WorldWideScience

Sample records for casing drilling operation

  1. CASING DRILLING TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2005-01-01

    Casing drilling is an alternative option to conventional drilling and uses standard oilfield casing instead of drillstring. This technology is one of the greatest developments in drilling operations. Casing drilling involves drilling and casing a well simultaneously. In casing driling process, downhole tools can be retrieved, through the casing on wire-line, meaning tool recovery or replacement of tools can take minutes versus hours under conventional methods. This process employs wireline-re...

  2. CASING DRILLING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Casing drilling is an alternative option to conventional drilling and uses standard oilfield casing instead of drillstring. This technology is one of the greatest developments in drilling operations. Casing drilling involves drilling and casing a well simultaneously. In casing driling process, downhole tools can be retrieved, through the casing on wire-line, meaning tool recovery or replacement of tools can take minutes versus hours under conventional methods. This process employs wireline-retrievable tools and a drill-lock assembly, permitting bit and BHA changes, coring, electrical logging and even directional or horizontal drilling. Once the casing point is reached, the casing is cemented in place without tripping pipe.

  3. DALI - drilling advisor with logic interpretations: methodological issues for designing underbalanced drilling operations. Improving efficiency using case-based reasonic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Gustavo A.; Velazquez C, David [Mexican Oil Institute, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    A system that applies a method of knowledge-intensive case-based reasoning, for repair and prevention of unwanted events in the domain of offshore oil well drilling, has been developed in cooperation with an oil company. From several reoccurring problems during oil well drilling the problem of 'lost circulation', i.e. loss of circulating drilling fluid into the geological formation, was picked out as a pilot problem. An extensive general knowledge model was developed for the domain of oil well drilling. Different cases were created on the basis of information from one Mexican Gulf operator. When the completed CBR-system was tested against a new case, cases with descending similarity were selected by the tool. In an informal evaluation, the two best fitting cases proved to give the operator valuable advise on how to go about solving the new case (author)

  4. Quality in drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, E.; Gervais, I. [Sedco Forex Jacintoport Facility, Channelview, TX (United States); Le Moign, Y.; Pangarkar, S.; Stibbs, B. [Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France); McMorran, P. [Sedco Forex, Pau (France); Nordquist, E. [Dubai Petroleum Company, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Pittman, T. [Sedco Forex, Perth (Australia); Schindler, H. [Sedco Forex, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Scott, P. [Woodside Offshore Petroleum Pty. Ltd., Perth (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Driven by cost and profitability pressures, quality has taken on new meaning and importance in the oil field during the past decade. In drilling operations, new initiatives have led to cooperative team efforts between operators and drilling contractors to enhance quality. In this article examples are given of how one drilling contractor, by adopting a quality culture, is reaping major benefits for its clients as well as its employees. 22 figs., 19 refs.

  5. Probabilistic risk analysis of casing drilling operation for an onshore Brazilian well; Analise probabilistica de risco de uma operacao de casing drilling para um poco terrestre no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacinto, Carlos M.C.; Petersen, Flavia C.; Placido, Joao C.R. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Pauli A.A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the present paper, one presents an approach to hazard identification and risks quantification concerning the use of retrievable BHA, of a casing drilling system, in 12 1/4 phase of an onshore well. The adopted approach can be subdivided as: execution of a hazard and operability study; prioritization of critical deviance; modeling of critical deviance by mean of event sequence diagram, fault tree and Bayesian network; modeling and simulation of a dynamic decision tree and experts' opinion analysis. As results, one has obtained: the time distribution to achieve the different ends modeled in the decision tree, i.e., sidetrack, or operation canceling, or success; the probabilities to achieve each modeled end and all recommendation to improve the success probability. The approach proved to be efficient in order that it presents significant results to support the decisions involving the casing drilling operations. (author)

  6. Number & operations task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the number & operations concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are problems involving place value, fractions, addition, subtraction and using money. The combined task & drill sheets offer spac

  7. Dual gradient drilling - simulations during connection operations

    OpenAIRE

    Time, André

    2014-01-01

    As oilfields are ageing and depleting, operators are forced to start searching for oil in more hostile environments. These new environments can introduce new drilling challenges. Prospects like ultra deep water reservoirs and depleted offshore reservoirs are difficult to drill with conventional drilling. This has lead the industry to developing the Dual Gradient Drilling (DGD) system. DGD is an unconventional drilling method and it is classified as a Managed Pressure Drilling ...

  8. Contamination Control for Scientific Drilling Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallmeyer, J

    2017-01-01

    Drilling is an integral part of subsurface exploration. Because almost all drilling operations require the use of a drill fluid, contamination by infiltration of drill fluid into the recovered core material cannot be avoided. Because it is impossible to maintain sterile conditions during drilling the drill fluid will contain surface microbes and other contaminants. As contamination cannot be avoided, it has to be tracked to identify those parts of the drill core that were not infiltrated by the drill fluid. This is done by the addition of tracer compounds. A great variety of tracers is available, and the choice depends on many factors. This review will first explain the basic principles of drilling before presenting the most common tracers and discussing their strengths and weaknesses. The final part of this review presents a number of key questions that have to be addressed in order to find the right tracer for a particular drilling operation.

  9. Data analytics for drilling operational states classifications

    OpenAIRE

    Veres, Galina; Sabeur, Zoheir

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides benchmarks for the identification of best performance classifiers for the detection of operational states in industrial drilling operations. Multiple scenarios for the detection of the operational states are tested on a rig with various drilling wells. Drilling data are extremely challenging due to their non-linear and stochastic natures, notwithstanding the embedded noise in them and unbalancing. Nevertheless, there is a possibility to deploy robust classifiers to overcom...

  10. Number & operations drill sheets : grades PK-2

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2010-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the number & operations concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. Each drill sheet contains warm-up and timed drill activities for the student to practice number & operations concepts.

  11. Casing drilling - first experience in Brazil; Casing drilling - primeira experiencia no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placido, Joao Carlos Ribeiro; Medeiros, Fernando; Lucena, Humberto; Medeiros, Joao Carlos Martins de; Costa, Vicente Abel Soares Rosa da; Silva, Paulo Roberto Correa da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Alves, Renato J.M. [Tesco, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the 'Casing Drilling' technology and its first experience in Brazil. This new process of casing while drilling was first developed to reduce costs. This system integrates the drilling process and casing running in one operation, promoting a more efficient well construction system, reducing trip time and costs of drill pipes and their transportation. Besides, this methodology intends to eliminate hole problems related to trouble zones with abnormal pressure with loss circulation, to overcome zones with wellbore instabilities, and to facilitate well control. Two companies have been identified using this technology: Tesco and Weatherford. However, there are differences between the techniques used by these companies, which are described in this paper. In the first experience in Brazil, it was decided to field test the technology developed by Tesco. This paper describes the preparation, the operation and the results of this first test. (author)

  12. Casing and liners for drilling and completion

    CERN Document Server

    Byrom, Ted G

    2007-01-01

    The Gulf Drilling Series is a joint project between Gulf Publishing Company and the International Association of Drilling Contractors. The first text in this Series presents casing design and mechanics in a concise, two-part format. The first part focuses on basic casing design and instructs engineers and engineering students how to design a safe casing string. The second part covers more advanced material and special problems in casing design in a user-friendly format. Learn how to select sizes and setting depths to achieve well objectives, determine casing loads for design purposes, design casing properties to meet burst, collapse and tensile strength requirements and conduct casing running operations safely and successfully.

  13. Robot force control for hazardous drilling operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alici, Gursel; Daniel, R. W.

    The use of robot manipulators for tasks which are inherently risky for human beings, specifically hazardous drilling operations, is investigated. Although drilling is one of the simplest and most basic metal cutting processes, robot drilling is problematic and has resulted in extreme operator fatigue and shorter drill life under telemanipulator control due to a number of possible causes such as dynamic and static effects. Both originate from differences between a robot and a drilling machine. A detailed study of the task highlighted the fact that it is necessary to regulate the distance dependent force by closed loop force control. How the robot type force could be controlled together with the robot position to allow fast drilling but without too much drill wear was considered. The answer was found in further exploration of the tasks which generated a set of specifications and problems that were addressed using novel strategies rather than those usually adopted for robots. The possible solutions are given in terms of a new control strategy and the correct choice of coordinate system to be used within that strategy.

  14. Environment-friendly drilling operation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huaidong; Jing, Ning; Zhang, Yanna; Huang, Hongjun; Wei, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Under the circumstance that international safety and environmental standards being more and more stringent, drilling engineering is facing unprecedented challenges, the extensive traditional process flow is no longer accepted, the new safe and environment-friendly process is more suitable to the healthy development of the industry. In 2015, CNPCIC adopted environment-friendly drilling technology for the first time in the Chad region, ensured the safety of well control, at the same time increased the environmental protection measure, reduced the risk of environmental pollution what obtain the ratification from local government. This technology carries out recovery and disposal of crude oil, cuttings and mud without falling on the ground. The final products are used in road and well site construction, which realizes the reutilization of drilling waste, reduces the operating cost, and provides a strong technical support for cost-cutting and performance-increase of drilling engineering under low oil price.

  15. Great Wall Drilling Company Operating Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Great changes have taken place in Great Wall Drilling Company (GWDC) since the start of the new century, when GWDC conducted a profound reorganization in response to CNPC's (China National Petroleum Corporation)continuously restructuring strategy. The reorganization leads to a new top management full of youthful spirit and rich experience in international business by inviting applications for its key positions from the whole drilling sector of CNPC. Also, an effective organization structure forms with its characteristic of centering on international market development and overseas operations, aiming to raise its competitiveness internationally.

  16. 30 CFR 77.1902 - Drilling and mucking operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling and mucking operations. 77.1902... COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1902 Drilling and mucking operations. Diesel-powered equipment used in the drilling, mucking, or other excavation of any slope or shaft shall be permissible, and...

  17. Drilling and well operations population data statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipscomb, A. [Phaseclever Ltd., Fareham (United Kingdom)

    1999-03-01

    The need to relate data on hydrocarbon release incidents to equipment in order to convert data from the Health and Safety Executive Offshore Division's Hydrocarbon Release Database into leak frequency is discussed. This report summarises the findings of a study analysing the results of annual surveys of drilling and well operations activities between 1992 to 1997 to obtain population data. The question of missing data is raised, and the process of conducting a consensus, non-returned questionnaires, and missing data statistics covering fixed installations, mobile jack-ups, and mobile semi-submersibles are discussed. The questionnaire, analysis methodology, and statistical tables are presented in appendices.

  18. How we improved operations in drilling pre-salt wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hougaz, Augusto Borella [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Martins, Luiz Felipe; Bittencourt, Jessica Lima; Braz, Luciano Machado [Genesis do Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Damski, Carlos [Genesis Petroleum Technology Pty Ltd. (GPT), Bentley, WA (Australia)

    2012-07-01

    The development of pre-salt wells offshore Brazil has been one of the most challenging projects in history of E and P. Facing water depths of 2000+ meters, a salt layer 2000 meters thick to reach reservoirs at 7000 meters below sea level, has to use technological and procedural techniques never used before. In those 2 years of exploration of those fields many technologies were tested and improved. This paper describes the systematic approach was taken to analyze, plan and follow-up the development of drilling operations campaign in those fields, and the case study of overall process improvement. The assumption was to apply a risk analysis tool which uses previous data to analyze the performance and plan future time. The goals of this process are continuous improvement of execution and process control for each operation. Looking into previous performance, new interventions were planned more accurately and further improvements were studied. The frequent follow up of the drilling intervention was done using the statistical base to compare the most recent results. At operational level it was possible to see if the last operation was done in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th quartile of its related statistical distribution, as well as to verify the difference within P10 and P90, which indicates the control of each operation execution process. The same process was done for some rig related operations and for the whole intervention at end of it. Close contact with the intervention progress was kept and actions taken in any major deviation from the plan. This paper describes the case study where the process control and optimization of the total time for drilling 10 wells with similar design was measured between March 2009 and May 2011. It resulted in significant improvement in the drilling process. (author)

  19. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills for Operating as a Rotary-Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Jack Barron (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Scott, James Samson (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A percussive augmenter bit includes a connection shaft for mounting the bit onto a rotary drill. In a first modality, an actuator percussively drives the bit, and an electric slip-ring provides power to the actuator while being rotated by the drill. Hammering action from the actuator and rotation from the drill are applied directly to material being drilled. In a second modality, a percussive augmenter includes an actuator that operates as a hammering mechanism that drives a free mass into the bit creating stress pulses that fracture material that is in contact with the bit.

  20. Continuous circulation apparatus for air drilling well bore operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, J.L.

    1982-02-16

    An apparatus is disclosed for maintaining a continuous supply of air pressure downhole during a well bore drilling operation, even during the addition of a pipe section to the drill string. It consists of a housing installed at the surface of the well at the position of the drilling equipment wherein the upper end of the drill string is separated from the drive mechanism in order that a new piece of drill pipe may be added to the drill string, a flapper or closure member pivotally secured within the housing normally held in an open position by the outer periphery of the drill string and spring urged in a direction toward the open end of the sleeve through which the drive mechanism passes when the drive mechanism has been backed off or removed for the addition of a section of pipe to the drill string, and a by-pass line in communication with the interior of the housing for directing air pressure from the air supply to the housing when the flapper member is in the closed position whereby the air pressure may be circulated downwardly through the drill string for maintaining the air circulation downhole during the entire drilling operation.

  1. 30 CFR 56.7012 - Tending drills in operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tending drills in operation. 56.7012 Section 56.7012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and...

  2. 30 CFR 57.7012 - Tending drills in operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tending drills in operation. 57.7012 Section 57.7012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling...

  3. Casing pull tests for directionally drilled environmental wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staller, G.E.; Wemple, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Layne, R.R. [Charles Machine Works, Inc., Perry, OK (United States)

    1994-11-01

    A series of tests to evaluate several types of environmental well casings have been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and it`s industrial partner, The Charles Machine Works, Inc. (CMW). A test bed was constructed at the CMW test range to model a typical shallow, horizontal, directionally drilled wellbore. Four different types of casings were pulled through this test bed. The loads required to pull the casings through the test bed and the condition of the casing material were documented during the pulling operations. An additional test was conducted to make a comparison of test bed vs actual wellbore casing pull loads. A directionally drilled well was emplaced by CMW to closely match the test bed. An instrumented casing was installed in the well and the pull loads recorded. The completed tests are reviewed and the results reported.

  4. 77 FR 62247 - Dynamic Positioning Operations Guidance for Vessels Other Than Mobile Offshore Drilling Units...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ...] Dynamic Positioning Operations Guidance for Vessels Other Than Mobile Offshore Drilling Units Operating on... voluntary guidance titled ``Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Dynamic Positioning Guidance''. The notice recommended owners and operators of Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) follow Marine Technology...

  5. Real-Time Simulation of Oil Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Opdal

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the basic numeric model for the oil drilling simulator WELLSIM. As a case study it presents an example from well pressure control. Figure 1 shows a picture of the simulator.

  6. Behavior based safety in drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miessner, D.J.; Fleming, E.; Loafmann, B.

    1996-12-31

    Drilling rig safety was enhanced dramatically by partnering with our drilling contractor to implement a behavior based safety process with emphasis on positive reinforcement. By identifying and targeting specific safe behaviors, we have reduced the number of acts that expose rig workers to the possibility of injury. The process focuses on only three behaviors at a time. We observe these three behaviors and record the number of times that a behavior is done correctly in relationship to the total number of instances of the behavior. Observations are recorded daily on a graph in the work place. The graph gives the employees an opportunity to receive daily feedback on their progress. Emphasis is placed on using social positive reinforcers to increase the occurrence of the desired behavior. The frequency of the desired behavior increases until the behaviors are consistently done correctly and declared to be at {open_quotes}habit strength{close_quotes}. The success of the process can be measured by the number of safe behaviors at habit strength.

  7. Long-term impacts of unconventional drilling operations on human and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Public health concerns related to the expansion of unconventional oil and gas drilling have sparked intense debate. In 2012, we published case reports of animals and humans affected by nearby drilling operations. Because of the potential for long-term effects of even low doses of environmental toxicants and the cumulative impact of exposures of multiple chemicals by multiple routes of exposure, a longitudinal study of these cases is necessary. Twenty-one cases from five states were followed longitudinally; the follow-up period averaged 25 months. In addition to humans, cases involved food animals, companion animals and wildlife. More than half of all exposures were related to drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations; these decreased slightly over time. More than a third of all exposures were associated with wastewater, processing and production operations; these exposures increased slightly over time. Health impacts decreased for families and animals moving from intensively drilled areas or remaining in areas where drilling activity decreased. In cases of families remaining in the same area and for which drilling activity either remained the same or increased, no change in health impacts was observed. Over the course of the study, the distribution of symptoms was unchanged for humans and companion animals, but in food animals, reproductive problems decreased and both respiratory and growth problems increased. This longitudinal case study illustrates the importance of obtaining detailed epidemiological data on the long-term health effects of multiple chemical exposures and multiple routes of exposure that are characteristic of the environmental impacts of unconventional drilling operations.

