Sample records for caso4 oxygen carrier

  1. Tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Fan, Yueying


    The disclosure provides a tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carrier for the chemical looping combustion of carbonaceous fuels. The tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carrier comprises, where is a chemical composition. Generally, 0.5.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.2.0, 0.2.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.2.5, and 0.2.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.2.5, and in some embodiments, 0.8.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.2, y.ltoreq.1.2, and z.gtoreq.0.8. The tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carrier may be used in various applications for the combustion of carbonaceous fuels, including as an oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion.

  2. Comparison of oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Marcus


    Full Text Available Chemical-looping combustion is a combustion technology with inherent separation of the greenhouse gas CO2. This technique involves combustion of fossil fuels by means of an oxygen carrier which transfers oxygen from the air to the fuel. In this manner a decrease in efficiency is avoided for the energy demanding separation of CO2 from the rest of the flue gases. Results from fifty oxygen carriers based on iron-, manganese- and nickel oxides on different inert materials are compared. The particles were prepared using freeze granulation, sintered at different temperatures and sieved to a size 125-180 mm. To simulate the environment the particles would be exposed to in a chemical-looping combustor, reactivity tests under alternating oxidizing and reducing conditions were performed in a laboratory fluidized bed-reactor of quartz. Reduction was performed in 50% CH4/50% H2O while the oxidation was carried out in 5% O2 in nitrogen. In general nickel particles are the most reactive, followed by manganese. Iron particles are harder but have a lower reactivity. An increase in sintering temperatures normally leads to an increase in strength and decrease in reactivity. Several particles investigated display a combination of high reactivity and strength as well as good fluidization behavior, and are feasible for use as oxygen carriers in chemical-looping combustion.

  3. Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James


    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  4. Effects of Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers on Blood Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimia Roghani


    Full Text Available For many decades, Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs have been central in the development of resuscitation agents that might provide oxygen delivery in addition to simple volume expansion. Since 80% of the world population lives in areas where fresh blood products are not available, the application of these new solutions may prove to be highly beneficial (Kim and Greenburg 2006. Many improvements have been made to earlier generation HBOCs, but various concerns still remain, including coagulopathy, nitric oxide scavenging, platelet interference and decreased calcium concentration secondary to volume expansion (Jahr et al. 2013. This review will summarize the current challenges faced in developing HBOCs that may be used clinically, in order to guide future research efforts in the field.

  5. Evaluation of different oxygen carriers for biomass tar reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiara, Teresa; Johansen, Joakim Myung; Utrilla, Rubén


    This work is a continuation of a previous paper by the authors [1] which analyzed the suitability of the Chemical Looping technology in biomass tar reforming. Four different oxygen carriers were tested with toluene as tar model compound: 60% NiO/MgAl2O4 (Ni60), 40% NiO/NiAl2O4 (Ni40), 40% Mn3O4/Mg...... the amount of carbon deposited. The presence of CO2 could also decrease the carbon deposited on Ni40 at 1073K. According to both these and the previous results [1], it can be concluded that Mn40 is the most adequate for minimization of carbon deposition in Chemical Looping Reforming (CLR)....

  6. Evaluation of different oxygen carriers for biomass tar reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiara, Teresa; Johansen, Joakim Myung; Utrilla, Rubén


    , in a concentration of 600–2000ppmv, was chosen as a tar model compound. Experiments were performed in a TGA apparatus and a fixed bed reactor. Four oxygen carriers (60% NiO/MgAl2O4 (Ni60), 40% NiO/NiAl2O4 (Ni40), 40% Mn3O4/Mg–ZrO2 (Mn40) and FeTiO3 (Fe)) were tested under alternating reducing/oxidizing cycles...... deposition compared to Mn40, specially at high temperatures. Carbon deposition could be controlled by decreasing the temperature and the time for the reduction step. The addition of water also reduced the amount of carbon deposited, which was completely avoided working with a H2O/C7H8 molar ratio of 26.4....

  7. From artificial red blood cells, oxygen carriers, and oxygen therapeutics to artificial cells, nanomedicine, and beyond. (United States)

    Chang, Thomas M S


    The first experimental artificial red blood cells have all three major functions of red blood cells (rbc). However, the first practical one is a simple polyhemoglobin (PolyHb) that only has an oxygen-carrying function. This is now in routine clinical use in South Africa and Russia. An oxygen carrier with antioxidant functions, PolyHb-catalase-superoxide dismutase, can fulfill two of the three functions of rbc. Even more complete is one with all three functions of rbc in the form of PolyHb-catalase-superoxide dismutase-carbonic anhydrase. The most advanced ones are nanodimension artificial rbc with either PEG-lipid membrane or PEG-PLA polymer membrane. Extensions into oxygen therapeutics include a PolyHb-tyrosinase that suppresses the growth of melanoma in a mice model. Another is a PolyHb-fibrinogen that is an oxygen carrier with platelet-like function. Research has now extended well beyond the original research on artificial rbc into many areas of artificial cells. These include nanoparticles, nanotubules, lipid vesicles, liposomes, polymer-tethered lipid vesicles, polymersomes, microcapsules, bioencapsulation, nanocapules, macroencapsulation, synthetic cells, and others. These are being used in nanotechnology, nanomedicine, regenerative medicine, enzyme/gene therapy, cell/stem cell therapy, biotechnology, drug delivery, hemoperfusion, nanosensers, and even by some groups in agriculture, industry, aquatic culture, nanocomputers, and nanorobotics.

  8. Enhancement of microalgal growth by using perfluorocarbon as oxygen carrier. (United States)

    Wasanasathian, A; Peng, C A


    The contribution of green microalgae has been recognized in the production of useful products such as chemicals, fatty acids, proteins, carotenoids, pigments, polysaccharides, and pharmaceuticals. One of the challenges to the development of profitable bioproduct markets is the design, development, modeling, and evaluation of cost-effective production systems. The photobioreactors for microalgae can be either open or closed systems in large-scale production. In various situations, it has been reported that closed photobioreactors offer many advantages over open systems. These advantages include lower contamination, higher biomass densities, and better process control. Nevertheless, for the scale-up of enclosed tubular photobioreactors, the accumulation of oxygen as a photosynthetic byproduct has been a major limitation because it severely inhibits growth of microalgae. In this study, we use the distinctive feature of liquid perfluorocarbons (PFCs) as a carrier that efficiently removes the accumulated oxygen from algal medium phase in the spinner culture flasks. The results show the growth kinetics of microalgae cultivated by this approach is significantly improved.

  9. Syngas Generation from Methane Using a Chemical-Looping Concept: A Review of Oxygen Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongzhai Li


    Full Text Available Conversion of methane to syngas using a chemical-looping concept is a novel method for syngas generation. This process is based on the transfer of gaseous oxygen source to fuel (e.g., methane by means of a cycling process using solid oxides as oxygen carriers to avoid direct contact between fuel and gaseous oxygen. Syngas is produced through the gas-solid reaction between methane and solid oxides (oxygen carriers, and then the reduced oxygen carriers can be regenerated by a gaseous oxidant, such as air or water. The oxygen carrier is recycled between the two steps, and the syngas with a ratio of H2/CO = 2.0 can be obtained successively. Air is used instead of pure oxygen allowing considerable cost savings, and the separation of fuel from the gaseous oxidant avoids the risk of explosion and the dilution of product gas with nitrogen. The design and elaboration of suitable oxygen carriers is a key issue to optimize this method. As one of the most interesting oxygen storage materials, ceria-based and perovskite oxides were paid much attention for this process. This paper briefly introduced the recent research progresses on the oxygen carriers used in the chemical-looping selective oxidation of methane (CLSOM to syngas.

  10. Regenerable mixed copper-iron-inert support oxygen carriers for solid fuel chemical looping combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Tian, Hanjing


    The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier for a chemical looping cycle, such as the chemical looping combustion of solid carbonaceous fuels, such as coal, coke, coal and biomass char, and the like. The oxygen carrier is comprised of at least 24 weight % (wt %) CuO, at least 10 wt % Fe2O3, and an inert support, and is typically a calcine. The oxygen carrier exhibits a CuO crystalline structure and an absence of iron oxide crystalline structures under XRD crystallography, and provides an improved and sustained combustion reactivity in the temperature range of C. particularly for solid fuels such as carbon and coal.

  11. Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Cao, Yan


    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) could totally negate the necessity of pure oxygen by using oxygen carriers for purification of CO{sub 2} stream during combustion. It splits the single fuel combustion reaction into two linked reactions using oxygen carriers. The two linked reactions are the oxidation of oxygen carriers in the air reactor using air, and the reduction of oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor using fuels (i.e. coal). Generally metal/metal oxides are used as oxygen carriers and operated in a cyclic mode. Chemical looping combustion significantly improves the energy conversion efficiency, in terms of the electricity generation, because it improves the reversibility of the fuel combustion process through two linked parallel processes, compared to the conventional combustion process, which is operated far away from its thermo-equilibrium. Under the current carbon-constraint environment, it has been a promising carbon capture technology in terms of fuel combustion for power generation. Its disadvantage is that it is less mature in terms of technological commercialization. In this DOE-funded project, accomplishment is made by developing a series of advanced copper-based oxygen carriers, with properties of the higher oxygen-transfer capability, a favorable thermodynamics to generate high purity of CO{sub 2}, the higher reactivity, the attrition-resistance, the thermal stability in red-ox cycles and the achievement of the auto-thermal heat balance. This will be achieved into three phases in three consecutive years. The selected oxygen carriers with final-determined formula were tested in a scaled-up 10kW coal-fueled chemical looping combustion facility. This scaled-up evaluation tests (2-day, 8-hour per day) indicated that, there was no tendency of agglomeration of copper-based oxygen carriers. Only trace-amount of coke or carbon deposits on the copper-based oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor. There was also no evidence to show the sulphidization of oxygen

  12. Comparison of iron-, nickel-, copper- and manganese-based oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Cho; Tobias Mattisson; Anders Lyngfelt [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Department of Environmental Inorganic Chemistry


    For combustion with CO{sub 2} capture, chemical-looping combustion (CLC) with inherent separation of CO{sub 2} is a promising technology. Two interconnected fluidized beds are used as reactors. In the fuel reactor, a gaseous fuel is oxidized by an oxygen carrier, e.g. metal oxide particles, producing carbon dioxide and water. The reduced oxygen carrier is then transported to the air reactor, where it is oxidized with air back to its original form before it is returned to the fuel reactor. The feasibility of using oxygen carrier based on oxides of iron, nickel, copper and manganese was investigated. Oxygen carrier particles were produced by freeze granulation. They were sintered at 1300{sup o}C for 4 h and sieved to a size range of 125-180 {mu}m. The reactivity of the oxygen carriers was evaluated in a laboratory fluidized bed reactor, simulating a CLC system by exposing the sample to alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions at 950{sup o}C for all carriers except copper, which was tested at 850{sup o}C. Oxygen carriers based on nickel, copper and iron showed high reactivity, enough to be feasible for a suggested CLC system. However, copper oxide particles agglomerated and may not be suitable as an oxygen carrier. Samples of the iron oxide with aluminium oxide showed signs of agglomeration. Nickel oxide showed the highest reduction rate, but displayed limited strength. The reactivity indicates a needed bed mass in the fuel reactor of about 80-330 kg/MW{sub th} and a needed recirculation flow of oxygen carrier of 4-8 kg/s, MW{sub th}. 30 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Chemical-Looping Combustion and Gasification of Coals and Oxygen Carrier Development: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang


    Full Text Available Chemical-looping technology is one of the promising CO2 capture technologies. It generates a CO2 enriched flue gas, which will greatly benefit CO2 capture, utilization or sequestration. Both chemical-looping combustion (CLC and chemical-looping gasification (CLG have the potential to be used to generate power, chemicals, and liquid fuels. Chemical-looping is an oxygen transporting process using oxygen carriers. Recently, attention has focused on solid fuels such as coal. Coal chemical-looping reactions are more complicated than gaseous fuels due to coal properties (like mineral matter and the complex reaction pathways involving solid fuels. The mineral matter/ash and sulfur in coal may affect the activity of oxygen carriers. Oxygen carriers are the key issue in chemical-looping processes. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA has been widely used for the development of oxygen carriers (e.g., oxide reactivity. Two proposed processes for the CLC of solid fuels are in-situ Gasification Chemical-Looping Combustion (iG-CLC and Chemical-Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU. The objectives of this review are to discuss various chemical-looping processes with coal, summarize TGA applications in oxygen carrier development, and outline the major challenges associated with coal chemical-looping in iG-CLC and CLOU.

  14. Metal ferrite oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Fan, Yueying


    The disclosure provides a metal ferrite oxygen carrier for the chemical looping combustion of solid carbonaceous fuels, such as coal, coke, coal and biomass char, and the like. The metal ferrite oxygen carrier comprises MFe.sub.xO.sub.y on an inert support, where MFe.sub.xO.sub.y is a chemical composition and M is one of Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Co, Mn, and combinations thereof. For example, MFe.sub.xO.sub.y may be one of MgFe.sub.2O.sub.4, CaFe.sub.2O.sub.4, SrFe.sub.2O.sub.4, BaFe.sub.2O.sub.4, CoFe.sub.2O.sub.4, MnFeO.sub.3, and combinations thereof. The MFe.sub.xO.sub.y is supported on an inert support. The inert support disperses the MFe.sub.xO.sub.y oxides to avoid agglomeration and improve performance stability. In an embodiment, the inert support comprises from about 5 wt. % to about 60 wt. % of the metal ferrite oxygen carrier and the MFe.sub.xO.sub.y comprises at least 30 wt. % of the metal ferrite oxygen carrier. The metal ferrite oxygen carriers disclosed display improved reduction rates over Fe.sub.2O.sub.3, and improved oxidation rates over CuO.

  15. Development of an oxygen carrier nanoemulsion for organ preservation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, A


    Full Text Available phenomenon known as ‘cold perfusion damage’. It is therefore desirable to transport the organ at temperatures closer to normal physiological conditions (i.e 25 to 37 °C). This however, substantially increases the organ’s oxygen requirement levels. A critical...

  16. Effect of anion interstitials on the thermoluminescent properties of CaSO4:Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmanan, A.R.; Sivakumar, V.; Sangeetha Rani, R.; Kalpana, S.


    Efforts were made to synthesise CaSO 4 based thermoluminescent (TL) phosphors by solid state reaction route. ZnSO 4 flux was found to be quite efficient in the incorporation of Dy into CaSO 4 lattice as witnessed from the high TL intensity peak at about 100 °C following sintering at 750 °C in air. Its TL intensity is even higher than that of the 260 °C peak appearing in recrystallised CaSO 4 :Dy. Similar low temperature TL peak was found in recrystallised CaSO 4 :Dy samples sintered at 1000 °C in air. The results were explained on the basis of incorporation of interstitial oxygen anions which act as hole traps. Firing in sulphur or ammonium sulphate atmosphere did not shift the low temperature TL glow peak. But firing in carbon atmosphere at 750 °C with ZnSO 4 flux enhanced the intensity of TL glow peaks at 250 °C and at 400 °C due to the partial re-conversion of oxygen ions to sulphate ions. Firing at 850 °C in reduced atmosphere, however, quenched the intensity of all TL peaks due to the removal of oxygen i.e. partial reduction of CaSO 4 to CaS. The slow decline in the intensity of 250° TL peak on prolonged annealing at 400 °C in recrystallised CaSO 4 :Dy indicates the thermal migration of defects causing the TL peak. Redox mechanism involving such interstitial ions and anion vacancies in the presence or absence of cation vacancies could lead to the emission of high (∼250 °C) or low (∼100 °C) temperature TL peaks, respectively. Certain other co-dopants tried such as Al 3+ and SiO 4 4− simply quenched the TL efficiencies of CaSO 4 :Dy and CaSO 4 :Mn, respectively. Among the monovalent sulphates tried, Na 2 SO 4 :Dy gave a TL peak around 100 °C which is 20% of the 250 °C TL intensity of recrystallised CaSO 4 :Dy. -- Highlights: • Effect of anion co-dopants at interstitial sites on CaSO 4 :Dy is studied. • In this work ZnSO 4 was used as the oxygen source since it dissociates at 600 °C. • By introducing such defects one can tune charge

  17. Mixtures of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers and perfluorocarbons exhibit a synergistic effect in oxygenating hepatic hollow fiber bioreactors. (United States)

    Chen, Guo; Palmer, Andre F


    Hepatic hollow fiber (HF) bioreactors are being developed for use as bioartificial liver assist devices (BLADs). In general, BLADs suffer from O(2) limited transport, which reduces their performance. This modeling study seeks to investigate if O(2) carrying solutions consisting of mixtures of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs) can enhance O(2) transport to hepatocytes cultured in the extra capillary space (ECS) of HF bioreactors. We simulated supplementing the circulating cell culture media stream of the HF bioreactor with a mixture containing these two types of oxygen carriers (HBOCs and PFCs). A mathematical model was developed based on the dimensions and physical characteristics of a commercial HF bioreactor. The resulting set of partial differential equations, which describes fluid transport; as well as, mass transport of dissolved O(2) in the pseudo-homogeneous PFC/water phase and oxygenated HBOC, was solved to yield the O(2) concentration field in the three HF domains (lumen, membrane and ECS). Our results show that mixtures of HBOC and PFC display a synergistic effect in oxygenating the ECS. Therefore, the presence of both HBOC and PFC in the circulating cell culture media dramatically improves transport of O(2) to cultured hepatocytes. Moreover, the in vivo O(2) spectrum in a liver sinusoid can be recapitulated by supplementing the HF bioreactor with a mixture of HBOCs and PFCs at an inlet pO(2) of 80 mmHg. Therefore, we expect that PFC-based oxygen carriers will be more efficient at transporting O(2) at higher O(2) levels (e.g., at an inlet pO(2) of 760 mmHg, which corresponds to pure O(2) in equilibrium with aqueous cell culture media at 1 atm). 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Comparison of Iron and Tungsten Based Oxygen Carriers for Hydrogen Production Using Chemical Looping Reforming (United States)

    Khan, M. N.; Shamim, T.


    Hydrogen production by using a three reactor chemical looping reforming (TRCLR) technology is an innovative and attractive process. Fossil fuels such as methane are the feedstocks used. This process is similar to a conventional steam-methane reforming but occurs in three steps utilizing an oxygen carrier. As the oxygen carrier plays an important role, its selection should be done carefully. In this study, two oxygen carrier materials of base metal iron (Fe) and tungsten (W) are analysed using a thermodynamic model of a three reactor chemical looping reforming plant in Aspen plus. The results indicate that iron oxide has moderate oxygen carrying capacity and is cheaper since it is abundantly available. In terms of hydrogen production efficiency, tungsten oxide gives 4% better efficiency than iron oxide. While in terms of electrical power efficiency, iron oxide gives 4.6% better results than tungsten oxide. Overall, a TRCLR system with iron oxide is 2.6% more efficient and is cost effective than the TRCLR system with tungsten oxide.

  19. Calcium and chemical looping technology for power generation and carbon dioxide (CO2) capture solid oxygen- and CO2-carriers

    CERN Document Server

    Fennell, Paul


    Calcium and Chemical Looping Technology for Power Generation and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture reviews the fundamental principles, systems, oxygen carriers, and carbon dioxide carriers relevant to chemical looping and combustion. Chapters review the market development, economics, and deployment of these systems, also providing detailed information on the variety of materials and processes that will help to shape the future of CO2 capture ready power plants. Reviews the fundamental principles, systems, oxygen carriers, and carbon dioxide carriers relevant to calcium and chemical loopingProvi

  20. Fabrication and processing of next-generation oxygen carrier materials for chemical looping combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadarajah, Arunan [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)


    Among numerous methods of controlling the global warming effect, Chemical Looping Combustion is known to be the most viable option currently. A key factor to a successful chemical looping process is the presence of highly effective oxygen carriers that enable fuel combustion by going through oxidation and reduction in the presence of air and fuel respectively. In this study, CaMnO3-δ was used as the base material and doped on the A-site (Sr or La) and B-site (Fe, Ti, Zn and Al) by 10 mol % of dopants. Solid state reaction followed by mechanical extrusion (optimized paste formula) was used as the preparation method A series of novel doped perovskite-type oxygen carrier particles (CaxLa (Or Sa)1-x Mn1-yByO3-δ (B-site = Fe, Ti, Al, or Zr)) were synthesized by the proposed extrusion formula. The produced samples were characterized with XRD, SEM, BET and TGA techniques. According to the results obtained from TGA analysis, the oxygen capacity of the samples ranged between 1.2 for CLMZ and 1.75 for CSMF. Reactivity and oxygen uncoupling behaviors of the prepared samples were also evaluated using a fluidized bed chemical looping reactor using methane as the fuel at four different temperatures (800, 850, 900, 950 °C). All of the oxygen carriers showed oxygen uncoupling behavior and they were able to capture and release oxygen. Mass-based conversion of the perovskites was calculated and temperature increase proved to increase the mass-based conversion rate in all of the samples under study. Gas yield was calculated at 950 °C as well, and results showed that CLMZ, CM and CSMF showed 100% gas yields and CLMF and CSMZ showed approximately 85% yield in fluidized bed reactor, which is a high and acceptable quantity. Based on extended reactor tests the modified calcium manganese perovskite structures (CSMF) can be a good candidate for future pilot tests.

  1. New class of oxygen carriers improves islet isolation from long-term stored rat pancreata. (United States)

    Brandhorst, H; Muehling, B; Yamaya, H; Henriksnaes, J; Carlsson, P O; Korsgren, O; Brandhorst, D


    Pancreas shipment is frequently associated with prolonged ischemia deteriorating islet graft function. The strategy to prevent ischemic damage utilizing perfluorodecalin (PFD) for human pancreas oxygenation does not seem to improve isolation outcome. The present study investigated the efficiency of perfluorohexyloctane (F6H8), a hyperoxygen carrier characterized by low specific density (1.33 g/cm3) and lipophilic qualities, to facilitate islet isolation from long-term stored rat pancreata. Prior to islet isolation, pancreata were intraductally flushed in situ with Kyoto solution (KS) and stored for 24 hours in KS, oxygenated PFD, or F6H8. Islet isolation performed after 24-hour storage in KS failed completely. The intrapancreatic pO2 in PFD- and F6H8-incubated pancreata was almost the same. In correspondence, the ATP content and viability of isolated islets were similar as well. In contrast, islet yield and in vitro function were significantly reduced after storage in PFD compared with F6H8. This study suggested that islet isolation performed after long-term pancreas preservation can be significantly improved utilizing semifluorinated alkanes as oxygen carriers.

  2. Performance of nickel-based oxygen carrier produced using renewable fuel aloe vera (United States)

    Afandi, NF; Devaraj, D.; Manap, A.; Ibrahim, N.


    Consuming and burning of fuel mainly fossil fuel has gradually increased in this upcoming era due to high-energy demand and causes the global warming. One of the most effective ways to reduce the greenhouse gases is by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) during the combustion process. Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is one of the most effective methods to capture the CO2 without the need of an energy intensive air separation unit. This method uses oxygen carrier to provide O2 that can react with fuel to form CO2 and H2O. This research focuses on synthesizing NiO/NiAl2O4 as an oxygen carrier due to its properties that can withstand high temperature during CLC application. The NiO/NiAl2O4 powder was synthesized using solution combustion method with plant extract renewable fuel, aloe vera as the fuel. In order to optimize the performance of the particles that can be used in CLC application, various calcination temperatures were varied at 600°C, 800°C, 1050°C and 1300°C. The phase and morphology of obtained powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Microscopy (FESEM) respectively together with the powder elements. In CLC application, high reactivity can be achieved by using smaller particle size of oxygen carrier. This research succeeded in producing nano-structured powder with high crystalline structure at temperature 1050°C which is suitable to be used in CLC application.

  3. Evaluation of (MnxFe1-x)2TiyOz particles as oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion


    Abián, María; Abad Secades, Alberto; Izquierdo Pantoja, Mª Teresa; Gayán Sanz, Pilar; Diego Poza, Luis F. de; García-Labiano, Francisco; Adánez Elorza, Juan


    The present work accomplishes a screening of the performance of Mn-Fe-Ti based oxygen carriers, prepared with different Mn/(Mn+Fe) molar ratios in the general formula (MnyFe1-y)Ti0.15Ox. The oxygen carriers were prepared by physical mixing followed by pelletizing under pressure, calcining, crushing and sieving in the 100-300 μm particle size interval. The characterization of the carriers is based on the evaluation of their crushing strength, magnetic properties and reduction and oxidation beh...

  4. Development of new dosemeters of CaSO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Ana Gabryele M. dos; Junot, Danilo O.; Souza, Divanizia N.


    Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are widely used in in vivo dosimetry because of their simple production, viability for dose determination in difficult geometries and their reusability. The motivation of this work was to produce CaSO 4 crystals doped with thulium (Tm) and analyze their thermoluminescent (TL) properties. The crystals were produced by a variation of slow evaporation route, and TL curves showed emission peaks centered around 190 ° C and 320 ° C after irradiation with a 90 Sr / 90 Y source. Thermoluminescent properties such as linearity, reproducibility and fading were evaluated. The CaSO 4 :Tm samples produced proved feasible for dosimetry purposes. (author)

  5. Normalization of hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier-201 induced vasoconstriction: targeting nitric oxide and endothelin. (United States)

    Taverne, Yannick J; de Wijs-Meijler, Daphne; Te Lintel Hekkert, Maaike; Moon-Massat, Paula F; Dubé, Gregory P; Duncker, Dirk J; Merkus, Daphne


    Hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC)-201 is a cell-free modified hemoglobin solution potentially facilitating oxygen uptake and delivery in cardiovascular disorders and hemorrhagic shock. Clinical use has been hampered by vasoconstriction in the systemic and pulmonary beds. Therefore, we aimed to 1 ) determine the possibility of counteracting HBOC-201-induced pressor effects with either adenosine (ADO) or nitroglycerin (NTG); 2 ) assess the potential roles of nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and endothelin (ET) in mediating the observed vasoconstriction; and 3 ) compare these effects in resting and exercising swine. Chronically instrumented swine were studied at rest and during exercise after administration of HBOC-201 alone or in combination with ADO. The role of NO was assessed by supplementation with NTG or administration of the eNOS inhibitor N ω -nitro-l-arginine. Alternative vasoactive pathways were investigated via intravenous administration of the ET A /ET B receptor blocker tezosentan or a mixture of ROS scavengers. The systemic and to a lesser extent the pulmonary pressor effects of HBOC-201 could be counteracted by ADO; however, dosage titration was very important to avoid systemic hypotension. Similarly, supplementation of NO with NTG negated the pressor effects but also required titration of the dose. The pressor response to HBOC-201 was reduced after eNOS inhibition and abolished by simultaneous ET A /ET B receptor blockade, while ROS scavenging had no effect. In conclusion, the pressor response to HBOC-201 is mediated by vasoconstriction due to NO scavenging and production of ET. Further research should explore the effect of longer-acting ET receptor blockers to counteract the side effect of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC)-201 can disrupt hemodynamic homeostasis, mimicking some aspects of endothelial dysfunction, resulting in elevated systemic and pulmonary blood

  6. Human hemoglobin anaerobically reacted with divinyl sulfone: a source for oxygen carriers. (United States)

    Ilan, E; Chang, T M


    Human hemoglobin (HbA) was reacted in anaerobic conditions with divinyl sulfone (DVS). The structural and oxygenation properties of the resulting chemically-modified product were studied in order to assess its potential as a physiological oxygen carrier. The reaction was carried out anaerobically at 25 degrees C and pH 7.4 for 3 h. Quenching was performed with lysine-HCl solution and the resulting solution dialysed to remove unbound DVS and excess lysine. The product, designated Poly HbA-DVS, was characterized structurally using gel-permeation HPLC and SDS-PAGE and functionally employing a Hemox-analyzer at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4. From gel-permeation HPLC it was estimated that about 60% of the starting material was polymerized, with a molecular mass range from 130 to about 500 kDa, and about 40% remained monomeric with a molecular mass of 64 kDa. The virtual absence of a 32 kDa band from the SDS-PAGE pattern of the last eluting HPLC peak and the oxygenation properties of this peak material (P50 = 33 mm Hg, n = 2.2; P50 very different from the approximately 1.5 mm Hg associated with native HbA solution) indicated that the monomeric (64 kDa) component was modified, but virtually noncrosslinked, within the tetramer. The product solution, Poly HbA-DVS, had a P50 of 35 mm Hg, a Hill coefficient n of 1.8 and a methemoglobin content of 5-7%. This material has characteristics appropriate for an oxygen carrier, and can probably be used as such in perfusional and transfusional fluids.

  7. Performance of calcium manganate as oxygen carrier in chemical looping combustion of biochar in a 10 kW pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, Matthias; Linderholm, Carl Johan


    Highlights: • A manganese-based perovskite material was used as oxygen carrier in chemical looping combustion. • The oxygen carrier’s performance was superior to materials previously tested in this reactor throughout the testing period. • Under stable conditions, oxygen demand was as low as 2.1% with a carbon capture efficiency of up to 98%. • No signs of agglomeration were detected. • Gaseous oxygen was released at all relevant fuel reactor temperatures. - Abstract: Chemical looping combustion (CLC) and chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) are carbon capture technologies which achieve gas separation by means of cycling oxidation and reduction of a solid oxygen carrier. In this study, the performance and CLOU properties of an oxygen carrier with perovskite structure, CaMn 0.9 Mg 0.1 O 3−δ, were investigated in a 10 kW pilot. The fuel consisted of biochar with very low sulphur content. Around 37 h of operation with fuel were carried out in the 10 kW chemical looping combustor. Previous operational experience in this unit has been achieved using different natural minerals as oxygen carrier – mainly ilmenite and manganese ore. Parametric studies performed in this work included variation of fuel flow, solids circulation rate, temperature and fluidization gas in the fuel reactor. The oxygen carrier was exposed to a total 73 h of hot fluidization (T > 600 °C). No hard particle agglomerations were formed during the experiments. An oxygen demand as low as 2.1% could be reached under stable operating conditions, with a carbon capture efficiency of up to 98%. CLOU properties were observed at all fuel reactor temperatures, ensuring stable operation even without steam as gasification agent present in the fuel reactor. The results suggest that CaMn 0.9 Mg 0.1 O 3−δ is suitable for the use as oxygen carrier in chemical looping combustion of solid biochar and offers higher gas conversion than previously tested materials without CLOU properties such

  8. Thermal and mechanical behaviour of oxygen carrier materials for chemical looping combustion in a packed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.; Van Noyen, J.; Larring, Y.; Mccann, M.; Pishahang, M.; Amini, S.; Ortiz, M.; Galluci, F.; Sint-Annaland, M.V.; Tournigant, D.; Louradour, E.; Snijkers, F.


    Highlights: • Ilmenite-based oxygen carriers were developed for packed-bed chemical looping. • Addition of Mn 2 O 3 increased mechanical strength and microstructure of the carriers. • Oxygen carriers were able to withstand creep and thermal cycling up to 1200 °C. • Ilmenite-based granules are a promising shape for packed-bed reactor conditions. - Abstract: Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a promising carbon capture technology where cyclic reduction and oxidation of a metallic oxide, which acts as a solid oxygen carrier, takes place. With this system, direct contact between air and fuel can be avoided, and so, a concentrated CO 2 stream is generated after condensation of the water in the exit gas stream. An interesting reactor system for CLC is a packed bed reactor as it can have a higher efficiency compared to a fluidized bed concept, but it requires other types of oxygen carrier particles. The particles must be larger to avoid a large pressure drop in the reactor and they must be mechanically strong to withstand the severe reactor conditions. Therefore, oxygen carriers in the shape of granules and based on the mineral ilmenite were subjected to thermal cycling and creep tests. The mechanical strength of the granules before and after testing was investigated by crush tests. In addition, the microstructure of these oxygen particles was studied to understand the relationship between the physical properties and the mechanical performance. It was found that the granules are a promising shape for a packed bed reactor as no severe degradation in strength was noticed upon thermal cycling and creep testing. Especially, the addition of Mn 2 O 3 to the ilmenite, which leads to the formation of an iron–manganese oxide, seems to results in stronger granules than the other ilmenite-based granules.

  9. A novel liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin/silica nanoparticle as an oxygen carrier. (United States)

    Liu, Mingxian; Gan, Lihua; Chen, Liuhua; Zhu, Dazhang; Xu, Zijie; Hao, Zhixian; Chen, Longwu


    A novel liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin/silica nanoparticle (LEHSN) was fabricated by a water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsion approach. Bovine hemoglobin (Hb) was first adsorbed onto the surfaces of silica nanoparticles (SNs), and then the complex of Hb/SNs was encapsulated by liposome to form LEHSN which has a core-shell supramolecular structure. On the one hand, liposomes built a cell membrane-like environment for the controlled release of Hb. On the other hand, SNs which act as rigid core provide a supported framework for lecithin membrane, and enhance the stability of liposomes. In comparison with liposome-encapsulated Hb (LEH), LEHSN shows substantially enhanced stability and improved release property of Hb in vitro. This study highlights the potential of the novel LEHSN as an oxygen carrier for pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermoluminescent dosemeters of CaSO4: Dy + Teflon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.


    The development of a pellet dosemeter of CaSO 4 : Dy + Teflon at the Dosimetric Materials Production Laboratory - IPEN/Brazilian CNEN-SP is presented. The pellets were produced by cold pressing and sintering a mixture of CaSO 4 : Dy and Teflon powders. The pellet characteristics from the point of view of dosimetry. A filter combination providing an energy independent response from 20 KeV to 1,25 MeV was obtained. The dosemeter consists of three pellets sealed between two thin plastic sheets and placed under plastic and lead filters. The combination of these three filters allows to determine the energy of an unknown source. (author) [pt

  11. Performance of CaSO4:Dy detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setti, M.C.; Silva, G.R.; Pela, C.A.; Bruco, J.L.; Borges, J.C.


    CaSO 4 :Dy detectors have been used in personal dosimetry. The MRA company recently entered into the market of these detectors. Searching to assure a product quality level that would satisfy its customs most expectancies, MRA programmed several tests to qualify and quantify these detectors main characteristics, before their definitive insertion in the market. Preliminary tests furnished a value of 29,5 ± 1,2 nC for homogeneity and a maximum dispersion of 3 % for linearity . (author)

  12. Hemoglobin extravasation in the brain of rats exchange-transfused with hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers. (United States)

    Terraneo, Laura; Bianciardi, Paola; Malavalli, Ashok; Mkrtchyan, Gnel; Spann, Stephanie N; Lohman, Jeff; Samaja, Michele; Vandegriff, Kim D


    Haemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers are under consideration as oxygen therapeutics. Their effect on apoptosis is critical, because the onset of pro-apoptotic pathways may lead to tissue damage. MP4OX, a polyethylene glycol-conjugated human Hb preserves the baseline level of neuron apoptosis with respect to sham. Here we develop a method for measuring Hb extravasation in brain. We exchange transfused rats by haemorrhaging 50% of their blood with simultaneous, isovolemic replacement with Hextend (negative control), MP4OX, or αα-cross-linked Hb. Animals were sacrificed 2 h after transfusion, brain tissue was harvested and processed for double-staining immunofluorescence, whereby Hb ? chain and NeuN (a neuron protein) were stained and quantitated. Whereas Hextend did not induce Hb extravasation, in both MP4OX and ??Hb brains Hb molecules were detected outside neurons. The level of extravasated Hb chains was > 3-fold higher in Hb compared to MP4OX. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression levels of protein related to redox imbalance (e.g., Nrf2, iNOS and ERK phosphorylation) were higher in ααHb than MP4OX. In conclusions, higher Hb extravasation in ααHb than MP4OX induces redox imbalance, which causes higher anti-oxidant response. Whereas Nrf2 response may be considered protective, iNOS response appears damaging.

  13. Molecular Design Properties of OxyVita Hemoglobin, a New Generation Therapeutic Oxygen Carrier: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Wollocko


    Full Text Available OxyVita Hb is a new generation hemoglobin based oxygen carrier (HBOC produced through modification of a zero-linked polymerization mechanism using activators which incorporate cross-linked bovine tetramer hemoglobin into “super-polymeric” macromolecules (Average molecular weight = 17 MDa for the purpose of oxygen delivery when whole blood or packed red cells are not available. This molecular design approach was generated in order to address several fundamental biochemical and physiological weaknesses of previous generations of HBOCs. Observation during pre-clinical and clinical studies provided evidence that these early generation acellular HBOCs were directly associated with loss of retention within the circulatory system, extravasation across endothelial tissue membranes due to their small molecular size leading to arterial and venous vasoconstriction with coupled increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP. The inherent increase in molecular size and structural stability of the OxyVita Hb is a direct response to addressing these serious weaknesses that have occurred during the evolution of HBOC development within the past two decades. The nature of the zero-linked synthetic route eliminates any chemical linkers remaining in the product, eliminating side reaction concerns, such as reversibility and decomposition due to weak chemical bonds, dependency on temperature and pressure, and residual toxicity.

  14. Cationic amylose-encapsulated bovine hemoglobin as a nanosized oxygen carrier. (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Sha, Baoyong; Zou, Wei; Liang, Xuan; Meng, Xiangzhong; Xu, Hao; Tang, Jun; Wu, Daocheng; Xu, Lixian; Zhang, Hui


    Nanosized hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers are one of the most promising blood substitutes. In the present study, a comprehensive strategy for the preparation of nanosized cationic amylose-encapsulated hemoglobins (NCAHbs) was developed. First, cationic amylase (CA) was synthesized from amylose and quaternary ammonium salt by an etherification reaction. The structure of CA was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrophotometry ((1)H NMR). The degree of substitution and the zeta potential were also measured. Then, the NCAHbs were prepared by electrostatic adhesion, reverse micelles and cross-linking. The UV-visible spectrophotometer was used to measure the entrapment efficiency (EE%) and drug loading efficiency (DL%) of the NCAHbs. Transmission electron microscopy and Malvern Nano-zs 90 analyzer were used to observe the size distribution and morphology of particles. Chemical structure was determined from the FTIR spectrum. A Hemox analyzer was used to measure the P(50) and Hill coefficients. A lethal hemorrhagic shock model in rats was used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of the NCAHbs. The results showed that the combined methods improved the size, stability, EE%, DL%, and oxygen-carrying capacity of the NCAHbs. The average diameter of the NCAHbs was 92.53 ± 3.64 nm, with a narrow polydispersity index of 0.027. The EE% was 80.05% ± 1.56% and DL% was 61.55% ± 1.41%. The P(50) and Hill coefficient were equal to 28.96 ± 1.33 mmHg and 2.55 ± 0.22, respectively. The size of NCAHbs remained below 200 nm for six days in PBS solution. The NCAHbs could effectively prevent lung injury from progressing to lethal hemorrhagic shock because they acted as both a volume expander and an oxygen carrier. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Particulate Formation from a Copper Oxide-Based Oxygen Carrier in Chemical Looping Combustion for CO2 Capture (United States)

    Attrition behavior and particle loss of a copper oxide-based oxygen carrier from a methane chemical looping combustion (CLC) process was investigated in a fluidized bed reactor. The aerodynamic diameters of most elutriated particulates, after passing through a horizontal settling...

  16. Characterization of nano-bubbles as an oxygen carrier for in-situ bioremediation of organic pollutants in the subsurface (United States)

    KIM, E.; Jung, J.; Kang, S.; Choi, Y.


    In-situ bioremediation using bubbles as an oxygen carrier has shown its applicability for aerobic biodegradation of organic pollutants in the subsurface. By recent progresses, generation of nano-sized bubbles is possible, which have enhanced oxygen transfer efficiencies due to their high interfacial area and stability. We are developing an in-situ bioremediation technique using nano-bubbles as an oxygen carrier. In this study, nano-bubbles were characterized for their size and oxygen supply capacity. Nano-bubbles were generated with pure oxygen and pure helium gas. The stable nano-bubbles suspended in water were sonicated to induce the bubbles to coalesce, making them to rise and be released out of the water. By removing the bubbles, the water volume was decreased by 0.006%. The gas released from the bubble suspension was collected to measure the amount of gas in the nano-bubbles. For sparingly soluble helium gas 17.9 mL/L was released from the bubble suspension, while for oxygen 46.2 mL/L was collected. For the oxygen nano-bubble suspension, it is likely that the release of dissolved oxygen (DO) contributed to the collected gas volume. After removing the oxygen nano-bubbles, 36.0 mg/L of DO was still present in water. Altogether, the oxygen nano-bubble suspension was estimated to have 66.2 mg/L of oxygen in a dissolved form and 25.6 mg/L as nano-bubbles. A high DO level in the water was possible because of their large Laplace pressure difference across the fluid interface. Applying Young-Laplace equation and ideal gas law, the bubble diameter was estimated to be approximately 10 nm, having an internal pressure of 323 atm. Considering the saturation DO of 8.26 mg/L for water in equilibrium with the atmosphere, the total oxygen content of 91.8 mg/L in the nano-bubble suspension suggests its great potential as an oxygen carrier. Studies are underway to verify the enhanced aerobic biodegradation of organic pollutants in soils by injecting nano-bubble suspensions.

  17. Cell-free oxygen carriers: scientific foundations, clinical development, and new directions. (United States)

    Winslow, Robert M


    The most significant hurdle to the development of a safe and effective hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier ("blood substitute") is generally thought to be its propensity to cause vasoconstriction in the microcirculation and hypertension. Two theories for this effect are currently being studied: in one, scavenging NO by hemoglobin reduces vasorelaxation; in the other, cell-free hemoglobin oversupplies O2 (a known vasoconstrictor) to vascular walls by facilitated diffusion. While both mechanisms might lead to reduction of local NO concentration, the important distinction between the two is that if the NO scavenging theory is correct, it greatly diminishes the prospects to develop any solution based on free hemoglobin. However, if the O2-oversupply theory is correct, modifications to the hemoglobin molecule can be envisioned that can prevent oversupply and reduce toxicity. This review summarizes the development of Hemospan, a novel modification of human hemoglobin whose design is based on the O2-oversupply theory. Because of its low P50 and increased molecular size, the release of O2 in resistance vessels (arterioles) by Hemospan is restricted, and vasoconstriction is greatly reduced.

  18. Potential New Non-Invasive Therapy Using Artificial Oxygen Carriers for Pre-Eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta


    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms of pre-eclampsia are being increasingly clarified in animals and humans. With the uncovering of these mechanisms, preventive therapy strategies using chronic infusion of adrenomedullin, vascular endothelial growth factor-121 (VEGF-121, losartan, and sildenafil have been proposed to block narrow spiral artery formation in the placenta by suppressing related possible factors for pre-eclampsia. However, although such preventive treatments have been partly successful, they have failed in ameliorating fetal growth restriction and carry the risk of possible side-effects of drugs on pregnant mothers. In this study, we attempted to develop a new symptomatic treatment for pre-eclampsia by directly rescuing placental ischemia with artificial oxygen carriers (hemoglobin vesicles: HbV since previous data indicate that placental ischemia/hypoxia may alone be sufficient to lead to pre-eclampsia through up-regulation of sFlt-1, one of the main candidate molecules for the cause of pre-eclampsia. Using a rat model, the present study demonstrated that a simple treatment using hemoglobin vesicles for placental ischemia rescues placental and fetal hypoxia, leading to appropriate fetal growth. The present study is the first to demonstrate hemoglobin vesicles successfully decreasing maternal plasma levels of sFlt-1 and ameliorating fetal growth restriction in the pre-eclampsia rat model (p < 0.05, one-way ANOVA. In future, chronic infusion of hemoglobin vesicles could be a potential effective and noninvasive therapy for delaying or even alleviating the need for Caesarean sections in pre-eclampsia.

  19. Physical study of CaSO4: Dy thermoluminescence (TL) material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadira Kamarudin; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah; Megat Harun Al Rashid; Nurazila Mat Zali; Hafzaliza Erny Zainal Abidin; Taufik Dollah; Ishak Mansor; Nur Haslinda Ee Abdullah


    CaSO 4 : Dy have been prepared with the varies of dopant concentration of 0.1 mol % to 0.5 mol % by wet precipitation technique. The resulting CaSO 4 : Dy powder were characterized using Particle Size Analyzers (PSA) and founded the particle size of the powder are around 4-5 mm with the 91-95 % yield. The morphology of CaSO 4 and determination of dopant was characterized using SEM, TEM and EDX. (author)

  20. Synthesis and luminescence properties of Eu2+ doped CaSO4 phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghalte, G.A.; Dhoble, S.J.; Pawar, N.R.


    Eu 2+ doped CaSO 4 Phosphor were synthesized by precipitation method. PL analysis of Eu 2+ activated CaSO 4 phosphor exhibited characteristic emission properties; CaSO 4 :Eu Phosphor has received considerable attention because of its high sensitivity to X-ray and λ ray irradiation. CaSO 4 :Eu phosphor powder was successfully synthesized by the wet chemical co-precipitation method. The structure morphology and luminescent properties of the phosphor were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy

  1. Hydrogen Production from Cyclic Chemical Looping Steam Methane Reforming over Yttrium Promoted Ni/SBA-16 Oxygen Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Daneshmand-Jahromi


    Full Text Available In this work, the modification of Ni/SBA-16 oxygen carrier (OC with yttrium promoter is investigated. The yttrium promoted Ni-based oxygen carrier was synthesized via co-impregnation method and applied in chemical looping steam methane reforming (CL-SMR process, which is used for the production of clean energy carrier. The reaction temperature (500–750 °C, Y loading (2.5–7.4 wt. %, steam/carbon molar ratio (1–5, Ni loading (10–30 wt. % and life time of OCs over 16 cycles at 650 °C were studied to investigate and optimize the structure of OC and process temperature with maximizing average methane conversion and hydrogen production yield. The synthesized OCs were characterized by multiples techniques. The results of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX of reacted OCs showed that the presence of Y particles on the surface of OCs reduces the coke formation. The smaller NiO species were found for the yttrium promoted OC and therefore the distribution of Ni particles was improved. The reduction-oxidation (redox results revealed that 25Ni-2.5Y/SBA-16 OC has the highest catalytic activity of about 99.83% average CH4 conversion and 85.34% H2 production yield at reduction temperature of 650 °C with the steam to carbon molar ratio of 2.

  2. Neutron dosimetry using activation of thermoluminescent CaSO 4 (United States)

    Azorín, Juan; Gutiérrez, Alicia


    Sulfur activation in calcium sulfate doped with dysprosium (CaSO 4:Dy) thermoluminescent powder, which is bound in pure sulfur, has been used to measure the fast neutron dose at the tangential beam port of a Triga Mark III reactor. After a post-irradiation time of 3 d, the dosimeters were annealed at 600°C for 30 min in order to erase all the thermoluminescence acquired during the irradiation. The dosimeters were then stored to allow self-irradiation by betas from 32P produced by sulfur activation. The thermoluminescent signal accumulated during a post-irradiation time of 20 d due to a neutron fluence of 2.2 × 10 11 n/cm 2 was equivalent to an absorbed dose of 10 mGy of 60Co gamma rays. The thermoluminescence as a function of fast neutron dose fitted to a straight line on a log-log scale from 1 Gy to 10 4Gy.

  3. Thermal neutron detection by activation of CaSO4:Dy + KBr thermoluminescent phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, A.M.P.L.; Muccillo, R.


    Thermoluminescence (TL) studies to detect thermal neutrons were performed in cold-pressed CaSO 4 :0,1%Dy + KBr samples. The detection is based on the self-irradiation of the CaSO 4 :Dy TL phosphor by the Br isotopes activated by exposure to a mixed neutron-gamma field. (Author) [pt

  4. The binary system K2SO4CaSO4 (United States)

    Rowe, J.J.; Morey, G.W.; Hansen, I.D.


    The binary system K2SO4CaSO4 was studied by means of heating-cooling curves, differential thermal analysis, high-temperature quenching technique and by means of a heating stage mounted on an X-ray diffractometer. Compositions and quench products were identified optically and by X-ray. Limited solid solution of CaSO4 in K2SO4 was found. There is a eutectic at 875??C and 34 wt. per cent CaSO4. Calcium langbeinite melts incongruently at 1011??C. The melting-point of CaSO4 (1462??C) was determined by the quenching technique using sealed platinum tubes. The only intermediate crystalline phase found in the system is K2SO4??2CaSO4 (calcium langbeinite). ?? 1965.

  5. The ternary system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4 (United States)

    Rowe, J.J.; Morey, G.W.; Silber, C.C.


    Melting and subsolidus relations in the system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4 were studied using heating-cooling curves, differential thermal analysis, optics, X-ray diffraction at room and high temperatures and by quenching techniques. Previous investigators were unable to study the binary MgSO4CaSO4 system and the adjacent area in the ternary system because of the decomposition of MgSO4 and CaSO4 at high temperatures. This problem was partly overcome by a novel sealed-tube quenching method, by hydrothermal synthesis, and by long-time heating in the solidus. As a result of this study, we found: (1) a new compound, CaSO4??3MgSO4 (m.p. 1201??C) with a field extending into the ternary system; (2) a high temperature form of MgSO4 with a sluggishly reversible inversion. An X-ray diffraction pattern for this polymorphic form is given; (3) the inversion of ??-CaSO4 (anhydrite) to ??-CaSO4 at 1195??C, in agreement with grahmann; (1) (4) the melting point of MgSO4 is 1136??C and that of CaSO4 is 1462??C (using sealed tube methods to prevent decomposition of the sulphates); (5) calcium langbeinite (K2SO4??2CaSO4) is the only compound in the K2SO4CaSO4 binary system. This resolved discrepancies in the results of previous investigators; (6) a continuous solid solution series between congruently melting K2SOP4??2MgSO4 (langbeinite) and incongruently melting K2SO4??2CaSO4 (calcium langbeinite); (7) the liquidus in the ternary system consists of primary phase fields of K2SO4, MgSO4, CaSO4, langbeinite-calcium langbeinite solid solution, and CaSO4??3MgSO4. The CaSO4 field extends over a large portion of the system. Previously reported fields for the compounds (K2SO4??MgSO4??nCaSO4), K2SO4??3CaSO4 and K2SO4??CaSO4 were not found; (8) a minimum in the ternary system at: 740??C, 25% MgSO4, 6% CaSO4, 69% K2SO4; and ternary eutectics at 882??C, 49% MgSO4, 19% CaSO4, 32% K2SO4; and 880??, 67??5% MgSO4, 5% CaSO4, 27??5% K2SO4. ?? 1967.

