Elquezabal, A; Hardenburg, H C

    1980-04-01

    A patient with carcinoid tumor of the lung associated with nephrotic syndrome was treated. Excision of the tumor resulted in remission of marked proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema. A review of the literature disclosed many neoplasms associated with the nephrotic syndrome; however, no association of the nephrotic syndrome and a carcinoid tumor of the lung has previously been reported, to our knowledge.

  19. Thoracic tumors : prognostic and thearapeutic improvements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Wouter Karst de

    2008-01-01

    Thoracic tumors are a major burden of disease in many countries. Non-small cell lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer are the most common thoracic malignancies, both tumors are one of the most well-known of the less common thoracic tumors. In this thesis, new ways in estimating the prognosis of pat

  20. Localization of thymosin beta-4 in tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, L. -I.; Holck, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Overexpression of thymosin beta-4 has been linked to malignant progression but the localization of this polypeptide within tumors is incompletely known. We therefore examined breast cancers for thymosin beta-4 using immunofluorescence. Reactive cells were identified with monoclonal cell marker...... in the tumor microenvironment may modulate tumor behavior....

  1. An intramedullary tumor presenting with hyperhidrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee Sandip

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A case of a cervical intramedullary tumor is reported whose presentation was with disabling hyperhidrosis. The symptom resolved after surgical debulking of the tumor. Hyperhidrosis as a presenting manifestation of an intramedullary tumor has not been reported earlier.

  2. [Klatskin tumors: rational diagnostics and staging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzer, U W; Rösch, T

    2012-03-01

    Klatskin tumors continue to be a challenge for diagnostic assessment and staging due to their longitudinal tumor growth along the perihilar bile ducts. Therefore the rate of non-resectable tumors remains relatively stable despite modern imaging and endoscopic techniques. This article reviews the current diagnostic methods for preoperative staging and the significance for predicting resectability.

  3. Optimization of the tumor microenvironment and nanomedicine properties simultaneously to improve tumor therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Wang, Lanting; Mei, Heng; Lu, Heng; Hu, Yu; Pang, Zhiqing

    2016-01-01

    Effective delivery of nanomedicines to tumor tissues depends on both the tumor microenvironment and nanomedicine properties. Accordingly, tumor microenvironment modification or advanced design of nanomedicine was emerging to improve nanomedicine delivery to tumors. However, few studies have emphasized the necessity to optimize the tumor microenvironment and nanomedicine properties simultaneously to improve tumor treatment. In the present study, imatinib mesylate (IMA) was used to normalize the tumor microenvironment including platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β expression inhibition, tumor vessel normalization, and tumor perfusion improvement as demonstrated by immunofluorescence staining. In addition, the effect of tumor microenvironment normalization on tumor delivery of nanomedicines with different sizes was carefully investigated. It was shown that IMA treatment significantly reduced the accumulation of nanoparticles (NPs) around 110 nm but enhanced the accumulation of micelles around 23 nm by in vivo fluorescence imaging experiment. Furthermore, IMA treatment limited the distribution of NPs inside tumors but increased that of micelles with a more homogeneous pattern. Finally, the anti-tumor efficacy study displayed that IMA pretreatment could significantly increase the therapeutic effects of paclitaxel-loaded micelles. All-together, a new strategy to improve nanomedicine delivery to tumor was provided by optimizing both nanomedicine size and the tumor microenvironment simultaneously, and it will have great potential in clinics for tumor treatment. PMID:27566585

  4. Tumor vascular endothelium : Barrier or target in tumor directed drug delivery and immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molema, Ingrid; de Leij, Lou; Meijer, D.K F

    1997-01-01

    The therapy of solid tumors with conventional chemotherapeutics, drug delivery preparations and immunomodulatory agents directed against the tumor cells is corrupted by a major barrier presented by the tumor vasculature. Permeability of the tumor blood vessels for transport of small molecules and ma

  5. Tumor Carcinoide Gástrico.

    OpenAIRE

    Haydelisis Peraza González; Ofelia María Pompa Oliva; Mirian Belkis Nápoles Valdés

    2015-01-01

    Las neoplasias endocrinas se originan en las células del sistema neuroendocrino, también afectan al tubo digestivo; dentro de ellas, el tumor carcinoide gástrico es poco frecuente. El objetivo de la publicación es mostrar la situación de una paciente femenina que presentó características clínicas, endoscópicas, histológicas e inmunohistoquímica de esta variedad de tumor gástrico. Paciente femenina de 45 años de edad con antecedentes de salud, referida de su área de salud al Departamento de G...

  6. The pathobiology of glioma tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladson, Candece L; Prayson, Richard A; Liu, Wei Michael

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing characterization of the genetic and epigenetic alterations in the gliomas has already improved the classification of these heterogeneous tumors and enabled the development of rodent models for analysis of the molecular pathways underlying their proliferative and invasive behavior. Effective application of the targeted therapies that are now in development will depend on pathologists' ability to provide accurate information regarding the genetic alterations and the expression of key receptors and ligands in the tumors. Here we review the mechanisms that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the gliomas and provide examples of the cooperative nature of the pathways involved, which may influence the initial therapeutic response and the potential for development of resistance.

  7. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru, Peng; Williams, Terence M.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Guo, Deliang, E-mail: deliang.guo@osumc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center & Arthur G James Cancer Hospital, Columbus, OH 43012 (United States)

    2013-11-08

    Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation.

  8. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deliang Guo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation.

  9. Endoscopic resection of subepithelial tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arthur; Schmidt; Markus; Bauder; Bettina; Riecken; Karel; Caca

    2014-01-01

    Management of subepithelial tumors(SETs) remains challenging. Endoscopic ultrasound(EUS) has improved differential diagnosis of these tumors but a definitive diagnosis on EUS findings alone can be achieved in the minority of cases. Complete endoscopic resection may provide a reasonable approach for tissue acquisition and may also be therapeutic in case of malignant lesions. Small SET restricted to the submucosa can be removed with established basic resection techniques. However, resection of SET arising from deeper layers of the gastrointestinal wall requires advanced endoscopic methods and harbours the risk of perforation. Innovative techniques such as submucosal tunneling and full thickness resection have expanded the frontiers of endoscopic therapy in the past years. This review will give an overview about endoscopic resection techniques of SET with a focus on novel methods.

  10. Tumor Molecular Imaging with Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging (MI can provide not only structural images using traditional imaging techniques but also functional and molecular information using many newly emerging imaging techniques. Over the past decade, the utilization of nanotechnology in MI has exhibited many significant advantages and provided new opportunities for the imaging of living subjects. It is expected that multimodality nanoparticles (NPs can lead to precise assessment of tumor biology and the tumor microenvironment. This review addresses topics related to engineered NPs and summarizes the recent applications of these nanoconstructs in cancer optical imaging, ultrasound, photoacoustic imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and radionuclide imaging. Key challenges involved in the translation of NPs to the clinic are discussed.

  11. Updates on abdominal desmoid tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Desmoid tumor is a monoclonal, fibroblastic proliferation arising in musculoaponeurotic structures. This connective tissue hyperplasia infiltrates locally, recurs frequentiy after resection but does not metastasize. Abdominal desmoid occurs sporadically, in association with some familial syndromes and often represents a clinical dilemma for surgeons. The enigmatic biology and anatomical location of abdominal desmoids make treatment recommendations difficult. This distinct pathological entity is reviewed with a specific focus on aetiology and management.

  12. Cyst and tumor of liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008313 Significance of Golgi glycoprotein 73,a new tumor marker in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma:a primary study.MAO Yilei(毛一雷),et al.Dept Liver Surgery,PUMC & CAMS,Beijing 100730.Natl Med J China 2008;88(14):945-948.Objective To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Golgi glycoprotein 73(GP73)for the diagnosis of hepatitis B related hepatocelluar carcinoma(HCC).

  13. The Pathobiology of Glioma Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Gladson, Candece L.; Prayson, Richard A.; LIU Wei

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing characterization of the genetic and epigenetic alterations in the gliomas has already improved the classification of these heterogeneous tumors and enabled the development of rodent models for analysis of the molecular pathways underlying their proliferative and invasive behavior. Effective application of the targeted therapies that are now in development will depend on pathologists’ ability to provide accurate information regarding the genetic alterations and the expression of ke...

  14. A epilepsia nos tumores cerebrais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marques-Assis

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available De 411 casos de tumores cerebrais foram estudados 86 (19,4% que apresentaram manifestações epilépticas. A epilepsia foi estudada quanto à duração, ao tipo de manifestação e à severidade, em relação à natureza e à localização dos tumores cerebrais. A análise dos resultados permitiu aos autores chegarem às seguintes conclusões: 1 a epilepsia incidiu em 19,4% dos casos; 2 o oligodendroglioma, as metástases carcinomatosas e o glioblastoma multiforme foram, pela ordem, os tumores mais epileptogênicos; 3 as áreas frontal, parietal e temporal foram, nessa ordem, as localizações mais epileptogênicas; 4 os carcinomas metastáticos predominaram nos casos com epilepsia com menos de um ano de evolução, enquanto que os astrocitomas predominaram nos casos com mais de três anos; quanto à topografia, predominou a região frontal no primeiro grupo e a temporal, no segundo; 5 nas formas mais severas de epilepsia predominaram os oligodendrogliomas e os meningeomas, quanto à natureza, e a região frontotemporal e a foice, quanto à localização; 6 os craniofaringeomas e os meduloblastomas foram os tumores que mais freqüentemente determinaram o aparecimento de convulsões puras; nesses casos, a sela túrsica e a fossa posterior foram as sedes mais freqüentes; 7 os carcinomas metastáticos e os meningeomas, quanto à natureza, e as regiões frontoparietal e parietal, quanto à localização, foram os mais freqüentemente encontrados nos casos com crises de tipo bravais-jacksoniano.

  15. Using Integrins for Tumor Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Haubner; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Beer, Ambros J.; Eugenija Vabuliene; Daniel Reim; Mario Sarbia; Karl-Friedrich Becker; Michael Goebel; Rüdiger Hein; Hans-Jürgen Wester; Horst Kessler; Markus Schwaiger

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The integrin alphavbeta3 plays an important role in angiogenesis and tumor cell metastasis, and is currently being evaluated as a target for new therapeutic approaches. Several techniques are being studied to enable noninvasive determination of alphavbeta3 expression. We developed [(18)F]Galacto-RGD, a (18)F-labeled glycosylated alphavbeta3 antagonist, allowing monitoring of alphavbeta3 expression with positron emission tomography (PET). METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we show by quant...

  16. Tumor Carcinoide Gástrico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydelisis Peraza González

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Las neoplasias endocrinas se originan en las células del sistema neuroendocrino, también afectan al tubo digestivo; dentro de ellas, el tumor carcinoide gástrico es poco frecuente. El objetivo de la publicación es mostrar la situación de una paciente femenina que presentó características clínicas, endoscópicas, histológicas e inmunohistoquímica de esta variedad de tumor gástrico. Paciente femenina de 45 años de edad con antecedentes de salud, referida de su área de salud al Departamento de Gastroenterología, por presentar dolor en epigastrio, regurgitaciones, acidez y cifras bajas de hemoglobina. Se le diagnosticó pólipo gástrico erosionado a través de estudio endoscópico superior, se realizó estudio histológico y se aplicó técnica de inmunohistoquímica, cuyo diagnóstico definitivo fue un tumor carcinoide gástrico, y se le efectuó una gastrectomía subtotal ampliada, con evolución satisfactoria. El tumor carcinoide gástrico es una neoplasia no habitual, cuyo tratamiento de elección es quirúrgico, donde la supervivencia y calidad de vida del paciente depende del tamaño, la localización, infiltración y presencia de metástasis del mismo.

  17. Paraganglioma: a potentially challenging tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Mark; Silverman, Jan; Colonias, Athanasios; Lee, Vincent; Mohanty, Alok; Parda, David

    2008-03-01

    Paragangliomas are usually low-grade neoplasms with a benign natural history. While the treatment of paraganglioma has historically been controversial, surgery and radiotherapy have become standardized as therapies of choice for primary therapy. More recently, stereotactic radiosurgery has been used effectively against this rare tumor. The development of metastatic disease in patients with paraganglioma is an unusual and challenging event. This case report and review describes the specific features of this disease and the multiple therapeutic options.

  18. Meningeal tumors histologically mimicking meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barresi, Valeria; Caffo, Maria; Branca, Giovanni; Caltabiano, Rosario; Tuccari, Giovanni

    2012-10-15

    A number of meningeal neoplastic lesions may radiologically and clinically simulate meningioma. In the present paper, we review meningeal non-meningothelial tumors which may also mimic different histotypes of meningioma at the histological examination. Awareness that these lesions exist may facilitate their recognition and correct diagnosis, which is of fundamental importance for prognosis and an appropriate therapeutic approach. Histological and immunohistochemical clues for the differential diagnosis are discussed.

  19. Sellar tumors; Tumoren der Sellaregion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, M.A.; Essig, M. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Radiologie; Zoubaa, S. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt, Neuherberg, Muenchen (Germany). Abt. Neuropathologie; Politi, M.; Grunwald, I. [Universitaetsklinikum Saarland, Homburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie

    2007-06-15

    Because of the complex anatomy, examination of the sella turcica and hypophysis needs a dedicated MR sequence protocol. Not every sellar lesion is a pituitary adenoma. Thus, this review article summarizes the most frequently encountered intra-, supra-, and parasellar tumors and lesions. Differential diagnoses comprise besides adenoma among others craniopharyngioma, meningioma, glioma, germinoma, hamartoma, aneurysm, trigeminal schwannoma, pituitary carcinoma, chordoma, metastasis, infection, and empty sella. Characteristic imaging findings are presented and correlated to micro- and macro-pathology. (orig.)

  20. Direct visualization of macrophage-assisted tumor cell intravasation in mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, Jeffrey B; Wang, Yarong; Lin, Elaine Y; Li, Jiu-feng; Goswami, Sumanta; Stanley, E Richard; Segall, Jeffrey E; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Condeelis, John

    2007-03-15

    Although the presence of macrophages in tumors has been correlated with poor prognosis, until now there was no direct observation of how macrophages are involved in hematogenous metastasis. In this study, we use multiphoton microscopy to show, for the first time, that tumor cell intravasation occurs in association with perivascular macrophages in mammary tumors. Furthermore, we show that perivascular macrophages of the mammary tumor are associated with tumor cell intravasation in the absence of local angiogenesis. These results show that the interaction between macrophages and tumor cells lying in close proximity defines a microenvironment that is directly involved in the intravasation of cancer cells in mammary tumors.

  1. Surgical Treatment of Skin Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When we mention about surgical treatment of any tumor residing on the skin independent of its benign or malignant nature, the first method we recall is excision. Elliptical excision is the mainstay of the dermatologic surgery. Each excision ends with a defect for which we are responsible to repair functionally and cosmetically. The diameter of the tumor we excised and the safety margin used for excision determine the diameter of the final defect. After achieving tumor free lateral and deep margins with the appropriate surgical method, we decide between the repair options of second intention healing, primary repair, flaps, full or split thickness grafts, considering the diameter and the anatomic localization of the defect, for the best functional and cosmetic result for that specific defect. This review overviews not only the most common dermatologic surgical methods, but also Mohs surgery which is a method rarely used in our country, although it is the treatment of choice for the treatment of high risk basal cell carcinoma (BCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC.

  2. Calpains: markers of tumor aggressiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumes, Hélène; Leloup, Ludovic; Dargelos, Elise; Brustis, Jean-Jacques; Daury, Laetitia; Cottin, Patrick

    2010-05-15

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) are soft-tissue sarcoma commonly encountered in childhood. RMS cells can acquire invasive behavior and form metastases. The metastatic dissemination implicates many proteases among which are mu-calpain and m-calpain. Study of calpain expression and activity underline the deregulation of calpain activity in RMS. Analysis of kinetic characteristics of RMS cells, compared to human myoblasts LHCN-M2 cells, shows an important migration velocity in RMS cells. One of the major results of this study is the positive linear correlation between calpain activity and migration velocity presenting calpains as a marker of tumor aggressiveness. The RMS cytoskeleton is disorganized. Specifying the role of mu- and m-calpain using antisense oligonucleotides led to show that both calpains up-regulate alpha- and beta-actin in ARMS cells. Moreover, the invasive behavior of these cells is higher than that of LHCN-M2 cells. However, it is similar to that of non-treated LHCN-M2 cells, when calpains are inhibited. In summary, calpains may be involved in the anarchic adhesion, migration and invasion of RMS. The direct relationship between calpain activity and migration velocities or invasive behavior indicates that calpains could be considered as markers of tumor aggressiveness and as potential targets for limiting development of RMS tumor as well as their metastatic behavior.

  3. Biomarkers in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Serafeim Theochari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of biomarkers is to identify patients most likely to benefit from a therapeutic strategy. Pancreatic neuroendocrinetumors are rare neoplasms that arise in the endocrine tissues of the pancreas. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors represent3% of primary pancreatic neoplasms and their incidence has risen. The SMAD4 gene is located on chromosome 18q andsomeday the SMAD4 gene status may be useful for prognostic stratification and therapeutic decision. The cells respond toenvironmental signals by modulating the expressions of genes contained within the nucleus, when genes are activated aretranscribed to generate messenger RNA (mRNA. The examination of multiple expressed genes and proteins provides moreuseful information for prognostication of individual tumors. Here we summarize and discuss findings presented at the 2014ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium. Anna Karpathakis et al. (Abstract #212 reported data about the role of DNAmethylation in gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors. Christina Lynn Roland et al. (Abstract #250 looked the impact OfSMAD4 on oncologic outcomes. Bong Kynn Kang et al. (Abstract #251 investigated prognostic biomarker using microRNAarray technology.

  4. Tumor pathology of the orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héran, F; Bergès, O; Blustajn, J; Boucenna, M; Charbonneau, F; Koskas, P; Lafitte, F; Nau, E; Roux, P; Sadik, J C; Savatovsky, J; Williams, M

    2014-10-01

    The term orbital tumor covers a wide range of benign and malignant diseases affecting specific component of the orbit or developing in contact with them. They are found incidentally or may be investigated as part of the assessment of a systemic disorder or because of orbital signs (exophthalmos, pain, etc.). Computed tomography, MRI and Color Doppler Ultrasound (CDU), play a varying role depending on the clinical presentation and the disease being investigated. This article reflects long experience in a reference center but does not claim to be exhaustive. We have chosen to consider these tumors from the perspective of their usual presentation, emphasizing the most common causes and suggestive radiological and clinical presentations (progressive or sudden-onset exophthalmos, children or adults, lacrimal gland lesions, periorbital lesions and enophthalmos). We will describe in particular muscle involvement (thyrotoxicosis and tumors), vascular lesions (cavernous sinus hemangioma, orbital varix, cystic lymphangioma), childhood lesions and orbital hematomas. We offer straightforward useful protocols for simple investigation and differential diagnosis. Readers who wish to go further to extend their knowledge in this fascinating area can refer to the references in the bibliography.

  5. Lumbosacral osseous tumors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurugoglu, Sebuh; Adaletli, Ibrahim; Mihmanli, Ismail; Kanberoglu, Kaya

    2008-02-01

    A wide variety of benign and malignant neoplasms in children involve the lumbosacral region. When a solitary lesion of the lower spine occurs, tumors or tumor-like lesions represent an important group of entities for diagnostic consideration. Diagnostic investigation should begin with a patient history, physical examination, laboratory testing, and radiography. Roentgenograms, which demonstrate bone deviations, should be used as an initial examination. The results should direct further imaging studies, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bone scintigraphy. CT should be the chosen modality for delineating tumoral osteoid matrix formation. MRI shows soft-tissue masses and medullary infiltration better than any other radiological modality. A multimodal radiological approach is helpful in the overall evaluation and differential diagnosis of vertebral lesions in children. Although imaging features, especially of benign lesions, may yield a high percentage of accurate diagnoses, in cases with radiological findings highly suggestive of malignancy, a specific diagnosis cannot always be made, and histopathological findings are essential to achieve the diagnosis that will guide the therapy.

  6. Lumbosacral osseous tumors in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurugoglu, Sebuh [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, TR 34303 Istanbul (Turkey); Adaletli, Ibrahim [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, TR 34303 Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: iadaletli@yahoo.com; Mihmanli, Ismail; Kanberoglu, Kaya [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, TR 34303 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-02-15

    A wide variety of benign and malignant neoplasms in children involve the lumbosacral region. When a solitary lesion of the lower spine occurs, tumors or tumor-like lesions represent an important group of entities for diagnostic consideration. Diagnostic investigation should begin with a patient history, physical examination, laboratory testing, and radiography. Roentgenograms, which demonstrate bone deviations, should be used as an initial examination. The results should direct further imaging studies, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bone scintigraphy. CT should be the chosen modality for delineating tumoral osteoid matrix formation. MRI shows soft-tissue masses and medullary infiltration better than any other radiological modality. A multimodal radiological approach is helpful in the overall evaluation and differential diagnosis of vertebral lesions in children. Although imaging features, especially of benign lesions, may yield a high percentage of accurate diagnoses, in cases with radiological findings highly suggestive of malignancy, a specific diagnosis cannot always be made, and histopathological findings are essential to achieve the diagnosis that will guide the therapy.

  7. Radiofrequency ablation of pulmonary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocetti, Laura, E-mail: l.crocetti@med.unipi.i [Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Intervention, Department of Liver Transplants, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Pisa University School of Medicine (Italy); Lencioni, Riccardo [Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Intervention, Department of Liver Transplants, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Pisa University School of Medicine (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    The development of image-guided percutaneous techniques for local tumor ablation has been one of the major advances in the treatment of solid tumors. Among these methods, radiofrequency (RF) ablation is currently established as the primary ablative modality at most institutions. RF ablation is accepted as the best therapeutic choice for patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma when liver transplantation or surgical resection are not suitable options and is considered as a viable alternate to surgery for inoperable patients with limited hepatic metastatic disease, especially from colorectal cancer. Recently, RF ablation has been demonstrated to be a safe and valuable treatment option for patients with unresectable or medically inoperable lung malignancies. Resection should remain the standard therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but RF ablation may be better than conventional external-beam radiation for the treatment of the high-risk individual with NSCLC. Initial favourable outcomes encourage combining radiotherapy and RF ablation, especially for treating larger tumors. In the setting of colorectal cancer lung metastases, survival rates provided by RF ablation in selected patients, are substantially higher than those obtained with any chemotherapy regimens and provide indirect evidence that RF ablation therapy improves survival in patients with limited lung metastatic disease.

  8. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaejike, Nnamdi; Rassl, Doris; Ford, Hugo; Large, Stephen R

    2012-02-01

    We present a case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the left atrium with involvement of the coronary sinus. The initial presentation was of cardiac tamponade resulting from the size of the tumor. There was no evidence of tumor elsewhere, and after complete resection and without adjuvant chemotherapy the patient is well at 2-year follow-up. There has been no evidence of tumor recurrence. This is a rare reported case of resection of a cardiac primitive neuroectodermal tumor without adjuvant chemotherapy. Other cases in the literature have been treated by orthoptic transplantation and resection with chemotherapy.

  9. Managing Vascular Tumors-Open Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalbach, Cecelia E; Gourin, Christine

    2016-06-01

    The most common vascular tumors encountered by the otolaryngologist are rare chromaffin cell tumors termed paragangliomas. Within the head and neck region, they commonly arise from the carotid body, vagus nerve (glomus vagale), and jugular vein (glomus jugulare). Other vascular head and neck tumors include sinonasal malignancies, because of proximity to or involvement of the pterygoid plexus as well as the rich vascularity of the sinonasal mucosa; juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, a vascular tumor of male adolescents; unusual vascular tumors such as hemangiopericytoma; and metastatic renal cell cancer, which has a proclivity for an unusually rich blood supply.

  10. Brain tumors in children; Hirntumoren beim Kind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harting, I.; Seitz, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie

    2009-06-15

    Brain tumors are common in children; in Germany approximately 400 children are diagnosed every year. In the posterior fossa, cerebellar neoplasms outnumber brainstem gliomas. In contrast to their rarity in adults, brainstem gliomas are not uncommon in children. Supratentorial tumors can be subdivided by location into neoplasms of the cerebral hemispheres, suprasellar and pineal tumors. Astrocytoma is the most common pediatric brain tumor followed by medulloblastoma, ependymoma and craniopharyngeoma. The combination of imaging morphology, tumor localisation and patient age at manifestation form the basis of the neuroradiological differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  11. Large Phyllodes Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Tahmasebi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phyllodes tumors account for less than 1% of breast tumors in women. Giantphyllodes tumors are larger than 10 cm in diameter. A 40-year-old lady presented witha left breast lump that was present for two years. She underwent a simple mastectomy.The tumor was 30×26×21 cm in size, weighed 15 kg and had a density of 0.915 gr/cm3.We believe this patient had the third largest breast phyllodes tumor according to size,the second largest according to weight and had the highest density among all cases thusreported in English-language publications.