  8. Post-drilling analysis of underbalanced drilled wells in Hassi-Messaoud Field, Algeria : case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salim, K. [Sonatrach Inc., Alger (Algeria); Osisanya, S.O. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States); Madi, Y. [Algerian Petroleum Inst. (Algeria)

    2004-07-01

    Underbalanced drilling (UBD) is often undertaken in fractured reservoirs, in depleted formations that are susceptible to well bore damage or mud loss, and in medium to hard rock with problematic drilling rates. UBD involves manipulating the bottom hole circulating pressure so that it will be less than the static reservoir pressure, allowing formation fluids to flow into the well. UBD has increased profits at several oil and gas drilling properties including the Hassi Messaoud Field in Algeria where Sonatrach conducted trials in depleted oil production zones to assess the operational feasibility and commercial benefits of UBD. The technique was found to prevent lost circulation and differential pipe sticking; improve penetration rates; provide real-time reservoir evaluation while drilling; eliminate well stimulation costs; and, improve well bore productivity as a result of reduced formation damage. UBD also provides access to reserves that would otherwise not be produced, and substantially reduces total drilling and completion costs. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  9. Risk assessment of oil and gas well drilling activities in Iran - a case study: human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir-Heidari, Payam; Farahani, Hadi; Ebrahemzadih, Mehrzad

    2015-01-01

    Oil and gas well drilling activities are associated with numerous hazards which have the potential to cause injury or harm for people, property and the environment. These hazards are also a threat for the reputation of drilling companies. To prevent accidents and undesired events in drilling operations it is essential to identify, evaluate, assess and control the attendant risks. In this work, a structured methodology is proposed for risk assessment of drilling activities. A case study is performed to identify, analyze and assess the risks arising from human factors in one of the on shore drilling sites in southern Iran. A total of 17 major hazards were identified and analyzed using the proposed methodology. The results showed that the residual risks of 100% of these hazards were in the acceptable or transitional zone, and their levels were expected to be lowered further by proper controls. This structured methodology may also be used in other drilling sites and companies for assessing the risks.

  10. Chemical Analysis of Wastewater from Unconventional Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B. Thacker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trillions of liters of wastewater from oil and gas extraction are generated annually in the US. The contribution from unconventional drilling operations (UDO, such as hydraulic fracturing, to this volume will likely continue to increase in the foreseeable future. The chemical content of wastewater from UDO varies with region, operator, and elapsed time after production begins. Detailed chemical analyses may be used to determine its content, select appropriate treatment options, and identify its source in cases of environmental contamination. In this study, one wastewater sample each from direct effluent, a disposal well, and a waste pit, all in West Texas, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, high performance ion chromatography, total organic carbon/total nitrogen analysis, and pH and conductivity analysis. Several compounds known to compose hydraulic fracturing fluid were detected among two of the wastewater samples including 2-butoxyethanol, alkyl amines, and cocamide diethanolamines, toluene, and o-xylene. Due both to its quantity and quality, proper management of wastewater from UDO will be essential.

  11. Number & operations task & drill sheets : grades 3-5

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our Common Core State Standards-based combined resource meets the number & operations concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills.

  12. Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

  13. Phase 1 drilling operations at the Magma Energy Exploratory Well (LVF 51-20)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the Phase 1 drilling operations for the Magma Energy Exploratory Well near Mammoth Lakes, California. An important part of the Department of Energy's Magma Energy Program, this well is designed to reach an ultimate depth of 20,000 feet or a bottomhole temperature of 500{degree}C, whichever comes first. There will be four drilling phases, at least a year apart, with scientific investigations in the borehole between the drilling intervals. Phase 1 of this project resulted in a 20 inch cased hole to 2558 feet, with 185 feet of coring beyond that. This document comprises a narrative of the daily activities, copies of the daily mud and lithologic reports, time breakdowns of rig activities, inventories of lost circulation materials, temperature logs of the cored hole, and a strip chart mud log. 2 figs.

  14. Automated Kick Control Procedure for an Influx in Managed Pressure Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Within drilling of oil and gas wells, the Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD method with active control of wellbore pressure during drilling has partly evolved from conventional well control procedures. However, for MPD operations the instrumentation is typically more extensive compared to conventional drilling. Despite this, any influx of formation fluids (commonly known as a kick during MPD operations is typically handled by conventional well control methods, at least if the kick is estimated to be larger than a threshold value. Conventional well control procedures rely on manual control of the blow out preventer, pumps, and choke valves and do not capitalize on the benefits from the instrumentation level associated with MPD. This paper investigates two alternative well control procedures specially adapted to backpressure MPD: the dynamic shut-in (DSI procedure and the automatic kick control (AKC procedure. Both methods capitalize on improvements in Pressure While Drilling (PWD technology. A commercially available PWD tool buffers high-resolution pressure measurements, which can be used in an automated well control procedure. By using backpressure MPD, the choke valve opening is tuned automatically using a feedback-feedforward control method. The two procedures are evaluated using a high fidelity well flow model and cases from a North Sea drilling operation are simulated. The results show that using AKC procedure reduces the time needed to establish control of the well compared to DSI procedure. It also indicates that the AKC procedure reduces the total kick size compared to the DSI procedure, and thereby reduces the risk of lost circulation.

  15. Evolution of the horizontal drilling operations in the Ramos field; Evolucion de la perforacion horizontal en el Yacimiento Ramos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piasco, Luis E.; Alegria, Antonio; Eguia, Hugo V.; Luna, Juan C. [PLUSPETROL Exploracion y Produccion, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Marcelo, Nguyen [PLUSPETROL Peru Corporation, Lima (Peru)

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the progress related to the horizontal drilling operations in the Ramos Field in accordance with the technology evolution and the reservoir knowledge. The Ramos field, characterized as a natural fractured reservoir of quartzitic sandstones, has been subject for the application of the horizontal drilling techniques with the objective of maximize the production and to avoid water conning problems in the future. This paper describes chronologically, the experiences and the technology that helped to achieve the different proposed objectives and to reach improvements on the horizontal an Malt drilling operations. On this way, we finish successfully the drilling and completion operations in the Ramos 1010 multilateral well. This well has two cased branches and is the first well in his type in the whole subandean belt. (author)

  16. 30 CFR 250.424 - What are the requirements for prolonged drilling operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the prolonged operations on continued drilling operations and the life of the well. At a minimum, you... drilling operations? 250.424 Section 250.424 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and...

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Slop Water Management in Challenging Offshore Drilling Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Okiemute, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Offshore oil and gas drilling operations generates slop water, which are formed when wastewater originating from multiple sources becomes contaminated with drilling fluid components and have to be disposed or treated prior to discharge in compliance with local discharge regulations. The logistics and treatment of slop water have been suggested to represent a significant part of the life-cycle environmental footprint of offshore drilling operations but poorly understood due to lac...

  18. Cases analysis of rational use of medicine (33)Comprehension Drills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜金山

    2009-01-01

    @@ In the past issues, the cases have been described in the infected diseases and antimicrobial therapy, it is useful and necessary that nonperiodic comprehension drills of rational use of medicine in English be done to improve both pharmaceutical English and clinical pharmacy.

  19. Drill Press Operator. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide. General Metal Trades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, James W.

    This guide provides information to enable coordinators to direct learning activities for students using an individualized study guide on operating a drill press. The study material is designed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed, or desiring to be employed, as drill press operators. Contents include a sample…

  20. Propagation of Measurement-While-Drilling Mud Pulse during High Temperature Deep Well Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal attenuates while Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD mud pulse is transmited in drill string during high temperature deep well drilling. In this work, an analytical model for the propagation of mud pulse was presented. The model consists of continuity, momentum, and state equations with analytical solutions based on the linear perturbation analysis. The model can predict the wave speed and attenuation coefficient of mud pulse. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data showing a good agreement. Effects of the angular frequency, static velocity, mud viscosity, and mud density behavior on speed and attenuation coefficients were included in this paper. Simulated results indicate that the effects of angular frequency, static velocity, and mud viscosity are important, and lower frequency, viscosity, and static velocity benefit the transmission of mud pulse. Influenced by density behavior, the speed and attenuation coefficients in drill string are seen to have different values with respect to well depth. For different circulation times, the profiles of speed and attenuation coefficients behave distinctly different especially in lower section. In general, the effects of variables above on speed are seen to be small in comparison.

  1. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report. Volume 1: Site selection, drill plan preparation, drilling, logging, and coring operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Integral analysis of the drill string dynamic behaviour to optimize drilling operation; Analise integrada do comportamento dinamico da coluna para otimizacao de perfuracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Araken [Smith International do Brasil, Macae, RJ (Brazil); Placido, Joao C.R.; Percy, Joseir G.; Falcao, Jose; Freire, Helena; Ono, Eduardo H.; Masculo, Miguel S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Azuaga, Denise; Frenzel, Mark [Smith International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    For a performance preview of a drilling system is necessary a dynamic and integrated modeling for understanding all system forces resulting from the combination of the rock strength, cut structure action, drilling parameters, BHA and all others drilling components. This study must predict, for the drill string, vibrations and torsions, from bit to surface, its origins and its effects, and provides the best way to reduce these vibrations, determining the best bit, BHA and drilling parameters. Thereby, this study eliminates the trial and error approach and the operation risks. This paper aims to present studies of optimization for two drilling wells conducted in Brazil, one in Santos Basin and other in Campos Basin, and compares the numerical simulations results with the data from drilling operations. (author)

  3. 76 FR 21395 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity; 1010-0141, Subpart D, Oil and Gas Drilling Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ...; 1010-0141, Subpart D, Oil and Gas Drilling Operations, Extension of a Collection; Comment Request... request (ICR) concerns the paperwork requirements related to oil and gas drilling operations, and related.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR Part 250, Subpart D, Oil and Gas Drilling Operations. BOEMRE...

  4. Mechanical Properties of Gas Shale During Drilling Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chuanliang; Deng, Jingen; Cheng, Yuanfang; Li, Menglai; Feng, Yongcun; Li, Xiaorong

    2017-07-01

    The mechanical properties of gas shale significantly affect the designs of drilling, completion, and hydraulic fracturing treatments. In this paper, the microstructure characteristics of gas shale from southern China containing up to 45.1% clay were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope. The gas shale samples feature strongly anisotropic characteristics and well-developed bedding planes. Their strength is controlled by the strength of both the matrix and the bedding planes. Conventional triaxial tests and direct shear tests are further used to study the chemical effects of drilling fluids on the strength of shale matrix and bedding planes, respectively. The results show that the drilling fluid has a much larger impact on the strength of the bedding plane than that of the shale matrix. The impact of water-based mud (WBM) is much larger compared with oil-based mud. Furthermore, the borehole collapse pressure of shale gas wells considering the effects of drilling fluids are analyzed. The results show that the collapse pressure increases gradually with the increase of drilling time, especially for WBM.

  5. A Simple and Inexpensive Technique for Assessing Microbial Contamination during Drilling Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, A.; Kallmeyer, J.; Wagner, D.; Kitte, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Exploration of the Deep Biosphere relies on drilling, which inevitably causes infiltration of drilling fluids, containing non-indigenous microbes from the surface, into the core. Therefore it is absolutely necessary to trace contamination of the sediment core in order to identify uncontaminated samples for microbiological investigations in drill core samples. To do this, usually a tracer is mixed into the drilling fluid. In past drilling operations a variety of tracers have been used including dyes, salts, dissolved gasses, and microspheres. The latter are microbe-sized fluorescent particles that can be detected with very high sensitivity. Each tracer has its specific strengths and weaknesses, for microspheres the main problem was the high price, which limited the use to spot checks or drilling operations that require only small amounts of drilling fluid. Here, we present a modified microsphere tracer approach, using an aqueous fluorescent pigment dispersion that has a similar concentration of fluorescent particles as previously used microsphere tracers. However, compared to previous microsphere tracers, the cost of the new tracer is four orders of magnitude lower, allowing for a much more liberal use even in large-scale operations. Its suitability for large drilling campaigns was successfully tested at the ICDP Deep Drilling at Lake Towuti, Sulawesi, Indonesia and at the ICDP Deep Drilling at Lake Chalco, Mexico. Contamination can be detected by fluorescence microscopy or by flow cytometry at a sensitivity that is in the range of established techniques. Quantification of the tracer thus only requires a minimum of equipment and by using a small portable cytometer, high-resolution data can be obtained directly on-site within minutes and with minimal effort. Therefore this approach offers an inexpensive but powerful alternative technique for contamination assessment for future drilling campaigns.

  6. Design of a Pneumatic Tool for Manual Drilling Operations in Confined Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Benjamin

    This master's thesis describes the design process and testing results for a pneumatically actuated, manually-operated tool for confined space drilling operations. The purpose of this device is to back-drill pilot holes inside a commercial airplane wing. It is lightweight, and a "locator pin" enables the operator to align the drill over a pilot hole. A suction pad stabilizes the system, and an air motor and flexible drive shaft power the drill. Two testing procedures were performed to determine the practicality of this prototype. The first was the "offset drill test", which qualified the exit hole position error due to an initial position error relative to the original pilot hole. The results displayed a linear relationship, and it was determined that position errors of less than .060" would prevent the need for rework, with errors of up to .030" considered acceptable. For the second test, a series of holes were drilled with the pneumatic tool and analyzed for position error, diameter range, and cycle time. The position errors and hole diameter range were within the allowed tolerances. The average cycle time was 45 seconds, 73 percent of which was for drilling the hole, and 27 percent of which was for positioning the device. Recommended improvements are discussed in the conclusion, and include a more durable flexible drive shaft, a damper for drill feed control, and a more stable locator pin.

  7. Calculation Analysis of Pressure Wave Velocity in Gas and Drilling Mud Two-Phase Fluid in Annulus during Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhua Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of propagation characteristics of a pressure wave is of great significance to the solution of the transient pressure problem caused by unsteady operations during management pressure drilling operations. With consideration of the important factors such as virtual mass force, drag force, angular frequency, gas influx rate, pressure, temperature, and well depth, a united wave velocity model has been proposed based on pressure gradient equations in drilling operations, gas-liquid two-fluid model, the gas-drilling mud equations of state, and small perturbation theory. Solved by adopting the Runge-Kutta method, calculation results indicate that the wave velocity and void fraction have different values with respect to well depth. In the annulus, the drop of pressure causes an increase in void fraction along the flow direction. The void fraction increases first slightly and then sharply; correspondingly the wave velocity first gradually decreases and then slightly increases. In general, the wave velocity tends to increase with the increase in back pressure and the decrease of gas influx rate and angular frequency, significantly in low range. Taking the virtual mass force into account, the dispersion characteristic of the pressure wave weakens obviously, especially at the position close to the wellhead.

  8. Simulation of the Cuttings Cleaning During the Drilling Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain H. Al-Kayiem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Oil well cleaning is the ability of a drilling fluid to suspend and transport drilled cuttings from the down hole (bit face to the surface. The cleaning performance was affected by many factors such as fluid viscosity, annular flow velocity, angle of inclination and drill cuttings size and shape and. Approach: Navier-Stoke equations, the continuity equation and the power law of non-Newtonian viscosity model were adopted to establish the mathematical model of the cutting transport process in the annulus of the well. The constants of the power law model were evaluated experimentally for three different mud types. The CFD simulation to solve the governing equations was carried out by using FLUENT commercial code. The specifications of the particles, the pumping head and feeding conditions were obtained from a drilling site in Sudan. Results: Simulation of the mud flow in the annulus had shown that in spite of the laminar nature of the flow, the velocity profile was flattening over wide area of the annulus. Such condition was referred to as fog flow and was preferable to produce uniform drag distribution to lift the particles without rotation during the transportation process. The analysis had been conducted for various mud charging rates ranging from 600-900 GPM, in 30° diverted orientation well. The investigation of cuttings size was conducted for 2.54, 4.45 and 7 mm. Also, the effect of the cuttings shape with 1, 0.9 and 0.85 was investigated and it was found that higher sphereicity have better cleaning efficiency. Conclusion: The analyses revealed that for 30° diverted orientation; the effective cleaning performance was achieved when the drilling mud charging was higher than 800 GPM for all types of tested cuttings. The simulation results revealed that there was a significant effect of the cuttings size on the cuttings transport. Fine particles are the easiest to clean out.

  9. Elemental composition of airborne dust in the shale shaker house during an offshore drilling operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.B.; Larsen, E.; Hansen, L.V.