  6. Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carrier (HBOC) Development in Trauma: Previous Regulatory Challenges, Lessons Learned, and a Path Forward. (United States)

    Keipert, Peter E


    Historically, hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) were being developed as "blood substitutes," despite their transient circulatory half-life (~ 24 h) vs. transfused red blood cells (RBCs). More recently, HBOC commercial development focused on "oxygen therapeutic" indications to provide a temporary oxygenation bridge until medical or surgical interventions (including RBC transfusion, if required) can be initiated. This included the early trauma trials with HemAssist ® (BAXTER), Hemopure ® (BIOPURE) and PolyHeme ® (NORTHFIELD) for resuscitating hypotensive shock. These trials all failed due to safety concerns (e.g., cardiac events, mortality) and certain protocol design limitations. In 2008 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) put all HBOC trials in the US on clinical hold due to the unfavorable benefit:risk profile demonstrated by various HBOCs in different clinical studies in a meta-analysis published by Natanson et al. (2008). During standard resuscitation in trauma, organ dysfunction and failure can occur due to ischemia in critical tissues, which can be detected by the degree of lactic acidosis. SANGART'S Phase 2 trauma program with MP4OX therefore added lactate >5 mmol/L as an inclusion criterion to enroll patients who had lost sufficient blood to cause a tissue oxygen debt. This was key to the successful conduct of their Phase 2 program (ex-US, from 2009 to 2012) to evaluate MP4OX as an adjunct to standard fluid resuscitation and transfusion of RBCs. In 2013, SANGART shared their Phase 2b results with the FDA, and succeeded in getting the FDA to agree that a planned Phase 2c higher dose comparison study of MP4OX in trauma could include clinical sites in the US. Unfortunately, SANGART failed to secure new funding and was forced to terminate development and operations in Dec 2013, even though a regulatory path forward with FDA approval to proceed in trauma had been achieved.

  7. Preparation of CaSO4:Dy by precipitation method to gamma radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, T.; Roman, J.; Azorin, J.; Sosa, R.; Guzman, J.; Serrano, A.K.; Garcia, M.; Alarcon, G.


    This paper presents the results of the preparation and characterization of dysprosium-doped calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 :Dy) phosphor, which was obtained by homogeneous precipitation from calcium acetate Ca(CH 3 COO - ) 2 . Structural and morphological characteristics were studied using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The structure of all compounds was determined by X-ray diffraction method too. Thermoluminescence (TL) emission properties of CaSO 4 :Dy under gamma radiation effects were studied. This phosphor powder presented a TL glow curve with two peaks (Tmax) centered at around of 180 and 300 deg. C, respectively. The TL response of CaSO 4 :Dy as a function of gamma absorbed dose was linear in a wide range. Both emission and excitation spectra were also obtained. Results showed that this new preparation method of CaSO 4 :Dy TL phosphor is less expensive, cleaner and safer than the conventional preparation method.

  8. Separation and determination of reduced vitamin C in polymerized hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers of the human placenta. (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Mo, Ling; Li, Shen; Zhou, Wentao; Wang, Hong; Liu, Jiaxin; Yang, Chengmin


    The molybdenum blue method was used to determine the content of reduced vitamin C (Vc) in a solution of polymerized hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) of the human placenta. The conditions of absorption wavelength, HCl addition, and reaction time, were investigated. The results of validation experiments showed that under the optimized conditions, a standard curve was confirmed with good linearity of 0.9985, for the Vc amount ranging from 0-200 μg. The values for relative standard deviation (RSD) of the precision and repeatability were both below 5%. Vc recovery was in the range of 97-102%. The conclusion could be made that a reduction in Vc content could be tested effectively by the molybdenum blue method.

  9. Development of Thermoluminescence Dosimeter CaSO4:Dy as Personal and Environmental Dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnel Sofyan


    Development of personal and environmental dosimeters using material phosphors of CaSO 4 :Dy powder in form capillary glass and disc teflon thermoluminescence (TL) dosimeter have been done. TL dosimeter CaSO 4 :Dy powder used can record dose response less than 0.01 mGy. Fading of TL dosimeter capillary glass after 29 days is 25%. In 1 batch, making of CaSO 4 :Dy powder can obtain 2 groups of dosimeter capillaries with coefficient variance smaller than 10%. This discrepancy caused difference in powder making and reading of the TL dosimeter. TL dosimeter CaSO 4 :Dy teflon disc with dia. 5 mm and 0.8 mm thickness is homogeneous mixture between phosphor powder with dia. 80 to 150 mesh and teflon powder dia. 20 μm. The composition of CaSO 4 :Dy and teflon in TL dosimeter influence sensitivity of the dosimeter. It’ concluded that in order to obtain optimal sensitivity of TL dosimeter, the composition of CaSO 4 :Dy and teflon is 3 and 1 with pressured of disc in 700 MPa. (author).

  10. Removal of cellular-type hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (hemoglobin-vesicles) from blood using centrifugation and ultrafiltration. (United States)

    Sakai, Hiromi; Sou, Keitaro; Horinouchi, Hirohisa; Tsuchida, Eishun; Kobayashi, Koichi


    The hemoglobin-vesicle (HbV) is an artificial oxygen carrier encapsulating a concentrated hemoglobin solution in a phospholipid vesicle (liposome). During or after transporting oxygen, macrophages capture HbVs in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) with an approximate circulation half-life of 3 days. Animal studies show transient splenohepatomegaly after large doses, but HbVs were completely degraded, and the components were excreted in a few weeks. If a blood substitute is used for emergency use until red blood cell transfusion becomes available or for temporary use such as a priming fluid for an extracorporeal circuit, then one option would be to remove HbVs from the circulating blood without waiting a few weeks for removal by the RES. Using a mixture of beagle dog whole blood and HbV, we tested the separation of HbV using a centrifugal Fresenius cell separator and an ultrafiltration system. The cell separator system separated the layers of blood cell components from the HbV-containing plasma layer by centrifugal force, and then the HbV was removed from plasma phase by the ultrafiltration system. The HbVs (250-280 nm) are larger than plasma proteins (blood cell components (> 3 µm). The size of HbVs is advantageous to be separated from the original blood components, and the separated blood components can be returned to circulation. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Improvement of routes and production of CaSO4-based dosimeters with unusual doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junot, Danilo Oliveira


    The widespread use of ionizing radiation in medicine and industry, associated with the known risks that this type of radiation can cause, has motivated the search for new radiation detectors, seeking improvements in the dosimetric characteristics and in the cost of production in comparison with commercial dosimeters disseminated. The motivation of this work is, therefore, to produce new thermoluminescent detectors through improved routes. Unusual elements in CaSO 4 matrix doping, such as terbium (Tb) and ytterbium (Yb), were used as dopants in this matrix, as well as the europium (Eu), the thulium (Tm) and the silver (Ag), resulting in samples of CaSO 4 :Eu,Tb, CaSO 4 :Tb,Yb, CaSO 4 :Tm,Ag and CaSO 4 :Eu,Ag that were prepared by means of an adaptation of the method developed by Yamashita (1971). The route of synthesis is based on the mixture of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) and dopant oxide (except for silver, incorporated in the form of metallic nanoparticles) in a solution of sulfuric acid. The mixture is heated until all the acid evaporates and only the powder of the material remains. In this route, the sulfuric acid is collected and can be reused. The phosphors produced were characterized by X-ray diffraction and radioluminescence techniques. The silver particles, produced by the polyol method, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Composites were obtained from the addition of Teflon to the phosphors. The thermoluminescence (TL) and the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of the new materials produced were investigated. Thermoluminescent characteristics such as sensitivity, linearity, reproducibility, minimum detectable dose, kinetic order and fading were evaluated and discussed. The CaSO 4 :Tb,Eu composites showed TL glow curves with peaks at temperatures of 170 °C, 270 °C and 340 °C. The CaSO 4 :Tb,Yb composites presented TL glow curves with peaks at temperatures of 90 °C, 160 °C, 240 °C and 340 °C. CaSO 4 :Tm showed peaks at temperatures of 140 °C and 225 °C and the CaSO 4 :Tm,Ag presented peaks at temperatures of 140 °C, 280 °C and 380 °C. All composites showed a linear and reproducible dose response. The TL emission spectrum of the composites was also evaluated. The samples of calcium sulfate doped with europium and silver particles (CaSO 4 :Eu,Ag) showed great potential for applicability in the OSL dosimetry. (author)

  12. Comparison of the TL intensity of the sintered composites of CaSO4+Tm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junot, O.D.; Sousa, F.L. de; Chagas, M.A.P.; Souza, D.N.


    The objective of this work is to compare the thermoluminescent intensity (TL) of CaSO 4 +Tm, CaSO 4 +Tm+glass and glass+Tm composites for use as thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). The route used to prepare the CaSO 4 +Tm and the CaSO 4 +Tm+glass was by mixing 1 g of CaSO 4 with 0.02 g of thulium oxide (99,9% purity) and 0.3 g of commercial and colorless glass. To mixing the composites were taken to a magnetic stirrer for 30 min with 10 mL of distilled water for better homogenization. The powder mixtures were dried in a stove at 100 deg C for 24 h. After drying, it was added polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to improve the binding material. The pellets were compacted by application of an uniaxial pressing and sintered at 700 deg C/ 6 h. The route used in the preparation of glass+Tm pellets was similar to one previously mentioned, except by the use of 1 g of glass and 0.02 of Tm. After the sintering, the pellets dimensions were 1 mm thick and 6 mm in diameter. All samples were irradiated by a beta source ( 90 Sr + 90 Y) and received doses from 1.00 Gy to 20 Gy. Each composite presented a characteristic emission curve. The dosimeter of CaSO 4 +Tm+glass presented two peaks, the first at 115 deg C, and the second, very intense, ate 150 deg C. The CaSO 4 +Tm dosimeter showed a less intense peak at 140 deg C and another, more intense, at 235 deg C. In the composites of glass+Tm, the most intense peak has a thermoluminescent signal 94,04% lower than the most intense peak of CaSO 4 +Tm+glass and 81.57% lower than the most intense peak of CaSO 4 +Tm. After the analysis of TL emission curves, we observed that the CaSO 4 +Tm+glass have the highest TL intensity and a TL response proportional to the dose absorbed. (author)

  13. Analytical interference of HBOC-201 (Hemopure, a synthetic hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier) on four common clinical chemistry platforms. (United States)

    Korte, Erik A; Pozzi, Nicole; Wardrip, Nina; Ayyoubi, M Tayyeb; Jortani, Saeed A


    There are 13 million blood transfusions each year in the US. Limitations in the donor pool, storage capabilities, mass casualties, access in remote locations and reactivity of donors all limit the availability of transfusable blood products to patients. HBOC-201 (Hemopure®) is a second-generation glutaraldehyde-polymer of bovine hemoglobin, which can serve as an "oxygen bridge" to maintain oxygen carrying capacity while transfusion products are unavailable. Hemopure presents the advantages of extended shelf life, ambient storage, and limited reactive potential, but its extracellular location can also cause significant interference in modern laboratory analyzers similar to severe hemolysis. Observed error in 26 commonly measured analytes was determined on 4 different analytical platforms in plasma from a patient therapeutically transfused Hemopure as well as donor blood spiked with Hemopure at a level equivalent to the therapeutic loading dose (10% v/v). Significant negative error ratios >50% of the total allowable error (>0.5tAE) were reported in 23/104 assays (22.1%), positive bias of >0.5tAE in 26/104 assays (25.0%), and acceptable bias between -0.5tAE and 0.5tAE error ratio was reported in 44/104 (42.3%). Analysis failed in the presence of Hemopure in 11/104 (10.6%). Observed error is further subdivided by platform, wavelength, dilution and reaction method. Administration of Hemopure (or other hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers) presents a challenge to laboratorians tasked with analyzing patient specimens. We provide laboratorians with a reference to evaluate patient samples, select optimal analytical platforms for specific analytes, and predict possible bias beyond the 4 analytical platforms included in this study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Screening of NiFe2O4 Nanoparticles as Oxygen Carrier in Chemical Looping Hydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Shuai; He, Fang; Huang, Zhen


    The objective of this paper is to systematically investigate the influences of different preparation methods on the properties of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles as oxygen carrier in chemical looping hydrogen production (CLH). The solid state (SS), coprecipitation (CP), hydrothermal (HT), and sol-gel (SG) ...... analyses....

  15. Artificial oxygen carrier with pharmacologic actions of adenosine-5'-triphosphate, adenosine, and reduced glutathione formulated to treat an array of medical conditions. (United States)

    Simoni, Jan; Simoni, Grace; Moeller, John F; Feola, Mario; Wesson, Donald E


    Effective artificial oxygen carriers may offer a solution to tackling current transfusion medicine challenges such as blood shortages, red blood cell storage lesions, and transmission of emerging pathogens. These products, could provide additional therapeutic benefits besides oxygen delivery for an array of medical conditions. To meet these needs, we developed a hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carrier, HemoTech, which utilizes the concept of pharmacologic cross-linking. It consists of purified bovine Hb cross-linked intramolecularly with open ring adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and intermolecularly with open ring adenosine, and conjugated with reduced glutathione (GSH). In this composition, ATP prevents Hb dimerization, and adenosine promotes formation of Hb polymers as well as counteracts the vasoconstrictive and pro-inflammatory properties of Hb via stimulation of adenosine receptors. ATP also serves as a regulator of vascular tone through activation of purinergic receptors. GSH blocks Hb's extravasation and glomerular filtration by lowering the isoelectric point, as well as shields heme from nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species. HemoTech and its manufacturing technology have been broadly tested, including viral and prion clearance validation studies and various nonclinical pharmacology, toxicology, genotoxicity, and efficacy tests. The clinical proof-of-concept was carried out in sickle cell anemia subjects. The preclinical and clinical studies indicate that HemoTech works as a physiologic oxygen carrier and has efficacy in treating: (i) acute blood loss anemia by providing a temporary oxygen bridge while stimulating an endogenous erythropoietic response; (ii) sickle cell disease by counteracting vaso-occlusive/inflammatory episodes and anemia; and (iii) ischemic vascular diseases particularly thrombotic and restenotic events. The pharmacologic cross-linking of Hb with ATP, adenosine, and GSH showed usefulness in designing an artificial oxygen carrier for

  16. Molluscan mega-hemocyanin: an ancient oxygen carrier tuned by a ~550 kDa polypeptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harasewych Myroslaw G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The allosteric respiratory protein hemocyanin occurs in gastropods as tubular di-, tri- and multimers of a 35 × 18 nm, ring-like decamer with a collar complex at one opening. The decamer comprises five subunit dimers. The subunit, a 400 kDa polypeptide, is a concatenation of eight paralogous functional units. Their exact topology within the quaternary structure has recently been solved by 3D electron microscopy, providing a molecular model of an entire didecamer (two conjoined decamers. Here we study keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH2 tridecamers to unravel the exact association mode of the third decamer. Moreover, we introduce and describe a more complex type of hemocyanin tridecamer discovered in fresh/brackish-water cerithioid snails (Leptoxis, Melanoides, Terebralia. Results The "typical" KLH2 tridecamer is partially hollow, whereas the cerithioid tridecamer is almost completely filled with material; it was therefore termed "mega-hemocyanin". In both types, the staggering angle between adjoining decamers is 36°. The cerithioid tridecamer comprises two typical decamers based on the canonical 400 kDa subunit, flanking a central "mega-decamer" composed of ten unique ~550 kDa subunits. The additional ~150 kDa per subunit substantially enlarge the internal collar complex. Preliminary oxygen binding measurements indicate a moderate hemocyanin oxygen affinity in Leptoxis (p50 ~9 mmHg, and a very high affinity in Melanoides (~3 mmHg and Terebralia (~2 mmHg. Species-specific and individual variation in the proportions of the two subunit types was also observed, leading to differences in the oligomeric states found in the hemolymph. Conclusions In cerithioid hemocyanin tridecamers ("mega-hemocyanin" the collar complex of the central decamer is substantially enlarged and modified. The preliminary O2 binding curves indicate that there are species-specific functional differences in the cerithioid mega-hemocyanins which might reflect

  17. Molecular engineering of proteins with predefined function. Part I: Design of a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier. (United States)

    Sivan, Sarit; Lotan, Noah


    Molecular engineering refers to a collection of complex, computer-based methods used to study molecular structures and properties. These methods include ones for determining properties as well as for accessing prior knowledge about them. Applying these methods, one can generate, manipulate and calculate the energy involved with the three-dimensional conformation of a given molecule. These computational tools were utilized in this study, to design cross-linking reagents for cell-free Hb, for the purpose of O(2)-carriers development. Hb, when removed from the red blood cell, misses some of its functional characteristics required. Yet, these characteristics can be rebuilt into the Hb molecule by appropriate chemical modifications. These modifications have been devised to prevent dimer formation, increase the retention time in circulation, and decrease the high oxygen affinity of free Hb. The reagent reported in this study, namely, oxidized-NAD (o-NAD), has been designed to fulfill both criteria of retention time and oxygen affinity, in a single package. Feasibility of the cross-linking reaction of o-NAD with Hb was assessed by studying the docking process of o-NAD within the 2,3-DPG pocket of Hb. In this study, we provide an insight into how the overall factors involved with the potential energy calculations contribute to the hydrogen bonding network, formed within the complex. Conformational search analysis has shown a high proximity, of functional moieties on the Hb molecule, to reactive groups on the o-NAD molecule suggested. This is an important step in the design and later synthesis of O(2)-carrying materials to be used as blood substitutes.

  18. Sulfur evolution in chemical looping combustion of coal with MnFe2O4 oxygen carrier. (United States)

    Wang, Baowen; Gao, Chuchang; Wang, Weishu; Zhao, Haibo; Zheng, Chuguang


    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) of coal has gained increasing attention as a novel combustion technology for its advantages in CO2 capture. Sulfur evolution from coal causes great harm from either the CLC operational or environmental perspective. In this research, a combined MnFe2O4 oxygen carrier (OC) was synthesized and its reaction with a typical Chinese high sulfur coal, Liuzhi (LZ) bituminous coal, was performed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA)-Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. Evolution of sulfur species during reaction of LZ coal with MnFe2O4 OC was systematically investigated through experimental means combined with thermodynamic simulation. TGA-FTIR analysis of the LZ reaction with MnFe2O4 indicated MnFe2O4 exhibited the desired superior reactivity compared to the single reference oxides Mn3O4 or Fe2O3, and SO2 produced was mainly related to oxidization of H2S by MnFe2O4. Experimental analysis of the LZ coal reaction with MnFe2O4, including X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, verified that the main reduced counterparts of MnFe2O4 were Fe3O4 and MnO, in good agreement with the related thermodynamic simulation. The obtained MnO was beneficial to stabilize the reduced MnFe2O4 and avoid serious sintering, although the oxygen in MnO was not fully utilized. Meanwhile, most sulfur present in LZ coal was converted to solid MnS during LZ reaction with MnFe2O4, which was further oxidized to MnSO4. Finally, the formation of both MnS and such manganese silicates as Mn2SiO4 and MnSiO3 should be addressed to ensure the full regeneration of the reduced MnFe2O4. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hepatically-metabolized and -excreted artificial oxygen carrier, hemoglobin vesicles, can be safely used under conditions of hepatic impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Kazuaki; Miyasato, Mayumi; Ujihira, Hayato; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kadowaki, Daisuke; Sakai, Hiromi; Tsuchida, Eishun; Horinouchi, Hirohisa; Kobayashi, Koichi; Maruyama, Toru; Otagiri, Masaki


    The hemoglobin vesicle (HbV) is an artificial oxygen carrier in which a concentrated Hb solution is encapsulated in lipid vesicles. Our previous studies demonstrated that HbV is metabolized by the mononuclear phagocyte system, and the lipid components are excreted from the liver. It is well-known that many hepatically-metabolized and -excreted drugs show altered pharmaceutics under conditions of liver impairment, which results in adverse effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether the administration of HbV causes toxicity in rats with carbon tetrachloride induced liver cirrhosis. Changes in plasma biochemical parameters, histological staining and the pharmacokinetic distribution of HbV were evaluated after an HbV injection of the above model rats at a putative clinical dose (1400 mgHb/kg). Plasma biochemical parameters were not significantly affected, except for a transient elevation of lipase, lipid components and bilirubin, which recovered within 14 days after an HbV infusion. Negligible morphological changes were observed in the kidney, liver, spleen, lung and heart. Hemosiderin, a marker of iron accumulation in organs, was observed in the liver and spleen up to 14 days after HbV treatment, but no evidence of oxidative stress in the plasma and liver were observed. HbV is mainly distributed in the liver and spleen, and the lipid components are excreted into feces within 7 days. In conclusion, even under conditions of hepatic cirrhosis, HbV and its components exhibit the favorable metabolic and excretion profile at the putative clinical dose. These findings provide further support for the safety and effectiveness of HbV in clinical settings.

  20. Strategies for Small Volume Resuscitation: Hyperosmotic-Hyperoncotic Solutions, Hemoglobin Based Oxygen Carriers and Closed-Loop Resuscitation (United States)

    Kramer, George C.; Wade, Charles E.; Dubick, Michael A.; Atkins, James L.


    Introduction: Logistic constraints on combat casualty care preclude traditional resuscitation strategies which can require volumes and weights 3 fold or greater than hemorrhaged volume. We present a review of quantitative analyses of clinical and animal data on small volume strategies using 1) hypertonic-hyperosmotic solutions (HHS); 2) hemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) and 3) closed-loop infusion regimens.Methods and Results: Literature searches and recent queries to industry and academic researchers have allowed us to evaluate the record of 81 human HHS studies (12 trauma trials), 19 human HBOCs studies (3trauma trials) and two clinical studies of closed-loop resuscitation.There are several hundreds animal studies and at least 82 clinical trials and reports evaluating small volume7.2%-7.5% hypertonic saline (HS) most often combined with colloids, e.g., dextran (HSD) or hetastarch(HSS). HSD and HSS data has been published for 1,108 and 392 patients, respectively. Human studies have documented volume sparing and hemodynamic improvements. Meta-analyses suggest improved survival for hypotensive trauma patients treated with HSD with significant reductions in mortality found for patients with blood pressure blood use and lower mortality compared to historic controls of patients refusing blood. Transfusion reductions with HBOC use have been modest. Two HBOCs (Hemopure and Polyheme) are now in new or planned large-scale multicenter prehospital trials of trauma treatment. A new implementation of small volume resuscitation is closed-loop resuscitation (CLR), which employs microprocessors to titrate just enough fluid to reach a physiologic target . Animal studies suggest less risk of rebleeding in uncontrolled hemorrhage and a reduction in fluid needs with CLR. The first clinical application of CLR was treatment of burn shock and the US Army. Conclusions: Independently sponsored civilian trauma trials and clinical evaluations in operational combat conditions of

  1. Influence of the formation- and passivation rate of boron-oxygen defects for mitigating carrier-induced degradation in silicon within a hydrogen-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallam, Brett; Abbott, Malcolm; Nampalli, Nitin; Hamer, Phill; Wenham, Stuart


    A three-state model is used to explore the influence of defect formation- and passivation rates of carrier-induced degradation related to boron-oxygen complexes in boron-doped p-type silicon solar cells within a hydrogen-based model. The model highlights that the inability to effectively mitigate carrier-induced degradation at elevated temperatures in previous studies is due to the limited availability of defects for hydrogen passivation, rather than being limited by the defect passivation rate. An acceleration of the defect formation rate is also observed to increase both the effectiveness and speed of carrier-induced degradation mitigation, whereas increases in the passivation rate do not lead to a substantial acceleration of the hydrogen passivation process. For high-throughput mitigation of such carrier-induced degradation on finished solar cell devices, two key factors were found to be required, high-injection conditions (such as by using high intensity illumination) to enable an acceleration of defect formation whilst simultaneously enabling a rapid passivation of the formed defects, and a high temperature to accelerate both defect formation and defect passivation whilst still ensuring an effective mitigation of carrier-induced degradation

  2. Screening of oxygen-carrier particles based on iron-, manganese-, copper- and nickel oxides for use in chemical-looping technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Marcus


    Capture and storage of carbon dioxide from combustion will likely be used in the future as a method of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and thus be part of the overall strategy to stabilize the atmospheric levels of CO{sub 2}. Chemical-looping combustion is a method of combustion where CO{sub 2} is inherently separated from the non-condensable components in the flue gas without the need for an energy intensive air separation unit. This is because nitrogen from the combustion air is never mixed with the fuel. Instead, oxygen carriers, in the form of metal oxide particles, circulate between two interconnected fluidized reactors and transfer oxygen from the air to the fuel through heterogeneous gas-solid redox reactions. The technology could also be adapted for the production of hydrogen from fossil fuels with CO{sub 2} separation, i.e. chemical-looping reforming. 108 different oxygen-carriers based on iron-, manganese-, copper- and nickel oxides have been investigated. These carriers are prepared with inert material to increase the lifetime and performance of the particles. All particles but one have been produced by a freeze-granulation method. In order to optimize the performance of the particles, the sintering temperature of the particles was varied between 950 deg C and 1600 deg C. Normally particles of the size range of 125-180 squarem have been used for the reactivity investigations. Screening tests were performed in a laboratory fluidized-bed reactor of quartz placed in a furnace. The particles were exposed to an environment simulating a real chemical looping combustor, by alternating between reducing (50% CH{sub 4} - 50 % H{sub 2}O) and oxidizing conditions (5% O{sub 2} in N{sub 2}). The temperature was varied in the range 600 - 950 deg C with most experiments conducted at 950 deg C. In addition the particles were characterized with respect to strength, physical appearance and chemical structure before and after the experiments. Some suitable oxygen

  3. CaMn0.875Ti0.125O3 as oxygen carrier for chemical-looping combustion with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU)—Experiments in a continuously operating fluidized-bed reactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Rydén, Magnus


    Particles of the perovskite material CaMn0.875Ti0.125O3 has been examined as oxygen carrier for chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling, and for chemical-looping combustion of natural gas, by 70h of experiments in a circulating fluidized-bed reactor system. For the oxygen uncoupling experiments, it was found that the particles released O2 in gas phase at temperatures above 720°C when the fuel reactor was fluidized with CO2. The effect increased with increased temperature, and with the O2 partial pressure in the air reactor. At 950°C, the O2 concentration in the outlet from the fuel reactor was in the order of 4.0vol%, if the particles were oxidized in air. For the chemical-looping combustion experiments the combustion efficiency with standard process parameters was in the order of 95% at 950°C, using 1000kg oxygen carrier per MW natural gas, of which about 30% was located in the fuel reactor. Reducing the fuel flow so that 1900kg oxygen carrier per MW natural gas was used improved the combustion efficiency to roughly 99.8%. The particles retained their physical properties, reactivity with CH4 and ability to release gas-phase O2 reasonably well throughout the testing period and there were no problems with the fluidization or formation of solid carbon in the reactor. X-ray diffraction showed that the particles underwent changes in their phase composition though. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Photo-TL in CaSO4:Dy: high exposure dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.; Mayhugh, M.R.


    CaSO 4 :Dy exposed to 10 3 to 10 8 R then annealed in the range 280 to 400 0 C displays little TL in the major dosimetry peak near 200 0 C. Subsequent illumination with 250 nm light reinduces the 200 0 C TL. This radiation-enabled photo-TL is roughly proportional to the square root of the enabling exposure at least to 10 8 R. (auth)

  5. Numerical simulation of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) fouling in the plate heat exchanger (United States)

    Xu, Zhiming; Zhao, Yu; Han, Zhimin; Wang, Jingtao


    Plate heat exchanger is a widely used apparatus in the industrial production processes. Through a numerical simulation method, this paper calculates the deposition rate of CaSO4 fouling on heat transfer surfaces of the plate heat exchanger under saturation in the bulk. The effects of CaSO4 concentration in the range 0.7 kg/m3 to 1.5 kg/m3, inlet flow velocity under turbulent flow, and the fluid's inlet temperature from 288 K to 328 K on the deposition rate, removal mass rate and fouling resistance are investigated. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results showing similar trend. The simulation results show that the concentration and the flow velocity affect significantly the fouling characteristics in the plate heat exchanger. The deposition mass rate, removal mass rate, and asymptotic value of fouling resistance all increase with the increase in CaSO4 concentration and the inlet temperature of the hot fluid, while the asymptotic value of fouling resistance decreases with the increasing of inlet flow velocity. The influence of the inlet temperature of cold fluid may be negligible.

  6. High energy electron beams characterization using CaSO4:Dy+PTFE Phosphors for clinical therapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, T.; Espinoza, A.; Von, S.M.; Alvarez, R.; Jiménez, Y.


    In the present work high energy electron beam dosimetry from linear accelerator (LINACs) for clinical applications using dysprosium doped calcium sulfate embedded in polytetrafluorethylene (CaSO 4 :Dy+PTFE) was studied. The irradiations were carried out using high electron beams (6 to 18 MeV) from a linear accelerator (LINAC) Varian, CLINAC 2300C/D, for clinical practice purpose. The electron irradiations were obtained using the water solid in order to guarantee electronic equilibrium conditions (EEC). Field shaping for electron beams was obtained with electron cones. Glow curve and other thermoluminescent characteristics of CaSO 4 :Dy+PTFE were conducted under high electrons beams irradiations. The TL response of the pellets showed an intensity peak centered at around 215 °C. TL response of CaSO 4 :Dy+PTFE as a function of high electron absorbed dose showed a linearity in a wide range. To obtain reproducibility characteristic, a set of pellets were exposed repeatedly for the same electron absorbed dose. The results obtained in this study can suggest the applicability of CaSO 4 :Dy+PTFE pellets for high electron beam dosimetry, provided fading is correctly accounted for. - Highlights: ► Developing of CaSO 4 :Dy to electron beams dosimetry. ► Characterization of caSO 4 :Dy to radiation safety in LINACs. ► TL characteristics of CaSO 4 :Dy for electron beams quality control.

  7. Hydrogen production with CO 2 capture by coupling steam reforming of methane and chemical-looping combustion: Use of an iron-based waste product as oxygen carrier burning a PSA tail gas (United States)

    Ortiz, María; Gayán, Pilar; de Diego, Luis F.; García-Labiano, Francisco; Abad, Alberto; Pans, Miguel A.; Adánez, Juan

    In this work it is analyzed the performance of an iron waste material as oxygen carrier for a chemical-looping combustion (CLC) system. CLC is a novel combustion technology with the benefit of inherent CO 2 separation that can be used as a source of energy for the methane steam reforming process (SR). The tail gas from the PSA unit is used as fuel in the CLC system. The oxygen carrier behaviour with respect to gas combustion was evaluated in a continuous 500 W th CLC prototype using a simulated PSA off-gas stream as fuel. Methane or syngas as fuel were also studied for comparison purposes. The oxygen carrier showed enough high oxygen transport capacity and reactivity to fully convert syngas at 880 °C. However, lower conversion of the fuel was observed with methane containing fuels. An estimated solids inventory of 1600 kg MW th -1 would be necessary to fully convert the PSA off-gas to CO 2 and H 2O. An important positive effect of the oxygen carrier-to-fuel ratio up to 1.5 and the reactor temperature on the combustion efficiency was found. A characterization of the calcined and after-used particles was carried out showing that this iron-based material can be used as oxygen carrier in a CLC plant since particles maintain their properties (reactivity, no agglomeration, high durability, etc.) after more than 111 h of continuous operation.

  8. Measurement of absorbed dose for high energy electron using CaSO4: Tm-PTFE TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Myeong Hwan; Kim, Do Sung


    In this study, the highly sensitive CaSO 4 : Tm-PTFE TLDs has been fabricated for the purpose of measurement of high energy electron. CaSO 4 : Tm phosphor powder was mixed with polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE) powder and moulded in a disk type(diameter 8.5mm, thickness 90mg/cm 2 ) by cold pressing. The absorbed dose distribution and ranges for high energy electron were measured by using the CaSO 4 : Tm-PTFE TLDs. The ranges determined were R 100 =3D14.5mm, R 50 =3D24.1mm and R p =3D31.8mm, respectively and the beam flatness, the variation of relative dose in 80% of the field size, was 4.5%. The fabricated CaSO 4 : Tm-PTFE TLDs may be utilized in radiation dosimetry for personal, absorbed dose and environmental monitoring.=20

  9. CaSO4: Dy + Teflon dosimetric pellets for X, beta and gamma radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Lima, M.F.


    CaSO 4 : Dy + TEFLON dosimetric pellets with high sensitivity and low cost for X, beta and gamma radiation monitoring were studied and developed by the Dosimetric Material Production Laboratory of the Radiological Protection Departament and are disposable for sale. The thickness of the pellets are suitable for X, beta and gamma radiation measurements. The dosimetric properties of these pellets were determined and presented in this work. The results show the usefulness of 0,20mm thick pellets for beta radiation monitoring and 0,80mm thick pellets for x and gamma radiation detection. (Author) [pt

  10. Improvement in the dosimetric CaSO4: Dy obtention method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Frutuoso, P.H.; Souto, V.J.


    With the purpose of saving up in the dosimetric CaSO 4 : Dy production, a new method was developed to obtain single crystals. In this method the nitrogen flux used to carry the acid vapour was substituted by compressed air. It was compared all dosimetric properties of the crystals. There is no alteration in the glow curve. The sensitivity is the same in both cases and the lower detection limit is 3.8 x 10 -8 C.Kg -1 (150 μR) [pt

  11. Synthesis and Application of Cerium-Incorporated SBA-16 Supported Ni-Based Oxygen Carrier in Cyclic Chemical Looping Steam Methane Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Meshksar


    Full Text Available Hydrogen, as a clean energy carrier, could be produced aided by cyclic oxidation-reduction of oxygen carriers (OCs in contact with carbonaceous fuel in chemical looping steam methane reforming (CL-SMR process. In this study, the cerium was incorporated into the SBA-16 support structure to synthesize the Ni/Ce-SBA-16 OC. The supports were synthesized using hydrothermal method followed by impregnation of Ni and characterized via low and wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy, and transmission electron micrograph (TEM techniques. In addition, the effect of various Si/Ce molar ratios (20–60 in the support structure, Ni loading (10–30 wt %, reaction temperature (500–750 °C, and life time of optimal oxygen carrier over 16 cycles were investigated. The results of wide angle XRD and SEM revealed that the incorporation of CeO2 in the channels of SBA-16 caused the formation of nickel metallic particles with smaller size and prevents the coke formation. The results showed that OC with 15 wt % Ni and Si/Ce molar ratio of 40 (15Ni/Ce-SBA-16(40 has the best performance when compared with other OCs in terms of catalytic activity and structural properties. The methane conversion of about 99.7% was achieved at 700 °C using 15Ni/Ce-SBA-16(40 OC. We anticipate that the strategy can be extended to investigate a variety of novel modified mesoporous silica as the supporting material for the Ni based OCs.

  12. Effects of GC temperature and carrier gas flow rate on on-line oxygen isotope measurement as studied by on-column CO injection. (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Gang; Yin, Xi-Jie; Zhou, Youping


    Although deemed important to δ 18 O measurement by on-line high-temperature conversion techniques, how the GC conditions affect δ 18 O measurement is rarely examined adequately. We therefore directly injected different volumes of CO or CO-N 2 mix onto the GC column by a six-port valve and examined the CO yield, CO peak shape, CO-N 2 separation, and δ 18 O value under different GC temperatures and carrier gas flow rates. The results show the CO peak area decreases when the carrier gas flow rate increases. The GC temperature has no effect on peak area. The peak width increases with the increase of CO injection volume but decreases with the increase of GC temperature and carrier gas flow rate. The peak intensity increases with the increase of GC temperature and CO injection volume but decreases with the increase of carrier gas flow rate. The peak separation time between N 2 and CO decreases with an increase of GC temperature and carrier gas flow rate. δ 18 O value decreases with the increase of CO injection volume (when half m/z 28 intensity is rate. On average, the δ 18 O value of the injected CO is about 1‰ higher than that of identical reference CO. The δ 18 O distribution pattern of the injected CO is probably a combined result of ion source nonlinearity and preferential loss of C 16 O or oxygen isotopic exchange between zeolite and CO. For practical application, a lower carrier gas flow rate is therefore recommended as it has the combined advantages of higher CO yield, better N 2 -CO separation, lower He consumption, and insignificant effect on δ 18 O value, while a higher-than-60 °C GC temperature and a larger-than-100 µl CO volume is also recommended. When no N 2 peak is expected, a higher GC temperature is recommended, and vice versa. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Solvent-free, improved synthesis of pure bixbyite phase of iron and manganese mixed oxides as low-cost, potential oxygen carrier for chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mungse, P.B.; Saravanan, G.; Nishibori, M.; Šubrt, Jan; Labhsetwar, N.K.


    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2017), s. 511-521 ISSN 0033-4545. [International Conference Solid State Chemistry 2016 /12./. Prague, 18.09.2016-23.09.2016] Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : CO capture and sequestration * Lattice * Mixed metal oxides * Reactive oxygen * Thermal power plants Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 2.626, year: 2016

  14. CaSO4:DY,Mn: A new and highly sensitive thermoluminescence phosphor for versatile dosimetry (United States)

    Bahl, Shaila; Lochab, S. P.; Kumar, Pratik


    With the advent of newer techniques for dose reduction coupled with the development of more sensitive detectors, the radiation doses in radiological medical investigation are decreasing. Nevertheless, keeping the tenet in mind that all radiation doses could entail risk, there is a need to develop more sensitive dosimeters capable of measuring low doses. This paper gives the account of the development of a new and sensitive phosphor CaSO4:Dy,Mn and its characterization. The standard production procedure based on the recrystallization method was used to prepare CaSO4:Dy,Mn. The Thermoluminescence (TL) studies were carried out by exposing it with gamma radiation (Cs-137) from 10 μGy to 100 Gy. The theoretical studies to determine the number of peaks and kinetic parameters related to the TL glow peaks in CaSO4:Dy,Mn was performed using the Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution (CGCD) method. Experiments were performed to determine optimum concentration of the dopants Dysprosium (Dy) and Mangnese (Mn) in the host CaSO4 so that maximum sensitivity of the phosphor may be achieved. The optimum dopant concentration turned out to be 0.1 mol%. As there were two dopants Dy and Mn their relative ratio were varied in steps of 0.025 keeping the concentration of total dopant (Dy and Mn) 0.1 mol% always. The maximum TL intensity was seen in the CaSO4:Dy(0.025),Mn(0.075) combination. The TL sensitivity of this phosphor was found to be about 2 and 1.8 times higher than that of popular phosphor CaSO4:Dy and LiF:Mg,Cu,P (TLD-700H) respectively. This new phosphor CaSO4:Dy,Mn showed fading of 11% which is similar to that of the standard phosphor CaSO4:Dy. The paper concludes that the new, highly sensitive TL phosphor CaSO4:Dy,Mn has shown higher sensitivity and hence the potential to replace commonly used CaSO4:Dy.

  15. CaSO4:Dy and/or Tm: study of its properties for dosimetry application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, M.M.


    In order obtain in practical and cheap solid state dosimeter with high sensitivity, a technique initially developed to cold press a mixture of suitable materials in their powder form sensitive to radiation. The material initially used was natural CaF 2 (fluorite) for this salt was extensively studied in radiation dosimetry since it shows a thermoluminescent (TL) effect after radiation. However, natural calcium fluorite shows two main disadvantages: its high senstivity to room light and the impossibility to control its impurity content due to its natural origin. Calcium sulphate was thus used as a good substitute of fluorite. Rare earths doped calcium sulphate shows a high TL sensitivity and is not disturbed by light. It is also easily obtained in the laboratory under controlled conditions so to get reproducible impurity content. The best dosimeters that can be produced with rare earth doped calcium sulphate are CaSO 4 :Dy and CaSO 4 :Tm. Calcium sulphate, simultaneously doped with Tm and Dy was produced and 100% increase was obtained in the TL sensitivity when compared with the individually are earth doped calcium sulphate. (Author) [pt

  16. Isothermal gas chromatography of short-lived Hf isotopes and element 104 in chlorinating, oxygen containing carrier gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, D.T.; Dressler, R.; Eichler, B.; Piguet, D.; Tuerler, A.; Gaeggeler, H.W.; Gaertner, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Grantz, M.; Huebener, S. [FZR (Germany); Buklanov, G.; Lebedev, V.; Timkhin, S.; Vedeneev, M.V.; Yakushev, A.; Zvara, I. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)


    Based on thermodynamic state functions retention times of Hf and element 104 were calculated in the case of the simple adsorption of the tetrachlorides and the case of a complex adsorption involving a substitution process with oxygen in the chlorinating gas. Preliminary results for {sup 261}104 and Hf are shown. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  17. CaSO4 Scale Formation on Vibrated Piping System in the Presence Citric Acid (United States)

    Mangestiyono, W.; Jamari, J.; Muryanto, S.; Bayuseno, A. P.


    Vibration in many industries commonly generated by the operation mechanical equipment such as extruder, mixer, blower, compressor, turbine, generator etc. Vibration propagates into the floor and attacks the pipe around those mechanical equipment. In this paper, the influence of vibration in a pipe on the CaSO4 scale formation was investigated to understand the effect of vibration on the kinetics, mass of scale, crystal phases and crystal polymorph. To generate vibration force, mechanical equipment was prepared consisted of electrical motor, crankshaft, connecting rod and a vibration table at where test pipe section mounted. Deposition rate increased significantly when the vibration affected to the system i.e. 0.5997 and 1.6705 gr/hr for vibration frequency 4.00 and 8.00 Hz. The addition 10.00 ppm of citric acid declined the deposition rate of 8 Hz experiment from 3.4599 gr/hr to 2.2865 gr/hr.

  18. Study of the stability of traps in CaSO4:Dy TLD for environment measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piaggio-Bonsi, R.; Lorrain, S.; Portal, G.


    CaSO 4 : Dy is a highly sensitive TLD material and was chosen for the dosimetry of nuclear plant environment. Since this supervision usually extends over relatively long periods (6 to 12 months) the losses of information of this substance must be reduced as much as possible by promoting the creation of stable traps. To speed up research on the preparation of this material a fast method was developed to determine the half-life of the various traps. This method is based on the Randall and Wilkins model. The decay of the traps is studied for different conservation temperatures of the TLD substance and the half-life of the phenomenon is determined for room temperature by extrapolation. The characteristic energy E and the frequency factor S associated with the trap are determined by the same experiment. The dosimetric peak is due in fact to the TLD effects of two neighbouring levels [fr

  19. Preparation and structural characterization of the thermoluminescent material CaSO4: Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez R, A.; Azorin, J.; Gonzalez M, P.R.; Rivera, T.


    The grade of crystallinity of a material is important so that the one is presented the thermoluminescence phenomenon; for what is necessary to study those structural characteristic of a TL material and to correlate them with its TL response when being irradiated with ionizing radiation. The calcium sulfate activated with Dysprosium (CaSO 4 : Dy) it is a material that has demonstrated its efficiency in the dosimetry of the ionizing radiation for the thermoluminescence method. In this work the structural characterization of this prepared material for the recrystallization method by means of the evaporation of the solvent and their relationship with their TL response is presented. The results showed that the best material to be used in thermoluminescent dosimetry presents a crystalline structure in orthorhombic phase and a particle size in the interval of 80 μm to 200 μm. (Author)

  20. Optimization of the obtaining method of CaSO4: Dy + Ptfe dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galicia A, J.; Rioja Ch, J.; Torijano C, E.; Azorin N, J.


    This work contain the obtained results of studying the response when irradiating to different dose of X-rays, dosimeters of CaSO 4 : Dy + Ptfe using different lapses of time in their preparation (a lot of selected dosimeters of an elaboration process of 3 days and another of an elaboration process of 2 hours). For the elaboration of the powdered material, the evaporation method was used; the irradiation were carried out in a lineal accelerator Elekta Synergy property of the National Medical Center, 20 de November. The similarities and differences are shown among the two dosimeters lots together with an analysis of the shine curves and of calibration selecting those that presented a better behaviour and a more rea liable response. (Author)

  1. Features of EPR dosimetry with CaSO4:Dy phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortolin, E.; Onori, S.


    The electron paramagnetic resonance(EPR) technique was used to study the paramagnetic centers induced by ionizing radiation in thermoluminescent CaSO 4 :Dy. Two different radiation induced centers, detectable in the (1-10 7 ) Gy dose range and attributed to (SO3) - and Ca-vacancy center (VCa) 2- , respectively, can be used for dosimetry purpose. The (VCa) 2- center is detectable only upon sample annealing at temperatures higher than about 180 deg. C. A reliable dose assessment can be performed in the (1-10 7 ) Gy dose range and likely over 10 7 Gy. The sensitivity decreases with thermal cycles, while the yield of both centers increases with accumulated dose (pumping effect), at a greater extent for (VCa) 2- center. (VCa) 2- center is stable with time, while (SO 3 ) - center shows a dose-dependent fading. Among the applications that can be imaged for this dosimeter, very high dose assessment capability is of particular importance

  2. Chemical Looping with Copper Oxide as Carrier and Coal as Fuel; Boucle chimique pour la combustion du charbon avec un transporteur d'oxygene a base d'oxyde de cuivre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyring, E.M.; Konya, G. [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Clean and Secure Energy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Lighty, J.S.; Sahir, A.H.; Sarofim, A.F.; Whitty, K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute for Clean and Secure Energy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)


    A preliminary analysis has been conducted of the performance of a Chemical Looping system with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) with copper oxide as the oxygen carrier and coal approximated by carbon as the fuel. The advantages of oxygen uncoupling are demonstrated by providing the energy balances, the circulation rate of oxygen carrier, the oxygen carrier mass loadings, the carbon burnout and oxygen partial pressure in the fuel reactor. Experimental data on the cycling of cuprous oxide to cupric oxide and kinetics for the oxidation and decomposition reactions of the oxides were obtained for use in the analysis. For this preliminary study unsupported oxides were utilized. The decomposition temperatures were rapid at the high temperature of 950 C selected for the fuel reactor. The oxidation kinetics peaked at about 800 C with the decrease in rate at higher temperatures, a decrease which is attributed in the literature to the temperature dependence of the diffusional resistance of the CuO layer surrounding the Cu{sub 2}O; the diffusion occurs through grain boundaries in the CuO layers and the rate of diffusion decreases as a consequence of growth of CuO grains with increasing temperature. The analysis shows the advantages of CLOU in providing rapid combustion of the carbon with carbon burnout times lower than the decomposition times of the oxygen carrier. For the full potential of CLOU to be established additional data are needed on the kinetics of supported oxides at the high temperatures ({>=}850 C) at which oxygen is released by the CuO in the fuel reactor. (authors)

  3. Effects of Support on the Performance of NiO-Based Oxygen Carriers Effets du support sur les performances de matériaux transporteurs d’oxygène à base d’oxyde de nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baek J.-I.


    Full Text Available The performance of an oxygen carrier for Chemical Looping Combustion varies with the support material used. NiO oxygen carriers were prepared using 60 or 70 wt% NiO and different raw support materials (γ-Al2O3, pseudoboehmite, α-Al2O3, γ-Al2O3 mixed with MgO, hydrotalcite, MgAl2O4, and γ-Al2O3 with added graphite by the mechanical mixing method. Reactivity tests were conducted using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA at 950˚C. The oxygen carriers prepared using γ-Al2O3, γ-Al2O3 mixed with a small amount of MgO, hydrotalcite, and MgAl2O4 showed high oxygen transfer capacity, high oxygen utilization, and a high oxygen transfer rate. Graphite addition to γ-Al2O3 did not increase the surface area or reactivity. The use of pseudoboehmite as a support led to a significant decrease in oxygen transfer capacity and severe agglomeration of the oxygen carriers during the redox reaction. The increase in MgO content in the raw support materials decreased the reduction reactivity. The oxygen carriers prepared with α-Al2O3 showed less oxygen transfer capacity than the other oxygen carriers. The differences in the reactivity according to the support type were explained by the relative strength of NiO-support interaction obtained from the temperature-programmed reduction analysis. The reactivity test results in this work indicate that γ-Al2O3 and hydrotalcite could be desirable raw support materials to prepare highly reactive NiO oxygen carriers with high NiO content. Les performances des materiaux transporteurs d’oxygene varient en fonction du support utilise dans le procede de combustion en boucle chimique. Differents materiaux a base d’oxyde de Nickel ont ete synthetises avec des concentrations elevees en NiO, comprises entre 60 et 70 %, sur differents supports (γ-Al2O3, pseudobohemite, α-Al2O3, γ-Al2O3 melangee avec MgO, hydrotalcite, MgAl2O4 et γ-Al2O3 additivees avec du graphite par melange mecanique. Des tests de reactivite ont ete

  4. Multi-layer WSe2 field effect transistor with improved carrier-injection contact by using oxygen plasma treatment (United States)

    Kang, Won-Mook; Lee, SungTae; Cho, In-Tak; Park, Tae Hyung; Shin, Hyeonwoo; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Lee, Changhee; Park, Byung-Gook; Lee, Jong-Ho


    This paper investigates the effect of an oxygen (O2) plasma treatment on multi-layer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) field-effect transistor (FET) by forming tungsten trioxide (WO3) layers. Palladium (Pd), which is known to form an Ohmic contact with WSe2, is used for the source and drain (S/D) contact electrodes as a control group for metal variables. And then, Nickel (Ni), which is thought to form a Schottky contact with WSe2 experimentally, is used as an experimental group. For both cases of the control group and the experimental group, the electrical characteristics including drain current (ID), on/off ratio (ION/IOFF), subthreshold swing (SS) and field effect mobility (μeff) are analyzed according to the presence or absence of WO3. In case of adopting the WO3 contact layer between the WSe2 and the Ni for the S/D contact electrode, we observe a remarkable improvement in ID, ION/IOFF, μeff, and SS compared to the case without the WO3 contact layer. The analyzed electrical characteristics show that an efficient hole-injection contact was achieved for the multi-layer WSe2 FET by the O2 plasma treatment, which leads to the formation of an Ohmic-like contact at an electrode/WSe2 interface.

  5. Kinetics Study on the Effect of NaCl on the CaSO4 Dissolution Behavior (United States)

    Song, Jingyao; Shi, Peiyang; Wang, Yeguang; Jiang, Maofa


    The study of the dissolution kinetics of CaSO4 is essential for the control of the dissolution and recrystallization behavior of CaSO4. In this work, the kinetic behavior of CaSO4 dissolved in NaCl solution was investigated by means of conductivity meter. The results show that with the increase of concentration of NaCl, the temperature rise and the time prolonged, the dissolution rate of dihydrate CaSO4 gradually increases, and the dissolved apparent activation energy is gradually decreased. When the NaCl concentration is 1.8%, the dissolution kinetic equation is 1-(1-α) 1/3=5.46*10-4exp (-9147/RT) t; When the NaCl concentration is 3.0%, the dissolution kinetic equation is 1-(1-α) 1/3=2.81×10-4 exp (-6753/RT)t; When the NaCl concentration is 3.6%, the dissolution kinetic equation is 1-(1-α) 1/3=3.07×l0-4exp(-6103/RT)t.

  6. Effect of thermal treatment on TL response of CaSO4:Dy obtained using a new preparation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, P.R.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Furetta, C.; Azorín, J.; Alcántara, B.C.