  12. Metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor involving the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, J Jordi; Prayson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases from malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast are a rare occurrence. We report a patient with a malignant phyllodes tumor of the right breast which subsequently metastasized to the right lower lobe of the lung 1 year after initial presentation, and to the right cerebellar hemisphere 2 years after diagnosis of her breast mass. After both chemotherapy and whole brain radiotherapy the patient is tumor free at most recent follow-up, 116 months after the breast tumor diagnosis was made. The literature is briefly reviewed and the differential diagnosis of malignant spindle cell brain tumors is discussed.

  13. A new ODE tumor growth modeling based on tumor population dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oroji, Amin; Omar, Mohd bin [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia amin.oroji@siswa.um.edu.my, mohd@um.edu.my (Malaysia); Yarahmadian, Shantia [Mathematics Department Mississippi State University, USA Syarahmadian@math.msstate.edu (United States)

    2015-10-22

    In this paper a new mathematical model for the population of tumor growth treated by radiation is proposed. The cells dynamics population in each state and the dynamics of whole tumor population are studied. Furthermore, a new definition of tumor lifespan is presented. Finally, the effects of two main parameters, treatment parameter (q), and repair mechanism parameter (r) on tumor lifespan are probed, and it is showed that the change in treatment parameter (q) highly affects the tumor lifespan.

  14. TUMOR CONTAMINATION IN THE BIOPSY PATH OF PRIMARY MALIGNANT BONE TUMORS

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Marcelo Parente; Lima, Pablo Moura de Andrade; Mello,Roberto José Vieira de

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study factors possibly associated with tumor contamination in the biopsy path of primary malignant bone tumors. Method: Thirty-five patients who underwent surgical treatment with diagnoses of osteosarcoma, Ewing's tumor and chondrosarcoma were studied retrospectively. The sample was analyzed to characterize the biopsy technique used, histological type of the tumor, neoadjuvant chemotherapy used, local recurrences and tumor contamination in the biopsy path. Results: Among the 35 ...

  15. Current diagnostic approach of bone tumors in childhood; Abordagem diagnostica atual dos tumores osseos na infancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre, Marcia Barbosa; Scatigno Neto, Andre [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    1995-09-01

    The authors analyze the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of patients with bone tumors or soft tissue tumors. The advent of such a sensitive imaging modality is fortuitous and coincides with a recent change in the therapeutic approach to primary bone tumors. MRI is extremely valuable in monitoring the tumor response to the initial chemotherapy and is accurate defining the margins of tumor, facilitating planning of limb salvage surgical procedures. (author). 5 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Anel corneano intra-estromal para baixa miopia: estudo comparativo com a técnica de LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forseto Adriana dos Santos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar prospectivamente a eficácia e segurança dos segmentos de anéis corneanos intra-estromais (ICRS para a correção de baixa miopia e comparar os resultados obtidos com a técnica de laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, bilateral e não randomizado. Quatorze pacientes com equivalente esférico entre -1,00 e -4,50 D foram submetidos ao implante de ICRS em um olho e à técnica de LASIK no olho contralateral. As avaliações pós-operatórias foram realizadas com um e sete dias, um, três, seis, 12 e 24 meses. RESULTADOS: Ao último exame, 64,29% dos olhos (9/14 do grupo ICRS e 85,71% (12/14 após o LASIK estavam entre ± 0,50 D da correção desejada (p=0,385. Acuidade visual sem correção >20/20 foi obtida em quatro dos 14 olhos (28,57% do grupo ICRS, e em 12 dos 14 olhos (85,71% do grupo LASIK (p=0,002¹. Durante o seguimento, não foram observadas variações refracionais superiores a 1,00 D, entre dois exames consecutivos, em ambos os grupos, ou perda significante da melhor acuidade visual corrigida. Maior indução de astigmatismo foi encontrada nos olhos implantados com ICRS. Ao exame de 24 meses, o grupo ICRS apresentou valores inferiores no exame de sensibilidade ao contraste, especialmente nas freqüências espaciais mais altas (p=0,032¹ em 18 cpd. Foram relatadas mais queixas subjetivas no período pós-operatório precoce de ICRS em relação ao LASIK. CONCLUSÕES: Os ICRS foram considerados eficazes na correção de baixa miopia, porém sua segurança foi limitada pela indução de astigmatismo no pós-operatório, e seus resultados foram inferiores aos do grupo controle.

  17. LINFOPOYETINA ESTROMAL TÍMICA: REGULACIÓN DE LA RESPUESTA INMUNE Y LA ENFERMEDAD ALÉRGICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cuéllar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se ha descrito una citocina similar a interleucina (IL 7: Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP. La molécula TSLP es secretada por células epiteliales y en humanos estimula principalmente células de linaje mieloide, a diferencia del ratón donde el efecto ocurre en células linfoides. En humanos, TSLP se comporta como un activador potente de células dendríticas inmaduras de linaje mieloide y su actividad biológica varía en los diferentes nichos inmunológicos. Células dendríticas periféricas condicionadas con TSLP atraen células efectoras de la respuesta alérgica. Consistente con estos hallazgos, se ha mostrado que la piel afectada de pacientes con dermatitis atópica es positiva para la expresión de TSLP, sugiriendo que TSLP es una molécula clave en la inflamación alérgica.

  18. Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010375 Comparative study between multi-slice CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography in detection of intracranial micro-aneurysms. FU Fengli(付凤丽),et al. Dept Radiol,1st Affil Hosp,Wenzhou Med Coll,Wenzhou 325000.Chin J Radiol 2010;44(3):229-233. Objective To investigate the value of multi-slice computed tomography angiography (MSCTA) in

  19. Prepubertal testicular tumors: Our 10 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R B Nerli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testicular tumors in the pediatric population are distinct from those of the adults. In contrast to the prevalence data reported in tumor registries, several studies have shown that a majority of the prepubertal testis tumors are benign. We retrospectively analyzed a series of prepubertal testicular tumors. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of all testicular tumors at our institution was done from Jan 1999 to Dec 2008. Data relating to presentation, evaluation, and management were collected. Results: A total of 22 children with prepubertal testicular tumors were identified. The mean age at presentation was 4.6 years. Mature teratoma, epidermoid cysts, immature teratoma, and yolk sac tumor accounted for 49.94%, 13.62%, 9.08%, and 18.16%, respectively. All surgeries were successful with respect to cancer control and testicular preservation. Conclusions: Benign tumors formed the majority (72.64% of the tumors that were encountered, with yolk sac tumors (18.16% being a minority. Testicular preserving surgery appears to be a feasible option for benign tumors and is safe and efficacious in long-term follow-up.

  20. Differentiation in cutaneous adnexal tumors: Immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen BARUT

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous adnexal neoplasms are rare tumors that display differentiation in different ways. The aim of this study is, to present embryonic developmental properties and to determine the way of differentiation of adnexal neoplasms by evaluating the immunohistochemical expression of various markers.Forty-seven cases with adnexal tumors enrolled in this study. Histopathologic groups of these 47 cases were: 15 (32% hair follicle tumors, 11 (23.4% sebaceous tumors, 8 (17% apocrine tumors, and 13 (27.6% eccrine tumors. CK5-6, CK6, CK7, CK8, CK10, CK19, GCDFP-15, carcinoembryonic antigen, epithelial membrane antigen and S100 protein expressions were examined by immunohistochemical methods.As a result of this immunohistochemical study it was concluded that the expression of CK5-6 and CK8 carries more importance than other markers in determining certain types of differentiation of hair follicle tumors. It was also determined that, epithelial membrane antigen expression is important for the diagnosis of sebaceous tumors and the markers like CK8, CK10 and carcinoembryonic antigen may aid for the same purpose as well. It was found that, GCDFP-15 as well as CK5-6 expressions are significant for apocrine tumors, and carcinoembryonic antigen reaction as well as CK8 positivity will aid in determining differentiation of eccrine tumors. The presence of similar CK6 expression in all kinds of adnexal tumors has demonstrated that this marker is useless in differential diagnosis.

  1. Calcification of multipotent prostate tumor endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Andrew C; Khan, Zia A; Shih, Shou-Ching; Kang, Soo-Young; Zwaans, Bernadette M M; Bischoff, Joyce; Klagsbrun, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Solid tumors require new blood vessels for growth and metastasis, yet the biology of tumor-specific endothelial cells is poorly understood. We have isolated tumor endothelial cells from mice that spontaneously develop prostate tumors. Clonal populations of tumor endothelial cells expressed hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell markers and differentiated to form cartilage- and bone-like tissues. Chondrogenic differentiation was accompanied by an upregulation of cartilage-specific col2a1 and sox9, whereas osteocalcin and the metastasis marker osteopontin were upregulated during osteogenic differentiation. In human and mouse prostate tumors, ectopic vascular calcification was predominately luminal and colocalized with the endothelial marker CD31. Thus, prostate tumor endothelial cells are atypically multipotent and can undergo a mesenchymal-like transition.

  2. Cell Mediated Photothermal Therapy of Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, Henry; Madsen, Steen J

    2017-03-01

    Gold based nanoparticles with strong near infra-red (NIR) absorption are ideally suited for photothermal therapy (PTT) of brain tumors. The goal of PTT is to induce rapid heating in tumor tissues while minimizing thermal diffusion to normal brain. PTT efficacy is sensitively dependent on both nanoparticle concentration and distribution in tumor tissues. Nanoparticle delivery via passive approaches such as the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect is unlikely to achieve sufficient nanoparticle concentrations throughout tumor volumes required for effective PTT. A simple approach for improving tumor biodsitribution of nanoparticles is the use of cellular delivery vehicles. Specifically, this review focuses on the use of monocytes/macrophages (Mo/Ma) as gold nanoparticle delivery vectors for PTT of brain tumors. Although the efficacy of this delivery approach has been demonstrated in both in vitro and animal PTT studies, its clinical potential for the treatment of brain tumors remains uncertain.

  3. Tumor angiogenesis in mice and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani, Rhoda M; Silverthorn, Courtney F; Orosz, Kate

    2004-06-01

    Over the past decade much research has focused on understanding the molecular pathways that regulate the development of a tumor-associated vasculature. In 1999, Lyden and colleagues showed that mice deficient in one to three Id1 or Id3 alleles could not support the growth of tumor xenografts due to defects in tumor-associated angiogenesis. Three recently published manuscripts have now re-examined the role of Id genes in the development of a tumor-associated vasculature using more clinically relevant tumor model systems. Remarkably, all three studies have found strikingly different results compared to the original xenograft data published in 1999. Below we review the current understanding of the role of Id genes in the development of a tumor-associated vasculature given the most recent data and suggest ways in which animal tumor model systems might be put to better use to provide more clinically relevant information.

  4. Image based modeling of tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghdadi, N; Soltani, M; Niroomand-Oscuii, H; Ghalichi, F

    2016-09-01

    Tumors are a main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the efforts of the clinical and research communities, little has been achieved in the past decades in terms of improving the treatment of aggressive tumors. Understanding the underlying mechanism of tumor growth and evaluating the effects of different therapies are valuable steps in predicting the survival time and improving the patients' quality of life. Several studies have been devoted to tumor growth modeling at different levels to improve the clinical outcome by predicting the results of specific treatments. Recent studies have proposed patient-specific models using clinical data usually obtained from clinical images and evaluating the effects of various therapies. The aim of this review is to highlight the imaging role in tumor growth modeling and provide a worthwhile reference for biomedical and mathematical researchers with respect to tumor modeling using the clinical data to develop personalized models of tumor growth and evaluating the effect of different therapies.

  5. Peripheral tumor and tumor-like neurogenic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Evandro; Aubert, Sébastien; Wavreille, Guillaume; Gheno, Ramon; Canella, Clarissa; Cotten, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Neoplasms of neurogenic origin account for about 12% of all benign and 8% of all malignant soft tissue neoplasms. Traumatic neuroma, Morton neuroma, lipomatosis of a nerve, nerve sheath ganglion, perineurioma, benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNST) are included in this group of pathologies. Clinical and radiologic evaluation of patients with neurogenic tumors and pseudotumors often reveals distinctive features. In this context, advanced imaging techniques, especially ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) play an important role in the characterization of these lesions. Imaging findings such as location of a soft tissue mass in the region of a major nerve, nerve entering or exiting the mass, fusiform shape, abnormalities of the muscle supplied by the nerve, split-fat sign, target sign and fascicular appearance should always evoke a peripheric nerve sheath neoplasm. Although no single imaging finding or combination of findings allows definitive differentiation between benign from malign peripheric neurogenic tumors, both US and MR imaging may show useful features that can lead us to a correct diagnosis and improve patient treatment. Traumatic neuromas and Morton neuromas are commonly associated to an amputation stump or are located in the intermetatarsal space. Lipomatosis of a nerve usually appears as a nerve enlargement, with thickened nerve fascicles, embedded in evenly distributed fat. Nerve sheath ganglion has a cystic appearance and commonly occurs at the level of the knee. Intraneural perineuroma usually affects young people and manifests as a focal and fusiform nerve enlargement. In this article, we review clinical characteristics and radiologic appearances of these neurogenic lesions, observing pathologic correlation, when possible.

  6. Peripheral tumor and tumor-like neurogenic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Evandro [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultation et Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Aubert, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.aubert@chru-lille.fr [Institut de Pathologie, Centre de Biologie-Pathologie, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Wavreille, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.wavreille@chru-lille.fr [Service d’Orthopédie B, Hôpital R Salengro, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Gheno, Ramon; Canella, Clarissa [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultation et Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Cotten, Anne, E-mail: anne.cotten@chru-lille.fr [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultation et Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France)

    2013-01-15

    Neoplasms of neurogenic origin account for about 12% of all benign and 8% of all malignant soft tissue neoplasms. Traumatic neuroma, Morton neuroma, lipomatosis of a nerve, nerve sheath ganglion, perineurioma, benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNST) are included in this group of pathologies. Clinical and radiologic evaluation of patients with neurogenic tumors and pseudotumors often reveals distinctive features. In this context, advanced imaging techniques, especially ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) play an important role in the characterization of these lesions. Imaging findings such as location of a soft tissue mass in the region of a major nerve, nerve entering or exiting the mass, fusiform shape, abnormalities of the muscle supplied by the nerve, split-fat sign, target sign and fascicular appearance should always evoke a peripheric nerve sheath neoplasm. Although no single imaging finding or combination of findings allows definitive differentiation between benign from malign peripheric neurogenic tumors, both US and MR imaging may show useful features that can lead us to a correct diagnosis and improve patient treatment. Traumatic neuromas and Morton neuromas are commonly associated to an amputation stump or are located in the intermetatarsal space. Lipomatosis of a nerve usually appears as a nerve enlargement, with thickened nerve fascicles, embedded in evenly distributed fat. Nerve sheath ganglion has a cystic appearance and commonly occurs at the level of the knee. Intraneural perineuroma usually affects young people and manifests as a focal and fusiform nerve enlargement. In this article, we review clinical characteristics and radiologic appearances of these neurogenic lesions, observing pathologic correlation, when possible.

  7. [Papillary and cystic tumor of pancreas--Frantz's tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iarŭmov, N; Shtŭrbanov, I; Terziev, I; Evtimov, R; Gegova, A

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the authors is to introduce one rare known pathology which the Frantz's tumor is, his clinical characteristic, clinical signs, diagnostic and treatment. We have observed two separate cases of this illness in Clinic of Surgery (University Hospital "Queen Yoanna") in comparison with evidence of famous world surgeons. We have made an attempt to introduce one disease, which even though not often observed is significant by the fact that affect young women (girls) and only surgical resection is a treatment of choice.

  8. Sciatic nerve tumor and tumor-like lesions - uncommon pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadhwa, Vibhor; Thakkar, Rashmi S.; Carrino, John A.; Chhabra, Avneesh [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Maragakis, Nicholas; Hoeke, Ahmet; Sumner, Charlotte J.; Lloyd, Thomas E. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Belzberg, Allan J. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Sciatic nerve mass-like enlargement caused by peripheral nerve sheath tumors or neurocutaneous syndromes such as neurofibromatosis or schwannomatosis has been widely reported. Other causes of enlargement, such as from perineuroma, fibromatosis, neurolymphoma, amyloidosis, endometriosis, intraneural ganglion cyst, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are relatively rare. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an excellent non-invasive tool for the evaluation of such lesions. In this article, the authors discuss normal anatomy of the sciatic nerve and MRI findings of the above-mentioned lesions. (orig.)

  9. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severino, Mariasavina [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); Schwartz, Erin S. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Thurnher, Majda M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Rydland, Jana [MR Center, St. Olav' s Hospital HF, Trondheim (Norway); Nikas, Ioannis [Agia Sophia Children' s Hospital, Imaging Department, Athens (Greece); Rossi, Andrea [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors

  10. Inflamed tumor-associated adipose tissue is a depot for macrophages that stimulate tumor growth and angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Marek; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Wiig, Helge; Melero-Martin, Juan M.; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Klagsbrun, Michael; Dudley, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-associated stroma is typified by a persistent, non-resolving inflammatory response that enhances tumor angiogenesis, growth and metastasis. Inflammation in tumors is instigated by heterotypic interactions between malignant tumor cells, vascular endothelium, fibroblasts, immune and inflammatory

  11. Study of the Glutaminase Inhibitor CB-839 in Solid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-18

    Solid Tumors; Triple-Negative Breast Cancer; Non Small Cell Lung Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Mesothelioma; Fumarate Hydratase (FH)-Deficient Tumors; Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH)-Deficient Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST); Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH)-Deficient Non-gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors; Tumors Harboring Isocitrate Dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) and IDH2 Mutations; Tumors Harboring Amplifications in the cMyc Gene

  12. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor with Glioblastoma Multiforme Components in an Adult: A Collision Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Victoria; Vredenburgh, James

    2016-01-11

    We report a rare case of a central nervous system collision tumor in a 40-year-old woman. Histopathological examination of her large temporal tumor revealed two different components making up the tumor tissue. The predominant component of the tumor was found to be a primitive neuroectodermal tumor. The other component was glioblastoma multiforme. Both of these tumors carry a poor prognosis, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors are extremely uncommon in adults. Central nervous system neoplasms with the combined features of both primitive neuroectodermal tumor and malignant glioma are very rare and represent a diagnostic and treatment predicament. The patient underwent surgical resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy targeting both the primitive neuroectodermal tumor and glioblastoma. Our patient has been fortunate in not showing any sign of recurrence and will celebrate the third anniversary since her diagnosis this January.

  13. In Vitro Efficient Expansion of Tumor Cells Deriving from Different Types of Human Tumor Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Turin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining human tumor cell lines from fresh tumors is essential to advance our understanding of antitumor immune surveillance mechanisms and to develop new ex vivo strategies to generate an efficient anti-tumor response. The present study delineates a simple and rapid method for efficiently establishing primary cultures starting from tumor samples of different types, while maintaining the immuno-histochemical characteristics of the original tumor. We compared two different strategies to disaggregate tumor specimens. After short or long term in vitro expansion, cells analyzed for the presence of malignant cells demonstrated their neoplastic origin. Considering that tumor cells may be isolated in a closed system with high efficiency, we propose this methodology for the ex vivo expansion of tumor cells to be used to evaluate suitable new drugs or to generate tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes or vaccines.

  14. Collision tumor with inflammatory breast carcinoma and malignant phyllodes tumor: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Duck; Lee, Seul Kee; Kim, Kyu Sun; Park, Mi Ja; Kim, Joo Heon; Yim, Hyun Sun; Choi, Young Jin

    2014-01-08

    There have been some reports of coincidental presentation of breast carcinoma and phyllodes tumor in the same breast. Most of the cases were carcinoma that arose from a phyllodes tumor with a histologically identified transitional area, and they behaved less aggressively than the usually encountered carcinoma. Collision tumors are rare clinical entities in which two histologically distinct tumor types show involvement at the same site. The occurrence of these tumors in the breast is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of 45-year-old woman who had both invasive ductal carcinoma as the finding of inflammatory carcinoma and a malignant phyllodes tumor in the same breast. There was no evidence of a transitional area between the phyllodes tumor and the invasive ductal carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a collision tumor of inflammatory breast carcinoma coincident with a malignant phyllodes tumor in same breast.

  15. Palliative embolization of renal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaganjac Suad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Palliative embolization of renal tumors is the method of choice in the treatment of advanced inoperable renal cell carcinoma in patients with hematuria and pain. Patients with small tumors in the remaining solitary kidney who refuse surgery are suitable for this type of therapy as well as patients with centrally located inoperable tumors. The prerequisite for successful capillary embolization is the closure of the main arte-rial trunk with metal spirals. Methods. In the period from 2000 to 2010 we conducted 42 palliative embolizations. The average age of the patients was 75 years, including 26 men and 16 women. In 8 of the patients the intervention was repeated and in one with severe AV shunts embolization was performed 4 times. Embolization was performed with alcohol, Ivalon 150-250 μm and with metal coils. Results. No serious complications were observed during and after the intervention. Fourteen patient were still alive then and among the deceased patients the average survival time was 13.5 ± 10.8 months with the range of 1 to 56 months. The minimal survival time was 1 month with a maxi-mum survival time of 56 months. Conclusion. Our results are consistent with data in the literature. Survival in patients without metastases was longer than in those with metastases, as con-firmed by the 14 of the patients from the study. An additional therapeutic safety in the treatment of small cancers is provided with a combination therapy of embolization and radiofrequency thermoablation.

  16. Androgen receptor expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lisandro F; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of estrogen, progesterone, and androgen receptors in a large series of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Clinical and pathologic data were reviewed in 427 cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumor and the expression of such hormone receptors was investigated by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarray technique. All tumors were negative for estrogen receptor expression. Progesterone and androgen receptors expression was observed in 5.4% and 17.6% of tumors, respectively. We found the higher average age at diagnosis, the lower frequency of tumors located in the small intestine, and the higher frequency of extragastrointestinal tumors to be statistically significant in the group of tumors with androgen receptor expression in contrast to the group showing no androgen receptor expression. There was no statistic difference between such groups regarding sex, tumor size, mitotic count, cell morphology, and risk of aggressive behavior. Considering that the expression of androgen receptors in gastrointestinal stromal tumors is not negligible, further studies are encouraged to establish the role of androgen deprivation therapy for gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

  17. Bazo accesorio simulando tumor suprarrenal

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo C,Octavio A; Pizzi L,Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El diagnóstico de los así llamados "incidentalomas" suprarrenales, cada vez más frecuente en la práctica clínica, plantea un diagnóstico diferencial importante. Caso clínico: Se presenta el caso clínico de una paciente de 69 años, hipertensa, con el hallazgo de una masa suprarrenal izquierda aparentemente funcionante, operada por vía laparoscópica y que resultó ser un bazo aberrante. Se discute el diagnóstico diferencial entre masa suprarrenal y pseudo-tumores adrenales y la emb...

  18. [Molecular diagnosis of melanocytic tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, J

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma therapy has undergone a paradigm shift. Classic chemotherapies with poor treatment responses have been replaced by modern immune checkpoint blockades and targeted therapies with excellent responses. The latter require precise diagnosis of mutations in the melanoma genome as molecular targets for the small molecules. The diagnosis of melanomas has also been supplemented by molecular techniques. Differential diagnosis of melanoma and melanoma simulators such as atypical Spitz nevi can be supported by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Here we review the indications and methods for molecular diagnosis of melanocytic tumors.

  19. Cancer immunotherapy using tumor cryoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidana, Abhinav

    2014-01-01

    Cryoablation is increasingly being used as a primary treatment for localized cancers and as a salvage therapy for metastatic cancers. Anecdotal clinical reports and animal experiments have confirmed an induction of systemic antitumor immune response by tumor cryoablation. To capitalize on the stimulatory effects of cryoablation for cancer immunotherapy, this response must be intensified using other immunomodulatory agents. This article reviews the preclinical and clinical evidence and discusses the mechanism of the antitumor immune response generated by cryoablation. The rationale and evidence behind several immunotherapy approaches that can be combined with cryoablation to devise a cryoimmunotherapeutic strategy with a potential to impact the progression of metastatic disease are described.

  20. Tragal reconstruction after tumor excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Christopher J; Lin, Frank

    2015-02-01

    The tragus forms a distinct and important landmark in the overall artistic and anatomical landscape of the ear. Despite its small size, it functions to cover and prevent direct access to the ear canal. Aesthetically, it has an important role in defining the morphology of the auricle in 3 dimensions, not only covering the meatus but also casting a shadow into the conchal bowl that gives the impression of depth. Most of the techniques for tragal reconstruction are associated with creation of a tragus in patients with microtia. We present here a new technique for tragal reconstruction in the setting of tumor ablation.