    1991-01-01

    During 2 days of an offshore drilling operation in the North Sea, 16 airborne dust samples from the atmosphere of the Shale Shaker House were collected onto filters. During this operation, drilling mud composed of a water slurry of barite (BaSO4) together with minor amounts of additives, among them...... coupled plasma-mass spectrometry). The total amount of dust collected varied from 0.04 to 1.41 mg m-3 with barium (Ba) as the single most abundant element. The open shale shakers turned out to be the major cause of generation of dust from the solid components of the drilling mud....

  10. Optimization of drilling and blasting operations in an open pit mine-the SOMAIR experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AFENI Thomas Busuyi

    2009-01-01

    Drilling and blasting play vital roles in opencast mining. These operations not only affect the cost of production directly but as well and significantly, the overall operational costs. This research was carried out to find a possible way of optimizing the drilling and blasting operations in an open pit mine of Somair (Societe des Mines de l'Air), in the Niger Republic. In order to opti-mize the drilling operation, the time taken by two drilling machines to accomplish the same task was analyzed statistically. The result indicates that the Down the Hole Hammer Drilling Rig (DMNo406) is more efficient than the Drill Master (DM405). The relative unit consumption of two explosives (Explus and Nitram 9), when used under the same operating conditions, were also con-sidered and the results indicate Explus to be more economical per unit consumption with a range of 0.15 g/t0.183 g/t, when com-pared with Nitram 9 with a unit consumption range of 0.19 g/t-0.24 g/t in the study area.

  11. Phase 2 drilling operations at the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVF 51--20)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes the second drilling phase, completed to a depth of 7588 feet in November 1991, of the Long Valley Exploratory Well near Mammoth Lakes, California. The well in Long Valley Caldera is planned to reach an ultimate depth of 20,000 feet or a bottomhole temperature of 500{degrees}C (whichever comes first). There will be four drilling phases, at least a year apart with scientific experiments in the wellbore between active drilling periods. Phase 1 drilling in 1989 was completed with 20 in. casing from surface to a depth of 2558 ft., and a 3.8 in. core hole was drilled below the shoe to a depth of 2754 in. Phase 2 included a 17-{1/2} in. hole out of the 20 in. shoe, with 13-3/8 in. casing to 6825 ft., and continuous wireline coring below that to 7588 ft. This document comprises a narrative log of the daily activities, the daily drilling reports, mud logger's reports, summary of drilling fluids used, and other miscellaneous records.

  12. Paleomagnetic applications in hydrocarbon exploration and drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Alstine, D.R.; Bleakly, D.C.; Gillett, S.L.

    1983-03-01

    A new generation of high-sensitivity cryogenic magnetometers permits paleomagnetic applications in weakly magnetized sedimentary rocks. One of the most useful paleomagnetic applications is drill-core orientation, which is important for determining fracture orientations, for stress analysis, and for determining sediment transport directions. A 2-year study involving approximately 600 core plug samples from five wells in three Rocky Mountain basins yielded paleomagnetic orientations that agree with those obtained using the conventional photographic multishot technique. The strongest paleomagnetic signal in these rocks points toward the late Cenozoic paleomagnetic pole and probably represents a secondary magnetization imposed by thermal effects associated with the late Cenozoic uplift and tectonism in this region. Weaker paleomagnetic signals, reflecting earlier thermal, diagenetic, or depositional magnetizations are also commonly preserved in sedimentary rocks and can also be used to orient core.

  13. Phase III Drilling Operations at the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVF 51-20)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1999-06-01

    During July-September, 1998, a jointly funded drilling operation deepened the Long Valley Exploratory Well from 7178 feet to 9832 feet. This was the third major drilling phase of a project that began in 1989, but had sporadic progress because of discontinuities in tiding. Support for Phase III came from the California Energy Commission (CEC), the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP), the US Geological Survey (USGS), and DOE. Each of these agencies had a somewhat different agenda: the CEC wants to evaluate the energy potential (specifically energy extraction from magma) of Long Valley Caldera; the ICDP is studying the evolution and other characteristics of young, silicic calderas; the USGS will use this hole as an observatory in their Volcano Hazards program; and the DOE, through Sandia, has an opportunity to test new geothermal tools and techniques in a realistic field environment. This report gives a description of the equipment used in drilling and testing; a narrative of the drilling operations; compiled daily drilling reports; cost information on the project; and a brief summary of engineering results related to equipment performance and energy potential. Detailed description of the scientific results will appear in publications by the USGS and other researchers.

  14. MONDO Project: real time ocean monitoring through Lagrangian drifters during offshore drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mafra, Tatiana [Eni Oil do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fragoso, Mauricio da Rocha; Santos, Francisco Alves dos; Cruz, Leonardo M. Marques A.; Pellegrini, Julio A.C.; Cerrone, Bruna Nogueira [Prooceano, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Assireu, Arcilan Trevenzoli [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Monitoring the ocean conditions during offshore operations is essential for both operational and environmental aspects. Environmentally, not only to know better the environment where the activity is taking place, but also to be able to provide fast and accurate response in case of accidents. MONDO Project (Monitoring by Ocean Drifters) is a pioneer initiative from ENI Oil do Brasil and PROOCEANO that aimed to monitor currents as a part of a metoceanographic data monitoring project of drilling operations in Brazilian Waters, in Santos Basin throughout September to November 2007, 40 satellite tracked ocean drifters were deployed will be transmitting data up to November 2008. The results of this project can be used to study a wide range of subjects about ocean dynamics. Following the principles of social and environmental responsibility, MONDO Project aims to benefit the local ecosystem in increasing the scientific knowledge of the area to calibrate hydrodynamic models that will lead to more accurate modeling results and, as a consequence, to a better management of contingency plans. Based on these principles, the project will also provide unrestricted access to oceanographic data even after the end of operations. (author)

  15. Emergency operation of a subsea drilling blowout preventer

    OpenAIRE

    Kozel, Kiryl

    2015-01-01

    The world-scale disaster in the Gulf of Mexico on 20 April 2011 drew the attention of the authorities and oil and gas companies to the reliability of the blowout preventer systems. The efficiency of emergency preparedness to operate such systems was also in the spotlight due to several unsuccessful attempts to operate during the accident. Generally, there are three main methods and five sub-methods, which allow controlling the blowout preventer systems when the primary control system is not a...

  16. Differential Characteristics and Methods of Operation Underlying CAI/CMI Drill and Practice Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hativa, Nira

    1988-01-01

    Describes computer systems that combine drill and practice instruction with computer-managed instruction (CMI) and identifies system characteristics in four categories: (1) hardware, (2) software, (3) management systems, and (4) methods of daily operation. Topics discussed include microcomputer networks, graphics, feedback, degree of learner…

  17. Drilling and operating oil, gas, and geothermal wells in an H/sub 2/S environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosch, M.W.; Hodgson, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    The following subjects are covered: facts about hydrogen sulfides; drilling and operating oil, gas, and geothermal wells; detection devices and protective equipment; hazard levels and safety procedures; first aid; and H/sub 2/S in California oil, gas, and geothermal fields. (MHR)

  18. Successful drilling operations: Gold rush in the south; Erfolgreiche Bohrungen: Goldrausch im Sueden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, J.

    2006-01-31

    Since the community of Unterhaching has been successful with a drilling operation for a geothermal power plant in autumn 2004 the waiting list of further investors has become long in the region of Munich. The southern German molasse basin attracts them by means of favourable geological conditions. (orig.)

  19. Case study : drilling horizontal exploration shale gas wells efficiently by collaboration of subsurface and drilling teams utilizing geosciences technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, N. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Geosciences modelling and seismic interpretation methods were used to determine shear failure and pore pressure predictions from offset wells and seismic interval velocities. The aim of the study was to predict a safe range of mud weights for minimizing the horizontal stresses associated with drilling shale gas exploratory wells. The customized tool computed pore pressure, shear failure, fracture gradient and overburden gradients which were then calibrated with drilling data obtained from leak offset tests, formation integrity tests, and various other drilling parameters. Gamma rays were imported into the tool's dataset and a shale base line was selected based on the lithology and volume of shale. The shale base line was then transformed into a compaction trend line. Bower's sonic, Miller's sonic, and semi-log resistivity equations were used to predict normal compaction trend lines (NCTLs). The shear failure gradient was calculated and rock strength parameters were determined by characterizing the friction angle and cohesive strength of the formations. Case studies of wells drilled by Talisman were presented to validate the methods. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 15 figs.

  20. Non-technical skills: enhancing safety in operating theatres (and drilling rigs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flin, Rhona

    2014-03-01

    On April 20th 2010, a large Transocean drilling rig called the Deepwater Horizon was operating in the Gulf of Mexico to drill the Macondo well, for the oil company BP. The job was six weeks behind schedule and $58 million over budget and had not been without difficulty: it was a high pressure well, 2.5 miles below the seabed. At 5.45 am, the Halliburton cementing engineer sent an email to say: 'We have completed the job and it went well'. At 9.43 pm, 16 hours later, there was a release of hydrocarbons into the well bore and the drilling rig experienced a catastrophic blowout as the high pressure oil and gas escaped onto the rig and into the ocean. The resulting explosions and fire killed 11 of the crew of 126, injured many more and created an enormous oil spill across the Gulf.

  1. Relevance of East African Drill Cores to Human Evolution: the Case of the Olorgesailie Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, R.

    2016-12-01

    Drill cores reaching the local basement of the East African Rift were obtained in 2012 south of the Olorgesailie Basin, Kenya, 20 km from excavations that document key benchmarks in the origin of Homo sapiens. Sediments totaling 216 m were obtained from two drilling locations representing the past 1 million years. The cores were acquired to build a detailed environmental record spatially associated with the transition from Acheulean to Middle Stone Age technology and extensive turnover in mammalian species. The project seeks precise tests of how climate dynamics and tectonic events were linked with these transitions. Core lithology (A.K. Behrensmeyer), geochronology (A. Deino), diatoms (R.B. Owen), phytoliths (R. Kinyanjui), geochemistry (N. Rabideaux, D. Deocampo), among other indicators, show evidence of strong environmental variability in agreement with predicted high-eccentricity modulation of climate during the evolutionary transitions. Increase in hominin mobility, elaboration of symbolic behavior, and concurrent turnover in mammalian species indicating heightened adaptability to unpredictable ecosystems, point to a direct link between the evolutionary transitions and the landscape dynamics reflected in the Olorgesailie drill cores. For paleoanthropologists and Earth scientists, any link between evolutionary transitions and environmental dynamics requires robust evolutionary datasets pertinent to how selection, extinction, population divergence, and other evolutionary processes were impacted by the dynamics uncovered in drill core studies. Fossil and archeological data offer a rich source of data and of robust environment-evolution explanations that must be integrated into efforts by Earth scientists who seek to examine high-resolution climate records of human evolution. Paleoanthropological examples will illustrate the opportunities that exist for connecting evolutionary benchmarks to the data obtained from drilled African muds. Project members: R. Potts, A

  2. Preliminary evaluation of a virtual reality dental simulation system on drilling operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhao, Siming; Li, Teng; Zhang, Yuru; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the fidelity of the iDental system and investigate its utility and performance on simulated drilling operations, user studies consisting of objective and subjective evaluations were performed. A voxel-based drilling simulation sub-system in the iDental system was employed for evaluation. Twenty participants were enrolled to take part in the experiments and were divided into two groups: novice and resident. A combined evaluation method including objective and subjective methods was employed. The objective evaluation included two dental drilling tasks: caries removal operation and pulp chamber opening operation. In the subjective method, participants were required to complete a questionnaire to evaluate the fidelity of the system after the operation task. Based on the structured global assessment scales in the questionnaire, the average subjective evaluation scores of the proposed metrics were greater than 4.5, demonstrating that the system operated above medium fidelity. Dentists expressed great interest and positive attitudes toward the potential of the iDental system. The objective evaluation data including time spent and the volume of removed healthy and carious tissue were obtained. Although no significant differences could be found between the two groups, the volume of removed caries and the depth of pulp chamber insertion manifested small standard deviations. Evaluation results illustrated that dentists were willing to use the virtual reality training system. Several future research topics were identified, including increasing the task difficulty, improving the system fidelity and introducing appropriate finger rest points.

  3. Linking downhole logging data with geology and drilling /coring operations - Example from Chicxulub Expedition 364.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofi, Johanna; Smith, Dave; Delahunty, Chris; Le Ber, Erwan; Mellet, Claire; Brun, Laurent; Henry, Gilles; Paris, Jehanne

    2017-04-01

    Expedition 364 was a joint IODP/ICDP mission specific platform expedition to explore the Chicxulub impact crater buried below the Yucatán continental shelf. In April and May 2016, our Expedition drilled a single borehole at Site M0077A into the crater's peak ring. It allowed recovering 303 excellent quality cores from 505.7 to 1334.7 meters below sea floor and acquiring more than 5.8 km of high resolution open hole logs. Downhole logs are rapidly collected, continuous with depth, and measured in situ; these data are classically interpreted in terms of stratigraphy, lithology, porosity, fluid content, geochemical composition and structure of the formation drilled. Downhole logs also allow assessing borehole quality (eg. shape and trajectory), and can provide assistance for decision support during drilling operations. In this work, Expedition 364 downhole logs are used to improve our understanding of the drilling/coring operation history. Differentiating between natural geological features and borehole artifacts are also critical for data quality assessment. The set of downhole geophysical tools used during Expedition 364 was constrained by the scientific objectives, drilling/coring technique, hole conditions and temperature at the drill site. Wireline logging data were acquired with slimline tools in three logging phases at intervals 0-503, 506-699 and 700-1334 mbsf. Logs were recorded either with standalone logging tools or, for the first time in IODP, with stackable slimline tools. Log data included total gamma radiation, sonic velocity, acoustic and optical borehole images, resistivity, conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, caliper and borehole fluid parameters. The majority of measurements were performed in open borehole conditions. During the drilling operations some problems were encountered directly linked to the geology of the drilled formation. For example, two zones of mud circulation losses correlate in depth with the presence of karst cavities or open

  4. A simple and inexpensive technique for assessing microbial contamination during drilling operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, André; Vuillemin, Aurèle; Kallmeyer, Jens; Wagner, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    Exploration of the Deep Biosphere relies on drilling, which inevitably causes infiltration of drilling fluids, containing allochthonous microbes from the surface, into the core. Therefore it is absolutely necessary to trace contamination of the sediment core in order to identify uncontaminated samples for microbiological investigations. Several techniques have been used in the past, including fluorescent dyes, perfluorocarbon tracers and fluorescent microspheres. Fluorescent dyes are inexpensive and easy to analyze on-site but are sensitive to light, pH and water chemistry. Furthermore, significant sorption to clays can decrease the fluorescence signal. Perfluorocarbon tracers are chemically inert hydrophobic compounds that can be detected with high sensitivity via gas chromatography, which might be a problem for on-site analysis. Samples have to be taken immediately after core retrieval as otherwise the volatile tracer will have diffused out of the core. Microsphere tracers are small (0.2 - 0.5 μm diameter) fluorescent plastic particles that are mixed into the drilling fluid. For analysis, these particles can be extracted from the sediment sample, transferred onto a filter and quantified via fluorescence microscopy. However, they are very expensive and therefore unsuitable for deep drilling operations that need large amounts of drilling fluids. Here, we present an inexpensive contamination control approach using fluorescent pigments initially used for coloring plastics. The price of this tracer is nearly three orders of magnitude lower than conventional microsphere tracers. Its suitability for large drilling campaigns was tested at the ICDP Deep Drilling at Lake Towuti, Sulawesi, Indonesia. The tracer was diluted 1:1000 in lake water, which was used as the drilling fluid. Additionally, a plastic bag filled with 20 mL of undiluted tracer was attached to the core catcher to increase the amount of particles in the liner fluid right at the core. After core retrieval

  5. Evaluation of unilateral versus bilateral ovarian drilling in clomiphene citrate resistant cases of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, K K; Baruah, Jinee; Moda, Nidhi; Kumar, Sunesh

    2009-10-01

    Laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) has been put forward as the treatment of choice in women with clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), with tubo-ovarian adhesion formation as the major disadvantage. Our study proposed to compare the efficacy of laparoscopic unilateral ovarian drilling with bilateral ovarian drilling in terms of ovulation and pregnancy rate with the expected advantage of decreasing postoperative adhesion rate and change in fimbiro ovarian relationship with unilateral drilling. This prospective randomized study included 44 patients with anovulatory infertility due to PCOS. Twenty-two patients underwent unilateral ovarian drilling in group-I and 22 patients underwent bilateral ovarian drilling in group-II between June 2005 and June 2007. The number of drilling site in each ovary was limited to five. The clinical and biochemical response, ovulation and pregnancy rates over a follow-up period of 1 year were compared. Tubo-ovarian adhesion rate was compared during cesarean section or during repeat laparoscopy. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of clinical and biochemical response, ovulation rate and pregnancy rate. Postoperatively, tubo-ovarian adhesions could be assessed in 36.3% of the patients and no adhesions were found in a single case in either group. Unilateral drilling cauterization of ovary is equally efficacious as bilateral drilling in inducing ovulation and achieving pregnancy. Unilateral ovarian drilling may be a suitable option in clomiphene citrate resistant infertility patient of PCOS which can replace bilateral ovarian drilling with the potential advantage of decreasing the chances of adhesion formation.