    We report the effect of thermal treatment on thermoluminescent (TL) sensitivity property of CaSO 4 :Dy obtained by a new preparation method at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) of Mexico. Samples of phosphor powder were subjected to different thermal treatments respectively at 773, 873, 973 and 1173 K for 1 h and then irradiated from 0.1 to 1000 Gy gamma doses. Low energy dependence was analyzed too by irradiating with X-rays in the range of 16–145 keV. The results were normalized to the energy (1252 keV) of 60 Co and they were compared with those obtained using the commercial dosimeters TLD-100. Also the kinetic parameters were determined by deconvolution of glow curve. - Highlights: ► A new preparation method to obtain the CaSO 4 :Dy is presented. ► Effect of thermal treatment (773–1173 K) on the TL response of the phosphor and their dosimetric property are reported. ► TL intensity of new CaSO 4 :Dy was 32 times more higher than the TLD-100 dosimeter. ► The TL response of CaSO 4 :Dy as a function of photon energy agrees well with the calculated Z eff value. ► The kinetic parameters were analyzed by using the deconvolution method

  7. PTFE Additive and Re-annealing Effect on Thermoluminescence Response of CaSO4:Dy Derived from Co-precipitation Method (United States)

    Nuraeni, Nunung; Dwi Septianto, Ricky; Iskandar, Ferry; Haryanto, Freddy; Waris, Abdul; Hiswara, Eri


    Effect of re-annealing treatment in thermoluminescence response of thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) CaSO4:Dy and CaSO4:Dy with PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene) addition was investigated. CaSO4:Dy was prepared by a co-precipitation method. The PTFE was added before re-annealing treatment which the mass ratio of CaSO4:Dy and PTFE was fixed to 2:3. The re-annealing treatments of the samples were done at temperature 700 °C for 1 hr. The obtained samples were characterized using a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to observe the molecule bonding in sample and crystal properties, respectively. From the experimental results, it was observed that the thermoluminescence intensity of CaSO4:Dy, CaSO4:Dy re-annealed at 700 °C, and CaSO4:Dy + PTFE re-annealed at 700 °C are 57.03, 75.15, and 1191.11 nC, respectively. The intensity of 700 °C-re-annealed CaSO4:Dy increased significantly after PTFE addition.

  8. CaSO4 Scale Inhibition by a Trace Amount of Zinc Ion in Piping System (United States)

    Mangestiyono, W.; Sutrisno


    Usually, a small steam generator is not complemented by equipment such as demineralization and chlorination process apparatus since the economic aspect was a precedence. Such phenomenon was uncovered in a case study of green tea industrial process in which the boiler capacity was not more than 1 ton/hour. The operation of the small boiler affected the scaling process in its piping system. In a year operation, there was already a large scale of calcium attached to the inner surface of the pipe. Such large scale formed a layer and decreased the overall heat transfer coefficient, prolonged the process time and decreased the production. The aim of the current research was to solve the problem through a laboratory research to inhibit the CaSO4 scale formation by the addition of trace amounts of zinc ion. This research was conducted through a built in-house experimental rig which consisted of a dosing pump for controlling the flow rate and a thermocouple to control the temperature. Synthesis solution was prepared with 3,500 ppm concentration of CaCl2 and Na2SO4. The concentration of zinc was set at 0.00; 5.00 and 10.00 ppm. The data found were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyze crystal polymorph as the influence of zinc ion addition. The induction time was also investigated to analyze the nucleation time, and it was found on the 9th, 13th, and 19th minute of the zinc ion addition of 0.00, 5.00 and 10.00 ppm. After running for a four-hour duration, the scale grow-rate was found to be 5.799; 5.501 and 4.950 × 10-3 gr/min for 0.00; 5.00 and 10.00 ppm of zinc addition at 50 °C.

  9. Histopathological changes of rat brain after direct injection of Hb-vesicles (artificial oxygen carriers) and neurological impact in an intracerebral hemorrhage model. (United States)

    Sakai, Hiromi; Okamoto, Michiko; Ikeda, Eiji; Horinouchi, Hirohisa; Kobayashi, Koichi; Tsuchida, Eishun


    For use as artificial oxygen carriers during transfusion, the safety and efficacy of Hb-vesicles (HbV, 250 nm), have been investigated extensively. Nevertheless, their neurotoxicity remains unknown. We explored potential adverse effects of HbV in the brain using a rat intracerebral hemorrhage model. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized with sevoflurane and fixed on a stereotaxic frame. Then HbV or homologous RBC suspension ([Hb] = 8.6 g/dL, 20 microL) was injected into the right caudate nucleus. All animals survived, gained weight, and maintained their well-being until the time of sacrifice; except during the first few days after surgery. However, both groups showed slight weakness in hind leg retraction, occasional ataxia/gait, and piloerection. Neutrophils accumulated at the onset of injury in perihematomal tissues in both groups at 1st day, but had disappeared by 3 days. Infiltration of small HbV in the perihematomal tissue was prominent at 1st day; phagocytized HbV were detected in macrophages. Hemeoxygenase-1 and hemosiderin deposition appeared after 3 days, reflecting the degradation of both HbV and RBC. The HbVs were detectable even after 28 days in the HbV group, but no residual RBCs were detected in the RBC group. Both groups showed proliferation of astrocytes, named gliosis, for tissue reconstruction after 3 days. This study revealed no notable differences in adverse effects between the intra-cerebral injection of HbV and the RBC control on behavioral functions and brain tissue responses. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Operational experience of electronic active personal dosemeter and comparison with CaSo4:Dy TL dosemeter in Indian PHWR. (United States)

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Managanvi, S S; Bihari, R R; Bhat, H R


    Direct reading dosemeter has been used for day-to-day radiation exposure control and management for last four decades in Indian nuclear power plants (NPPs). Recently new real time, alarm and pre-alarm on equivalent dose/dose rate, storage of dose/dose rate and maximum dose rate, user-friendly electronic active personal dosemeter (APD) has been implemented into practice for the first time at Kaiga Atomic Power Station-3&4,  of Indian NPPs. The dosemeter showed tolerance level (L) 0.1085±0.0450 compared with 0.1869±0.0729 (average±SD) for CaSO4:Dy, TL dosemeter, having narrow range trumpet curve, nil electromagnetic interference. Records of >29 000 for APD and TL dosemeter were analysed for comparasion of the measurement of the individual dose. APD followed general acceptance rule of ±25 % for dose >1 mSv. Monthly Station collective dose by TL dosemeters and APD for normal reactor operation as well as outage are found in good agreement. Operational experiences and statistical analysis support that an APD dosemeter is reasonably equivalent to CaSO4:Dy TL dosemeter. The accuracy, reproducibility and repeatability of the measurement of radiation for (137)Cs are comparable with CaSO4:Dy, TL dosemeter. Operational experience of APD during the normal operation as well as outage showed as one of the best ALARA tool for occupational dose monitoring, control, management and future outage planning.

  11. Carrier Diagnosis (United States)

    ... Inheritance of Hemophilia Definitions & Terminology Bleeding Symptoms Carrier Diagnosis When to Test for Carrier Status Family Planning and Pregnancy Conception Options Prenatal Diagnosis Fetal Sex ...

  12. Effect of Ash on Oxygen Carriers for the Application of Chemical Looping Combustion to a High Carbon Char; Effet des cendres sur l'activite des porteurs d'oxygene dans la combustion du charbon en boucle chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, A.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, K.; Neathery, J. [University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY (United States)


    The application of Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) to solid fuels is being investigated at the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) with the aim of the development of a Pressurized Chemical Looping Combustion/Gasification (PCLC/G) process for the generation of electricity from coal. One important aspect of the CLC of solid fuel is the understanding of the effect of ash on the reactivity of Oxygen Carriers (OCs). The effect of ash on the redox capabilities of two different iron oxide OCs and on their ability to oxidize coal char was studied. To determine the effect of ash on the reactivity and recycle of the OCs through multiple redox cycles, fly ash from a coal-fired power plant was used. These experiments were performed in a TGMS system using 500 mg of ash/OC mixtures containing different ash concentrations up to 75%. The reducing gas was composed of 10% H{sub 2}, 15% CO, 20% CO{sub 2}, and a balance of Ar and the oxidizing gas was 20% O{sub 2} in Ar. Oxidation/reductions were carried to near completion. The ash was found to contain OC activity related to inherent iron present in the ash confirmed by XRD. This resulted in increased weight gain/loss on oxidation/reduction. The rate of oxidation/reduction increased with ash concentration due to increased porosity of the OC/ash mixture and better access of the reactive gases to the OC target sites. The two OCs were then used to combust a beneficiated coal char in the TGMS with the only oxygen supplied by an iron oxide OC. The starting mixture was 10% char and 90% of one of two OCs studied. The spent material containing reduced OC and ash was re-oxidized and 10% more char was added for a second reduction of the OC and oxidation of the added char. This procedure was repeated for 5 cycles increasing the ash concentrations from 5 to 25% in the char/ash/OC mixture. Carbon removal was 92 to 97.8 and 97.3 to 99.7% for the two different iron oxide OCs tested. Ash was not detrimental to the

  13. Luminescence properties of pure and doped CaSO4 nanorods irradiated by 15 MeV e-beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah, Numan; Alharbi, Najlaa D.; Enani, Mohammad A.


    Calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 ) doped with proper activators is a highly sensitive phosphor used in different fields mainly for radiation dosimetry, lighting and display applications. In this work pure and doped nanorods of CaSO 4 were produced by the co-precipitation technique. Samples from this material doped with Ag, Cu, Dy, Eu and Tb were exposed to different doses of 15 MeV e-beam and studied for their thermoluminesence (TL) and photoluminescence (PL) properties. Color center formation leading to PL emissions were investigated before and after e-beam irradiation. The samples doped with rare earths elements (i.e. Dy, Eu and Tb) were observed to have thinner nanorods than the other samples and have higher absorption in the UV region. The Ag and Tb doped samples have poor TL response to e-beam, while those activated by Cu, Dy and Eu have strong glow peaks at around 123 °C. Quite linear response curves in the whole studied exposures i.e. 0.1–100 Gy were also observed in Cu and Dy doped samples. The PL results show that pure CaSO 4 nanorods have active color centers without irradiation, which could be enriched/modified by these impurities mainly rare earths and further enhanced by e-beam irradiation. Eu 3+ → Eu 2+ conversion is clearly observed in Eu doped sample after e-beam irradiation. These results show that these nanorods might be useful in lighting and display devices development

  14. Measurement of the dose by dispersed radiation in a lineal accelerator using thermoluminescent dosimeters of CaSO4:Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez C, N.; Torijano, E.; Azorin, J.; Herrera, A.


    The thermoluminescence (Tl) is based on the principle of the luminescent in a material when is heated below their incandescence temperature. Is a technique very used in dosimetry that is based on the property that have most of the crystalline materials regarding the storage of the energy that they absorb when are exposed to the ionizing radiations. When this material has been irradiated previously, the radioactive energy that contains is liberated in form of light. In general, the principles that govern the thermoluminescence are in essence the same of those responsible for all the luminescent processes and, this way, the thermoluminescence is one of the processes that are part of the luminescence phenomenon. For this work, the dispersed radiation was measured in the therapy area of the lineal accelerator of medical use type Elekta, using thermoluminescent dosimeters of CaSO 4 :Dy + Ptfe developed and elaborated in the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa. With the dosimeters already characterized and calibrated, we proceeded to measure the dispersed radiation being a patient in treatment. The results showed values for the dispersed radiation the order of a third of the dose received by the patient on the treatment table at 30 cm of the direct beam and the order of a hundredth in the control area (4 m of the direct beam, approximately). The conclusion is that the thermoluminescent dosimeters of CaSO 4 : Dy + Ptfe are appropriate to measure dispersed radiation dose in radiotherapy. (author)

  15. Radionuclide carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.


    The invention provides physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carriers comprising a reducing agent bound to an anionic starch derivative, useful in the preparation of organ-specific diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals

  16. Effects of Partial Substitutions of NaCl with KCl, CaSO4 and MgSO4 on the Quality and Sensorial Properties of Pork Patties. (United States)

    Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi; Choi, Mi-Jung


    This study investigated the effects of NaCl replacers (KCl, CaSO4, and MgSO4) on the quality and sensorial properties of pork patty. In the characteristics of spray-dried salt particles, KCl showed the largest particle size with low viscosity in solution. Meanwhile CaSO4 treatment resulted in the smallest particle size and the highest viscosity (psensorial properties indicated that KCl and CaSO4 influenced negative effects on pork patties. In contrast, MgSO4 showed better sensorial properties in juiciness intensity, tenderness intensity as well as overall acceptability than control, reflecting that MgSO4 was an effective Na-replacer in meat product formulation.

  17. Self-setting properties and in vitro bioactivity of Ca3SiO5/CaSO4.1/2H2O composite cement. (United States)

    Zhao, Wenyuan; Chang, Jiang; Zhai, Wanyin


    In this study, a biphasic injectable bone substitute, based on tricalcium silicate (Ca(3)SiO(5)) and plaster (CaSO(4).1/2H(2)O), is presented. The addition of CaSO(4).1/2H(2)O could accelerate the hydration of Ca(3)SiO(5), decrease the setting time, and improve the strength of the cement. The workable Ca(3)SiO(5)/CaSO(4).1/2H(2)O pastes with a liquid to powder (L/P) ratio of 0.8-1.0 mL g(-1) could be injected for 2-20 min (nozzle diameter 2.0 mm) and enabled initial setting times of 9-60 min. The setting process yielded cellular structures with compressive strength of 12.4-31.5 MPa after 2-28 days. The in vitro bioactivity of the paste was investigated by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days. The result showed that although large amount of CaSO(4).1/2H(2)O (30%) was added, the paste showed good ability to induce the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA). Furthermore, the Ca(3)SiO(5)/CaSO(4).1/2H(2)O paste could degrade in Ringer's solution, and the dissolution extracts of the paste also had a stimulatory effect on L929 cell growth in certain concentration range. Our results indicated that Ca(3)SiO(5)/CaSO(4).1/2H(2)O paste was bioactive and degradable, and showed excellent mechanical properties after self-setting. Therefore, it may be a potential candidate for further investigation as injectable tissue repairing substitute. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Evaluation of the substitution of PMMA plates by PLA 3D printed in TL response of CaSO4:Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Shirlane Barbosa de; Valeriano, Caio Cesar Santos; Campos, Leticia Lucente


    The CaSO 4 :Dy is a dosimetric material that is nationally produced, which presents high sensibility but a high energy dependence of its thermoluminescent (TL) response at the photoelectric effect region. This study aims to compare the TL response of the CaSO 4 :Dy when irradiated, with different energies, at the presence of 3D printed plates of polylactic acid (PLA) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Results show that the PLA has a different attenuation of the radiation, when compared to PMMA, indicating that it should be taken into account the quality of the print used on PLA plates manufacture. (author)

  19. Radionuclide carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.


    A new carrier for radionuclide technetium 99m has been prepared for scintiscanning purposes. The new preparate consists of physiologically acceptable water-insoluble Tcsup(99m)-carrier containing from 0.2 to 0.8 weight percent of stannic ion as reductor, bound to an anionic starch derivative with about 1-20% of phosphate substituents. (EG)

  20. Triplicate genes for mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers in the aerobic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica are regulated differentially in the absence of oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentel, M.; Piskur, Jure; Neuveglise, C.


    Yarrowia lipolytica is a strictly aerobic fungus, which differs from the extensively studied model yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe with respect to its physiology, genetics and dimorphic growth habit. We isolated and sequenced cDNA and genomic clones (YlAAC1) from Y....... lipolytica that encode a mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier. The YlAAC1 gene can complement the S. cerevisiae Delta aac2 deletion mutant. Southern hybridization, analysis of Yarrowia clones obtained in the course of the Genolevures project, and further sequencing revealed the existence of two paralogs of the YlAAC......1 gene, which were named YlAAC2 and YlAAC3, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that YlAAC1 and YlAAC2 were more closely related to each other than to YlAAC3, and are likely to represent the products of a recent gene duplication. All three Y. lipolytica YlAAC genes group together...

  1. Dosimetric intercomparison in Cobalt 60 unities using TLD-100 crystals and CaSO4: Dy + Ptfe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Azorin N, J.; Perez P, M.A.; Castillo H, M.; Flores F, F.; Guzman R, L.V.


    The purpose of this work is to design and construct a phantom in basis of thermoplastic polymer of methyl methacrylate that is reutilizable and which allows to do an analysis of the absorbed doses in thermoluminescent crystals (Tl) exposed to cobalt 60 to establish the dosimetric intercomparison in cobalt units which allows to do the follow-up of the Quality assurance programs, standardization of calibration procedures, dosimetry and TLD post intercomparison in radiotherapy. This work allows also prove new thermoluminescent materials of national manufacture developed by Juan Azorin and collaborators as the CaSO 4 : Dy + Ptfe. This is a first study which is realized in Mexico with the system crystal-phantom for aims to intercomparison in cobalt 60 units. In this work participate eight unities of cobalt 60 of different trades belonging at four radiotherapy centers. The results of the dose intercomparison of the eight unities of cobalt 60 were in the range 0.95-1.13, taking in account that the values between 0.95 and 1.05 were considered acceptable in terms of the requirements by the standing legislation. (Author)

  2. Characterization and standardization of a thermoluminescent dosimetric system to ultraviolet and laser radiation using CaSO4:Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossi, Fabio Henrique


    The photo transferred thermoluminescence (PTTL) was used to characterize a dosimetric system to the laser and ultraviolet radiation. Dysprosium activated calcium sulphate samples (CaSO 4 :Dy) used are produced at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) and have proved been an excellent dosimetric material for non ionizing radiation. PTTL signal was studied for UV radiation detection in the 220 to 450 nm range and for laser radiation in the 193 to 1.160 nm range. The samples presented more sensibility to the 193, 250, 310 and 337 nm wavelengths and no sensibility to infrared region. The samples presented linear PTTL in function of radiant exposure, excitation gamma dose in the range between 5 and 100 Gy and laser beam diameter between 2 and 6 nm. Another parameters studied were the angular dependence, UV lower exposure limit and PTTL signal optical fading. Spread laser radiation analysis was performed in the Ophthalmologic Department of Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP) surgical center, showing that samples positioned as far as 4 m from laser source are sensitized to the laser radiation, as well as evaluating the laser exposure received by workers of medical area. A method to send the samples by mail was developed to the studies performed in the UNIFESP. (author)

  3. Importância dos carreadores de oxigênio livre de células Oxygen carriers free of cells in transfusion medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Z. Novaretti


    Full Text Available Os procedimentos necessários para redução de efeitos adversos associados à transfusão de sangue, em especial aqueles decorrentes da transmissão de agentes infecciosos e da aloimunização leucócito-mediada têm impacto nos custos de produção de hemocomponentes. Paralelamente, as necessidades transfusionais têm aumentado globalmente, ficando evidente a necessidade de um substituto seguro e amplamente disponível para o sangue, chamado de sangue artificial ou de substituto do sangue. Visto que o seu desenvolvimento tem se concentrado na função de carrear oxigênio aos tecidos, daí utilizarmos, nesse texto, a denominação "Carreadores de oxigênio livre de células". Atualmente, dois tipos de carreadores de oxigênio livre de células têm sido testados: as soluções de hemoglobina modificadas (de origem humana ou bovina e os perfluorocarbonos (PFCs. Entretanto, esses produtos não são isentos de efeitos adversos e um grande número de pesquisas clínicas está em andamento para testar sua eficácia e segurança. O maior conhecimento desses carreadores de oxigênio livre de células e seus mecanismos de ação permitiu que aplicações outras, até mesmo não clínicas, estivessem em teste com as novas gerações desses produtos, expandindo assim as fronteiras da medicina transfusional.The procedures needed to reduce transfusion-associated adverse effects, especially those related to transfusion-transmitted diseases and leukocyte-mediated alloimmunization, have a great impact on the production cost of blood components. Additionally, blood transfusion has increased worldwide making the need for a safe substitute for blood evident. These products have been named artificial blood or blood substitutes. Based on the fact that their focus has been oxygen delivery to tissues, "free oxygen carrying cells" is more appropriate. Two major groups of free oxygen carring cells have been tested: modified hemoglobin solutions (bovine or human and

  4. Monodisperse 130 kDa and 260 kDa Recombinant Human Hemoglobin Polymers as Scaffolds for Protein Engineering of Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline F. Aitken


    Full Text Available A recombinant 130 kDa dihemoglobin which is made up of a single-chain tetra-α globin and four β globins has been expressed as a soluble protein in E. coli. The sequence of the single chain tetra-α is: αI-Gly-αII-(SerGlyGly5Ser-αIII-Gly-αIV. This dihemoglobin has been purified and characterized in vitro by size exclusion chromatography, electrospray mass spectroscopy, equilibrium oxygen binding, and analytical ultracentrifugation. The observed values of P50 and nmax for the dihemoglobin are slightly lower than those observed for the recombinant hemoglobin rHb1.1 (a “monohemoglobin” comprised of two β globins and an αI-Gly-αII diα-globin chain. Titration of the deoxy form of dihemoglobin with CO shows that all eight heme centers bind ligand. In vivo, dihemoglobin showed increased circulating halflife and a reduced pressor response in conscious rats when compared to rHb1.1. These observations suggest that dihemoglobin is an oxygen carrying molecule with desirable in vivo properties and provides a platform for an isooncotic hemoglobin solution derived solely from a recombinant source. A 260 kDa tetrahemoglobin has also been produced by chemical crosslinking of a dihemoglobin that contains a Lys16Cys mutation in the C-terminal α-globin subunit. Tetrahemoglobin also shows reduced vasoactivity in conscious rats that is comparable to that observed for dihemoglobin.

  5. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority...... of its foreign trade, as well as its oil imports, upon which the country is totally dependent. China therefore has good reasons for acquiring an aircraft carrier to enable it to protect its national interests. An aircraft carrier would also be a prominent symbol of China’s future status as a great power......, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy to a more assertive strategy...

  6. Self-dose and fading of CaSO4(Dy/Tm) and CaF2 (natural) TL phosphors in environmental radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambi, K.S.V.


    A 'shielded storage experiment' for estimating both the 'self-dose' and 'fading' of TL phosphors under conditions akin to those faced in environmental monitoring applications is described. Using this method, self-dose rates of 0.32 +- 0.10(sigma) μ rad h -1 and 1.16 +- 0.02(sigma) μ rad h -1 have been obtained for CaF 2 (natural) and CaSO 4 (Dy) phosphors; the thermal decay constants at 25 0 C for these phosphors turn out to be 27 X 10 -6 h -6 ad 12 X 10 -6 h -1 , respectively. Estimation of the self-doses from radioactivity measurements of the phosphors concerned is also presented and the differences explained. A very high self-dose rate of 5.6 μ rad h -1 was estimated by the latter method for a sample of CaSO 4 (Tm) phosphor. (orig.)

  7. Availability of S from superphosphate and CaSO4.2H2O to alfafa (Medicago sativa L. Pers.) using tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulakh, M.S.; Dev, G.


    The availability of S from superphosphate to alfalfa was evaluated and compared with CaSO 4 .2H 2 O (as the standard) in the greenhouse on a S deficient arid brown soil at 4 levels of applied S (0, 5, 10 and 20 ppm). A basal dose of N, P, K and Ca was made and the effect was studied for two growth stages (80 and 120 days). Sulphur application significantly increased the yield of dry matter, S content and total S removal in both the cuttings individually and for total harvest. In this effect, superphosphate was found to be more efficient. The radio-assay data confirmed that with graded levels of applied S, the fraction of fertilizer S in the plant increased without much off-setting S fraction from the native soil source, the effect being more with superphosphate treatment compared to CaSO 4 .2H 2 O. Phosphorus concentration in alfalfa decreased significantly with increasing level of applied S. The first cutting of alfalfa recorded higher P content in superphosphate series and in the second cutting, this difference between the two sources decreased. At optimum level of 20 ppm S, superphosphate was more effective than CaSO 4 .2H 2 O in narrowing N:S ratio to 11:1 and increasing S:P ratio to more than 1:1. (author)

  8. Self-setting properties and in vitro bioactivity of Ca2SiO4/CaSO4.1/2H2O composite bone cement. (United States)

    Huan, Zhiguang; Chang, Jiang; Huang, Xiang-Hui


    In this study, a biphasic injectable bone substitute based on beta-dicalcium silicate (Ca(2)SiO(4)) and plaster of Paris (CaSO(4).1/2H(2)O) is presented, and its behavior as cement was studied and compared to that of pure Ca(2)SiO(4) paste. The results demonstrated that the setting time of the workable Ca(2)SiO(4)/CaSO(4).1/2H(2)O pastes was only 15 min, which was significantly reduced as compared to that of the Ca(2)SiO(4) paste (100 min), and the composite showed higher short- and long-term mechanical strength (3.25 and 37.2 MPa, respectively) than those of the Ca(2)SiO(4) paste (0.2 and 24.6 MPa). Similar to the pure Ca(2)SiO(4) paste, the composite paste could induce apatite formation in simulated body fluid within a short period and degrade in Ringer's solution. Moreover, the degradation rate could be adjusted by modifying the content of the plaster within the composite cement. These results suggested that the addition of the plaster significantly improved the self-setting properties of the Ca(2)SiO(4) paste, and the bioactive composite cement could be a prospective candidate for further investigation as self-setting tissue-repairing substitute.

  9. Using Low-Cost Iron-Based Materials as Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion Utilisation de matériaux bon marché à base de fer comme transporteur d’oxygène dans la combustion en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerndal E.


    Full Text Available In chemical looping combustion with solid fuels, the oxygen-carrier lifetime is expected to be shorter than with gaseous fuels. Therefore, it is particularly important to use low-cost oxygen carriers in solid fuel applications. Apart from being cheap, these oxygen carriers should be able to convert the CO and H2 produced from the solid fuel gasification and be sufficiently hard to withstand fragmentation. Several low-cost iron-based materials displayed high conversion of syngas and high mechanical strength and can be used for further development of the technology. These materials include oxide scales from Sandvik and Scana and an iron ore from LKAB. All tested oxygen carriers showed higher gas conversion than a reference sample, the mineral ilmenite. Generally, softer oxygen carriers were more porous and appeared to have a higher reactivity towards syngas. When compared with ilmenite, the conversion of CO was higher for all oxygen carriers and the conversion of H2 was higher when tested for longer reduction times. The oxygen carrier Sandvik 2 displayed the highest conversion of syngas and was therefore selected for solid fuel experiments. The conversion rate of solid fuels was higher with Sandvik 2 than with the reference sample, ilmenite. Pour appliquer la combustion en boucle chimique à des charges solides, il est important d’utiliser des matériaux transporteurs d’oxygène bon marché. En effet, la durée de vie du transporteur d’oxygène risque d’être plus courte sur charge solide que sur charge gazeuse. Ces matériaux doivent également bien convertir le monoxyde de carbone et l’hydrogène résultant de la gasification, tout en étant suffisamment durs pour résister à la fragmentation. Plusieurs matériaux ont montré un potentiel de conversion élevé sur le gaz de synthèse ainsi qu’une résistance mécanique élevée, ce qui permet d’envisager leur utilisation lors des développements futurs de la technologie. Parmi ces

  10. The influence of thyroid geometry on the response of LiF and CaSO4 thermoluminescent discs to 131I and 125I irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, M.K.; Malone, J.F.; Cullen, M.J.


    Recent work has demonstrated that LiF and CaSO 4 thermoluminescent discs may be used to monitor the effective half-life of radioiodine in the thyroid in man. To provide a firm basis for the work, the radiation field presented by model thyroids to thermoluminescent discs on the surface of a neck phantom has been examined in detail. The influence of thyroid mass, depth and lobe separation, factors which in practice are highly variable, has also been determined. The results demonstrate that the method is sufficiently sensitive to measure less than 0.5 μCi of 131 I or 125 I in the human thyroid, and that effective half-life determinations should not be influenced by minor positioning errors which may be encountered when placing thermoluminescent discs on the neck surface. (author)

  11. Determination of exposure rates from natural background radiation in Khartoum using LiF:Mg,Cu,P (GR-200) and CaSo4: Mn TLD chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, I.I.; Khangi, F.A.; Shaddad, I.A.; Suliman, I.A.; El Amin, O.I.


    The exposure rates from natural background radiation - including terrestrial gamma radiation and the ionizing component of cosmic rays - were measured for the first time in the city of khartoum using two types of TLD materials: LiF:Mg,Cu,P (GR-200) and CaSo 4 :Mn TLD chips. Measurements were performed at two sites simultaneously, one site was selected on land in the vicinity of the Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, for the purposes of the measurement of the total exposure rate outdoors, while the other site was located on a buoy anchored in the Blue Nile, and was selected to measure the exposure rate due to the ionizing component of cosmic rays. The investigations were conducted for periods of between 5 and 28 days. Calibration was performed on a selected number of dosimeters to determine the exposure rates at each site. The exposure rates from the ionizing component of cosmic rays in Khartoum were found to be respectively 33 nGy.h -1 and 30 nGy.h -1 , in the measurements performed within the scope of this work using GR-200 and CaSo 4 :Mn dosimeters, while the total values for exposure on land were found to be 45 nGy.h -1 and 42 nGy.h -1 respectively. These values compare reasonably well with other national averages reported in the UNSCEAR publication. The comparison of the results for the two dosimetric materials demonstrates both the sensitivity and suitability of GR-200 for the purposes of environmental monitoring (orig.)

  12. Oxygen Therapy (United States)

    ... best for you. Oxygen is usually delivered through nasal prongs (an oxygen cannula) or a face mask. Oxygen equipment can attach to other medical equipment such as CPAP machines and ventilators. Oxygen therapy can help you ...

  13. Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O Scaling on Polybenzimidazole and Cellulose Acetate Hollow Fiber Membranes under Forward Osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Shung Chung


    Full Text Available We have examined the gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O scaling phenomena on membranes with different physicochemical properties in forward osmosis (FO processes. Three hollow fiber membranes made of (1 cellulose acetate (CA, (2 polybenzimidazole (PBI/polyethersulfone (PES and (3 PBI-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS/polyacrylonitrile (PAN were studied. For the first time in FO processes, we have found that surface ionic interactions dominate gypsum scaling on the membrane surface. A 70% flux reduction was observed on negatively charged CA and PBI membrane surfaces, due to strong attractive forces. The PBI membrane surface also showed a slightly positive charge at a low pH value of 3 and exhibited a 30% flux reduction. The atomic force microscopy (AFM force measurements confirmed a strong repulsive force between gypsum and PBI at a pH value of 3. The newly developed PBI-POSS/PAN membrane had ridge morphology and a contact angle of 51.42° ± 14.85° after the addition of hydrophilic POSS nanoparticles and 3 min thermal treatment at 95 °C. Minimal scaling and an only 1.3% flux reduction were observed at a pH value of 3. Such a ridge structure may reduce scaling by not providing a locally flat surface to the crystallite at a pH value of 3; thus, gypsum would be easily washed away from the surface.

  14. Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) Scaling on Polybenzimidazole and Cellulose Acetate Hollow Fiber Membranes under Forward Osmosis. (United States)

    Chen, Si Cong; Su, Jincai; Fu, Feng-Jiang; Mi, Baoxia; Chung, Tai-Shung


    We have examined the gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) scaling phenomena on membranes with different physicochemical properties in forward osmosis (FO) processes. Three hollow fiber membranes made of (1) cellulose acetate (CA), (2) polybenzimidazole (PBI)/polyethersulfone (PES) and (3) PBI-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were studied. For the first time in FO processes, we have found that surface ionic interactions dominate gypsum scaling on the membrane surface. A 70% flux reduction was observed on negatively charged CA and PBI membrane surfaces, due to strong attractive forces. The PBI membrane surface also showed a slightly positive charge at a low pH value of 3 and exhibited a 30% flux reduction. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements confirmed a strong repulsive force between gypsum and PBI at a pH value of 3. The newly developed PBI-POSS/PAN membrane had ridge morphology and a contact angle of 51.42° ± 14.85° after the addition of hydrophilic POSS nanoparticles and 3 min thermal treatment at 95 °C. Minimal scaling and an only 1.3% flux reduction were observed at a pH value of 3. Such a ridge structure may reduce scaling by not providing a locally flat surface to the crystallite at a pH value of 3; thus, gypsum would be easily washed away from the surface.

  15. Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) Scaling on Polybenzimidazole and Cellulose Acetate Hollow Fiber Membranes under Forward Osmosis (United States)

    Chen, Si Cong; Su, Jincai; Fu, Feng-Jiang; Mi, Baoxia; Chung, Tai-Shung


    We have examined the gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) scaling phenomena on membranes with different physicochemical properties in forward osmosis (FO) processes. Three hollow fiber membranes made of (1) cellulose acetate (CA), (2) polybenzimidazole (PBI)/polyethersulfone (PES) and (3) PBI-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were studied. For the first time in FO processes, we have found that surface ionic interactions dominate gypsum scaling on the membrane surface. A 70% flux reduction was observed on negatively charged CA and PBI membrane surfaces, due to strong attractive forces. The PBI membrane surface also showed a slightly positive charge at a low pH value of 3 and exhibited a 30% flux reduction. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements confirmed a strong repulsive force between gypsum and PBI at a pH value of 3. The newly developed PBI-POSS/PAN membrane had ridge morphology and a contact angle of 51.42° ± 14.85° after the addition of hydrophilic POSS nanoparticles and 3 min thermal treatment at 95 °C. Minimal scaling and an only 1.3% flux reduction were observed at a pH value of 3. Such a ridge structure may reduce scaling by not providing a locally flat surface to the crystallite at a pH value of 3; thus, gypsum would be easily washed away from the surface. PMID:24957062

  16. Corrosion study on high power feeding of telecomunication copper cable in 5 wt.% CaSO4.2H2O solution (United States)

    Shamsudin, Shaiful Rizam; Hashim, Nabihah; Ibrahim, Mohd Saiful Bahri; Rahman, Muhammad Sayuzi Abdul; Idrus, Muhammad Amin; Hassan, Mohd Rezadzudin; Abdullah, Wan Razli Wan


    The studies were carried out to find out the best powering scheme over the copper telephone line. It was expected that the application of the higher power feeding could increase the data transfer and capable of providing the customer's satisfaction. To realize the application of higher remote power feeding, the potential of corrosion problem on Cu cables was studied. The natural corrosion behaviour of copper cable in the 0.5% CaSO4.2H2O solution was studied in term of open circuit potential for 30 days. The corrosion behaviour of higher power feeding was studied by the immersion and the planned interval test to determine the corrosion rate as well as the effect of voltage magnitudes and the current scheme i.e. positive direct (DC+) and alternating current (AC) at about 0.40 ± 0.01 mA/ cm2 current density. In the immersion test, both DC+ and AC scheme showed the increasing of feeding voltage magnitude has increased the corrosion rate of Cu samples starting from 60 to 100 volts. It was then reduced at about 100 - 120 volts which may due to the passive and transpassive mechanism. The corrosion rate was slowly reduced further from 120 to 200 volts. Visually, the positively charged of Cu cable was seems susceptible to severe corrosion, while AC scheme exhibited a slight corrosion reaction on the surface. However, the planned interval test and XRD results showed the corrosion activity of the copper cable in the studied solution was a relatively slow process and considered not to be corroded as a partially protective scale of copper oxide formed on the surface.

  17. Calcium isotope systematics at hydrothermal conditions: Mid-ocean ridge vent fluids and experiments in the CaSO4-NaCl-H2O system (United States)

    Scheuermann, Peter P.; Syverson, Drew D.; Higgins, John A.; Pester, Nicholas J.; Seyfried, William E.


    Two sets of hydrothermal experiments were performed to explore Ca isotope fractionation and exchange rates at hydrothermal conditions (410-450 °C, 31.0-50.0 MPa). The first set of experiments determined the magnitude of vapor-liquid Ca isotope fractionation and anhydrite solubility in the CaSO4-NaCl-H2O system. The data indicate no statistical difference between the Ca isotopic composition of coexisting vapor and liquid. The second set of experiments utilized an anomalous 43Ca spike to determine the rate of Ca exchange between fluid and anhydrite as a function of total dissolved Ca concentration. Results show that the rate of exchange increases with dissolved Ca concentrations (12-23 mM/kg), but no change in exchange rate is observed when the Ca concentration increases from 23 to 44 mM/kg Ca. 74-142 days are required to achieve 90% anhydrite-fluid Ca isotope exchange at the conditions investigated, while only several hours are necessary for vapor-liquid isotopic equilibrium. The lack of vapor-liquid Ca isotope fractionation in our experiments is consistent with δ44Ca of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vent fluids that remain constant, regardless of chlorinity. Moreover, the narrow range of end member fluid δ44Ca, -0.98 to -1.13‰ (SW), is largely indistinguishable from MORB δ44Ca, suggesting that neither phase separation nor fluid-rock interactions at depth significantly fractionate Ca isotopes in modern high-temperature mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems.

  18. Development and evaluation of a new baDge/filter for thermoluminescent monitoring with CaSO4: Dy/PTFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Vicente de Paula


    Calcium Sulfate (CaSO 4 :Dy) phosphor Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) has been used by the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), SP, Brazil since 70's and 80's, due to important work of its researchers and collaborators. This phosphor advantages, beside the fact that it is produced by IPEN itself, begin to be more required and its disadvantages have became more apparent, in a global market more and more competitive. This phosphors was used primarily in environmental and area monitoring at IPEN facilities and in a few external institutions, once it presents more sensibility than other phosphors, like LiF:Mg. Its mainly disadvantage is a strong energetic dependence response to ionizing radiation, which must be corrected for its application in every radiation field. This phosphor has been used inside a badge which is an adaptation from photographic film badges used in the past. This badge permits a reasonable correction in the energetic dependence, only for orthogonal beam incidence. With the objective of improve the performance and reduce the energetic dependence on any incidence angle, reducing the dose measurement uncertainty too, this work presents a study on a new badge, with a new filter geometry, and its performance was compared to the actual dosimeter in use, with significant improve on results. Gamma irradiations of 60 Co and x-rays of 25,1; 33; 37,3 and 82,1 keV, on incidence angles of 0 deg, 30 deg, 45 deg and 90 deg were done at facility conditions of IPEN. Semi-empirical computational simulation using finite differences in three dimensions were done. The results pointed out the best filter thickness and width for initiate the prototype production, in order to optimize the correction on energetic dependence on irradiation of photons of 33, 48, 118 and 1250 keV energies under many incidence angles. (author)

  19. Study of LiF:Mg,Ti and CaSO4:Dy dosimeters TL response to electron beams of 6 MeV applied to radiotherapy using PMMA and solid water phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravim, A.; Sakuraba, R.K.; Cruz, J.C.; Campos, L.L.


    The performance of CaSO 4 :Dy and LiF:Mg,Ti dosimeters to electron beams applied to radiotherapy was investigated. The TL response of these dosimeters was studied for 6 MeV electron beams using PMMA and Solid Water (SW) phantoms. The dosimeters were previously separated in groups according to their TL individual sensitivities to 60 Co gamma-radiation in air under electronic equilibrium conditions. After that, they were irradiated with 6 MeV electron doses of 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 Gy using a linear accelerator Clinac 2100C Varian of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein – HIAE. The electron beam irradiations were performed using a 10 × 10 cm 2 field size, 100 cm source-phantom surface distance and the dosimeters were positioned at the depth of maximum dose (1.2 cm). The TL readings were carried out between 24 and 32 h after irradiation using a Harshaw 3500 TL reader. The TL dose–response of both type of dosimeters and phantoms presented linear behavior on the electron dose range from 0.1 to 5 Gy CaSO 4 :Dy dosimeter is 21 times more sensitive than LiF:Mg,Ti, dosimeter commonly used in clinical dosimetry. The obtained results indicate that the performance of CaSO 4 :Dy dosimeters is similar to LiF:Mg,Ti dosimeters and this material can be an alternative dosimetric material to be used to clinical electron beams dosimetry.

  20. Willis H Carrier

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New York State. His father was Duane Carrier who settled down to farming after trying his hand at various other occupations. His mother was Elizabeth Haviland, whose .... Specific Volume is the cubic meter of moist air per kg of dry air represented as m3/kg. .... Carrier converted data obtained from his tests into equations,.

  1. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert


    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  2. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics. (United States)


    This report contains airline operating statistics for large certificated air carriers based on data reported to U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) by carriers that hold a certificate issued under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 a...

  3. Oxygen Therapy (United States)

    ... oxygen at very high altitudes (like in the mountains or in an airplane) even if you do ... an arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. The ABG measures your oxygen level directly from your blood and ...

  4. Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, K.; Nakano, I.


    By means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 values) of the skeletal muscles were measured in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers and normal controls. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the T1 values obtained, according to the fast proton diffusion model. In the DMD carriers, T1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris muscles were significantly higher, and BWFs of these muscles were significantly lower than in normal control. Degenerative muscular changes accompanied by interstitial edema were presumed responsible for this abnormality. No correlation was observed between the muscle T1 and serum creatine kinase values. The present study showed that MRI could be a useful method for studying the dynamic state of water in both normal and pathological skeletal muscles. Its possible utility for DMD carrier detection was discussed briefly. (orig.)

  5. Willis H Carrier

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: Keywords. W H Carrier; rational psychrometric formulae; psychrometric chart; invention of centrifugal machine; law of dew-point depression. Author Affiliations. R V Simha1. Director Airtron Consulting Engineers Pvt Ltd, No. 502/A, Ist Main Jayanagar ...

  6. Asymmetric Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Rasmussen, Peter Omand


    index. The flat motor current spectrum generates an acoustical noise close to the white noise, which may improve the acoustical performance of the drive. The new carrier wave is easy to implement digitally, without employing any external circuits. The modulation method can be used in open, as well...

  7. Willis H Carrier

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 2. Willis H. Carrier - Father of Air Conditioning. R V Simha. General Article Volume 17 Issue 2 February 2012 pp 117-138. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  8. Comparison of airline passenger oxygen systems. (United States)

    Byrne, N J


    The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma.

  9. Yarn carrier with clutch (United States)

    Doyne, Richard A. (Inventor); Benson, Rio H. (Inventor); El-Shiekh, Aly (Inventor)


    A yarn carrier apparatus particularly suited for use in braiding machinery or the like due to its capability of continuous yarn feeding and retraction of long lengths of yarn. The yarn carrier apparatus comprises a yarn supply spool which is rotatably mounted within the housing, a spring motor also mounted within the housing and operatively connected to the yarn supply spool through a mechanical transmission assembly which is adapted to multiply rotational movement between the first element of the gear assembly operatively connected to the spring motor and the final element of the gear assembly operatively connected to the yarn supply spool. The spring motor is adapted to tension the yarn during both feeding and retraction thereof, and it is further adapted to periodically rotatably slip within the housing and partially unwind so as to allow for continuous withdrawal of a long length of yarn without the spring motor becoming fully wound and preventing further yarn retraction.

  10. Role of copper in light induced minority-carrier lifetime degradation of silicon


    Savin, Hele; Yli-Koski, Marko; Haarahiltunen, Antti


    We investigate the impact of copper on the light induced minority-carrier lifetime degradation in various crystalline silicon materials. We demonstrate here that the presence of neither boron nor oxygen is necessary for the degradation effect. In addition, our experiments reveal that copper contamination alone can cause the light induced minority-carrier lifetime degradation. Peer reviewed

  11. Carrier transport uphill. I. General

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T; Wilbrandt, W


    A quantitative treatment of a carrier pump operating with two carrier forms C and Z is presented. Asymmetric metabolic reactions are assumed to transform Z into C on one and C into Z on the other side of the membrane, establishing a carrier cycle. The kinetical consequences of this mechanism...

  12. Synthesis of New High-Oxygen Carriers and Ditetrazinetetroxide (DTTO) (United States)


    slurry. Soxhlet extraction of the crude dry product with chloroform was complete and left less than 1% residual salts. However, two...with CHCb 10 times in a Soxhlet left only 0.010 g colorless residue. Recrystallization of the settled solids (26 g) from 250 ml_ of refluxing 100

  13. Uptake and speciation of uranium in synthetic gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O): Applications to radioactive mine tailings. (United States)

    Lin, Jinru; Sun, Wei; Desmarais, Jacques; Chen, Ning; Feng, Renfei; Zhang, Patrick; Li, Dien; Lieu, Arthur; Tse, John S; Pan, Yuanming


    Phosphogypsum formed from the production of phosphoric acid represents by far the biggest accumulation of gypsum-rich wastes in the world and commonly contains elevated radionuclides, including uranium, as well as other heavy metals and metalloids. Therefore, billions-of-tons of phosphogypsum stockpiled worldwide not only possess serious environmental problems but also represent a potential uranium resource. Gypsum is also a major solid constituent in many other types of radioactive mine tailings, which stems from the common usage of sulfuric acid in extraction processes. Therefore, management and remediation of radioactive mine tailings as well as future beneficiation of uranium from phosphogysum all require detailed knowledge about the nature and behavior of uranium in gypsum. However, little is known about the uptake mechanism or speciation of uranium in gypsum. In this study, synthesis experiments suggest an apparent pH control on the uptake of uranium in gypsum at ambient conditions: increase in U from 16 μg/g at pH = 6.5 to 339 μg/g at pH = 9.5. Uranium L 3 -edge synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses of synthetic gypsum show that uranyl (UO 2 ) 2+ at the Ca site is the dominant species. The EXAFS fitting results also indicate that uranyl in synthetic gypsum occurs most likely as carbonate complexes and yields an average U-O distance ∼0.25 Å shorter than the average Ca-O distance, signifying a marked local structural distortion. Applications to phosphogypsum from the New Wales phosphoric acid plant (Florida, USA) and uranium mine tailings from the Key Lake mill (Saskatchewan, Canada) show that gypsum is an important carrier of uranium over a wide range of pH and controls the fate of this radionuclide in mine tailings. Also, development of new technologies for recovering U from phosphogypsum in the future must consider lattice-bound uranyl in gypsum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger


    A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and...... membrane transporters in the small intestine in order to increase oral bioavailabilities of drug or prodrug, the major influence on in vivo pharmacokinetics is suggested to be dose-dependent increase in bioavailability as well as prolonged blood circulation due to large capacity facilitated absorption...

  15. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger


    membrane transporters in the small intestine in order to increase oral bioavailabilities of drug or prodrug, the major influence on in vivo pharmacokinetics is suggested to be dose-dependent increase in bioavailability as well as prolonged blood circulation due to large capacity facilitated absorption......A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and...

  16. The levels of vancomycin in the blood and the wound after the local treatment of bone and soft-tissue infection with antibiotic-loaded calcium sulphate as carrier material. (United States)

    Wahl, P; Guidi, M; Benninger, E; Rönn, K; Gautier, E; Buclin, T; Magnin, J-L; Livio, F


    Calcium sulphate (CaSO 4 ) is a resorbable material that can be used simultaneously as filler of a dead space and as a carrier for the local application of antibiotics. Our aim was to describe the systemic exposure and the wound fluid concentrations of vancomycin in patients treated with vancomycin-loaded CaSO 4 as an adjunct to the routine therapy of bone and joint infections. A total of 680 post-operative blood and 233 wound fluid samples were available for analysis from 94 implantations performed in 87 patients for various infective indications. Up to 6 g of vancomycin were used. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on the data from 37 patients treated for an infection of the hip. The overall systemic exposure remained within a safe range, even in patients with post-operative renal failure, none requiring removal of the pellets. Local concentrations were approximately ten times higher than with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as a carrier, but remained below reported cell toxicity thresholds. Decreasing concentrations in wound fluid were observed over several weeks, but remained above the common minimum inhibitory concentrations for Staphylococcus up to three months post-operatively. This study provides the first pharmacokinetic description of the local application of vancomycin with CaSO 4 as a carrier, documenting slow release, systemic safety and a release profile far more interesting than from PMMA. In particular, considering in vitro data, concentrations of vancomycin active against staphylococca l biofilm were seen for several weeks. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1537-44. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  17. Identification of the Charge Carriers in Cerium Phosphate Ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Hannah L.; Jonghe, Lutgard C. De


    The total conductivity of Sr-doped cerium orthophosphate changes by nearly two orders of magnitude depending on the oxygen and hydrogen content of the atmosphere. The defect model for the system suggests that this is because the identity of the dominant charge carrier can change from electron holes to protons when the sample is in equilibrium with air vs. humidified hydrogen. In this work are presented some preliminary measurements that can help to clarify this exchange between carriers. The conduction behavior of a 2percent Sr-doped CePO4 sample under symmetric atmospheric conditions is investigated using several techniques, including AC impedance, H/D isotope effects, and chronoamperometry.

  18. Oxygen safety (United States)

    ... sure you have working smoke detectors and a working fire extinguisher in your home. If you move around the house with your oxygen, you may need more than one fire extinguisher in different locations. Smoking can be very dangerous. No one should smoke ...

  19. Zaria Universal Oxygenator Holder Phase I | Edaigbini | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery requires the use of equipment and devices like the oxygenator. The oxygenator comes in different makes and each manufacturer customizes the carrier or 'holder' of this device specific to their design. Aim: This paper presents an innovation designed to ...

  20. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben


    management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem......Low-power base stations such as e.g. Femto-cells are one of the candidates for high data rate provisioning in local areas, such as residences, apartment complexes, business offices and outdoor hotspot scenarios. Unfortunately, the benefits are not without new challenges in terms of interference...... in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...

  1. Drug Carrier for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Ayane Debele


    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a non-invasive combinatorial therapeutic modality using light, photosensitizer (PS, and oxygen used for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. When PSs in cells are exposed to specific wavelengths of light, they are transformed from the singlet ground state (S0 to an excited singlet state (S1–Sn, followed by intersystem crossing to an excited triplet state (T1. The energy transferred from T1 to biological substrates and molecular oxygen, via type I and II reactions, generates reactive oxygen species, (1O2, H2O2, O2*, HO*, which causes cellular damage that leads to tumor cell death through necrosis or apoptosis. The solubility, selectivity, and targeting of photosensitizers are important factors that must be considered in PDT. Nano-formulating PSs with organic and inorganic nanoparticles poses as potential strategy to satisfy the requirements of an ideal PDT system. In this review, we summarize several organic and inorganic PS carriers that have been studied to enhance the efficacy of photodynamic therapy against cancer.