  1. Cyst and tumor of liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930145 Incidence of human hepatitis B virus(HBV)DNA sequence present in duck hepaticcancer collected from Qidong.JIANG Huiqiu(蒋惠秋),GU Jianren(顾建人).Nation Onco-gene & Relate Gene Lab.,Shanghai Cancer In-stir.Tumor 1992;12(5):206-207.Previous reports have described the identifica-tion and molecular cloning of human HBV DNAsequence in duck hepatoma collected from Qi-Dong.The human HBV-like DNA was se-quenced and it had been demonstrated that theHBV DNA present in duck hepatoma was nothomologous to DHBV,but highly homologous

  2. Multimodality Imaging of Tumor Response to Doxil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang, Lei Zhu, Gang Liu, Naoki Hida, Guangming Lu, Henry S. Eden, Gang Niu, Xiaoyuan Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Early assessment of tumor responses to chemotherapy could enhance treatment outcomes by ensuring that, from the beginning, treatments meet the individualized needs of patients. In this study, we applied multiple modality molecular imaging techniques to pre-clinical monitoring of early tumor responses to Doxil, focusing on imaging of apoptosis.Methods: Mice bearing UM-SCC-22B human head and neck squamous cancer tumors received either PBS or 1 to 2 doses of Doxil® (doxorubicin HCl liposome injection (10 mg/kg/dose. Bioluminescence signals from an apoptosis-responsive reporter gene were captured for apoptosis evaluation. Tumor metabolism and proliferation were assessed by 18F-FDG and 3'-18F-fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine (18F-FLT positron emission tomography. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI was performed to calculate averaged apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs for the whole tumor volume. After imaging, tumor samples were collected for histological evaluation, including terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL, anti-CD31, and Ki-67 immunostaining.Results: Two doses of Doxil significantly inhibited tumor growth. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI indicated apoptosis of tumor cells after just 1 dose of Doxil treatment, before apparent tumor shrinkage. 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT PET imaging identified decreased tumor metabolism and proliferation at later time points than those at which BLI indicated apoptosis. MRI measurements of ADC altered in response to Doxil, but only after tumors were treated with 2 doses. Decreased tumor proliferation and increased apoptotic cells were confirmed by changes of Ki-67 index and apoptotic ratio.Conclusion: Our study of tumor responses to different doses of Doxil demonstrated that it is essential to combine apoptosis imaging strategies with imaging of other critical biological or pathological pathways, such as metabolism and proliferation, to improve clinical decision making

  3. Collision Tumor Composed of Meningioma and Cavernoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Jens; Neher, Markus; Schrey, Michael; Wünsch, Peter H.; Steiner, Hans-Herbert

    2017-01-01

    A true collision tumor is a rare entity composed of two histologically distinct neoplasms coinciding in the same organ. This paper reports a unique case of cerebral collision tumor consisting of two benign components. On the first hand, meningioma which is usually a benign lesion arising from the meningothelial cell in the arachnoidal membrane. On the other, cerebral cavernoma which is a well-circumscribed, benign vascular hamartoma within the brain. To our knowledge, there is no previously documented case of cerebral collision tumor consisting of two benign components. A 56-year-old Caucasian male suffered in 2002 from an atypical meningioma WHO II° located in the left lateral ventricle. Three years after the tumor extirpation, the patient suffered from a hematoma in the fourth ventricle due to a recurrently haemorrhaged cavernoma. In 2008, a recurrence of the tumor in the left lateral ventricle was discovered. Additionally, another tumor located in the quadrigeminal lamina was detected. After surgical resection of the tumor in the left lateral ventricle, the pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a collision tumor consisting of components of a meningioma WHO II° and a cavernoma. Postoperatively, no adjuvant treatment was needed and no tumor recurrence is discovered up to the present. A possible explanation for the collision of those two different tumors may be migration of tumor cells mediated by the cerebrospinal fluid. After 5-years of follow-up, there is no sign of any tumor recurrence; therefore, surgical tumor removal without adjuvant therapy seems to be the treatment of choice. PMID:28061500

  4. Patient-Derived Tumor Xenografts Are Susceptible to Formation of Human Lymphocytic Tumors

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    Gennadiy Bondarenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Patient-derived xenograft (PDX tumor models have emerged as a new approach to evaluate the effects of cancer drugs on patients’ personalized tumor grafts enabling to select the best treatment for the cancer patient and providing a new tool for oncology drug developers. Here, we report that human tumors engrafted in immunodeficient mice are susceptible to formation of B-and T-cell PDX tumors. We xenografted human primary and metastatic tumor samples into immunodeficient mice and found that a fraction of PDX tumors generated from patients’ samples of breast, colon, pancreatic, bladder and renal cancer were histologically similar to lymphocytic neoplasms. Moreover, we found that the first passage of breast and pancreatic cancer PDX tumors after initial transplantation of the tumor pieces from the same human tumor graft could grow as a lymphocytic tumor in one mouse and as an adenocarcinoma in another mouse. Whereas subcutaneous PDX tumors resembling human adenocarcinoma histology were slow growing and non-metastatic, we found that subcutaneous PDX lymphocytic tumors were fast growing and formed large metastatic lesions in mouse lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and spleen. PDX lymphocytic tumors were comprised of B-cells which were Epstein-Barr virus positive and expressed CD45 and CD20. Because B-cells are typically present in malignant solid tumors, formation of B-cell tumor may evolve in a wide range of PDX tumor models. Although PDX tumor models show great promise in the development of personalized therapy for cancer patients, our results suggest that confidence in any given PDX tumor model requires careful screening of lymphocytic markers.

  5. Malignant Trigeminal Nerve Sheath Tumor and Anaplastic Astrocytoma Collision Tumor with High Proliferative Activity and Tumor Suppressor P53 Expression

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    Maher Kurdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The synchronous development of two primary brain tumors of distinct cell of origin in close proximity or in contact with each other is extremely rare. We present the first case of collision tumor with two histological distinct tumors. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman presented with progressive atypical left facial pain and numbness for 8 months. MRI of the brain showed left middle cranial fossa heterogeneous mass extending into the infratemporal fossa. At surgery, a distinct but intermingled intra- and extradural tumor was demonstrated which was completely removed through left orbitozygomatic-temporal craniotomy. Histopathological examination showed that the tumor had two distinct components: malignant nerve sheath tumor of the trigeminal nerve and temporal lobe anaplastic astrocytoma. Proliferative activity and expressed tumor protein 53 (TP53 gene mutations were demonstrated in both tumors. Conclusions. We describe the first case of malignant trigeminal nerve sheath tumor (MTNST and anaplastic astrocytoma in collision and discuss the possible hypothesis of this rare occurrence. We propose that MTNST, with TP53 mutation, have participated in the formation of anaplastic astrocytoma, or vice versa.

  6. Targeted delivery of let-7b to reprogramme tumor-associated macrophages and tumor infiltrating dendritic cells for tumor rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhen; Gan, Jingjing; Long, Ziyan; Guo, Guangxing; Shi, Xiafei; Wang, Chunming; Zang, Yuhui; Ding, Zhi; Chen, Jiangning; Zhang, Junfeng; Dong, Lei

    2016-06-01

    Both tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) and tumor infiltrating dendritic cells (TIDCs) are important components in the tumor microenvironment that mediate tumor immunosuppression and promote cancer progression. Targeting these cells and altering their phenotypes may become a new strategy to recover their anti-tumor activities and thereby restore the local immune surveillance against tumor. In this study, we constructed a nucleic acid delivery system for the delivery of let-7b, a synthetic microRNA mimic. Our carrier has an affinity for the mannose receptors on TAMs/TIDCs and is responsive to the low-pH tumor microenvironment. The delivery of let-7b could reactivate TAMs/TIDCs by acting as a TLR-7 agonist and suppressing IL-10 production in vitro. In a breast cancer mouse model, let-7b delivered by this system efficiently reprogrammed the functions of TAMs/TIDCs, reversed the suppressive tumor microenvironment, and inhibited tumor growth. Taken together, this strategy, designed based upon TAMs/TIDCs-targeting delivery and the dual biological functions of let-7b (TLR-7 ligand and IL-10 inhibitor), may provide a new approach for cancer immunotherapy.

  7. SEMIAUTOMATIC DETECTION OF TUMORAL ZONE

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    Ezzeddine Zagrouba

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a robust method based on the cooperation of fuzzy classification and regions segmentation algorithms, in order to detect the tumoral zone in the brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. On one hand, the classification in fuzzy sets is done by the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm (FCM, where a study of its different parameters and its complexity has been previously realised, which led us to improve it. On the other hand, the segmentation in regions is obtained by an hierarchical method through adaptive thresholding. Then, an operator expert selects a germ in the tumoral zone, and the class containing the sick zone is localised in return for the FCM algorithm. Finally, the superposition of the two partitions of the image will determine the sick zone. The originality of our approach is the parallel exploitation of different types of information in the image by the cooperation of two complementary approaches. This allows us to carry out a pertinent approach for the detection of sick zone in MRI images.

  8. Endocrine tumors of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meko, J B; Norton, J A

    1994-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare, yet can cause significant morbidity due to excessive secretion of hormones. Octreotide is effective in reducing the plasma concentrations of many of these hormones. The availability of potent H2-receptor antagonists and omeprazole has altered the emphasis in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome away from total gastrectomy and towards resection of the gastrinoma for potential cure. Fifty percent of insulinomas and gastrinomas are not evident on preoperative imaging studies, despite their sophistication. Calcium angiography, endoscopic ultrasonography, isotope-labeled octreotide scanning, and injection of methylene blue during secretin angiography are recent imaging modalities that have shown promise in the localization of these tumors. Intraoperative ultrasound has emerged as the best method for operative detection of insulinomas. Duodenotomy and intraoperative endoscopic transillumination are especially important in the surgical management of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome because 30% to 40% of gastrinomas are located in the duodenum. The management of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome continues to be controversial. Some advocate an aggressive surgical approach, whereas others have had little success in rendering patients eugastrinemic.

  9. Rheumatic manifestations of pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, S; Kleinberg, D L

    2001-10-01

    Pituitary tumors may cause rheumatologic problems as a result of under production or overproduction of one pituitary hormone. Excessive growth hormone causes destruction of cartilage by a direct action. Facial and acral changes and arthralgias may be some of the first symptoms of acromegaly. The arthritis associated with acromegaly is often devastating. Carpal tunnel syndrome is very common in patients with acromegaly. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) has indirect effects via the action of glucocorticoid on bones, muscles, and the immune system. Proximal muscle weakness is a characteristic feature of Cushing's syndrome. Patients with Cushing's syndrome commonly have osteopenia and osteoporosis that lead to an increase in bone fractures. Avascular necrosis is associated with exogenous steroid administration. The effects of too much glucocorticoid or too rapid withdrawal can be severe. Gonadotropins act via the gonadal steroids and protect bone mass from loss. Prolactin is less involved in rheumatologic disease; the data for which are limited in humans. Pituitary tumors can have manifestations similar to rheumatologic disorders and should be included in the differential diagnosis of these diseases.

  10. Cancer Stem Cells and Pediatric Solid Tumors

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    Gregory K. Friedman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a subpopulation of cells, termed tumor-initiating cells or tumor stem cells (TSC, has been identified in many different types of solid tumors. These TSC, which are typically more resistant to chemotherapy and radiation compared to other tumor cells, have properties similar to normal stem cells including multipotency and the ability to self-renew, proliferate, and maintain the neoplastic clone. Much of the research on TSC has focused on adult cancers. With considerable differences in tumor biology between adult and pediatric cancers, there may be significant differences in the presence, function and behavior of TSC in pediatric malignancies. We discuss what is currently known about pediatric solid TSC with specific focus on TSC markers, tumor microenvironment, signaling pathways, therapeutic resistance and potential future therapies to target pediatric TSC.

  11. Tumor bioengineering using a transglutaminase crosslinked hydrogel.

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    Josephine Y Fang

    Full Text Available Development of a physiologically relevant 3D model system for cancer research and drug development is a current challenge. We have adopted a 3D culture system based on a transglutaminase-crosslinked gelatin gel (Col-Tgel to mimic the tumor 3D microenvironment. The system has several unique advantages over other alternatives including presenting cell-matrix interaction sites from collagen-derived peptides, geometry-initiated multicellular tumor spheroids, and metabolic gradients in the tumor microenvironment. Also it provides a controllable wide spectrum of gel stiffness for mechanical signals, and technical compatibility with imaging based screening due to its transparent properties. In addition, the Col-Tgel provides a cure-in-situ delivery vehicle for tumor xenograft formation in animals enhancing tumor cell uptake rate. Overall, this distinctive 3D system could offer a platform to more accurately mimic in vivo situations to study tumor formation and progression both in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Targeting the Tumor Microenvironment: Focus on Angiogenesis

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    Fengjuan Fan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumorigenesis is a complex multistep process involving not only genetic and epigenetic changes in the tumor cell but also selective supportive conditions of the deregulated tumor microenvironment. One key compartment of the microenvironment is the vascular niche. The role of angiogenesis in solid tumors but also in hematologic malignancies is now well established. Research on angiogenesis in general, and vascular endothelial growth factor in particular, is a major focus in biomedicine and has led to the clinical approval of several antiangiogenic agents including thalidomide, bevacizumab, sorafenib, sunitinib, pazopanib, temesirolimus, and everolimus. Indeed, antiangiogenic agents have significantly changed treatment strategies in solid tumors (colorectal cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and breast cancer and multiple myeloma. Here we illustrate important aspects in the interrelationship between tumor cells and the microenvironment leading to tumor progression, with focus on angiogenesis, and summarize derived targeted therapies.

  13. Targeting the tumor microenvironment: focus on angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fengjuan; Schimming, Alexander; Jaeger, Dirk; Podar, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Tumorigenesis is a complex multistep process involving not only genetic and epigenetic changes in the tumor cell but also selective supportive conditions of the deregulated tumor microenvironment. One key compartment of the microenvironment is the vascular niche. The role of angiogenesis in solid tumors but also in hematologic malignancies is now well established. Research on angiogenesis in general, and vascular endothelial growth factor in particular, is a major focus in biomedicine and has led to the clinical approval of several antiangiogenic agents including thalidomide, bevacizumab, sorafenib, sunitinib, pazopanib, temesirolimus, and everolimus. Indeed, antiangiogenic agents have significantly changed treatment strategies in solid tumors (colorectal cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and breast cancer) and multiple myeloma. Here we illustrate important aspects in the interrelationship between tumor cells and the microenvironment leading to tumor progression, with focus on angiogenesis, and summarize derived targeted therapies.

  14. Autocrine Effects of Tumor-Derived Complement

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    Min Soon Cho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a role for the complement system in enhancing cancer growth. Cancer cells secrete complement proteins that stimulate tumor growth upon activation. Complement promotes tumor growth via a direct autocrine effect that is partially independent of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells. Activated C5aR and C3aR signal through the PI3K/AKT pathway in cancer cells, and silencing the PI3K or AKT gene in cancer cells eliminates the progrowth effects of C5aR and C3aR stimulation. In patients with ovarian or lung cancer, higher tumoral C3 or C5aR mRNA levels were associated with decreased overall survival. These data identify a role for tumor-derived complement proteins in promoting tumor growth, and they therefore have substantial clinical and therapeutic implications.

  15. CT diagnosis of parotid gland tumor

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    Yamashita, T.; Tomoda, K.; Amano, H. (Kansai Medical School, Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan))

    1980-12-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) was supplementary and effectively employed for diagnosis of parotid gland tumors in 33 patients. The usefulness of this technique for determining of location of tumor and for differential diagnosis was investigated. The results were as follows: 1. The depth of tumor expansion into the parapharyngeal space was clearly evaluated by CT, 2. It may be assumed that a tumor locates in the superficial lobe, if it appears outside a line drawn between the mastoid process and the mandibule. 3. If the margin of tumor appears irregular, and its content is heterogenous, diagnosis of a high-grade maligancy will be made. CT is of limited usefulness in diagnosing low-grade malignancy. 4. Clear and low density of a tumor shown in CT can be suggestive of a cyst.

  16. Primary bone tumors of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañete, A Navas; Bloem, H L; Kroon, H M

    2016-04-01

    Primary bone tumors of the spine are less common than metastases or multiple myeloma. Based on the patient's age and the radiologic pattern and topography of the tumor, a very approximate differential diagnosis can be established for an osseous vertebral lesion. This article shows the radiologic manifestations of the principal primary bone tumors of the spine from a practical point of view, based on our personal experience and a review of the literature. If bone metastases, multiple myeloma, lymphomas, hemangiomas, and enostoses are excluded, only eight types of tumors account for 80% of all vertebral tumors. These are chordomas, osteoblastomas, chondrosarcomas, giant-cell tumors, osteoid osteomas, Ewing's sarcomas, osteosarcomas, and aneurysmal bone cysts.

  17. Metabolic Hallmarks of Tumor and Immune Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Kathrin; Singer, Katrin; Koehl, Gudrun E.; Geissler, Edward K.; Peter, Katrin; Siska, Peter J.; Kreutz, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cells play an important role in eliminating malignant tumor cells and the number and activity of tumor-infiltrating T cells represent a good marker for tumor prognosis. Based on these findings, immunotherapy, e.g., checkpoint blockade, has received considerable attention during the last couple of years. However, for the majority of patients, immune control of their tumors is gray theory as malignant cells use effective mechanisms to outsmart the immune system. Increasing evidence suggests that changes in tumor metabolism not only ensure an effective energy supply and generation of building blocks for tumor growth but also contribute to inhibition of the antitumor response. Immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment is often based on the mutual metabolic requirements of immune cells and tumor cells. Cytotoxic T and NK cell activation leads to an increased demand for glucose and amino acids, a well-known feature shown by tumor cells. These close metabolic interdependencies result in metabolic competition, limiting the proliferation, and effector functions of tumor-specific immune cells. Moreover, not only nutrient restriction but also tumor-driven shifts in metabolite abundance and accumulation of metabolic waste products (e.g., lactate) lead to local immunosuppression, thereby facilitating tumor progression and metastasis. In this review, we describe the metabolic interplay between immune cells and tumor cells and discuss tumor cell metabolism as a target structure for cancer therapy. Metabolic (re)education of tumor cells is not only an approach to kill tumor cells directly but could overcome metabolic immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment and thereby facilitate immunotherapy. PMID:28337200

  18. Tumor-altered dendritic cell function: implications for anti-tumor immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Michael Hargadon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells are key regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity, and the array of immunoregulatory functions exhibited by these cells is dictated by their differentiation, maturation, and activation status. Although a major role for these cells in the induction of immunity to pathogens has long been appreciated, data accumulated over the last several years has demonstrated that DC are also critical regulators of anti-tumor immune responses. However, despite the potential for stimulation of robust anti-tumor immunity by DC, tumor-altered DC function has been observed in many cancer patients and tumor-bearing animals and is often associated with tumor immune escape. Such dysfunction has significant implications for both the induction of natural anti-tumor immune responses as well as the efficacy of immunotherapeutic strategies that target endogenous DC in situ or that employ exogenous DC as part of anti-cancer immunization maneuvers. In this review, the major types of tumor-altered DC function will be described, with emphasis on recent insights into the mechanistic bases for the inhibition of DC differentiation from hematopoietic precursors, the altered programming of DC precursors to differentiate into myeloid-derived suppressor cells or tumor-associated macrophages, the suppression of DC maturation and activation, and the induction of immunoregulatory DC by tumors, tumor-derived factors, and tumor-associated cells within the milieu of the tumor microenvironment. The impact of these tumor-altered cells on the quality of the overall anti-tumor immune response will also be discussed. Finally, this review will also highlight questions concerning tumor-altered DC function that remain unanswered, and it will address factors that have limited advances in the study of this phenomenon in order to focus future research efforts in the field on identifying strategies for interfering with tumor-associated DC dysfunction and improving DC-mediated anti-tumor

  19. Effect of tumor cells and tumor microenvironment on NK-cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Massimo; Cantoni, Claudia; Pietra, Gabriella; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Moretta, Lorenzo

    2014-06-01

    The ability of tumors to manage an immune-mediated attack has been recently included in the "next generation" of cancer hallmarks. In solid tumors, the microenvironment that is generated during the first steps of tumor development has a pivotal role in immune regulation. An intricate net of cross-interactions occurring between tumor components, stromal cells, and resident or recruited immune cells skews the possible acute inflammatory response toward an aberrant ineffective chronic inflammatory status that favors the evasion from the host's defenses. Natural killer (NK) cells have powerful cytotoxic activity, but their activity may be eluded by the tumor microenvironment. Immunosubversion, immunoediting or immunoselection of poorly immunogenic tumor cells and interference with tumor infiltration play a major role in evading NK-cell responses to tumors. Tumor cells, tumor-associated fibroblasts and tumor-induced aberrant immune cells (i.e. tolerogenic or suppressive macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells) can interfere with NK-cell activation pathways or the complex receptor array that regulate NK-cell activation and antitumor activity. Thus, the definition of tumor microenvironment-related immunosuppressive factors, along with the identification of new classes of tissue-residing NK-like innate lymphoid cells, represent key issues to design effective NK-cell-based therapies of solid tumors.

  20. New Concepts in Tumor Antigens: Their Significance in Future Immunotherapies for Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Yang; Xiao-Feng Yang

    2005-01-01

    The identification and molecular characterization of self-antigens expressed by human malignancies that are capable of elicitation of anti-tumor immune responses in patients have been an active field in tumor immunology.More than 2,000 tumor antigens have been identified, and most of these antigens are self-antigens. These significant progresses have led to the renaissance of tumor immunology and studies on anti-tumor immunotherapy.However, despite of the progress in the identification of self-tumor antigens, current antigen-specific immunotherapies for tumors are far less satisfied than expected, which reflects the urgent need to improve our understanding on self-tumor antigens. In order to develop more effective antigen specific anti-tumor immunotherapies and to monitor the responses to these immunotherapies in patients with tumors, many important fundamental questions need to be addressed. We propose for the first time that the studies in addressing the characteristics of self-tumor antigens and autoantigens are grouped as a new subject termed "antigenology". In this brief review, we would outline the progress in the identification of tumor antigens in solid tumors and hematologic malignancies, and overview the new concepts and principles of antigenology and their significance for future immunotherapies to these malignancies. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  1. [Granular cell tumor of the larynx].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrzyński, M; Wróbel, B; Zawisza, E; Drozd, K

    1999-09-01

    Granular cell tumor is an unusual growth of probably neuroectodermal histogenesis, first reported by Abrikossoff in 1926 with the name of myoblastenmyoma. Authors described a case of a 54 year man with laryngeal seat of granular-cell myoblastoma. In this case Abrikossoff tumor was located in the right vocal chord. The tumor was treated successfully surgically by microlaryngoscopy. The etiology, clinical features and diagnostic difficulties are discussed.

  2. Phyllodes tumor: review of key imaging characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Michael Jonathan; Swintelski, Cara; Yaziji, Hadi; Torres-Salichs, Manuel; Esserman, Lisa E

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the breast is rare and often resembles the more commonly seen fibroadenoma at imaging and histologically. As core biopsy cannot always distinguish the two, assessing radiologic-pathologic concordance is essential to guide appropriate clinical management. We review the imaging characteristics of phyllodes tumor at mammography, ultrasound, and MRI to help the interpreting radiologist be aware of key imaging features that should alert him to the possibility of a phyllodes tumor even if not verified by initial core biopsy.

  3. Phyllodes tumor in adolescent. Case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Torres Aja

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of the case of a patient (18 years old who was assisted in the provincial mastology consultation for a non painful tumor, of sudden growth covering almost all the right breast, without other symptom or sing. After some tests, it was decided to operate. The tumor turned to be benign phyllodes. The relevance of this case lies in the infrequent appearance of this type of tumor, being even the first to be operated in our hospital.

  4. Clinical application of several tumor imaging agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Neoplasms is one of the main diseases for harming health.It is difficult to prevent the neoplasms because the factors of bringing out them are complex.To raise survival rate the early diagnosis of tumors is very important.Radionuclide imaging is useful to detect recurrent or residual diseaseand to identificate benign or malignant tumor.Several tumorimaging agents as following have clinical significance indiagnosing tumors.

  5. The immune landscape of human tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindea, Gabriela; Mlecnik, Bernhard; Angell, Helen K; Galon, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the spontaneous immune response of cancer patients is critical for the design of efficient anticancer immunotherapies. The power of integrative tumor immunology approaches allowed for a comprehensive view of the immune system evolution in the course of tumor progression and recurrence. We have demonstrated that tumor-infiltrating immune cells are spatiotemporally regulated, a finding that has profound implications for the development of efficient anticancer immunotherapies. PMID:24800163

  6. Uterine tumors in ataxia-telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, R A; Nieberg, R; Boder, E

    1989-02-01

    Roughly one-third of patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) develop malignant tumors, usually of lymphoid origin. AT patients also exhibit progeric changes. We describe three patients, between the ages of 27 and 32 years, with uterine tumors: one with a frank leiomyosarcoma and chronic T-cell leukemia, one with a multilobulated leiomyoma of uncertain malignant potential, and one with an unremarkable leiomyoma. Thus, the spectrum of tumors in AT patients beyond adolescence includes nonlymphoid malignancies and precocious, benign leiomyomas.

  7. PRIMITIVE NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR OF URINARY BLADDER

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    Jagadeeshwar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PNET of the urinary bladder is extremely rare. Only 12 cases are reported till now in the world. Primitive Neuro Ectodermal Tumor (PNET is a malignant small round blue cell tumor exhibiting a variable degree of neural differentiation, which arises outside the brain, spinal cord and sympathetic nervous system. (1,2 PNET is a very aggressive tumor with rapid local infiltration combined with widespread metastasis.