  6. Monitoring radionuclides in subsurface drinking water sources near unconventional drilling operations: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew W; Knight, Andrew W; Eitrheim, Eric S; Schultz, Michael K

    2015-04-01

    Unconventional drilling (the combination of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) to extract oil and natural gas is expanding rapidly around the world. The rate of expansion challenges scientists and regulators to assess the risks of the new technologies on drinking water resources. One concern is the potential for subsurface drinking water resource contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials co-extracted during unconventional drilling activities. Given the rate of expansion, opportunities to test drinking water resources in the pre- and post-fracturing setting are rare. This pilot study investigated the levels of natural uranium, lead-210, and polonium-210 in private drinking wells within 2000 m of a large-volume hydraulic fracturing operation--before and approximately one-year following the fracturing activities. Observed radionuclide concentrations in well waters tested did not exceed maximum contaminant levels recommended by state and federal agencies. No statistically-significant differences in radionuclide concentrations were observed in well-water samples collected before and after the hydraulic fracturing activities. Expanded monitoring of private drinking wells before and after hydraulic fracturing activities is needed to develop understanding of the potential for drinking water resource contamination from unconventional drilling and gas extraction activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Wintertime Air Quality Impacts from Oil and Natural Gas Drilling Operations in the Bakken Formation Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanoski-Cole, Ashley; Sive, Barkley; Zhou, Yong; Prenni, Anthony; Schurman, Misha; Day, Derek; Sullivan, Amy; Li, Yi; Hand, Jenny; Gebhart, Kristi; Schichtel, Bret; Collett, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    Oil and natural gas extraction has dramatically increased in the last decade in the United States due to the increased use of unconventional drilling techniques which include horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. The impact of these drilling activities on local and regional air quality in oil and gas basins across the country are still relatively unknown, especially in recently developed basins such as the Bakken shale formation. This study is the first to conduct a comprehensive characterization of the regional air quality in the Bakken region. The Bakken shale formation, part of the Williston basin, is located in North Dakota and Montana in the United States and Saskatchewan and Manitoba in Canada. Oil and gas drilling operations can impact air quality in a variety of ways, including the generation of atmospheric particulate matter (PM), hazardous air pollutants, ozone, and greenhouse gas emissions. During the winter especially, PM formation can be enhanced and meteorological conditions can favor increased concentrations of PM and other pollutants. In this study, ground-based measurements throughout the Bakken region in North Dakota and Montana were collected over two consecutive winters to gain regional trends of air quality impacts from the oil and gas drilling activities. Additionally, one field site had a comprehensive suite of instrumentation operating at high time resolution to gain detailed characterization of the atmospheric composition. Measurements included organic carbon and black carbon concentrations in PM, the characterization of inorganic PM, inorganic gases, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), precipitation and meteorology. These elevated PM episodes were further investigated using the local meteorological conditions and regional transport patterns. Episodes of elevated concentrations of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide were also detected. The VOC concentrations were analyzed and specific VOCs that are known oil and gas tracers were used

  8. Horizontal drilling in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidey, P.; Precul, L. [Sproule Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    A review of oil and gas production in Ontario was presented with particular reference to drilling activity between 1987 to mid 2002 when 1450 vertical wells were drilled, of which 1100 were for petroleum production and the remainder were for gas storage, observation wells, private gas wells and stratigraphic tests. Of the 1100 vertical wells drilled for petroleum production, 40 per cent became gas wells, 16 per cent became oil wells, 4 per cent became oil and gas wells, and 40 per cent were dry. During the same time period, 133 horizontal wells were also drilled, mostly for petroleum. The most active operator was Talisman Energy, which drilled 101 of the 133 horizontal wells. The remainder were drilled by 12 other companies. Of the horizontal wells, 64 per cent became oil wells, 19 per cent became gas wells, and 17 per cent were dry. This presentation included graphs depicting which oil and gas pools saw vertical or horizontal drilling during the designated time period, and explained how the wells were classified. Both horizontal and vertical well targets were illustrated. Particular reference was made to Talisman Energy's Lake Erie Drilling program which revealed that horizontal wells have an initial production rate that is 5 times that expected from vertical wells. The Hillman Pool case study revealed that the initial rate of the average horizontal well is less than half that of the average vertical well. Horizontal drilling in the Lake Erie Morpeth Gas pool has also been a commercial success. This paper demonstrates that operators have maintained Ontario's oil and gas production at high levels. In 1997 widespread horizontal drilling began taking place in Ontario, and since then, approximately 30 per cent of the wells drilled in the province have been horizontal. 16 figs.

  9. Advanced drilling systems study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe; Finger, John Travis (Livesay Consultants, Encintas, CA)

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.

  10. Optimization of Operating Parameters for Minimum Mechanical Specific Energy in Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrick, Todd [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Efficiency in drilling is measured by Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE). MSE is the measure of the amount of energy input required to remove a unit volume of rock, expressed in units of energy input divided by volume removed. It can be expressed mathematically in terms of controllable parameters; Weight on Bit, Torque, Rate of Penetration, and RPM. It is well documented that minimizing MSE by optimizing controllable factors results in maximum Rate of Penetration. Current methods for computing MSE make it possible to minimize MSE in the field only through a trial-and-error process. This work makes it possible to compute the optimum drilling parameters that result in minimum MSE. The parameters that have been traditionally used to compute MSE are interdependent. Mathematical relationships between the parameters were established, and the conventional MSE equation was rewritten in terms of a single parameter, Weight on Bit, establishing a form that can be minimized mathematically. Once the optimum Weight on Bit was determined, the interdependent relationship that Weight on Bit has with Torque and Penetration per Revolution was used to determine optimum values for those parameters for a given drilling situation. The improved method was validated through laboratory experimentation and analysis of published data. Two rock types were subjected to four treatments each, and drilled in a controlled laboratory environment. The method was applied in each case, and the optimum parameters for minimum MSE were computed. The method demonstrated an accurate means to determine optimum drilling parameters of Weight on Bit, Torque, and Penetration per Revolution. A unique application of micro-cracking is also presented, which demonstrates that rock failure ahead of the bit is related to axial force more than to rotation speed.

  11. European Geothermal Drilling Experience-Problem Areas and Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, G.; Ungemach, P.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal drilling has long been restricted in Western Europe to the sole dry steam field of Larderello in Italy. In the last few years, a wider experience is building up as a consequence of intensified exploration and development programs carried out for evaluation and production of both low- and high-enthalpy geothermal resources. A sample of some 40 boreholes indicates the problem areas which are given.

  12. Riserless drilling (managed pressure drilling)

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Ahsan

    2012-01-01

    There are several problems which an oil and gas industry is facing. These problems can be solved by riserless drilling method which comes under managed pressure drilling umbrella. The most important problem is increasing number of casing strings to complete a well and to control a well in limited pressure profile. A well model was developed and both conventional and riserless drilling approaches were applied to see how many casings will be needed to complete a same well with these approach...

  13. Operational Review of the First Wireline In Situ Stress Test in Scientific Ocean Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Moore

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific ocean drilling’s first in situ stress measurement was made at Site C0009A during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 319 as part of Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE Stage 2. The Modular Formation Dynamics Tester (MDT, Schlumbergerwireline logging tool was deployed in riser Hole C0009A to measure in situ formation pore pressure, formation permeability (often reported as mobility=permeability/viscosity, and the least principal stress (S3 at several isolated depths (Saffer et al., 2009; Expedition 319 Scientists, 2010. The importance of in situ stress measurements is not only for scientific interests in active tectonic drilling, but also for geomechanical and well bore stability analyses. Certain in situ tools were not previously available for scientific ocean drilling due to the borehole diameter and open hole limits of riserless drilling. The riser-capable drillship, D/V Chikyu,now in service for IODP expeditions, allows all of the techniques available to estimate the magnitudes and orientations of 3-D stresses to be used. These techniques include downhole density logging for vertical stress, breakout and caliper log analyses for maximum horizontal stress, core-based anelastic strain recovery (ASR, used in the NanTroSEIZE expeditions in 2007–2008, and leak-off test (Lin et al., 2008 and minifrac/hydraulic fracturing (NanTroSEIZE Expedition319 in 2009. In this report, the whole operational planning process related to in situ measurements is reviewed, and lessons learned from Expedition 319 are summarized for efficient planning and testing in the future.

  14. Combining Diagnosis of the Casing and Tooljoint Wear in Mud Fluid While Drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊建春; 张来斌; 温东; 余磊

    2004-01-01

    A ground monitoring system was developed to diagnose casing and tooljoint wear in a well during drilling by combining the analysis of wear debris with detection of the tooljoints.The result shows that the wear debris concentration in the circulating drilling mud in a well reflects the total wear rate of the tribo-elements in the well, while the wear detection of a tooljoint can indicate its wear loss between two contiguous times of drill-pipe lifting.A diagnosis method that integrates the two types of information was developed to identify severe wear regions in well casing.Theoretical analyses and field test show that the severe casing wear region can be located relatively accurately by the integrated method.This method presents a new ground casing wear diagnosis approach with good real-time results.

  15. Practical application of failure criteria in determining safe mud weight windows in drilling operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Gholami; A. Moradzadeh; V. Rasouli; J. Hanachi

    2014-01-01

    Wellbore instability is reported frequently as one of the most significant incidents during drilling oper-ations. Analysis of wellbore instability includes estimation of formation mechanical properties and the state of in situ stresses. In this analysis, the only controllable parameter during drilling operation is the mud weight. If the mud weight is larger than anticipated, the mud will invade into the formation, causing tensile failure of the formation. On the other hand, a lower mud weight can result in shear failures of rock, which is known as borehole breakouts. To predict the potential for failures around the wellbore during drilling, one should use a failure criterion to compare the rock strength against induced tangen-tial stresses around the wellbore at a given mud pressure. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is one of the commonly accepted criteria for estimation of rock strength at a given state of stress. However, the use of other criteria has been debated in the literature. In this paper, Mohr-Coulomb, Hoek-Brown and Mogi-Coulomb failure criteria were used to estimate the potential rock failure around a wellbore located in an onshore field of Iran. The log based analysis was used to estimate rock mechanical proper-ties of formations and state of stresses. The results indicated that amongst different failure criteria, the Mohr-Coulomb criterion underestimates the highest mud pressure required to avoid breakouts around the wellbore. It also predicts a lower fracture gradient pressure. In addition, it was found that the results obtained from Mogi-Coulomb criterion yield a better comparison with breakouts observed from the caliper logs than that of Hoek-Brown criterion. It was concluded that the Mogi-Coulomb criterion is a better failure criterion as it considers the effect of the intermediate principal stress component in the failure analysis.

  16. Importance of drill string assembly swivel in horizontal drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Tasak

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A part of the drill string – the swivel (rotational connector – accomplishes an important task in the horizontal drilling. Its malfunctioning makes it impossible to draw in ( install large diameter and length pipelines. The causes of the connector break-down during the horizontal drilling are investigated in the paper. The drilling has been made for twenty inches gas pipeline installation during reaming operations. A trouble was encountered making good work conditions of a system consisting of the drilling machine drill string reamer swivel tube shield of Cardan joint and the gas pipeline 500 m long. In this case, the swivel brokes down and the planned operation was not finished. The assessment of improper drilling conditions, selection of operation system components, and drilling parameters and the insufficient technological supervising have created an excessive risk of failure. A proper application of technical analysis would considerably decrease the hazard of failure which cause large costs, delays and decrease of confidence to the drilling contractor and pipeline installation.

  17. On the dynamic effects during under-balanced drilling operations and their prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.; Rommetveit, R.; Maglione, R.; Bijleveld, A.; Gazaniol, D.

    1997-12-31

    In most under-balanced drilling (UBD) operations, the under-balanced condition must be generated artificially by injecting gas into the well. Due to the high compressibility nature of the gaseous phase and interruptions to the system, the flowing system is a non-steady state one, especially when jointed pipes are used. This is experienced by the varying liquid and gas flow-out rates, and spikes in the bottom hole pressure. These dynamic pressures have been observed and documented in field UBD operations. This publication presents an extensive examination of the dynamic effects during an under-balanced operation, and it discusses measures that are necessary to avoid the excessive peak loading of the surface facilities, the excessive wellhead pressure, and accidental overbalanced situations downhole. 9 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Practical application of failure criteria in determining safe mud weight windows in drilling operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gholami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Wellbore instability is reported frequently as one of the most significant incidents during drilling operations. Analysis of wellbore instability includes estimation of formation mechanical properties and the state of in situ stresses. In this analysis, the only controllable parameter during drilling operation is the mud weight. If the mud weight is larger than anticipated, the mud will invade into the formation, causing tensile failure of the formation. On the other hand, a lower mud weight can result in shear failures of rock, which is known as borehole breakouts. To predict the potential for failures around the wellbore during drilling, one should use a failure criterion to compare the rock strength against induced tangential stresses around the wellbore at a given mud pressure. The Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion is one of the commonly accepted criteria for estimation of rock strength at a given state of stress. However, the use of other criteria has been debated in the literature. In this paper, Mohr–Coulomb, Hoek–Brown and Mogi–Coulomb failure criteria were used to estimate the potential rock failure around a wellbore located in an onshore field of Iran. The log based analysis was used to estimate rock mechanical properties of formations and state of stresses. The results indicated that amongst different failure criteria, the Mohr–Coulomb criterion underestimates the highest mud pressure required to avoid breakouts around the wellbore. It also predicts a lower fracture gradient pressure. In addition, it was found that the results obtained from Mogi–Coulomb criterion yield a better comparison with breakouts observed from the caliper logs than that of Hoek–Brown criterion. It was concluded that the Mogi–Coulomb criterion is a better failure criterion as it considers the effect of the intermediate principal stress component in the failure analysis.

  19. 26 CFR 1.263(c)-1 - Intangible drilling and development costs in the case of oil and gas wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Intangible drilling and development costs in the case of oil and gas wells. For rules relating to the option to deduct as expenses intangible drilling and development costs in the case of oil and gas wells, see... case of oil and gas wells. 1.263(c)-1 Section 1.263(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE...

  20. A New Model for Predicting Dynamic Surge Pressure in Gas and Drilling Mud Two-Phase Flow during Tripping Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of surge pressure is of great significance to the circulation loss problem caused by unsteady operations in management pressure drilling (MPD operations. With full consideration of the important factors such as wave velocity, gas influx rate, pressure, temperature, and well depth, a new surge pressure model has been proposed based on the mass conservation equations and the momentum conservation equations during MPD operations. The finite-difference method, the Newton-Raphson iterative method, and the fourth-order explicit Runge-Kutta method (R-K4 are adopted to solve the model. Calculation results indicate that the surge pressure has different values with respect to different drill pipe tripping speeds and well parameters. In general, the surge pressure tends to increase with the increases of drill pipe operating speed and with the decrease of gas influx rate and wellbore diameter. When the gas influx occurs, the surge pressure is weakened obviously. The surge pressure can cause a significant lag time if the gas influx occurs at bottomhole, and it is mainly affected by pressure wave velocity. The maximum surge pressure may occur before drill pipe reaches bottomhole, and the surge pressure is mainly affected by drill pipe operating speed and gas influx rate.

  1. Measurement of laser absorptivity for operating parameters characteristic of laser drilling regime

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Matthieu; Berthe, Laurent; Fabbro, Rémy; Muller, Maryse

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Laser drilling in the percussion regime is commonly used in the aircraft industry to drill sub-millimetre holes in metallic targets. Characteristic laser intensities in the range of 10 MW cm−2 are typically employed for drilling metallic targets. With these intensities the temperature of the irradiated matter is above the vaporization temperature and the drilling process is led by hydrodynamic effects. Although the main physical processes involved are identified, this ...

  2. 30 CFR 816.15 - Casing and sealing of drilled holes: Permanent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 816.15 Section 816.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.15 Casing and sealing of drilled holes: Permanent. When no longer needed... other toxic drainage from entering ground or surface waters....