  2. Drug Carrier for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy (United States)

    Debele, Tilahun Ayane; Peng, Sydney; Tsai, Hsieh-Chih


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive combinatorial therapeutic modality using light, photosensitizer (PS), and oxygen used for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. When PSs in cells are exposed to specific wavelengths of light, they are transformed from the singlet ground state (S0) to an excited singlet state (S1–Sn), followed by intersystem crossing to an excited triplet state (T1). The energy transferred from T1 to biological substrates and molecular oxygen, via type I and II reactions, generates reactive oxygen species, (1O2, H2O2, O2*, HO*), which causes cellular damage that leads to tumor cell death through necrosis or apoptosis. The solubility, selectivity, and targeting of photosensitizers are important factors that must be considered in PDT. Nano-formulating PSs with organic and inorganic nanoparticles poses as potential strategy to satisfy the requirements of an ideal PDT system. In this review, we summarize several organic and inorganic PS carriers that have been studied to enhance the efficacy of photodynamic therapy against cancer. PMID:26389879

  3. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham


    Ti doping on La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSF) tends to increase the oxygen equilibration kinetics of LSF in lower oxygen activity environment because of the high valence state of Ti. However, the addition of Ti decreases the total conductivity because the acceptor ([Sr{prime}{sub La}]) is compensated by the donor ([Ti{sub Fe}{sup {sm_bullet}}]) which decreases the carrier concentration. The properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSFT, x = 0.45) have been experimentally and theoretically investigated to elucidate (1) the dependence of oxygen occupancy and electrochemical properties on temperature and oxygen activity by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (2) the electrical conductivity and carrier concentration by Seebeck coefficient and electrical measurements. In the present study, dual phase (La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}O{sub 3-{delta}}/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-{delta}}) membranes have been evaluated for structural properties such as hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength. The effect of high temperature and slightly reducing atmosphere on the structural properties of the membranes was studied. The flexural strength of the membrane decreases upon exposure to slightly reducing conditions at 1000 C. The as-received and post-fractured membranes were characterized using XRD, SEM and TG-DTA to understand the fracture mechanisms. Changes in structural properties of the composite were sought to be correlated with the physiochemical features of the two-phases. We have reviewed the electrical conductivity data and stoichiometry data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} some of which was reported previously. Electrical conductivity data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCrF) were obtained in the temperature range, 752 {approx} 1055 C and in the pO{sub 2} range, 10{sup -18} {approx} 0.5 atm. The slope of the plot of log {sigma} vs

  4. Chemical Looping Pilot Plant Results Using a Nickel-Based Oxygen Carrier Résultats de l’expérimentation sur un pilote opérant en boucle chimique avec un matériau transporteur d’oxygène à base de nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pröll T.


    Full Text Available A chemical looping pilot plant was designed, built and operated with a design fuel power of 120 kW (lower heating value, natural gas. The system consists of two Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB reactors. Operating results are presented and evaluated for a highly reactive nickel-based oxygen carrier, total system inventory 65 kg. The performance in fuel conversion achieved is in the range of 99.8% (CH4 conversion and 92% (CO2 yield. In chemical looping reforming operation, it can be reported that thermodynamic equilibrium is reached in the fuel reactor and that all oxygen is absorbed in the air reactor as soon as the global stoichiometric air/fuel ratio is below 1 and the air reactor temperature is 900°C or more. Even though pure natural gas (98.6 vol.% CH4 without steam addition was fed to the fuel reactor, no carbon formation has been found as long as the global stoichiometric air/fuel ratio was larger than 0.4. Based on the experimental findings and on the general state of the art, it is concluded that niche applications such as industrial steam generation from natural gas or CO2-ready coupled production of H2 and N2 can be interesting pathways for immediate scale-up of the technology. Un pilote d’étude de la combustion en boucle chimique d’une puissance thermique de 120 kW a été dimensionné, construit et opéré. Il est constitué de deux lits circulants interconnectés. Les résultats d’opération qui sont présentés ont été obtenus avec un matériau transporteur d’oxygène très réactif à base de nickel. L’inventaire total du matériau est de 65 kg dans le pilote. La conversion du méthane atteinte est voisine de 99,8 % et le rendement en CO2 est de 92 %. Lorsqu’on opère en mode de reformage, l’équilibre thermodynamique est atteint dans le réacteur fioul. Tout l’oxygène est capté dans le réacteur air dès que le rapport stoechiométrique entre l’air et le méthane est inférieur à 1 et que la temp

  5. The energy carrier hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The potential of hydrogen to be used as a clean fuel for the production of heat and power, as well as for the propulsion of aeroplanes and vehicles, is described, in particular for Germany. First, attention is paid to the application of hydrogen as a basic material for the (petro)chemical industry, as an indirect energy source for (petro)chemical processes, and as a direct energy source for several purposes. Than the importance of hydrogen as an energy carrier in a large-scale application of renewable energy sources is discussed. Next an overview is given of new and old hydrogen production techniques from fossil fuels, biomass, or the electrolysis of water. Energetic applications of hydrogen in the transportation sector and the production of electric power and heat are mentioned. Brief descriptions are given of techniques to store hydrogen safely. Finally attention is paid to hydrogen research in Germany. Two hydrogen projects, in which Germany participates, are briefly dealt with: the Euro-Quebec project (production of hydrogen by means of hydropower), and the HYSOLAR project (hydrogen production by means of solar energy). 18 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  6. Dosimetric evaluation of thermoluminescent LiF:Mg,Ti and CaSO4 :Dy dosimeters and LiF microdosimeters for application in in vivo dosimetry of clinical electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravim, Amanda; Campos, Leticia L.


    The verification of the patient dose has been recommended to improve the quality of radiotherapy treatment by various organizations such as AAPM (American Association of Physicists in Medicine) and ESTRO (European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology). The in vivo dosimetry has become an important part in the program of quality assurance (QA) in the departments of radiotherapy and has proved very useful in determining the dose applied to a particular patient, as well as detection of various types of errors in the dose process application. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) play an important role in radiation dosimetry and present advantages that make them useful for in vivo dosimetry in patients. This paper aims to evaluate the performance of LiF microdosimeters and LiF: Mg,Ti and CaSO 4 : Dy dosimeters in 60 Co gamma field and select the detectors groups which present TL response with sensitivity and reproducibility better than ± 5%. It is expected a standardized method of employing the thermoluminescent dosimetry technique and development of a dosimetric system in accordance with the international recommendations. (author)

  7. 7 CFR 35.4 - Carrier. (United States)


    ... AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.4 Carrier. Carrier means any common or private carrier, including, but not being limited to, trucks, rail, airplanes, vessels, tramp or chartered steamers, whether carrying for...

  8. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  9. Impact of carriers in oral absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Luise Kvisgaard; Rist, Gerda Marie; Lennernäs, Hans


    Carriers may mediate the permeation across enterocytes for drug substances being organic anions. Carrier mediated permeation for the organic anions estrone-3-sulfate (ES) and glipizide across Caco-2 cells were investigated kinetically, and interactions on involved carriers evaluated. Initial...

  10. Production of an Accelerated Oxygen-14 Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, James; O'Neil, James P.; Cerny, Joseph


    BEARS is an ongoing project to provide a light-ion radioactive-beam capability at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL. Light radioactive isotopes are produced at a 10 MeV proton medical cyclotron, transported 350 m via a high-speed gas transport capillary, cryogenically separated, and injected into the 88-Inch Cyclotron's ion source. The first radioactive beam successfully accelerated was Carbon-11 and beams of intensity more than 108 ions/sec have been utilized for experiments. Development of Oxygen-14 as the second BEARS beam presented considerable technical challenges, both due to its short half-life of 71 seconds and the radiation chemistry of oxygen in the target. The usual techniques developed for medical uses of Oxygen-15 involve the addition of significant amounts of carrier oxygen, something that would overload the ion source. As a solution, Oxygen-14 is produced as water in a carrier-free form, and is chemically converted in two steps to carbon dioxide, a form readily usable by the BEARS. This system has been built and is operational, and initial tests of accelerating an Oxygen-14 beam have been performed

  11. Production of an accelerated oxygen-14 beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; O'Neil, J.P.; Cerny, Joseph


    BEARS is an ongoing project to provide a light-ion radioactive-beam capability at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL. Light radioactive isotopes are produced at a 10 MeV proton medical cyclotron, transported 350 m via a high-speed gas transport capillary, cryogenically separated, and injected into the 88-Inch Cyclotron's ion source. The first radioactive beam successfully accelerated was carbon-11 and beams of intensity more than 10 8 ions/s have been utilized for experiments. Development of oxygen-14 as the second BEARS beam presented considerable technical challenges, both due to its short half-life of 71 s and the radiation chemistry of oxygen in the target. The usual techniques developed for medical uses of oxygen-15 involve the addition of significant amounts of carrier oxygen, something that would overload the ion source. As a solution, oxygen-14 is produced as water in a carrier-free form, and is chemically converted in two steps to carbon dioxide, a form readily usable by the BEARS. This system has been built and is operational, and initial tests of accelerating an oxygen-14 beam have been performed

  12. Nanostructured Lipid Carriers: A potential drug carrier for cancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvamuthukumar Subramanian


    Full Text Available Abstract Nanotechnology having developed exponentially, the aim has been on therapeutic undertaking, particularly for cancerous disease chemotherapy. Nanostructured lipid carriers have attracted expanding scientific and commercial vigilance in the last couple of years as alternate carriers for the pharmaceutical consignment, particularly anticancer pharmaceuticals. Shortcomings often came across with anticancer mixtures, such as poor solubility, normal tissue toxicity, poor specificity and steadiness, as well as the high incidence rate of pharmaceutical resistance and the rapid degradation, need of large-scale output procedures, a fast release of the pharmaceutical from its carrier scheme, steadiness troubles, the residues of the organic solvents utilized in the output method and the toxicity from the polymer with esteem to the carrier scheme are anticipated to be overcome through use of the Nanostructured Lipid Carrier. In this review the benefits, types, drug release modulations, steadiness and output techniques of NLCs are discussed. In supplement, the function of NLC in cancer chemotherapy is presented and hotspots in research are emphasized. It is foreseen that, in the beside future, nanostructured lipid carriers will be further advanced to consign cytotoxic anticancer compounds in a more efficient, exact and protected manner.

  13. Solute carrier transporters: Pharmacogenomics research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    -binding cassette) transporters, which include MDR1, a protein that pumps xenobiotics from cells, and the SLC (solute carrier) trans- porters, which take up neurotransmitters, nutrients, heavy metals, and other substrates into ...

  14. Stable wafer-carrier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenzon, Yan; Trujillo, Robert T; Beese, Steven C


    One embodiment of the present invention provides a wafer-carrier system used in a deposition chamber for carrying wafers. The wafer-carrier system includes a base susceptor and a top susceptor nested inside the base susceptor with its wafer-mounting side facing the base susceptor's wafer-mounting side, thereby forming a substantially enclosed narrow channel. The base susceptor provides an upward support to the top susceptor.

  15. Thermodinamically stable phases in the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-CaSO4-H2O closed system at 25 ºC. Application to cementitious systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco-Varela, M. T.


    Full Text Available One of the chief causes of cement and concrete deterioration is the loss of durability prompted by sulphate attack. The existing standards call for long test periods (2- 12 months. Thermodynamic modelling is a particularly appropriate technique for studying systems that only reach equilibrium in the long term. Used in the present study to establish the fields of thermodynamic stability for the phases in the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-CaSO4-H2O system at 25 ºC. According to the model, gypsum is stable at sulphate ion concentrations of 1.23e-2 mol/kg and over, while ettringite exhibits stability at concentrations ranging from 7.64e-6 to 1.54e-2 mol/kg. Ettringite is compatible with all system phases except SH and gypsum only with ettringite, the C-S-H gels, AH3 and SH. None of the calcium aluminates or silicoaluminates in the system is compatible with gypsum: in its presence, they all decompose to cement deteriorating ettringite. Finally, the model revealed that the maximum sulphate concentration at which C-S-H gel is stable is slightly higher in systems with than without Al2O3.Uno de los principales problemas asociados al deterioro de cementos y hormigones es la pérdida de durabilidad por ataque de sulfatos. La normativa existente requiere largos tiempos de ensayo (2-12 meses. La modelización termodinámica es una técnica particularmente adecuada para el estudio de sistemas que alcanzan el equilibrio en tiempos largos. Aplicando esta metodología se han establecido los campos de estabilidad termodinámica de las fases del sistema CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-CaSO4-H2O a 25 ºC. El yeso es estable a partir de la [SO42-] = 1,23e-2 mol/kg, y la ettringita es estable en un rango de [SO42-] = 7,64e-6 -1,54e-2 mol/kg. La ettringita es compatible con todas las fases del sistema excepto con SH y el yeso sólo con la ettringita, los geles C-S-H, el AH3 y el SH. Ninguno de los aluminatos o silicoaluminatos cálcicos son compatibles con el yeso, en su presencia se descomponen dando etringita. Finalmente, la máxima [SO42-] en la que es estable el gel C-S-H es ligeramente superior en sistemas que contienen Al2O3 con respecto a los que no lo poseen.

  16. The effect of plaster (CaSO4 ·1/2H2O) on the compressive strength, self-setting property, and in vitro bioactivity of silicate-based bone cement. (United States)

    Liu, Wenjuan; Wu, Chengtie; Liu, Weining; Zhai, Wanyin; Chang, Jiang


    Bone cements have been widely used for orthopedic applications. Previous studies have shown that calcium silicon-based bone cements (CSC) were injectable, bioactive, biodegradable, and mechanically strong in the long term, while their short-term compressive strength was low and setting time was too long. On the other hand, plaster (CaSO(4)·1/2H(2)O, POP) sets quickly upon contact with water and has excellent short-term compressive strength. The aim of this study is to prepare CSC/POP composite cements and investigate the effect of POP on the compressive strength, setting time, injectability, degradation, and in vitro bioactivity of the composite cements. The results have shown that POP content plays an important role to modulate the physicochemical property of CSC. The addition of POP into CSC significantly decreased the initial and final setting time and enhanced the short-term compressive strength and degradation rate. The obtained composite cement with 30% POP has been found to possess optimal setting time and short-term compressive strength. In addition, the prepared composite cements still maintain apatite-mineralization ability in simulated body fluids and their ionic extracts have no significant cytotoxicity to L929 cells. The results suggested that the addition of POP into CSC is a viable method to improve their setting properties and short-term compressive strength. The obtained composite cements with the optimized composition of 70% CSC and 30% POP could be potentially used for bone repair application. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The oxygen sensing signal cascade under the influence of reactive oxygen species (United States)

    Acker, Helmut


    Structural and functional integrity of organ function profoundly depends on a regular oxygen and glucose supply. Any disturbance of this supply becomes life threatening and may result in severe loss of organ function. Particular reductions in oxygen availability (hypoxia) caused by respiratory or blood circulation irregularities cannot be tolerated for longer periods due to an insufficient energy supply by anaerobic glycolysis. Complex cellular oxygen sensing systems have evolved to tightly regulate oxygen homeostasis. In response to variations in oxygen partial pressure (PO2), these systems induce adaptive and protective mechanisms to avoid or at least minimize tissue damage. These various responses might be based on a range of oxygen sensing signal cascades including an isoform of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase, different electron carrier units of the mitochondrial chain such as a specialized mitochondrial, low PO2 affinity cytochrome c oxidase (aa3) and a subfamily of 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases termed HIF (hypoxia inducible factor) prolyl-hydroxylase and HIF asparaginyl hydroxylase called factor-inhibiting HIF (FIH-1). Thus, specific oxygen sensing cascades involving reactive oxygen species as second messengers may by means of their different oxygen sensitivities, cell-specific and subcellular localization help to tailor various adaptive responses according to differences in tissue oxygen availability. PMID:16321790

  18. Production of an accelerated oxygen-14 beam

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, J; Cerny, J


    BEARS is an ongoing project to provide a light-ion radioactive-beam capability at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL. Light radioactive isotopes are produced at a 10 MeV proton medical cyclotron, transported 350 m via a high-speed gas transport capillary, cryogenically separated, and injected into the 88-Inch Cyclotron's ion source. The first radioactive beam successfully accelerated was carbon-11 and beams of intensity more than 10 sup 8 ions/s have been utilized for experiments. Development of oxygen-14 as the second BEARS beam presented considerable technical challenges, both due to its short half-life of 71 s and the radiation chemistry of oxygen in the target. The usual techniques developed for medical uses of oxygen-15 involve the addition of significant amounts of carrier oxygen, something that would overload the ion source. As a solution, oxygen-14 is produced as water in a carrier-free form, and is chemically converted in two steps to carbon dioxide, a form readily usable by the BEARS. This system has bee...

  19. 29 CFR 1201.1 - Carrier. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carrier. 1201.1 Section 1201.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD DEFINITIONS § 1201.1 Carrier. The term carrier includes any express company, sleeping car company, carrier by railroad, subject to the Interstate Commerce Act...

  20. Carbon: Hydrogen Carrier or Disappearing Skeleton?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, K.P. de; Wechem, H.M.H. van


    The use of liquid hydrocarbons as energy carriers implies the use of carbon as a carrier for hydrogen to facilitate hydrogen transport and storage. The current trend for liquid energy carriers used in the transport sector is to maximize the load of hydrogen on the carbon carrier. The recently

  1. Straddle carrier radiation portal monitoring (United States)

    Andersen, Eric S.; Samuel, Todd J.; Mullen, O. Dennis


    U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the primary enforcement agency protecting the nation"s ports of entry. CBP is enhancing its capability to interdict the illicit import of nuclear and radiological materials and devices that may be used by terrorists. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is providing scientific and technical support to CBP in their goal to enable rapid deployment of nuclear and radiation detection systems at U. S. ports of entry to monitor 100% of the incoming international traffic and cargo while not adversely impacting the operations or throughput of the ports. The U.S. ports of entry include the following vectors: land border crossings, seaports, airports, rail crossings, and mail and express consignment courier facilities. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) determined that a screening solution was needed for Seaport cargo containers being transported by Straddle Carriers (straddle carriers). A stationary Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) for Straddle Carriers (SCRPM) is needed so that cargo containers can be scanned while in transit under a Straddle Carrier. The Straddle Carrier Portal operational impacts were minimized by conducting a time-motion study at the Port, and adaptation of a Remotely Operated RPM (RO-RPM) booth concept that uses logical lighting schemes for traffic control, cameras, Optical Character Recognition, and wireless technology.

  2. Bacterial Carriers for Glioblastoma Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mehta


    Full Text Available Treatment of aggressive glioblastoma brain tumors is challenging, largely due to diffusion barriers preventing efficient drug dosing to tumors. To overcome these barriers, bacterial carriers that are actively motile and programmed to migrate and localize to tumor zones were designed. These carriers can induce apoptosis via hypoxia-controlled expression of a tumor suppressor protein p53 and a pro-apoptotic drug, Azurin. In a xenograft model of human glioblastoma in rats, bacterial carrier therapy conferred a significant survival benefit with 19% overall long-term survival of >100 days in treated animals relative to a median survival of 26 days in control untreated animals. Histological and proteomic analyses were performed to elucidate the safety and efficacy of these carriers, showing an absence of systemic toxicity and a restored neural environment in treated responders. In the treated non-responders, proteomic analysis revealed competing mechanisms of pro-apoptotic and drug-resistant activity. This bacterial carrier opens a versatile avenue to overcome diffusion barriers in glioblastoma by virtue of its active motility in extracellular space and can lead to tailored therapies via tumor-specific expression of tumoricidal proteins.

  3. Injection deep level transient spectroscopy: An improved method for measuring capture rates of hot carriers in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, R. M.; Seager, C. H.; Lang, D. V.; Campbell, J. M. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1415 (United States)


    An improved method for measuring the cross sections for carrier trapping at defects in semiconductors is described. This method, a variation of deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) used with bipolar transistors, is applied to hot carrier trapping at vacancy-oxygen, carbon-oxygen, and three charge states of divacancy centers (V{sub 2}) in n- and p-type silicon. Unlike standard DLTS, we fill traps by injecting carriers into the depletion region of a bipolar transistor diode using a pulse of forward bias current applied to the adjacent diode. We show that this technique is capable of accurately measuring a wide range of capture cross sections at varying electric fields due to the control of the carrier density it provides. Because this technique can be applied to a variety of carrier energy distributions, it should be valuable in modeling the effect of radiation-induced generation-recombination currents in bipolar devices.

  4. Transparent anodes for polymer photovoltaics: Oxygen permeability of PEDOT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M.; Carlé, Jon Eggert; Cruys-Bagger, N.


    The oxygen permeability of the transparent organic anode poly(3,4,-ethylene dioxythiophene) with paratoluenesulphonate as the anion (PEDOT:pTS) was determined to be 2.5 +/- 0.7 x 10(-15) cm(3) (STP) CM cm(-2) S-1 Pa-1, and is thus comparable in magnitude to the oxygen permeability of polyethylene......The oxygen permeability of the transparent organic anode poly(3,4,-ethylene dioxythiophene) with paratoluenesulphonate as the anion (PEDOT:pTS) was determined to be 2.5 +/- 0.7 x 10(-15) cm(3) (STP) CM cm(-2) S-1 Pa-1, and is thus comparable in magnitude to the oxygen permeability...... of polyethyleneterephthalate (PET). The oxygen diffusion through bilayers of polyethylene (PE) and PEDOT:pTS and bilayers of PET and PEDOT:pTS was established. The bilayer structures were applied as the carrier substrate and the transparent anode in polymer-based photovoltaic devices employing a mixture of poly(1-methoxy-4...... of the devices with PET as the carrier substrate degraded more slowly due to the lower oxygen and water permeability, whereas devices using PE as the carrier substrate gave devices with a very short lifetime. It was found that PEDOT:pTS on its own is a not a significant barrier for oxygen in the context...

  5. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs and motor carrier safety regulations through a...

  6. Effect of Ash on Oxygen Carriers for the Application of Chemical Looping Combustion to a High Carbon Char Effet des cendres sur l’activité des porteurs d’oxygène dans la combustion du charbon en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubel A.


    Full Text Available The application of Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC to solid fuels is being investigated at the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER with the aim of the development of a Pressurized Chemical Looping Combustion/Gasification (PCLC/G process for the generation of electricity from coal. One important aspect of the CLC of solid fuel is the understanding of the effect of ash on the reactivity of Oxygen Carriers (OCs. The effect of ash on the redox capabilities of two different iron oxide OCs and on their ability to oxidize coal char was studied. To determine the effect of ash on the reactivity and recycle of the OCs through multiple redox cycles, fly ash from a coal-fired power plant was used. These experiments were performed in a TGMS system using 500 mg of ash/OC mixtures containing different ash concentrations up to 75%. The reducing gas was composed of 10% H2, 15% CO, 20% CO2, and a balance of Ar and the oxidizing gas was 20% O2 in Ar. Oxidation/reductions were carried to near completion. The ash was found to contain OC activity related to inherent iron present in the ash confirmed by XRD. This resulted in increased weight gain/loss on oxidation/reduction. The rate of oxidation/reduction increased with ash concentration due to increased porosity of the OC/ash mixture and better access of the reactive gases to the OC target sites. The two OCs were then used to combust a beneficiated coal char in the TGMS with the only oxygen supplied by an iron oxide OC. The starting mixture was 10% char and 90% of one of two OCs studied. The spent material containing reduced OC and ash was re-oxidized and 10% more char was added for a second reduction of the OC and oxidation of the added char. This procedure was repeated for 5 cycles increasing the ash concentrations from 5 to 25% in the char/ash/OC mixture. Carbon removal was 92 to 97.8 and 97.3 to 99.7% for the two different iron oxide OCs tested. Ash was not detrimental to the

  7. Controlling the Carrier Density of SrTiO3-Based Heterostructures with Annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn; von Soosten, Merlin; Trier, Felix


    of conductivity. Using STO capped with epitaxial γ-Al2O3 (GAO) or amorphous LAO (a-LAO), the pathways for changing the carrier density in the two STO-based cases are identified where oxygen blocking (GAO) and oxygen permeable (a-LAO) films create interface conductivity from oxygen vacancies located in STO near...... enables writing of conducting nanostructures in γ-Al2O3/STO by conducting atomic force microscopy....

  8. Hot carrier degradation in semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server


    This book provides readers with a variety of tools to address the challenges posed by hot carrier degradation, one of today’s most complicated reliability issues in semiconductor devices.  Coverage includes an explanation of carrier transport within devices and book-keeping of how they acquire energy (“become hot”), interaction of an ensemble of colder and hotter carriers with defect precursors, which eventually leads to the creation of a defect, and a description of how these defects interact with the device, degrading its performance. • Describes the intricacies of hot carrier degradation in modern semiconductor technologies; • Covers the entire hot carrier degradation phenomenon, including topics such as characterization, carrier transport, carrier-defect interaction, technological impact, circuit impact, etc.; • Enables detailed understanding of carrier transport, interaction of the carrier ensemble with the defect precursors, and an accurate assessment of how the newly created defects imp...

  9. Solute carrier transporters: Pharmacogenomics research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the solute carrier transporters and highlights the fact that there is much to be learnt from characterizing human genomic variation in South Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, especially with regards to health applications. Genomic diversity in this region is indeed relatively under-studied despite being home to ...

  10. Carrier multiplication in germanium nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeed, S.; de Weerd, C.; Stallinga, P.; Spoor, F.C.M.; Houtepen, A.J.; Siebbeles, L.D.A.; Gregorkiewicz, T.


    Carrier multiplication is demonstrated in a solid-state dispersion of germanium nanocrystals in a silicon-dioxide matrix. This is performed by comparing ultrafast photo-induced absorption transients at different pump photon energies below and above the threshold energy for this process. The average

  11. Experimental verification of carrier multiplication in graphene. (United States)

    Plötzing, T; Winzer, T; Malic, E; Neumaier, D; Knorr, A; Kurz, H


    We report on the first direct experimental observation of carrier multiplication in graphene reaching a multiplication factor of up to 2 and persisting on a picoseconds time scale. Exploiting multicolor pump-probe measurement techniques, the excited nonequilibrium carrier distribution is retrieved on an ultrafast time scale. This provides access to the temporal evolution of the optically excited carrier density and thus allows quantitative conclusions on possible carrier multiplication. Microscopic time- and momentum-resolved calculations on the ultrafast relaxation dynamics of optically excited carriers confirm the observation of carrier multiplication under corresponding experimental conditions, suggesting graphene as a promising material for novel high-efficiency photodetection devices.

  12. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana


    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

  13. Artificial oxygen transport protein (United States)

    Dutton, P. Leslie


    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  14. Efficiency of some spectrochemical carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, R.P.


    A comparative study of the efficiency of some spectrochemical carriers for the quantitative spectrographic analysis of Ag, Al, B, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Si, Sn, V and Zn in uranium-base materials is presented. The volatility behavior of the eighteen elements is verified by means of the moving plate technique and each of the mentioned carriers. The best results are obtained with 4% In 2 O 3 , 6% AgCl and 5% NaF in a U 3 O 8 matrix. The sensitivities for some elements were extended to fractions of p.p.m. The precision, accuracy and acceptability of the method are calculated for all elements. The total error values as approximately in the range of 16-45% [pt

  15. Oxygen-enhanced combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Baukal, Charles E


    Combustion technology has traditionally been dominated by air/fuel combustion. However, two developments have increased the significance of oxygen-enhanced combustion-new technologies that produce oxygen less expensively and the increased importance of environmental regulations. Advantages of oxygen-enhanced combustion include less pollutant emissions as well as increased energy efficiency and productivity. Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion, Second Edition compiles information about using oxygen to enhance industrial heating and melting processes. It integrates fundamental principles, applications, a

  16. At What Cost a Carrier? (United States)


    unmanned aircra" – generally described as UCAVs , for “unmanned combat aerial vehicles” – as well as submarines in combination with long- range precision...means of operational e!ectiveness in the future. The Way Forward All these factors indicate that a turn toward UCAVs is long overdue. #e advent of...18 in accelerating the development and production of a UCAV that could operate both from large carriers and from smaller, less expensive, light

  17. [Recent technical advances in portable oxygen delivery systems]. (United States)

    Machida, K; Kawabe, Y; Mori, M; Haga, T


    According to a Japanese national survey (June 30, 1990), the number of patients receiving home oxygen therapy (HOT) has been greater than 18,000 since March 1985, when HOT was first covered by health insurance. The oxygen concentrator, especially the molecular sieve type, is the most common method of delivery (more than 90%). In April 1988, the portable oxygen cylinder was acknowledged by health insurance, and the liquid oxygen supply system in April 1990. Three types of portable oxygen delivery systems are available; oxygen cyclinder, liquid oxygen system, and oxygen concentrator (membrane type), of which the oxygen cylinder is most commonly used. In our hospital, portable oxygen supply systems were used in 80% of 168 HOT cases in 1990, and the use of 400 L aluminum oxygen cylinders at a flow rate of 1-2 L/min has been most popular. There is an strong desire from patients for lighter portable oxygen supply system of longer duration. In 19 patients with chronic respiratory failure, we evaluated a newly designed demand oxygen delivery system (DODS), which weighs 2.4 kg including the DOD device (TER-20 Teijin), 1.1 L oxygen cylinder made of ultressor, nasal cannula, and carrier. Arterial blood gases at rest (room air) were PaO2 61.9 +/- 6.3 torr, PaCO2 63.8 +/- 9.4 torr and pH 7.40 +/- 0.04. A crossover trial was performed under three conditions; breathing room air with no weight, and pulse oxygen flow and continuous oxygen flow each carrying 2.4 kg of weight. Both 6 minute walking (E1) and walking on a slow speed treadmill (E2) were studied.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. 14 CFR 221.2 - Carrier's duty. (United States)


    ... foreign air carrier from liability for violations of the statute, nor shall the filing of a tariff, or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier's duty. 221.2 Section 221.2... REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.2 Carrier's duty. (a) Must file tariffs. (1) Except as provided in paragraph...

  19. 14 CFR 254.4 - Carrier liability. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier liability. 254.4 Section 254.4... REGULATIONS DOMESTIC BAGGAGE LIABILITY § 254.4 Carrier liability. On any flight segment using large aircraft... large aircraft, an air carrier shall not limit its liability for provable direct or consequential...

  20. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large...

  1. Structural vs. intrinsic carriers: contrasting effects of cation chemistry and disorder on ionic conductivity in pyrochlores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perriot, Romain; Uberuaga, Blas P.


    We use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the role of cation disorder on oxygen diffusion in Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 (GZO) and Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 (GTO) pyrochlores, a class of complex oxides which contain a structural vacancy relative to the basic fluorite structure. The introduction of disorder has distinct effects depending on the chemistry of the material, increasing the mobility of structural carriers by up to four orders of magnitude in GZO. In contrast, in GTO, there is no mobility at zero or low disorder on the ns timescale, but higher disorder liberates the otherwise immobile carriers, allowing diffusion with rates comparable to GZO for the fully disordered material. Here, we show that the cation disorder enhances the diffusivity by both increasing the concentration of mobile structural carriers and their individual mobility. The disorder also influences the diffusion in materials containing intrinsic carriers, such as additional vacancies VO or oxygen interstitials OI. And while in ordered GZO and GTO the contribution of the intrinsic carriers dominates the overall diffusion of oxygen, OI in GZO contributes along with structural carriers, and the total diffusion rate can be calculated by assuming simple additive contributions from the two sources. Although the disorder in the materials with intrinsic defects usually enhances the diffusivity as in the defect-free case, in low concentrations, cation antisites AB or BA, where A = Gd and B = Zr or Ti, can act as traps for fast intrinsic defects. The trapping results in a lowering of the diffusivity, and causes a non-monotonic behavior of the diffusivity with disorder. Conversely, in the case of slow intrinsic defects, the main effect of the disorder is to liberate the structural carriers, resulting in an increase of the diffusivity regardless of the defect trapping.

  2. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines (United States)

    Pichichero, Michael E


    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  3. 49 CFR 376.22 - Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS LEASE AND INTERCHANGE OF VEHICLES Exemptions for the Leasing Regulations § 376.22 Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers. Regardless...

  4. 76 FR 32390 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC) Meeting. SUMMARY...

  5. 77 FR 46555 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC...

  6. 75 FR 2923 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA...

  7. 75 FR 29384 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2010-0143] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA...

  8. 75 FR 72863 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces...

  9. 75 FR 50797 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2010-0143] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA...

  10. Wuestite - a solar energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenkaff, A.; Nueesch, P.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Reller, A. [Hamburg Univ., Hamburg (Germany)


    Hydrogen is produced when Wuestite (Fe{sub 1-y}O) is oxidised by water. This reaction is part of a two-step thermochemical metal oxide cycle for the storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy carriers, characterised by a high chemical potential. The reaction was studied in a tubular furnace with on-line gas analysis and further characterised in detail by DTA und high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction. The influence of non-stoichiometry, morphology and temperature on the mechanism and kinetics of the water-splitting reaction was determined. (author) 3 figs., tabs., 3 refs.

  11. Biocheese: A Food Probiotic Carrier (United States)

    Castro, J. M.; Tornadijo, M. E.; Fresno, J. M.; Sandoval, H.


    This review describes some aspects related to the technological barriers encountered in the development and stability of probiotic cheeses. Aspects concerning the viability of probiotic cultures in this matrix are discussed and the potential of cheese as a biofunctional food carrier is analyzed, outlying some points related to health and safety. In general, the manufacture of probiotic cheese should have little change when compared with the elaboration of cheese in the traditional way. The physicochemical and technological parameters influencing the quality of these products have also to be measured so as to obtain a process optimization. PMID:25802862

  12. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  13. Miniature oxygen resuscitator (United States)

    Johnson, G.; Teegen, J. T.; Waddell, H.


    Miniature, portable resuscitation system is used during evacuation of patients to medical facilities. A carrying case contains a modified resuscitator head, cylinder of oxygen, two-stage oxygen regulator, low pressure tube, and a mask for mouth and nose.

  14. Cryptococcus neoformans and oxygen




    Oxygen is essential to life of all organisms except for obligate anaerobic species, because it is necessary for energy generation and also for some biosynthetic pathways. However, sensitivity to low oxygen levels can vary widely in different organisms and cell types. The pathogenic yeast species Cryptococcus neoformans is known to love oxygen. In response to the lack of oxygen (hypoxia), this yeast delays budding without resigning DNA replication, which eventually results in unique cell cycle...

  15. Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene


    This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...... of continental growth and volcanic outgassing, as well as biogeochemical processing of elements within the oceans. The author will seek to explore constraints on the history of oxygenation and understand which processes have regulated oxygen through this eon....

  16. Oxygen evolution reaction catalysis (United States)

    Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.


    An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.

  17. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; Thomas W. Eagar; Harold R. Larson; Raymundo Arroyave; X.-D Zhou; Y.-W. Shin; H.U. Anderson; Nigel Browning; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims


    The present quarterly report describes some of the initial studies on newer compositions and also includes newer approaches to address various materials issues such as in metal-ceramic sealing. The current quarter's research has also focused on developing a comprehensive reliability model for predicting the structural behavior of the membranes in realistic conditions. In parallel to industry provided compositions, models membranes have been evaluated in varying environment. Of importance is the behavior of flaws and generation of new flaws aiding in fracture. Fracture mechanics parameters such as crack tip stresses are generated to characterize the influence of environment. Room temperature slow crack growth studies have also been initiated in industry provided compositions. The electrical conductivity and defect chemistry of an A site deficient compound (La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}) was studied. A higher conductivity was observed for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} than that of La{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}FeO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}FeO{sub 3}. Defect chemistry analysis showed that it was primarily contributed by a higher carrier concentration in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. Moreover, the ability for oxygen vacancy generation is much higher in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} as well, which indicates a lower bonding strength between Fe-O and a possible higher catalytic activity for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. The program continued to investigate the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previous report listed initial measurements on a sample of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-x} prepared in-house by Praxair. Subsequently, a second sample of powder from a larger batch of sample were characterized and compared

  18. [Domiciliary oxygen therapy]. (United States)

    Abdel Kafi, S


    In Belgium, oxygen therapy is becoming more and more accessible. When oxygen is needed for short periods or for special indications as palliative care, an agreement between mutual insurance companies and pharmacists allows the practitioner the home installation of gazeous oxygen cylinder or of oxygen concentrator. When long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) is indicated for patients with respiratory insufficiency, the pneumologist must first ask the INAMI the authorization to install one of the following modalities: oxygen concentrator with or without demand oxygen delivery cylinder and liquid oxygen. The goal of LTOT is to increase survival and quality of life. The principal and well accepted indication for LTOT is severe hypoxemia. The beneficial effects of oxygen therapy limited at night or on exertion are controversial. In order to increase patient's autonomy, oxygen can be prescribed for ambulation, respecting prescription's rules. At each step of oxygen therapy implementing (indication, choice of the device and follow-up) the patient under oxygen may benefit from a joint approach between the general practitioner and the chest specialist.

  19. Oxygen sensitive microwells. (United States)

    Sinkala, Elly; Eddington, David T


    Oxygen tension is critical in a number of cell pathways but is often overlooked in cell culture. One reason for this is the difficulty in modulating and assessing oxygen tensions without disturbing the culture conditions. Toward this end, a simple method to generate oxygen-sensitive microwells was developed through embossing polystyrene (PS) and platinum(ii) octaethylporphyrin ketone (PtOEPK) thin films. In addition to monitoring the oxygen tension, microwells were employed in order to isolate uniform clusters of cells in microwells. The depth and width of the microwells can be adapted to different experimental parameters easily by altering the thin film processing or embossing stamp geometries. The thin oxygen sensitive microwell substrate is also compatible with high magnification modalities such as confocal imaging. The incorporation of the oxygen sensor into the microwells produces measurements of the oxygen tension near the cell surface. The oxygen sensitive microwells were calibrated and used to monitor oxygen tensions of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells (MDCKs) cultured at high and low densities as a proof of concept. Wells 500 µm in diameter seeded with an average of 330 cells exhibited an oxygen level of 12.6% whereas wells seeded with an average of 20 cells per well exhibited an oxygen level of 19.5%, a 35.7% difference. This platform represents a new tool for culturing cells in microwells in a format amenable to high magnification imaging while monitoring the oxygen state of the culture media.

  20. Low-complexity Joint Sub-carrier Phase Noise Compensation for Digital Multi-carrier Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Barletta, Luca; Zibar, Darko


    Joint sub-carrier phase noise processing is proposed which recovers the SNR penalty related to decreased sub-carrier baudrate w.r.t. single carrier systems. The method enables digital sub-banding to be safely employed for nonlinear mitigation for modulation formats of up to 256-QAM.......Joint sub-carrier phase noise processing is proposed which recovers the SNR penalty related to decreased sub-carrier baudrate w.r.t. single carrier systems. The method enables digital sub-banding to be safely employed for nonlinear mitigation for modulation formats of up to 256-QAM....

  1. Inert carriers for column extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katykhin, G.S.


    Inert carriers used in column extraction chromatography are reviewed. Such carriers are devided into two large groups: hydrophilic carriers which possess high surface energy and are well wetted only with strongly polar liquids (kieselguhrs, silica gels, glasses, cellulose, Al 2 O 3 ) and water-repellent carriers which possess low surface energy and are well wetted with various organic solvents (polyethylene, polytetrafluorethylene polytrifluorochlorethylene). Properties of various carriers are presented: structure, chemical and radiation stability, adsorption properties, extracting agent capacity. The effect of structure and sizes of particles on the efficiency of chromatography columns is considered. Ways of immovable phase deposition on the carrier and the latter's regeneration. Peculiarities of column packing for preparative and continuous chromatography are discussed

  2. Global Telecommunications Services: Strategies of Major Carriers


    Jerry Mccreary; William R. Boulton; Chetan Sankar


    The globalization of telecommunications markets is of primary concern for today’s large telecommunications carriers. International business telecommunications is growing at a rate twice that of domestic traffic. Multi-national customers with offices around the world are demanding integrated solutions to their telecommunications needs. As telecommunication carriers respond to these customers’ needs, the carriers are beginning to expand outside their national boundaries. This paper identifi...

  3. Both Hemophilia Health Care Providers and Hemophilia A Carriers Report that Carriers have Excessive Bleeding (United States)

    Paroskie, Allison; Oso, Olatunde; DeBaun, Michael R.; Sidonio, Robert F


    Introduction Hemophilia A, the result of reduced factor VIII (FVIII) activity, is an X-linked recessive bleeding disorder. Previous reports of Hemophilia A carriers suggest an increased bleeding tendency. Our objective was to determine the attitudes and understanding of the Hemophilia A carrier bleeding phenotype, and opinions regarding timing of carrier testing from the perspective of both medical providers and affected patients. Data from this survey was used as preliminary data for an ongoing prospective study. Material and Methods An electronic survey was distributed to physicians and nurses employed at Hemophilia Treatment Centers (HTC), and Hemophilia A carriers who were members of Hemophilia Federation of America. Questions focused on the clinical understanding of bleeding symptoms and management of Hemophilia A carriers, and the timing and intensity of carrier testing. Results Our survey indicates that 51% (36/51) of providers compared to 78% (36/46) of carriers believe that Hemophilia A carriers with normal FVIII activity have an increased bleeding tendency (pHemophilia A carriers report a high frequency of bleeding symptoms. Regarding carrier testing, 72% (50/69) of medical providers recommend testing after 14 years of age, conversely 65% (29/45) of Hemophilia A carriers prefer testing to be done prior to this age (pHemophilia A carriers self-report a higher frequency of bleeding than previously acknowledged, and have a preference for earlier testing to confirm carrier status. PMID:24309601

  4. Airline policy for passengers requiring supplemental in-flight oxygen. (United States)

    Walker, Jacqueline; Kelly, Paul T; Beckert, Lutz


    The aim of this study was to investigate the current Australian/New Zealand airline policy on supplemental in-flight oxygen for passengers with lung disease. Fifty-four commercial airlines servicing international routes were surveyed. Information was gathered from airline call centres and web sites. The survey documented individual airline policy on in-flight oxygen delivery, approval schemes, equipment and cost. Of the 54 airlines contacted, 43 (81%) were able to support passengers requiring in-flight oxygen. The majority (88%) of airlines provided a cylinder for passengers to use. Airline policy for calculating the cost of in-flight oxygen differed considerably between carriers. Six (14%) airlines supplied oxygen to passengers free of charge; however, three of these airlines charged for an extra seat. Fifteen airlines (35%) charged on the basis of oxygen supplied, that is, per cylinder. Fourteen airlines (33%) had a flat rate charge per sector. This study confirmed that most airlines can accommodate passengers requiring supplemental oxygen. However, the findings highlight inconsistencies in airline policies and substantial cost differences for supplemental in-flight oxygen. We advocate an industry standardization of policy and cost of in-flight oxygen.

  5. Cyclodextrins in drug carrier systems. (United States)

    Uekama, K; Otagiri, M


    One of the important characteristics of cyclodextrins is the formation of an inclusion complex with a variety of drug molecules in solution and in the solid state. As a consequence of intensive basic research, exhaustive toxic studies, and realization of industrial production during the past decade, there seem to be no more barriers for the practical application of natural cyclodextrins in the biomedical field. Recently, a number of cyclodextrin derivatives and cyclodextrin polymers have been prepared to obtain better inclusion abilities than parent cyclodextrins. The natural cyclodextrins and their synthetic derivatives have been successfully utilized to improve various drug properties, such as solubility, dissolution and release rates, stability, or bioavailability. In addition, the enhancement of drug activity, selective transfer, or the reduction of side effects has been achieved by means of inclusion complexation. The drug-cyclodextrin complex is generally formed outside of the body and, after administration, it dissociates, releasing the drug into the organism in a fast and nearly uniform manner. In the biomedical application of cyclodextrins, therefore, particular attention should be directed to the magnitude of the stability constant of the inclusion complex. In the case of parenteral application, a rather limited amount of work has been done because the cyclodextrins in the drug carrier systems have to be more effectively designed to compete with various biological components in the circulatory system. However, the works published thus far apparently indicate that the inclusion phenomena of cyclodextrin analogs may allow the rational design of drug formulation and that the combination of molecular encapsulation with other carrier systems will become a very effective and valuable method for the development of a new drug delivery system in the near future.

  6. Carrier-carrier relaxation kinetics in quantum well semiconductor structures with nonparabolic energy bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.


    We describe carrier-carrier scattering dynamics in an inverted quantum well structure including the nonparabolic nature of the valance band. A solution of the semiconductor Bloch equations yields strong evidence to a large change in the temporal evolution of the carrier distributions compared...

  7. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung


    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  8. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan


    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  9. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang


    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...... that the availability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying relevant resilience techniques....

  10. Driver citation/carrier data relationship project (United States)


    The Driver/Carrier Relationship Project was commissioned to address three issues. The first was to determine if drivers of commercial motor vehicles get tickets at a different rate, depending on the carrier that they are working for. The second issue...

  11. Carrier multiplication in graphene under Landau quantization. (United States)

    Wendler, Florian; Knorr, Andreas; Malic, Ermin


    Carrier multiplication is a many-particle process giving rise to the generation of multiple electron-hole pairs. This process holds the potential to increase the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices. In graphene, carrier multiplication has been theoretically predicted and recently experimentally observed. However, due to the absence of a bandgap and competing phonon-induced electron-hole recombination, the extraction of charge carriers remains a substantial challenge. Here we present a new strategy to benefit from the gained charge carriers by introducing a Landau quantization that offers a tunable bandgap. Based on microscopic calculations within the framework of the density matrix formalism, we report a significant carrier multiplication in graphene under Landau quantization. Our calculations reveal a high tunability of the effect via externally accessible pump fluence, temperature and the strength of the magnetic field.

  12. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schonning, Kristian


    system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed...... using the DESeq2 package in R to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with differential abundance between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. Twenty OTUs were significantly associated to non-carriers, including species with known probiotic potential and antimicrobial effect such as lactic acid...

  13. 47 CFR 64.1140 - Carrier liability for slamming. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier liability for slamming. 64.1140 Section... Providers § 64.1140 Carrier liability for slamming. (a) Carrier Liability for Charges. Any submitting... unauthorized carrier, the subscriber is absolved of liability for charges imposed by the unauthorized carrier...

  14. Methanol as an energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, P.; Grube, T.; Hoehlein, B. (eds.)


    For the future, a strongly growing energy demand is expected in the transport sector worldwide. Economically efficient oil production will run through a maximum in the next decade. Higher fuel prices and an environmentally desirable reduction of emissions will increase the pressure for reducing fuel consumption and emissions in road traffic. These criteria show the urgent necessity of structural changes in the fuel market. Due to its advantages concerning industrial-scale production, storage and global availability, methanol has the short- to medium-term potential for gaining increased significance as a substitution product in the energy market. Methanol can be produced both from fossil energy sources and from biomass or waste materials through the process steps of synthesis gas generation with subsequent methanol synthesis. Methanol has the potential to be used in an environmentally friendly manner in gasoline/methanol mixtures for flexible fuel vehicles with internal combustion engines and in diesel engines with pure methanol. Furthermore, it can be used in fuel cell vehicles with on-board hydrogen production in direct methanol fuel cell drives, and in stationary systems for electricity and heat generation as well as for hydrogen production. Finally, in portable applications it serves as an energy carrier for electric power generation. In this book, the processes for the production and use of methanol are presented and evaluated, markets and future options are discussed and issues of safety and environmental impacts are addressed by a team of well-known authors. (orig.)

  15. Hydrogen: the future energy carrier. (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas; Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas; Friedrichs, Oliver


    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century the limitations of the fossil age with regard to the continuing growth of energy demand, the peaking mining rate of oil, the growing impact of CO2 emissions on the environment and the dependency of the economy in the industrialized world on the availability of fossil fuels became very obvious. A major change in the energy economy from fossil energy carriers to renewable energy fluxes is necessary. The main challenge is to efficiently convert renewable energy into electricity and the storage of electricity or the production of a synthetic fuel. Hydrogen is produced from water by electricity through an electrolyser. The storage of hydrogen in its molecular or atomic form is a materials challenge. Some hydrides are known to exhibit a hydrogen density comparable to oil; however, these hydrides require a sophisticated storage system. The system energy density is significantly smaller than the energy density of fossil fuels. An interesting alternative to the direct storage of hydrogen are synthetic hydrocarbons produced from hydrogen and CO2 extracted from the atmosphere. They are CO2 neutral and stored like fossil fuels. Conventional combustion engines and turbines can be used in order to convert the stored energy into work and heat.

  16. Optimal carrier frequency assignments for a two-carrier-level SCPS system (United States)

    Vuong, X. T.; Forsey, R. J.

    A two-carrier-level SCPC system may occur in a star network where one master station (hub) with large G/T communicates with many remote stations with small G/T via one satellite transponder. By properly assigning the frequencies of carriers passing through the transponder, one can reduce and balance the relative intermodulation power levels falling into the SCPC channels. Through computer simulation, optimal carrier frequency assignments are found for four different criteria of optimality. The optimal assignments vary with respect to the difference in the two levels of carrier output power. All four criteria provide the conclusion that when the difference is around 3 dB, the assignment with small carriers stacked in the middle is best; and, when the difference is large (greater than 6 dB) the assignment with large carriers and small carriers alternated is best.

  17. Photoexcited Carrier Dynamics of In2S3 Thin Films. (United States)

    McCarthy, Robert F; Schaller, Richard D; Gosztola, David J; Wiederrecht, Gary P; Martinson, Alex B F


    Indium sulfide (In2S3) is a promising absorber base for substitutionally doped intermediate band photovoltaics (IBPV); however, the dynamics of charge carriers traversing the electronic density of states that determine the optical and electronic response of thin films under stimuli have yet to be explored. The kinetics of photophysical processes in In2S3 grown by oxygen-free atomic layer deposition are deduced from photoconductivity, photoluminescence (PL), and transient absorption spectroscopy. We develop a map of excited-state dynamics for polycrystalline thin films including a secondary conduction band ∼2.1 eV above the first, plus sulfur vacancy and indium interstitial defect levels resulting in long-lived (∼100 ns) transients. Band-edge recombination produces PL and stimulated emission, which both intensify and red-shift as deposition temperature and grain size increase. The effect of rapid conduction band electron relaxation (In2S3-based absorbers is finally considered.

  18. Carrier testing for autosomal-recessive disorders. (United States)

    Vallance, Hilary; Ford, Jason


    The aim of carrier testing is to identify carrier couples at risk of having offspring with a serious genetic (autosomal recessive) disorder. Carrier couples are offered genetic consultation where their reproductive options, including prenatal diagnosis, are explained. The Ashkenazi Jewish population is at increased risk for several recessively inherited disorders (Tay-Sachs disease, Cystic fibrosis, Canavan disease, Gaucher disease, Familial Dysautonomia, Niemann-Pick disease, Fanconi anemia, and Bloom syndrome). Unlike Tay-Sachs disease, there is no simple biochemical or enzymatic test to detect carriers for these other disorders. However, with the rapid identification of disease-causing genes in recent years, DNA-based assays are increasingly available for carrier detection. Approximately 5% of the world's population carries a mutation affecting the globin chains of the hemoglobin molecule. Among the most common of these disorders are the thalassemias. The global birth rate of affected infants is at least 2 per 1000 (in unscreened populations), with the greatest incidence in Southeast Asian, Indian, Mediterranean, and Middle Eastern ethnic groups. Carriers are detected by evaluation of red cell indices and morphology, followed by more sophisticated hematological testing and molecular analyses. The following issues need to be considered in the development of a carrier screening program: (1) test selection based on disease severity and test accuracy; (2) funding for testing and genetic counselling; (3) definition of the target population to be screened; (4) development of a public and professional education program; (5) informed consent for screening; and (6) awareness of community needs.