  8. Paravaginal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor: A rare tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samrat Dutta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET of the female genital tract, particularly those in the vaginal and paravaginal region, are extremely rare. A 36-year-old woman presented with clinical features similar to that of a case of cervical fibroid. It was only after surgery that the histopathology suggested it to be a malignant round cell tumour and was CD99 positive. She underwent adjuvant chemotherapy with the Ifosfamide and Etoposide alternating with Vincristine, Doxorubicin, and Cyclophosphamide regime and radical radiotherapy. She is disease free at 12 months of follow-up. The importance of immunostaining and adequate histopathology report lies in the fact that the correct diagnosis thus achieved enabled us to manage a rare case of paravaginal PNET with a multimodality approach.

  9. Brain tumors in patients primarly treated psychiatrically

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    Ignjatović-Ristić Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Psychiatric symptoms are not rare manifestations of brain tumors. Brain tumors presented by symptoms of raised intracranial pressure, focal neurological signs, or convulsions are usually first seen by the neurologist or less frequently by the neurosurgeon in routine diagnostic procedures. On the other hand, when psychiatric symptoms are the first manifestation in “neurologically silent” brain tumors, the patients are sent to the psychiatrist for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms and brain tumors are left misdiagnosed for a long period of time. Case Report. We presented three patients with the diagnosed brain tumor where psychiatrist had been the first specialist to be consulted. In all three cases neurological examination was generally unremarkable with no focal signs or features of raised intracranial pressure. CT scan demonstrated right insular tumor in a female patient with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; right parietal temporal tumor in a patient with delusions and depression and left frontal tumor in a patient with history of alcohol dependency. Conclusion. Psychiatric symptoms/disorders in patients with brain tumors are not specific enough and can have the same clinical presentation as the genuine psychiatric disorder. Therefore, we emphasize the consideration of neuroimaging in patients with abrupt beginning of psychiatric symptoms, in those with a change in mental status, or when headaches suddenly appear or in cases of treatment resistant psychiatric disorders regardless the lack of neurological symptoms.

  10. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in tumor microenvironment

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    Jing Yingying

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT plays crucial roles in the formation of the body plan and also in the tumor invasion process. In addition, EMT also causes disruption of cell-cell adherence, loss of apico-basal polarity, matrix remodeling, increased motility and invasiveness in promoting tumor metastasis. The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in facilitating cancer metastasis and may induce the occurrence of EMT in tumor cells. A large number of inflammatory cells infiltrating the tumor site, as well as hypoxia existing in a large area of tumor, in addition many stem cells present in tumor microenvironment, such as cancer stem cells (CSCs, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, all of these may be the inducers of EMT in tumor cells. The signaling pathways involved in EMT are various, including TGF-β, NF-κB, Wnt, Notch, and others. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge about the role of the tumor microenvironment in EMT and the related signaling pathways as well as the interaction between them.

  11. Intraosseous myoepithelioma: A rare, distinct tumor entity

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    Bharat Rekhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary musculoskeletal myoepithelial tumors (METs are distinctly rare tumors and are being increasingly recognized as a result of improved diagnostic criteria and objective confirmation with immunohistochemical markers, including epithelial markers. Recent studies have unraveled distinct molecular mechanisms underlying these tumors. Herein, we present our second diagnosed case of an intraosseous MET that occurred in the tibia of a 37-year-old lady. The case is discussed with regards to current clinicopathological perspectives on these rather uncommon tumors, including our personal experience.

  12. Rectal and appendiceal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoddami, Maliheh; Sanae, Shahram; Nikkhoo, Bahram

    2006-07-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are neoplasms characterized by spindle cell proliferation and a fiboinflammatory vascular stroma. Herein, we presented the successful treatment of a rectal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in an 11-year-old boy who presented with diarrhea and abdominal pain of 1(1/2) months duration and an appendiceal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in a 29-year-old man presented with recurrent abdominal pain of two months duration with associated tenderness and rebound tenderness in the right lower abdomen. Histologically, our cases had inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors very similar to that of other sites; the spindle cells were positive for vimentin and muscle-specific actin.

  13. Electrochemotherapy of mucosal head and neck tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plaschke, Christina Caroline; Gothelf, Anita; Gehl, Julie

    2016-01-01

    with head and neck cancer treated across the mucosal surface with electrochemotherapy. The search resulted in 11 studies with a total of 72 patients. RESULTS: Overall complete response was reported as good, especially in primary small tumors. Side effects were minor in primary tumors whereas large......, recurrent tumors displayed more frequent side effects and some serious adverse events. Design and structure of the studies differed considerably, making general comparisons difficult. CONCLUSION: Few studies concerning electrochemotherapy on mucosal head and neck tumors are available and they are not easily...

  14. Biochemomechanical poroelastic theory of avascular tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shi-Lei; Li, Bo; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Huajian

    2016-09-01

    Tumor growth is a complex process involving genetic mutations, biochemical regulations, and mechanical deformations. In this paper, a thermodynamics-based nonlinear poroelastic theory is established to model the coupling among the mechanical, chemical, and biological mechanisms governing avascular tumor growth. A volumetric growth law accounting for mechano-chemo-biological coupled effects is proposed to describe the development of solid tumors. The regulating roles of stresses and nutrient transport in the tumor growth are revealed under different environmental constraints. We show that the mechano-chemo-biological coupling triggers anisotropic and heterogeneous growth, leading to the formation of layered structures in a growing tumor. There exists a steady state in which tumor growth is balanced by resorption. The influence of external confinements on tumor growth is also examined. A phase diagram is constructed to illustrate how the elastic modulus and thickness of the confinements jointly dictate the steady state of tumor volume. Qualitative and quantitative agreements with experimental observations indicate the developed model is capable of capturing the essential features of avascular tumor growth in various environments.

  15. Maximizing Tumor Immunity With Fractionated Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaue, Doerthe, E-mail: dschaue@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ratikan, Josephine A.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; McBride, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Technologic advances have led to increased clinical use of higher-sized fractions of radiation dose and higher total doses. How these modify the pathways involved in tumor cell death, normal tissue response, and signaling to the immune system has been inadequately explored. Here we ask how radiation dose and fraction size affect antitumor immunity, the suppression thereof, and how this might relate to tumor control. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing B16-OVA murine melanoma were treated with up to 15 Gy radiation given in various-size fractions, and tumor growth followed. The tumor-specific immune response in the spleen was assessed by interferon-{gamma} enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay with ovalbumin (OVA) as the surrogate tumor antigen and the contribution of regulatory T cells (Tregs) determined by the proportion of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} T cells. Results: After single doses, tumor control increased with the size of radiation dose, as did the number of tumor-reactive T cells. This was offset at the highest dose by an increase in Treg representation. Fractionated treatment with medium-size radiation doses of 7.5 Gy/fraction gave the best tumor control and tumor immunity while maintaining low Treg numbers. Conclusions: Radiation can be an immune adjuvant, but the response varies with the size of dose per fraction. The ultimate challenge is to optimally integrate cancer immunotherapy into radiation therapy.

  16. TUMORS INVADING PARAPHARYNGEAL SPACE: REFINED IMAGING DIAGNOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuang Qixin; Cheng Yingsheng; Yang Shixun; Shang kezhong; Yan Xinhua

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To investigate imaging findings of tumors invading parapharyngeal space. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)and digital subtruation angiography (DSA) findings of 19patients with tumors infiltrating parapharyngeal space by surgery and pathology were analysed, including four branchial cleft cysts, three jugular glomus tumors, four carotid body tumors, three neurilemomas and five carcinomas of nasopharynx involving parapharyngeal space. Fifteen patients underwent MRI scanning nine patients had CT scanning, three patients MRA and five patients DSA. Results: MRI provided clinically useful informations about the size, shape, extent and site of the parapharyngeal space tumors, and also their effects on adjacent structures. The main MRI features of paraganglioma presented as many low signal tortuous and creeping vessels in the tumor. The main CT features of jugular glomus tumor revealed as jugular foramen enlargement with bone destruction. Tumor vessels were clearly displayed by MRA and DSA. Conclusion: MRI was superior to CT in the diagnosis of tumors invading parapharyngeal space. The location and nature of the lesions could be diagnosed accurately by MRI combined with CT or DSA.

  17. What "helps" tumors evade vascular targeting treatment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Zhi-chao; LIU Jie

    2008-01-01

    Objective To throw a light on the possible factors which might induce resistance of vascular targeting treatment in tumors by reviewing the recent publications in the field of tumor angiogenesis and vascular targeting treatment.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed for relevant English language articles published from 1971 to January 2008. The search terms were "angiogenesis", "vascular targeting treatment" and "endothelial progenitor cells".Study selection Articles involved in the possible influence factors during angiogenesis and vascular targeting treatment were selected, including angiogenic or anti-angiogenic mechanism, tumor vasculature, tumor cells, cancer stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells.Results As a promising strategy vascular targeting treatment still has experimental and clinical setbacks which may term tumor vasculature's resistance to anti-angiogenesis agents. There are several possible explanations for such a resistance that might account for clinical and preclinical failures of anti-angiogenic treatment against tumor.Proangiogenic effect of hypoxia, normal tumor vasculature, escape of tumor cells and tumor vasculogenesis are included.This review reveals some clues which might be helpful to direct future research in order to remove obstacles to vascular targeting treatment.Conclusions Generally and undoubtedly vascular targeting treatment remains a promising strategy. But we still have to realize the existence of a challenging future. Further research is required to enhance our knowledge of vascular targeting treatment strategy before it could make a more substantial success.

  18. Inferring tumor progression from genomic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navin, Nicholas; Krasnitz, Alexander; Rodgers, Linda; Cook, Kerry; Meth, Jennifer; Kendall, Jude; Riggs, Michael; Eberling, Yvonne; Troge, Jennifer; Grubor, Vladimir; Levy, Dan; Lundin, Pär; Månér, Susanne; Zetterberg, Anders; Hicks, James; Wigler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Cancer progression in humans is difficult to infer because we do not routinely sample patients at multiple stages of their disease. However, heterogeneous breast tumors provide a unique opportunity to study human tumor progression because they still contain evidence of early and intermediate subpopulations in the form of the phylogenetic relationships. We have developed a method we call Sector-Ploidy-Profiling (SPP) to study the clonal composition of breast tumors. SPP involves macro-dissecting tumors, flow-sorting genomic subpopulations by DNA content, and profiling genomes using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Breast carcinomas display two classes of genomic structural variation: (1) monogenomic and (2) polygenomic. Monogenomic tumors appear to contain a single major clonal subpopulation with a highly stable chromosome structure. Polygenomic tumors contain multiple clonal tumor subpopulations, which may occupy the same sectors, or separate anatomic locations. In polygenomic tumors, we show that heterogeneity can be ascribed to a few clonal subpopulations, rather than a series of gradual intermediates. By comparing multiple subpopulations from different anatomic locations, we have inferred pathways of cancer progression and the organization of tumor growth.

  19. SYNOVIAL GIANT CELL TUMOR OF THE KNEE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Cohen, Moisés; Nóbrega, Jezimar; Forgas, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Synovial giant cell tumor is a benign neoplasm, rarely reported in the form of malignant metastasis. Synovial giant cell tumor most frequently occurs on the hand, and, most uncommon, on the ankle and knee. In the present study, the authors describe a rare case of synovial giant cell tumor on the knee as well as the treatment approach. Arthroscopy has been shown, in this case, to be the optimal method for treating this kind of lesion, once it allowed a less aggressive approach, while providing good visualization of all compartments of knee joint and full tumor resection.

  20. Malignant carcinoid tumor of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoid tumors arise from argentaffine cells or from a primitive stem cells which may differentiate into anyone of a variety of adult endocrine-secreting cells. Carcinoid tumor of the pancreas is a very rare tumor with less than 50 cases reported in world literature. In literature it is denoted "pancreatic serotoninoma" or "serotonin-producing pancreatic tumor". Due to its rarity the tumor is an unusual cause of carcinoid syndrome. As the carcinoid tumor of the pancreas does not always causes carcinoid syndrome its absence does not necessarily exclude the existence of the tumor. The tumor is frequently malignant. Over 50% of patients have metastases at the time of surgery. This is the reason why radical surgery is not possible in a number of patients. Excisional surgery offers the best chance for recovery or long term survival. We report on a 57-year-old woman with carcinoid syndrome caused by malignant carcinoid tumor of the head of the pancreas without liver or other distant metastases; it was successfully excised with pylorus preserving cephalic duo-denopancreatectomy (after Longmire-Traverso and radical lymphadenectomy. The diagnosis was established on the basis of histologic and immunohistochemical findings. The patient is symptom free for more than eight months.

  1. Anatomical basis for Wilms tumor surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trobs R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilms tumor surgery requires meticulous planning and sophisticated surgical technique. Detailed anatomical knowledge can facilitate the uneventful performance of tumor nephrectomy and cannot be replaced by advanced and sophisticated imaging techniques. We can define two main goals for surgery: (1 exact staging as well as (2 safe and complete resection of tumor without spillage. This review aims to review the anatomical basis for Wilms tumor surgery. It focuses on the surgical anatomy of retroperitoneal space, aorta, vena cava and their large branches with lymphatics. Types and management of vascular injuries are discussed.

  2. Imaging of childhood inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguz, Berna; Ozcan, Hatice Nursun; Omay, Burak; Ozgen, Burce; Haliloglu, Mithat [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Altindag / Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-10-15

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a rare benign neoplasm and most commonly involves the lung but occurs in extrapulmonary locations. To present imaging findings in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors in children based on a single-centre experience. We retrospectively reviewed CT and MRI findings of children diagnosed with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in a single institution. We identified 15 children (range: 1-17 years) with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. The tumor was localized to the lung (n = 5), mediastinum (n = 3), trachea (n = 1), bronchus (n = 1), abdomen (n = 2) and orbit (n = 3). All the extraorbital tumors were solid masses with homogeneous or heterogeneous enhancement. Four lung tumors and one posterior mediastinal tumor contained calcification. Local recurrence following surgical removal occurred in two children with invasion of the esophagus and of the left atrium in one. Localized masses were seen in all children with orbital tumour. Two of these had episcleritis and perineuritis; one had episcleritis, tendonitis, perineuritis, myositis and dacryoadenitis. The locations and imaging features of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are variable. (orig.)

  3. Essential contribution of tumor-derived perlecan to epidermal tumor growth and angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xinnong; Multhaupt, Hinke; Chan, En

    2004-01-01

    As a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan (PG) in basement membranes, perlecan has been linked to tumor invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Here we produced epidermal tumors in immunocompromised rats by injection of mouse RT101 tumor cells. Tumor sections stained with species-specific perlecan...... antibodies, together with immunoelectron microscopy, showed that perlecan distributed around blood vessels was of both host and tumor cell origin. Tumor-derived perlecan was also distributed throughout the tumor matrix. Blood vessels stained with rat-specific PECAM-1 antibody showed their host origin. RT101...... cells also expressed two other basement membrane heparan sulfate PGs, agrin and type XVIII collagen. Antisense targeting of perlecan inhibited tumor cell growth in vitro, while exogenous recombinant perlecan, but not heparin, restored the growth of antisense perlecan-expressing cells, suggesting...

  4. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor without calcification: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Kaushal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor is a rare benign odontogenic tumor that was first described by Pindborg in 1955. It accounts for less than 1% of all odontogenic neoplasms. The tumor is characterized histologically by the presence of polygonal epithelial cells, calcification, and eosinophilic deposits resembling amyloid. Noncalcifying Pindborg tumor is very rare and only three cases have been documented in the English language literature so far. We present an additional case of noncalcifying Pindborg tumor and review the previously reported cases. Because noncalcifying Pindborg tumor is believed to be an aggressive variant, a definitive resection of the tumor with tumor-free surgical margins and long-term follow-up is recommended.

  5. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) without calcification: A rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Seema; Mathur, Sandeep R; Vijay, Maneesh; Rustagi, Ankur

    2012-01-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor is a rare benign odontogenic tumor that was first described by Pindborg in 1955. It accounts for less than 1% of all odontogenic neoplasms. The tumor is characterized histologically by the presence of polygonal epithelial cells, calcification, and eosinophilic deposits resembling amyloid. Noncalcifying Pindborg tumor is very rare and only three cases have been documented in the English language literature so far. We present an additional case of noncalcifying Pindborg tumor and review the previously reported cases. Because noncalcifying Pindborg tumor is believed to be an aggressive variant, a definitive resection of the tumor with tumor-free surgical margins and long-term follow-up is recommended.

  6. Promotion of Tumor Invasion by Cooperation of Granulocytes and Macrophages Activated by Anti-tumor Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Barbera-Guillem

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the potential role of anti-tumor antibodies and tumor antigens in the formation of immune complexes which promote matrix degradation and angiogenesis. B-cell deficient or B-cell depleted mice showed a reduction in tumor invasion and metastasis. In vitro invasion assays and in vivo models of metastasis showed that anti-sTn antibodies and sTn tumor antigens form complexes which induce granulocytes and macrophages together to mediate tumor invasion and metastasis by processes including extracellular matrix degradation and angiogenesis. These results suggest the existence of a tumor promoting role of a B-cell immune response induced by shed tumor associated antigens of solid, nonlymphoid tumors.

  7. Tumor cell culture on collagen–chitosan scaffolds as three-dimensional tumor model: A suitable model for tumor studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Mahmoudzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cells naturally live in three-dimensional (3D microenvironments, while common laboratory tests and evaluations are done in two-dimensional (2D plates. This study examined the impact of cultured 4T1 cancer cells in a 3D collagen–chitosan scaffold compared with 2D plate cultures. Collagen–chitosan scaffolds were provided and passed confirmatory tests. 4T1 tumor cells were cultured on scaffolds and then tumor cells growth rate, resistance to X-ray radiation, and cyclophosphamide as a chemotherapy drug were analyzed. Furthermore, 4T1 cells were extracted from the scaffold model and were injected into the mice. Tumor growth rate, survival rate, and systemic immune responses were evaluated. Our results showed that 4T1 cells infiltrated the scaffolds pores and constructed a 3D microenvironment. Furthermore, 3D cultured tumor cells showed a slower proliferation rate, increased levels of survival to the X-ray irradiation, and enhanced resistance to chemotherapy drugs in comparison with 2D plate cultures. Transfer of extracted cells to the mice caused enhanced tumor volume and decreased life span. This study indicated that collagen–chitosan nanoscaffolds provide a suitable model of tumor that would be appropriate for tumor studies.

  8. Papillary tumor of the pineal region: report of a rapidly progressive tumor with possible multicentric origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Takashi S. [University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States); Kirby, Patricia A. [University of Iowa, Department of Pathology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Buatti, John M. [University of Iowa, Department of Radiation Oncology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Moritani, Toshio [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is an uncommon tumor recently added to the WHO classification of CNS tumors. We report a case of PTPR in a young boy that was noteworthy for early CSF dissemination and relentless progression. In spite of intensive chemotherapy and comprehensive radiotherapy, the boy died. The neuroimaging appearance is unique with possible multicentric origin of the tumor and intense uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-pentetreotide. (orig.)

  9. Tumor Stiffening, a Key Determinant of Tumor Progression, is Reversed by Nanomaterial-Induced Photothermal Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, Iris; Silva, Amanda A. K.; Guilbert, Thomas; Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Jelena; Marchiol, Carmen; Natkhunarajah, Sharuja; Chamming's, Foucault; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Bianco, Alberto; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Renault, Gilles; Gazeau, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Tumor stiffening, stemming from aberrant production and organization of extracellular matrix (ECM), has been considered a predictive marker of tumor malignancy, non-invasively assessed by ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE). Being more than a passive marker, tumor stiffening restricts the delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents to the tumor and per se could modulate cellular mechano-signaling, tissue inflammation and tumor progression. Current strategies to modify the tumor extracellular matrix are based on ECM-targeting chemical agents but also showed deleterious systemic effects. On-demand excitable nanomaterials have shown their ability to perturb the tumor microenvironment in a spatiotemporal-controlled manner and synergistically with chemotherapy. Here, we investigated the evolution of tumor stiffness as well as tumor integrity and progression, under the effect of mild hyperthermia and thermal ablation generated by light-exposed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in an epidermoid carcinoma mouse xenograft. SWE was used for real-time mapping of the tumor stiffness, both during the two near infrared irradiation sessions and over the days after the treatment. We observed a transient and reversible stiffening of the tumor tissue during laser irradiation, which was lowered at the second session of mild hyperthermia or photoablation. In contrast, over the days following photothermal treatment, the treated tumors exhibited a significant softening together with volume reduction, whereas non-treated growing tumors showed an increase of tumor rigidity. The organization of the collagen matrix and the distribution of CNTs revealed a spatio-temporal correlation between the presence of nanoheaters and the damages on collagen and cells. This study highlights nanohyperthermia as a promising adjuvant strategy to reverse tumor stiffening and normalize the mechanical tumor environment. PMID:28042338

  10. Quantification of tumor extension in prostate biopsies: importance in the identification of confined tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite Kátia R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the importance of quantifying the adenocarcinoma in prostate biopsies when determining the tumor's final stage in patients who undergo radical prostatectomy. To identify the best methodology for obtaining such data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prostate biopsies from 132 patients were examined, with determination of Gleason histological grade and tumor volume in number of involved fragments, tumor extent of the fragment mostly affected by the tumor and the total percentage of tumor in the specimen. Theses parameters were statistically correlated with the neoplasia's final stage following the evaluation of radical prostatectomy specimens. RESULTS: An average of 12 and a median of 14 biopsy fragments were evaluated per patient. In the univariate analysis the Gleason histological grade, the largest tumor extent in one fragment and the total percentage of tumor in the specimen were correlated with tumor stage of the surgical specimen. In the multivariate analysis, the Gleason histological grade and the total percentage of tumor were strongly correlated with the neoplasia's final stage. The risk of the tumor not being confined was 3 for Gleason 7 tumors and 10.6 for Gleason 8 tumors or above. In cases where the tumor involved more than 60% of the specimen, the risk of non-confined disease was 4.4 times. Among 19 patients with unfavorable histological parameters, Gleason > 7 and extension greater than 60% the tumor final stage was pT3 in 95%. CONCLUSION: When associated to the Gleason histological grade, tumor quantification in prostate biopsies is an important factor for determining organ-confined disease, and among the methods, total percentage of tumor is the most informative one. Such data should be included in the pathological report and must be incorporated in future nomograms.

  11. Peripheral dentinogenic ghost cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant S Kamat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentinogenic ghost cell tumors (DGCT are uncommon lesions mainly with rare peripheral types. This report presents a case of peripheral DGCT on the left side of the mandibular alveolar ridge of a heavy smoker, a 68-year-old man, with main presenting feature as a mild pain. Submandibular lymphadenopathy and radiological "saucerization" were evident. Differential diagnosis included fibroma, neurofibroma, peripheral ameloblastoma, peripheral odontogenic fibroma, and peripheral giant cell granuloma. Histologically, ameloblastoma-like epithelial elements were seen in association with grouped ghost cells. Proliferating polyhedral cells and stellate reticulum-like cells with various densities were spread over a wide range of the field. The lesion was curetted and after 2 years of follow up, it did not recur.

  12. Pseudomyxoma peritonei: An uncommon tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Surabhi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a poorly understood and uncommon tumor that is known for its production of mucin in the abdominal cavity and mucinous implants, diffusely involving the peritoneal surfaces. A 60-year-old female presented to us with post-op complaints of diffuse abdominal pain and distension. On work-up, she was diagnosed as a case of Pseudomyxoma peritonei (with residual disease. She received chemotherapy in the form of oral capecitabine for residual disease. She was totally asymptomatic till the last follow-up. This case is being reported on account of its rarity and to emphasize a simple alternative treatment option as compared to the standard one.

  13. Tumores malignos do intestino delgado

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel,Marcelo Fernandes; Silva,Marcos Valério Maia da; Fernandes,Manoel Jeovah Colaço; Ferreira,Mário Augusto Souto; Nóbrega,Leonardo Pires de Sá; Souza,Marcelo Gonçalves

    2000-01-01

    Os tumores do intestino delgado são raros e a maioria das lesões neoplásicas sintomáticas é maligna.Os neoplasmas benignos são um pouco mais freqüentes e ambos estão relacionados a um diagnóstico difícil, pois determinam queixas abdominais inespecíficas, comuns a uma grande variedade de afecções digestivas. Exames de imagem e endoscópicos podem ser úteis para o diagnóstico, mas freqüentemente não são conclusivos. Para os blastomas primários, a ressecção cirúrgica é a opção de escolha, porém, ...

  14. [Tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, Ryosuke; Enooku, Kenichiro; Shiina, Shuichiro; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2012-05-01

    Three tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are available in Japan: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonists-II (PIVKA-II), and Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3). Although AFP has drawbacks in its specificity, it is widely utilized in treatment evaluation and prognosis prediction. PIVKA-II is a unique marker that does not correlate with AFP value and can predict microvascular invasion. AFP-L3 is a highly specific marker and strong predictor of poor prognosis. These three markers are indispensable in every aspect of clinical practice of hepatocellular carcinoma including surveillance, diagnosis, treatment evaluation, and prognosis prediction.