  3. The effect of an oil drilling operation on the trace metal concentrations in offshore bottom sediments of the Campos Basin oil field, SE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, C E; Lacerda, L D; Ovalle, A R C; Souza, C M M; Gobo, A A R; Santos, D O

    2002-07-01

    The concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ba, V, Sn and As in offshore bottom sediments from the Bacia de Campos oil field, SE Brazil, were measured at the beginning and at 7 months after completion of the drilling operation. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Ba, Cr, Ni and Zn were significantly higher closer to the drilling site compared to stations far from the site. Average concentrations of Al, Cu, and in particular of Ni, were significantly higher at the end of the drilling operation than at the beginning. Comparison between drilling area sediments with control sediments of the continental platform, however, showed no significant difference in trace metal concentrations. Under the operation conditions of this drilling event, the results show that while changes in some trace metal concentrations do occur during drilling operations, they are not significantly large to be distinguished from natural variability of the local background concentrations.

  4. Rapid deployment drilling system for on-site inspections under a comprehensive test ban treaty vol. 1: description, acquisition, deployment, and operation vol. 2: appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuze, F; Cohen, J; Pittard, G; Deskius, G; Vorkinn, P; Rock, D

    1999-11-01

    The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has been signed by many countries, including the US. The US Senate will start discussions of CTBT ratification in the near future. The Treaty aims to prevent any nuclear explosion from being conducted. A verification system is being implemented. It includes the possibility of On-Site Inspections (OSI) in a country where a suspicious seismic signal has been identified, which could come from a clandestine nuclear test. As part of an OSI, the use of drilling is allowed by the CTBT so as to obtain irrefutable proof of a Treaty violation. Such proof could be in the form of diagnostics of very high gamma radiation levels and high temperatures underground, which could not be explained by a natural source. A typical situation is shown in Figure 1, where the OSI team must find a nuclear cavity underground when only an approximate location is inferred. This calls for the ability to do directional drilling. Because there is no need for large borings and to minimize the cost and size of the equipment, slim-hole drilling is adequate. On that basis, an initial study by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [1] concluded that coiled-tubing (C-T) was the most attractive option for OSI drilling (Figure 2). Then, a preliminary design of a C-T Rapid Deployment Drilling System (RDDS) was performed by Maurer Engineering of Houston, TX [2]. Although a drilling mud system is also included in the RDDS definition, the preferred mode of operation of the RDDS would be drilling with air and foam. This minimizes water requirements in cases when water may be scarce at the OSI site. It makes the required equipment smaller than when a mud system is included. And it may increase the drilling rates, by eliminating the ''chip hold-down'' effect of a mud column. Following this preliminary design study, it was determined that the preferred bottom-hole assembly for such a system would be the Viper system of Schlumberger Anadrill, with one

  5. Methodology for definition of bending radius and pullback force in HDD (Horizontal Directional Drilling) operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Danilo Machado L. da; Rodrigues, Marcos V. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Venaas, Asle [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Oslo (Norway); Medeiros, Antonio Roberto de [Subsea 7 (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Bending is a primary loading experienced by pipelines during installation and operation. Significant bending in the presence of tension is experienced during installation by the S-lay method, as the pipe conforms to the curvature of the stinger and beyond in the over bend region. Bending in the presence of external pressure is experienced in the sag bend of all major installation methods (e.g., reeling, J-lay, S-lay) as well as in free-spans on the sea floor. Bending is also experienced by pipelines during installation by horizontal directional drilling. HDD procedures are increasingly being utilized around the world not only for crossings of rivers and other obstacles but also for shore approach of offshore pipelines. During installation the pipeline experience a combination of tensile, bending, and compressive stresses. The magnitude of these stresses is a function of the approach angle, bending radius, pipe diameter, length of the borehole, and the soil properties at the site. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of some aspects related to bending of the product pipe during HDD operations, which is closely related to the borehole path as the pipeline conforms to the curvature of the hole. An overview of the aspects related to tensile forces is also presented. The combined effect of bending and tensile forces during the pullback operation is discussed. (author)

  6. Follow the drill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch-Roy, O. [Dando Drilling International (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-01

    The paper discusses modern drilling techniques with which Dando Drilling has been involved. It describes equipment supplied to opencast coal operations in Kalimantan, Borneo. These include polycrystalline diamond drill bits, flushing media, rig drilling controls and other specialised equipment. 3 photos.

  7. Machine Shop. Module 4: Power Saw and Drill Press Operation. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Charles H.; Daniel, Bill

    This document consists of materials for a six-unit course on the following topics: (1) power saw safety and maintenance; (2) cutting stock to length; (3) band machining and contouring; (4) drill press types and safety; (5) drill press work-holding devices; and (6) tools and tool holders. The instructor's guide begins with a list of competencies…

  8. A case of polycystic ovary syndrome conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection following laparoscopic ovarian drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, S; Honma, R

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disease in which an ovulation disorder is the main cause of infertility. Clomifene citrate (CC) is the treatment of first choice for ovulation induction in PCOS. If ovulation cannot be induced by CC, then either laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) or gonadotropin therapy is selected as a subsequent treatment. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is indicated for women with PCOS, similar to other infertility patients, when pregnancy is not achieved by intrauterine insemination (IUI). In this study, we experienced a case of PCOS in which pregnancy was achieved by ART following LOD. The case pertains to a 26-year-old patient. She consulted our hospital with a chief complaint of primary infertility. IUI with administration of CC plus recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rFSH) was carried out; however, pregnancy was not achieved. Subsequently, ART was carried out. In the first attempt, the development of several follicles was observed under the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist long protocol. However, a fertilized oocyte was not obtained. In the second attempt, an ovum could not be collected after CC-rFSH ovarian stimulation. In the third attempt, a good quality embryo could not be obtained under the GnRH antagonist protocol, and therefore pregnancy could not be achieved. We performed LOD using a harmonic scalpel for the purpose of preventing severe OHSS and improving the quality of embryos. Following the operation, ovarian stimulation was performed under the CC-rFSH-antagonist protocol. Eighteen follicles were aspirated, six oocytes were picked-up, and five oocytes were normally fertilized. As a result, four embryos from day 2 culture were cryopreserved. Cryopreserved-thawed embryo transfer was thereafter performed, and a single pregnancy was achieved. LOD is a clinically effective treatment for PCOS requiring ART.

  9. Drilling reorganizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

  10. Environmental Fate of Synthetic Drilling fluids from Offshore Drilling Operations - An Experimental Study of an Olefin-, Ether- and Ester-Based Mud System on Cuttings Deposited in Benthic Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaanning, M.T.

    1996-03-01

    In offshore drilling operations, much of the mineral oil previously used in mud systems has been replaced by synthetic drilling fluid. The chemicals enter the North Sea environment attached to bore hole cuttings deposited on the seabed near the discharge sites. After deposition, erosion may occur by biodegradation, bioturbation, resuspension and release to the water mass of dissolved chemicals or metabolites. In the investigation described in this report aliquots of control sediment and three types of cuttings were deposited in duplicate benthic chambers. During an experimental period of 161 days, the loss of drilling fluids from the sediments as well as the change of the ratio between drilling fluid and barium was measured. The mineralization of drilling carbon fluid to CO{sub 2} and water was calculated from oxygen consumption measurements and effects on sediment pH and redox potentials were determined at various time intervals. 10 refs., 13 figs., 25 tabs.

  11. Quantitative Assessment of Resilience in the operatives unitsof National Iranian Drilling Company (regional study: Khuzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Resilience engineering is a new approach in safety science. Its goal is to maintain organizational capacity in an acceptable level to help system in managing the crisis. Indeed, resilience engineering rely on systems abilities instead of weaknesses, and try to find indicators that help the system durability. .Material and Method: In this study,first, 6 resilience engineering factors were chosen and sent toexperts in the form of paired comparison sheets. On the other hand, a valid standard questionnaire distributed among drilling rigs operational workers for measuring the NIDC resilience level. Finally,the priority of corrective actionswas determinedaccording to the score of the two analyzedquestionnaires. .Results: The results of resilience engineering factors weighting showed that the management commitment has the highest value andthe second place belonged to the correct culture. The indicators’scores,based on the distributed questionnaires among workers, showed that all of the six factors had similar scoreswhich can be evaluated as fairly good. Finally, the results of prioritization of indicators ofresilience engineering, basedon the combination ofthe questionnaire and experts opinions showed that management commitment is the most effective resilience factor in the organization. ..Conclusion: Management commitment and the current culture are the most importantcontributing factorsin company resilience level. Experienced workforce was the best strengthof the company and the effect of financial issues on resilience and safety was the biggest problem ahead.

  12. 科学深孔复杂地层钻进技术难题与对策%Technical Problems and Countermeasures for the Drilling Operation in Complex Formations of Scientific Deep Drilling Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the difficulties and technical problems encountered in the drilling operation in complex formation of scientific deep drilling projects.The main technical problems are broken formation drilling and strong shrinkage formation drilling.Technical measures for resolving the problems, referring to core drilling technologies, drill rig, drilling mud system and special drilling and cementing technologies used for strong shrinkage formation, are discussed.%介绍了在复杂地层科学深钻施工时遇到的困难和问题,主要包括破碎地层钻进问题和强缩径地层钻进问题,讨论了解决这些技术难题时采取的应对技术方案和措施,涉及取心钻进工艺方法和器具、钻机、泥浆体系以及极破碎、强缩径地层的特殊钻进、固井工艺和器具。

  13. Experimental Investigation of Machining Parameters in Drilling Operation Using Conventional and CNC Machines on Titanium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Suresh kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloy is one of the newer materials in manufacturing industries due to its high strength to weight ratio and corrosion resistance properties. Making a hole on this component is very difficult task due to its poor machinability. Hence, the machining parameter investigation on titanium alloy material is very important for predicting the drilling performance characteristics. In addition, the modern manufacturing industries are used the conventional drilling machine and CNC drilling machines for making a hole. In the sense, the main aim of this work is to investigate the machining parameters on vibration, thrust force, torque, machining time, burr dimension, tool wear and surface roughness occurrences when drilling titanium alloy with conventional and CNC machines. The effects of spindle speed and feed rate on these responses were reported.

  14. A Force Sensorless Method for CFRP/Ti Stack Interface Detection during Robotic Orbital Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drilling carbon fiber reinforced plastics and titanium (CFRP/Ti stacks is one of the most important activities in aircraft assembly. It is favorable to use different drilling parameters for each layer due to their dissimilar machining properties. However, large aircraft parts with changing profiles lead to variation of thickness along the profiles, which makes it challenging to adapt the cutting parameters for different materials being drilled. This paper proposes a force sensorless method based on cutting force observer for monitoring the thrust force and identifying the drilling material during the drilling process. The cutting force observer, which is the combination of an adaptive disturbance observer and friction force model, is used to estimate the thrust force. An in-process algorithm is developed to monitor the variation of the thrust force for detecting the stack interface between the CFRP and titanium materials. Robotic orbital drilling experiments have been conducted on CFRP/Ti stacks. The estimate error of the cutting force observer was less than 13%, and the stack interface was detected in 0.25 s (or 0.05 mm before or after the tool transited it. The results show that the proposed method can successfully detect the CFRP/Ti stack interface for the cutting parameters adaptation.

  15. Combining conventional and thermal drilling in order to increase speed and reduce costs of drilling operations to access deep geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Edoardo; Kant, Michael A.; von Rohr, Philipp Rudolf; Saar, Martin O.

    2017-04-01

    The exploitation of deep geothermal resources for energy production relies on finding cost effective solutions to increase the drilling performance in hard rocks. Conventional rotary drilling techniques, based on mechanical rock exportation, result in high rates of drilling tool wearing, causing significant costs. Additionally, rotary drilling results in low drilling speeds in the typically hard crystalline basement rocks targeted for enhanced geothermal energy utilization technologies. Furthermore, even lower overall drilling rates result, when considering tripping times required to exchange worn drill tools. Therefore, alternative drilling techniques, such as hammering, thermal drilling, plasma drilling, and jetting processes are widely investigated in order to provide cost-effective alternatives to conventional drilling methods. A promising approach, that combines conventional rotary and thermal drilling techniques, is investigated in the present work. Here, the rock material is thermally weakened before being exported by conventional cutters. Heat is locally provided by a flame, which moves over the rock surface, heat-treating the material. Besides reducing the rock strength, an in-depth smoothening effect of the mechanical rock properties is observed due to the thermal treatment. This results in reduced rates of drill bit wearing and higher rates of penetration, which in turn decreases drilling costs significantly, particularly for deep-drilling projects. Due to the high heating rates, rock-hardening, commonly observed at moderate temperatures, can be avoided. The flame action can be modelled as a localized, high heat transfer coefficient flame treatment, which results in orders of magnitude higher heating rates than conventional oven treatments. Therefore, we analyse rock strength variations after different maximum temperatures, flame-based heating rates, and rock confinement pressures. The results show that flame treatments lead to a monotonous decrease of

  16. Evaluation of commercial drilling and geological software for deep drilling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Prevedel, Bernhard; Conze, Ronald; Tridec Team

    2013-04-01

    The avoidance of operational delays, financial losses and drilling hazards are key indicators for successful deep drilling operations. Real-time monitoring of drilling operation data as well as geological and petrophysical information obtained during drilling provide valuable knowledge that can be integrated into existing geological and mechanical models in order to improve the drilling performance. We have evaluated ten different geological and drilling software packages capable to integrate real-time drilling and planning data (e.g. torque, drag, well path, cementing, hydraulic data, casing design, well control, geo-steering, cost and time) as well as other scientific and technical data (i.e. from drilling core, geophysical downhole logging, production test) to build geological and geophysical models for planning of further deep drillings in a given geological environment. To reach this goal, the software has to be versatile to handle different data formats from disciplines such as geology, geophysics, petrophysics, seismology and drilling engineering as well as data from different drilling targets, such as geothermal fluids, oil/gas, water reservoirs, mining purpose, CO2 sequestration, or scientific goals. The software must be capable to analyze, evaluate and plan in real-time the next drilling steps in the best possible way and under safe conditions. A preliminary geological and geophysical model with the available data from site surveys and literature is built to address a first drilling plan, in which technical and scientific aspects are taken into consideration to perform the first drilling (wildcat well). During the drilling, the acquired scientific and technical data will be used to refine the previous geological-drilling model. The geological model hence becomes an interactive object strongly linked to the drilling procedure, and the software should allow to make rapid and informed decisions while drilling, to maximize productivity and minimize drilling

  17. Fluoroscopy-Guided Percutaneous Vertebral Body Biopsy Using a Novel Drill-Powered Device: Technical Case Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Adam N., E-mail: wallacea@mir.wustl.edu; Pacheco, Rafael A., E-mail: pachecor@mir.wustl.edu; Tomasian, Anderanik, E-mail: tomasiana@mir.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States); Hsi, Andy C., E-mail: hsia@path.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Anatomic Pathology, Department of Pathology & Immunology (United States); Long, Jeremiah, E-mail: longj@mir.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States); Chang, Randy O., E-mail: changr@wusm.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine (United States); Jennings, Jack W., E-mail: jenningsj@mir.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States)

    2016-02-15

    BackgroundA novel coaxial biopsy system powered by a handheld drill has recently been introduced for percutaneous bone biopsy. This technical note describes our initial experience performing fluoroscopy-guided vertebral body biopsies with this system, compares the yield of drill-assisted biopsy specimens with those obtained using a manual technique, and assesses the histologic adequacy of specimens obtained with drill assistance.MethodsMedical records of all single-level, fluoroscopy-guided vertebral body biopsies were reviewed. Procedural complications were documented according to the Society of Interventional Radiology classification. The total length of bone core obtained from drill-assisted biopsies was compared with that of matched manual biopsies. Pathology reports were reviewed to determine the histologic adequacy of specimens obtained with drill assistance.ResultsTwenty eight drill-assisted percutaneous vertebral body biopsies met study inclusion criteria. No acute complications were reported. Of the 86 % (24/28) of patients with clinical follow-up, no delayed complications were reported (median follow-up, 28 weeks; range 5–115 weeks). The median total length of bone core obtained from drill-assisted biopsies was 28 mm (range 8–120 mm). This was longer than that obtained from manual biopsies (median, 20 mm; range 5–45 mm; P = 0.03). Crush artifact was present in 11 % (3/28) of drill-assisted biopsy specimens, which in one case (3.6 %; 1/28) precluded definitive diagnosis.ConclusionsA drill-assisted, coaxial biopsy system can be used to safely obtain vertebral body core specimens under fluoroscopic guidance. The higher bone core yield obtained with drill assistance may be offset by the presence of crush artifact.