  19. Method for removing dissolved oxygen from aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.G. de.


    Water for use in steam generation systems, which is contained in a storage tank, is deoxygenated for use in the system by adding hydrogen to a stream of the water and intimately mixing the same, pressurizing the stream to a pressure of 60 to 150 psig, and contacting the pressurized stream with a catalyst bed of palladium or platinum dispersed on a solid carrier. The hydrogen reacts with the dissolved oxygen in the presence of the catalyst at ambient temperatures, to produce a deoxygenated stream of water containing less than 10 ppb of oxygen. The deoxygenated water can be returned to the storage tank or supplied directly to the steam generation system. (author)

  20. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung


    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  1. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung


    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  2. Oxygen Dependent Biocatalytic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard

    temperature and pressure. A significant number of enzymes carrying out redox reactions (oxidoreductases) requiring molecular oxygen as an electron acceptor – those termed oxidases, monooxygenases and dioxygenases. These enzymes catalyze a range of industrially relevant reactions, such as oxidation of alcohols...... to aldehydes and ketones, oxyfunctionalization of C-H bonds, and epoxidation of C-C double bonds. Although oxygen dependent biocatalysis offers many possibilities, there are numerous chal-lenges to be overcome before an enzyme can be implemented in an industrial process. These challenges requires the combined...... is the requirement for oxygen, because the transfer of oxygen from the gas-phase (typically air) to the aqueous phase, where the reaction takes place, is notoriously slow due to the low aqueous solubility of oxygen at am-bient conditions. Therefore, vigorous agitation and aeration is required to create a large in...

  3. High capacity carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao


    technology, making the use of Ethernet as a convergence layer for Next Generation Networks a distinct possibility. Triple Play services, in particular IPTV, are expected to be a main drivers for carrier Ethernet, however, a number of challenges must be addressed including QoS enabled control plane, enhanced...... OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  4. Spectroscopy of carrier multiplication in nanocrystals. (United States)

    Bruhn, Benjamin; Limpens, Rens; Chung, Nguyen Xuan; Schall, Peter; Gregorkiewicz, Tom


    Carrier multiplication in nanostructures promises great improvements in a number of widely used technologies, among others photodetectors and solar cells. The decade since its discovery was ridden with fierce discussions about its true existence, magnitude, and mechanism. Here, we introduce a novel, purely spectroscopic approach for investigation of carrier multiplication in nanocrystals. Applying this method to silicon nanocrystals in an oxide matrix, we obtain an unambiguous spectral signature of the carrier multiplication process and reveal details of its size-dependent characteristics-energy threshold and efficiency. The proposed method is generally applicable and suitable for both solid state and colloidal samples, as well as for a great variety of different materials.

  5. Tunable carrier multiplication and cooling in graphene. (United States)

    Johannsen, Jens Christian; Ulstrup, Søren; Crepaldi, Alberto; Cilento, Federico; Zacchigna, Michele; Miwa, Jill A; Cacho, Cephise; Chapman, Richard T; Springate, Emma; Fromm, Felix; Raidel, Christian; Seyller, Thomas; King, Phil D C; Parmigiani, Fulvio; Grioni, Marco; Hofmann, Philip


    Time- and angle-resolved photoemission measurements on two doped graphene samples displaying different doping levels reveal remarkable differences in the ultrafast dynamics of the hot carriers in the Dirac cone. In the more strongly (n-)doped graphene, we observe larger carrier multiplication factors (>3) and a significantly faster phonon-mediated cooling of the carriers back to equilibrium compared to in the less (p-)doped graphene. These results suggest that a careful tuning of the doping level allows for an effective manipulation of graphene's dynamical response to a photoexcitation.

  6. A Method to Perform Direct Oxygen Analysis on Lunar Simulants and Other Complex Oxide Materials (United States)

    Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo


    An essential requirement for making space travel and long term missions more efficient and affordable to NASA includes finding innovative ways to supply oxygen for life support and propulsion. In this experiment, carrier gas hot extraction was investigated as a possible method for measuring the oxygen from samples of lunar soil simulants before and after oxygen extraction. The determination of oxygen using the R0600 Oxygen Determinator is usually limited to oxides with low oxygen concentrations, but after the manipulation of certain furnace operating parameters such as analysis time and ramp rate, the R0600 was used to determine the oxygen content of high concentration oxides such as Fe 2O3 , Al2O3 , and SiO2.

  7. Efficiency of a Bed Biofilm Reactor Using a LECA Carrier to Treat Hospital Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shokoohi


    Full Text Available Hospital wastewater is of great environmental concern because it contains a variety of hazardous microbial and chemical substances. This study aims to investigate the efficiency of a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR with a light expanded clay aggregate (LECA carrier for treating hospital wastewater. This pilot study used a Plexiglas reactor that had a volume of 100 L, a continuous up-flow hydraulic regime, and a LECA carrier to test removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD from wastewater in a public hospital. To assess MBBR efficiency, the study used retention times of 8, 12, and 24 hours, filling percentages of 30% and 50%, and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSSs of 1000, 3000, and 5000 mg/L. The results indicated that using a single LECA carrier in an MBBR system was not sufficient to remove organic materials from hospital wastewater, because the carrier could not be completely suspended. After some modifications, consisting mainly of returning activated sludge, the system was 83% efficient at removing COD using a LECA carrier at a retention time of 24 hours, with 50% filling, and 5000 mg/L of MLSS.

  8. Air Carrier Financial Statistics : second quarter. (United States)


    This report presents airline financial statistics obtained from carrier reports to DOT on BTS Form 41 financial schedules. Effective with a rule (ER-1297) adopted July 1982, the filing frequency for income statement and balance sheet data was changed...

  9. Air Carrier Financial Statistics : first quarter. (United States)


    This report presents airline financial statistics obtained from carrier reports to DOT on BTS Form 41 financial schedules. Effective with a rule (ER-1297) adopted July 1982, the filing frequency for income statement and balance sheet data was changed...

  10. Air Carrier Financial Statistics : third quarter. (United States)


    This report presents airline financial statistics obtained from carrier reports to DOT on BTS Form 41 financial schedules. Effective with a rule (ER-1297) adopted July 1982, the filing frequency for income statement and balance sheet data was changed...

  11. Air Carrier Financial Statistics : fourth quarter. (United States)


    This report presents airline financial statistics obtained from carrier reports to DOT on BTS Form 41 financial schedules. Effective with a rule (ER-1297) adopted July 1982, the filing frequency for income statement and balance sheet data was changed...

  12. Maryland motor carrier program performance enhancement. (United States)


    Using the inspection summary data (24-1 reports) from SHA for years 2006 to 2010 and inspection and violation : files of Motor Carrier Management Information System (MCMIS) for the same years, the Maryland State Police : (MSP) and Maryland Transporta...

  13. Auto Carrier Transporter Loading and Unloading Improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Brian


    .... Any reduction in time and energy will result in a significant savings of money. The intent of this research is to develop an algorithm to solve the Auto Carrier Transport Pickup and Delivery Problem...

  14. Multiple sclerosis in an adrenoleukodystrophy carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jenkins


    Full Text Available X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is a rare inherited metabolic disorder, in which accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs results in damage to the central nervous system. As the disease is X-linked, males are affected severely, but female carriers may also present with neurological symptoms. We report the case of a young adult female, who presented with episodic sensorimotor symptoms. Although she was a heterozygous female carrier of X-ALD, subsequent investigations confirmed a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a female X-ALD carrier in which the clinical features were more consistent with co-existent MS than ALD-related pathology. The case serves as a reminder that alternative, more common diagnoses should also be considered in carriers of rare neurological syndromes.

  15. What It Means to be a Carrier (United States)

    ... begins the process with medical tests for any infectious diseases, RH type, thyroid and general health screening, etc. The egg donors go through their own screening, which includes hormone levels, genetic screening usually including FMR1 screening, and other carrier ...

  16. The Kinetics of Carrier Transport Inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T.; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter


    The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing...... and polyphloretinephosphate. The results of the analysis for these inhibitors indicate a substrate competitive mode of action. The effect of reversing the transport direction by interchanging the substrate concentration has been treated for the case of a non-penetrating substrate competitive inhibitor in the external medium...... with the substrate for the enzyme or the carrier or for both, competing with the carrier for the enzyme, or non-competitive) and in the ability of penetrating the membrane. Experiments are reported on the inhibition of glucose and fructose transport across the human red cell membrane by phlorizine, phloretine...

  17. Production of ammonia from plasma-catalytic decomposition of urea: Effects of carrier gas composition. (United States)

    Fan, Xing; Li, Jian; Qiu, Danqi; Zhu, Tianle


    Effects of carrier gas composition (N 2 /air) on NH 3 production, energy efficiency regarding NH 3 production and byproducts formation from plasma-catalytic decomposition of urea were systematically investigated using an Al 2 O 3 -packed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor at room temperature. Results show that the presence of O 2 in the carrier gas accelerates the conversion of urea but leads to less generation of NH 3 . The final yield of NH 3 in the gas phase decreased from 70.5%, 78.7%, 66.6% and 67.2% to 54.1%, 51.7%, 49.6% and 53.4% for applied voltages of 17, 19, 21 and 23kV, respectively when air was used as the carrier gas instead of N 2 . From the viewpoint of energy savings, however, air carrier gas is better than N 2 due to reduced energy consumption and increased energy efficiency for decomposition of a fixed amount of urea. Carrier gas composition has little influence on the major decomposition pathways of urea under the synergetic effects of plasma and Al 2 O 3 catalyst to give NH 3 and CO 2 as the main products. Compared to a small amount of N 2 O formed with N 2 as the carrier gas, however, more byproducts including N 2 O and NO 2 in the gas phase and NH 4 NO 3 in solid deposits were produced with air as the carrier gas, probably due to the unproductive consumption of NH 3 , the possible intermediate HNCO and even urea by the abundant active oxygen species and nitrogen oxides generated in air-DBD plasma. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. China’s Aircraft Carrier Dilemma (United States)


    per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing...When it comes to obtaining a working carrier, China has several options, but each largely limits what the carrier could be used for. Buying a big -deck...nothing developed from them. Empresa Nacional Bazán, which merged with Astilleros Españoles S.A. (AESA) to form Navantia in 2000, reportedly attempted

  19. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the terms of title II of the Railway Labor Act, which was approved April 10, 1936, all of title I, except section 3, which relates to the National...

  20. Protection switching for carrier ethernet multicast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Berger, Michael Stübert


    This paper addresses network survivability for IPTV multicast transport in Carrier Ethernet networks. The impact of link failures is investigated and suggestions for intelligent multicast resilience schemes are proposed. In particular, functions of the multicast tree are integrated with the Carrier...... recovery path length, recovery time, number of branch nodes and operational complexity. The integrated approach therefore shows significant potential to increase the QoE for IPTV users in case of network failures and recovery actions....

  1. Evaluating multicast resilience in carrier ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang


    This paper gives an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we show how multicast traffic, which is essential for IPTV can be protected. We detail the ackground for resilience mechanisms and their control and e present Carrier Ethernet...... resilience methods for linear nd ring networks. By simulation we show that the vailability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying protection methods....

  2. Sequence anatomy of mitochondrial anion carriers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Petr; Ježek, Jan


    Roč. 534, 1-3 (2003), s. 15-25 ISSN 0014-5793 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5011106; GA ČR GA301/02/1215; GA MŠk ME 389 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : mitochondrial anion carriers * carrier genomics * bioinformatics Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.609, year: 2003

  3. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia


    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  4. Home Oxygen Therapy (United States)

    ... over 90%. This system has a number of advantages. Since a concentrator essentially makes its own oxygen, there is no need for resupplies by the home care company. However, you must have a small cylinder as ...

  5. Pathology of oxygen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Autor, Anne Pomeroy


    This volume has been designed to provide those interested in oxygen toxicity with a working knowledge of advancement in the field with the intention that the topics described in each chapter will be immediately useful...

  6. Pathology of oxygen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Autor, Anne Pomeroy


    .... The book is divided into three general sections. The first and smallest section of the book explains the molecular and biochemical basis of our current understanding of oxygen radical toxicity as well as the means by which normal aerobic cells...

  7. Oxygen therapy - infants (United States)

    ... type of oxygen therapy. Another method is a nasal CPAP system . CPAP stands for continuous positive airway pressure. ... risk for infection. Similar problems can occur with nasal CPAP devices. Also, some CPAP devices use wide nasal ...

  8. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (United States)

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a treatment that uses a pump to circulate blood through an artificial lung back into the bloodstream of a very ill baby. This system provides heart-lung bypass support ...

  9. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch


    The oxygen tension of the optic nerve is regulated by the intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure, the resistance in the blood vessels and oxygen consumption of the tissue. The oxygen tension is autoregulated and moderate changes in intraocular pressure or blood pressure do not affect...... the optic nerve oxygen tension. If the intraocular pressure is increased above 40 mmHg or the ocular perfusion pressure decreased below 50 mmHg the autoregulation is overwhelmed and the optic nerve becomes hypoxic. A disturbance in oxidative metabolism in the cytochromes of the optic nerve can be seen...... at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...

  10. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T


    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  11. Using oxygen at home (United States)

    ... sooner to your house or neighborhood if the power goes out. Keep their phone numbers in a place where you can find them easily. Tell your family, neighbors, and friends that you use oxygen. They ...

  12. Oxygen transfer in liquids. (United States)

    Stejskal, J; Potůcek, F


    In the laboratory-type airlift tower reactor oxygen transfer from air in tap water and/or polyacrylamide solutions (Neuperm WF) was studied. In order to characterize the system, volumetric coefficient of oxygen transfer was determined by the gassing-out method. Two arrangements of the airlift tower reactor were compared, namely the reactor with and without motionless mixer. In addition, mean relative gas holdup and gas power output were determined for both arrangements.

  13. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T


    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide.......To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  14. Oxygen dosing the surface of SrTiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudy, L.; Scheiderer, P.; Schuetz, P.; Gabel, J.; Buchwald, M.; Sing, M.; Claessen, R. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Denlinger, J.D. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94270 (United States); Schlueter, C.; Lee, T.L. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)


    The highly mobile two-dimensional electron system (2DES) on the surface of the insulating SrTiO{sub 3}(STO) offers exciting perspectives for advanced material design. This 2DES resides in a depletion layer caused by oxygen deficiency of the surface. With photoemission spectroscopy, we monitor the appearance of quasi-particle weight (QP) at the Fermi energy and oxygen vacancy induced states in the band gap (IG). Both, QP and IG weight, increase and decrease respectively upon exposure to extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light and in-situ oxygen dosing. By a proper adjustment of oxygen dosing, any intermediate state can be stabilized providing full control over the charge carrier density. From a comparison of the charge carrier concentrations obtained from an analysis of core-level spectra and the Fermi-surface volume, we conclude on a spatially inhomogeneous surface electronic structure with at least two different phases.

  15. Dissolved oxygen: Chapter 6 (United States)

    Senn, David; Downing-Kunz, Maureen; Novick, Emily


    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration serves as an important indicator of estuarine habitat condition, because all aquatic macro-organisms require some minimum DO level to survive and prosper. The instantaneous DO concentration, measured at a specific location in the water column, results from a balance between multiple processes that add or remove oxygen (Figure 6.1): primary production produces O2; aerobic respiration in the water column and sediments consumes O2; abiotic or microbially-mediated biogeochemical reactions utilize O2 as an oxidant (e.g., oxidation of ammonium, sulfide, and ferrous iron); O2 exchange occurs across the air:water interface in response to under- or oversaturated DO concentrations in the water column; and water currents and turbulent mixing transport DO into and out of zones in the water column. If the oxygen loss rate exceeds the oxygen production or input rate, DO concentration decreases. When DO losses exceed production or input over a prolonged enough period of time, hypoxia ((<2-3 mg/L) or anoxia can develop. Persistent hypoxia or anoxia causes stress or death in aquatic organism populations, or for organisms that can escape a hypoxic or anoxic area, the loss of habitat. In addition, sulfide, which is toxic to aquatic organisms and causes odor problems, escapes from sediments under low oxygen conditions. Low dissolved oxygen is a common aquatic ecosystem response to elevated organic

  16. Singlet oxygen quenching by oxygen in tetraphenyl-porphyrin solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedic, Roman; Korinek, Miloslav; Molnar, Alexander; Svoboda, Antonin; Hala, Jan


    Time-resolved measurement of singlet oxygen infrared phosphorescence is a powerful tool for determination of quantum yields and kinetics of its photosensitization. This technique was employed to investigate in detail the previously observed effect of singlet oxygen quenching by oxygen. The question whether the singlet oxygen is quenched by oxygen in ground or in excited state was addressed by study of two complementary dependencies of singlet oxygen lifetimes: on dissolved oxygen concentration and on excitation intensity. Oxygen concentration dependence study of meso-tetra(4-sulphonato)phenylporphyrin (TPPS 4 ) phosphorescence kinetics showed linearity of the dependence of TPPS 4 triplet state rate-constant. Corresponding bimolecular quenching constant of (1.5±0.1)x10 9 l/mol s was obtained. On the other hand, rate constants of singlet oxygen depopulation exhibit nonlinear dependence on oxygen concentration. Comparison of zero oxygen concentration-extrapolated value of singlet oxygen lifetime of (6.5±0.4) μs to (3.7±0.1) μs observed under air-saturated conditions indicates importance of the effect of quenching of singlet oxygen by oxygen. Upward-sloping dependencies of singlet oxygen depopulation rate-constant on excitation intensity evidence that singlet oxygen is predominantly quenched by oxygen in excited singlet state

  17. Bulk manufacture of concentrated oxygen gas-filled microparticles for intravenous oxygen delivery. (United States)

    Kheir, John N; Polizzotti, Brian D; Thomson, Lindsay M; O'Connell, Daniel W; Black, Katherine J; Lee, Robert W; Wilking, James N; Graham, Adam C; Bell, David C; McGowan, Francis X


    Self-assembling, concentrated, lipid-based oxygen microparticles (LOMs) have been developed to administer oxygen gas when injected intravenously, preventing organ injury and death from systemic hypoxemia in animal models. Distinct from blood substitutes, LOMs are a one-way oxygen carrier designed to rescue patients who experience life-threatening hypoxemia, as caused by airway obstruction or severe lung injury. Here, we describe methods to manufacture large quantities of LOMs using an in-line, recycling, high-shear homogenizer, which can create up to 4 liters of microparticle emulsion in 10 minutes, with particles containing a median diameter of 0.93 microns and 60 volume% of gas phase. Using this process, we screen 30 combinations of commonly used excipients for their ability to form stable LOMs. LOMs composed of DSPC and cholesterol in a 1:1 molar ratio are stable for a 100 day observation period, and the number of particles exceeding 10 microns in diameter does not increase over time. When mixed with blood in vitro, LOMs fully oxygenate blood within 3.95 seconds of contact, and do not cause hemolysis or complement activation. LOMs can be manufactured in bulk by high shear homogenization, and appear to have a stability and size profile which merit further testing. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Simultaneous Monitoring of Vascular Oxygenation and Tissue Oxygen Tension of Breast Tumors Under Hyperbaric Oxygen Exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xia, Mengna


    ... spectroscopy and FOXY oxygen sensor simultaneously. The results show that the fitted tumor blood flow and metabolic rate of oxygen showed different responses between oxygen and carbogen interventions by applying our model...

  19. Glutathione in Cellular Redox Homeostasis: Association with the Excitatory Amino Acid Carrier 1 (EAAC1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Aoyama


    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are by-products of the cellular metabolism of oxygen consumption, produced mainly in the mitochondria. ROS are known to be highly reactive ions or free radicals containing oxygen that impair redox homeostasis and cellular functions, leading to cell death. Under physiological conditions, a variety of antioxidant systems scavenge ROS to maintain the intracellular redox homeostasis and normal cellular functions. This review focuses on the antioxidant system’s roles in maintaining redox homeostasis. Especially, glutathione (GSH is the most important thiol-containing molecule, as it functions as a redox buffer, antioxidant, and enzyme cofactor against oxidative stress. In the brain, dysfunction of GSH synthesis leading to GSH depletion exacerbates oxidative stress, which is linked to a pathogenesis of aging-related neurodegenerative diseases. Excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1 plays a pivotal role in neuronal GSH synthesis. The regulatory mechanism of EAAC1 is also discussed.

  20. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Espinosa-Gongora

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed using the DESeq2 package in R to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs with differential abundance between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. Twenty OTUs were significantly associated to non-carriers, including species with known probiotic potential and antimicrobial effect such as lactic acid-producing isolates described among Leuconostoc spp. and some members of the Lachnospiraceae family, which is known for butyrate production. Further 5 OTUs were significantly associated to carriage, including known pathogenic bacteria such as Pasteurella multocida and Klebsiella spp. Our results show that the nasal microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate these bacteria and assess their possible antagonistic effect on S. aureus for the pursuit of new strategies to control MRSA in pig farming.

  1. Zaria Universal Oxygenator Holder phase I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Adoga Edaigbini


    Full Text Available Introduction: The conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery requires the use of equipment and devices like the oxygenator. The oxygenator comes in different makes and each manufacturer customizes the carrier or ′holder′ of this device specific to their design. Aim: This paper presents an innovation designed to overcome the need to purchase a different holder for every oxygenator thereby cutting the cost. Materials and Methods: A sheet of iron measuring 1.9 cm (width × 0.1 cm (thickness was used to design the holder circular main frame. Another sheet measuring 2 cm (width × 0.6 cm (thickness × 24 cm (length was used to construct a V-shaped handle with the arms of the V attached to the main frame 7 cm apart. At the narrow base of the handle is a latch requiring two 13-gauge screws to attach the holder to the heart-lung machine. Within the circumference of the main frame are four T-shaped side arms which grip the oxygenator; located at 2, 5, 7 and 11 O′clock positions. The stem of the T consist of a 0.6 cm (thickness × 13 cm (length rod drilled through the main frame. The cross of the T consists of variable lengths of the same sheet as the mainframe attached to the stem by a screw mechanism. At the base of the T, is attached a circular handle (4 cm in diameter made of 0.4 cm iron rod. Result: An oxygenator holder which weighs 1.75 kg with a total length of 54 cm (the diameter of the mainframe is 30 cm. Its advantages include (i affordability, (ii materials are locally accessible, (iii versatility (iv reproducibility. The disadvantages include, (i it requires some time to fit, (ii caution is required in fitting the oxygenator to avoid breakage, (iii a spanner is required to lock the latch. Conclusion: The concept of a universal holder is pertinent, especially in resource poor environments to avoid purchasing a new holder whenever the usual oxygenator common to the centre is unavailable. This device is amenable to further modifications to

  2. Performance of Uplink Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus


    Carrier aggregation (CA) has been proposed to aggregate two or more component carriers (CCs) to support a much wider transmission bandwidth for LTE-Advanced systems. With carrier aggregation, it is possible to schedule a user equipment (UE) on multiple component carriers simultaneously. In this p...

  3. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang


    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  4. Carbon: Hydrogen carrier or disappearing skeleton?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, K.P.; Van Wechem, H.M.H.


    The use of liquid hydrocarbons as energy carriers implies the use of carbon as a carrier for hydrogen to facilitate hydrogen transport and storage. The current trend for liquid energy carriers used in the transport sector is to maximize the load of hydrogen on the carbon carrier. The recently developed Shell Middle Distillate Hydrogenation process for the manufacture of high quality diesel from aromatic refinery streams fits this picture. In the future, the hydrogen required to raise the product H/C ratio will be increasingly produced via gasification of large amounts of heavy residues. In the light of the strong preference towards using liquid fuels in the transport sector, the Shell Middle Distillate Synthesis process to convert natural gas into diesel of very high quality is discussed. Finally, a few comments on the use of hydrogen without a carbon carrier are made. Long lead times and the likelihood of producing the 'first' hydrogen from fossil fuel are highlighted. 13 figs., 6 tabs., 5 refs

  5. Carrier transport in layered nanolaminated carbides (United States)

    Konar, Aniruddha; Pandey, Rajan K.; Ethirajan, Tamilmani


    This paper summarizes the ab-initio electronic and phonon band structures and the temperature-dependent carrier transport in layered Ti2AlC. It is found that the cylindrical Fermi surface is the origin of the anisotropic carrier effective mass (infinite effective mass along the c axis), which leads to a strong anisotropic (insulator along the c axis and metallic along the layer) carrier transport in these films. Using electronic and phonon band structure calculations, we have developed an analytical model for the carrier-phonon interaction and the in-plane carrier conductivity originating from the strong inter-valley (s → d) scattering in Ti2AlC. The density functional theory is used to calculate the average deformation potential corresponding to the acoustic phonon vibrations. The calculated deformation potential is in good agreement with the extracted deformation potential from the transport data available in the literature. The extracted deformation potential will be useful for predicting the transport quantities of these metals at elevated temperatures.

  6. Estimating motor carrier management information system crash file underreporting from carrier records : research brief. (United States)


    This study estimated a significant amount of underreporting to the MCMIS crash file by the States, for the carriers who cooperated in the study. For the study carriers, it appears that the MCMIS file contained about 66 percent of their reportable cra...

  7. Estimating Motor Carrier Management Information System Crash File Underreporting from Carrier Records. (United States)


    This FMCSA-sponsored research investigated the claim that motor carriers have a substantial number of crashes in their own records that are not contained in the Motor Carrier Management Information System (MCMIS) crash file. Based on the results of t...

  8. Atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing (United States)

    Linton, Roger C.; Reynolds, John M.


    The passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment A0034, Atomic Oxygen Simulated Outgassing, consisted of two identical one-sixth tray modules, exposing selected thermal control coatings to atomic oxygen and the combined space environment on the leading edge and, for reference, to the relative wake environment on the trailing edge. Optical mirrors were included adjacent to the thermal coatings for deposition of outgassing products. Ultraviolet grade windows and metal covers were provided for additional assessment of the effects of the various environmental factors. Preliminary results indicate that orbital atomic oxygen is both a degrading and a optically restorative factor in the thermo-optical properties of selected thermal coatings. There is evidence of more severe optical degradation on collector mirrors adjacent to coatings that were exposed to the RAM-impinging atomic oxygen. This evidence of atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing is discussed in relation to alternative factors that could affect degradation. The general effects of the space environment on the experiment hardware as well as the specimens are discussed.

  9. Selective formation of apical oxygen vacancies in La2 -xSrxCuO4 (United States)

    Kim, Gideok; Christiani, Georg; Logvenov, Gennady; Choi, Sungkyun; Kim, Hun-Ho; Minola, M.; Keimer, B.


    The superconducting properties of high-Tc materials are functions of the concentration of charge carriers, which is controlled by the concentration of defects including heterovalent cations, interstitial oxygen ions, and oxygen vacancies. Here we combine low-temperature thermal treatment of La2 -xSrxCuO4 epitaxial thin films and confocal Raman spectroscopy to control and investigate oxygen vacancies. We demonstrate that the apical site is the most favorable position to accommodate oxygen vacancies under low-temperature annealing conditions. Additionally we show that in high-quality films of overdoped La2 -xSrxCuO4 , oxygen vacancies strongly deform the oxygen environment around the copper ions. This observation is consistent with previous defect-chemical studies, and calls for further investigation of the defect-induced properties in the overdoped regime of the hole-doped lanthanum cuprates.

  10. Molecular Evolution of the Oxygen-Binding Hemerythrin Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alvarez-Carreño

    Full Text Available The evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis during Precambrian times entailed the diversification of strategies minimizing reactive oxygen species-associated damage. Four families of oxygen-carrier proteins (hemoglobin, hemerythrin and the two non-homologous families of arthropodan and molluscan hemocyanins are known to have evolved independently the capacity to bind oxygen reversibly, providing cells with strategies to cope with the evolutionary pressure of oxygen accumulation. Oxygen-binding hemerythrin was first studied in marine invertebrates but further research has made it clear that it is present in the three domains of life, strongly suggesting that its origin predated the emergence of eukaryotes.Oxygen-binding hemerythrins are a monophyletic sub-group of the hemerythrin/HHE (histidine, histidine, glutamic acid cation-binding domain. Oxygen-binding hemerythrin homologs were unambiguously identified in 367/2236 bacterial, 21/150 archaeal and 4/135 eukaryotic genomes. Overall, oxygen-binding hemerythrin homologues were found in the same proportion as single-domain and as long protein sequences. The associated functions of protein domains in long hemerythrin sequences can be classified in three major groups: signal transduction, phosphorelay response regulation, and protein binding. This suggests that in many organisms the reversible oxygen-binding capacity was incorporated in signaling pathways. A maximum-likelihood tree of oxygen-binding hemerythrin homologues revealed a complex evolutionary history in which lateral gene transfer, duplications and gene losses appear to have played an important role.Hemerythrin is an ancient protein domain with a complex evolutionary history. The distinctive iron-binding coordination site of oxygen-binding hemerythrins evolved first in prokaryotes, very likely prior to the divergence of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, and spread into many bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic species. The later evolution of the

  11. Natural carriers in bioremediation: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dzionek


    Full Text Available Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater or soil is currently the cheapest and the least harmful method of removing xenobiotics from the environment. Immobilization of microorganisms capable of degrading specific contaminants significantly promotes bioremediation processes, reduces their costs, and also allows for the multiple use of biocatalysts. Among the developed methods of immobilization, adsorption on the surface is the most common method in bioremediation, due to the simplicity of the procedure and its non-toxicity. The choice of carrier is an essential element for successful bioremediation. It is also important to consider the type of process (in situ or ex situ, type of pollution, and properties of immobilized microorganisms. For these reasons, the article summarizes recent scientific reports about the use of natural carriers in bioremediation, including efficiency, the impact of the carrier on microorganisms and contamination, and the nature of the conducted research.

  12. Hiding secret data into a carrier image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu COSMA


    Full Text Available The object of steganography is embedding hidden information in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio, or video. There are several known methods of solving this problem, which operate either in the space domain or in the frequency domain, and are distinguished by the following characteristics: payload, robustness and strength. The payload is the amount of secret data that can be embedded in the carrier without inducing suspicious artefacts, robustness indicates the degree in which the secret data is affected by the normal processing of the carrier e.g., compression, and the strength indicate how easy the presence of hidden data can be detected by steganalysis techniques. This paper presents a new method of hiding secret data into a digital image compressed by a technique based on the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT [2] and the Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT subband coding algorithm [6]. The proposed method admits huge payloads and has considerable strength.

  13. Development of radioisotope labeled polymeric carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Jeong, Jea Min; Hwang, Hyun Jeong [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea)


    This research was performed with the aim of developing polymeric radioisotope or drug carriers for obtaining efficient diagnostic therapeutic efficacy. As polymers, polyethylene oxides, polylactides, polycaprolactone were chosen to prepare the devices including micelle system, microemulsion, nanospheres. In addition, anticancer drug loaded polylactide microparticulates were fabricated as a regional chemotherapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Technetium or radioactive iodine was labeled to the polymeric carriers via ligands such as DTPA and HPP, respectively. Labeling efficiency was above 90% and stable enough up to 24 hours. Moreover, injected polymer carriers demonstrated higher blood maintenance and bone uptake than Tin colloid, a control. These results suggested that radioisotope carrying polymeric particulate are promising tools for diagnosing blood vessels or bones. Besides, anticancer drug loaded particulates demonstrated appropriate maintenance of therapeutic concentration and localization. Therefore it was proposed that this therapeutic system may be potential as a cancer therapy modality. 20 refs., 24 figs.,5 tabs. (Author)

  14. Oxygen therapy reduces postoperative tachycardia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stausholm, K; Kehlet, H; Rosenberg, J


    Concomitant hypoxaemia and tachycardia in the postoperative period is unfavourable for the myocardium. Since hypoxaemia per se may be involved in the pathogenesis of postoperative tachycardia, we have studied the effect of oxygen therapy on tachycardia in 12 patients randomly allocated to blinded...... air or oxygen by facemask on the second or third day after major surgery. Inclusion criteria were arterial hypoxaemia (oxygen saturation 90 beat.min-1). Each patient responded similarly to oxygen therapy: an increase in arterial oxygen saturation and a decrease...... in heart rate (p oxygen has a positive effect on the cardiac oxygen delivery and demand balance....

  15. Oxygen Reduction on Platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesselberger, Markus

    This thesis investigates the electro reduction of oxygen on platinum nanoparticles, which serve as catalyst in low temperature fuel cells. Kinetic studies on model catalysts as well as commercially used systems are presented in order to investigate the particle size effect, the particle proximity...... effect and anion adsorption on the performance of Pt based electrocatalysts. The anion adsorption is additionally studied by in situ electrochemical infrared spectroscopy during the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). For this purpose an in situ FTIR setup in attenuated total refection (ATR) configuration....... The influence of the ion adsorption strength, which is observed in the “particle size studies” on the oxygen reduction rate on Pt/C catalysts, is further investigated under similar reaction conditions by infrared spectroscopy. The designed in situ electrochemical ATR-FTIR setup features a high level...

  16. Adsorption interaction of carrier-free thallium species with gold and quartz surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serov, A.; Eichler, R.; Tuerler, A.; Wittwer, D.; Gaeggeler, H.W.; Bern Univ.; Dressler, R.; Piquet, D.; Voegele, A.


    The adsorption interactions of thallium and its compounds with gold and quartz surfaces were investigated. Carrier-free amounts of thallium were produced in nuclear fusion reactions of alpha particles with thick gold targets. The method chosen for the studies was gas thermochromatography and varying the redox potential of the carrier gases. It was observed that thallium is extremely sensitive to trace amounts of oxygen and water, and can even be oxidized by the hydroxyl groups located on the quartz surface. The experiments on a quartz surface with O 2 , He, H 2 gas in addition with water revealed the formation and deposition of only one thallium species - TlOH. The adsorption enthalpy was determined to be Δ H ads SiO 2 (TlOH) = -134 ± 5 kJ mol -1 . A series of experiments using gold as stationary surface and different carrier gases resulted in the detection of two thallium species - metallic Tl (H 2 as carrier gas) and TlOH (O 2 , O 2 + H 2 O and H 2 + H 2 O as pure carrier gas or carrier gas mixture) with Δ H Au ads (Tl) = -270 ± 10 kJ mol -1 and Δ H Au ads (TlOH) = -146 ± 3 kJ mol -1 . These data demonstrate a weak interaction of TlOH with both quartz and gold surfaces. The data represent important information for the design of future experiments with the heavier homologue of Tl in group 13 of the periodic table - element 113 (E113). (orig.)

  17. Hyperbaric oxygen and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.; Hamilton-Farrell, M.R.; Kleij, A.J. van der


    Background: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is the inhalation of 100% oxygen at a pressure of at least 1.5 atmospheres absolute (150 kPa). It uses oxygen as a drug by dissolving it in the plasma and delivering it to the tissues independent of hemoglobin. For a variety of organ systems, HBO is known to promote new vessel growth into areas with reduced oxygen tension due to poor vascularity, and therewith promotes wound healing and recovery of radiation-injured tissue. Furthermore, tumors may be sensitized to irradiation by raising intratumoral oxygen tensions. Methods: A network of hyperbaric facilities exists in Europe, and a number of clinical studies are ongoing. The intergovernmental framework COST B14 action 'Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy' started in 1999. The main goal of the Working Group Oncology is preparation and actual implementation of prospective study protocols in the field of HBO and radiation oncology in Europe. Results: In this paper a short overview on HBO is given and the following randomized clinical studies are presented: (a) reirradiation of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck after HBO sensitization; (b) role of HBO in enhancing radiosensitivity on glioblastoma multiforme; (c) osseointegration in irradiated patients; adjunctive HBO to prevent implant failures; (d) the role of HBO in the treatment of late irradiation sequelae in the pelvic region. The two radiosensitization protocols (a, b) allow a time interval between HBO and subsequent irradiation of 10-20 min. Conclusion: Recruitment of centers and patients is being strongly encouraged, detailed information is given on (orig.)

  18. Electrical property studies of oxygen in Czochralski-grown neutron-transmutation-doped silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, J.W.; Fukuoka, N.


    Electically active oxygen-related donors can be formed in Czochralski (Cz) Si either during crystal growth or during subsequent heat treatment; conventional n- or p-type dopant carrier concentrations are altered if these oxygen donors are present. Neutron transmutation doping (NTD) has been used to introduce a uniform concentration of 31 P in Si. However, oxygen donors can also be formed in NTD Cz Si during the process of annealing to remove NTD radiation damage. In the present experiments, the carrier concentration of Cz and NTD Cz Si samples was determined as a function of the initial dopant, oxygen, and 31 P concentration before and after isothermal or isochronal annealing. It is shown that low temperature (350 to 500 0 C) heat treatment can introduce a significant oxygen donor concentration in Cz Si and in NTD Cz Si that contains radiation-induced lattice defects. Intermediate temperature (550 to 750 0 C) heat treatment, which is intended to remove oxygen donors or lattice defects, can introduce other oxygen donors; annealing above 750 0 C is required to remove any of these oxygen donors. Extended (20 h) high-temperature (1000 to 1200 0 C) annealing can remove oxygen donors and lattice defects, but a significant concentration of oxygen donors can still be introduced by subsequent low temperature heat treatment. These results suggest that oxygen-related donor formation in NTD Cz Si at temperatures below 750 0 C may serve to mask any annealing study of lattice defects. It is concluded that annealing for 30 min at 750 0 C is sufficient to remove radiation damage in NTD Cz Si when the separate effects of oxygen donor formation are included

  19. Cerebral oxygenation after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Trine W; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm


    AIM: To compare absolute values of regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (cStO2 ) during haemodynamic transition after birth and repeatability during steady state for two commercial near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, the INVOS 5100C and FORE......: The INVOS and FORE-SIGHT cStO2 estimates showed oxygenation-level-dependent difference during birth transition. The better repeatability of FORE-SIGHT could be due to the lower response to change in saturation....

  20. Hot-carrier effects in MOS devices

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Eiji; Miura-Hamada, Akemi


    The exploding number of uses for ultrafast, ultrasmall integrated circuits has increased the importance of hot-carrier effects in manufacturing as well as for other technological applications. They are rapidly movingout of the research lab and into the real world.This book is derived from Dr. Takedas book in Japanese, Hot-Carrier Effects, (published in 1987 by Nikkei Business Publishers). However, the new book is much more than a translation. Takedas original work was a starting point for developing this much more complete and fundamental text on this increasingly important topic. The new work

  1. Effective Charge Carrier Utilization in Photocatalytic Conversions. (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Chang, Xiaoxia; Gong, Jinlong


    Continuous efforts have been devoted to searching for sustainable energy resources to alleviate the upcoming energy crises. Among various types of new energy resources, solar energy has been considered as one of the most promising choices, since it is clean, sustainable, and safe. Moreover, solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy, with a total power of 173 000 terawatts striking Earth continuously. Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, which could potentially provide continuous and flexible energy supplies, has been investigated extensively. However, the conversion efficiency is still relatively low since complicated physical, electrical, and chemical processes are involved. Therefore, carefully designed photocatalysts with a wide absorption range of solar illumination, a high conductivity for charge carriers, a small number of recombination centers, and fast surface reaction kinetics are required to achieve a high activity. This Account describes our recent efforts to enhance the utilization of charge carriers for semiconductor photocatalysts toward efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion. During photocatalytic reactions, photogenerated electrons and holes are involved in complex processes to convert solar energy into chemical energy. The initial step is the generation of charge carriers in semiconductor photocatalysts, which could be enhanced by extending the light absorption range. Integration of plasmonic materials and introduction of self-dopants have been proved to be effective methods to improve the light absorption ability of photocatalysts to produce larger amounts of photogenerated charge carriers. Subsequently, the photogenerated electrons and holes migrate to the surface. Therefore, acceleration of the transport process can result in enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency. Different strategies such as morphology control and conductivity improvement have been demonstrated to achieve this goal. Fine-tuning of the

  2. Viruses - from pathogens to vaccine carriers. (United States)

    Small, Juliana C; Ertl, Hildegund C J


    Vaccination is mankind's greatest public health success story. By now vaccines to many of the viruses that once caused fatal childhood diseases are routinely used throughout the world. Traditional methods of vaccine development through inactivation or attenuation of viruses have failed for some of the most deadly human pathogens, necessitating new approaches. Genetic modification of viruses not only allows for their attenuation but also for incorporation of sequences from other viruses, turning one pathogen into a vaccine carrier for another. Recombinant viruses have pros and cons as vaccine carriers, as discussed below using vectors based on adenovirus, herpesvirus, flavivirus, and rhabdovirus as examples.

  3. Low overhead slipless carrier phase estimation scheme. (United States)

    Cheng, Haiquan; Li, Yan; Kong, Deming; Zang, Jizhao; Wu, Jian; Lin, Jintong


    Two slipless schemes are compared with application to single carrier 30 Gbaud quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) system. An equivalent linewidth model considering the phase noise induced by both the laser linewidth and fiber nonlinearity is applied in the performance analysis. The simulation results show that it is possible to mitigate cycle slip (CS) using only 0.39% pilot overhead for the proposed blind carrier phase recovery (CPR) + pilot-symbols-aided phase unwrapping (PAPU) scheme within 1 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) penalty limit at the bit error ratio (BER) of 10(-3) with 4 MHz equivalent linewidth.


    Finzel, T.G.


    An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process for recovering plutonium is described. It has been found that a more granular and more easily filterable carrier precipitiite is formed if the addition of the bismuth and phosphate ions is effected by first adding 9/10 of the bismuth ions necessary, then slowly adding all of the source of the phosphate ions to be incorporated in the precipitate, while digesting at 75 C and afterwards incorporating the remainder of the total bismuth ions necessary





    Oxygen additions are a common practice in winemaking, as oxygen has a positive effect in fermentative kinetics, biomass synthesis and improvement of color, structure and :flavor in treated wines. However, most oxygen additions are carried out heuristically through pump-over operations solely on a know-how basis, which is difficult to manage in terms of the exact quantity of oxygen transferred to the fermenting must. It is important to estímate the amount of oxygen added because...

  6. Line broadening caused by Coulomb carrier-carrier correlations and dynamics of carrier capture and emission in quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander V; Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Tromborg, Bjarne


    Mechanisms of pure dephasing in quantum dots due to Coulomb correlations and the dynamics of carrier capture and emission are suggested, and a phenomenological model for the dephasing is developed. It is shown that, if the rates of these capture and emission processes are sufficiently high, signi...

  7. The Oxygen Cycle. (United States)

    Swant, Gary D.

    Produced for primary grades, this booklet provides study of the oxygen-carbon dioxide cycle in nature. Line drawings, a minimum amount of narrative, and a glossary of terms make up its content. The booklet is designed to be used as reading material, a coloring book, or for dramatic arts with students acting out parts of the cycle. This work was…

  8. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T


    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta...

  9. Reactive Oxygen Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franchina, Davide G.; Dostert, Catherine; Brenner, Dirk


    oxygen species (ROS), which have long been known to trigger cell death. However, there is now evidence that ROS also act as intracellular signaling molecules both in steady-state and upon antigen recognition. The levels and localization of ROS contribute to the redox modeling of effector proteins...

  10. Central oxygen pipeline failure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2.8–6 bar). Dräger Savina®. Generates compressed air with a blower unit. It is able to ventilate without any connection to medical compressed air. If compressed, oxygen is used, whether from a wall socket or cylinder. A precise concentration is.

  11. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being employed in South African intensive care units for the management of patients with refractory hypoxaemia and for haemodynamic support, particularly following cardiothoracic procedures. ECMO is expensive, however, and there is a danger that this ...

  12. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T


    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta block...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana


    In the present quarter, the possibility of using a more complex interfacial engineering approach to the development of reliable and stable oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes/metal seals is discussed. Experiments are presented and ceramic/metal interactions are characterized. Crack growth and fracture toughness of the membrane in the reducing conditions are also discussed. Future work regarding this approach is proposed are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

  14. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony


    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  15. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang


    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  16. Oxygen diffusion in monazite (United States)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Nakamura, M.; Watson, E. B.


    We report measurements of oxygen diffusion in natural monazites under both dry, 1-atm conditions and hydrothermal conditions. For dry experiments, 18O-enriched CePO4 powder and monazite crystals were sealed in Ag-Pd capsules with a solid buffer (to buffer at NNO) and annealed in 1-atm furnaces. Hydrothermal runs were conducted in cold-seal pressure vessels, where monazite grains were encapsulated with 18O-enriched water. Following the diffusion anneals, oxygen concentration profiles were measured with Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) using the reaction 18O(p,α)15N. Over the temperature range 850-1100 °C, the Arrhenius relation determined for dry diffusion experiments on monazite is given by: Under wet conditions at 100 MPa water pressure, over the temperature range 700-880 °C, oxygen diffusion can be described by the Arrhenius relationship: Oxygen diffusion under hydrothermal conditions has a significantly lower activation energy for diffusion than under dry conditions, as has been found the case for many other minerals, both silicate and nonsilicate. Given these differences in activation energies, the differences between dry and wet diffusion rates increase with lower temperatures; for example, at 600 °C, dry diffusion will be more than 4 orders of magnitude slower than diffusion under hydrothermal conditions. These disparate diffusivities will result in pronounced differences in the degree of retentivity of oxygen isotope signatures. For instance, under dry conditions (presumably rare in the crust) and high lower-crustal temperatures (∼800 °C), monazite cores of 70-μm radii will preserve O isotope ratios for about 500,000 years; by comparison, they would be retained at this temperature under wet conditions for about 15,000 years.

  17. Food proteins as potential carriers for phenolics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohin, M.C.


    The development of phenolic-rich functional foods is often limited by the off-tastes of phenolics that might be counteracted by sequestering these compounds using a carrier, thereby preventing them to interact with bitter taste receptors and salivary proteins. A range of common animal food proteins


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    A new synthetic functionalized antigen carrier is described. It consists of a core of seven branched lysine residues, of which each of the four N-terminal lysine residues contains two N-(S-acetylmercaptoacetyl)-glutamyl residues. After removal of the protecting S-acetyl groups affording eight thiol

  19. Nuclear Submarines and Aircraft Carriers | Radiation ... (United States)


    Nuclear submarines and aircraft carriers are powered by onboard nuclear reactors. Heat from the nuclear reaction makes the steam needed to power the submarine. When a nuclear vessel is taken out of service, its radioactive parts are disposed of and monitored.

  20. Air Carrier Industry Scheduled Service Traffic Stats. (United States)


    Effective October 2002, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) modified the T-100/T-100(f) Traffic Reporting System to remove the distinction between large and small aircraft. All U.S. certificated and commuter air carriers and all foreign air c...

  1. Physicochemical properties of nanostructured lipid carriers as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The melting point depression of NLC80 was 5.71°C below bulk lipid's melting point (61.56°C), while NLC20 exhibited two melting points at 54.80 and 59.10°C. ... Key words: Nanostructured lipid carriers, colloidal delivery system, polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, highpressure homogenization, physicochemical properties.

  2. Polyamidoamines as Drug Carriers: Synthesis of Polymers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The versatile polymerization of bisacrylamides with mono- and difunctional amines, first investigated and greatly expanded in. Ferruti's laboratory,1–3 is utilized in the present project for the synthesis of macromolecular drug carriers. Specifically, we report on the preparation of linear polyamidoamines possessing primary ...

  3. Defined carriers for synthetic antigens: Hinge Peptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Jan; Niederhafner, Petr; Gut, Vladimír; Hulačová, Hana; Maloň, Petr


    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2005), s. 68 ISSN 0939-4451. [International Congress on Amino Acids and Proteins /9./. 08.08.2005-12.08.2005, Gert Lubec] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/03/1362 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : synthetic carrier * antigen * hinge peptide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  4. European regulatory framework for person carrier robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fosch Villaronga, E.; Roig, A.

    The aim of this paper is to establish the grounds for a future regulatory framework for Person Carrier Robots, which includes legal and ethical aspects. Current industrial standards focus on physical human–robot interaction, i.e. on the prevention of harm. Current robot technology nonetheless

  5. Probing ultrafast carrier dynamics, nonlinear absorption and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigate the relaxation dynamics of photogenerated carriers in silicon nanowires consisting of a crystalline core and a surrounding amorphous shell, using femtosecond time resolved differential reflectivity and transmission spectroscopy at 3.15 eV and 1.57 eV photon energies. The complex behaviour of the ...

  6. A new lubricant carrier for metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Bay, Niels; Tang, Peter Torben


    A lubricant carrier for metal forming processes is developed. Surfaces with pores of micrometer size for entrapping lubricant are generated by electrochemical deposition of an alloy, consisting of two immiscible metals, of which one metal subsequently is etched away leaving 5 mu m layers with a s...... extrusion at high reduction and excessive stroke comparing with conventionally lubrication using phosphate coating and soap....

  7. Towards 100 gigabit carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao


    Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and TMPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport technol...

  8. Different nanocrystal systems for carrier multiplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, X.C.


    Carrier multiplication is an important process which can enhance the efficiency of photovoltaic and electronic devices. To investigate this process, diverse experimental setups can be used; the thesis considers some particular artifacts which negatively impact the accuracy of the measurements, and

  9. Spectroscopy of carrier multiplication in nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruhn, B.; Limpens, R.; Chung, N.X.; Schall, P.; Gregorkiewicz, T.


    Carrier multiplication in nanostructures promises great improvements in a number of widely used technologies, among others photodetectors and solar cells. The decade since its discovery was ridden with fierce discussions about its true existence, magnitude, and mechanism. Here, we introduce a novel,

  10. Probing ultrafast carrier dynamics, nonlinear absorption and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 471–481. Probing ultrafast carrier dynamics, nonlinear absorption and refraction in core–shell silicon nanowires. SUNIL KUMAR1,∗, M KHORASANINEJAD2, M M ADACHI2,. K S KARIM2, S S SAINI2 and A K SOOD1. 1Department of Physics and Centre for Ultrafast Laser Applications, Indian Institute of Science,.

  11. Pulverized fuel-oxygen burner (United States)

    Taylor, Curtis; Patterson, Brad; Perdue, Jayson


    A burner assembly combines oxygen and fuel to produce a flame. The burner assembly includes an oxygen supply tube adapted to receive a stream of oxygen and a solid fuel conduit arranged to extend through the oxygen tube to convey a stream of fluidized, pulverized, solid fuel into a flame chamber. Oxygen flowing through the oxygen supply tube passes generally tangentially through a first set of oxygen-injection holes formed in the solid fuel conduit and off-tangentially from a second set of oxygen-injection holes formed in the solid fuel conduit and then mixes with fluidized, pulverized, solid fuel passing through the solid fuel conduit to create an oxygen-fuel mixture in a downstream portion of the solid fuel conduit. This mixture is discharged into a flame chamber and ignited in the flame chamber to produce a flame.