  15. Gene therapy for brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, K; Engelhard, H H

    2000-09-01

    "Gene therapy" can be defined as the transfer of genetic material into a patient's cells for therapeutic purposes. To date, a diverse and creative assortment of treatment strategies utilizing gene therapy have been devised, including gene transfer for modulating the immune system, enzyme prodrug ("suicide gene") therapy, oncolytic therapy, replacement/therapeutic gene transfer, and antisense therapy. For malignant glioma, gene-directed prodrug therapy using the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene was the first gene therapy attempted clinically. A variety of different strategies have now been pursued experimentally and in clinical trials. Although, to date, gene therapy for brain tumors has been found to be reasonably safe, concerns still exist regarding issues related to viral delivery, transduction efficiency, potential pathologic response of the brain, and treatment efficacy. Improved viral vectors are being sought, and potential use of gene therapy in combination with other treatments is being investigated.

  16. Generalidades sobre os tumores renais

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    O aumento na incidência do carcinoma de células renais, na maior parte da população, deve-se em parte ao aumento do número de tumores detectados incidentalmente com novos métodos de diagnósticos por imagem. As sofisticações dos instrumentos diagnósticos e terapêuticos modificam as perspectivas dos pacientes com carcinoma de células renais. Um aumento na taxa de sobrevivência e uma redução da morbidade foram alcançados. As neoplasias malignas do trato gênito-urinário compreendem, aproximadamen...

  17. Genetics of Bladder Malignant Tumors in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangari, Andrea; Zaini, Johan; Gulìa, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Bladder masses are represented by either benign or malignant entities. Malignant bladder tumors are frequent causes of disease and death in western countries. However, in children they are less common. Additionally, different features are found in childhood, in which non epithelial tumors are more common than epithelial ones. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common pediatric bladder tumor, but many other types of lesions may be found, such as malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and neuroblastoma. Other rarer tumors described in literature include urothelial carcinoma and other epithelial neoplasms. Rhabdomyosarcoma is associated to a variety of genetic syndromes and many genes are involved in tumor development. PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR (P-F) fusion state has important implications in the pathogenesis and biology of RMS, and different genes alterations are involved in the pathogenesis of P-F negative and embryonal RMS, which are the subsets of tumors most frequently affecting the bladder. These genes include p53, MEF2, MYOG, Ptch1, Gli1, Gli3, Myf5, MyoD1, NF1, NRAS, KRAS, HRAS, FGFR4, PIK3CA, CTNNB1, FBXW7, IGF1R, PDGFRA, ERBB2/4, MET, BCOR. Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) usually shows SMARCB1/INI1 alterations. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene translocations are the most frequently associated alterations in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT). Few genes alterations in urothelial neoplasms have been reported in the paediatric population, which are mainly related to deletion of p16/lnk4, overexpression of CK20 and overexpression of p53. Here, we reviewed available literature to identify genes associated to bladder malignancies in children and discussed their possible relationships with these tumors. PMID:27013922

  18. [Studies on keratocystic odontogenic tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tie-jun; Sun, Li-sha; Luo, Hai-yan; Yuan, Jun-wei; Gao, Li; Gu, Xiao-mei; Li, Xue-fen; Xu, Li-li

    2009-02-18

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs, previously known as odontogenic keratocysts) are aggressive, noninflammatory jaw lesions with a putative high growth potential and a propensity for recurrence. This article puts together a summary of the serial studies related to KCOTs undertaken by the author's research group in recent years. Intraosseous jaw cysts with a solely orthokeratinized lining epithelium have been suggested to differ from the typical KCOTs. We report 20 cases of such cyst type under the term of 'orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC)'. Apart from the presence of a keratinizing epithelial lining, the OOC lacks the other histological features of KCOT, exhibits little if any tendency to recur, has no apparent association with NBCCS, may be cured by simple enucleation, and may thus constitute its own clinical entity. Mutations in PTCH1 gene are responsible for NBCCS and are related in tumors associated with this syndrome. We have so far detected 26 PTCH1 mutations (2 mutations occurred twice) in 10 out of 34 (29.4%) sporadic and 14 out of 16 (87.5%) NBCCS-associated KCOTs. The 26 mutations consisted of 10 frameshift, 2 nonsense, 3 aberrant splicing, 4 in-frame insertion/deletion/ duplication and 7 missense mutations. Two missense mutations in PTCH2 were also detected in 2 out of 15 NBCCS related KCOT patients. By contrast, no pathogenic mutation was detected in SMO. Thus, our data, together with reports from other groups, indicate that defects of PTCH1 are involved in the pathogenesis of syndromic as well as sporadic KCOTs. The pathogenic role of PTCH2 requires further investigation. A series of in vitro studies on bone resorption of KCOTs and ameloblastomas were undertaken by this group. The results indicate that odontogenic lesions could promote bone resorption in vitro and it is likely to be related to some of the cytokines secreted by the lesions.

  19. Feline peripheral nerve sheath tumors: histologic, immunohistochemical, and clinicopathologic correlation (59 tumors in 53 cats).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, F Y; Johnson, T O; Facemire, P R; Fanburg-Smith, J C

    2009-11-01

    Feline peripheral nerve sheath tumors are uncommonly reported, and their clinical behavior has not been well documented. Fifty-nine peripheral nerve sheath tumors were collected from 53 cats. All of the tumors involved skin, subcutis, skeletal muscle, and/or mucous membranes. Histologically, the tumors were composed of compact to loosely arranged streams and fascicles of spindled cells with eosinophilic, often wavy cytoplasmic processes; small to occasionally moderate amounts of collagenous to myxoid matrix; and nuclear palisading. Immunohistochemically, all tumors were positive for vimentin and S-100 protein, 44 of 59 were positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and all were negative for muscle specific actin. The tumors fell into 3 histologic categories: 34 benign tumors with Antoni A areas that were S-100 protein and GFAP positive, 9 benign tumors that lacked Antoni A areas and were S-100 protein positive and GFAP negative, and 16 tumors with features of malignancy. Seventy-five percent of these cases involved the head, neck, or limbs. Recurrent tumors were submitted or tumors were reported to have recurred in 9 cases. Tumor recurrence was reported for all 3 of the histologic subtypes. None was documented as having metastasized.

  20. Activity of drug-loaded tumor-penetrating microparticles in peritoneal pancreatic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ze; Tsai, Max; Wang, Jie; Cole, David J; Wientjes, M Guillaume; Au, Jessie L-S

    2014-01-01

    Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy confers significant survival benefits in cancer patients. However, several problems, including local toxicity and ineffectiveness against bulky tumors, have prohibited it from becoming a standard of care. We have developed drug-loaded, polymeric tumor-penetrating microparticles (TPM) to address these problems. Initial studies showed that TPM provides tumor-selective delivery and is effective against ovarian SKOV3 tumors of relatively small size (TPM activity extends to other tumor types that are more bulky and have different morphologies and disease presentation. We evaluated TPM in mice bearing two IP human pancreatic tumors with different growth characteristics and morphologies (rapidly growing, large and porous Hs766T vs. slowly growing, smaller and densely packed MiaPaCa2), and at different disease stage (early stage with smaller tumors vs. late stage with larger tumors plus peritoneal carcinomatosis). Comparison of treatments with TPM or paclitaxel in Cremophor micelles, at equi-toxic doses, shows, in all tumor types: (a) higher paclitaxel levels in tumors (up to 55-fold) for TPM, (b) greater efficacy for TPM, including significantly longer survival and higher cure rate, and (c) a single dose of TPM was equally efficacious as multiple doses of paclitaxel/Cremophor. The results indicate tumor targeting property and superior antitumor activity of paclitaxel-loaded TPM are generalizable to small and large peritoneal tumors, with or without accompanying carcinomatosis.

  1. Tackling the vascular heterogeneity issue in tumors : identification of novel targets for tumor therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodink, I.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the identification of novel vascular targeting agents directed against tumor endothelium and the expression patterns of their targets in (clinical) tumor samples. Tumors obtain their blood supply by the formation of new vessels and/or by the incorporation, and possibly subsequ

  2. Rocking the foundations of solid tumor growth by attacking the tumor's blood supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molema, G; Griffioen, AW

    1998-01-01

    Deprivation of tumor vascularization is a promising way to prevent tumor outgrowth. Various approaches are under investigation to achieve this, ranging from inhibition of endothelial cell growth or migration to selective tumor vascular targeting of chemotherapeutics. The rapid progress in the field

  3. [Transformation of trigeminal nerve tumor into malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenashev, E A; Cherekaev, V A; Kadasheva, A B; Kozlov, A V; Rotin, D L; Stepanian, M A

    2012-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a rare entity with only 18 cases of trigeminal nerve MPNST described by now and only one report of malignant transformation of trigeminal nerve tumor into MPNST published up to date. One more case of malignant transformation of trigeminal nerve (1st division) tumor into MPNST is demonstrated.

  4. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the liver coexisting with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Moraes Neto, Francisco Alves; Agaimy, Abbas;

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 10% of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) develop other neoplasms, either synchronously or metachronously. In this report we describe coexistence of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor and a hepatic perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) in a 51-year-old woman...

  5. Plexin D1 is ubiquitously expressed on tumor vessels and tumor cells in solid malignancies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodink, I.; Verrijp, K.; Raats, J.; Leenders, W.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plexin D1 is expressed on both tumor-associated endothelium and malignant cells in a number of clinical brain tumors. Recently we demonstrated that Plexin D1 expression is correlated with tumor invasion level and metastasis in a human melanoma progression series. The objective of this st

  6. Clear-cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) in the mandible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Yi Chen; Chung-Wei Wu; Wen-Chen Wang; Li-Min Lin; Yuk-Kwan Chen

    2013-01-01

    We present an uncommon case (female patient aged 59 years) of the clear-cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) (also known as Pindborg tumor) in the mandible. The clinical characteristics and probable origins of the clear tumor cells of previously reported cases of clear-cell variant of intraosseous CEOT are also summarized and discussed.

  7. Intradural jugular foramen tumors Tumores intradurais do forame jugular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Mattos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleven patients with jugular foramen lesions with or without extradural extension were operated at University Hospital of Campinas (UNICAMP, in Campinas, Brazil, between 1998 and 2001. Neck dissection, mastoidectomy without transposition of the facial nerve and myofascial flap reconstruction of the cranial base with an especially developed technique were carried out in 7 patients. Four patients were operated using retrosigmoid craniectomy. Total excision was accomplished in 9 cases. All patients did not show evidence of disease progression at least after 2 years follow-up. There was no mortality. New lower cranial nerve deficits occurred in 5 patients. Nine maintain or improved their preoperative status based on Karnofsky and Glasgow Outcome Scale. A complex anatomy of this region demand wide exposures for treat those tumors. For this reason, an adequate approach for curative resection of most lesions and an efficient skull base reconstruction decreasing postoperative morbidity are essential.Onze pacientes com lesões expansivas do forame jugular associadas ou não a componente extradural foram submetidos a ressecção cirúrgica no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP entre 1998 e 2001. Foi utilizada cirurgia combinada com dissecção do pescoço, mastoidectomia sem transposição do nervo facial e técnica de reconstrução miofascial da base do crânio desenvolvida por um dos autores. Quatro pacientes foram operados via craniectomia retrosigmoidea. Ressecção total foi feita em 9 pacientes, subtotal em um e parcial em outro. Nenhum dos 11 pacientes teve progressão da doença em 2 anos de acompanhamento. Não houve mortalidade. Cinco pacientes tiveram déficits adicionais de nervos cranianos baixos. Nove pacientes mantiveram ou melhoraram suas pontuações de acordo com a escala de Karnofsky. Para adequada abordagem do paciente com tumor de forame jugular, são necessários bom conhecimento anatômico da regi

  8. Radical Carinal Resection for a Glomic Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellier, Jocelyn; Sage, Edouard; Gonin, François; Longchampt, Elisabeth; Chapelier, Alain

    2016-08-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old woman who presented with increasing dyspnea secondary to a tumor arising from the carina. After desobstruction by bronchoscopy, the pathologic analysis revealed a glomic tumor. Carinal resection and reconstruction were performed with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and the long-term result was excellent.

  9. Robo-Enabled Tumor Cell Extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Helena E; Portela, Marta

    2016-12-19

    How aberrant cells are removed from a tissue to prevent tumor formation is a key question in cancer biology. Reporting in this issue of Developmental Cell, Vaughen and Igaki (2016) show that a pathway with an important role in neural guidance also directs extrusion of tumor cells from epithelial tissues.

  10. Peptide receptor therapies in neuroendocrine tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodei, L.; Ferone, D.; Grana, C. M.; Cremonesi, M.; Signore, A.; Dierckx, R. A.; Paganelli, G.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are relatively rare tumors, mainly originating from the digestive system, able to produce bioactive amines and hormones. NETs tend to be slow growing and are often diagnosed when metastatic. The localization of a NETs and the assessment of the extent of disease are cruci

  11. Cutaneous metastasis of primitive neuroectodermal lung tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Romero, Diana; Hilara Sanchez, Yolanda; Perez Alvarez, Javier; Ramirez Garcia, Jose Ramon; De Pable Martin, Maria Pilar

    2013-06-15

    Primary sarcomas of the chest are rare. Although primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) usually develops in the chest wall, it has been described as a primary pulmonary tumor. We present an unusual case of PNET arising in the lung of an 89-year-old man.

  12. Clinical predictive factors of pathologic tumor response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chi Hwan; Kim, Won Dong; Lee, Sang Jeon; Park, Woo Yoon [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The aim of this study was to identify clinical predictive factors for tumor response after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in rectal cancer. The study involved 51 patients who underwent preoperative CRT followed by surgery between January 2005 and February 2012. Radiotherapy was delivered to the whole pelvis at a dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions, followed by a boost of 5.4 Gy in 3 fractions to the primary tumor with 5 fractions per week. Three different chemotherapy regimens were used. Tumor responses to preoperative CRT were assessed in terms of tumor downstaging and pathologic complete response (ypCR). Statistical analyses were performed to identify clinical factors associated with pathologic tumor response. Tumor downstaging was observed in 28 patients (54.9%), whereas ypCR was observed in 6 patients (11.8%). Multivariate analysis found that predictors of downstaging was pretreatment relative lymphocyte count (p = 0.023) and that none of clinical factors was significantly associated with ypCR. Pretreatment relative lymphocyte count (%) has a significant impact on the pathologic tumor response (tumor downstaging) after preoperative CRT for locally advanced rectal cancer. Enhancement of lymphocyte-mediated immune reactions may improve the effect of preoperative CRT for rectal cancer.

  13. Primary carcinoid tumor of the epididymis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Carcinoid rumors have been found in various organs of the body, especially in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Carcinoid tumor of the epididymis is especially rare. We describe here a case of primary carcinoid tumor of the epididymis that was detected by accident in a patient who underwent a bilateral radical orchiectomy for prostate carcinoma.

  14. Surgical stress and accelerated tumor growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kal, Henk B.; Struikmans, Henk; Rijbroek, Angelique D. Barten-van

    2008-01-01

    Background: Delay in the initiation of radiotherapy after surgery is associated with an increase in local regional recurrence. A possible mechanism might be that remaining tumor cells proliferate significantly faster as a result of induced angiogenic cytokines. The growth rate of tumors arising from

  15. Towards the Standardization of Tumor Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The differential diagnosis of chicken tumors is important but has been difficult in practice for a variety of reasons. Methods and criteria have varied among laboratories. This poster is based on a new publication (1) designed to encourage greater standardization of tumor diagnosis. The use of a...

  16. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Qulsoom; Shafique, Khurram; Hurairah, Abu; Grossman, Evan B.

    2017-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that usually originates from the pleura, but has been reported in other extrapleural locations. We report a rare case of a solitary fibrous tumor of the stomach, which was successfully treated with endoscopic mucosal resection. PMID:28286800

  17. Granular cell tumors of the tracheobronchial tree.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maten, van der J; Blaauwgeers, JL; Sutedja, G.; Kwa, HB; Postmus, P.E.; Wagenaar, SS

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the population-based incidence and clinical characteristics of granular cell tumors of the tracheobronchial tree. METHODS: All newly registered tracheobronchial granular cell tumors in the Dutch Network and National Database for Pathology for 10 consecutive years (1990-1999) w

  18. MRI IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PAROTID TUMORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FRELING, NJM

    1991-01-01

    Tumors of the parotid gland are easily depicted with magnetic resonance imaging. Their exact site, and extension in the case of a malignant tumor, are correctly predicted. The histologic nature of the lesion remains to be verified by histologic examination. MRI is invaluable for the detection of rec

  19. Hormone therapy and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.......Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk....

  20. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for endophytic hilar tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Pierro, G B; Tartaglia, N; Aresu, L

    2014-01-01

    To analyze feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for endophytic hilar tumors in low-intermediate (ASA I-II) risk patients.......To analyze feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for endophytic hilar tumors in low-intermediate (ASA I-II) risk patients....

  1. Malignant triton tumor (MTT) of the neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristine Bjørndal; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2006-01-01

    Malignant Triton Tumor (MTT) is a rare, malignant periphere nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. One third of described MTT's were located at the head and neck region. One third of these are associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. MTT most often appears in the third decade...

  2. High efficiency diffusion molecular retention tumor targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Guo

    Full Text Available Here we introduce diffusion molecular retention (DMR tumor targeting, a technique that employs PEG-fluorochrome shielded probes that, after a peritumoral (PT injection, undergo slow vascular uptake and extensive interstitial diffusion, with tumor retention only through integrin molecular recognition. To demonstrate DMR, RGD (integrin binding and RAD (control probes were synthesized bearing DOTA (for (111 In(3+, a NIR fluorochrome, and 5 kDa PEG that endows probes with a protein-like volume of 25 kDa and decreases non-specific interactions. With a GFP-BT-20 breast carcinoma model, tumor targeting by the DMR or i.v. methods was assessed by surface fluorescence, biodistribution of [(111In] RGD and [(111In] RAD probes, and whole animal SPECT. After a PT injection, both probes rapidly diffused through the normal and tumor interstitium, with retention of the RGD probe due to integrin interactions. With PT injection and the [(111In] RGD probe, SPECT indicated a highly tumor specific uptake at 24 h post injection, with 352%ID/g tumor obtained by DMR (vs 4.14%ID/g by i.v.. The high efficiency molecular targeting of DMR employed low probe doses (e.g. 25 ng as RGD peptide, which minimizes toxicity risks and facilitates clinical translation. DMR applications include the delivery of fluorochromes for intraoperative tumor margin delineation, the delivery of radioisotopes (e.g. toxic, short range alpha emitters for radiotherapy, or the delivery of photosensitizers to tumors accessible to light.

  3. Maspin expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozguc Halil

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the role of maspin expression in the progression of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and its value as a prognostic indicator. Methods In the study 54 patients with GIST diagnosis were included in Uludag University of Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology between 1997-2007. The expression of maspin in 54 cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumor was detected by immunohistochemistry and compared with the clinicopathologic tumor parameters. Results The positive expression rates for maspin in the GISTs were 66,6% (36 of 54 cases. Maspin overexpression was detected in 9 of 29 high risk tumors (31% and was significantly higher in very low/low (78.6% and intermediate-risk tumors (63.6% than high-risk tumors. Conclusions Maspin expression might be an important factor in tumor progression and patient prognosis in GIST. In the future, larger series may be studied to examine the prognostic significance of maspin in GISTs and, of course, maspin expression may be studied in different mesenchymal tumors.

  4. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor and mitosis, pay attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federico Coccolini; Fausto Catena; Luca Ansaloni; Antonio Daniele Pinna

    2012-01-01

    The difference between stages I and III of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor depends principally on the number of mitosis. According with TNM classification, the presence in the tumor of high mitotic rate determines the upgrading. Many studies exposed different count techniques in evaluating the number of mitosis. An international standardized method to assess mitotic rate is needed.

  5. [Subepithelial tumors of the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupnik, Silvio; Rafaelli, Claudio; González, Graciela Osorio; Pestalardo, María Luján; Quesada, Matías; Viúdez, Pedro

    2009-06-01

    The subepithelial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract are related to mesenchymal tumors and 80% of them are GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumors). However, there are also other tumors, such as: leiomyomas, schwannomas, lipomas, glomus tumors, carcinoid tumors, aberrant pancreas and polyps or inflammatory tumors. Diagnosis of submucosal tumors is often performed during routine endoscopic examination, they are frequently located at the stomach and in most cases are clinically evidenced by their complications. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the elected method for their staging; but other imaging diagnosis methods include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography scan (PET). The differential diagnosis is made by inmunohistochemical techniques, revealing in the GIST the expression of the antigen CD117, and prognostic factors are determined by size and mitotic index. Surgery is the recommended therapeutic, although in small lesions not exceeding 2 cm it has also been suggested the endoscopic resection guided by EUS and a watchful behaviour based on periodical controls in lesions with benignity criteria. The series here exhibited (2 GIST 1 lyposarcoma, 1 schwannoma and 1 inflammatory fibroid polyp) shows that all these tumors were symptomatic; have been diagnosed using endoscopy and recognized by means of histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis after surgery.

  6. Giant cell tumor in adipose package Hoffa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheto, H. Rivarola; Escobar, G.; Blanchod, C. Collazo; Palanconi, M.; Zordan, J.; Salinas, E. Alvarez; Autorino₁, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Tumors of adipose Hoffa package are very uncommon, with isolated cases reported in the literature. His presentation in pediatric patients knee is exceptional. The most frequently described tumors are benign including vellonodular synovitis. The extra-articular localized variant there of is known as giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. It is characterized by locally aggressive nature, and has been described in reports of isolated cases. Objective: A case of giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath in adipose presentation package Hoffa in pediatric patients is presented in this paper. Methods: male patient eleven years with right knee pain after sports practice was evaluated. Physical examination, showed limited extension -30º, joint effusion, stable negative Lachman maneuver without peripheral knee laxity. MRI hyperintense on tumor is observed in T2 and hypointense on T1 homogeneous and defined edges content displayed prior to LCA related to adipose Hoffa package. Results: The tumor specimen was obtained and histopathology is defined as densely cellular tissue accumulation of xantomisados fibrocollagenous with histiocytes and multinucleated giant cells, compatible with giant cell tumor of tendon sheath. Conclusion: The presentation of giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath in Hoffa fat pad is exceptional. However, his suspicion allows adequate preoperative surgical planning, as a whole resection is the only procedure that has been shown to decrease the rate of recurrence of this disease.

  7. The Universal Dynamics of Tumor Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brú, Antonio; Albertos, Sonia; Luis Subiza, José; García-Asenjo, José López; Brú, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    Scaling techniques were used to analyze the fractal nature of colonies of 15 cell lines growing in vitro as well as of 16 types of tumor developing in vivo. All cell colonies were found to exhibit exactly the same growth dynamics—which correspond to the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) universality class. MBE dynamics are characterized by 1), a linear growth rate, 2), the constraint of cell proliferation to the colony/tumor border, and 3), surface diffusion of cells at the growing edge. These characteristics were experimentally verified in the studied colonies. That these should show MBE dynamics is in strong contrast with the currently established concept of tumor growth: the kinetics of this type of proliferation rules out exponential or Gompertzian growth. Rather, a clear linear growth regime is followed. The importance of new cell movements—cell diffusion at the tumor border—lies in the fact that tumor growth must be conceived as a competition for space between the tumor and the host, and not for nutrients or other factors. Strong experimental evidence is presented for 16 types of tumor, the growth of which cell surface diffusion may be the main mechanism responsible in vivo. These results explain most of the clinical and biological features of colonies and tumors, offer new theoretical frameworks, and challenge the wisdom of some current clinical strategies. PMID:14581197

  8. Skin manifestations of endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Jonathan S; Braverman, Irwin M

    2016-06-01

    The skin signs of benign and malignant endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors are manifold and early identification of these dermatologic features is crucial in initiating timely diagnosis and management. This article reviews the salient cutaneous features of these tumors that arise in the classic endocrine glands, lung and gastrointestinal tract either as individual neoplasms or as part of a syndrome.

  9. Evolution of cooperation among tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Robert; Axelrod, David E; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2006-09-01

    The evolution of cooperation has a well established theoretical framework based on game theory. This approach has made valuable contributions to a wide variety of disciplines, including political science, economics, and evolutionary biology. Existing cancer theory suggests that individual clones of cancer cells evolve independently from one another, acquiring all of the genetic traits or hallmarks necessary to form a malignant tumor. It is also now recognized that tumors are heterotypic, with cancer cells interacting with normal stromal cells within the tissue microenvironment, including endothelial, stromal, and nerve cells. This tumor cell-stromal cell interaction in itself is a form of commensalism, because it has been demonstrated that these nonmalignant cells support and even enable tumor growth. Here, we add to this theory by regarding tumor cells as game players whose interactions help to determine their Darwinian fitness. We marshal evidence that tumor cells overcome certain host defenses by means of diffusible products. Our original contribution is to raise the possibility that two nearby cells can protect each other from a set of host defenses that neither could survive alone. Cooperation can evolve as by-product mutualism among genetically diverse tumor cells. Our hypothesis supplements, but does not supplant, the traditional view of carcinogenesis in which one clonal population of cells develops all of the necessary genetic traits independently to form a tumor. Cooperation through the sharing of diffusible products raises new questions about tumorigenesis and has implications for understanding observed phenomena, designing new experiments, and developing new therapeutic approaches.