  18. Impact of Drilling Operations on Lunar Volatiles Capture: Thermal Vacuum Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Paulsen, Gale; Zacny, Kris; Smith, Jim

    2015-01-01

    In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) enables future planetary exploration by using local resources to supply mission consumables. This idea of 'living off the land' has the potential to reduce mission cost and risk. On the moon, water has been identified as a potential resource (for life support or propellant) at the lunar poles, where it exists as ice in the subsurface. However, the depth and content of this resource has yet to be confirmed on the ground; only remote detection data exists. The upcoming Resource Prospector mission (RP) will 'ground-truth' the water using a rover, drill, and the RESOLVE science package. As the 2020 planned mission date nears, component level hardware is being tested in relevant lunar conditions (thermal vacuum). In August 2014 a series of drilling tests were performed using the Honeybee Robotics Lunar Prospecting Drill inside a 'dirty' thermal vacuum chamber at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The drill used a unique auger design to capture and retain the lunar regolith simulant. The goal of these tests was to investigate volatiles (water) loss during drilling and sample transfer to a sample crucible in order to validate this regolith sampling method. Twelve soil samples were captured over the course of two tests at pressures of 10(exp-5) Torr and ambient temperatures between -80C to -20C. Each sample was obtained from a depth of 40 cm to 50 cm within a cryogenically frozen bed of NU-LHT-3M lunar regolith simulant doped with 5 wt% water. Upon acquisition, each sample was transferred and hermetically sealed inside a crucible. The samples were later baked out to determine water wt% and in turn volatile loss by following ASTM standard practices. Of the twelve tests, four sealed properly and lost an average of 30% of their available water during drilling and transfer. The variability in the results correlated well with ambient temperature (lower the temperature lower volatiles loss) and the trend agreed with the sublimation rates for the

  19. Drilling and operational sounds from an oil production island in the ice-covered Beaufort sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Susanna B; Greene, Charles R; Richardson, W John

    2004-11-01

    Recordings of sounds underwater and in air, and of iceborne vibrations, were obtained at Northstar Island, an artificial gravel island in the Beaufort Sea near Prudhoe Bay (Alaska). The aim was to document the levels, characteristics, and range dependence of sounds and vibrations produced by drilling and oil production during the winter, when the island was surrounded by shore-fast ice. Drilling produced the highest underwater broadband (10-10,000 Hz) levels (maximum= 124 dB re: 1 microPa at 1 km), and mainly affected 700-1400 Hz frequencies. In contrast, drilling did not increase broadband levels in air or ice relative to levels during other island activities. Production did not increase broadband levels for any of the sensors. In all media, broadband levels decreased by approximately 20 dB/tenfold change in distance. Background levels underwater were reached by 9.4 km during drilling and 3-4 km without. In the air and ice, background levels were reached 5-10 km and 2-10 km from Northstar, respectively, depending on the wind but irrespective of drilling. A comparison of the recorded sounds with harbor and ringed seal audiograms showed that Northstar sounds were probably audible to seals, at least intermittently, out to approximately 1.5 km in water and approximately 5 km in air.

  20. Prediction of Burr Size in Drilling Operation of Al 2014 Alloy Using Taguchi Design Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Sreenivasulu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the influence of cutting parameters like cutting speed, feed rate, drill diameter, point angle and clearance angle on the burr size of Al 2014 alloy during drilling on CNC vertical machining center. A plan of experiments based on Taguchi method has been used to acquire the data. An orthogonal array, signal to noise (S/N ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA are employed to investigate machining characteristics using HSS twist drill bits with variable tool geometry and maintain constant helix angle of 450 . Confirmation tests have been carried out to predict the optimal setting of process parameters to validate the proposed method and obtained the values 0.232 mm and 0.173 mm for burr height and thickness respectively

  1. Developmental test report, assessment of XT-70E percussion drill rig operation in tank farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougherty, L.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-10

    The following report documents the testing of the XT-70E percussion drill rig for use in the 241-SX Tank Farm. The test is necessary to support evaluation of the safety and authorization level of the proposed activity of installing up to three new drywells in the 241- SX Tank Farm. The proposed activity plans to install drywells by percussion drilling 7 inch O.D./6 inch I.D. pipe in close proximity of underground storage tanks and associated equipment. The load transmitted from the drill rig`s percussion hammer through the ground to the tank structure and equipment is not known and therefore testing is required to ensure the activity is safe and authorized.

  2. Experimental and numerical study on casing wear in highly deviated drilling for oil and gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at studying the casing wear in the highly deviated well drilling, the experimental study on the casing wear was carried out in the first place. According to the test data and the linear wear model based on the energy dissipation proposed by White and Dawson, the tool joint–casing wear coefficient was obtained. The finite element model for casing wear mechanism research was established using ABAQUS. The nodal movement of the contact surface was employed to simulate the evolution of the wear depth, exploiting the Umeshmotion user subroutine. In addition, the time-dependent geometry of the contact surfaces between the tool joint and casing was being updated continuously. Consequently, the contact area and contact pressure were changed continuously during the casing wear process, which gives a more realistic simulation. Based on the shapes of worn casing, the numerical simulation research was carried out to determine the remaining collapse strength. Then the change curve of the maximum casing wear depth with time was obtained. Besides, the relationship between the maximum wear depth and remaining collapse strength was established to predict the maximum wear depth and the remaining strength of the casing after a period of accumulative wear, providing a theoretical basis for the safety assessment of worn casing.

  3. Scala tympani drill-out technique for oval window atresia with malformed facial nerve:A report of three cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Liu a; Feng Yang b

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To report a scala tympani drill-out technique for managing malformed facial nerve covering the entire oval window (OW). Methods:Data from three cases with OW atresia, malformed stapes and abnormal facial nerve courses were reported, in which a scala tympani drill-out technique was employed with a TORP between the tympanic membrane and scala tympani fenestration for hearing reconstruction. Results: Air conduction hearing improved in two of the three cases following surgery. In the third case, there was no improvement in air conduction hearing following a canal wall up mastoidectomy and tympanoplasty. There were no vertigo, tinnitus or sensorineural hearing loss in the three cases. Conclusion:The scala tympani drill-out technique, which is basically fenestration at the initial part of the basal turn, provides a choice in hearing reconstruction when the OW is completely covered by abarrently coursed facial nerve.

  4. Tesco's Bob Tessari: launching a drilling revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.

    2002-07-01

    The 'Casing Drilling' technology, patented by Tesco, which allows operators to simultaneously drill, case and evaluate oil and gas wells, is described. The system is claimed to substantially reduce the amount of lost circulation, loss of well control and bore hole instability problems that have been documented to account for about 25 per cent of total rig time on a well, and at least $4 billion (or 10 per cent of the $40 billion annual global drilling tab) spent on 'unscheduled events' associated with tripping drill pipe. With the Casing Drilling process, wells are drilled using standard oilfield casing instead of drill pipe. The host of downhole problems associated with tripping in and out of the hole are avoided, as the casing pipe is never removed. Instead, drill bits and other downhole tools are tripped through the casing with wireline at a rate of about 500 ft per minute, drastically reducing tripping time. Tesco also developed the portable top drive, the manufacture and rental of which constitutes a large part of the company's business, besides helping technologically to make Casing Drilling possible. Much of the company's success is attributed to the tenacity and zest for innovative approaches of the company's CEO, Bob Tessari, who is largely responsible for the company finding itself at the centre of a drilling technology revolution.

  5. Multilateral wells drilling technology implementation in the Castilla Field - Colombia, to improve Guadalupe reservoirs drainage: Castilla 32, 33, and 34 ML wells cases study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florez, Alberto; Mercado, Orlando; Rodriguez, Sandra; Rojas, Ricardo; Naranjo, Carlos A. [ECOPETROL, Bogota (Colombia); Velez, Jorge [Halliburton Latin-America, Santa Fe de Bogota (Colombia)

    2008-07-01

    National Colombian Petroleum Company - ECOPETROL, is in the process of evaluating different technologies to increase production and improve recovery factors in their mature oil and gas fields. As part of that process, a multidisciplinary team evaluated the feasibility of multilateral well technology implementation in some of their mature fields that are currently in the late-development phase. Castilla field, located in the eastern planes of Colombia, was selected as the first option for multilateral technology implementation based in reservoir features, type of oil, and field antecedents. This paper presents the process used to conceptualize the optimum multilateral well design for Castilla field, integrating all of the geological and engineering disciplines. Geology: geological model visualization, target zones definition, pay zones lateral continuity, petrophysical properties, and fluids distribution were evaluated to select the areas to drill with advanced architecture well design. Reservoir: basic reservoir performance simulation was performed to evaluate productivity with horizontal and multilateral wells, and the difference in final reserves recovery compared with current conventional directional wells. Water production and coning problems were identified as key factors to define the multilateral well implementation in this field. Drilling: trajectory design, multilateral junction depth definition and TAML level selection, casing point's definition, drilling time and AFE estimation were the technical aspects evaluated during the planning phase to determine if the technology would be feasible. A comparison with conventional pad design was conducted to validate economic value. Multilateral TAML level 4 system selection flow process is presented applying oil industry best practices. Completion: The optimum lateral completion and production assembly design were main concerns during the planning process. Slotted liners, screens, and open-hole completion

  6. Tesco Rotary Steerable Casing Drilling Technology%Tesco旋转导向套管钻井技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兰江; 张明杰; 梁玉斌; 谢新华; 夏竹君; 张国超

    2016-01-01

    为了使旋转导向套管钻井技术在我国的石油钻井行业中得到应用,介绍了Tesco公司旋转导向套管钻井技术特点,从井下和地面配套设备2方面介绍了旋转导向套管钻井系统的构成,并与常规定向钻具可回收式套管钻井系统进行了对比,同时分析了不适用旋转导向套管钻井技术的情况,借助马来西亚国家石油公司3口批钻井对旋转导向套管钻井技术进行了现场应用.应用结果表明,旋转导向套管钻井技术缩短了总的钻井周期,套管钻井省去了起钻、 通井、 循环和下套管的时间;具备常规旋转导向钻井的优势,降低了滑动钻进的事故发生率,所钻井眼轨迹平滑,并且提高了钻井机械钻速.建议我国加快技术研发,使旋转导向套管钻井技术在我国的海洋钻井中发挥出巨大优势.%The features of Tesco' s rotary steerable casing drilling technology have been introduced, and de-tails have been focused on the technology' s downhole and surface equipment. Comparison with conventional retriev-able directional casing drilling system has been conducted. Conditions that do not suitable for rotary steerable casing drilling technology have been analyzed. Field applications have been conducted in Petronas three wells. Application results show that the rotary steerable casing drilling technology has shortened the overall drilling time by eliminating the time for tripping out, wiper trip, circulation and casing running. The technology has the advantage of conven-tional rotary steerable drilling with reduced accident rate of sliding drilling, smooth wellbore trajectory, and im-proved ROP. Recommendation has been proposed to accelerate the technology development for providing the advan-tage of rotary steerable casing drilling technology in offshore drilling in China.

  7. Optimization of Process Parameters with Minimum Thrust Force and Torque in Drilling Operation Using Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Neseli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research outlines the Taguchi optimization methodology, which is applied to optimize cutting parameters in drilling of AISI 1040 steel. The drilling parameters evaluated are cutting speed, feed rate, and helix angle. Series of experiments are conducted to relate the cutting parameters on the thrust force and torque. L27(313 orthogonal array, signal-to-noise ratio is employed to analyze the influence of these parameters on thrust force and torque during drilling. Analysis of variance (ANOVA is used to study the effect of process parameters on machining process. The study shows that the Taguchi method is suitable to solve the stated problem with the minimum number of trials. The main objective is to find the important factors and combination of factors that influence the machining process to achieve low thrust force and torque. The analysis of the Taguchi method indicates that the feed rate is the most significant factor affecting the thrust force, while the cutting speed contributes the most to the torque.

  8. 深水动力定位钻完井作业的风险管理探述%Risk Management of Deepwater Drilling and Completion Operations Using DP Drilling Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘潇; 谢彬

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the cause of deepwater horizon blowout accident and the risk of position loss during drilling and completion operation using the concept of well integrity double barriers. A risk management framework is also proposed for the management of deepwater drilling and completion operations using DP drilling units.%运用井口完整性双安全屏障的概念分析了深海地平线号井喷事故的原因和动力定位平台在动力定位模式下进行钻完井作业时由移位引起的井喷风险,并就动力定位钻完井作业的风险管理提出相关的建议.

  9. IODP Expedition 319, NanTroSEIZE Stage 2: First IODP Riser Drilling Operations and Observatory Installation Towards Understanding Subduction Zone Seismogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Toczko

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE is a major drilling project designed to investigate fault mechanics and the seismogenic behavior of subduction zone plate boundaries. Expedition 319 is the first riser drilling operation within scientific ocean drilling. Operations included riser drilling at Site C0009 in the forearc basin above the plate boundary fault, non-riser drilling at Site C0010 across the shallow part of the megasplay faultsystem—which may slip during plate boundary earthquakes—and initial drilling at Site C0011 (incoming oceanic plate for Expedition 322. At Site C0009, new methods were tested, including analysis of drill mud cuttings and gas, and in situ measurements of stress, pore pressure, and permeability. These results, in conjunction with earlier drilling, will provide a the history of forearc basin development (including links to growth of the megasplay fault system and modern prism, b the first in situ hydrological measurements of the plate boundary hanging wall, and c integration of in situ stress measurements (orientation and magnitude across the forearc and with depth. A vertical seismic profile (VSP experiment provides improved constraints on the deeper structure of the subduction zone. At Site C0010, logging-while-drilling measurements indicate significantchanges in fault zone and hanging wall properties over short (<5 km along-strike distances, suggesting different burial and/or uplift history. The first borehole observatory instruments were installed at Site C0010 to monitor pressure and temperature within the megasplay fault zone, and methods of deployment of more complex observatoryinstruments were tested for future operations.

  10. Technology of preventing drilling hole collapse in soft coal seam by inserting casing in drill pipe%钻杆内下套管防治软煤层钻孔塌孔技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李定启; 邓广涛; 李海贵; 王明中

    2015-01-01

    In order to prevent collapse and block of drilling hole in short time when conducting gas extraction in soft coal seam, and improve the gas drainage efficiency of drilling, the equipments and methods of inserting casing in drill pipe for soft coal seam were analyzed and studied.By comparing and analyzing the experimental results in soft coal seam with conventional technology of casing running, original technology of inserting casing in drill pipe and improved technology of inserting casing in drill pipe, it showed that:the length of inserting casing by the improved technology is much greater than that by conventional technology, and the design of drill bit and drilling rob on e-quipment of inserting casing in drill pipe have a greater influence on the drilling and length of inserting casing.In the design, the diameter of drilling bit should be moderate and the smooth joint connection should be adopted on drilling rob.The gas drainage capacity of drilling per hundred meters by this technology is much greater than that by ordinary technology.%为了防止软煤层钻孔在瓦斯抽采过程中短时间内塌孔堵死,提高钻孔瓦斯抽放效率,对软煤层钻孔钻杆内下套管设备和工艺方法进行了分析和研究。通过对比分析常规下套管方式、原有钻杆内下套管方式和改进后钻杆内下套管方式的在软煤层试验,得出以下结论:采用钻杆内下套管设备下套管的长度远大于采用常规钻进方式下套管的长度;钻杆内下套管设备的钻头和钻杆设计对钻进和下套管长度影响较大,设计时钻头直径大小应适中,钻杆应尽量采取内平丝扣连接;采用钻杆内下套管方式的百米钻孔瓦斯抽放量要远大于普通钻进下套管钻孔的百米钻孔瓦斯抽放量。

  11. Simultaneous sand control and liner cement system: keeping well productivity by optimizing drilling and completion operations in mature fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Andrea Nicolino de; Silva, Dayana Nunes e; Calderon, Agostinho [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The need to reduce oil extraction costs by increasing the recovery factor in mature fields unconsolidated sandstone reservoirs motivated the development of drilling and completion techniques that integrate the various interfaces of engineering the well, resulting in a final well configuration that provides maximum oil production at a lower cost. Due to the continued growth of drilling and completion of new wells or deviation of old wells in the design of mesh density field with an advanced degree of exploitation, PETROBRAS took the challenge to seek options for projects well, in order to maintain productivity and reduce their construction time, with the optimization of drilling and sand control systems. To achieve these goals, PETROBRAS developed the SCARS - Simultaneous Sand Control and Liner Cementing System, a pioneer technique in the global oil industry, which consists of a one trip sequence of operations in which sand control screens and liner are installed followed by the open hole gravel pack operation performed with the alpha and beta waves deposition technique, using a non aqueous system as a carrier fluid. The sequence is completed by liner cementing in the same trip. The great success of this project was based on the definition of a specific application scenario and demands allowing optimization of the system. This project started with the development of a non aqueous system as a gravel pack carrier fluid in order to perform an open hole gravel pack with the alpha/beta wave deposition technique along with the development and optimization of SCARS procedures. This article details the planning and execution phases of this project and also presents a broad description of the technical aspects. (author)

  12. Optimizing Geothermal Drilling: Oil and Gas Technology Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denninger, Kate; Eustes, Alfred; Visser, Charles; Baker, Walt; Bolton, Dan; Bell, Jason; Bell, Sean; Jacobs, Amelia; Nagandran, Uneshddarann; Tilley, Mitch; Quick, Ralph

    2015-09-02

    There is a significant amount of financial risk associated with geothermal drilling. This study of drilling operations seeks opportunities to improve upon current practices and technologies. The scope of this study included analyzing 21 geothermal wells and 21 oil and gas wells. The goal was to determine a 'Perfect Well' using historical data to compare the best oil and gas well to the best geothermal well. Unfortunately, limitations encountered in the study included missing data (bit records, mud information, etc.) and poor data collection practices An online software database was used to format drilling data to IADC coded daily drilling reports and generate figures for analysis. Six major issues have been found in geothermal drilling operations. These problems include lost circulation, rig/ equipment selection, cementing, penetration rate, drilling program, and time management. As a result of these issues, geothermal drilling averaged 56.4 days longer than drilling comparable oil and gas wells in the wells in this study. Roughly $13.9 million was spent on non-productive time in the 21 geothermal wells, compared with only $1.3 million in the oil and gas wells, assuming a cost of $50,000 per day. Comparable events such as drilling the same sized hole, tripping in/out, cementing, and running the same size casing took substantially less time in the oil and gas wells. Geothermal wells were drilled using older and/or less advanced technology to depths less than 10,000 feet, while oil and gas wells reached 12,500 feet faster with purpose built rigs. A new approach is now underway that will optimize drilling programs throughout the drilling industry using Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) as a tool to realize efficient drilling processes. Potential improvements for current geothermal operations are: the use of electronic records, real time services, and official glossary terms to describe rig operations, and advanced drilling rigs/technology.