  12. Controlled safety study of a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier, DCLHb, in acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Saxena (Ruchi); A.D. Wijnhoud (Annemarie); H. Carton; W. Hacke (Werner); M. Kaste; R.J. Przybelski; K.N. Stern; P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan)


    textabstractBACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) is a purified, cell-free human hemoglobin solution. In animal stroke models its use led to a significant reduction in the extent of brain injury. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of DCLHb in

  13. Polymer/hemoglobin assemblies: biodegradable oxygen carriers for artificial red blood cells. (United States)

    Li, Taihang; Jing, Xiabin; Huang, Yubin


    In routine clinical procedures, blood transfusion is now suffering from the defects of the blood products, like cross-matching, short storage time and virus infection. Various blood substitutes have been designed by researchers through continual efforts. With recent progress in nanotechnology, new types of artificial red blood cells with cellular structure are available. This article aims to describe some artificial red blood cells which encapsulate or conjugate hemoglobin molecules through various approaches, especially the nanoscale self-assembly technique, to mitigate the adverse effects of free hemoglobin molecules. These types of artificial red blood cell systems, which make use of biodegradable polymers as matrix materials, show advantages over the traditional types. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Feasibility study of sulfates as oxygen carriers for chemical looping processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Kale


    Full Text Available The operational feasibility temperature range of chemical looping combustion (CLC and chemical looping reforming (CLR of the fuels methane, propane, iso-octane and ethanol was explored using the common sulphates

  15. Recombination of charge carriers on radiation-induced defects in silicon doped by transition metals impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Kazakevich, L A


    It has been studied the peculiarities of recombination of nonequilibrium charge carriers on radiation-induced defects in received according to Czochralski method p-silicon (p approx 3 - 20 Ohm centre dot cm), doped by one of the impurities of transition metals of the IV-th group of periodic table (titanium, zirconium, hafnium). Experimental results are obtained out of the analysis of temperature and injection dependence of the life time of charge carriers. The results are explained taking into consideration the influences of elastic stress fields created by the aggregates of transition metals atoms on space distribution over the crystal of oxygen and carbon background impurities as well as on the migration of movable radiation-induced defects during irradiation. (authors).

  16. Marine tumor vaccine carriers: structure of the molluscan hemocyanins KLH and htH. (United States)

    Markl, J; Lieb, B; Gebauer, W; Altenhein, B; Meissner, U; Harris, J R


    Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) is a well-established immune stimulant and hapten carrier, and Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin (HtH) is a related product. Biologically, KLH and HtH are blue copper proteins which serve as oxygen carriers in the blood of the keyhole limpet Megathura crenulata and the abalone H. tuberculata, respectively, two marine gastropods. Both hemocyanins occur as two distinct isoforms, termed KLH1 KLH2, HtH1, and HtH2. Each of these molecules is based on a very large polypeptide chain, the subunit (molecular mass ca 400 kDa), which is folded into a series of eight globular functional units (molecular mass ca 50 kDa each). Twenty copies of this subunit form a cylindrical quaternary structure (molecular mass ca 8 MDa). This article reviews the recent data on the biosynthesis, quaternary structure, subunit architecture, amino acid sequence, gene structure, and recombinant production of KLH and HtH.

  17. Oxygen Diffusion in Titanite (United States)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.


    Oxygen diffusion in natural and synthetic single-crystal titanite was characterized under both dry and water-present conditions. For the dry experiments, pre-polished titanite samples were packed in 18O-enriched quartz powder inside Ag-Pd capsules, along with an FMQ buffer assemblage maintained physically separate by Ag-Pd strips. The sealed Ag-Pd capsules were themselves sealed inside evacuated silica glass tubes and run at 700-1050° C and atmospheric pressure for durations ranging from 1 hour to several weeks. The hydrothermal experiments were conducted by encapsulating polished titanite crystals with 18O enriched water and running them at 700-900° C and 10-160MPa in standard cold-seal pressure vessels for durations of 1 day to several weeks. Diffusive uptake profiles of 18O were measured in all cases by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) using the 18O (p,α ) 15N reaction. For the experiments on natural crystals, under both dry and hydrothermal conditions, two mechanisms could be recognized responsible for oxygen diffusion. The diffusion profiles showed two segments: a steep one close to the initial surface attributed to self-diffusion in the titanite lattice; and a "tail" reaching deeper into the sample attributable to diffusion in a "fast path" such as sub-grain boundaries or dislocations. For the dry experiments, the following Arrhenius relation was obtained: D{dry lattice} = 2.6×10-8exp (-275 kJmol-1/RT) m2/s Under wet conditions at PH2O = 100MPa, Oxygen diffusion conforms to the following Arrehenius relation: D{wet lattice} = 9.7× 10-13exp (-174 kJmol-1/RT) m2/s Oxygen diffusivity shows only a slight dependence on water pressure at the following conditions we explored: temperatures 800° C, PH2O = 10-160MPa, and 880° C, PH2O =10-100MPa. For diffusive anisotropy, we explored it only at hydrothermal conditions, and no diffusive anisotropy was observed. Like many other silicates, titanite shows lower activation energy for oxygen diffusion in the presence of

  18. Closed Loop Control of Oxygen Delivery and Oxygen Generation (United States)


    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0024 Closed Loop Control of Oxygen Delivery and Oxygen Generation Dr. Jay Johannigman1, Richard Branson1...for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Closed Loop Control of Oxygen Delivery and Oxygen Generation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-10-2-6140 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  19. High temperature thermoelectric properties of strontium titanate thin films with oxygen vacancy and niobium doping

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.


    We report the evolution of high temperature thermoelectric properties of SrTiO3 thin films doped with Nb and oxygen vacancies. Structure-property relations in this important thermoelectric oxide are elucidated and the variation of transport properties with dopant concentrations is discussed. Oxygen vacancies are incorporated during growth or annealing in Ar/H2 above 800 K. An increase in lattice constant due to the inclusion of Nb and oxygen vacancies is found to result in an increase in carrier density and electrical conductivity with simultaneous decrease in carrier effective mass and Seebeck coefficient. The lattice thermal conductivity at 300 K is found to be 2.22 W m-1 K-1, and the estimated figure of merit is 0.29 at 1000 K. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  20. Laser energy tuning of carrier effective mass and thermopower in epitaxial oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.


    The effect of the laser fluence on high temperature thermoelectric properties of the La doped SrTiO3 (SLTO) thin films epitaxially grown on LaAlO3 〈100〉 substrates by pulsed laser deposition is clarified. It is shown that oxygen vacancies that influence the effective mass of carriers in SLTO films can be tuned by varying the laser energy. The highest power factor of 0.433 W K−1 m−1 has been achieved at 636 K for a filmdeposited using the highest laser fluence of 7 J cm−2 pulse−1.

  1. Agricultural Commodity and Utility Carriers Hours of Service Exemption Analysis. (United States)


    The study was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 compares the safety performance of agricultural and non-agricultural carriers for the period 2005 through 2008, and also examines two additional industries: livestock and utility carriers, whose operatio...

  2. 76 FR 6688 - Land Border Carrier Initiative Program (United States)


    ... 142 Administrative Practice and Procedure, Canada, Computer technology (Line release), Common carriers... industry partnership program under which participating land and rail commercial carriers would agree to... smuggled into the United States. Because CBP has developed a more comprehensive voluntary industry...

  3. A new technique for measurement of carrier thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study, K.T.


    Manufacturers of thallium-201 use the Rhodamine-B spot test for detection of ''carrier'' or elemental thallium. A more exacting and simpler quantitative technique for measuring carrier thallium is described and this spectrophotofluorometric technique takes advantage of thallium's fluorescence

  4. Self-Monitoring Artificial Red Cells with Sufficient Oxygen Supply for Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy (United States)

    Luo, Zhenyu; Zheng, Mingbin; Zhao, Pengfei; Chen, Ze; Siu, Fungming; Gong, Ping; Gao, Guanhui; Sheng, Zonghai; Zheng, Cuifang; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao


    Photodynamic therapy has been increasingly applied in clinical cancer treatments. However, native hypoxic tumoural microenvironment and lacking oxygen supply are the major barriers hindering photodynamic reactions. To solve this problem, we have developed biomimetic artificial red cells by loading complexes of oxygen-carrier (hemoglobin) and photosensitizer (indocyanine green) for boosted photodynamic strategy. Such nanosystem provides a coupling structure with stable self-oxygen supply and acting as an ideal fluorescent/photoacoustic imaging probe, dynamically monitoring the nanoparticle biodistribution and the treatment of PDT. Upon exposure to near-infrared laser, the remote-triggered photosensitizer generates massive cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) with sufficient oxygen supply. Importantly, hemoglobin is simultaneously oxidized into the more active and resident ferryl-hemoglobin leading to persistent cytotoxicity. ROS and ferryl-hemoglobin synergistically trigger the oxidative damage of xenograft tumour resulting in complete suppression. The artificial red cells with self-monitoring and boosted photodynamic efficacy could serve as a versatile theranostic platform.

  5. Oxygen Sorption and Desorption Properties of Selected Lanthanum Manganites and Lanthanum Ferrite Manganites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Skou, Eivind M.; Jacobsen, Torben


    Temperature‐programmed desorption (TPD) with a carrier gas was used to study the oxygen sorption and desorption properties of oxidation catalysts and solid‐oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode materials (La0.85Sr0.15)0.95MnO3+δ (LSM) and La0.60Sr0.40Fe0.80Mn0.20O3‐δ (LSFM). The powders were characterized...... by X‐ray diffractometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and BET surface adsorption. Sorbed oxygen could be distinguished from oxygen originating from stoichiometry changes. The results indicated that there is one main site for oxygen sorption/desorption. The amount of sorbed oxygen was monitored over...

  6. Hydrogen as fuel carrier in PEM fuelcell for automobile applications (United States)

    Sk, Mudassir Ali; Venkateswara Rao, K.; Ramana Rao, Jagirdar V.


    The present work focuses the application of nanostructured materials for storing of hydrogen in different carbon materials by physisorption method. To market a hydrogen-fuel cell vehicle as competitively as the present internal combustion engine vehicles, there is a need for materials that can store a minimum of 6.5wt% of hydrogen. Carbon materials are being heavily investigated because of their promise to offer an economical solution to the challenge of safe storage of large hydrogen quantities. Hydrogen is important as a new source of energy for automotive applications. It is clear that the key challenge in developing this technology is hydrogen storage. Combustion of fossil fuels and their overuse is at present a serious concern as it is creates severe air pollution and global environmental problems; like global warming, acid rains, ozone depletion in stratosphere etc. This necessitated the search for possible alternative sources of energy. Though there are a number of primary energy sources available, such as thermonuclear energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, geothermal energy etc, in contrast to the fossil fuels in most cases, these new primary energy sources cannot be used directly and thus they must be converted into fuels, that is to say, a new energy carrier is needed. Hydrogen fuel cells are two to three times more efficient than combustion engines. As they become more widely available, they will reduce dependence on fossil fuels. In a fuel cell, hydrogen and oxygen are combined in an electrochemical reaction that produces electricity and, as a byproduct, water.

  7. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and oxygen therapy. (United States)

    Marks, S L


    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and oxygen therapy are often necessary procedures done in veterinary practice. There are variations in CPR technique, especially in cardiac life support. Oxygen therapy can be an important adjunctive therapy in emergency and critical care medicine. The techniques used for oxygen administration differ depending on the medical problem and the animal.

  8. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay


    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the

  9. Advanced carrier systems in cosmetics and cosmeceuticals: a review. (United States)

    Li, Danhui; Wu, Zimei; Martini, Nataly; Wen, Jingyuan


    Carrier systems refer to carrier vesicles such as liposomes, nano/microparticles, emulsions, etc., that are coupled with active agents and applied to products to achieve the promoted effects of the active ingredients. This article reviews the recent research on carrier systems, focusing on cosmetic and cosmeceutical applications; the pros and cons of each carrier system and products on the market utilizing the technologies are discussed.

  10. Superconductivity in carrier-doped silicon carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Muranaka, Yoshitake Kikuchi, Taku Yoshizawa, Naoki Shirakawa and Jun Akimitsu


    Full Text Available We report growth and characterization of heavily boron-doped 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC and Al-doped 3C-SiC. Both 3C-SiC:B and 6H-SiC:B reveal type-I superconductivity with a critical temperature Tc=1.5 K. On the other hand, Al-doped 3C-SiC (3C-SiC:Al shows type-II superconductivity with Tc=1.4 K. Both SiC:Al and SiC:B exhibit zero resistivity and diamagnetic susceptibility below Tc with effective hole-carrier concentration n higher than 1020 cm−3. We interpret the different superconducting behavior in carrier-doped p-type semiconductors SiC:Al, SiC:B, Si:B and C:B in terms of the different ionization energies of their acceptors.

  11. Competitive position of energy carriers in trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suding, P.H.; Forsbach, H.H.

    Industrial consumers and public institutions, which are classed with the group of minor consumers, differ in their behaviour in energy consumption greatly from the structure of the whole group. Also the willingness to convert from fuel oil to natural gas in these trade groups is relatively high. Within the framework of 5 model enterprises, the profitability of energy carriers and economizing technology in trade is analysed. The model enterprises are a bakery, a meat purveyor, a restaurant, a laundry and a hospital. The basic data are compared with the data from 1985. The comparison shows that the competitive positions of energy carriers in business and public in the process heat sector here not changed dramatically. The competitiveness of natural gas has improved since 1985 through the changes in price. However, in the sectors in which it belongs to the group of economical alternatives (e.g. in the bakeries), electricity has not lost much ground. (BR)

  12. Carrier molecules for use in veterinary vaccines. (United States)

    Gerdts, Volker; Mutwiri, George; Richards, James; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia; Potter, Andrew A


    The practice of immunization of animals and humans has been carried out for centuries and is generally accepted as the most cost effective and sustainable method of infectious disease control. Over the past 20 years there have been significant changes in our ability to produce antigens by conventional extraction and purification, recombinant DNA and synthesis. However, many of these products need to be combined with carrier molecules to generate optimal immune responses. This review covers selected topics in the development of carrier technologies for use in the veterinary vaccine field, including glycoconjugate and peptide vaccines, microparticle and nanoparticle formulations, and finally virus-like particles. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recovery of carrier-free gold-195

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iofa, B.Z.; Ivanova, N.A.


    It is known that gold(III) is readily extracted from nitric acid solutions with ethers. The authors have studied extraction of trace amounts of gold(III) from nitric acid solutions with diethyl and diisopropyl ethers in the presence of significant excess of Pt(IV). Distribution coefficients of gold(III) were measured radiometrically using carrier-free gold-195 or spectrophotometrically in the presence of platinum(IV). Very high coefficients of gold separation from platinum may be achieved. Preliminary experiments have shown that zinc-65 was not extracted with ethers from nitric acid solutions. As an extraction system, the authors have chosen the system 10 M HNO 3 -diisopropyl ether. After model experiments, the authors have performed recovery of carrier-free gold-195 from a real platinum target irradiated with protons in a cyclotron


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vlizlo


    Full Text Available The new method for detection of cationic oligoelectrolytes conjugates with oligodeoxyonucleotides, based on free diffusion of these substances in 0.8% agarose gels is developed. It enables to simplify and reduce the cost of visual identification of the best carrier among various polymer compounds and to uncover the fact of complex formation between the interacting agents resulting in formation of a ring precipitation. The universality of the proposed methodological approach is confirmed by interaction of coligodeoxynucleotides with other cationic polymer of natural origin, namely chitosan. Comparative analysis of our approach applicationto turbidimetry data concerning coligodeoxynucleotides complexes and their electrophoresis showed some advantages, among them are the ability to screen simultaneously a large number of polymeric carriers and no need for using of more expensive equipment and materials. To conclude the complexing occurrence it is enough nanomol amounts of oligodeoxynucleotide.

  15. Experimental distribution of entanglement with separable carriers (United States)

    Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Zuppardo, Margherita; Gillett, Geoff; Broome, Matthew; de Almeida, Marcelo; Paternostro, Mauro; White, Andrew; Paterek, Tomasz


    Quantum networks will allow us to overcome distance limitations in quantum communication, and to share quantum computing tasks between remote quantum processors. The key requirement for quantum networking is the distribution of entanglement between nodes. Surprisingly, entanglement can be generated across a network without directly being communicated between nodes. In contrast to information gain, which cannot exceed the communicated information, the entanglement gain is bounded by the communicated quantum discord, a more general measure of quantum correlation that includes but is not limited to entanglement. Here we report an experiment in which two communicating parties who share three initially separable photonic qubits are entangled by exchange of a carrier photon that is not entangled with either party at all times. We show that distributing entanglement with separable carriers is resilient to noise and in some cases becomes the only way of distributing entanglement over noisy environments.

  16. Crack-free yttria stabilized zirconia thin films by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition: Influence of water and carrier gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlupp, M.V.F., E-mail: [Nonmetallic Inorganic Materials, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Binder, S.; Martynczuk, J.; Prestat, M. [Nonmetallic Inorganic Materials, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Gauckler, L.J. [Nonmetallic Inorganic Materials, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)


    Yttria stabilized zirconia thin films are deposited on silicon single crystal substrates by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition from precursor solutions of zirconium and yttrium 2,4-pentanedionate in ethanol. Continuous films are obtained using pure oxygen, pure nitrogen, or mixtures of both as carrier gas. In the simultaneous presence of water and oxygen, crack formation is observed for films deposited at intermediate substrate temperatures (450 Degree-Sign C), while those deposited at low (300 Degree-Sign C) and high (600 Degree-Sign C) temperatures remain crack-free. Crack-free films can be deposited at 450 Degree-Sign C in a water-free setting, or in the presence of water using pure nitrogen as carrier gas. The addition of water to the precursor solutions also significantly reduces film growth rates. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin film deposition by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AA-CVD) Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films deposited between 300 Degree-Sign C and 600 Degree-Sign C Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water decreases growth rates and leads to crack formation in AA-CVD of YSZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crack-free YSZ thin films deposited using oxygen and/or nitrogen as carrier gas Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YSZ thin films deposited by AA-CVD show low shrinkage on annealing at 1000 Degree-Sign C.

  17. Formic Acid as a Hydrogen Energy Carrier

    KAUST Repository

    Eppinger, Jorg


    The high volumetric capacity (S3 g H-2/L) and its low toxicity and flammability under ambient conditions make formic acid a promising hydrogen energy carrier. Particularly, in the past decade, significant advancements have been achieved in catalyst development for selective hydrogen generation from formic acid. This Perspective highlights the advantages of this approach with discussions focused on potential applications in the transportation sector together with analysis of technical requirements, limitations, and costs.

  18. Improvement of AD Biosynthesis Response to Enhanced Oxygen Transfer by Oxygen Vectors in Mycobacterium neoaurum TCCC 11979. (United States)

    Su, Liqiu; Shen, Yanbing; Gao, Tian; Luo, Jianmei; Wang, Min


    In steroid biotransformation, soybean oil can improve the productivity of steroids by increasing substrate solubility and strengthen the cell membrane permeability. However, little is known of its role as oxygen carrier and its mechanism of promoting the steroid biotransformation. In this work, soybean oil used as oxygen vector for the enhancement of androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (AD) production by Mycobacterium neoaurum TCCC 11979 (MNR) was investigated. Upon the addition of 16% (v/v) soybean oil, the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (K L a) value increased by 44%, and the peak molar yield of AD (55.76%) was achieved. Analysis of intracellular cofactor levels showed high NAD + , ATP level, and a low NADH/NAD + ratio. Meanwhile, the two key enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, namely, isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, were upregulated after incubation with soybean oil. These enhancements induced by the increasing of oxygen supply showed positive effects on phytosterol (PS) bioconversion. Results could contribute to the understanding of effects of soybean oil as oxygen vector on steroid biotransformation and provided a convenient method for enhancing the efficiency of aerobic steroid biocatalysis.

  19. A Multi-Carrier Scheduling Algorithm for LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulpe, Alexander; Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Ramjee


    LTE-Advanced aims to provide a transmission bandwidth of 100 MHz by using Carrier Aggregation to aggregate LTE Rel. 8 carriers. In order to increase the system capacity, resource allocation becomes a very good tool, and, in the context of the existence of multiple Component Carriers in LTE-Advanc...

  20. 49 CFR 1150.22 - Exemptions and common carrier status. (United States)


    ... the line itself, it will be considered a common carrier. However, when a State acquires a rail line... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemptions and common carrier status. 1150.22... common carrier status. The acquisition by a State of a fully abandoned line is not subject to the...

  1. 14 CFR 158.69 - Recordkeeping and auditing: Collecting carriers. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recordkeeping and auditing: Collecting carriers. 158.69 Section 158.69 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....69 Recordkeeping and auditing: Collecting carriers. (a) Collecting carriers shall establish and...

  2. 27 CFR 20.201 - Liability and responsibility of carrier. (United States)


    ... Losses § 20.201 Liability and responsibility of carrier. (a) A person or carrier transporting specially... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability and responsibility of carrier. 20.201 Section 20.201 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX...

  3. 27 CFR 22.121 - Liability and responsibility of carriers. (United States)


    ... § 22.121 Liability and responsibility of carriers. (a) A person or carrier transporting tax-free... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability and responsibility of carriers. 22.121 Section 22.121 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX...

  4. Terahertz carrier dynamics in graphene and graphene nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren A.; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Tielrooij, Klaas Jan


    Photoexcited charge carriers in 2D graphene and in 1D graphene nanostructures were studied with optical pump-THz probe spectroscopy. We find efficient hot-carrier multiplication in 2D graphene, and predominantly free carrier early time response in 1D nanostructures. © 2014 OSA....

  5. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND...

  6. 49 CFR 397.67 - Motor carrier responsibility for routing. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carrier responsibility for routing. 397.67 Section 397.67 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS...

  7. Simultaneous Monitoring of Vascular Oxygenation and Tissue Oxygen Tension of Breast Tumors Under Hyperbaric Oxygen Exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xia, Mengna; Liu, Hanli


    Objective/Hypothesis: By monitoring global and local vascular oxygenation and tissue oxygen tension in breast tumors under HBO exposure with several different gas interventions, we wish to prove the following two hypotheses: that 1...

  8. Junction depth measurement using carrier illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borden, Peter


    Carrier Illumination [trade mark] (CI) is a new method recently developed to meet the need for a non-destructive, high throughput junction depth measurement on patterned wafers. A laser beam creates a quasi-static excess carrier profile in the semiconductor underlying the activated junction. The excess carrier profile is fairly constant below the junction, and drops rapidly in the junction, creating a steep index of refraction gradient at the junction edge. Interference with light reflected from this index gradient provides a signal that is analyzed to determine the junction depth. The paper summarizes evaluation of performance in full NMOS and PMOS process flows, on both bare and patterned wafers. The aims have been to validate (1) performance in the presence of underlying layers typically found at the source/drain (S/D) process steps and (2) measurement on patterned wafers. Correlation of CI measurements to SIMS and transistor drive current are shown. The data were obtained from NMOS structures using As S/D and LDD implants. Correlations to SRP, SIMS and sheet resistance are shown for PMOS structures using B 11 LDD implants. Gage capability measurements are also presented

  9. Acoustic manipulation: Bessel beams and active carriers (United States)

    Rajabi, Majid; Mojahed, Alireza


    In this paper, we address the interaction of zero-order acoustic Bessel beams as an acoustic manipulation tool, with an active spherical shell, as a carrier in drug, agent, or material delivery systems, in order to investigate the controllability of exerted acoustic radiation force as the driver. The active body is comprised of a spherical elastic shell stimulated in its monopole mode of vibrations with the same frequency as the incident wave field via an internally bonded and spatially uniformly excited piezoelectric actuator. The main aim of this work is to examine the performance of a nondiffracting and self-reconstructing zero-order Bessel beam to obtain the full manipulability condition of active carriers in comparison with the case of a plane wave field. The results unveil some unique potentials of the Bessel beams in the company of active carriers, with emphasis on the consumed power of the actuation system. This paper will widen the path toward the single-beam robust acoustic manipulation techniques and may lead to the prospect of combined tweezers and fields, with applications in delivery systems, microswimmers, and trapper designs.

  10. Biofilm carrier migration model describes reactor performance. (United States)

    Boltz, Joshua P; Johnson, Bruce R; Takács, Imre; Daigger, Glen T; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Brockmann, Doris; Kovács, Róbert; Calhoun, Jason M; Choubert, Jean-Marc; Derlon, Nicolas


    The accuracy of a biofilm reactor model depends on the extent to which physical system conditions (particularly bulk-liquid hydrodynamics and their influence on biofilm dynamics) deviate from the ideal conditions upon which the model is based. It follows that an improved capacity to model a biofilm reactor does not necessarily rely on an improved biofilm model, but does rely on an improved mathematical description of the biofilm reactor and its components. Existing biofilm reactor models typically include a one-dimensional biofilm model, a process (biokinetic and stoichiometric) model, and a continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) mass balance that [when organizing CFSTRs in series] creates a pseudo two-dimensional (2-D) model of bulk-liquid hydrodynamics approaching plug flow. In such a biofilm reactor model, the user-defined biofilm area is specified for each CFSTR; thereby, X carrier does not exit the boundaries of the CFSTR to which they are assigned or exchange boundaries with other CFSTRs in the series. The error introduced by this pseudo 2-D biofilm reactor modeling approach may adversely affect model results and limit model-user capacity to accurately calibrate a model. This paper presents a new sub-model that describes the migration of X carrier and associated biofilms, and evaluates the impact that X carrier migration and axial dispersion has on simulated system performance. Relevance of the new biofilm reactor model to engineering situations is discussed by applying it to known biofilm reactor types and operational conditions.

  11. Carrier Dynamics in Narrow Gap Ferromagnetic Semiconductors (United States)

    Saha, D.; Pan, X.; Sanders, G. D.; Stanton, C. J.; Bhowmick, M.; Merritt, T.; Khodaparast, G. A.; Feeser, C.; Wessels, B. W.; McGill, S.


    Narrow gap ferromagnetic semiconductors are promising materials for spin photonic and spin transport devices because of their small effective masses, small energy gap, and high carrier mobility. We use time resolved differential transmission (TRDT) experiments to study carrier dynamics in ferromagnetic InMnAs and InMnSb. Electronic structure for InMnAs and InMnSb is calculated using an 8-band Pidgeon-Brown model generalized to include the effects of an external magnetic field. Our model includes the effects of the ferromagnetic Mn ions and their coupling to electrons and holes with or without an external magnetic field. Optical transitions are calculated from Fermi's Golden rule and interband transitions at a given pump or probe laser energy are identified. This allows us to understand a sign change seen in the TRDT. Our results show that 1) Phase-Space Filling, 2) Band Gap Renormalization and 3) Free Carrier Absorption all contribute to the TRDT and that the relative importance of these effects depends on the laser probe energy.

  12. Joint Iterative Carrier Synchronization and Signal Detection for Dual Carrier 448 Gb/s PDM 16-QAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Carvalho, Luis; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel


    Soft decision driven joint carrier synchronization and signal detection, employing expectation maximization, is experimentally demonstrated. Employing soft decisions offers an improvement of 0.5 dB compared to hard decision digital PLL based carrier synchronization and demodulation....

  13. Literature review of the passenger airline business models : Full service carrier, low-cost carrier and charter airlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.


    The deregulation and liberalization of the air transportation industry have developed three main passenger business models: full service carriers, low-cost carriers, and charter airlines. Deregulation removed regulated fares and routes increasing competition and yields. Airlines business models main

  14. Power-generating process of obtaining gas-energy carrier and reducer from coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tleugabulov, S.; Duncheva, E.; Zubkevich, M.


    The manufacture of power-generating gas has the important economic value for Kazakhstan having large territory, raw and fuel resources especially power coal and clean coal wastes. The technology of reception of gas-energy carrier and reducer from power coal is developed. The basic product of technological process is heated reducing gas. Reducing potential of the gas is characterized by a volumetric share of components (CO+H 2 )-RC in relation to volume of whole mix of gases received with gasification of coal. The value of parameter RC is regulated by a degree of enrichment of air by oxygen r 0 , and the temperature - by the charge of a parity of endothermic reaction in the chamber of gas regeneration. The dependence of the gas structure and temperature on the degree of enrichment of air by oxygen is shown and the circuit of the gas generator is given. (author)

  15. Oxygen isotopic fractionation in the condensation of refractory smokes (United States)

    Nelson, R.; Thiemens, M.; Nuth, J.; Donn, B.


    This paper reports preliminary measurements of the oxygen isotopic fractionation that occurs during the condensation of refractory metal oxide smokes. Fractionation occurred at temperatures in excess of 500 K during and/or subsequent to reaction of SiH4, Fe(CO)5, Al(CH3)3, and O2 in a H2 carrier gas. Observed isotopic fractionation was as high as -15 per mil/amu. The magnitude of the isotopic fractionation suggests that the process is kinetically controlled since the effect is greatly in excess of that expected for equilibrium isotopic exchange.

  16. [Medicinal gases: oxygen and heliox]. (United States)

    Rodríguez Núñez, A; Martinón Sánchez, J M; Martinón Torres, F


    All forms of respiratory support involve one essential element: The gas or gas mixture administered to the patient. Oxygen is an indispensable gas for cellular metabolism and is indicated in cases of hypoxia. Oxygen therapy aims to increase the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood by increasing the oxygen concentration of inspired air. In addition to its therapeutic effects, the adverse effects and drawbacks of oxygen should be known. Several methods and devices for the administration of supplementary oxygen are available. Selection of the method should be individualized according to the patient's age and disease, the required inspiratory fraction and the child's possibilities of adaptation. Helium is an inert gas that has a very low specific weight and density. These properties explain its therapeutic effects, mainly in airway obstructions due to various etiologies. Breathing the helium-oxygen mixture (heliox) reduces respiratory effort and improves gas exchange, without significant adverse effects.

  17. Oxygen Reduction on Platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesselberger, Markus

    . The influence of the ion adsorption strength, which is observed in the “particle size studies” on the oxygen reduction rate on Pt/C catalysts, is further investigated under similar reaction conditions by infrared spectroscopy. The designed in situ electrochemical ATR-FTIR setup features a high level...... bands are observed on the Pt/C layer: bands arising from the functional groups of the carbon support, bands related to water and hydronium, and bands related to the sulfur anion interaction with the catalyst. The correlation of the anion absorption to the ORR current leads to the proposition that anion...

  18. Timescales of Oxygenation Following the Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis. (United States)

    Ward, Lewis M; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Fischer, Woodward W


    Among the most important bioenergetic innovations in the history of life was the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis-autotrophic growth by splitting water with sunlight-by Cyanobacteria. It is widely accepted that the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis ultimately resulted in the rise of oxygen by ca. 2.35 Gya, but it is debated whether this occurred more or less immediately as a proximal result of the evolution of oxygenic Cyanobacteria or whether they originated several hundred million to more than one billion years earlier in Earth history. The latter hypothesis involves a prolonged period during which oxygen production rates were insufficient to oxidize the atmosphere, potentially due to redox buffering by reduced species such as higher concentrations of ferrous iron in seawater. To examine the characteristic timescales for environmental oxygenation following the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, we applied a simple mathematical approach that captures many of the salient features of the major biogeochemical fluxes and reservoirs present in Archean and early Paleoproterozoic surface environments. Calculations illustrate that oxygenation would have overwhelmed redox buffers within ~100 kyr following the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis, a geologically short amount of time unless rates of primary production were far lower than commonly expected. Fundamentally, this result arises because of the multiscale nature of the carbon and oxygen cycles: rates of gross primary production are orders of magnitude too fast for oxygen to be masked by Earth's geological buffers, and can only be effectively matched by respiration at non-negligible O2 concentrations. These results suggest that oxygenic photosynthesis arose shortly before the rise of oxygen, not hundreds of millions of years before it.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7215 (United States); Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astronomical Observatory, Odessa National University, Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, Odessa Branch, Shevchenko Park, 65014 Odessa (Ukraine)


    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana


    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  1. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas


    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in

  2. Carrier dynamics in graphene. Ultrafast many-particle phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malic, E.; Brem, S.; Jago, R. [Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Winzer, T.; Wendler, F.; Knorr, A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Mittendorff, M.; Koenig-Otto, J.C.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Winnerl, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Ploetzing, T.; Neumaier, D. [Advanced Microelectronic Center Aachen, AMO GmbH, Aachen (Germany)


    Graphene is an ideal material to study fundamental Coulomb- and phonon-induced carrier scattering processes. Its remarkable gapless and linear band structure opens up new carrier relaxation channels. In particular, Auger scattering bridging the valence and the conduction band changes the number of charge carriers and gives rise to a significant carrier multiplication - an ultrafast many-particle phenomenon that is promising for the design of highly efficient photodetectors. Furthermore, the vanishing density of states at the Dirac point combined with ultrafast phonon-induced intraband scattering results in an accumulation of carriers and a population inversion suggesting the design of graphene-based terahertz lasers. Here, we review our work on the ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphene and Landau-quantized graphene is presented providing a microscopic view on the appearance of carrier multiplication and population inversion. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Carrier Load Balancing and Packet Scheduling for Multi-Carrier Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye; Pedersen, Klaus; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard


    allocation fairness among users, as compared to independent scheduling per CC. The Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced is selected for the case study of a multi-carrier system. In such a system, RR provides better performance than MH balancing, and the proposed simple scheduling algorithm is shown......Abstract-In this paper we focus on resource allocation for next generation wireless communication systems with aggregation of multiple Component Carriers (CCs), i.e., how to assign the CCs to each user, and how to multiplex multiple users in each CC. We first investigate two carrier load balancing...... methods for allocating the CCs to the users- Round Robin (RR) and Mobile Hashing (MH) balancing by means of a simple theoretical formulation, as well as system level simulations. At Layer-2 we propose a simple cross-CC packet scheduling algorithm that improves the coverage performance and the resource...

  4. [Oxygen therapy in diving accidents]. (United States)

    Piepho, T; Ehrmann, U; Werner, C; Muth, C M


    Diving accidents represent a departure from the routine practice of emergency physicians. The incidence of non-fatal diving accidents is reported as 1-2 per 10,000 dives. Apart from adequate intravenous hydration, oxygen is the only medication with a proven effect in the treatment of diving accidents. After a typical diving accident, administration of oxygen at an inspired concentration (F(I)O(2) 1.0) as high as possible is recommended. Many divers bring along their own oxygen administration systems to the diving sites and these are often better suited for the treatment of diving accidents than the oxygen systems of many emergency responders. Pressure regulators supplying low constant flow oxygen, nasal prongs and inhalation masks are inappropriate. When using artificial ventilation bags with face masks, an oxygen flow of at least 15 l/min should be used. Demand regulators are simple to use and able to deliver a F(I)O2 of 1.0. Their ease of use has earned them high marks in the emergency management of diving accidents and their similarity to standard diving equipment has also aided relatively widespread acceptance. Circulation breathing systems are more technologically complex oxygen delivery systems which permit CO2 absorption and re-breathing at low oxygen flow. In contrast to the demand modules, the likelihood of mistakes during their usage is higher. In diving accidents, the administration of normobaric oxygen, already begun in the field, is the most important therapy and should not be interrupted. Presented with an inadequate supplemental oxygen supply, the inspired oxygen concentration should not be decreased, rather the duration of the oxygen administration should be reduced. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy should be the mainstay of further treatment.

  5. 78 FR 5243 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting of Subcommittees (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting of Subcommittees AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting of Motor Carrier Safety...

  6. 76 FR 5424 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Request for Nominations to the Motor Carrier Safety Advisory...

  7. How Europe's Low-Cost Carriers Sidestepped Traditional Carriers' Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders

    The initial appearance of U.S. low-cost carriers forced incumbents to create new forms of competitive advantage. These were successful hindrances for nearly two decades. Concurrently, incumbents in Europe implemented similar tools, although within a regulated market. However, Europe's low...... and sidestepped traditional carriers' competitive advantages.......-cost airlines were more successful and had a greater initial impact in their early years than their U.S. compatriots. This paper will attempt to highlight some of the differences between the two markets and explain why European low-cost airlines had more advantages following their market deregulation...

  8. Dedicated Carrier Deployment in Heterogeneous Networks with Inter-site Carrier Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus I.


    Heterogeneous networks (HetNets) have been extensively discussed in 3GPP to further enhance the system throughput of traditional well-planned macrocell deployment. In this paper, we consider a HetNet scenario consisting of macro eNBs and low-power nodes implemented as remote radio heads (RRHs......) or picos with dedicated carrier deployment. Collaborative inter-site carrier aggregation (CA) is proposed in scenarios with macro+RRH deployment to make an efficient use of the fragmented spectrum from multiple cells. While in scenarios with macro+pico deployment, UEs can only connect to either...

  9. Carrier-Multiplication-Induced Structural Change during Ultrafast Carrier Relaxation and Nonthermal Phase Transition in Semiconductors. (United States)

    Bang, Junhyeok; Sun, Y Y; Liu, X-Q; Gao, F; Zhang, S B


    While being extensively studied as an important physical process to alter exciton population in nanostructures at the fs time scale, carrier multiplication has not been considered seriously as a major mechanism for phase transition. Real-time time-dependent density functional theory study of Ge_{2}Sb_{2}Te_{5} reveals that carrier multiplication can induce an ultrafast phase transition in the solid state despite that the lattice remains cold. The results also unify the experimental findings in other semiconductors for which the explanation remains to be the 30-year old phenomenological plasma annealing model.

  10. Carrier Compensation Induced by Thermal Annealing in Al-Doped ZnO Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Koida


    Full Text Available This study investigated carrier compensation induced by thermal annealing in sputtered ZnO:Al (Al2O3: 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt % films. The films were post-annealed in a N2 atmosphere at low (1 × 10−23 atm and high (1 × 10−4 atm oxygen partial pressures (PO2. In ZnO:Al films with low Al contents (i.e., 0.25 wt %, the carrier density (n began to decrease at annealing temperatures (Ta of 600 °C at low PO2. At higher PO2 and/or Al contents, n values began to decrease significantly at lower Ta (ca. 400 °C. In addition, Zn became desorbed from the films during heating in a high vacuum (i.e., <1 × 10−7 Pa. These results suggest the following: (i Zn interstitials and Zn vacancies are created in the ZnO lattice during post-annealing treatments, thereby leading to carrier compensation by acceptor-type Zn vacancies; (ii The compensation behavior is significantly enhanced for ZnO:Al films with high Al contents.

  11. Reversible carrier-type transitions in gas-sensing oxides and nanostructures. (United States)

    Arulsamy, Andrew D; Eleršič, Kristina; Modic, Martina; Cvelbar, Uroš; Mozetič, Miran


    Despite many important applications of α-Fe(2)O(3) and Fe doped SnO(2) in semiconductors, catalysis, sensors, clinical diagnosis and treatments, one fundamental issue that is crucial to these applications remains theoretically equivocal--the reversible carrier-type transition between n- and p-type conductivities during gas-sensing operations. Herein, we present an unambiguous and rigorous theoretical analysis in order to explain why and how the oxygen vacancies affect the n-type semiconductors α-Fe(2)O(3) and Fe-doped SnO(2), in which they are both electronically and chemically transformed into a p-type semiconductor. Furthermore, this reversible transition also occurs on the oxide surfaces during gas-sensing operation due to physisorbed gas molecules (without any chemical reaction). We make use of the ionization energy theory and its renormalized ionic displacement polarizability functional to reclassify, generalize and explain the concept of carrier-type transition in solids, and during gas-sensing operation. The origin of such a transition is associated with the change in ionic polarizability and the valence states of cations in the presence of oxygen vacancies and physisorped gas molecules.

  12. Hydrogen, an energy carrier with a future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, K.H.


    The inefficient use, associated with pollutants, of the fossil energy carriers coal, crude oil and natural gas, will deplete resources, if the energy demand increases exponentially, in the not-too-distant future. That is the reason why the hydrogen-energy concept gains in importance. This requires drastic changes in structure in a lot of technological fields. This task is only to be mastered if there is cooperation between all special fields, in order to facilitate the economical production, distribution and utilization of hydrogen. (orig.) [de

  13. Carrier concentration induced ferromagnetism in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Story, T.


    In semiconductor spintronics the key materials issue concerns ferromagnetic semiconductors that would, in particular, permit an integration (in a single multilayer heterostructure) of standard electronic functions of semiconductors with magnetic memory function. Although classical semiconductor materials, such as Si or GaAs, are nonmagnetic, upon substitutional incorporation of magnetic ions (typically of a few atomic percents of Mn 2+ ions) and very heavy doping with conducting carriers (at the level of 10 20 - 10 21 cm -3 ) a ferromagnetic transition can be induced in such diluted magnetic semiconductors (also known as semimagnetic semiconductors). In the lecture the spectacular experimental observations of carrier concentration induced ferromagnetism will be discussed for three model semiconductor crystals. p - Ga 1-x Mn x As currently the most actively studied and most perspective ferromagnetic semiconductor of III-V group, in which ferromagnetism appears due to Mn ions providing both local magnetic moments and acting as acceptor centers. p - Sn 1-x Mn x Te and p - Ge 1-x Mn x Te classical diluted magnetic semiconductors of IV-VI group, in which paramagnet-ferromagnet and ferromagnet-spin glass transitions are found for very high hole concentration. n - Eu 1-x Gd x Te mixed magnetic crystals, in which the substitution of Gd 3+ ions for Eu 2+ ions creates very high electron concentration and transforms antiferromagnetic EuTe (insulating compound) into ferromagnetic n-type semiconductor alloy. For each of these materials systems the key physical features will be discussed concerning: local magnetic moments formation, magnetic phase diagram as a function of magnetic ions and carrier concentration as well as Curie temperature and magnetic anisotropy engineering. Various theoretical models proposed to explain the effect of carrier concentration induced ferromagnetism in semiconductors will be briefly discussed involving mean field approaches based on Zener and RKKY

  14. Carrier mobilities in microcrystalline silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronger, T.; Carius, R.


    For a better understanding of electronic transport mechanisms in thin-film silicon solar cell quality films, we have investigated the Hall mobility for electrons in microcrystalline/amorphous silicon over a range of crystallinities and doping concentrations. We find that Hall mobility increases with increasing doping concentration in accordance with earlier measurements. With increasing amorphous fraction, the measured mobility decreases suggesting a negative influence of the additional disorder. The results suggest a differential mobility model in which mobility depends on the energy level of the carriers that contribute to the electrical current

  15. Obesity Decreases Perioperative Tissue Oxygenation (United States)

    Kabon, Barbara; Nagele, Angelika; Reddy, Dayakar; Eagon, Chris; Fleshman, James W.; Sessler, Daniel I.; Kurz, Andrea


    Background: Obesity is an important risk factor for surgical site infections. The incidence of surgical wound infections is directly related to tissue perfusion and oxygenation. Fat tissue mass expands without a concomitant increase in blood flow per cell, which might result in a relative hypoperfusion with decreased tissue oxygenation. Consequently, we tested the hypotheses that perioperative tissue oxygen tension is reduced in obese surgical patients. Furthermore, we compared the effect of supplemental oxygen administration on tissue oxygenation in obese and non-obese patients. Methods: Forty-six patients undergoing major abdominal surgery were assigned to one of two groups according to their body mass index (BMI): BMI < 30 kg/m2 (non-obese) and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (obese). Intraoperative oxygen administration was adjusted to arterial oxygen tensions of ≈150 mmHg and ≈300 mmHg in random order. Anesthesia technique and perioperative fluid management were standardized. Subcutaneous tissue oxygen tension was measured with a polarographic electrode positioned within a subcutaneous tonometer in the lateral upper arm during surgery, in the recovery room, and on the first postoperative day. Postoperative tissue oxygen was also measured adjacent to the wound. Data were compared with unpaired two tailed t-tests and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests; P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Intraoperative subcutaneous tissue oxygen tension was significantly less in the obese patients at baseline (36 vs. 57 mmHg, P = 0.002) and with supplemental oxygen administration (47 vs. 76 mmHg, P = 0.014). Immediate postoperative tissue oxygen tension was also significantly less in subcutaneous tissue of the upper arm (43 vs. 54 mmHg, P = 0.011) as well as near the incision (42 vs. 62 mmHg, P = 0.012) in obese patients. In contrast, tissue oxygen tension was comparable in each group on the first postoperative morning. Conclusion: Wound and tissue hypoxia were common in obese

  16. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch


    at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...... glaucoma patients is six times higher at a perfusion pressure of 30 mmHg, which corresponds to a level where the optic nerve is hypoxic in experimental animals, as compared to perfusion pressure levels above 50 mmHg where the optic nerve is normoxic. Medical intervention can affect optic nerve oxygen......-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, which indicates that prostaglandin metabolism plays a role. Laboratory studies suggest that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors might be useful for medical treatment of optic nerve and retinal ischemia, potentially in diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. However, clinical...

  17. Phyto-mediated nanostructured carriers based on dual vegetable actives involved in the prevention of cellular damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istrati, D.; Lacatusu, I.; Bordei, N.; Badea, G.; Oprea, O.; Stefan, L.M.; Stan, R.; Badea, N.; Meghea, A.


    The growing scientific interest in exploitation of vegetable bioactives has raised a number of questions regarding their imminent presence in pharmaceutical formulations. This study intends to demonstrate that a dual combination between vegetable oil (e.g. thistle oil, safflower oil, sea buckthorn oil) and a carrot extract represents an optimal approach to formulate safe carrier systems that manifest cell regeneration effect and promising antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Inclusion of both natural actives into lipid carriers imparted a strong negative charge on the nanocarrier surface (up to − 45 mV) and displayed average sizes of 70 nm to 140 nm. The entrapment efficiency of carrot extract into nanostructured carriers ranged between 78.3 and 88.3%. The in vitro release study has demonstrated that the entrapment of the extract represents a viable way for an equilibrated release of carotenoids. Besides the excellent antioxidant properties (e.g. scavenging up to 98% of the free oxygen radicals), the results of cellular integrity (e.g. cell viability of 133%) recommend these nanocarriers based on dual carrot extract–bioactive oil as a promising trend for the treatment of certain disorders in which oxidative stress plays a prominent role. In addition, the lipid nanocarriers based on safflower oil and sea buckthorn oil demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS induced THP-1 macrophages, by inhibiting the secretion of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α. - Highlights: • Safety phyto-mediated nanostructured carriers (NLC) based on two kinds of bioactives • Carrot extract incorporation into nanostructured carriers ranged from 78 to 88.3%. • High antioxidant activity of NLC by scavenging up to 98% free oxygen radicals • Extract entrapment represents a viable way for an equilibrated release of carotenoids. • Remarkable regenerative effect of L929 cell, with a proliferation of 133.4%

  18. Phyto-mediated nanostructured carriers based on dual vegetable actives involved in the prevention of cellular damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Istrati, D.; Lacatusu, I.; Bordei, N.; Badea, G.; Oprea, O. [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Polizu Street No. 1, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Stefan, L.M. [National Institute of Research and Development for Biological Sciences, Splaiul Independentei Street No. 296, 060031 Bucharest (Romania); Stan, R. [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Polizu Street No. 1, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Badea, N., E-mail: [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Polizu Street No. 1, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Meghea, A. [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Polizu Street No. 1, 011061 Bucharest (Romania)


    The growing scientific interest in exploitation of vegetable bioactives has raised a number of questions regarding their imminent presence in pharmaceutical formulations. This study intends to demonstrate that a dual combination between vegetable oil (e.g. thistle oil, safflower oil, sea buckthorn oil) and a carrot extract represents an optimal approach to formulate safe carrier systems that manifest cell regeneration effect and promising antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Inclusion of both natural actives into lipid carriers imparted a strong negative charge on the nanocarrier surface (up to − 45 mV) and displayed average sizes of 70 nm to 140 nm. The entrapment efficiency of carrot extract into nanostructured carriers ranged between 78.3 and 88.3%. The in vitro release study has demonstrated that the entrapment of the extract represents a viable way for an equilibrated release of carotenoids. Besides the excellent antioxidant properties (e.g. scavenging up to 98% of the free oxygen radicals), the results of cellular integrity (e.g. cell viability of 133%) recommend these nanocarriers based on dual carrot extract–bioactive oil as a promising trend for the treatment of certain disorders in which oxidative stress plays a prominent role. In addition, the lipid nanocarriers based on safflower oil and sea buckthorn oil demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS induced THP-1 macrophages, by inhibiting the secretion of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α. - Highlights: • Safety phyto-mediated nanostructured carriers (NLC) based on two kinds of bioactives • Carrot extract incorporation into nanostructured carriers ranged from 78 to 88.3%. • High antioxidant activity of NLC by scavenging up to 98% free oxygen radicals • Extract entrapment represents a viable way for an equilibrated release of carotenoids. • Remarkable regenerative effect of L929 cell, with a proliferation of 133.4%.

  19. Mitochondrial Respiration and Oxygen Tension. (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S; Meitha, Karlia; Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H


    Measurements of respiration and oxygen tension in plant organs allow a precise understanding of mitochondrial capacity and function within the context of cellular oxygen metabolism. Here we describe methods that can be routinely used for the isolation of intact mitochondria, and the determination of respiratory electron transport, together with techniques for in vivo determination of oxygen tension and measurement of respiration by both CO 2 production and O 2 consumption that enables calculation of the respiratory quotient [CO 2 ]/[O 2 ].

  20. Oxygen potentials of transuranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyoshi Otobe; Mituso Akabori; Arai Yasuo; Kazuo Minato


    The oxygen potentials of pyrochlore-type Pu 2 Zr 2 O 7+y , fluorite-type (Pu 0.5 Zr 0.5 )O 2-x and AmO 2-x have been measured by the electromotive force (EMF) method with a zirconia solid-electrolyte. The oxygen potentials of these oxides were reviewed. The phase relations, microstructure, equilibrium state of these oxides were discussed, referring to the isothermal curve of the oxygen potentials. (authors)

  1. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer (United States)

    O'Brien, Dennis P [Maplewood, MN; Schmoeckel, Alison K [Stillwater, MN; Vernstrom, George D [Cottage Grove, MN; Atanasoski, Radoslav [Edina, MN; Wood, Thomas E [Stillwater, MN; Yang, Ruizhi [Halifax, CA; Easton, E Bradley [Halifax, CA; Dahn, Jeffrey R [Hubley, CA; O'Neill, David G [Lake Elmo, MN


    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  2. Carrier-carrier scattering in the gain dynamics of InxGa1-xAs/AlyGa1-yAs diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Gary D; Sun, C.-K.; Golubovic, B.


    for the carrier distributions using an adaptive Runge-Kutta routine. This procedure is less computationally intensive than a full Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that the inclusion of carrier-carrier scattering improves previous results where only carrier-phonon scattering was included and that carrier...