  10. Estimation of Relative Blood Volume in Head and Neck Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Introduction: The calculation of relative blood volume in head and neck tumor with MR imaging is anew approach that may provide additional hemodynamic information relevant to both untreated and treated tumors. This hemodynamic information is especially usefu l for the differentiation between viable tumor and postsurgical changes or rad iation induced scar, and is also beneficial for tumor staging and tumor biopsy.

  11. Review of pineal anlage tumor with divergent histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Stephen; Pearl, Gary

    2006-08-01

    Pineal anlage tumor is an extremely rare tumor that is not listed in the 2000 World Health Organization Classification of nervous system tumors. It has been defined as a primary pineal tumor with both neuroepithelial and ectomesenchymal differentiation and without endodermal differentiation. We review the literature on this tumor, including the clinical presentation, gross pathology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, differential diagnosis, and prognosis.

  12. Molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Exposito, R; Merino, M; Aguayo, C

    2016-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common solid tumors in young adult men. They constitute a unique pathology because of their embryonic and germ origin and their special behavior. Genetic predisposition, environmental factors involved in their development and genetic aberrations have been under study in many works throughout the last years trying to explain the susceptibility and the transformation mechanism of TGCTs. Despite the high rate of cure in this type of tumors because its particular sensitivity to cisplatin, there are tumors resistant to chemotherapy for which it is needed to find new therapies. In the present work, it has been carried out a literature review on the most important molecular aspects involved in the onset and development of such tumors, as well as a review of the major developments regarding prognostic factors, new prognostic biomarkers and the possibility of new targeted therapies.

  13. Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Yousefi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET belongs to a group of highly malignant tumors and is composed of small round cells of a neuroectodermal origin. Categorized in the same tumor family as Ewing sarcoma, the PNET is most likely to occur in bones and soft tissues. However, a small number of PNET cases arising in the pelvis have been reported as well. We present three cases of pelvic PNET: two cases in the ovary and one case in the broad ligament. The PNET often exhibits aggressive clinical behavior with worse outcomes than other small round cell tumors. The significant prognostic factors of the PNET include site of tumor, volume of neoplasm, and presence of metastasis. The treatment protocol is multimodal and includes local surgical treatment followed by chemotherapy. We herein describe three PNET cases as a rare entity in the pelvis. Pelvic PNETs should be included in the differential diagnosis of pelvic masses.

  14. Strange Attractor in Immunology of Tumor Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Voitikova, M

    1997-01-01

    The time delayed cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response on the tumor growth has been developed on the basis of discrete approximation (2-dimensional map). The growth kinetic has been described by logistic law with growth rate being the bifurcation parameter. Increase in the growth rate results in instability of the tumor state and causes period-doubling bifurcations in the immune+tumor system. For larger values of tumor growth rate a strange attractor has been observed. The model proposed is able to describe the metastable-state production when time series data of the immune state and the number of tumor cells are irregular and unpredictable. This metastatic disease may be caused not by exterior (medical) factors, but interior density dependent ones.

  15. Morphogenesis and Complexity of the Tumor Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Kulich, E.; Nieto-Villar, J. M.

    A mechanism to describe the apoptosis process at mesoscopic level through p53 is proposed in this paper. A deterministic model given by three differential equations is deduced from the mesoscopic approach, which exhibits sustained oscillations caused by a supercritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation. Taking as hypothesis that the p53 sustained oscillation is the fundamental mechanism for apoptosis regulation; the model predicts that it is necessary a strict control of p53 to stimulated it, which is an important consideration to established new therapy strategy to fight cancer. The mathematical modeling of tumor growth allows us to describe the most important regularities of these systems. A stochastic model, based on the most important processes that take place at the level of individual cells, is proposed to predict the dynamical behavior of the expected radius of the tumor and its fractal dimension. It was found that the tumor has a characteristic fractal dimension, which contains the necessary information to predict the tumor growth until it reaches a stationary state. The mathematical modeling of tumor growth is an approach to explain the complex nature of these systems. A model that describes tumor growth was obtained by using a mesoscopic formalism and fractal dimension. This model theoretically predicts the relation between the morphology of the cell pattern and the mitosis/apoptosis quotient that helps to predict tumor growth from tumoral cells fractal dimension. The relation between the tumor macroscopic morphology and the cell pattern morphology is also determined. This could explain why the interface fractal dimension decreases with the increase of the cell pattern fractal dimension and consequently with the increase of the mitosis/apoptosis relation. Indexes to characterize tumoral cell proliferation and invasion capacities are proposed and used to predict the growth of different types of tumors. These indexes also show that the proliferation capacity is

  16. Early mutation bursts in colorectal tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Matthew P.; Shibata, Darryl; Curtis, Christina; Siegmund, Kimberly; Marjoram, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Tumor growth is an evolutionary process involving accumulation of mutations, copy number alterations, and cancer stem cell (CSC) division and differentiation. As direct observation of this process is impossible, inference regarding when mutations occur and how stem cells divide is difficult. However, this ancestral information is encoded within the tumor itself, in the form of intratumoral heterogeneity of the tumor cell genomes. Here we present a framework that allows simulation of these processes and estimation of mutation rates at the various stages of tumor development and CSC division patterns for single-gland sequencing data from colorectal tumors. We parameterize the mutation rate and the CSC division pattern, and successfully retrieve their posterior distributions based on DNA sequence level data. Our approach exploits Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC), a method that is becoming widely-used for problems of ancestral inference. PMID:28257429

  17. Knee bone tumors: findings on conventional radiology*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Neto, Francisco; Teixeira, Manuel Joaquim Diógenes; Araújo, Leonardo Heráclio do Carmo; Ponte, Carlos Eduardo Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    The knee is a common site for bone tumors, whether clinically painful or not. Conventional radiology has been established as the first line of investigation in patients with knee pain and can reveal lesions that often generate questions not only for the generalist physician but also for the radiologist or general orthopedist. History, image examination, and histopathological analysis compose the essential tripod of the diagnosis of bone tumors, and conventional radiology is an essential diagnostic tool in patients with knee pain. This pictorial essay proposes to depict the main conventional radiography findings of the most common bone tumors around the knee, including benign and malignant tumors, as well as pseudo-tumors. PMID:27403019

  18. Metabolic heterogeneity in human lung tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Christopher T.; Faubert, Brandon; Yuan, Qing; Lev-Cohain, Naama; Jin, Eunsook; Kim, Jiyeon; Jiang, Lei; Ko, Bookyung; Skelton, Rachael; Loudat, Laurin; Wodzak, Michelle; Klimko, Claire; McMillan, Elizabeth; Butt, Yasmeen; Ni, Min; Oliver, Dwight; Torrealba, Jose; Malloy, Craig R.; Kernstine, Kemp; Lenkinski, Robert E.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is heterogeneous in the genetic and environmental parameters that influence cell metabolism in culture. Here, we assessed the impact of these factors on human NSCLC metabolism in vivo using intra-operative 13C-glucose infusions in nine NSCLC patients to compare metabolism between tumors and benign lung. While enhanced glycolysis and glucose oxidation were common among these tumors, we observed evidence for oxidation of multiple nutrients in each of them, including lactate as a potential carbon source. Moreover, metabolically heterogeneous regions were identified within and between tumors, and surprisingly, our data suggested potential contributions of non-glucose nutrients in well-perfused tumor areas. Our findings not only demonstrate the heterogeneity in tumor metabolism in vivo but also highlight the strong influence of the microenvironment on this feature. PMID:26853473

  19. Genes Expressed in Human Tumor Endothelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Croix, Brad; Rago, Carlo; Velculescu, Victor; Traverso, Giovanni; Romans, Katharine E.; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Lal, Anita; Riggins, Gregory J.; Lengauer, Christoph; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W.

    2000-08-01

    To gain a molecular understanding of tumor angiogenesis, we compared gene expression patterns of endothelial cells derived from blood vessels of normal and malignant colorectal tissues. Of over 170 transcripts predominantly expressed in the endothelium, 79 were differentially expressed, including 46 that were specifically elevated in tumor-associated endothelium. Several of these genes encode extracellular matrix proteins, but most are of unknown function. Most of these tumor endothelial markers were expressed in a wide range of tumor types, as well as in normal vessels associated with wound healing and corpus luteum formation. These studies demonstrate that tumor and normal endothelium are distinct at the molecular level, a finding that may have significant implications for the development of anti-angiogenic therapies.

  20. A Giant Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillebeeckx, Charlotte; Verbeeck, Guy; Daenen, Geert; Servaes, Dirk; Bronckaers, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare, accounting for less than 1% of the breast tumors. They are mostly seen in women between 45 and 49 years old. These are fast growing tumors with a large spectrum of behavior (from benign to metastatic) and can resemble fibroadenomas. Correct diagnosis mostly through core needle biopsy is important to decide whether a surgical excision has to be done. Here we report a case of a 57-year-old woman with a fast growing, ulcerated tumor in the left breast. Core needle biopsy suggested a malignant phyllodes tumor with heterologous liposarcomatous differentiation. Treatment with total mastectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy followed. Primary treatment is always surgery, whether radiotherapy or chemotherapy has to follow remains uncertain. There is a high-recurrence rate, especially when the surgical margins are narrow. PMID:27746880

  1. Exercise, natural immunity, and tumor metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman-Goetz, L

    1994-02-01

    Exercise has been shown to reduce the growth of primary tumors and to enhance certain aspects of host natural immunity. The question of whether these are independent phenomena or are casually related has not been systematically evaluated. This paper presents information concerning the methodological difficulties in studying proposed relationships between exercise and cancer, focusing specifically on tumor metastasis, the process by which malignant cells disseminate to distant organs and establish new colonies. This paper also focuses on how natural immune processes and tumor cells exert bidirectional influences on each other. It is suggested that the direction of the impact of exercise on the control of metastatic spread of neoplastic cells will reflect, in part, the sensitivity of the specific tumor to cytolysis by natural immune mechanisms, the route of dissemination, the timing of exercise relative to tumor exposure, and whether exercise acts as a distress or eustress state.

  2. Tumor lymphangiogenesis and new drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Lothar C; Detmar, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, tumor-associated lymphatic vessels have been regarded as passive by-standers, serving simply as a drainage system for interstitial fluid generated within the tumor. However, with growing evidence that tumors actively induce lymphangiogenesis, and that the number of lymphatic vessels closely correlates with metastasis and clinical outcome in various types of cancer, this picture has changed dramatically in recent years. Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels have now emerged as a valid therapeutic target to control metastatic disease, and the first specific anti-lymphangiogenic drugs have recently entered clinical testing. Furthermore, we are just beginning to understand the whole functional spectrum of tumor-associated lymphatic vessels, which not only concerns transport of fluid and metastatic cells, but also includes the regulation of cancer stemness and specific inhibition of immune responses, opening new venues for therapeutic applications. Therefore, we predict that specific targeting of lymphatic vessels and their function will become an important tool for future cancer treatment.

  3. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney presenting with pulmonary tumor embolism: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sathya; Chinnaa; Chandan; J; Das; Sanjay; Sharma; Prabhjot; Singh; Amlesh; Seth; Suvendu; Purkait; Sandeep; R; Mathur

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor(PNET) of the kidney is a rare, aggressive tumor known for its recurrence and metastatic potential. Despite the frequency of venous extension to the renal veins and inferior vena cava, pulmonary tumor embolism at the initial presentation is not common. We report a case of 22-year-old female with PNET of the kidney who presented with tumor embolism in the inferior vena cava(IVC) and bilateral pulmonary artery. The patient underwent surgical resection and histopathological analysis confirmed the presence of tumor within the IVC and pulmonary arteries. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and is currently doing well on follow-up.

  4. Development of synchronous VHL syndrome tumors reveals contingencies and constraints to tumor evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Rosalie; Horswell, Stuart; Rowan, Andrew;

    2014-01-01

    Background : Genomic analysis of multi-focal renal cell carcinomas from an individual with a germline VHL mutation offers a unique opportunity to study tumor evolution. Results : We perform whole exome sequencing on four clear cell renal cell carcinomas removed from both kidneys of a patient......, and in a second, older patient with VHL syndrome demonstrate minimal intra-tumor heterogeneity and mutational burden, and evaluable tumors appear to follow a linear evolutionary route, compared to tumors from patients with sporadic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Conclusions : In tumors developing from...

  5. Effect of tumor hypoxia on efficacy of tirapazamine combined with fractionated irradiation in mouse tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il Han [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    Tumor hypoxia can be overcome with hypoxic cytotoxin. In mouse tumor, tirapazamine's efficacy of the potentiating radiation effect was tested by the tumor oxygenation status combined with hyperfactionated radiotherapy. The control and hypoxic mouse tumors were established by inoculation of RIF-1 tumor cells into the normal or previously irradiated back and thigh of C3H mice. When the tumors reached a proper size, both the control and hypoxic tumors were given hyperfractionated treatments (8 fractions/4 days) with saline (0.02 ml/g), tirapazamin (0.08 mM/0.02 ml/kg), irradiation (2.5 Gy), irradiation combined with tirapazamine given 30 minutes prior to each irradiation. The response was evaluated by the growth delay assay by measuring tumor size from day 0 (12 hrs prior to the first fractionation) to the day when the volume had 4-fold increase or cross sectional area had 2-fold increase. Overall growth pattern showed that tirapazamine potentiated radiation effect in back and thigh tumors grew in the normal and preirradiated tumor bed. With growth delay assay using reference point of initial tumor volume or cross sectional area, tirapazamine potentiated radiation effect 1.9 times for the control and 2.4 times for the hypoxic tumors in back, and 1.85 times for the control and 1.6 times for the hypoxic tumors. With reference of 4-fold increase of the initial volume or 2-fold increase of the cross sectional area, tirapazamine potentiated radiation effect 1.48 times for the control and 2.02 times for the hypxic tumors in back, and 1.85 times for the control and 1.6 times for the hypoxic tumors. Present result indicated that radiation response of hypoxic tumors was potentiated by tirapazamine in the back or thigh tumors grew in the control or preirradiated tumor bed, and potentiation of the hypoxic tumors was equal to or greater than that of the control tumors in the back or thigh.

  6. Severe acute tumor lysis syndrome in patients with germ-cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Alvarenga Feres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Germ-cell tumors are a high-proliferative type of cancer that may evolve to significant bulky disease. Tumor lysis syndrome is rarely reported in this setting. The reports of three patients with germ-cell tumors who developed severe acute tumor lysis syndrome following the start of their anticancer therapy are presented. All patients developed renal dysfunction and multiorgan failure. Patients with extensive germ-cell tumors should be kept on close clinical and laboratory monitoring. Physicians should be aware of this uncommon but severe complication and consider early admission to the intensive care unit for the institution of measures to prevent acute renal failure.

  7. Tumor-associated antigens identified by mRNA expression profiling as tumor rejection epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise; Ruhwald, Morten; Thorn, Mette;

    2003-01-01

    immunization, but only two of these peptides (RAD23-31 and RAD24-31) were capable of generating a weak vaccination-induced protection against adoptive tumor growth. SM7 inoculated mice treated with a blocking antibody against the inhibitory T cell signal transducing molecule CTLA4 appeared to delay tumor take...... derived from potentially overexpressed tumor proteins, as identified by mRNA expression profiling of p53-/- thymoma cells, at best results in a weak tumor protection thus questioning this way of detection of new tumor rejection epitopes....

  8. Malignant tumors in an ancient Egyptian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, A; Rohrbach, H; Szeimies, U; Hagedorn, H G; Haas, C J; Weyss, C; Bachmeier, B; Nerlich, A G

    1999-01-01

    Since it is still an open debate whether malignant tumors are mainly influenced by environmental factors, the frequency of such malignant tumors in historic populations with different living conditions is of particular interest. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of malignant tumors affecting bone tissue in a population of mumrnies and skeletons, which had been excavated from the large necropolis of Thebes-West, Upper Egypt. Our study material comprised a series of at least 415 individuals (thereof 325 adults) dating from approx. 1500-500 B.C. All individuals had been mummified, but were severely damaged and partially broken by grave robbers, so that often only parts of the mummies/skeletons were available for investigation. The available specimens were subjected to careful macroscopic examination, while isolated findings were radiologically analyzed. Using this approach, we identified at least 4 cases showing malignant tumors affecting the skeleton. In two cases, multiple mixed osteolytic-osteoblastic lesions suggested multiple metastases from carcinomas. Two further individuals presented with multiple osteolyses (vertebra, pelvis, skull) most suggestive of multiple myeloma. The observation of at least 4 cases of malignant tumors with osseous manifestation in a series of 325 adult individuals provides clear evidence that malignant tumors were not a rare event in the ancient Egyptian study population, particularly when the limitations of a study of tumors manifested only in osseous remnants are taken into consideration. A calculation of the age- and sex-adjusted tumor frequency in our material in comparison with a recent model for such a material by Waldron (1996) indicates that the rate of malignant tumors with bone affection in our series is higher than in an English population from 1901-1905, although lower than in a comparable present day population. This clearly indicates that important factors affecting malignant tumors were effective even

  9. A think tank of TINK/TANKs: tumor-infiltrating/tumor-associated natural killer cells in tumor progression and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Antonino; Ferlazzo, Guido; Albini, Adriana; Noonan, Douglas M

    2014-08-01

    Tumor-infiltrating leukocytes are often induced by the cancer microenvironment to display a protumor, proangiogenic phenotype. This "polarization" has been described for several myeloid cells, in particular macrophages. Natural killer (NK) cells represent another population of innate immune cells able to infiltrate tumors. The role of NK in tumor progression and angiogenesis has not yet been fully investigated. Several studies have shown that tumor-infiltrating NK (here referred to as "TINKs") and tumor-associated NK (altered peripheral NK cells, which here we call "TANKs") are compromised in their ability to lysew tumor cells. Recent data have suggested that they are potentially protumorigenic and can also acquire a proangiogenic phenotype. Here we review the properties of TINKs and TANKs and compare their activities to that of NK cells endowed with a physiological proangiogenic phenotype, in particular decidual NK cells. We speculate on the potential origins of TINKs and TANKs and on the immune signals involved in their differentiation and polarization. The TINK and TANK phenotype has broad implications in the immune response to tumors, ranging from a deficient control of cancer and cancer stem cells to an altered crosstalk with other relevant players of the immune response, such as dendritic cells, to induction of cancer angiogenesis. With this recently acquired knowledge that has not yet been put into perspective, we point out new potential avenues for therapeutic intervention involving NK cells as a target or an ally in oncology.

  10. Pro-Tumor and Anti-Tumor Functions of IL-17 and of TH17 Cells in Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulubova M.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The current review reveals the seven subclasses of CD4+ T helper cells, i.e. Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, regulatory T cells and Tfh, the cytokines produced by them and their role in tumor microenvironment. Main attention was paid to IL-17 and Th17 cells. IL-17-producing cells were described, among which were Treg17 cells and Tc17 cells. The transcription factors, engaged in the activation of Th17 cell differentiation were reviewed. It was shown that Th17 cells might possess regulatory functions in tumor microenvironments that directs toward immunosuppression. The reciprocity between Treg and Th17 cells is realized when the production of a large amount of TGF-β in tumors causes Treg cell differentiation, and the addition of IL-6 shifts the differentiation of naïve T cells to Th17 cells. The main pro-tumor role of IL-17 is the promotion of tumor angiogenesis through stimulation of fibroblasts and endothelial cells. The antitumor functions of IL-17 are associated with enhancement of cytotoxic activity of tumor specific CTL cells and with angiogenesis that provide channels through which immune cells might invade tumor and promote antitumor immunity.

  11. New Mechanisms of Tumor-Associated Macrophages on Promoting Tumor Progression: Recent Research Advances and Potential Targets for Tumor Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiujun Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of basic and clinical studies have shown a protumor function of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs, which represent a large proportion of matrix cells. TAMs promote tumorigenesis, and their number is related to the malignancy degree and poor prognosis of many kinds of tumors. Macrophage plasticity makes it possible to change the tumor microenvironment and remodel antitumor immunity during cancer immunotherapy. Increasing numbers of studies have revealed the effects of TAMs on the tumor microenvironment, for example, via promotion of tumor growth and tumorigenesis and through an increase in the number of cancer stem cells or via facilitation of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and metastasis. Investigators also proposed tumor-immunological treatments targeting TAMs by inhibiting TAM recruitment and differentiation, by regulating TAM polarization, and by blocking factors and pathways associated with the protumor function of TAMs. This comprehensive review presents recent research on TAMs in relation to prediction of poor outcomes, remodeling of the tumor immune microenvironment, and immunological targeted therapies.

  12. Cyclophosphamide Enhances Human Tumor Growth in Nude Rat Xenografted Tumor Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjen Jeffrey Wu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the immunomodulatory chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide (CTX on tumor growth was investigated in primary and metastatic intracerebral and subcutaneous rat xenograft models. Nude rats were treated with CTX (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally 24 hours before human ovarian carcinoma (SKOV3, small cell lung carcinoma (LX-1 SCLC, and glioma (UW28, U87MG, and U251 tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously, intraperitoneally, or in the right cerebral hemisphere or were infused into the right internal carotid artery. Tumor development was monitored and recorded. Potential mechanisms were further investigated. Only animals that received both CTX and Matrigel showed consistent growth of subcutaneous tumors. Cyclophosphamide pretreatment increased the percentage (83.3% vs 0% of animals showing intraperitoneal tumors. In intracerebral implantation tumor models, CTX pretreatment increased the tumor volume and the percentage of animals showing tumors. Cyclophosphamide increased lung carcinoma bone and facial metastases after intra-arterial injection, and 20% of animals showed brain metastases. Cyclophosphamide transiently decreased nude rat white blood cell counts and glutathione concentration, whereas serum vascular endothelial growth factor was significantly elevated. Cyclophosphamide also increased CD31 reactivity, a marker of vascular endothelium, and macrophage (CD68-positive infiltration into glioma cell-inoculated rat brains. Cyclophosphamide may enhance primary and metastatic tumor growth through multiple mechanisms, including immune modulation, decreased response to oxidative stress, increased tumor vascularization, and increased macrophage infiltration. These findings may be clinically relevant because chemotherapy may predispose human cancer subjects to tumor growth in the brain or other tissues.

  13. Tumor-Derived CXCL1 Promotes Lung Cancer Growth via Recruitment of Tumor-Associated Neutrophils

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    Ming Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils have a traditional role in inflammatory process and act as the first line of defense against infections. Although their contribution to tumorigenesis and progression is still controversial, accumulating evidence recently has demonstrated that tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs play a key role in multiple aspects of cancer biology. Here, we detected that chemokine CXCL1 was dramatically elevated in serum from 3LL tumor-bearing mice. In vitro, 3LL cells constitutively expressed and secreted higher level of CXCL1. Furthermore, knocking down CXCL1 expression in 3LL cells significantly hindered tumor growth by inhibiting recruitment of neutrophils from peripheral blood into tumor tissues. Additionally, tumor-infiltrated neutrophils expressed higher levels of MPO and Fas/FasL, which may be involved in TAN-mediated inhibition of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These results demonstrate that tumor-derived CXCL1 contributes to TANs infiltration in lung cancer which promotes tumor growth.

  14. Whole tumor antigen vaccination using dendritic cells: Comparison of RNA electroporation and pulsing with UV-irradiated tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benencia Fabian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Because of the lack of full characterization of tumor associated antigens for solid tumors, whole antigen use is a convenient approach to tumor vaccination. Tumor RNA and apoptotic tumor cells have been used as a source of whole tumor antigen to prepare dendritic cell (DC based tumor vaccines, but their efficacy has not been directly compared. Here we compare directly RNA electroporation and pulsing of DCs with whole tumor cells killed by ultraviolet (UV B radiation using a convenient tumor model expressing human papilloma virus (HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes. Although both approaches led to DCs presenting tumor antigen, electroporation with tumor cell total RNA induced a significantly higher frequency of tumor-reactive IFN-gamma secreting T cells, and E7-specific CD8+ lymphocytes compared to pulsing with UV-irradiated tumor cells. DCs electroporated with tumor cell RNA induced a larger tumor infiltration by T cells and produced a significantly stronger delay in tumor growth compared to DCs pulsed with UV-irradiated tumor cells. We conclude that electroporation with whole tumor cell RNA and pulsing with UV-irradiated tumor cells are both effective in eliciting antitumor immune response, but RNA electroporation results in more potent tumor vaccination under the examined experimental conditions.