  13. Drill pipes and casings utilizing multi-conduit tubular; Flerkanals roerstreng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlett, H.B.

    1997-04-23

    The invention relates to a multi-conduit tubular having fluid conduits and electrical conduits, with associated surface fluid and electrical commutators, and downhole sensors for providing surface monitors with instantaneous formation data. Each tubular includes a plurality of uniform linear conduits there through, with a gasket seal plate interposed between joined tubular for assuring a high pressure seal between joined conduits. the seal plate includes an intermediate electrical connector for connecting electrical conduit connectors of one tubular to another. A coupling collar with uniform diameter internal coarse and fine threads joins the tubular ends having similar threads by differential thread action without respective tubular rotation. Each tubular end includes an inter-engaging index recess and index lug, and drive recesses and lugs for maintaining angular registry of the tubular string and for driving one drill tubular with another. A fluid commutator includes a rotating shaft with passages connected to the tubular conduits, and rotating in a manifold having annular grooves in communication with the shaft passages and external fluid sources. An adaptor couples each commutator shaft passage to one or more tubular conduits. Slip rings on a quill shaft and stationary brush means provide electrical continuity from the electrical conduit wires to surface equipment. A cross-over sub includes formation parameter sensors and telemetry equipment in a blocked off portion of a fluid conduit. An annular accumulator connected with the well bore annulus applies a pressure thereto in response to downhole sensors to change the effective density of the drill mud. The multi-conduit tubular is further adapted for use as a well casing to provide downhole access of a plurality of fluids and electrical parameter sensors. 28 figs.

  14. Paramagnetism shielding in drilling fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Li,Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    In drilling operations, drilling fluid containing magnetic materials is used when drilling a well. The materials can significantly shield the Earth’s magnetic field as measured by magnetic sensors inside the drilling strings. The magnetic property of the drilling fluid is one of the substantial error sources for the determination of magnetic azimuth for wellbores. Both the weight material, cuttings, clay and other formation material plus metal filings from the tubular wear m...

  15. Characterization of tuyere-level core-drill coke samples from blast furnace operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Dong; N. Paterson; S.G. Kazarian; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-12-15

    A suite of tuyere-level coke samples have been withdrawn from a working blast furnace during coal injection, using the core-drilling technique. The samples have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-RS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) extracts of the cokes sampled from the 'bosh', the rear of the 'bird's nest', and the 'dead man' zones were found by SEC to contain heavy soot-like materials (ca. 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} apparent mass units). In contrast, NMP extracts of cokes taken from the raceway and the front of the 'bird's nest' only contained a small amount of material of relatively lower apparent molecular mass (up to ca. 10{sup 5} u). Since the feed coke contained no materials extractable by the present method, the soot-like materials are thought to have formed during the reactions of volatile matter released from the injectant coal, probably via dehydrogenation and repolymerization of the tars. The Raman spectra of the NMP-extracted core-drilled coke samples showed variations reflecting their temperature histories. Area ratios of D-band to G-band decreased as the exposure temperature increased, while intensity ratios of D to G band and those of 2D to G bands increased with temperature. The graphitic (G), defect (D), and random (R) fractions of the carbon structure of the cokes were also derived from the Raman spectra. The R fractions decreased with increasing temperature, whereas G fractions increased, while the D fractions showed a more complex variation with temperature. These data appear to give clues regarding the graphitization mechanism of tuyere-level cokes in the blast furnace. 41 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala geothermal gradient core hole drilling, operations, and preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.; Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Duffield, W. (Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (USA)); Martinelli, L.; Aycinena, S. (Swissboring Overseas Corp. Ltd., Guatemala City (Guatemala)); Castaneda, O. (Unidad de Desarrollo Geotermico, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion)

    1990-01-01

    A geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to a depth of 700+ m at the Tecuamburro geothermal site, Guatemala during February and March, 1990. The core hole is located low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro Volcano complex. Preliminary analysis of cores (>98% core recovery) indicates that the hydrothermal system may be centered in the 4-km-diameter Chupadero Crater, which has been proposed as the source of pyroxene pumice deposits in the Tecuamburro area. TCB-1 is located 300 m south of a 300-m-diameter phreatic crater, Laguna Ixpaco; the core hole penetrates the thin edge of a tuff ring surrounding Ixpaco and zones of hydrothermal brecciation within the upper 150 m may be related to the phreatic blast, dated at 2,910 {sup 14}C years. At the time of this writing, the unequilibrated temperature at a depth of 570m was 180{degree}C. Data on fracturing, permeability, hydrothermal alteration, and temperature will be presented. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Popular epidemiology and "fracking": citizens' concerns regarding the economic, environmental, health and social impacts of unconventional natural gas drilling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Martha; Saberi, Poune; Pepino, Richard; Strupp, Emily; Bugos, Eva; Cannuscio, Carolyn C

    2015-06-01

    Pennsylvania sits atop the Marcellus Shale, a reservoir of natural gas that was untapped until the 2004 introduction of unconventional natural gas drilling operations (UNGDO) in the state. Colloquially known as fracking, UNGDO is a controversial process that employs large volumes of water to fracture the shale and capture gas; it has become a multi-billion dollar industry in Pennsylvania. We analyzed letters to the editor of the most widely circulated local newspaper in the most heavily drilled county in Pennsylvania (Bradford County) in order to characterize residents' concerns and their involvement in popular epidemiology--the process by which citizens investigate risks associated with a perceived environmental threat. We reviewed 215 letters to the editor that referenced natural gas operations and were published by The Daily Review between January 1, 2008 and June 8, 2013. We used NVivo 10 to code and analyze letters and identify major themes. Nvivo is qualitative data analysis software (http://www.qsrinternational.com/products_nvivo.aspx) that allows researchers to code and analyze "unstructured" data, including text files of any type (e.g., interview transcripts, news articles, letters, archival materials) as well as photographs and videos. Nvivo can be used to classify, sort, query, comment on, and share data across a research group. Letters demonstrated citizen engagement in beginning and intermediate stages of lay epidemiology, as well as discord and stress regarding four main issues: socio-economic impacts, perceived threats to water, population growth and implications, and changes to the rural landscape. Residents called for stronger scientific evidence and a balance of economic development and health and environmental protections. Citizens' distress regarding UNGDO appeared to be exacerbated by a dearth of information to guide economic growth and health, environmental, and social concerns. This analysis proposes locally informed questions to guide future

  18. Chinese Drilling Crews Active Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ China Great Wall Drilling Company signed a US$5 million contract with Tunis Joint Venture Petroleum Company in late April for drilling five wells in the middle coastal area of Tunis. This is the first time Tunis has invited the tenders from foreign companies for a drilling project. The participants in the bidding include other 11 drilling companies from the United States, Australia, Croatia and other countries. The drilling operation is expected to start from June this year. Founded in 1995, Great Wall Drilling Company is a subsidiary of CNPC International Engineering Company. The drilling company is now operating more than 50 Chinesemade drilling rigs overseas and involved in the drilling projects in 15 countries and regions such as Sudan, Iran, Indonesia, Egypt, Canada, Kazakhstan,Venezuela and other countries. The Tunis project is the 15th one of the company.

  19. 套管跟进与绳索取心组合钻探技术的应用%Application of the Combined Drilling Technology of Drilling with Casing and Wire-line Coring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥虹

    2014-01-01

    针对贵州省清镇市犁倭乡红花寨、白浪坝铝土矿破碎、漏孔、坍塌掉块的灰岩地层,采用了套管跟进与绳索取心组合钻探技术,克服了常规钻探技术方法钻进困难的问题,顺利完成了ZK3369孔钻探任务,取得了良好的效果。在分析施工难点的基础上,介绍了在破碎、漏失、坍塌掉快地层中套管跟进与绳索取心组合钻探技术施工工艺。%According to the broken, leaking, clasping and block falling limestone formations of the bauxite in Guizhou, the combined drilling technology of drilling with casing and wire-line coring was used to overcome the difficulties of conventional drilling methods, ZK3369 hole drilling was successfully completed with good result.On the basis of the analysis on the con-struction difficulties, the paper introduces the combined drilling technology of drilling with casing and wire-line coring in the broken, leaking, clasping and block falling formations.

  20. Case-Based Reasoning Method in Cost Estimation of Drilling Wells

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Shams Mianaei; Seyed Hossein Iranmanesh

    2013-01-01

    Aim of study is the cost estimation of drilling6T8T 6T8Twells6T8T 6T8Tusing6T Case-Based 6TReasoning6T8T (CBR) method which6T8T is created based6T8T 6T8Ton6T8T 6T8Tthe6T8T 6T8Tviewpoint of using presented6T8T 6T8Tsolutions6T8T 6T8Tfor6T8T 6T8Tprevious6T8T 6T8Tsolved6T8T 6T8Tproblems6T8T in order 6T8Tto solve6T8T new 6T8Tsimilar problems6T8T. 6T8TIn companies6T8T 6T8Tor6T8T 6T8Torganizations6T8T which 6T8Tcost estimation, scheduling,6T8T 6T8Tdesign6T8T, planning 6T8Tand project activities6T8T ...

  1. Case-Based Reasoning Method in Cost Estimation of Drilling Wells

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Shams Mianaei; Seyed Hossein Iranmanesh

    2013-01-01

    Aim of study is the cost estimation of drilling6T8T 6T8Twells6T8T 6T8Tusing6T Case-Based 6TReasoning6T8T (CBR) method which6T8T is created based6T8T 6T8Ton6T8T 6T8Tthe6T8T 6T8Tviewpoint of using presented6T8T 6T8Tsolutions6T8T 6T8Tfor6T8T 6T8Tprevious6T8T 6T8Tsolved6T8T 6T8Tproblems6T8T in order 6T8Tto solve6T8T new 6T8Tsimilar problems6T8T. 6T8TIn companies6T8T 6T8Tor6T8T 6T8Torganizations6T8T which 6T8Tcost estimation, scheduling,6T8T 6T8Tdesign6T8T, planning 6T8Tand project activities6T8T ...

  2. Drilling Optimization: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash M Bharadwaj

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With rapidly growing global demand for energy resources, oil and gas exploration & production companies face mounting pressure to maximize supply and increase the rate of discovery for new energy sources. Increasingly operating in more remote locations and investing heavily in equipment and facilities, companies face greater financial and operational risks than ever before. Optimization of drilling parameters during drilling operations aims to optimize weight on bit, bit rotation speed for obtaining maximum drilling rate as well as minimizing the drilling cost. Communication and computer technologies are among the most important disciplines which can contribute to drilling optimization. Large amount of data could be piped through different locations on the planet in reliable and time efficient manners.

  3. Drilling Optimization: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayaka S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available With rapidly growing global demand for energy resources, oil and gas exploration & production companies face mounting pressure to maximize supply and increase the rate of discovery for new energy sources. Increasingly operating in more remote locations and investing heavily in equipment and facilities, companies face greater financial and operational risks than ever before. Optimization of drilling parameters during drilling operations aims to optimize weight on bit, bit rotation speed for obtaining maximum drilling rate as well as minimizing the drilling cost. Communication and computer technologies are among the most important disciplines which can contribute to drilling optimization. Large amount of data could be piped through different locations on the planet in reliable and time efficient manners.

  4. Some cases of machining large-scale parts: Characterization and modelling of heavy turning, deep drilling and broaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddag, B.; Nouari, M.; Moufki, A.

    2016-10-01

    Machining large-scale parts involves extreme loading at the cutting zone. This paper presents an overview of some cases of machining large-scale parts: heavy turning, deep drilling and broaching processes. It focuses on experimental characterization and modelling methods of these processes. Observed phenomena and/or measured cutting forces are reported. The paper also discusses the predictive ability of the proposed models to reproduce experimental data.

  5. QRA techniques on dynamic positioning systems during drilling operations in the Arctic: With emphasis on the dynamic positioning operator

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    With the Norwegian government moving the ice edge farther north than ever before, opening for new areas for petroleum exploration, it will need research on how these areas can affect oil and gas operations. A sensitive environment along with the harsh Arctic climate and remote distances means that severe accidents, like blowouts, will have serious impacts and make cleanup and rescue actions to challenging operations. Additionally, humans working under these conditions are prone to be affected...

  6. Application on drilling parameter monitor in drilling engineering monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu DIAO; Zhenbao LING; Wenjing LIANG

    2008-01-01

    The drilling parameter monitor is an important tool in drilling engineering applied to monitoring drilling process, carrying out scientific analysis and decision-making. Based on discussing the present development situation of the domestic and foreign drilling machine parameter monitors, the metering scheme for vehicle-loaded drilling parameter monitor was designed. By using detection system for MSP430 single-chip microcomputer (SCM) in combination with peripheral circuit such as sensors, the drilling-rig control system was obtained to detect, and for every parameter in real-time display in order to keep operating the drilling rig status. The experiment shows that the drilling parameter monitor reaches design requirements and can be applied to drilling engineering monitoring, which has characters such as simple structure, high credibility and low cost.

  7. Telerobotic-assisted bone-drilling system using bilateral control with feed operation scaling and cutting force scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Yusuke; Kawana, Hiromasa; Usuda, Shin; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    2012-06-01

    Drilling is used in the medical field, especially in oral surgery and orthopaedics. In recent years, oral surgery involving dental implants has become more common. However, the risky drilling process causes serious accidents. To prevent these accidents, supporting systems such as robotic drilling systems are required. A telerobotic-assisted drilling system is proposed. An acceleration-based four-channel bilateral control system is implemented in linear actuators in a master-slave system for drill feeding. A reaction force observer is used instead of a force sensor for measuring cutting force. Cutting force transmits from a cutting material to a surgeon, who may feel a static cutting resistance force and vigorous cutting vibrations, via the master-slave system. Moreover, position scaling and force scaling are achieved. Scaling functions are used to achieve precise drilling and hazard detection via force sensation. Cutting accuracy and reproducibility of the cutting force were evaluated by angular velocity/position error and frequency analysis of the cutting force, respectively, and errors were > 2.0 rpm and > 0.2 mm, respectively. Spectrum peaks of the cutting vibration were at the theoretical vibration frequencies of 30, 60 and 90 Hz. The proposed telerobotic-assisted drilling system achieved precise manipulation of the drill feed and vivid feedback from the cutting force. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Environmental protection for geothermic exploratory drilling in Mexico: Review of a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Rubio, A.; Diaz, S.; Arguelles, C.; Arriaga, L. [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noveste, La Paz (Mexico)

    1995-06-01

    Mexican legislation specifically establishes very particular measures in order to prevent and/or to mitigate the potential environmental impacts produced by geothermic exploratory drilling. During 1991, we developed an environmental impact assessment study to evaluate the possible environmental impacts produced by the exploratory drilling at the Las Tres Virgenes Geothermic field. We determined that the geothermic electrical project activities analysed have observed most of the official recommendations. As a result, all the potential environmental impacts are local, restricted in extent and time, and mitigated or reversed. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Automatic evaluation of drilling fluid properties

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is structured in two main parts. First part covers the fundamental role of drilling fluid in the drilling process. It provides a description of the mud circulating system for conventional drilling operations, outlines the basic composition of drilling fluids, and describes the main functions and properties of drilling fluids. Furthermore it describes the current testing procedures and equipment and illustrates how testing is used in the evaluation of drilling fluid ...