  3. Oxygen therapy for cystic fibrosis. (United States)

    Elphick, Heather E; Mallory, George


    The most serious complications of cystic fibrosis (CF) relate to respiratory insufficiency. Oxygen supplementation therapy has long been a standard of care for individuals with chronic lung diseases associated with hypoxemia. Physicians commonly prescribe oxygen therapy for people with CF when hypoxemia occurs. However, it is unclear if empiric evidence is available to provide indications for this therapy with its financial costs and often profound impact on lifestyle. To assess whether oxygen therapy improves the longevity or quality of life of individuals with CF. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register, comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Latest search of Group's Trials Register: 15 May 2013. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing oxygen, administered at any concentration, by any route, in people with documented CF for any time period. Authors independently assessed the risk of bias for included studies and extracted data. This review includes 11 published studies (172 participants); only one examined long-term oxygen therapy (28 participants). There was no statistically significant improvement in survival, lung, or cardiac health. There was an improvement in regular attendance at school or work in those receiving oxygen therapy at 6 and 12 months. Four studies examined the effect of oxygen supplementation during sleep by polysomnography. Although oxygenation improved, mild hypercapnia was noted. Participants fell asleep quicker and spent a reduced percentage of total sleep time in rapid eye movement sleep, but there were no demonstrable improvements in qualitative sleep parameters. Six studies evaluated oxygen supplementation during exercise. Again, oxygenation improved, but mild hypercapnia resulted. Participants receiving oxygen therapy were able to exercise for a

  4. Radionuclide carriers for targeting of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Sofou


    Full Text Available Stavroula SofouLaboratory for Drug Delivery Systems, Othmer-Jacobs Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY, USAAbstract: This review describes strategies for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides to tumor sites. Therapeutic approaches are summarized in terms of tumor location in the body, and tumor morphology. These determine the radionuclides of choice for suggested targeting ligands, and the type of delivery carriers. This review is not exhaustive in examples of radionuclide carriers for targeted cancer therapy. Our purpose is two-fold: to give an integrated picture of the general strategies and molecular constructs currently explored for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides, and to identify challenges that need to be addressed. Internal radiotherapies for targeting of cancer are at a very exciting and creative stage. It is expected that the current emphasis on multidisciplinary approaches for exploring such therapeutic directions should enable internal radiotherapy to reach its full potential.Keywords: cancer radiotherapy, targeted radiotherapy, radiotherapy of micrometastases, radiotherapy of solid tumors, radiotherapy of tumor vasculature

  5. Pathways to hydrogen as an energy carrier. (United States)

    Sigfusson, Thorsteinn I


    When hydrogen is used as an alternative energy carrier, it is very important to understand the pathway from the primary energy source to the final use of the carrier. This involves, for example, the understanding of greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production of hydrogen and throughout the lifecycle of a given utilization pathway as well as various energy or exergy efficiencies and aspects involved. This paper which is based on a talk given at the Royal Society in London assesses and reviews the various production pathways for hydrogen with emphasis on emissions, energy use and energy efficiency. The paper also views some aspects of the breaking of the water molecule and examines some new emerging physical evidence which could pave the way to a new and more feasible pathway. A special attention will be given to the use of the renewable energy pathway. As an example of a hydrogen society that could be based on renewable primary energy, the paper describes the hydrogen society experiments in Iceland as well as unconventional hydrogen obtained from geothermal gases. In the light of our experience, attempts will be made to shed light upon drivers as well as obstacles in the development of a hydrogen society.

  6. Efficient Carrier Multiplication in Colloidal Silicon Nanorods. (United States)

    Stolle, Carl Jackson; Lu, Xiaotang; Yu, Yixuan; Schaller, Richard D; Korgel, Brian A


    Auger recombination lifetimes, absorption cross sections, and the quantum yields of carrier multiplication (CM), or multiexciton generation (MEG), were determined for solvent-dispersed silicon (Si) nanorods using transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS). Nanorods with an average diameter of 7.5 nm and aspect ratios of 6.1, 19.3, and 33.2 were examined. Colloidal Si nanocrystals of similar diameters were also studied for comparison. The nanocrystals and nanorods were passivated with organic ligands by hydrosilylation to prevent surface oxidation and limit the effects of surface trapping of photoexcited carriers. All samples used in the study exhibited relatively efficient photoluminescence. The Auger lifetimes increased with nanorod length, and the nanorods exhibited higher CM quantum yield and efficiency than the nanocrystals with a similar band gap energy E g . Beyond a critical length, the CM quantum yield decreases. Nanorods with the aspect ratio of 19.3 had the highest CM quantum yield of 1.6 ± 0.2 at 2.9E g , which corresponded to a multiexciton yield that was twice as high as observed for the spherical nanocrystals.

  7. Drug carrier in cancer therapy: A simulation study based on magnetic carrier substances (United States)

    Adam, Tijjani; Dhahi, Th S.; Mohammed, Mohammed; Hashim, U.; Noriman, N. Z.; Dahham, Omar S.


    The principle of magnetic carrier is a medium for transferring information by sending the drug to the specific part to kill tumor cells. Generally, there are seven stages of cancer. Most of the patient with cancer can only be detected when reaches stage four. At that stage, the cancer is difficult to destroy or to cure. Comparing to the nearly stage, there are probability to destroy tumor cell completely by sending the drug through magnetic carrier directly to nerve. Another way to destroyed tumor completely is by using Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This project is about the simulation study based on magnetic carrier substances. The COMSOL multiphysic software is used in this project. The simulation model represents a permanent magnet, blood vessel, surrounding tissues and air in 2D. Based on result obtained, the graph shown during sending the magnetic flux is high. However, as its carry information the magnetic flux reducess from the above, the move from 0m until 0.009 m it become the lowers and start increase the flux from this until maximum at 0.018m. This is due the fact that carrier start to increase after because the low information is gradually reduce until 0.018m.

  8. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers. (United States)


    ... of the other within the meaning of section 408 of the Act; (3) Has any of the interlocking relationships described in section 409 of the Act; (4) Is jointly controlled with the other carrier, directly or..., express, and cargo transportation; airport transportation and hotel accommodations; local advertising and...

  9. Features of charge carrier transport determined from carrier extraction current in .mu.c-Si:H

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juška, G.; Arlauskas, K.; Nekrašas, N.; Stuchlík, Jiří; Niquille, X.; Wyrsch, N.

    299-302, - (2002), s. 375-379 ISSN 0022-3093 Grant - others:VMSF(LT) 01SP-02 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : mobility of majority carriers * photoconductivity transport Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.435, year: 2002

  10. A pseudodeficiency allele common in non-Jewish Tay-Sachs carriers: Implications for carrier screening (United States)

    Triggs-Raine, B. L.; Mules, E. H.; Kaback, M. M.; Lim-Steele, J. S. T.; Dowling, C. E.; Akerman, B. R.; Natowicz, M. R.; Grebner, E. E.; Navon, R.; Welch, J. P.; Greenberg, C. R.; Thomas, G. H.; Gravel, R. A.


    Deficiency of β-hexosaminidase A (Hex A) activity typically results in Tay-Sachs disease. However, healthy subjects found to be deficient in Hex A activity (i.e., pseudodeficient) by means of in vitro biochemical tests have been described. We analyzed the HEXA gene of one pseudodeficient subject and identified both a C739-to-T substitution that changes Arg247→Trp on one allele and a previously identified Tay-Sachs disease mutation on the second allele. Six additional pseudodeficient subjects were found to have the C739-to-T mutation. This allele accounted for 32% (20/62) of non-Jewish enzyme-defined Tay-Sachs disease carriers but for none of 36 Jewish enzyme-defined carriers who did not have one of three known mutations common to this group. The C739-to-T allele, together with a “true” Tay-Sachs disease allele, causes Hex A pseudodeficiency. Given both the large proportion of non-Jewish carriers with this allele and that standard biochemical screening cannot differentiate between heterozygotes for the C739-to-T mutations and Tay-Sachs disease carriers, DNA testing for this mutation in at-risk couples is essential. This could prevent unnecessary or incorrect prenatal diagnoses. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:1384323

  11. Oxygen diffusion and oxygen effect in tumor tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, H.M.; Hehn, G.


    The diffusion of oxygen in tumor cords of bronchus carcinoma of the lung have been studied with refined computer methods for solving the diffusion equation in axis symmetric tumor structures. In this tumor configuration we may find three different regions consisting of euoxic cells, hypoxic tumor cells and necrotic parts. In the case of oxygen supply from a capillary inside a cylinder of tumor tissue with radius 200 μm or in a tumor cord of radius 300 μm with oxygen supply by capillaries outside, we get a relation of well oxygenated cells to hypoxic cells approximately as 1:8 or as 1:1.1 respectively. Of course most of the tumor cords observed in histological slices have smaller diameters, so that an average of approximately 20% hypoxic cells can be assumed. Based on the work of Ardenne, the diffusion of oxygen and glucose in a tumor of type DS-carcinosarcom has been investigated in both intact tumor and tumor treated with ionizing radiation. We can show that a strong reoxygenation effect takes place in that the well supplied regions may increase in some tumor configurations up to a factor of four by volume. The biological consequences of the oxygen pressure determined in tumor cells are discussed in detail. The investigation of oxygen diffusion in the intercapillary tumor region should give a quantitative physical basis for considering the oxygen effect with the aim to explain the advantages of neutron therapy against conventional radiotherapy. (orig./MG) [de

  12. empirical modeling of oxygen modeling of oxygen uptake of flow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    the initial dissolved oxygen arge dissolved oxygen and. 5, 6] highlighted stepped chute is a prime o enhance the aeration. The velocity flows may prevent e chute caused by cavitation [7, 8]. Furthermore, that air entrainment on stepped chutes the water flow which contributes to th river quality and the preservation of aer.

  13. Oxygen uptake and baemocyanin oxygen affinity of Potamonautes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 1, 1988 ... In both respiratory media this causes a lowering in the haemocyanin oxygen affinity with a Bohr-factor of -1,05 whilst the haemocyanin- .... In another experiment the oxygen-binding properties of declotted haemolymph ..... layer optical cell for gas-reaction studies of hemoglobin. Anal. Biochem. 87: 127-134 ...

  14. Limitations of potentiometric oxygen sensors operating at low oxygen levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders; Jacobsen, Torben; Hansen, Karin Vels


    The electrochemical processes that limit the range of oxygen partial pressures in which potentiometric oxygen sensors can be used, were analysed using a theoretical and an experimental approach. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was performed on porous Pt/yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ......) electrodes between 10−6 and 0.2 bar and at temperatures between 500 and 950 °C. The flow of oxide ions and electron holes through a sensor cell, with a YSZ electrolyte, were calculated under similar conditions. The oxygen permeation of the sensor cell was insignificant at an oxygen partial pressure of 10......−6 bar for an inlet flow rate higher than 2 L h−1 between 600 and 800 °C. The polarisation resistance measured between 10−6 and 10−4 bar was found to be inversely proportional to the oxygen partial pressure, nearly temperature independent and inversely proportional to the inlet gas flow rate, which shows...

  15. Oxygen Vacancy-Mediated ZnO Nanoparticle Photocatalyst for Degradation of Methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuping Zhang


    Full Text Available ZnO nanoparticles (NPs are synthesized by deoxidizing ZnO powder in a vacuum drying process. This process reduces the size of the NPs and increases the concentration of oxygen vacancies on their surfaces. ZnO NPs with sufficient oxygen vacancies are highly effective for the photodecomposition of methylene blue (MB dye in water under ultraviolet irradiation. The MB degradation efficiency exceeds 99 percent after 50 min of light irradiation, and the catalytic property of the NPs remains stable over several complete degradation cycles. It is revealed that the concentration of oxygen vacancies on the surface, and the photocatalytic activity, are both higher for smaller NPs. Oxygen vacancies reduce the recombination rate of photo-generated charge carriers by capturing the electrons and hence, improve the efficiency of redox reactions. In addition, a smaller particle size leads to a larger specific surface area and a higher photonic efficiency for the ZnO NPs.

  16. Active medium gain study of electric-discharge oxygen-iodine laser (United States)

    Kolobyanin, Yuriy; Adamenkov, Yuriy; Vyskubenko, Boris; Goryachev, Leonid; Ilyin, Sergey; Kalashnik, Anatoliy; Rakhimova, Tatiana; Rogozhnikov, Georgiy


    The paper reports on experimental studies of the active medium gain in supersonic electric-discharge oxygen-iodine laser (DOIL) based on traveling mw discharge. The measurements have included: absolute concentration, yield, and energy efficiency of production of SO in pure oxygen and oxygen-helium mixes at an oxygen partial pressure 3 to 15 Torr. For the gas flow to get rid of atomic oxygen, both heterogeneous mercury oxide coatings of the tube walls and homogeneous additives to the work mix, such as nitrogen oxide, have been used. The active medium of DOIL was formed using a nozzle array of the type of ejector sized as 10*50 mm2. The singlet oxygen-helium mix was supplied through three rows of sonic cylindrical nozzles, while the iodine-carrier gas mix - through two rows of supersonic conical nozzles with a half-opening angle of 10°(arc). The gas-phase iodine was produced in a quartz cell filled with iodine crystals. Room-temperature iodine vapors were picked up with a carrier gas (nitrogen or helium) and thus delivered into the nozzle array. The active medium was investigated by the high-resolution laser diode spectroscopy approach that used the laser type Vortex 6025 purchased from New Focus, Inc. The laser medium gain factor was determined by the intra-cavity approach having a sensitivity about 1*10 -6 cm -1. The static temperature of the medium was determined from the measurements of gain half-width. The gain of the active medium of electric-discharge OIL has been investigated. The DOIL in use was operating on a mix composed as O II:He=1:1 at a total pressure of 6 Torr and flowrate - about 1 mmol/s. With helium as an iodine carrier gas at a flowrate ~3 mmol/s, we have recorded a positive gain in the DOIL medium.

  17. Carrier's Liability Insurance in the Function of Transportation Service Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragica Dalić


    Full Text Available The quality of transportation se1vices understands quickness,accuracy and safety at minimal costs for the carrier andthe service user. Possible emergency situations may bring substantialmaterial and business damage both to the service userand to the transportation service provider. Carrier's liability insurancegives the carrier security in case of evidenced full orpartial loss or damage of goods, as well as in case of delay in delivery.The insurance allows annulment of carrier's costs generatedby emergency situations which favourably affects the operationof transportation companies and allows maintenance ofthe quality of the carrier's se1vices. The work analyses the presenceof can·ier's liability insurance in the Republic of Croatia atfive insurance companies, through the analysis of the totalnumber of insurances and the number of insured vehicles, followingthe trend in this type of insurance and its influence onthe quality of the carrier services.

  18. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter improves symbol SNR (United States)

    Pomalaza-Raez, Carlos A.; Hurd, William J.


    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (SNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  19. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter can improve symbol SNR (United States)

    Hurd, W. J.; Pomalaza-Raez, C. A.


    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (CNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  20. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims


    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study the local environmentals of LSFT with various level of oxygen deficiency. Ionic valence state, magnetic interaction and influence of Ti on superexchange are discussed Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at elevated temperature, pressure and elevated conditions. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. The initial measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Neutron diffraction measurements of the same composition are in agreement with both the stoichiometry and the kinetic behavior observed in coulometric titration measurements. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The COCO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  1. An original phylogenetic approach identified mitochondrial haplogroup T1a1 as inversely associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blein, Sophie; Bardel, Claire; Danjean, Vincent


    INTRODUCTION: Individuals carrying pathogenic mutations in BRCA1/2 genes have a high lifetime risk of breast cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in DNA double strand break repair, DNA alterations that can be caused by exposure to reactive oxygen species, a main source of which are mitochondria...... species production, leading to cancer risk. Here we test the hypothesis that mitochondrial haplogroups modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. METHODS: We genotyped 22214 (11421 affected, 10793 unaffected) mutation carriers belonging to the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2...

  2. Computer assisted analysis of hand radiographs in infantile hypophosphatasia carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chodirker, B.N.; Greenberg, C.R.; Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB; Roy, D.; Cheang, M.; Evans, J.A.; Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB; Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB; Reed, M.H.; Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB


    Hand radiographs of 49 carriers of infantile hypophosphatasia and 67 non-carriers were evaluated using two Apple IIe Computer Programs and Apple Graphics Tablet. CAMPS was used to determine the bone lengths and calculate the metacarpophalangeal profiles. A newly developed program (ADAM) was used to determine bone density based on percent cortical area of the second metacarpal. Carriers of infantile hypophosphatasia had significantly less dense bones. (orig.)

  3. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus


    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct...... and attached solids for the carriers) of diclofenac, ketoprofen, gemfibrozil, clofibric acid and mefenamic acid compared to the sludges. Among the target pharmaceuticals, only ibuprofen and naproxen showed similar removal rates per unit biomass for the sludges and biofilm carriers. In contrast...

  4. Insight into carrier lifetime impact on band-modulation devices (United States)

    Parihar, Mukta Singh; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Park, Hyung Jin; Lacord, Joris; Martinie, Sébastien; Barbé, Jean-Charles; Xu, Yue; El Dirani, Hassan; Taur, Yuan; Cristoloveanu, Sorin; Bawedin, Maryline


    A systematic study to model and characterize the band-modulation Z2-FET device is developed bringing light to the relevance of the carrier lifetime influence. This work provides guidelines to optimize the Z2-FETs for sharp switching, ESD protection, and 1T-DRAM applications. Lower carrier lifetime in the Z2-FET helps in attaining the sharp switch. We provide new insights into the correlation between generation/recombination, diffusion, electrostatic barriers and carrier lifetime.

  5. Carrier Statistics and Quantum Capacitance Models of Graphene Nanoscroll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khaledian


    schematic perfect scroll-like Archimedes spiral. The DOS model was derived at first, while it was later applied to compute the carrier concentration and quantum capacitance model. Furthermore, the carrier concentration and quantum capacitance were modeled for both degenerate and nondegenerate regimes, along with examining the effect of structural parameters and chirality number on the density of state and carrier concentration. Latterly, the temperature effect on the quantum capacitance was studied too.

  6. Mars oxygen production system design (United States)

    Cotton, Charles E.; Pillow, Linda K.; Perkinson, Robert C.; Brownlie, R. P.; Chwalowski, P.; Carmona, M. F.; Coopersmith, J. P.; Goff, J. C.; Harvey, L. L.; Kovacs, L. A.


    The design and construction phase is summarized of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere was assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer compatible data acquisition and control instrumentation is ongoing.

  7. Measurement of forearm oxygen consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J


    blood flow and decreases skeletal muscle blood flow. This facilitates mixing of superficial blood with deep venous blood. Contralateral heating increased deep venous oxygen saturation and abolished the pronounced glucose-induced increase in oxygen consumption observed in the control experiments after...

  8. Oxygen detection using evanescent fields (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Cao, Weenqing


    An apparatus and method for the detection of oxygen using optical fiber based evanescent light absorption. Methylene blue was immobilized using a sol-gel process on a portion of the exterior surface of an optical fiber for which the cladding has been removed, thereby forming an optical oxygen sensor. When light is directed through the optical fiber, transmitted light intensity varies as a result of changes in the absorption of evanescent light by the methylene blue in response to the oxygen concentration to which the sensor is exposed. The sensor was found to have a linear response to oxygen concentration on a semi-logarithmic scale within the oxygen concentration range between 0.6% and 20.9%, a response time and a recovery time of about 3 s, ant to exhibit good reversibility and repeatability. An increase in temperature from C. to C. does not affect the net absorption of the sensor.

  9. Armalcolite - An oxygen fugacity indicator (United States)

    Stanin, F. T.; Taylor, L. A.


    Lunar armaloclites, (Fe, Mg)Ti2O5, contain appreciable amounts of Ti(3+) (less than 1 to 17% of Ti mole fraction). This is a function of the oxygen fugacity occurring at the time of its formation, with lower fugacities being reflected in higher Ti(3+) contents. Controlled cooling-rate and isothermal experimentation on synthetic analog and natural specimens of 70017 and 74275 have been used to calibrate an oxygen geobarometer. Most lunar rocks have followed crystallization paths in oxygen fugacity/T space such that the prevailing oxygen fugacity can be represented by a curve near parallel to the I/W buffer curve. The oxygen fugacity estimates derived from Ti(3+) considerations of armalcolites range from the iron/wustite curve to about 1.5 log units below.

  10. 48 CFR 1615.470 - Carrier investment of FEHB funds. (United States)



  11. Obstacle avoidance and path planning for carrier aircraft launching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yu


    Full Text Available Launching safety and efficiency are important indexes to measure the fighting capacity of carrier. The study on path planning for taxi of carrier aircraft launching under actual deck environment is of great significance. In actual deck scheduling, manual command is applied to taxi of carrier aircraft, which has negative effects on the safety of staff and carrier aircraft launching. In consideration of both the safety and efficiency of carrier aircraft launching, the key elements of the problem are abstracted based on the analysis of deck environment, carrier aircraft maneuver performance and task requirements. According to the problem description, the mathematical model is established including various constraints. The carrier aircraft and the obstacles are reasonably simplified as circle and polygons respectively. What’s more, the proposed collision detection model reduces the calculations. Aimed at the features of model, the theory of model predictive control (MPC is applied to the path search. Then a dynamic weight heuristic function is designed and a dynamic multistep optimization algorithm is proposed. Taking the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier as an example, the paths from parking place to catapult are planned, which indicate the rationality of the model and the effectiveness of the algorithm by comparing the planning results under different simulation environments. The main contribution of research is the establishment of obstacle avoidance and path planning model. In addition, it provides the solution of model and technological foundations for comprehensive command and real-time decision-making of the carrier aircraft.

  12. Block division carrier slot setting for satellite SCPC systems (United States)

    Yashima, Hiroyuki; Sasase, Iwao; Mori, Shinsaku


    A carrier slot setting plan is proposed to reduce intermodulation (IM) effects for satellite single-channel-per-carrier (SCPC) systems. Carrier slots are divided into blocks and slight frequency gaps are set among blocks. This setting introduces frequency offset between the center frequencies of carrier slots and the center frequencies of the IM components. A method of deriving optimum division in order to derive the upper bound of improvement of the C/IM ratio in the worst channel is developed. The results show that the setting plan achieves significant improvement of IM effects at a cost of only slight bandwidth expansion, even in fully loaded SCPC systems.

  13. Carrier-mediated transport of peptides by the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopicki, H.A.


    Small peptide transport was characterized to determine if: (1) Multiple carriers are present in the luminal membrane of renal proximal tubular cells; (2) Carrier-mediated peptide transport is limited by size; and (3) Gentamicin inhibits carrier-mediated reabsorption of peptides. Uptake of glycyl-[ 3 H]proline (Gly-Pro) into renal brush border membrane vesicles demonstrated a dual affinity carrier system. Whether multiple carriers are present was further investigated by characterizing the uptake of [ 3 H]pyroglutamyl-histidine. To determine if carrier-mediated transport of peptides is limited by size of the molecule, uptake of the hydrolytically resistant tripeptide, [ 3 H]pryroglutamyl-histidyl-tryptophan (pGlu-His-Trp), and tetrapeptide, [ 3 H]pyroglutamyl-histidyl-tryptophyl-serine (pGlu-His-Trp-Ser) were assessed. These data indicate: multiple carriers exist on the luminal membrane of renal proximal tubular cells for the transport of dipeptides, and tripeptide pGlu-His-Trp and the tetrapeptide pGlu-His-Trp-Ser are not taken up by a carrier-mediated mechanism, suggesting that the carrier may be limited by the size of the substrate

  14. Nonlinear gain suppression in semiconductor lasers due to carrier heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willatzen, M.; Uskov, A.; Moerk, J.; Olesen, H.; Tromborg, B.; Jauho, A.P.


    We present a simple model for carrier heating in semiconductor lasers, from which the temperature dynamics of the electron and hole distributions can be calculated. Analytical expressions for two new contributions to the nonlinear gain coefficient ε are derived, which reflect carrier heating due to stimulated emission and free carrier absorption. In typical cases, carrier heating and spectral holeburning are found to give comparable contributions to nonlinear gain suppression. The results are in good agreement with recent measurements on InGaAsP laser diodes. (orig.)

  15. Oxygen variability and meridional oxygen supply in the tropical North East Atlantic oxygen minimum zone (United States)

    Hahn, Johannes; Brandt, Peter; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Krahmann, Gerd; Körtzinger, Arne


    The oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the tropical North East Atlantic (TNEA) is located between the oxygen-rich equatorial region and the Cape Verde Frontal Zone at about 20°N in a depth range of 300 - 700 m. Its horizontal extent is predominantly defined by the North Equatorial Current and by the equatorial zonal current system ventilating the region to the north and south of the OMZ, respectively. The interior of the OMZ is characterized by a sluggish flow regime, where mesoscale eddies play a major role in the ventilation. In this study we focus on the oxygen variability in the TNEA as well as the eddy driven lateral ventilation of the TNEA OMZ across its southern boundary. During recent years an intense measurement program was executed along 23°W cutting meridionally through the TNEA OMZ. Hydrographic and velocity data has been acquired from ship sections and moorings, together covering the latitude range between 6°S and 14°N with particularly high meridional resolution of shipboard and high temporal resolution of moored observations. Based on shipboard data we derived a meridional section of oxygen variance, which reveals numerous local maxima of oxygen variability. Exemplary, strong oxygen variability is observed at the upper (300m, 5° - 12°N) and the southern boundary (400m - 700m, 5°N - 8°N) of the OMZ, whereas the interior of the OMZ is characterized by weak variability. An application of the extended Osborn-Cox model shows that the strong oxygen variability at the southern boundary is mainly generated by mesoscale eddies. The strong variability at the upper boundary is generated by mesoscale eddies as well as microscale turbulence. We apply two methods to estimate the meridional oxygen flux: 1) a flux gradient parameterization and 2) a correlation of oxygen and velocity mooring time series. From the analysis of the 5°N mooring data we find a northward oxygen flux directed towards the OMZ at its core depth, that is mainly due to variability of

  16. Effect of oxygen concentration on singlet oxygen luminescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Longchao; Lin, Lisheng; Li, Yirong; Lin, Huiyun; Qiu, Zhihai [MOE Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Photonics Technology, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Gu, Ying [Department of Laser Medicine, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Li, Buhong, E-mail: [MOE Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Photonics Technology, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China)


    Singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) is a major phototoxic component in photodynamic therapy (PDT) and its generation is dependent on the availability of tissue oxygen. To examine the effect of oxygen concentration on {sup 1}O{sub 2} detection, two hydrophilic photosensitizer (PS), rose bengal (RB) and meso-metra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetra tosylate (TMPyP) were used as model PS. Irradiation was carried out using 523 nm under hypoxic (2%, 13%), normoxic (21%) and hyperoxic (65%) conditions. The spectral and spatial resolved {sup 1}O{sub 2} luminescence was measured by near-infrared (NIR) photomultiplier tube (PMT) and camera, respectively. Upon the irradiation, the emission signal mainly consisted of background scattering light, PS fluorescence and phosphorescence, and {sup 1}O{sub 2} luminescence. The PS phosphorescence was evidently dependent on the oxygen concentration and PS type, which resulted in the change of emission profile of {sup 1}O{sub 2} luminescence. This change was further demonstrated on {sup 1}O{sub 2} luminescence image. The present study suggests that the low oxygen concentration could affect {sup 1}O{sub 2} luminescence detection. - Highlights: • Both spectral and spatial resolved {sup 1}O{sub 2} luminescence measurements were performed. • Effect of oxygen concentration on {sup 1}O{sub 2} generation was quantitatively evaluated. • Low oxygen concentration could affect {sup 1}O{sub 2} luminescence detection.

  17. Robust GPS carrier tracking under ionospheric scintillation (United States)

    Susi, M.; Andreotti, M.; Aquino, M. H.; Dodson, A.


    Small scale irregularities present in the ionosphere can induce fast and unpredictable fluctuations of Radio Frequency (RF) signal phase and amplitude. This phenomenon, known as scintillation, can degrade the performance of a GPS receiver leading to cycle slips, increasing the tracking error and also producing a complete loss of lock. In the most severe scenarios, if the tracking of multiple satellites links is prevented, outages in the GPS service can also occur. In order to render a GPS receiver more robust under scintillation, particular attention should be dedicated to the design of the carrier tracking stage, that is the receiver's part most sensitive to these types of phenomenon. This paper exploits the reconfigurability and flexibility of a GPS software receiver to develop a tracking algorithm that is more robust under ionospheric scintillation. For this purpose, first of all, the scintillation level is monitored in real time. Indeed the carrier phase and the post correlation terms obtained by the PLL (Phase Locked Loop) are used to estimate phi60 and S4 [1], the scintillation indices traditionally used to quantify the level of phase and amplitude scintillations, as well as p and T, the spectral parameters of the fluctuations PSD. The effectiveness of the scintillation parameter computation is confirmed by comparing the values obtained by the software receiver and the ones provided by a commercial scintillation monitoring, i.e. the Septentrio PolarxS receiver [2]. Then the above scintillation parameters and the signal carrier to noise density are exploited to tune the carrier tracking algorithm. In case of very weak signals the FLL (Frequency Locked Loop) scheme is selected in order to maintain the signal lock. Otherwise an adaptive bandwidth Phase Locked Loop (PLL) scheme is adopted. The optimum bandwidth for the specific scintillation scenario is evaluated in real time by exploiting the Conker formula [1] for the tracking jitter estimation. The performance

  18. Modeling malware propagation using a carrier compartment (United States)

    Hernández Guillén, J. D.; Martín del Rey, A.


    The great majority of mathematical models proposed to simulate malware spreading are based on systems of ordinary differential equations. These are compartmental models where the devices are classified according to some types: susceptible, exposed, infectious, recovered, etc. As far as we know, there is not any model considering the special class of carrier devices. This type is constituted by the devices whose operative systems is not targeted by the malware (for example, iOS devices for Android malware). In this work a novel mathematical model considering this new compartment is considered. Its qualitative study is presented and a detailed analysis of the efficient control measures is shown by studying the basic reproductive number.

  19. Microemulsions as Potential Carriers of Nisin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzidaki, Maria D; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Alexandraki, Voula


    in an increase in the micellar size due to the penetration of water into the hydrophilic core of the inverse swollen micelles (hydration-induced swelling behavior). The dynamic properties of the surfactant monolayer were also affected by the nature of the used vegetable oil, the ethanol content, and the presence......Water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions based on either refined olive oil (ROO) or sunflower oil (SO), distilled monoglycerides (DMG), and ethanol were used as nisin carriers in order to ensure its effectiveness as a biopreservative. This work presents experimental evidence on the effects of ethanol....... Modeling of representative SAXS profiles was applied to gain further insight into the effects of ethanol and solubilized water content on the inverse swollen micelles' size and morphology. With increasing ethanol content, the overall size of the inverse micelles decreased, whereas hydration resulted...

  20. Carrier Induced Magnetism In Correlated Materials (United States)

    Lee, Byounghak; Trivedi, Nandini; Zhang, Shiwei; Martin, Richard


    We study a two dimensional Hubbard model with magnetic impurities using a combination of single particle and quantum Monte Carlo techniques. Our aim is to determine the interaction between magnetic ions in both strongly interacting hosts, such as magnetic perovskites, and weakly interacting hosts, such as magnetic semiconductors. In the first step, the interactions are treated within an inhomogeneous Hartree-Fock approach and self-consistency is demanded at each site, providing a more accurate treatment of disorder effects compared with other mean-field treatments such as virtual crystal and coherent potential approximations. These are then augmented with determinantal quantum Monte Carlo techniques that treat the electron interactions more accurately. We calculate the exchange coupling as a function of the magnetic impurity concentration, the repulsive electron-electron interaction, carrier concentration, and temperature. We compare the calculated local density of states with STM measurements and also obtain the ferromagnetic transition temperature.

  1. Measurement of carrier mobility in silicon nanowires. (United States)

    Gunawan, Oki; Sekaric, Lidija; Majumdar, Amlan; Rooks, Michael; Appenzeller, Joerg; Sleight, Jeffrey W; Guha, Supratik; Haensch, Wilfried


    We report the first direct capacitance measurements of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and the consequent determination of field carrier mobilities in undoped-channel SiNW field-effect transistors (FETs) at room temperature. We employ a two-FET method for accurate extraction of the intrinsic channel resistance and intrinsic channel capacitance of the SiNWs. The devices used in this study were fabricated using a top-down method to create SiNW FETs with up to 1000 wires in parallel for increasing the raw capacitance while maintaining excellent control on device dimensions and series resistance. We found that, compared with the universal mobility curves for bulk silicon, the electron and hole mobilities in nanowires are comparable to those of the surface orientation that offers a lower mobility.

  2. Carrier illumination measurement of dopant lateral diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiarto, E.; Segovia, M.; Borden, P.; Felch, S.


    This paper describes the application of the carrier illumination technique to non-destructively measure the lateral diffusion of implanted dopants after annealing. Experiments to validate the feasibility of this method employed test structures with a constant line width of 300 nm and varying undoped spaces of 100-5000 nm. The test patterns were implanted with a p-type dopant and annealed in a 3 x 3 matrix. For each implant condition, the measured lateral diffusion was found to increase with annealing temperature, as expected. More interestingly, the lateral diffusion was not observed to relate to the vertical diffusion by a fixed proportionality factor, as is usually assumed. The ratio of lateral to vertical diffusion varies with annealing temperature, with a trend that depends on the implant condition

  3. Viscoelastic gravel-pack carrier fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehmer, W.L.


    The ability of a fluid to flow adequately into the formation during gravel-pack treatments is critical to achieving a good pack. Recent studies have indicated ''fish-eyes'' and/or ''microgels'' present in many polymer gelled carrier fluids will plug pore throats, leading to impaired leakoff and causing formation damage. Intensive manipulation of the polymer gelled fluid using shear and filter devices will help remove the particles, but it adds to the cost of the treatment in terms of equipment and manpower. Excessive shear will degrade the polymer leading to poor gravel suspension, while too little shear will cause filtration problems. A gelled carried fluid using a viscoelastic surfactant system has been found to leak off very efficiently to the formation, and cause no formation damage, without the use of shear/filter devices. Viscoelastic surfactant-base gelled fluids develop viscosity because of the association of surfactant moloecules into large rod-shaped aggregates. There is no hydration of polymer involved, so fish-eyes and microgels will not be formed in the viscoelastic fluid. A surfactant-base system having a yield point allows the gravel carrying properties to be much better than fluids gelled with conventional polymer systems (hydroxyethylcellulose [HEC]). For example, a gravel carried fluid gelled with 80 lb HEC/1,000 gal has a viscosity of about 400 cp at 170 sec/sup -1/; a viscoelastic surfactant-base system having only one-half the viscosity still flows into cores about four times more efficiently than the HEC-base fluid. The rheology, leakoff, formation damage and mixing properties of a viscoelastic, surfactant-base, gravel-pack carrier fluid are discussed

  4. A new device to select carriers for biomass immobilization and application in an aerobic/anaerobic fixed-bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor for nitrogen removal. (United States)

    Sarti, A; Lamon, A W; Ono, A; Foresti, E


    This study proposes a new approach to selecting a biofilm carrier for immobilization using dissolved oxygen (DO) microsensors to measure the thickness of aerobic and anaerobic layers in biofilm. The biofilm carriers tested were polyurethane foam, mineral coal (MC), basaltic gravel, and low-density polyethylene. Development of layers in the biofilm carrier surface was evaluated using a flow cell device, and DO profiles were conducted to determine the size of the layers (aerobic and anaerobic). MC was the biofilm carrier selected due to allowing the development of larger aerobic and anaerobic layers in the biofilm (896 and 1,058 μm, respectively). This ability is supposed to improve simultaneous nitrogen removal by nitrification and denitrification biological processes. Thus, as a biofilm carrier, MC was used in a fixed-bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (FB-SBBR) for treatment of wastewater with a high ammonia concentration (100-400 mgNH 4 + -N L -1 ). The FB-SBBR (15.0 L) was filled with matrices of the carrier and operated under alternating aeration and non-aeration periods of 6 h each. At a mean nitrogen loading rate of 0.55 ± 0.10 kgNH 4 + -N m -3 d -1 , the reactor attained a mean nitrification efficiency of 95 ± 9% with nitrite as the main product (aerobic period). Mean denitrification efficiency during the anoxic period was 72 ± 13%.

  5. Integration of oxygen membranes for oxygen production in cement plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Søgaard, Martin; Hjuler, Klaus


    The present paper describes the integration of oxygen membranes in cement plants both from an energy, exergy and economic point of view. Different configurations for oxygen enrichment of the tertiary air for combustion in the pre-calciner and full oxy-fuel combustion in both pre-calciner and kiln...... a concentrated CO2 source that can be used for enhanced oil recovery, in combination with biomass gasification and electrolysis for synthesis gas production, or possibly sequestered. The cases with oxygen enriched air provide very promising economic figures of merit with discounted payback periods slightly...

  6. Oxygen electrodes for ceramic fuel cells with proton and oxide ion conducting electrolytes


    Strandbakke, Ragnar


    The overall aim of this work is to contribute to a better understanding of the reactions taking place at the oxygen electrode in proton ceramic fuel cells (PCFCs) and, moreover, to develop new materials with improved performance for this electrode. PCFCs and their cathode reactions are the main focus of the study, but these reactions are often running in parallel with reactions associated with other charge carriers that also need to be addressed. Most proton conducting ceramics exhibit also t...

  7. Evaluation of oxygenation time in SmBa2Cu3O7-δ superconductors ceramics in air and ozone atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, P.R.P; Cunha, A.G.


    High temperature superconductors (HTSC) represent a major milestone in science. During the preparation of superconductors, oxygenation plays a key role, because oxygenation determines the distribution of charge carriers in these plans through the superconducting Cu-O and hence superconductivity. This paper proposes the preparation of polycrystalline superconductors using the ceramic method, and the step of oxygenation made with ozone gas (O 3 ). Ozone exerts chemical pressure on the compound, which has oxygen vacancies in its structure after the step of synthesis. The work was performed by varying the time between oxygenation 20, 40, 80 and 160 hours, with samples going through a process of oxygenation at 350 deg C after the step of synthesis. This study evaluates the time effect as oxygen can improve the superconducting properties such as resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. (author)

  8. Monitoring Cerebral Oxygenation in Neonates: An Update (United States)

    Dix, Laura Marie Louise; van Bel, Frank; Lemmers, Petra Maria Anna


    Cerebral oxygenation is not always reflected by systemic arterial oxygenation. Therefore, regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) monitoring with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is of added value in neonatal intensive care. rScO2 represents oxygen supply to the brain, while cerebral fractional tissue oxygen extraction, which is the ratio between rScO2 and systemic arterial oxygen saturation, reflects cerebral oxygen utilization. The balance between oxygen supply and utilization provides insight in neonatal cerebral (patho-)physiology. This review highlights the potential and limitations of cerebral oxygenation monitoring with NIRS in the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:28352624

  9. Oxygen labelled CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, K.-D.; Heller, H.


    Tests were carried out as to whether additional information concerning pulmonary gas exchange could be obtained from the application of oxygen labelled carbon dioxide. Single breath experiments were performed on two healthy subjects with 0.1 percent C 16 O 18 O and 2.8 percent C 18 O 2 in the inspiratory gas. Breath-hold time was varied between 0.5-20s in different experiments. The 18 O-concentration of the end-expired gas bi-exponentially decreased with increasing breath-hold time. The high and low rate constants 4s -1 and 0.12s -1 for C 18 O 2 and 2.5s -1 and 0.87s -1 for C 16 O 18 O were derived, respectively. These results, together with model calculations, suggest: 1) the rapid disappearance of C 18 O 2 from the alveolar space is primarily limited by diffusion, so that this isotopic species can be applied to quantify pulmonary diffusing conditions; 2) the lower disappearance rate of C 16 O 18 O is caused by a lower equilibration kinetics in blood, so that this isotopic species offers a possibility to study carbonic anhydrase activity of the red cells in vivo; 3) the slow phase of label decay is influenced by both alveolar dead space and carbonic anhydrase activity of the pulmonary tissues. Pathological dead spaces are expected to be sensitively detectable by C 16 O 18 O as well as by C 18 O 2 . (author). 4 refs.; 4 figs

  10. Carrier dynamics in InAs/AlAs quantum dots: lack in carrier transfer from wetting layer to quantum dots. (United States)

    Shamirzaev, T S; Abramkin, D S; Nenashev, A V; Zhuravlev, K S; Trojánek, F; Dzurnák, B; Malý, P


    Structures with self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in an AlAs matrix have been studied by steady-state and transient photoluminescence. It has been shown that in contrast to InAs/GaAs QD systems carriers are mainly captured by quantum dots directly from the AlAs matrix, while transfer of carriers captured by the wetting layer far away from QDs to the QDs is suppressed. At low temperatures the carriers captured by the wetting layer are localized by potential fluctuations at the wetting layer interface, while at high temperatures the carriers are delocalized but captured by nonradiative centers located in the wetting layer.

  11. Oxygenates vs. synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Alessandra Beretta; Maria A. Burcham; Qun Sun; Yeping Cai; Biswanath Roy


    Methanol synthesis from H{sub 2}/CO has been carried out at 7.6 MPa over zirconia-supported copper catalysts. Catalysts with nominal compositions of 10/90 mol% and 30/70 mol% Cu/ZrO{sub 2} were used in this study. Additionally, a 3 mol% cesium-doped 10/90 catalyst was prepared to study the effect of doping with heavy alkali, and this promoter greatly increased the methanol productivity. The effects of CO{sub 2} addition, water injection, reaction temperature, and H{sub 2}/C0 ratio have been investigated. Both CO{sub 2} addition to the synthesis gas and cesium doping of the catalyst promoted methanol synthesis, while inhibiting the synthesis of dimethyl ether. Injection of water, however, was found to slightly suppress methanol and dimethyl ether formation while being converted to CO{sub 2} via the water gas shift reaction over these catalysts. There was no clear correlation between copper surface area and catalyst activity. Surface analysis of the tested samples revealed that copper tended to migrate and enrich the catalyst surface. The concept of employing a double-bed reactor with a pronounced temperature gradient to enhance higher alcohol synthesis was explored, and it was found that utilization of a Cs-promoted Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a first lower temperature bed and a Cs-promoted ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a second high-temperature bed significantly promoted the productivity of 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol) from H{sub 2}/CO synthesis gas mixtures. While the conversion of CO to C{sub 2+} oxygenates over the double-bed configuration was comparable to that observed over the single Cu-based catalyst, major changes in the product distribution occurred by the coupling to the zinc chromite catalyst; that is, the productivity of the C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} alcohols decreased dramatically, and 2-methyl branched alcohols were selectively formed. The desirable methanol/2-methyl oxygenate molar ratios close to 1 were obtained in the present double

  12. Carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis in families with haemophilia. (United States)

    Shetty, S; Ghosh, K; Bhide, A; Mohanty, D


    Haemophilias are the commonest X-linked disorders affecting approximately 1 in 10,000 male births. Detection of carrier women in families with haemophilia and subsequent antenatal diagnosis of confirmed carriers are important services for these patients and their relatives. Over the last 6 years we performed carrier detection and antenatal diagnosis in families with patients of haemophilia A and B. During the last 6 years, 159 families with haemophilia A and B were analysed for carrier detection by DNA analysis, using various polymorphic markers of factors VIII and IX genes. The polymorphisms used were intron 18 Bcl I, intron 19 Hind III, intron 22 Xbal and DXS52/St14 of the factor VIII gene and intron I Ddel, intron 4 Taql, 3 Hhal and Residue 148 codon Mnll of the factor IX gene. There were 189 probable carriers (whose carrier status was not known) and 99 obligatory carriers (confirmed carriers by family pedigree analysis) from 102 families with haemophilia A. Of the 57 families with haemophilia B analysed, there were 98 probable and 52 obligatory carriers. All the analyses were carried out by polymerase chain reaction. For antenatal diagnosis, prior to polymorphism analysis, the sex of the foetus was detected by Y chromosome-specific amplification. One hundred and four females were diagnosed as carriers and 63 as non-carriers by the intragenic polymorphic markers in families with haemophilia A. Eighteen women were informative with only the extragenic marker of factor VIII gene. Four women were not informative with any of the markers used. In families with haemophilia B, 37 women were diagnosed as carriers and 34 as non-carriers by the intragenic markers and 34 were informative only with the extragenic markers. Seventeen women were not informative with any of the markers used. Of the 25 antenatal diagnoses performed (20 haemophilia A, 5 haemophilia B) using the same markers as those used in carrier detection, 14 were male foetuses and 11 female as detected by Y


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.F. Loros


    The Carrier Preparation Building Materials Handling System receives rail and truck shipping casks from the Carrier/Cask Transport System, and inspects and prepares the shipping casks for return to the Carrier/Cask Transport System. Carrier preparation operations for carriers/casks received at the surface repository include performing a radiation survey of the carrier and cask, removing/retracting the personnel barrier, measuring the cask temperature, removing/retracting the impact limiters, removing the cask tie-downs (if any), and installing the cask trunnions (if any). The shipping operations for carriers/casks leaving the surface repository include removing the cask trunnions (if any), installing the cask tie-downs (if any), installing the impact limiters, performing a radiation survey of the cask, and installing the personnel barrier. There are four parallel carrier/cask preparation lines installed in the Carrier Preparation Building with two preparation bays in each line, each of which can accommodate carrier/cask shipping and receiving. The lines are operated concurrently to handle the waste shipping throughputs and to allow system maintenance operations. One remotely operated overhead bridge crane and one remotely operated manipulator is provided for each pair of carrier/cask preparation lines servicing four preparation bays. Remotely operated support equipment includes a manipulator and tooling and fixtures for removing and installing personnel barriers, impact limiters, cask trunnions, and cask tie-downs. Remote handling equipment is designed to facilitate maintenance, dose reduction, and replacement of interchangeable components where appropriate. Semi-automatic, manual, and backup control methods support normal, abnormal, and recovery operations. Laydown areas and equipment are included as required for transportation system components (e.g., personnel barriers and impact limiters), fixtures, and tooling to support abnormal and recovery operations. The

  14. When is a carrier not a membrane carrier? The cytoplasmic transport of amphipathic molecules. (United States)

    Weisiger, R A


    After entering the cell, small molecules must penetrate the cytoplasm before they are metabolized, excreted, or can convey information to the cell nucleus. Without efficient cytoplasmic transport, most such molecules would efflux back out of the cell before they could reach their targets. Cytoplasmic movement of amphipathic molecules (e.g., long-chain fatty acids, bilirubin, bile acids) is greatly slowed by their tendency to bind intracellular structures. Soluble cytoplasmic binding proteins reduce this binding by increasing the aqueous solubility of their ligands. These soluble carriers catalyze the transport of hydrophobic molecules across hydrophilic water layers, just as membrane carriers catalyze the transport of hydrophilic molecules across the hydrophobic membrane core. They even display the kinetic features of carrier-mediated transport, including saturation, mutual competition between similar molecules, and countertransport. Recent data suggest that amphipathic molecules cross the cytoplasm very slowly, with apparent diffusion constants 10(2) to 10(4) times smaller than in water. By modulating the rate of cytoplasmic transport, cytosolic binding proteins may regulate transport and metabolism of amphipathic molecules. Storage diseases may cause hepatocellular dysfunction by disrupting normal cytoplasmic transport.

  15. Oxygen diffusion in cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routbort, J.L.; Rothman, S.J.


    Superconducting properties of the cuprate superconductors depend on the oxygen content of the material; the diffusion of oxygen is thus an important process in the fabrication and application of these materials. This article reviews studies of the diffusion of oxygen in La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 , YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7- δ, YBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 , and the Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca n-1 Cu n O 2+4 (n = 1, and 2) superconductors, and attempt to elucidate the atomic mechanisms responsible

  16. Oxygen treatment of cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anja S; Barloese, Mads C J; Jensen, Rigmor H


    PURPOSE: Our aim was to review the existing literature to document oxygen's therapeutic effect on cluster headache. METHOD: A PubMed search resulted in 28 hits, and from these and their references we found in total 11 relevant studies. We included six studies that investigated the efficacy......, but not a prophylactic effect. Despite the fact that only a few high-quality RCT studies are available, oxygen treatment is close to an ideal treatment because it is effective and safe. However, sufferers of cluster headache do not always have access to oxygen because of logistic and financial concerns....

  17. Analysis of thermoelectric properties of amorphous InGaZnO thin film by controlling carrier concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Fujimoto


    Full Text Available We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO thin films optimized by adjusting the carrier concentration. The a-IGZO films were produced under various oxygen flow ratios. The Seebeck coefficient and the electrical conductivity were measured from 100 to 400 K. We found that the power factor (PF at 300 K had a maximum value of 82 × 10−6 W/mK2, where the carrier density was 7.7 × 1019 cm−3. Moreover, the obtained data was analyzed by fitting the percolation model. Theoretical analysis revealed that the Fermi level was located approximately above the potential barrier when the PF became maximal. The thermoelectric properties were controlled by the relationship between the position of Fermi level and the height of potential energy barriers.

  18. Tracking Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Single Semiconductor Nanowire Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor A.J.


    Full Text Available An understanding of non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in silicon (Si nanowires (NWs and NW heterostructures is very important due to their many nanophotonic and nanoelectronics applications. Here, we describe the first measurements of ultrafast carrier dynamics and diffusion in single heterostructured Si nanowires, obtained using ultrafast optical microscopy. By isolating individual nanowires, we avoid complications resulting from the broad size and alignment distribution in nanowire ensembles, allowing us to directly probe ultrafast carrier dynamics in these quasi-one-dimensional systems. Spatially-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy demonstrates the influence of surface-mediated mechanisms on carrier dynamics in a single NW, while polarization-resolved femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy reveals a clear anisotropy in carrier lifetimes measured parallel and perpendicular to the NW axis, due to density-dependent Auger recombination. Furthermore, separating the pump and probe spots along the NW axis enabled us to track space and time dependent carrier diffusion in radial and axial NW heterostructures. These results enable us to reveal the influence of radial and axial interfaces on carrier dynamics and charge transport in these quasi-one-dimensional nanosystems, which can then be used to tailor carrier relaxation in a single nanowire heterostructure for a given application.

  19. Investigation of carrier oil stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The polyunsaturated carrier oil (flaxseed oil) is used as a stabilizing agent for iron oxide nanoparticles. Kirby Bauer method was used to investigate the antibiotic sensitivity of carrier oil stabilized and uncoated SPIONs at 10 and 20 μg/L on Gram-positive ...

  20. 40 CFR 792.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mixtures of substances with carriers... § 792.113 Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that... the uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test, control...

  1. 40 CFR 160.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that is mixed with... uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test, control, or...