  15. Integrin-mediated active tumor targeting and tumor microenvironment response dendrimer-gelatin nanoparticles for drug delivery and tumor treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guanlian; Zhang, Huiqing; Zhang, Li; Ruan, Shaobo; He, Qin; Gao, Huile

    2015-12-30

    Due to the high morbidity and mortality of cancer, it has become an urgent matter to develop an effective and a safe treatment strategy. Nanoparticles (NP) based drug delivery systems have gained much attention nowadays but they faced a paradoxical issue in delivering drugs into tumors: NP with large size were characterized with weak tumor penetration, meanwhile NP with small size resulted in poor tumor retention. To solve this problem, we proposed a multistage drug delivery system which could intelligently shrink its size from large size to small size in the presence of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) which were highly expressed in tumor tissues, therefore the multistage system could benefit from its large size for better retention effect in tumor and then shrunk to small size to contribute to better penetration efficiency. The multistage drug delivery system, RGD-DOX-DGL-GNP, was constructed by 155.4nm gelatin NP core (the substrate of MMP-2) and surface decorated with doxorubicin (DOX) and RGD peptide conjugated dendritic poly-l-lysine (DGL, 34.3nm in diameter). In vitro, the size of multistage NP could effectively shrink in the presence of MMP-2. Thus, the RGD-DOX-DGL-GNP could penetrate deep into tumor spheroids. In vivo, this multistage drug delivery system showed higher tumor retention and deeper penetration than both DOX-DGL and DOX-GNP. Consequently, RGD-DOX-DGL-GNP successfully combined the advantages of dendrimers and GNP in vivo, resulting in an outstanding anti-tumor effect. In conclusion, the multistage drug delivery system could intelligently shrink from large size to small size in the tumor microenvironment and displayed better retention and penetration efficiency, making it an impressing system for cancer treatment.

  16. Lapatinib Plasma and Tumor Concentrations and Effects on HER Receptor Phosphorylation in Tumor.

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    Neil L Spector

    Full Text Available The paradigm shift in cancer treatment from cytotoxic drugs to tumor targeted therapies poses new challenges, including optimization of dose and schedule based on a biologically effective dose, rather than the historical maximum tolerated dose. Optimal dosing is currently determined using concentrations of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in plasma as a surrogate for tumor concentrations. To examine this plasma-tumor relationship, we explored the association between lapatinib levels in tumor and plasma in mice and humans, and those effects on phosphorylation of human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER in human tumors.Mice bearing BT474 HER2+ human breast cancer xenografts were dosed once or twice daily (BID with lapatinib. Drug concentrations were measured in blood, tumor, liver, and kidney. In a randomized phase I clinical trial, 28 treatment-naïve female patients with early stage HER2+ breast cancer received lapatinib 1000 or 1500 mg once daily (QD or 500 mg BID before evaluating steady-state lapatinib levels in plasma and tumor.In mice, lapatinib levels were 4-fold higher in tumor than blood with a 4-fold longer half-life. Tumor concentrations exceeded the in vitro IC90 (~ 900 nM or 500 ng/mL for inhibition of HER2 phosphorylation throughout the 12-hour dosing interval. In patients, tumor levels were 6- and 10-fold higher with QD and BID dosing, respectively, compared to plasma trough levels. The relationship between tumor and plasma concentration was complex, indicating multiple determinants. HER receptor phosphorylation varied depending upon lapatinib tumor concentrations, suggestive of changes in the repertoire of HER homo- and heterodimers.Plasma lapatinib concentrations underestimated tumor drug levels, suggesting that optimal dosing should be focused on the site of action to avoid to inappropriate dose escalation. Larger clinical trials are required to determine optimal dose and schedule to achieve tumor concentrations that maximally

  17. Nanoelectroablation of Murine Tumors Triggers a CD8-Dependent Inhibition of Secondary Tumor Growth.

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    Richard Nuccitelli

    Full Text Available We have used both a rat orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model and a mouse allograft tumor model to study liver tumor ablation with nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF. We confirm that nsPEF treatment triggers apoptosis in rat liver tumor cells as indicated by the appearance of cleaved caspase 3 and 9 within two hours after treatment. Furthermore we provide evidence that nsPEF treatment leads to the translocation of calreticulin (CRT to the cell surface which is considered a damage-associated molecular pattern indicative of immunogenic cell death. We provide direct evidence that nanoelectroablation triggers a CD8-dependent inhibition of secondary tumor growth by comparing the growth rate of secondary orthotopic liver tumors in nsPEF-treated rats with that in nsPEF-treated rats depleted of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells. The growth of these secondary tumors was severely inhibited as compared to tumor growth in CD8-depleated rats, with their average size only 3% of the primary tumor size after the same one-week growth period. In contrast, when we depleted CD8+ T-cells the second tumor grew more robustly, reaching 54% of the size of the first tumor. In addition, we demonstrate with immunohistochemistry that CD8+ T-cells are highly enriched in the secondary tumors exhibiting slow growth. We also showed that vaccinating mice with nsPEF-treated isogenic tumor cells stimulates an immune response that inhibits the growth of secondary tumors in a CD8+-dependent manner. We conclude that nanoelectroablation triggers the production of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells resulting in the inhibition of secondary tumor growth.

  18. Tumor-infiltrating B lymphocytes as an efficient source of highly specific immunoglobulins recognizing tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelliccia Angela

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is much evidence that tumor cells elicit a humoral immune response in patients. In most cases, the presence of antibodies in peripheral blood is detected only in small proportion of patients with tumors overexpressing the corresponding antigen. In the present study, we analyzed the significance of local humoral response provided by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer patients. Methods The ability of a patient's immune system to produce specific antibodies inside tumor tissue, capable of recognizing tumor cells, was explored through analysis of the oligoclonality of antibodies derived from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and construction of a series of recombinant antibody libraries in scFv format, derived from breast tumor-infiltrating B lymphocytes. These libraries and one from peripheral blood lymphocytes of a single breast cancer patient were panned against three purified surface tumor antigens, such as CEA, MUC1 and ED-B domain, and against intact MCF7 breast carcinoma cells. Results Application of novel display vector, pKM19, allowed isolation of a large panel of breast cancer-specific antibodies against known tumor antigens, as well as against breast carcinoma cells. Reactivity of novel scFvs was confirmed by ELISA, immunohistochemistry, fluorescence staining and flow cytometry. We demonstrated that seven of ten primary breast tumor specimens, obtained using discarded surgical material, could be exploited as an appropriate source for generation of phage display libraries, giving highly specific antitumor antibodies which recognize heterologous tumor cells. Conclusion Local humoral immune response within tumor tissue in breast cancer patients frequently has an oligoclonal character. Efficient selection of specific antitumor antibodies from recombinant antibody libraries, derived from such oligoclonal tumor-infiltrated B lymphocytes, indicates the presence of natural immune response against tumor antigens

  19. Genetics Home Reference: hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome is a condition characterized by ...

  20. Tumor specific cytotoxicity of glucosylceramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Hirosuke; Wongtangtintharn, Sawitree; Iwasaki, Hironori; Inafuku, Masashi; Shimatani, Masayuki; Toda, Takayoshi

    2007-11-01

    To develop a new taxon of anti-cancer agent with lower side effect, this study described a tumor selective cytotoxicity of glucosylceramide extracted from malt feed of beer brewing waste. Interpretation of (13)C- and (1)H-NMR spectra identified the chemical structure of major component of glucosylceramide as 1-O-beta-D: -glucopyranosyl-2(2'-hydroxyeicosanoylamino)-4,11-octadecadiene-1,3-diol. Selective cytotoxicity was studied with three pairs of normal and cancer cells: liver, skin and lung. The glucosylceramide selectively lowered the relative viability of cancer cells. Of the pairs, the selectivity was most pronounced with the liver cells, and, for this reason, further experiment was conducted with this pair of normal (CS-HC) and cancer cells (HepG2) to get more insight into the selective toxicity. The glucosylceramide significantly increased the cell population at G(2)/M phase in HepG2 cells, and also increased the numbers of apoptotic (sub-G(0)/G(1)) cells, but to much lesser extent compared with the increase in G(2)/M phase. Treatment of HepG2 cells with this agent selectively disrupted the mitochondrial membrane integrity without activation of caspase pathway to induce apoptosis. These findings suggested that the glucosylceramide specifically suppressed the growth of cancer cells by inhibiting cell renewal capacity rather than induction of apoptosis. The underlying mechanism for the selectivity remains to be answered in the forthcoming study.

  1. Canine mammary tumors - clinical survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Atanaskova Petrov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammary tumours are the second most frequent neoplasia in dogs, mainly affecting older female patients. Approximately 50% of the mammary tumours are malignant with high percentage of mortality if not treated in time. The aim of this study was to analyze the data of canine patients with mammary tumours, to evaluate the type of tumours, as well as the relationship between tumour incidence and dogs’ age, reproductive cycle and sterilization. The survey was used to retrieve the information in the period of two years from the patient data base of the University Veterinary Hospital at the Faculty of Veterinary medicine in Skopje. Patients included in this survey were subjected to routine clinical investigation and additional laboratory tests (cytological examination, x-rays imaging, CBC and biochemical profile, histopathology of the tumor samples. Aged female patients (12 – 13 years are the most susceptible category for development of mammary tumours. The reproductive history showed that five of the patients with malignant mammary tumourshave never whelped and were not treated with any exogenous hormones. Malignant tumours (adenocarcinoma were diagnosed in 90% of the patients. Three patients died due to lung metastasis. Late diagnosis is one of the major problems that results in lethal outcome due to lung metastases. Since ovarian steroids play an important role in the aetiology, the most effective prevention of mammary tumoursis elective ovariectomy of the bitch at an early age.

  2. Cognitive deficits in patients with brain tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Chao; BAO Wei-min; YANG Bo-jie; XIE Rong; CAO Xiao-yun; LUAN Shi-hai; MAO Ying

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the present status and progress of clinical research on the cognitive effects caused by different types of brain tumors and common treatments.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly from PubMed articles published in English from 1990 to Febuary 2012.Research terms were "cognitive deficits" or "cognitive dysfunction".Study selection Articals including any information about brain tumor related cognitive deficits were selected.Results It is widely accepted that brain tumors and related treatments can impair cognitive function across manydomains,and can impact on patients' quality of life.Tumor localization,lateralization,surgery,drugs,radiotherapy and chemotherapy are all thought to be important factors in this process.However,some conflicting findings regarding brain tumor-related cognitive deficits have been reported.It can be difficult to determine the mechanism of these treatments,such as chemotherapy,antibiotics,antiepileptics,and steroids.Future research is needed to clarify these potential treatment effects.Conclusions Cognitive function is important for patients with brain tumor.Much more focus has been paid on this field.It should be regarded as an important prognostic index for the patients with brain tumor,and neuropsychological tests should be used in regular examinations.

  3. New approach to optical imaging of tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilefu, Samuel I.; Bugaj, Joseph E.; Dorshow, Richard B.; Jimenez, Hermo N.; Rajagopalan, Raghavan

    2001-07-01

    Site specific delivery of drugs and contrast agents to tumors protects normal tissues from the cytotoxic effect of drugs, and enhances the contrast between normal and diseased tissues. In optical medicine, biocompatible dyes can be used as phototherapeutics or as contrast agents. Previous studies have shown that the use of covalent or non-covalent dye conjugates of carriers such as antibiodies, liposomes, and polysaccharides improves the delivery of such molecules to tumors. However, large biomolecules can elicit adverse immunogenic reactions and also result in long blood clearance times, delaying visualization of target tissues. A viable alternative to this strategy is to use small bioactive molecule-dye conjugates. These molecules have several advantages over large biomolecules, including ease of synthesis of a variety of high purity compounds for combinatorial screening of new targets, enhanced diffusivity to solid tumors, and the ability to affect the pharmacokinetics of the conjugates by minor structural changes. Thus, we conjugated a near infrared absorbing dye to several bioactive peptides that specifically target overexpressed tumor receptors in established rat tumor lines. High tumor uptake of the conjugates was obtained without loss of either the peptide receptor affinity or the dye fluorescence. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of a small peptide-dye conjugate strategy for in vivo tumor imaging. Site-specific delivery of photodynamic therapy agents may also benefit from this approach.

  4. Cyclin B1 Vaccine Delays Spontaneous Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura A, Vella; Min, Yu; Amy, Phillips; Olivera J, Finn

    2012-01-01

    We previously identified cyclin B1-specific T cells and antibodies in cancer patients with cyclin B1+ tumors and also in some healthy individuals. We also demonstrated that these responses may be important in cancer immunosurveillance by showing that vaccination against cyclin B1 prevents growth of transplantable cyclin B1+ tumors in mice. Constitutive overexpression of cyclin B1 was determined to correlate with the lack of p53 function. This allowed us to use p53−/− mice as a model that better approximates human disease. p53−/− mice spontaneously develop cyclin B1+ tumors. At 5–6 weeks of age, when the mice were still healthy with no evidence of tumor, they received the cyclin B1 vaccine and were then observed for tumor growth. We demonstrate that cyclin B1 vaccination can delay spontaneous cyclin B1+ tumor growth and increases median survival of tumor bearing p53−/− mice. PMID:19769738

  5. Fibrogenesis and carcinoid tumor - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fonseca Alves Filho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoid tumors are rare. They may appear in the entire gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, with single or multiple occurrences. Prognosis is dependent on the size and location. Symptoms may appear in carcinoid syndrome, related to active substances, especially serotonin. One important aspect associated with these tumors and usually ignored is fibrogenesis. This is a case report of a patient with carcinoid tumor of the terminal ileum, treated by laparoscopy, associated with fat and fibrosis infiltration.Tumores carcinoides são pouco frequentes, podem surgir em todo o trato gastrointestinal e respiratório, podem ser únicos ou múltiplos. O prognóstico depende do tamanho e da localização do tumor. Podem ocorrer sintomas relacionados à síndrome carcinoide, decorrente da produção de substâncias ativas, em especial serotonina. Um aspecto comumente ignorado associado a estes tumores é a estimulação da fibrogênese. Relatamos um caso de tumor carcinoide de íleo, tratado por videolaparoscopia, associado à infiltração fibroadiposa.

  6. Carcinoid tumor of the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikanne, Elina; Kantola, Olli; Parviainen, Tapani

    2004-08-01

    Although carcinoid tumors are labeled as neuroendocrine tumors they can also originate in tissue lacking neuroendocrine cells, such as that in the middle ear. Symptoms of a carcinoid tumor in the middle ear are common ear symptoms such as fullness, pain and hearing loss. Carcinoid tumors have also been considered to be slow-growing. Both these aspects can easily lead to a relatively late diagnosis of carcinoid tumor of the middle ear. The diagnosis is made histologically, and the tumor is primarily treated surgically. In the follow-up of patients, octreotide scanning has proved to be a sensitive method in cases of both recurrence and metastasis. Our patient was a 34-year-old, otherwise healthy female with left-sided acute otitis media and facial palsy in her left ear. She had also suffered from the same symptoms 4 years earlier. She was treated with an operation, and the histologic diagnosis was a carcinoid tumor. In the follow-up of the patient we used octreotide scanning.

  7. Differentiation of phyllodes tumors versus fibroadenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, E.; Sal, S. [Dokuz Eyluel Univ. Hospital, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology; Lebe, B. [Dokuz Eyluel Univ. Hospital, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Pathology

    2002-04-01

    Purpose: To determine if mammographic and sonographic findings allow discrimination between phyllodes tumor and large sized fibroadenoma, which mimic each other in the clinical, radiologic and histopathologic appearances. Material and Methods: Thirty-one histopathologically proven masses including 12 phyllodes tumors and 19 fibroadenomas 3 cm or greater in diameter were compared. In total 28 women were retrospectively evaluated by mammography and pre-operative sonography. Results: Mammography revealed a high-density mass compared with surrounding fibroglandular breast tissue to be present in 9 of the 12 (75%) phyllodes tumors and 7 of the 19 (37%) fibroadenomas. At sonography a mass, which had a round or lobulated shape, marked posterior acoustic enhancement and intramural cystic areas, were statistically significantly more likely to be phyllodes tumors than fibroadenomas. None of the other mammographic or sonographic characteristics proved to be useful in differentiating phyllodes tumors and fibroadenomas. Conclusion: Although masses of high density at mammography, circumscribed border associated with posterior acoustic enhancement and internal cystic areas at sonography should suggest the diagnosis of phyllodes tumors rather than large sized fibroadenomas, there was a substantial overlap in the mammographic and sonographic characteristics of these two tumors. Therefore, an excisional biopsy would be necessary for equivocal masses.

  8. Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    MORISHITA, ASAHIRO; YONEYAMA, HIROHITO; NOMURA, TAKAKO; SAKAMOTO, TEPPEI; FUJITA, KOJI; TANI, JOJI; MIYOSHI, HISAAKI; HABA, REIJI; MASAKI, TSUTOMU

    2016-01-01

    We herein present a case of an 87-year-old patient with multiple liver tumors identified on abdominal ultrasound. The assessment performed on admission included physical examination, computed tomography (CT) during hepatic angiography and CT during arterial portography. The examination revealed contrast enhancement of a proportion of the liver tumors (20 mm maximum diameter) during the arterial phase and mild contrast washout of those tumors during the delayed phase. On contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging using gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid, certain liver tumors exhibited contrast enhancement during the early phase and contrast washout during the hepatocyte phase in both lobes. By contrast, no lesions were identified during positron emission tomography imaging of the liver. A liver biopsy was performed and immunohistochemical staining revealed enhanced expression of cytokeratin AE1/AE3, synaptophysin, chromogranin A and CD56 and no expression of hepatocyte antigen or CΚ7. The mindbomb E3 ubiquitin protein ligase-1 index was ~2% in most of the tumor. The liver tumors were finally diagnosed as multiple intrahepatic metastases from a primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor (PHNET). The patient underwent transarterial chemoembolisation with a combination of miriplatin (84 mg) mixed with gelatin sponge particles and lipiodol. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of PHNET in an patient aged >85 years. PMID:27284429

  9. Rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, D; Behnke-Mursch, J; Weiss, E; Christen, H J; Kühl, J; Lakomek, M; Pekrun, A

    2000-04-01

    Rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system are rare malignancies with a still almost uniformly fatal outcome. There is still no proven curative therapy available. We report our experience with nine patients with central nervous system rhabdoid tumors. Gross complete surgical removal of the tumor was achieved in six patients. Seven patients received intensive chemotherapy. Four of these were treated in addition with both neuroaxis radiotherapy and a local boost directed to the tumor region, while two patients received local radiotherapy only. The therapy was reasonably well tolerated in most cases. Despite the aggressive therapy, eight of the nine patients died from progressive tumor disease, and one patient died from hemorrhagic brain stem lesions of unknown etiology. The mean survival time was 10 months after diagnosis. Conventional treatment, although aggressive, cannot change the fatal prognosis of central nervous system rhabdoid tumors. As these neoplasms are so rare, a coordinated register would probably be a good idea, offering a means of learning more about the tumor's biology and possible strategies of treatment.

  10. Characterizing intraocular tumors with photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guan; Xue, Yafang; Gursel, Zeynep; Slimani, Naziha; Wang, Xueding; Demirci, Hakan

    2016-03-01

    Intraocular tumors are life-threatening conditions. Long-term mortality from uveal melanoma, which accounts for 80% of primary intraocular tumors, could be as high as 25% depending on the size, ciliary body involvement and extraocular extension. The treatments of intraocular tumors include eye-sparing approaches such as radiotherapy and thermotherapy, and the more aggressive enucleation. The accurate diagnosis of intraocular tumors is thereby critical in the management and follow-up of the patients. The diagnosis of intraocular tumors is usually based on clinical examination with acoustic backscattering based ultrasonography. By analyzing the high frequency fluctuations within the ultrasound (US) signals, microarchitecture information inside the tumor can be characterized. However, US cannot interrogate the histochemical components formulating the microarchitecture. One representative example is the inability of US imaging (and other contemporary imaging modalities as well) in differentiating nevoid and melanoma cells as the two types of cells possesses similar acoustic backscattering properties. Combining optical and US imaging, photoacoustic (PA) measurements encode both the microarchitecture and histochemical component information in biological tissue. This study attempts to characterize ocular tumors by analyzing the high frequency signal components in the multispectral PA images. Ex vivo human eye globes with melanoma and retinoblastoma tumors were scanned using less than 6 mJ per square centimeters laser energy with tunable range of 600-1700 nm. A PA-US parallel imaging system with US probes CL15-7 and L22-14 were used to acquire the high frequency PA signals in real time. Preliminary results show that the proposed method can identify uveal melanoma against retinoblastoma tumors.

  11. Secondary ovarian tumors: Evaluation of 44 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgiye KAÇAR ÖZKARA

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary ovarian tumors compose 3-8% of all, and 10-30% of malignant ovarian tumors. Histopathological features of SOT diagnosed in our department in 10-year period are discussed. Macroscopical, microscopical, immunohistochemical and cytopathological features of secondary ovarian tumors diagnosed between 1997- 2006 were re-evaluated. Additional histochemical and immunohistochemical studies were applied to find the primaries. Data was statistically evaluated. Totally, 44 secondary ovarian tumors had been diagnosed within this period. The mean age of the patients was 52.9 years; the mean tumor diameter was 103.7 mm.The primary was gastrointestinal system in 50% of the cases. Ten of them (22.7% were metastases of signet ring cell carcinoma of stomach (Kruckenberg tumor while 9 cases (20.5% were from colorectal and three (6.8% were from appendiceal adenocarcinomas. 27.3% of our cases were originated from genital tract. Synchronous endometrioid adenocarcinomas of corpus uteri and ovary were seen in six cases (13.6%. Ovarian involvement of serous carcinomas of corpus uteri was seen in five (11.4% cases. Ovarian metastases of breast carcinoma in four cases (9.1% were seen while the ovarian involvement of adrenal cortical and tubal carcinomas was observed in one case, each. The primary was peritoneal surface in five (11.4% of the cases. Tumors were bilateral in 65.9% of the cases, and there was statistically significant correlation between the bilaterality rate of the tumors and the primary (p=0.015.The more precise diagnosis of secondary ovarian tumors could be reached by evaluation of clinical, surgical, macroscopical, microscopical, cytopathological and immunohistochemical findings together.

  12. Giant cell tumor of bone: Multimodal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical behavior and treatment of giant cell tumor of bone is still perplexing. The aim of this study is to clarify the clinico-pathological correlation of tumor and its relevance in treatment and prognosis. Materials and Methods: Ninety -three cases of giant cell tumor were treated during 1980-1990 by different methods. The age of the patients varied from 18-58 yrs with male and female ratio as 5:4. The upper end of the tibia was most commonly involved (n=31, followed by the lower end of the femur(n=21, distal end of radius(n=14,upper end of fibula (n=9,proximal end of femur(n=5, upper end of the humerus(n=3, iliac bone(n=2,phalanx (n=2 and spine(n=1. The tumors were also encountered on uncommon sites like metacarpals (n=4 and metatarsal(n=1. Fifty four cases were treated by curettage and bone grafting. Wide excision and reconstruction was performed in twenty two cases . Nine cases were treated by wide excision while primary amputation was performed in four cases. One case required only curettage. Three inaccessible lesions of ilium and spine were treated by radiotherapy. Results: 19 of 54 treated by curettage and bone grafting showed a recurrence. The repeat curettage and bone grafting was performed in 18 cases while amputation was done in one. One each out of the cases treated by wide excision and reconstruction and wide excision alone recurred. In this study we observed that though curettage and bone grafting is still the most commonly adopted treatment, wide excision of tumor with reconstruction has shown lesser recurrence. Conclusion: For radiologically well-contained and histologically typical tumor, curettage and autogenous bone grafting is the treatment of choice . The typical tumors with radiologically deficient cortex, clinically aggressive tumors and tumors with histological Grade III should be treated by wide excision and reconstruction.

  13. A Global Approach to Tumor Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ena Wang; Monica C Panelli; Vladia Monsurró; Francesco M Marincola

    2004-01-01

    Biological and clinical advances in the understanding of tumor immunology suggest that immune responsiveness of human tumors is a complex biological phenomenon that could be best studied by a real-time comparison of tumor/host interactions in the tumor microenvironment through a high-throughput discovery-driven approach. This conclusion is derived from our recognition that too many hypotheses or, in other words, no solid single hypothesis exist, based on experimental results, to further drive experimentation in human subjects. Functional genomic studies entertained during the last few years consolidated the belief that in humans the interactions between tumor and immune cells are too complex to be approached exclusively with a hypothesis driven method. We believe that immune cells suit cancer cells in a Yin and Yang balance by opposing and yet mutually depending on each other. Indeed, immune infiltration in tumors may play a dual role modulating in different circumstances cancer cell growth or destruction through a physiological modulation of inflammation. It is reasonable to question what induces inflammation at the tumor site. We hypothesize that inflammation is primarily driven by the phenotype of tumor cells that can modulate their microenvironment through cell-to-cell interactions or the secretion of soluble factors. Thus, in analogy the observation of immune cells within tumors parallels the presence of paramedics, police and firemen at the scene of an accident, which is reactive to and not causative of the occurrence. In this review we will explore this hypothesis by reporting and summarizing most of our recent work in the frame of available literature on the subject.

  14. A Global Approach to Tumor Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EnaWang; MonicaCPanelli; VladiaMonsurró; FrancescoMMarincola

    2004-01-01

    Biological and clinical advances in the understanding of tumor immunology suggest that immune responsiveness of human tumors is a complex biological phenomenon that could be best studied by a real-time comparison of tumor/host interactions in the tumor microenvironment through a high-throughput discovery-driven approach. This conclusion is derived from our recognition that too many hypotheses or, in other words, no solid single hypothesis exist, based on experimental results, to further drive experimentation in human subjects. Functional genomic studies entertained during the last few years consolidated the belief that in humans the interactions between tumor and immune cells are too complex to be approached exclusively with a hypothesis driven method. We believe that immune cells suit cancer cells in a Yin and Yang balance by opposing and yet mutually depending on each other. Indeed, immune infiltration in tumors may play a dual role modulating in different circumstances cancer cell growth or destruction through a physiological modulation of inflammation. It is reasonable to question what induces inflammation at the tumor site. We hypothesize that inflammation is primarily driven by the phenotype of tumor cells that can modulate theirmicroenvironment through cell-to-cell interactions or the secretion of soluble factors. Thus, in analogy the observation of immune cells within tumors parallels the presence of paramedics, police and firemen at thescene of an accident, which is reactive to and not causative of the occurrence. In this review we will explore this hypothesis by reporting and summarizing most of our recent work in the frame of available literature on the subject. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  15. [Histological aspects of naso-ethmoidal tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnot, F

    1997-01-01

    Among malignant neoplasms of the sino-nasal tract, tumors of the nasal vault have special features: their higher incidence in woodworkers, their frequent local recurrence and invasiveness in the skull base. Histologically too, they are peculiar by the predominance of the glandular tumors, of colonic or enteric type especially. Microscopic examination allows histological grading of these adenocarcinoma. Squamous carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are less frequent than in other parts of the sinonasal tract. Rare other tumors, often undifferentiated, can be diagnosed by immuno-staining as esthesioneuroblastomas, malignant melanomas, neuro-endocrine carcinomas, malignant lymphomas or sarcomas. A retrospective study of 147 patients yielded similar data.

  16. Dynamic perfusion CT in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Timothy Pok Chi; Bauman, Glenn; Yartsev, Slav; Fainardi, Enrico; Macdonald, David; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic perfusion CT (PCT) is an imaging technique for assessing the vascular supply and hemodynamics of brain tumors by measuring blood flow, blood volume, and permeability-surface area product. These PCT parameters provide information complementary to histopathologic assessments and have been used for grading brain tumors, distinguishing high-grade gliomas from other brain lesions, differentiating true progression from post-treatment effects, and predicting prognosis after treatments. In this review, the basic principles of PCT are described, and applications of PCT of brain tumors are discussed. The advantages and current challenges, along with possible solutions, of PCT are presented.

  17. [Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the vagus nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegbessou, E; Diom, E S; Ndiaye, M; Dieng, P A; Nao, E E M; Thiam, A; Diouf, M S; Boube, D; Ndiaye, C; Kossinda, F; Tall, A; Diallo, B K; Ndiaye, I C; Diouf, R; Diop, E M

    2013-12-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors are a rare type of malignant neuroectodermal tumor that is very aggressive. Cervicofacial location is rare, even exceptional. We report a case of a 4-month-old male infant, referred from the pediatric clinic for severe supralaryngeal dyspnea, a firm mass under the left mandibular angle, mobile and extended to the parotid area, painful, with a curve of the left side wall of the oropharynx. Cervical computed tomodensitometry showed a well-limited mass in the carotid area, enhanced by the contrast product. A vascularized mass, which had developed at the expense of the vagus nerve, was removed surgically. Histology found a primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

  18. Augmented reality for breast tumors visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Mohammad Ali; Heydarzadeh, Mehrdad; Nourani, Mehrdad; Gupta, Gopal; Tamil, Lakshman

    2016-08-01

    3D visualization of breast tumors are shown to be effective by previous studies. In this paper, we introduce a new augmented reality application that can help doctors and surgeons to have a more accurate visualization of breast tumors; this system uses a marker-based image-processing technique to render a 3D model of the tumors on the body. The model can be created using a combination of breast 3D mammography by experts. We have tested the system using an Android smartphone and a head-mounted device. This proof of concept can be useful for oncologists to have a more effective screening, and surgeons to plan the surgery.

  19. Mitochondrial Akt Regulation of Hypoxic Tumor Reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Young Chan; Vaira, Valentina; Caino, M Cecilia; Tang, Hsin-Yao; Seo, Jae Ho; Kossenkov, Andrew V; Ottobrini, Luisa; Martelli, Cristina; Lucignani, Giovanni; Bertolini, Irene; Locatelli, Marco; Bryant, Kelly G; Ghosh, Jagadish C; Lisanti, Sofia; Ku, Bonsu; Bosari, Silvano; Languino, Lucia R; Speicher, David W; Altieri, Dario C

    2016-08-08

    Hypoxia is a universal driver of aggressive tumor behavior, but the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Using a phosphoproteomics screen, we now show that active Akt accumulates in the mitochondria during hypoxia and phosphorylates pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1) on Thr346 to inactivate the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. In turn, this pathway switches tumor metabolism toward glycolysis, antagonizes apoptosis and autophagy, dampens oxidative stress, and maintains tumor cell proliferation in the face of severe hypoxia. Mitochondrial Akt-PDK1 signaling correlates with unfavorable prognostic markers and shorter survival in glioma patients and may provide an "actionable" therapeutic target in cancer.

  20. Localization of thymosin ß-4 in tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Lars-Inge; Holck, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Overexpression of thymosin ß-4 has been linked to malignant progression but the localization of this polypeptide within tumor is incompletely known. We therefore examined breast cancers for thymosin ß-4 using immunofluorescence. Reactive cells were identified with monoclonal cell marker antibodies...... cells (SK-BR-3) with 1-4 µg thymosin ß-4/mL significantly increased cell numbers, as determined by MTT-assays. These data reveal an unexpected cellular heterogeneity of thymosin ß-4 expression in breast and colonic carcinomas and suggest that local release of this polypeptide in the tumor...... microenvironment may modulate tumor behavior....

  1. Immune suppressive mechanisms in the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, David H; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Effective immunotherapy, whether by checkpoint blockade or adoptive cell therapy, is limited in most patients by a key barrier: the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Suppression of tumor-specific T cells is orchestrated by the activity of a variety of stromal myeloid and lymphoid cells. These often display inducible suppressive mechanisms that are triggered by the same anti-tumor inflammatory response that the immunotherapy intends to create. Therefore, a more comprehensive understanding of how the immunosuppressive milieu develops and persists is critical in order to harness the full power of immunotherapy of cancer.

  2. High tumor uptake of (64)Cu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jesper Tranekjær; Persson, Morten; Madsen, Jacob;

    2013-01-01

    The use of copper-based positron emission tomography (PET) tracers in cancer studies is increasing. However, as copper has previously been found in high concentrations in human tumor tissue in vivo, instability of PET tracers could result in tumor accumulation of non-tracer-bound radioactive copper...... that may influence PET measurements. Here we determine the degree of (64)Cu uptake in five commonly used human cancer xenograft models in mice. Additionally, we compare copper accumulation in tumor tissue to gene expression of human copper transporter 1 (CTR1)....

  3. Cowden Syndrome and Concomitant Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Seppo W; Ringholm, Lene; Dali, Christine I;

    2015-01-01

    Cowden Syndrome is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder. Patients with Cowden Syndrome are at increased risk of various benign and malignant neoplasms in breast, endometrium, thyroid, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary system. Neuroendocrine tumors are ubiquitous neoplasms that may...... occur anywhere in the human body. Bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors include four different histological subtypes, among these, typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoids. No association between Cowden Syndrome and neuroendocrine tumors has previously been described. We present two cases of Cowden...... Syndrome that were diagnosed with pulmonary carcinoids....

  4. Liposomal cancer therapy: exploiting tumor characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2010-01-01

    of cancer treatments. In the search for more effective cancer treatments, nanoparticle- based drug delivery systems, such as liposomes, that are capable of delivering their drug payload selectively to cancer cells are among the most promising approaches. Areas covered in this review: This review provides...... of new liposomal drug delivery systems that better exploit tumor characteristic features is likely to result in more efficacious cancer treatments....... an overview of current strategies for improving the different stages of liposomal cancer therapy, which involve transporting drug-loaded liposomes through the bloodstream, increasing tumor accumulation, and improving drug release and cancer cell uptake after accumulation at the tumor target site. What...

  5. Retrotracheal thymoma masquerading as esophageal submucosal tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheung-Fat Ko; Yuan-Hsiung Tsai; Hsuan-Ying Huang; Shu-Hang Ng; Fu-Ming Fang; Yeh Tang; Ming-Tse Sung; Ming-Jang Hsieh

    2005-01-01

    A 42-year-old man presented with a two-year history of progressive dysphagia and hoarseness. Esophagogram and endoscopy revealed submucosal mass effect on the upper esophagus. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an elongated mass in the retrotracheal region of the lower neck with extension to the posterior mediastinum. Partial tumor resection and histopathological evaluation revealed a WHO type B2 thymoma. Adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy were subsequently administered resulting in complete tumor regression. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ectopic retrotracheal thymoma with clinical and imaging manifestations mimicking those for esophageal submucosal tumor.

  6. Ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (borderline tumors): immune morphology and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunteufel, W; Gitsch, G; Schieder, K; Kölbl, H; Breitenecker, G

    1989-01-01

    CA 125, CA 19-9 and CEA were demonstrated in tissue samples of 30 ovarian borderline tumors by immunohistochemistry. Of the 21 serous and 9 mucinous borderline tumors, 23 were in stage I and 7 stage III. None of the patients died of disease. All mucinous borderline tumors were CA 125 negative, 89% CA 19-9 positive and 44% CEA positive. 62% of the serous borderline tumors were CA 125 positive, 52% CA 19-9 and 19% CEA positive. Tumors of low malignant potential responded to CA 19-9 like invasive carcinomas. The incidence of positive responses to CA 125 ands CEA fell between that of benign and malignant tumors. The marker pattern did not correlate with tumor stage and cytological grading. The biological behavior of ovarian borderline tumors ranges between that of benign tumors and invasive carcinomas and cannot be classified as definitely belonging to either group. It is plausible that they are primarily of the borderline type, and not benign tumors that undergo malignant degeneration.

  7. Canine parvovirus NS1 protein exhibits anti-tumor activity in a mouse mammary tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Yadav, Pavan Kumar; Gandham, Ravi Kumar; Sahoo, A P; Harish, D R; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Tiwari, A K

    2016-02-02

    Many viral proteins have the ability to kill tumor cells specifically without harming the normal cells. These proteins, on ectopic expression, cause lysis or induction of apoptosis in the target tumor cells. Parvovirus NS1 is one of such proteins, which is known to kill high proliferating tumor cells. In the present study, we assessed the apoptosis inducing ability of canine parvovirus type 2 NS1 protein (CPV2.NS1) in vitro in 4T1 cells, and found it to cause significant cell death due to induction of apoptosis through intrinsic or mitochondrial pathway. Further, we also evaluated the oncolytic activity of CPV2.NS1 protein in a mouse mammary tumor model. The results suggested that CPV2.NS1 was able to inhibit the growth of 4T1 induced mouse mammary tumor as indicated by significantly reduced tumor volume, mitotic, AgNOR and PCNA indices. Further, inhibition of tumor growth was found to be because of induction of apoptosis in the tumor cells, which was evident by a significant increase in the number of TUNEL positive cells. Further, CPV2.NS1 was also able to stimulate the immune cells against the tumor antigens as indicated by the increased CD4+ and CD8+ counts in the blood of CVP2.NS1 treated mice. Further optimization of the delivery of NS1 protein and use of an adjuvant may further enhance its anti-tumor activity.

  8. Adult thoracic primitive neuroectodermal tumor - clinical, radiological and pathological features; Tumor neuroectodermico primitivo toracico em adulto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setubal, Roger; Santos, Leynalze Lins Ramos; Georges, Silvana Habib; Souza, Ricardo Pires de [Hospital Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Diagnostico por Imagem; Menezes, Yara de [Hospital heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Patologia; Gomes, Marcio Rogerio Alcala; Mayo, Suzete Varela; Leiro, Luis Carlos Filgueira [Hospital Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Pneumologia e Cirurgia Toracica

    1997-03-01

    Precise diagnosis of small round cell tumors, which include the thoracic primitive neuroectodermal tumor, is often a challenge to the clinical, oncologist, radiologist and pathologist. Different terms have been used to designate these tumors, depending on their location and extent of neural differentiation. With the progress of immuno-histochemical and cytogenetic diagnosis method, some of this tumors are now classified a unique clinical entity with several locations and mode of presentation. Therefore, tumors-like peripheral neuro epithelioma, Askin`s tumor, adult neuroblastoma, and primitive neuroectodermal tumor are now named peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor. The most common location of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor is the thorax, and the mean age are close of the adolescence. This study reports the clinical, radiological and pathological features of 5 adults (3 men and 2 women) seen at the Hospital Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP Brazil, between 1991 and 1995 (5 years), with diagnosis of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor made by immuno-histochemical and pathological studies. The mean age of the patients was 34 years, ranged between 17 and 57 years, and the most common location was the chest wall (n=3), followed by the posterior mediastinum (n=2). All the patients were symptomatic and undergone plain films and computed tomography. (author) 12 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Tumor-Associated Macrophages as Major Players in the Tumor Microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanmee, Theerawut [Institute of Advanced Technology, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Ontong, Pawared [Division of Engineering (Biotechnology), Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Konno, Kenjiro [Department of Animal Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Itano, Naoki, E-mail: itanon@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Technology, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Division of Engineering (Biotechnology), Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Department of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2014-08-13

    During tumor progression, circulating monocytes and macrophages are actively recruited into tumors where they alter the tumor microenvironment to accelerate tumor progression. Macrophages shift their functional phenotypes in response to various microenvironmental signals generated from tumor and stromal cells. Based on their function, macrophages are divided broadly into two categories: classical M1 and alternative M2 macrophages. The M1 macrophage is involved in the inflammatory response, pathogen clearance, and antitumor immunity. In contrast, the M2 macrophage influences an anti-inflammatory response, wound healing, and pro-tumorigenic properties. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) closely resemble the M2-polarized macrophages and are critical modulators of the tumor microenvironment. Clinicopathological studies have suggested that TAM accumulation in tumors correlates with a poor clinical outcome. Consistent with that evidence, experimental and animal studies have supported the notion that TAMs can provide a favorable microenvironment to promote tumor development and progression. In this review article, we present an overview of mechanisms responsible for TAM recruitment and highlight the roles of TAMs in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, immunosuppression, and chemotherapeutic resistance. Finally, we discuss TAM-targeting therapy as a promising novel strategy for an indirect cancer therapy.

  10. Biodegradable polymeric micelle-encapsulated doxorubicin suppresses tumor metastasis by killing circulating tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Senyi; Wu, Qinjie; Zhao, Yuwei; Zheng, Xin; Wu, Ni; Pang, Jing; Li, Xuejing; Bi, Cheng; Liu, Xinyu; Yang, Li; Liu, Lei; Su, Weijun; Wei, Yuquan; Gong, Changyang

    2015-03-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play a crucial role in tumor metastasis, but it is rare for any chemotherapy regimen to focus on killing CTCs. Herein, we describe doxorubicin (Dox) micelles that showed anti-metastatic activity by killing CTCs. Dox micelles with a small particle size and high encapsulation efficiency were obtained using a pH-induced self-assembly method. Compared with free Dox, Dox micelles exhibited improved cytotoxicity, apoptosis induction, and cellular uptake. In addition, Dox micelles showed a sustained release behavior in vitro, and in a transgenic zebrafish model, Dox micelles exhibited a longer circulation time and lower extravasation from blood vessels into surrounding tissues. Anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities of Dox micelles were investigated in transgenic zebrafish and mouse models. In transgenic zebrafish, Dox micelles inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing zebrafish. Furthermore, Dox micelles suppressed tumor metastasis by killing CTCs. In addition, improved anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities were also confirmed in mouse tumor models, where immunofluorescent staining of tumors indicated that Dox micelles induced more apoptosis and showed fewer proliferation-positive cells. There were decreased side effects in transgenic zebrafish and mice after administration of Dox micelles. In conclusion, Dox micelles showed stronger anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities and decreased side effects both in vitro and in vivo, which may have potential applications in cancer therapy.

  11. An unusual mixed germ cell tumor of the testis consisting of rhabdomyosarcoma, mature teratoma and yolk sac tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva Lovri(c); Dubravka Bobonj Hi(z)ak; Melita Peri(c) Balja; Tanja Leni(c)ek; Bo(z)o Kru(s)lin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, We recently encountered a rare case of testicular mixed germ cell tumor (MGCT) in a 32-year-old man. The tumor was composed of a combination of a yolk sac tumor, teratoma and rhabdomyosarcomatous somatic type malignancy.

  12. Tumor growth inhibition through targeting liposomally bound curcumin to tumor vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Goutam; Barui, Sugata; Saha, Soumen; Chaudhuri, Arabinda

    2013-12-28

    Increasing number of Phase I/II clinical studies have demonstrated clinical potential of curcumin for treatment of various types of human cancers. Despite significant anti-tumor efficacies and bio-safety profiles of curcumin, poor systemic bioavailability is retarding its clinical success. Efforts are now being directed toward developing stable formulations of curcumin using various drug delivery systems. To this end, herein we report on the development of a new tumor vasculature targeting liposomal formulation of curcumin containing a lipopeptide with RGDK-head group and two stearyl tails, di-oleyolphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) and cholesterol. We show that essentially water insoluble curcumin can be solubilized in fairly high concentrations (~500 μg/mL) in such formulation. Findings in the Annexin V/Propidium iodide (PI) binding based flow cytometric assays showed significant apoptosis inducing properties of the present curcumin formulation in both endothelial (HUVEC) and tumor (B16F10) cells. Using syngeneic mouse tumor model, we show that growth of solid melanoma tumor can be inhibited by targeting such liposomal formulation of curcumin to tumor vasculature. Results in immunohistochemical staining of the tumor cryosections are consistent with tumor growth inhibition being mediated by apoptosis of tumor endothelial cells. Findings in both in vitro and in vivo mechanistic studies are consistent with the supposition that the presently described liposomal formulation of curcumin inhibits tumor growth by blocking VEGF-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in tumor endothelium. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on inhibiting tumor growth through targeting liposomal formulation of curcumin to tumor vasculatures.

  13. Mediastinal tumors. Report of 29 operated patients. Tumores de mediastino. Reporte de 29 pacientes operados.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístides Sánchez Sánchez

    Full Text Available Background: Surgery is the unique possibility of cure of survival with life quality for patients with tumor or mediastinal mass. Objective: To describe the results of surgical procedures in patients with mediastinal tumor. Methods: Descriptive, retrospective study of 29 patients operated after being diagnosed with mediastinal tumor in a period of 17 years (1986-2002. Studied variables were: tumor´s locus in the mediastinum, tumor nature, histological diagnosis and strategies regarding surgical approach. Findings: There was a prevalence of benign tumors (81,8% and the most frequent locus was anterior mediastinum. Conclusions: These findings agree with previous studies, mainly regarding tumors´ locus and nature.
    Fundamento: La cirugía es la única posibilidad de curación o de supervivencia con calidad de vida, de los pacientes con diagnóstico de tumor o masa mediastinal. Objetivo: Describir los resultados de los procedimientos quirúrgicos en pacientes con diagnóstico de tumor de mediastino. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de una serie de 29 pacientes operados tras el diagnóstico de tumor de mediastino, en un período de 17 años (1986-2002. Las variables estudiadas fueron: localización de la tumoración en el mediastino, naturaleza del tumor, diagnóstico histológico y estrategias en cuanto al abordaje quirúrgico. Resultados: Predominaron los tumores benignos (81,8 % así como la localización en el mediastino anterior. Conclusiones: Los resultados concuerdan, en gran medida, con otros estudios realizados sobre este tema, pero sobre todo en lo referente a la naturaleza y localización de los tumores.

  14. Selected anti-tumor vaccines merit a place in multimodal tumor therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Weiss

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal approaches are nowadays successfully applied in cancer therapy. Primary locally acting therapies such as radiotherapy (RT and surgery are combined with systemic administration of chemotherapeutics. Nevertheless, the therapy of cancer is still a big challenge in medicine. The treatments often fail to induce long lasting anti-tumor responses. Tumor recurrences and metastases result. Immunotherapies are therefore ideal adjuncts to standard tumor therapies since they aim to activate the patient`s immune system against malignant cells even outside the primary treatment areas (abscopal effects. Especially cancer vaccines may have the potential both to train the immune system against cancer cells and to generate an immunological memory, resulting in long-lasting anti-tumor effects. However, despite promising results in phase I and II studies, most of the concepts finally failed. There are some critical aspects in development and application of cancer vaccines that may decide on their efficiency. The time point and frequency of medication, usage of an adequate immune adjuvant, the vaccine’s immunogenic potential, and the tumor burden of the patient are crucial. Whole tumor cell vaccines have advantages compared to peptide-based ones since a variety of tumor antigens are present. The master requirements of cell-based, therapeutic tumor vaccines are the complete inactivation of the tumor cells and the increase of their immunogenicity. Since the latter is highly connected with the cell death modality, the inactivation procedure of the tumor cell material may significantly influence the vaccine’s efficiency. We therefore also introduce high hydrostatic pressure (HHP as an innovative inactivation technology for tumor cell based vaccines and outline that HHP efficiently inactivates tumor cells by enhancing their immunogenicity. Finally studies are presented proving that anti-tumor immune responses can be triggered by combining RT with selected

  15. Bleomycin treatment of brain tumors: an evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnert, Mette; Gehl, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Bleomycin has been used in the treatment of brain tumors for over 30 years. Currently, we are evaluating electrochemotherapy (the use of electric pulses to enhance uptake of bleomycin) for patients with secondary brain tumors. We, therefore, reviewed the literature with specific reference...... to the tolerability and toxicity of bleomycin. Using the keywords 'brain' and 'bleomycin', a database search without date restriction was performed and over 500 articles were found. Twenty-five articles were used for this study based on relevance determined by: (i) clinical studies, (ii) use of bleomycin, and (iii......) direct injection into brain tissue or cysts. There were two main indications for the use of bleomycin directly into the brain: (i) cystic tumors in the form of craniopharyngiomas and (ii) solid brain tumors such as glioblastomas and astrocytomas. The most frequent adverse effects reported were transient...

  16. Exploiting the mutanome for tumor vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castle, J.C.; Kreiter, S.; Diekmann, J.; Lower, M.; Roemer, N. van de; Graaf, J. de; Selmi, A.; Diken, M.; Boegel, S.; Paret, C.; Koslowski, M.; Kuhn, A.N.; Britten, C.M.; Huber, C.; Tureci, O.; Sahin, U.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple genetic events and subsequent clonal evolution drive carcinogenesis, making disease elimination with single-targeted drugs difficult. The multiplicity of gene mutations derived from clonal heterogeneity therefore represents an ideal setting for multiepitope tumor vaccination. Here, we used

  17. Harnessing Dendritic Cells for Tumor Antigen Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nierkens, Stefan [Department of Tumor Immunology, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 28, Nijmegen 6525 GA (Netherlands); Janssen, Edith M., E-mail: edith.janssen@cchmc.org [Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Research Foundation, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)

    2011-04-26

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells that are crucial for the induction of anti-tumor T cell responses. As a consequence, research has focused on the harnessing of DCs for therapeutic interventions. Although current strategies employing ex vivo-generated and tumor-antigen loaded DCs have been proven feasible, there are still many obstacles to overcome in order to improve clinical trial successes and offset the cost and complexity of customized cell therapy. This review focuses on one of these obstacles and a pivotal step for the priming of tumor-specific CD8{sup +} and CD4{sup +} T cells; the in vitro loading of DCs with tumor antigens.

  18. ARF tumor suppression in the nucleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Leonard B; Winkeler, Crystal L; Miceli, Alexander P; Apicelli, Anthony J; Brady, Suzanne N; Kuchenreuther, Michael J; Weber, Jason D

    2014-06-01

    Since its discovery close to twenty years ago, the ARF tumor suppressor has played a pivotal role in the field of cancer biology. Elucidating ARF's basal physiological function in the cell has been the focal interest of numerous laboratories throughout the world for many years. Our current understanding of ARF is constantly evolving to include novel frameworks for conceptualizing the regulation of this critical tumor suppressor. As a result of this complexity, there is great need to broaden our understanding of the intricacies governing the biology of the ARF tumor suppressor. The ARF tumor suppressor is a key sensor of signals that instruct a cell to grow and proliferate and is appropriately localized in nucleoli to limit these processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Role of the Nucleolus in Human Disease.

  19. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (gist) of the duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfar, Shahriyar; Sial, Khadim S; Quraishy, M S

    2007-06-01

    This is a report of a rare gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the duodenum in a 75 years old man who presented with recurrent episodes of intestinal obstruction and melena. The patient underwent successful Whipple's procedure.

  20. Askin tumors; Tumeurs d'Askin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khouchani, M.; Moataz Billah, N.; Sellal, N.; Benchakroun, N.; Jouhadi, H.; Tawfiq, N.; Sahraoui, S.; Benider, A. [Centre d' Oncologie Ibn-Rochd, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2007-11-15

    The tumor of Askin is characterized by its aggressiveness and her unfavourable prognostic. There is no therapeutic consensus, so there is an interest to include the patients in multi centric therapeutic essays to have codified attitudes. (N.C.)