  2. Current Consumption Measurements with a Carrier Aggregation Smartphone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Mejias, Rafael; Guo, Yu; Lauridsen, Mads


    Carrier Aggregation (CA) is introduced in LTE release 10 to improve data rates by allowing the User Equipment (UE) to receive data on more than one LTE carrier. The related increased complexity is expected to affect the UE current consumption, but yet no empirical evaluation has been published on...

  3. Importance of polaron effects for charge carrier mobility above and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Orifjon Ganiev


    May 30, 2017 ... It is shown that the scattering of polaronic charge carriers and bosonic Cooper pairs at acoustic and optical phonons are responsible for the charge carrier mobility above and below the PG temperature. We show that the energy scales of the binding energies of large polarons and polaronic Cooper pairs.

  4. 19 CFR 192.4 - Liability of carriers. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability of carriers. 192.4 Section 192.4 Customs... Liability of carriers. Under the provisions of 19 U.S.C. 1436, the vessel master is charged with the... inaccurately described thereon, a liability for penalties may be incurred. ...

  5. Characterization of the "Escherichia Coli" Acyl Carrier Protein Phosphodiesterase (United States)

    Thomas, Jacob


    Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a small essential protein that functions as a carrier of the acyl intermediates of fatty acid synthesis. ACP requires the posttranslational attachment of a 4'phosphopantetheine functional group, derived from CoA, in order to perform its metabolic function. A Mn[superscript 2+] dependent enzymatic activity that removes…

  6. 47 CFR 73.1545 - Carrier frequency departure tolerances. (United States)


    ... departure tolerances. (a) AM stations. The departure of the carrier frequency for monophonic transmissions... authorized transmitter output power more than 10 watts may not exceed ±2000 Hz from the assigned frequency. (2) The departure of the carrier or center frequency of an FM station with an authorized transmitter...

  7. Proposal for tutorial: Resilience in carrier Ethernet transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stübert; Wessing, Henrik; Ruepp, Sarah Renée


    This tutorial addresses how Carrier Ethernet technologies can be used in the transport network to provide resilience to the packet layer. Carrier Ethernet networks based on PBB-TE and T-MPLS/MPLS-TP are strong candidates for reliable transport of triple-play services. These technologies offer...

  8. Heat to electricity conversion by cold carrier emissive energy harvesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, Rune [Department of Engineering Sciences, University of Agder, Jon Lilletuns vei 9, 4879 Grimstad (Norway)


    This paper suggests a method to convert heat to electricity by the use of devices called cold carrier emissive energy harvesters (cold carrier EEHs). The working principle of such converters is explained and theoretical power densities and efficiencies are calculated for ideal devices. Cold carrier EEHs are based on the same device structure as hot carrier solar cells, but works in an opposite way. Whereas a hot carrier solar cell receives net radiation from the sun and converts some of this radiative heat flow into electricity, a cold carrier EEH sustains a net outflux of radiation to the surroundings while converting some of the energy supplied to it into electricity. It is shown that the most basic type of cold carrier EEHs have the same theoretical efficiency as the ideal emissive energy harvesters described earlier by Byrnes et al. In the present work, it is also shown that if the emission from the cold carrier EEH originates from electron transitions across an energy gap where a difference in the chemical potential of the electrons above and below the energy gap is sustained, power densities slightly higher than those given by Byrnes et al. can be achieved.

  9. Carrier screening in the era of expanding genetic technology. (United States)

    Arjunan, Aishwarya; Litwack, Karen; Collins, Nick; Charrow, Joel


    The Center for Jewish Genetics provides genetic education and carrier screening to individuals of Jewish descent. Carrier screening has traditionally been performed by targeted mutation analysis for founder mutations with an enzyme assay for Tay-Sachs carrier detection. The development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) allows for higher detection rates regardless of ethnicity. Here, we explore differences in carrier detection rates between genotyping and NGS in a primarily Jewish population. Peripheral blood samples or saliva samples were obtained from 506 individuals. All samples were analyzed by sequencing, targeted genotyping, triplet-repeat detection, and copy-number analysis; the analyses were carried out at Counsyl. Of 506 individuals screened, 288 were identified as carriers of at least 1 condition and 8 couples were carriers for the same disorder. A total of 434 pathogenic variants were identified. Three hundred twelve variants would have been detected via genotyping alone. Although no additional mutations were detected by NGS in diseases routinely screened for in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, 26.5% of carrier results and 2 carrier couples would have been missed without NGS in the larger panel. In a primarily Jewish population, NGS reveals a larger number of pathogenic variants and provides individuals with valuable information for family planning.Genet Med 18 12, 1214-1217.

  10. Importance of polaron effects for charge carrier mobility above and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that the scattering of polaronic charge carriers and bosonic Cooper pairs at acoustic and optical phonons are responsible for the charge carrier mobility above and below the PG temperature. We show that the energy scales of the binding energies of large polarons and polaronic Cooper pairs can be identified by ...

  11. Screening in crystalline liquids protects energetic carriers in hybrid perovskites (United States)

    Zhu, Haiming; Miyata, Kiyoshi; Fu, Yongping; Wang, Jue; Joshi, Prakriti; Niesner, Daniel; Williams, Kristopher; Jin, Song; Zhu, Xiaoyang

    Hybrid lead halide perovskites exhibit carrier properties that resemble those of pristine nonpolar semiconductors despite static and dynamic disorder, but how carriers are protected from efficient scattering with charged defects and optical phonons is unknown. Here, we reveal the carrier protection mechanism by comparing three single-crystal lead bromide perovskites: CH3NH3PbBr3, CH(NH2)2PbBr3, and CsPbBr3. We observed hot fluorescence emission from energetic carriers with 102 picosecond lifetimes in CH3NH3PbBr3 or CH(NH,SUB>2)2PbBr3, but not in CsPbBr3. The hot fluorescence is correlated with liquid-like molecular reorientational motions, suggesting that dynamic screening protects energetic carriers via solvation or large polaron formation on time scales competitive with that of ultrafast cooling. Similar protections likely exist for band-edge carriers. The long-lived energetic carriers may enable hot-carrier solar cells with efficiencies exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit. This work was supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant ER46980, National Science Foundation, Grant DMR 1420634 (MRSEC), and Department of Energy Award DE-FG02-09ER46664.

  12. Cardiac involvement in carriers of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwaard, E. M.; van der Wouw, P. A.; Wilde, A. A.; Bakker, E.; Ippel, P. F.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; Majoor-Krakauer, D. F.; van Essen, A. J.; Leschot, N. J.; de Visser, M.


    A cross-sectional study in a cohort of DNA proven carriers of Duchenne (DMD) and Becker (BMD) muscular dystrophy was undertaken with the following objectives: (1) to estimate the frequency of electrocardiographic (ECG) and echocardiographic abnormalities; (2) to establish the proportion of carriers

  13. Cardiac involvement in carriers of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwaard, EM; van der Wouw, PA; Wilde, AAM; Bakker, E; Ippel, PF; Oosterwijk, JC; Majoor-Krakauer, DF; van Essen, AJ; Leschot, NJ; de Visser, Marianne

    A cross-sectional study in a cohort of DNA proven carriers of Duchenne (DMD) and Becker (BMD) muscular dystrophy was undertaken with the following objectives: (1) to estimate the frequency of electrocardiographic (ECG) and echocardiographic abnormalities; (2) to establish the proportion of carriers

  14. Carrier dynamics in femtosecond-laser-excited bismuth telluride (United States)

    Wang, J. L.; Guo, L.; Ling, C.; Song, Y. M.; Xu, X. F.; Ni, Z. H.; Chen, Y. F.


    The carrier dynamics of B i2T e3 is studied using the femtosecond pump-probe technique. Three distinct processes, including free carrier absorption, band filling, and electron-hole recombination, are found to contribute to the reflectivity changes. The two-temperature model is used to describe the intraband energy relaxation process of carriers, and the Drude contribution well explains the intensity dependence of the peak values of the nonoscillatory component in the reflectivity signal. The combined effects of free carrier absorption and band filling result in a reflection minimum at about 2 ps after laser excitation. The nonzero background signal increases linearly with the pump fluence, which is attributed to the electron-hole recombination. Finally, our results provide an illustration of investigating the carrier dynamics in semiconductors from the ultrafast reflectivity spectra.

  15. Imaging ballistic carrier trajectories in graphene using scanning gate microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Sei; Masubuchi, Satoru [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Dou, Ziwei; Wang, Shu-Wei; Smith, Charles G.; Connolly, Malcolm R., E-mail: [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Machida, Tomoki, E-mail: [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)


    We use scanning gate microscopy to map out the trajectories of ballistic carriers in high-mobility graphene encapsulated by hexagonal boron nitride and subject to a weak magnetic field. We employ a magnetic focusing geometry to image carriers that emerge ballistically from an injector, follow a cyclotron path due to the Lorentz force from an applied magnetic field, and land on an adjacent collector probe. The local electric field generated by the scanning tip in the vicinity of the carriers deflects their trajectories, modifying the proportion of carriers focused into the collector. By measuring the voltage at the collector while scanning the tip, we are able to obtain images with arcs that are consistent with the expected cyclotron motion. We also demonstrate that the tip can be used to redirect misaligned carriers back to the collector.

  16. Clinical manifestations of intermediate allele carriers in Huntington disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cubo, Esther; Ramos-Arroyo, María A; Martinez-Horta, Saul


    into IA carriers (27-35 CAG) and controls (IA carriers and controls were compared for sociodemographic, environmental, and outcome measures. We used regression analysis to estimate the association of age and CAG repeats on the UHDRS scores. RESULTS: Of 12......OBJECTIVE: There is controversy about the clinical consequences of intermediate alleles (IAs) in Huntington disease (HD). The main objective of this study was to establish the clinical manifestations of IA carriers for a prospective, international, European HD registry. METHODS: We assessed......,190 participants, 657 (5.38%) with IA carriers (11.56%) and 581 controls (88.44%). After correcting for multiple comparisons, at baseline, we found no significant differences between IA carriers and controls for total UHDRS motor, SF-36, behavioral, cognitive, or TFC scores...

  17. Anisotropic charged impurity-limited carrier mobility in monolayer phosphorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong Wei [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, Singapore 138632 (Singapore)


    The room temperature carrier mobility in atomically thin 2D materials is usually far below the intrinsic limit imposed by phonon scattering as a result of scattering by remote charged impurities in its environment. We simulate the charged impurity-limited carrier mobility μ in bare and encapsulated monolayer phosphorene. We find a significant temperature dependence in the carrier mobilities (μ ∝ T{sup −γ}) that results from the temperature variability of the charge screening and varies with the crystal orientation. The anisotropy in the effective mass leads to an anisotropic carrier mobility, with the mobility in the armchair direction about one order of magnitude larger than in the zigzag direction. In particular, this mobility anisotropy is enhanced at low temperatures and high carrier densities. Under encapsulation with a high-κ overlayer, the mobility increases by up to an order of magnitude although its temperature dependence and its anisotropy are reduced.

  18. [Attachment theory and baby slings/carriers: technological network formation]. (United States)

    Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Lin, Wan-Shiuan


    Healthcare providers recognize the important role played by attachment theory in explaining the close relationship between mental health and social behavior in mothers and their children. This paper uses attachment theory in a socio-cultural context to ascertain the mechanism by which baby slings/carriers, a new technology, produced and reproduced the scientific motherhood. It further applies a social history of technology perspective to understand how baby carriers and attachment theory are socially constructed and historically contingent on three major transformations. These transformations include the use of attachment theory-based baby carriers to further scientific motherhood; the use of baby slings/carriers to further the medicalization of breastfeeding and enhance mother-infant attachment; and the use of baby slings/carriers to transform woman's identities by integrating scientific motherhood, independence and fashion. Implications for nursing clinical policy are suggested.

  19. Anisotropic charged impurity-limited carrier mobility in monolayer phosphorene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong Wei


    The room temperature carrier mobility in atomically thin 2D materials is usually far below the intrinsic limit imposed by phonon scattering as a result of scattering by remote charged impurities in its environment. We simulate the charged impurity-limited carrier mobility μ in bare and encapsulated monolayer phosphorene. We find a significant temperature dependence in the carrier mobilities (μ ∝ T −γ ) that results from the temperature variability of the charge screening and varies with the crystal orientation. The anisotropy in the effective mass leads to an anisotropic carrier mobility, with the mobility in the armchair direction about one order of magnitude larger than in the zigzag direction. In particular, this mobility anisotropy is enhanced at low temperatures and high carrier densities. Under encapsulation with a high-κ overlayer, the mobility increases by up to an order of magnitude although its temperature dependence and its anisotropy are reduced

  20. Properties of the oxygen vacancy in ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, D.M.; Pfisterer, D.; Sann, J.; Meyer, B.K. [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, I. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Tena-Zaera, R.; Munoz-Sanjose, V. [Universitat de Valencia, Dept. Fisica Aplicada I Electromagnetisme, Burjassot (Spain); Frank, T.; Pensl, G. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Erlangen (Germany)


    As-grown ZnO bulk crystals and crystals annealed in vacuum, oxygen, or zinc vapour were characterized by electrical, optical and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The experiments show that the residual carrier concentration is caused by residual H, Al, Ga and oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) in the material. Annealing the samples in O{sub 2} at about 1000 C (2 atm, 20 h) reduces the H and V{sub O} donor concentration by typically one order of magnitude. The photoluminescence and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) results suggest a correlation between the broad unstructured emission at 2.45 eV (''green band'') and a donor level 530 meV below the conduction band, it is attributed to the V{sub O} {sup 0/++}transition. By using DLTS experiments with optical excitation it is possible to observe a metastable level 140 meV below the conduction band which is assigned to the V{sub O} {sup 2+/+} recharging. The results give evidence for the ''negative-U'' properties of the oxygen vacancy defects predicted by recent theoretical calculations. (orig.)

  1. Gallic acid grafting effect on delivery performance and antiglaucoma efficacy of antioxidant-functionalized intracameral pilocarpine carriers. (United States)

    Chou, Shih-Feng; Luo, Li-Jyuan; Lai, Jui-Yang


    Functionalization of therapeutic carrier biomaterials can potentially provide additional benefits in drug delivery for disease treatment. Given that this modification determines final therapeutic efficacy of drug carriers, here, we investigate systematically the role of grafting amount of antioxidant gallic acid (GA) onto GN in situ gelling copolymers made of biodegradable gelatin and thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) for intracameral delivery of pilocarpine in antiglaucoma treatment. As expected, increasing redox reaction time increased total antioxidant activities and free radical scavenging abilities of synthesized carrier biomaterials. The hydrophilic nature of antioxidant molecules strongly affected physicochemical properties of carrier materials with varying GA grafting amounts, thereby dictating in vitro release behaviors and mechanisms of pilocarpine. In vitro oxidative stress challenges revealed that biocompatible carriers with high GA content alleviated lens epithelial cell damage and reduced reactive oxygen species. Intraocular pressure and pupil diameter in glaucomatous rabbits showed correlations with GA-mediated release of pilocarpine. Additionally, enhanced pharmacological treatment effects prevented corneal endothelial cell loss during disease progression. Increasing GA content increased total antioxidant level and decreased nitrite level in the aqueous humor, suggesting a much improved antioxidant status in glaucomatous eyes. This work significantly highlights the dependence of physicochemical properties, drug release behaviors, and bioactivities on intrinsic antioxidant capacities of therapeutic carrier biomaterials for glaucoma treatment. Development of injectable biodegradable polymer depots and functionalization of carrier biomaterials with antioxidant can potentially provide benefits such as improved bioavailability, controlled release pattern, and increased therapeutic effect in intracameral pilocarpine administration for glaucoma

  2. Oxygenates to hike gasoline price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This paper reports that cost of achieving required US gasoline formulations this winter in Environmental Protection Agency carbon monoxide (CO) nonattainment areas could reach 3-5 cents/gal, an Energy Information Administration analysis has found. EIA says new winter demand for gasoline blending oxygenates such as methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) or ethanol created by 190 amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) will exceed US oxygenate production by 140,000-220,000 b/d. The shortfall must be made up from inventory or imports. EIA estimates the cost of providing incremental oxygenate to meet expected gasoline blending demand likely will result in a price premium of about 20 cents/gal of MTBE equivalent over traditional gasoline blend octane value. That cost likely will be added to the price of oxygenated gasoline

  3. [Oxygen therapy in wound treatment]. (United States)

    Baffie, Aurélie; Gérard, Maud; Varlin, Valérie; Fromantin, Isabelle; Perceau, Géraldine


    The observation of a device delivering oxygen locally on twelve patients with chronic wounds for which conventional treatments have had little or no effect, aims to assess the benefit of the local use of oxygen on complex wounds. The main benefits observed are the obtaining of high quality tissue formation and a notable reduction in pain. These encouraging initial results merit being backed up by a comparative clinical study.

  4. Carrier priming or suppression: understanding carrier priming enhancement of anti-polysaccharide antibody response to conjugate vaccines. (United States)

    Pobre, Karl; Tashani, Mohamed; Ridda, Iman; Rashid, Harunor; Wong, Melanie; Booy, Robert


    With the availability of newer conjugate vaccines, immunization schedules have become increasingly complex due to the potential for unpredictable immunologic interference such as 'carrier priming' and 'carrier induced epitopic suppression'. Carrier priming refers to an augmented antibody response to a carbohydrate portion of a glycoconjugate vaccine in an individual previously primed with the carrier protein. This review aims to provide a critical evaluation of the available data on carrier priming (and suppression) and conceptualize ways by which this phenomenon can be utilized to strengthen vaccination schedules. We conducted this literature review by searching well-known databases to date to identify relevant studies, then extracted and synthesized the data on carrier priming of widely used conjugate polysaccharide vaccines, such as, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenCV) and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines (HibV). We found evidence of carrier priming with some conjugate vaccines, particularly HibV and PCV, in both animal and human models but controversy surrounds MenCV. This has implications for the immunogenicity of conjugate polysaccharide vaccines following the administration of tetanus-toxoid or diphtheria-toxoid containing vaccine (such as DTP). Available evidence supports a promising role for carrier priming in terms of maximizing the immunogenicity of conjugate vaccines and enhancing immunization schedule by making it more efficient and cost effective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relaxation of a kinetic hole due to carrier-carrier scattering in multisubband single-quantum-well semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.


    We describe a theoretical model for carrier-carrier scattering in an inverted semiconductor quantum well structure using a multisubband diagram. The model includes all possible nonvanishing interaction terms within the static screening approximation, and it enables one to calculate accurately...

  6. A theory of atmospheric oxygen. (United States)

    Laakso, T A; Schrag, D P


    Geological records of atmospheric oxygen suggest that pO 2 was less than 0.001% of present atmospheric levels (PAL) during the Archean, increasing abruptly to a Proterozoic value between 0.1% and 10% PAL, and rising quickly to modern levels in the Phanerozoic. Using a simple model of the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, oxygen, sulfur, hydrogen, iron, and phosphorous, we demonstrate that there are three stable states for atmospheric oxygen, roughly corresponding to levels observed in the geological record. These stable states arise from a series of specific positive and negative feedbacks, requiring a large geochemical perturbation to the redox state to transition from one to another. In particular, we show that a very low oxygen level in the Archean (i.e., 10 -7 PAL) is consistent with the presence of oxygenic photosynthesis and a robust organic carbon cycle. We show that the Snowball Earth glaciations, which immediately precede both transitions, provide an appropriate transient increase in atmospheric oxygen to drive the atmosphere either from its Archean state to its Proterozoic state, or from its Proterozoic state to its Phanerozoic state. This hypothesis provides a mechanistic explanation for the apparent synchronicity of the Proterozoic Snowball Earth events with both the Great Oxidation Event, and the Neoproterozoic oxidation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Gestational carrier in assisted reproductive technology. (United States)

    Murugappan, Gayathree; Farland, Leslie V; Missmer, Stacey A; Correia, Katharine F; Anchan, Raymond M; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S


    To compare clinical outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles with the use of gestational carriers (GCs) with non-GC IVF cycles. Retrospective cohort study of assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles performed with (24,269) and without (1,313,452) the use of a GC. ART centers. Infertile patients seeking IVF with or without use of a GC. Autologous and donor oocyte cycles, fresh and cryopreserved embryo transfer cycles. Live birth rate (LBR), twin and high-order multiple birth rates. Approximately 2% of embryo transfers used a GC. Per embryo transfer, GCs had greater pregnancy rate and LBR across all IVF types compared with non-GC cycles in crude models and models adjusted a priori for potential confounders. For women with uterine-factor infertility, embryo transfer with the use of a GC resulted in a higher odds of live birth for autologous fresh embryos and for cryopreserved embryos compared with patients with non-uterine-factor infertility diagnoses. GC benefits LBRs for some patients seeking ART. The highest LBRs occurred when the indication for GC was uterine-factor infertility. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Grigoreva


    Full Text Available Biodegradable polyurethanes attract interest of those developing composite materials for biomedical applications. One of their features is their ability to serve as carriers, or matrixes, for medicines and other bioactive compounds to produce a therapeutic effect in body through targeted and/or prolonged delivery of these compounds in the process of their controlled release from matrix. The review presents polyurethane composites as matrices for a number of drugs. The relation between structure of the composites and their degradability both in vitro and in vivo and the dependence of drug release kinetics on physicochemical properties of polyurethane matrix are highlighted. The release of drugs (cefazolin, naltrexone and piroxicam from the composites based on cross-linked polyurethanes (synthesized from laprols, Mw between 1,500 and 2,000 Da and toluylene diisocyanate demonstrated more or less the same pattern (about 10 days in vitro and three to five days in vivo. In contrast, the composites with dioxydine based on a linear polyurethanes (synthesized from oligotetramethilene glycol, Mw 1,000 Da, diphenylmethane-4,4’-diisocyanate and 1,4-butanediol retained their antimicrobial activity at least 30 days. They also showed a significantly higher breaking strength as compared to that of the composites based on cross-linked polyurethanes.

  9. Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles as a Novel Gene Carrier (United States)

    Zhu, S. H.; Huang, B. Y.; Zhou, K. C.; Huang, S. P.; Liu, F.; Li, Y. M.; Xue, Z. G.; Long, Z. G.


    Hydroxyapatite crystalline nanoparticles were created by a precipitation hydrothermal technique and the majority of crystal particles were in the size range of 40-60nm and exhibited a colloidal feature when suspended in water. The gastric cancer SGC-7901 cell line cells were cultivated in the presence of10-100 μg ml-1 hydroxyapatite nanoparticle suspension and verified by MTT evaluation for their biocompatibility in vitro. The agarose gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that the HA nanoparticles potentially adsorb the green fluorescence protein EGFP-N1 plasmid DNA at pH 2 and 7, but not at pH 12. The DNA-nanoparticle complexes transfected EGFP-N1 pDNA into SGC-7901 cells in vitro with the efficiency about 80% as referenced with Lipofectmine TM 2000. In vivo animal experiment revealed no acute toxic adverse effect 2weeks after tail vein injection into mice, and TEM examination demonstrated their biodistribution and expression within the cytoplasm and also a little in the nuclei of the liver, kidney and brain tissue cells. These results suggest that the HA nanoparticle is a promising material that can be used as gene carrier, vectors.

  10. Theoretical Evaluation of Foam Proppant Carriers (United States)

    von Holt, H.; Kam, S.; Williams, W. C.


    Hydraulic fracturing in oil wells results in a large amount of produced water which must be properly disposed of and is currently a key environmental issue preventing further development in US domestic oil and gas production. The primary function of this liquid is to carry particulates, a.k.a. Proppant, into the stress fractures in order to hold open a pathway in which petroleum can flow into the wellbore. A potential superior technique is to use foam instead of liquid; liquids rely on turbulence to suspend proppant while foams carry particulates on the surfaces. Therefore, foams can carry more proppant deeper into the fractures while typically using 50%-90% less liquid, depending on foam quality. This comparative analysis uses the vorticity equation for a liquid to approximate the base case of particle suspension. This is then compared to a multitude of foam transport models in order to demonstrate the efficacy of foams when used in hydraulic fracturing. This work serves as the basis for future laboratory and hopefully field scale studies of foam proppant carriers.

  11. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims


    the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  12. Simultaneous Monitoring of Vascular Oxygenation and Tissue Oxygen Tension of Breast Tumors Under Hyperbaric Oxygen Exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xia, Mengna


    The goals of the study in the first stage are 1) to develop a mathematic model by which we can derive tumor blood flow and metabolic rate of oxygen from hemoglobin concentration during interventions, 2...

  13. Carrier-Density Control of the SrTiO3 (001) Surface 2D Electron Gas studied by ARPES. (United States)

    Walker, Siobhan McKeown; Bruno, Flavio Yair; Wang, Zhiming; de la Torre, Alberto; Riccó, Sara; Tamai, Anna; Kim, Timur K; Hoesch, Moritz; Shi, Ming; Bahramy, Mohammad Saeed; King, Phil D C; Baumberger, Felix


    The origin of the 2D electron gas (2DEG)stabilized at the bare surface of SrTiO3 (001) is investigated. Using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission and core-level spectroscopy, it is shown conclusively that this 2DEG arises from light-induced oxygen vacancies. The dominant mechanism driving vacancy formation is identified, allowing unprecedented control over the 2DEG carrier density. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Deep level transient spectroscopy and minority carrier lifetime study on Ga-doped continuous Czochralski silicon (United States)

    Yoon, Yohan; Yan, Yixin; Ostrom, Nels P.; Kim, Jinwoo; Rozgonyi, George


    Continuous-Czochralski (c-Cz) crystal growth has been suggested as a viable technique for the fabrication of photovoltaic Si wafers due to its low resistivity variation of any dopant, independent of segregation, compared to conventional Cz. In order to eliminate light induced degradation due to boron-oxygen traps in conventional p-type silicon wafers, gallium doped wafers have been grown by c-Cz method and investigated using four point probe, deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), and microwave-photoconductance decay. Iron-gallium related electrically active defects were identified using DLTS as the main lifetime killers responsible for reduced non-uniform lifetimes in radial and axial positions of the c-Cz silicon ingot. A direct correlation between minority carrier lifetime and the concentration of electrically active Fe-Ga pairs was established.

  15. Municipal wastewater treatment by moving-bed-biofilm reactor with diatomaceous earth as carriers. (United States)

    Zhao, Yaping; Cao, Dawen; Liu, Lu; Jin, Wei


    This study was conducted to examine the feasibility of using a moving-bed-biofilm reactor with internal circulation through aeration for the treatment of municipal wastewater. The attached film was a mixed-microorganism consortium, which used composite-refined-diatomaceous earth as novel biomass carriers to form a diatomaceous-earth-moving-bed-biofilm-reactor (DEMBBR) process. The startup of laboratory-scale, continuous-flow reactor was successfully achieved without seeding activated sludge. The DEMBBR process removed chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, ammonium-nitrogen, and turbidity at the highest rate of 88.5, 83, 92.3, and 96.7%, respectively, with a hydraulic retention time of only 2.5 hours. The DEMBBR was less affected by interruption and adverse operation conditions than the conventional-activated-sludge reactor. Thus, the DEMBBR could be proposed to be a cost-effective, small-wastewater-treatment-process unit.

  16. Participation of Low Molecular Weight Electron Carriers in Oxidative Protein Folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Mandl


    Full Text Available Oxidative protein folding is mediated by a proteinaceous electron relay system, in which the concerted action of protein disulfide isomerase and Ero1 delivers the electrons from thiol groups to the final acceptor. Oxygen appears to be the final oxidant in aerobic living organisms, although the existence of alternative electron acceptors, e.g. fumarate or nitrate, cannot be excluded. Whilst the protein components of the system are well-known, less attention has been turned to the role of low molecular weight electron carriers in the process. The function of ascorbate, tocopherol and vitamin K has been raised recently. In vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that these redox-active compounds can contribute to the functioning of oxidative folding. This review focuses on the participation of small molecular weight redox compounds in oxidative protein folding.

  17. Hybrid nanostructured drug carrier with tunable and controlled drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depan, D.; Misra, R.D.K.


    We describe here a transformative approach to synthesize a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier that exhibits the characteristics of controlled drug release. The synthesis of the nanohybrid architecture involved two steps. The first step involved direct crystallization of biocompatible copolymer along the long axis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by the second step of attachment of drug molecule to the polymer via hydrogen bonding. The extraordinary inorganic–organic hybrid architecture exhibited high drug loading ability and is physically stable even under extreme conditions of acidic media and ultrasonic irradiation. The temperature and pH sensitive characteristics of the hybrid drug carrier and high drug loading ability merit its consideration as a promising carrier and utilization of the fundamental aspects used for synthesis of other promising drug carriers. The higher drug release response during the application of ultrasonic frequency is ascribed to a cavitation-type process in which the acoustic bubbles nucleate and collapse releasing the drug. Furthermore, the study underscores the potential of uniquely combining CNTs and biopolymers for drug delivery. - Graphical abstract: Block-copolymer crystallized on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Nanohybrid drug carrier synthesized by attaching doxorubicin (DOX) to polymer crystallized CNTs. Crystallized polymer on CNTs provide mechanical stability. Triggered release of DOX. Highlights: ► The novel synthesis of a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier is described. ► The drug carrier exhibits high drug loading ability and is physically stable. ► The high drug release is ascribed to a cavitation-type process.

  18. Clinical findings in obligate carriers of type I Usher syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagenaar, M.; Rahe, B. ter; Aarem, A. van; Huygen, P.; Admiraal, R. [University Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [and others


    Seventeen obligate carriers from nine families with autosomal recessive Usher syndrome type I underwent otological, audiological, vestibular, and ophthalmological examination in order to identify possible manifestations of heterozygosity. Linkage studies were performed and six families showed linkage to chromosome region 11q13.5 while 3 families have so far failed to show linkage to the candidate regions. Eight obligate carriers had an abnormal puretone audiogram. Two different audiometric patterns could be distinguished when hearing loss was corrected for age and sex. Four carriers (24%) had significant sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) which increased at higher frequencies. The other 13 carriers had SNHL of about 10 dB at 0.25 and 0.5 kHz, but less at higher frequencies. Vestibular findings were generally normal. Electrooculography demonstrated a significant lower mean light peak/dark trough ratio in Usher type I carriers compared to normal control individuals. The methods used in this study were found not to be specific enough to clinically identify carriers of Usher type I syndrome. Nevertheless it is remarkable that a number of obligate carriers showed significant audiological and ophthalmological abnormalities. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Utilization of Waste Materials for Microbial Carrier in Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. Le


    Full Text Available This research focused on the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N removal from the domestic wastewater using the attached growth reactors. Two types of waste material of corncob (biodegradable material and concrete (nonbiodegradable material were used as the carrier for microorganisms’ attachment. During operation, both reactors achieved absolutely high performance of ammonium removal (up to 99% and total nitrogen removal (up to 95%. The significant advantage of corncob carrier was that the corncob was able to be a source of carbon for biological denitrification, leading to no external carbon requirement for operating the system. However, the corncob caused an increasing turbidity of the effluent. On the other hand, the concrete carrier required the minimal external carbon of 3.5 C/N ratio to reach the good performance. Moreover, a longer period for microorganisms’ adaptation was found in the concrete carrier rather than the corncob carrier. Further, the same physiological and biochemical characteristics of active bacteria were found at the two carriers, which were negative gram, cocci shape, and smooth and white-turbid colony. Due to the effluent quality, the concrete was more appropriate carrier than the corncob for wastewater treatment.

  20. Utilization of Waste Materials for Microbial Carrier in Wastewater Treatment. (United States)

    Le, H T; Jantarat, N; Khanitchaidecha, W; Ratananikom, K; Nakaruk, A


    This research focused on the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) removal from the domestic wastewater using the attached growth reactors. Two types of waste material of corncob (biodegradable material) and concrete (nonbiodegradable material) were used as the carrier for microorganisms' attachment. During operation, both reactors achieved absolutely high performance of ammonium removal (up to 99%) and total nitrogen removal (up to 95%). The significant advantage of corncob carrier was that the corncob was able to be a source of carbon for biological denitrification, leading to no external carbon requirement for operating the system. However, the corncob caused an increasing turbidity of the effluent. On the other hand, the concrete carrier required the minimal external carbon of 3.5 C/N ratio to reach the good performance. Moreover, a longer period for microorganisms' adaptation was found in the concrete carrier rather than the corncob carrier. Further, the same physiological and biochemical characteristics of active bacteria were found at the two carriers, which were negative gram, cocci shape, and smooth and white-turbid colony. Due to the effluent quality, the concrete was more appropriate carrier than the corncob for wastewater treatment.

  1. Cardiac involvement in carriers of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy. (United States)

    Hoogerwaard, E M; van der Wouw, P A; Wilde, A A; Bakker, E; Ippel, P F; Oosterwijk, J C; Majoor-Krakauer, D F; van Essen, A J; Leschot, N J; de Visser, M


    A cross-sectional study in a cohort of DNA proven carriers of Duchenne (DMD) and Becker (BMD) muscular dystrophy was undertaken with the following objectives: (1) to estimate the frequency of electrocardiographic (ECG) and echocardiographic abnormalities; (2) to establish the proportion of carriers with dilated cardiomyopathy and (3) to assess possible associations between dilated cardiomyopathy and genotype. One hundred and twenty nine DMD and BMD carriers, aged 18-60 years, were traced through the files of the central register kept at the department of Human Genetics in Leiden. Investigations included full medical history, physical examination, ECG and two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic examination. Forty-seven percent had ECG changes. Thirty-six percent (DMD 41%, BMD 27%) had at least one abnormality as is usually found in the male patients. Echocardiographic examination was abnormal in 36% (DMD 38%, BMD 34%). Dilated cardiomyopathy was found in seven DMD carriers (8%), and in none of BMD carriers. In addition, 18% had left ventricle dilatation (DMD 19%, BMD 16%). Only 38% had a completely normal investigation of the heart. We found no association between genotype and cardiac manifestations. Our study underlines that cardiac involvement is part of the dystrophinopathies. Carriers should be told about the increased risk of this complication when asking genetic advice. It also implicates that a complete cardiological evaluation should be performed at least once in all carriers. If left ventricle dilatation or dilated cardiomyopathy is present a yearly follow up is needed, in order to start timely therapy.

  2. Electrical Conductivity of Rocks and Dominant Charge Carriers. Part 1; Thermally Activated Positive Holes (United States)

    Freund, Friedemann T.; Freund, Minoru M.


    The prevailing view in the geophysics community is that the electrical conductivity structure of the Earth's continental crust over the 5-35 km depth range can best be understood by assuming the presence of intergranular fluids and/or of intragranular carbon films. Based on single crystal studies of melt-grown MgO, magma-derived sanidine and anorthosite feldspars and upper mantle olivine, we present evidence for the presence of electronic charge carriers, which derive from peroxy defects that are introduced during cooling, under non-equilibrium conditions, through a redox conversion of pairs of solute hydroxyl arising from dissolution of H2O.The peroxy defects become thermally activated in a 2-step process, leading to the release of defect electrons in the oxygen anion sublattice. Known as positive holes and symbolized by h(dot), these electronic charge carriers are highly mobile. Chemically equivalent to O(-) in a matrix of O(2-) they are highly oxidizing. Being metastable they can exist in the matrix of minerals, which crystallized in highly reduced environments. The h(dot) are highly mobile. They appear to control the electrical conductivity of crustal rocks in much of the 5-35 km depth range.

  3. Oxygen sensitive polymeric nanocapsules for optical dissolved oxygen sensors (United States)

    Sun, Zhijuan; Cai, Chenxin; Guo, Fei; Ye, Changhuai; Luo, Yingwu; Ye, Shuming; Luo, Jianchao; Zhu, Fan; Jiang, Chunyue


    Immobilization of the oxygen-sensitive probes (OSPs) in the host matrix greatly impacts the performance and long-term usage of the optical dissolved oxygen (DO) sensors. In this work, fluorescent dyes, as the OSPs, were encapsulated with a crosslinked fluorinated polymer shell by interfacial confined reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer miniemulsion polymerization to fabricate oxygen sensitive polymeric nanocapsules (NCs). The location of fluorescent dyes and the fluorescent properties of the NCs were fully characterized by fourier transform infrared spectrometer, x-ray photoelectron spectrometer and fluorescent spectrum. Dye-encapsulated capacity can be precisely tuned from 0 to 1.3 wt% without self-quenching of the fluorescent dye. The crosslinked fluorinated polymer shell is not only extremely high gas permeability, but also prevents the fluorescent dyes from leakage in aqueous as well as in various organic solvents, such as ethanol, acetone and tetrahydrofuran (THF). An optical DO sensor based on the oxygen sensitive NCs was fabricated, showing high sensitivity, short response time, full reversibility, and long-term operational stability of online monitoring DO. The sensitivity of the optical DO sensor is 7.02 (the ratio of the response value in fully deoxygenated and saturated oxygenated water) in the range 0.96-14.16 mg l-1 and the response time is about 14.3 s. The sensor’s work curve was fit well using the modified Stern-Volmer equation by two-site model, and its response values are hardly affected by pH ranging from 2 to 12 and keep constant during continuous measurement for 3 months. It is believed that the oxygen sensitive polymeric NCs-based optical DO sensor could be particularly useful in long-term online DO monitoring in both aqueous and organic solvent systems.

  4. FMCSA safety program effectiveness measurement : carrier intervention effectiveness model, version 1.0 : [analysis brief]. (United States)


    The Carrier Intervention Effectiveness Model (CIEM) : provides the Federal Motor Carrier Safety : Administration (FMCSA) with a tool for measuring : the safety benefits of carrier interventions conducted : under the Compliance, Safety, Accountability...

  5. 76 FR 62496 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Series of Public Subcommittee Meetings (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Series of Public Subcommittee Meetings AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The FMCSA's Motor...

  6. 77 FR 60507 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Subcommittee Meeting (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Subcommittee Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Meeting of Compliance, Safety...

  7. Safety and environmental aspects in LNG carrier design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashi Yoneyama


    'Safety and Reliability' has been and will continue to be a key phr ase in marine transportation of LNG. Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co.,Ltd. has utilized its all expertise and state of art technologies to realize this objective, resulting in exceptionally successful operations of LNG carrier built by the Co. In line with growing global concern about environmental issues, we need to pay more attention to the environmental aspects of the design and construction of LNG carriers. Accordingly, in this paper, we present some topics related safety and environmental concerns which need to be taken into consideration in LNG carriers design and construction. (Author). 7 figs

  8. Influence of charge carriers on corrugation of suspended graphene (United States)

    Kirilenko, Demid A.; Gorodetsky, Andrei; Baidakova, Marina V.


    Electronic degrees of freedom are predicted to play a significant role in mechanics of two-dimensional crystalline membranes. Here we show that appearance of charge carriers may cause a considerable impact on suspended graphene corrugation, thus leading to additional mechanism resulting in charge carriers mobility variation with their density. This finding may account for some details of suspended graphene conductivity dependence on its doping level and suggests that proper modeling of suspended graphene-based device properties must include the influence of charge carriers on its surface corrugation.

  9. Wafer-scale characterization of carrier dynamics in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter


    The electronic properties of single-layer graphene, such as surface conductance, carrier concentration, scattering time and mobility, can be characterized in a noncontact manner by THz time-domain spectroscopy. Standard spectroscopic imaging reveals the AC conductance over large areas with a few...... hundred μm resolution, and spectroscopic imaging on back-gated graphene allows for extraction of both the carrier concentration and the mobility. We find that spatial variations of the conductance of single-layer CVD-grown graphene are predominantly due to variations in mobility rather than in carrier...

  10. Oxygenation measurements in head and neck cancers during hyperbaric oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, A.; Kuhnt, T.; Dunst, J.; Liedtke, H.; Krivokuca, A.; Bloching, M.


    Background: Tumor hypoxia has proven prognostic impact in head and neck cancers and is associated with poor response to radiotherapy. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) offers an approach to overcome hypoxia. We have performed pO 2 measurements in selected patients with head and neck cancers under HBO to determine in how far changes in the oxygenation occur and whether a possible improvement of oxygenation parameters is maintained after HBO. Patients and Methods: Seven patients (five male, two female, age 51-63 years) with squamous cell cancers of the head and neck were investigated (six primaries, one local recurrence). The median pO 2 prior to HBO was determined with the Eppendorf histograph. Sites of measurement were enlarged cervical lymph nodes (n = 5), the primary tumor (n = 1) and local recurrence (n = 1). Patients then underwent HBO (100% O 2 at 240 kPa for 30 minutes) and the continuous changes in the oxygenation during HBO were determined with a Licox probe. Patients had HBO for 30 minutes (n = 6) to 40 minutes (n = 1). HBO was continued because the pO 2 had not reached a steady state after 30 minutes. After decompression, patients ventilated pure oxygen under normobaric conditions and the course of the pO 2 was further measured over about 15 minutes. Results: Prior to HBO, the median tumor pO 2 in the Eppendorf histography was 8.6 ± 5.4 mm Hg (range 3-19 mm Hg) and the pO 2 measured with the Licox probe was 17.3 ± 25.5 mm Hg (range 0-73 mm Hg). The pO 2 increased significantly during HBO to 550 ± 333 mm Hg (range 85-984 mm Hg, p = 0.018). All patients showed a marked increase irrespective of the oxygenation prior to HBO. The maximum pO 2 in the tumor was reached after 10-33 minutes (mean 17 minutes). After leaving the hyperbaric chamber, the pO 2 was 282 ± 196 mm Hg. All patients maintained an elevated pO 2 for further 5-25 minutes (138 ± 128 mm Hg, range 42-334 mm Hg, p = 0.028 vs the pO 2 prior to HBO). Conclusions: Hyperbaric oxygenation resulted in a

  11. Impurities of oxygen in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, V.M.S.


    The electronic structure of oxygen complex defects in silicon, using molecular cluster model with saturation by watson sphere into the formalism of Xα multiple scattering method is studied. A systematic study of the simulation of perfect silicon crystal and an analysis of the increasing of atom number in the clusters are done to choose the suitable cluster for the calculations. The divacancy in three charge states (Si:V 2 + , Si:V 2 0 , Si:V 2 - ), of the oxygen pair (Si:O 2 ) and the oxygen-vacancy pair (Si:O.V) neighbours in the silicon lattice, is studied. Distortions for the symmetry were included in the Si:V 2 + and Si:O 2 systems. The behavior of defect levels related to the cluster size of Si:V 2 0 and Si:O 2 systems, the insulated oxygen impurity of silicon in interstitial position (Si:O i ), and the complexes involving four oxygen atoms are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. Methylene Blue Protects Astrocytes against Glucose Oxygen Deprivation by Improving Cellular Respiration (United States)

    Roy Choudhury, Gourav; Winters, Ali; Rich, Ryan M.; Ryou, Myoung-Gwi; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Yuan, Fang; Yang, Shao-Hua; Liu, Ran


    Astrocytes outnumber neurons and serve many metabolic and trophic functions in the mammalian brain. Preserving astrocytes is critical for normal brain function as well as for protecting the brain against various insults. Our previous studies have indicated that methylene blue (MB) functions as an alternative electron carrier and enhances brain metabolism. In addition, MB has been shown to be protective against neurodegeneration and brain injury. In the current study, we investigated the protective role of MB in astrocytes. Cell viability assays showed that MB treatment significantly protected primary astrocytes from oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) & reoxygenation induced cell death. We also studied the effect of MB on cellular oxygen and glucose metabolism in primary astrocytes following OGD-reoxygenation injury. MB treatment significantly increased cellular oxygen consumption, glucose uptake and ATP production in primary astrocytes. In conclusion our study demonstrated that MB protects astrocytes against OGD-reoxygenation injury by improving astrocyte cellular respiration. PMID:25848957

  13. The role of the carrier in the formulation of pharmaceutical solid dispersions. Part I: crystalline and semi-crystalline carriers. (United States)

    Van Duong, Tu; Van den Mooter, Guy


    As a consequence of the target and drug candidate identification process, drugs with higher hydrophobicity and/or lipophilicity are being selected for further development, leading to solubility and dissolution rate limited oral bioavailability, and hence potential failure of the intended therapeutic goal. Solid dispersions were introduced as a formulation strategy in the early 1960s to tackle this issue and are still an area of intensive research activity. Areas covered: There has been a shift in the type of carriers that were used in the formulation of solid dispersions as nowadays, amorphous carriers are most often used, whereas in early stages of solid dispersions development, crystalline and semi-crystalline carriers were most commonly applied. In this review, we will discuss several aspects related to the use of crystalline and semi-crystalline carriers such as their molecular and related physical structure, and their physical chemical properties related to formulation of poorly soluble drugs. Expert opinion: The inherent crystallinity of this type of carrier hinders the formation of high-load solid solutions as mainly the amorphous domains of a carrier are able to accommodate drug molecules. Hence these carriers are not currently first choice excipients to formulate solid dispersions.

  14. Spatial pattern separation differences in older adult carriers and non-carriers for the apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele. (United States)

    Sheppard, David P; Graves, Lisa V; Holden, Heather M; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Bondi, Mark W; Gilbert, Paul E


    We examined the performance of healthy young (n=57) and older adults (n=43) genotyped as apolipoprotein E-ε4 (APOE-ε4) carriers or APOE-ε4 non-carriers on a delayed match-to-sample task involving varying degrees of spatial interference hypothesized to assess spatial pattern separation. Older adult ε4 carriers were further divided into "impaired" and "unimpaired" groups based on their performance on a standardized test of verbal memory. We found that performance on the spatial pattern separation test increased as a function of decreased spatial interference across all groups. The older ε4 carriers in the impaired group performed significantly worse (ppattern separation may be less efficient in a subset of healthy older adults with subtle memory decline who are carriers of the ε4 allele. However, pattern separation performance may be comparable to that of young adults in a subset of older adult ε4 carriers and more broadly among non-carriers. Our findings offer additional evidence that pattern separation may vary in older adults, and they provide novel insight into pattern separation efficiency in ε4-positive older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effective carrier sweepout in a silicon waveguide by a metal-semiconductor-metal structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Hu, Hao; Ou, Haiyan


    We demonstrate effective carrier depletion by metal-semiconductor-metal junctions for a silicon waveguide. Photo-generated carriers are efficiently swept out by applying bias voltages, and a shortest carrier lifetime of only 55 ps is demonstrated.......We demonstrate effective carrier depletion by metal-semiconductor-metal junctions for a silicon waveguide. Photo-generated carriers are efficiently swept out by applying bias voltages, and a shortest carrier lifetime of only 55 ps is demonstrated....

  16. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Modulate Mosquito Susceptibility to Plasmodium Infection (United States)

    Oliveira, Giselle A.; Andersen, John F.; Oliveira, Marcus F.; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina


    Background Mitochondria perform multiple roles in cell biology, acting as the site of aerobic energy-transducing pathways and as an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that modulate redox metabolism. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate that a novel member of the mitochondrial transporter protein family, Anopheles gambiae mitochondrial carrier 1 (AgMC1), is required to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential in mosquito midgut cells and modulates epithelial responses to Plasmodium infection. AgMC1 silencing reduces mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in increased proton-leak and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. These metabolic changes reduce midgut ROS generation and increase A. gambiae susceptibility to Plasmodium infection. Conclusion We provide direct experimental evidence indicating that ROS derived from mitochondria can modulate mosquito epithelial responses to Plasmodium infection. PMID:22815925

  17. Electron transfer of nitrogen, oxygen and silicon in vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhazha, V.M.; Chernyj, B.P.; Ryabchikov, L.N.


    In order to assess the possibility of refining vanadium by the electricity transfer method, the process of electricity transfer of impurities of nitrogen, oxygen and silicon in vanadium is studied. The diffusion coefficients for these impurities in the temperature range of 1565-1665 0 C are determined. The distribution of impurities over the length of a specimen is determined by methods of potentials and eddy currents. The electricity transfer is performed in a hermetically sealed flask in argon atmosphere. The diffusion coefficient values for O 2 , N 2 , Si in V at 1665 0 C are measured to be 1.0x10 -5 ; 0.38x10 -5 ; 4.7x10 -5 cm.g/sec, respectively, which corresponds to an activation energy of 12, 20 and 24 kcal/mol. Also estimated are their effective valence and charge carrier density per atom of vanadium. The data obtained stubstantiate the ''hole'' mechanism of vanadium conductivity

  18. Make Liquid Oxygen in Your Class (United States)

    French, M. M. J.; Hibbert, Michael


    Oxygen is one of the component gases of air at room temperature, making up around 20% of the atmosphere. But can oxygen be liquified? This article details a method for making small amounts of liquid oxygen in the classroom if there is no access to a cylinder of compressed oxygen gas, and two methods for identifying the fact that it is liquid…

  19. A pseudodeficiency allele common in non-Jewish Tay-Sachs carriers: Implications for carrier screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triggs-Raine, B.L.; Akerman, B.R.; Gravel, R.A. (McGill Univ.-Montreal Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); Mules, E.H.; Thomas, G.H.; Dowling, C.E. (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Kaback, M.M.; Lim-Steele, J.S.T. (Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)); Natowicz, M.R. (Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center for Mental Retardation, Waltham, MA (United States)); Grebner, E.E. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Navon, R.R. (Tel-Aviv Univ., Kfar-Sava (Israel)); Welch, J.P. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova, Scotia (Canada)); Greenberg, C.R. (Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada))


    Deficiency of [beta]-hexosaminidase A (Hex A) activity typically results in Tay-Sachs disease. However, healthy subjects found to be deficient in Hex A activity (i.e., pseudodeficient) by means of in vitro biochemical tests have been described. The authors analyzed the HEXA gene of one pseudodeficient subject and identified both a C[sub 739]-to-T substitution that changes Arg[sub 247][yields]Trp on one allele and a previously identified Tay-Sachs disease mutation of the second allele. Six additional pseudodeficient subjects were found to have the C[sub 739]-to-T but for none of 36 Jewish enzyme-defined carries who did not have one of three known mutations common to this group. The C[sub 739]-to-T allele, together with a [open quotes]true[close quotes] Tay-Sachs disease allele, causes Hex A pseudodeficiency. Given both the large proportion of non-Jewish carriers with this allele and that standard biochemical screening cannot differentiate between heterozygotes for the C[sub 739]-to-T mutations and Tay-Sachs disease carriers, DNA testing for this mutation in at-risk couples is essential. This could prevent unnecessary or incorrect prenatal diagnoses. 40 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Hyperbaric oxygen and perfluorochemicals in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.J.


    Malignant tumors are thought to contain radioresistant hypoxic cells which limit curability with radiation therapy. Attempts to improve tumor oxygenation by breathing oxygen under increased pressure have been only marginally successful. To improve oxygenation, the partial pressure must be increased throughout the capillary bed and must remain elevated as oxygen is consumed. Theoretical calculations predict that the combination of perfluorochemical micelles and hyperbaric oxygen could provide the necessary amount of oxygen at sufficiently high partial pressure to meet these requirements. Fluosol-DA (Alpha Therapeutic Corporation) and hyperbaric oxygen significantly reduce the hypoxic fraction in experimental rodent tumors