  10. Study of drilling muds on the anti-erosion property of a fluidic amplifier in directional drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-fu He

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to some drawbacks of conventional drilling methods and drilling tools, the application of hydraulic hammers with a fluidic amplifier have been extensively popularized since its emergence in recent years. However, the performance life of a fluidic amplifier is still unsatisfactory in oil and gas wells drilling, especially the heavy wear or erosion of the fluidic amplifier leads to the reduction of service life time of hydraulic hammers, which is derived from the incision of drilling muds with high speed and pressure. In order to investigate the influence of drilling muds, such as particle size, solid content and jet velocity, on the antierosion property of a fluidic amplifier, several groups of drilling muds with different performance parameters have been utilized to numerical simulation on basis of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Simulation results have shown that the jet nozzle of fluidic amplifiers is primarily abraded, afterwards are the lateral plates and the wedge of the fluidic amplifier, which shows extraordinary agreement with the actual cases of fluidic amplifier in drilling process. It can be concluded that particle size, solid content and jet velocity have a great influence on the anti-erosion property of a fluidic amplifier, and the erosion rate linearly varies with the particle size of drilling muds, nevertheless exponentially varies with solid content and jet velocity of drilling muds. As to improve the service life time of a fluidic amplifier, the mud purification system or low solid clay-free mud system is suggested in the operation of directional well drilling

  11. A case study on riser analysis of a drilling riser in deep waters; Estudo de caso: analises estruturais e hidrodinamicas de um riser de perfuracao em aguas profundas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roveri, Francisco E.; Pestana, Rafael G. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a set of structural and hydrodynamic analyses of a connected marine riser, in 1900 meter water depth. Operating windows are determined for one year return period environmental conditions and for a set of drilling fluid weight density values. Parametric analyses are carried out to study the riser response sensitivity to variations in environmental conditions, drilling fluid weight density, upper and lower flex joint rotational stiffness and vessel motion phase angles. Current, drilling fluid weight density and vessel motion phase angle changes affect significantly the system response, whereas the response is not significantly affected by changes in wave height, wave period and flex joint rotational stiffness. (author)

  12. Performance evaluation of NEEM oil and HONGE Oil as cutting fluid in drilling operation of mild steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, P. N.; Susmitha, M.; Sharan, P.

    2017-04-01

    Cutting fluids are used in machining industries for improving tool life, reducing work piece and thermal deformation, improving surface finish and flushing away chips from the cutting zone. Although the application of cutting fluids increases the tool life and Machining efficiency, but it has many major problems related to environmental impacts and health hazards along with recycling & disposal. These problems gave provision for the introduction of mineral, vegetable and animal oils. These oils play an important role in improving various machining properties, including corrosion protection, lubricity, antibacterial protection, even emulsibility and chemical stability. Compared to mineral oils, vegetable oils in general possess high viscosity index, high flash point, high lubricity and low evaporative losses. Vegetable oils can be edible or non-edible oils and Various researchers have proved that edible vegetable oils viz., palm oil, coconut oil, canola oil, soya bean oil can be effectively used as eco-friendly cutting fluid in machining operations. But in present situations harnessing edible oils for lubricants formation restricts the use due to increased demands of growing population worldwide and availability. In the present work, Non-edible vegetable oil like Neem and Honge are been used as cutting fluid for drilling of Mild steel and its effect on cutting temperature, hardness and surface roughness are been investigated. Results obtained are compared with SAE 20W40 (petroleum based cutting fluid)and dry cutting condition.

  13. Technology of Pneumatic DTH Hammer Casing Drilling with Double Shock%气动潜孔锤双冲击跟管钻进技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑英飞; 王茂森; 岳文斌

    2014-01-01

    To solve the common problem of casing pipe breaking in DTH hammer drilling with casing and to increase the depth of drilling with casing, double shock of DTH hammer drilling with casing was adopted and casing pipe jar was designed to put external force to the top of the casing in the drilling process.By calculating the force of the jar and analyzing the factors on the maximum drilling depth of drilling with casing, this paper verifies that the impact generated by the jar can drive the casing follow-down smoothly, so as to solve the problem of casing pipe breaking and low depth of casing with drilling.%为了解决潜孔锤跟管钻进过程中经常发生的套管断裂问题以及增加套管跟管深度,采用了潜孔锤双冲击跟管钻进技术,设计了套管振击器,在钻进过程中对套管顶端施加外部作用力。通过计算套管振击器产生作用力的大小和分析套管跟管最大深度的影响因素,验证了振击器产生的冲击力能够使套管顺利跟进,解决了套管断裂及跟管深度过低的问题。

  14. Drilling equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyevodin, Yu.M.; Kholosha, Ye.G.; Leshchenko, A.G.; Timchenko, A.I.

    1979-01-10

    The invention refers to units designed for extracting minerals by mechanical action on the face by a cutting tool. There is a known drills which includes a pulse device which contains a combustion chamber, cylinder, piston-percussion tool and cutting tool. The combustion chamber and the sub-piston cavity of the cylinder are connected by a channel in which there is a distributor. Its shortcoming is the fact that the pulse device does not guarantee the necessary motion of the actuating mechanism for its velocity and frequency of the shocks on the cutting tool. This reduces the efficiency of the operation and limits the area of application. The purpose of the proposed invention is to improve productivity of the device. This is achieved because the head of the drill is equipped with a 2-piston pulse device which contains 2-combustion chambers, 2 working cylinders, 2 piston percussion instruments, a rod with gas-conducting and connecting channels for interconnection of the sub-piston cavities and combustion chambers of both cylinders. The spent gases of one cylinder are used for closing the combustion chamber of the second cylinder.

  15. Implant overdenture using a locator bar system by drill and tapping technique in a mandible edentulous patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Su; Yoon, Mi-Jung; Huh, Jung-Bo; Jeon, Young-Chan; Jeong, Chang-Mo

    2012-05-01

    Various options have been introduced for the selection of implant overdenture attachments. Attachment wear due to the repeated insertion and removal of dentures has caused problems such as decreased retention and the requirement for suprastructure remanufacturing. In these cases, a Locator bar system was applied using the drill and tapping technique to achieve total retrievability. In a 55-year-old female patient who showed three degrees of mobility in most of her teeth due to severe alveolar bone loss, a complete denture in the maxilla and an implant supported type overdenture in the mandible were planned after extracting all the remaining teeth. Six implants were placed from canine region to the distal molar region, and the locator was connected to the milled bar using the drill and tapping technique. For a 61-year-old female edentulous patient who complained of poor retention with old denture, a complete denture in the maxilla and an implant-tissue supported type overdenture in the mandible were planned. Four implants were placed in front of mental foramen, and the Locator was also connected to the Hader bar using the drill and tapping technique. With this technique, female parts can be easily replaced, and retention can be continuously maintained.

  16. Evidence of emissions from oil and gas drilling operations in northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petron, G.; Montzka, S. A.; Karion, A.; Miller, B. R.; Frost, G. J.; Hirsch, A.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A. E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Hall, B. D.; Trainer, M.; Welsh, D. C.; Wolfe, D. E.; Tans, P. P.

    2010-12-01

    Since 2007, air samples collected regularly at NOAA tall towers and from aircraft across the US have been analyzed for over sixty different species, including greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6), CO, several hydrocarbons (propane, n-butane, pentanes, benzene, acetylene), and ozone-depleting substances. The Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) is a 300-m tall tower located 35 km north of the Denver metropolitan area in the northern Colorado Front Range. The BAO sits on the southwestern edge of the Denver-Julesburg Basin (DJB), home to over 15,000 oil and gas wells. Using in-situ meteorological data, we analyze the air composition of the BAO samples for three different wind sectors: the North and East sector (with strong contributions from oil and gas production operations and cattle feedlots), the South sector (dominated by the Denver urban area), and the West sector (containing the foothills of the Rocky Mountains and a few oil and gas wells). Air samples from the BAO North and East sector exhibit enhanced levels of alkanes that are strongly correlated with each other. To put these BAO samples in a regional context, we drove a mobile laboratory around BAO during the summer of 2008. A continuous methane analyzer was used to detect regional enhancements in methane and local plumes from point sources (including a natural gas processing plant, feedlot, and waste water treatment plant). Targeted air samples within and outside of plumes were collected and later analyzed in the NOAA lab. Samples collected over the DJB show very similar molar ratios of alkanes as the BAO samples from the North and East sector. These alkane ratios compare very well with the ratios measured in over 70 natural gas samples collected at various wells in the DJB in 2006.

  17. Distributed downhole drilling network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Fox, Joe; Pixton, David S.

    2006-11-21

    A high-speed downhole network providing real-time data from downhole components of a drilling strings includes a bottom-hole node interfacing to a bottom-hole assembly located proximate the bottom end of a drill string. A top-hole node is connected proximate the top end of the drill string. One or several intermediate nodes are located along the drill string between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. The intermediate nodes are configured to receive and transmit data packets transmitted between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. A communications link, integrated into the drill string, is used to operably connect the bottom-hole node, the intermediate nodes, and the top-hole node. In selected embodiments, a personal or other computer may be connected to the top-hole node, to analyze data received from the intermediate and bottom-hole nodes.

  18. Drilling comparison in "warm ice" and drill design comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustin, L.; Motoyama, H.; Wilhelms, F.

    2007-01-01

    at each site, the drilling rate dropped and the drilling teams had to deal with refrozen ice on cutters and drill heads. Drills have different limits and perform differently. In this comparative study, we examine depth, pressure, temperature, pump flow and cutting speed. Finally, we compare a few......For the deep ice-core drilling community, the 2005/06 Antarctic season was an exciting and fruitful one. In three different Antarctic locations, Dome Fuji, EPICA DML and Vostok, deep drillings approached bedrock (the ice-water interface in the case of Vostok), emulating what had previously been...... achieved at NorthGRIP, Greenland, (summer 2003 and 2004) and at EPICA Dome C2, Antarctica (season 2004/05). For the first time in ice-core drilling history, three different types of drill (KEMS, JARE and EPICA) simultaneously reached the depth of 'warm ice' under high pressure. After excellent progress...

  19. Optimizing Geothermal Drilling: Oil and Gas Technology Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilley, Mitch; Eustes, Alfred; Visser, Charles; Baker, Walt; Bolton, Dan; Bell, Jason; Nagandran, Uneshddarann; Quick, Ralph

    2015-01-26

    There is a significant amount of financial risk associated with geothermal drilling; however, there are opportunities to improve upon current practices and technologies used. The scope of this drilling operational study included 21 geothermal wells and 21 oil and gas wells. The goal was to determine a 'perfect well' using historical data to compare the best oil and gas well to the best geothermal well. Unfortunately, limitations encountered in the study included missing data (bit records, mud information, etc.), poor data collection, and difficult to ascertain handwriting. An online software database was used to format drilling data to IADC coded daily drilling reports and generate analysis figures. Six major issues have been found in geothermal drilling operations. These problems include lost circulation, rig/equipment selection, cementing, penetration rate, drilling program, and time management. As a result of these issues, geothermal drilling averages 56.4 days longer than drilling comparable oil and gas wells in the wells in this study. Roughly $13.9 million would be lost due to non-productive time in the 21 geothermal wells and only $1.3 million in the oil and gas wells, assuming a cost of $50,000 per day. Comparable events such as drilling the same sized hole, tripping in/out, cementing, and running the same size casing took substantially less time in the oil and gas wells. Geothermal wells were drilled using older and/or less advanced technology to depths less than 10,000 feet, while oil and gas wells reached 12,500 feet faster with purpose built rigs. A new approach is now underway that will optimize drilling programs throughout the drilling industry. It is the use of Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) as a tool to realize efficient drilling processes. However, a work-flow must also be established in order for there to be an efficient drilling program. Potential improvements for current geothermal operations are: the use of electronic records, real

  20. Parameter definition using vibration prediction software leads to significant drilling performance improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Dalmo; Hanley, Chris Hanley; Fonseca, Isaac; Santos, Juliana [National Oilwell Varco, Houston TX (United States); Leite, Daltro J.; Borella, Augusto; Gozzi, Danilo [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    field monitoring. Vibration prediction diminishes the importance of trial-and-error procedures such as drill-off tests, which are valid only for short sections. It also solves an existing lapse in Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) real-time drilling control programs applying the theory of Teale, which states that a drilling system is perfectly efficient when it spends the exact energy to overcome the in situ rock strength. Using the proprietary software tool this paper will examine the resonant vibration modes that may be initiated while drilling with different BHA's and drill string designs, showing that the combination of a proper BHA design along with the correct selection of input parameters results in an overall improvement to drilling efficiency. Also, being the BHA predictively analyzed, it will be reduced the potential for vibration or stress fatigue in the drill string components, leading to a safer operation. In the recent years there has been an increased focus on vibration detection, analysis, and mitigation techniques, where new technologies, like the Drilling Dynamics Data Recorders (DDDR), may provide the capability to capture high frequency dynamics data at multiple points along the drilling system. These tools allow the achievement of drilling performance improvements not possible before, opening a whole new array of opportunities for optimization and for verification of predictions calculated by the drill string dynamics modeling software tool. The results of this study will identify how the dynamics from the drilling system, interacting with formation, directly relate to inefficiencies and to the possible solutions to mitigate drilling vibrations in order to improve drilling performance. Software vibration prediction and downhole measurements can be used for non-drilling operations like drilling out casing or reaming, where extremely high vibration levels - devastating to the cutting structure of the bit before it has even touched bottom - have

  1. Closed-loop steerable drilling tools for high temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donati, F.; Oppelt, J.; Ragnitz, D. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Today drilling environment calls for drillers to be able to access deeper, high temperature and high pressure reservoirs, where high temperature is intended close to 200{degrees}C and high pressure more than 10000 psi. A new family of automatic drilling tools has been introduced which provides automatic steering within ultra deep formations under high temperature and high pressure (HTHP) conditions. Another important use of this system is foreseen in the drilling of wells with extended reach horizontal sections. The directional changes in the Closed-Loop Drilling System are automatically generated on the basis of Measurement While Drilling (MWD) measurements taken directly within the tool. Since the major application aims at the very deep hydrocarbon layers, all components are designed to operate at temperatures between 185 to 200{degrees}C. Special consideration is given to the design of downhole motor elastomer and electronic components of the MWD. In preparation for the field application of the complete fully directional tool, field tests have been performed with a Straight Hole Drilling Closed-Loop System and other essential system components. The Straight Hole Drilling Device has been designed to drill a straight vertical well. It has been successfully run on various onshore and offshore European locations; where in one case a maximum depth of over 7,200 m was attained. Additional field case histories are provided in this report on high temperature downhole motors. The complete fully directional system will be ready for field application within end of June 1995.

  2. Environmental health research recommendations from the Inter-Environmental Health Sciences Core Center Working Group on unconventional natural gas drilling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, Trevor M; Breysse, Patrick N; Gray, Kathleen; Howarth, Marilyn; Yan, Beizhan

    2014-11-01

    Unconventional natural gas drilling operations (UNGDO) (which include hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) supply an energy source that is potentially cleaner than liquid or solid fossil fuels and may provide a route to energy independence. However, significant concerns have arisen due to the lack of research on the public health impact of UNGDO. Environmental Health Sciences Core Centers (EHSCCs), funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), formed a working group to review the literature on the potential public health impact of UNGDO and to make recommendations for needed research. The Inter-EHSCC Working Group concluded that a potential for water and air pollution exists that might endanger public health, and that the social fabric of communities could be impacted by the rapid emergence of drilling operations. The working group recommends research to inform how potential risks could be mitigated. Research on exposure and health outcomes related to UNGDO is urgently needed, and community engagement is essential in the design of such studies.

  3. Research on the fates of drilling wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munschenheim, D. K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2000-07-01

    Dispersal characteristics and fates of fine particulate drilling wastes were studied in the Cohasset and Panuke oilfields lying 45 km west of Sable Island in 38 m of water. A second study was carried out at the Hibernia field in 1995 prior to the emplacement of the Hibernia platform. In the Cohasset and Panuke study the wells were relatively shallow and drilling operations were done with a minimum of barite. The initial trial comparing samples from within the discharge plume with those taken from clear water revealed that drilling waste fines accumulate in the benthic boundary layer. Subsequent studies at Copan delineated the extent of drilling wastes coverage on the seabed, showing flocculation of the waste particles, with subsequent increase in their settling rate. There was also evidence of an increase in water column turbidity with increasing proximity to the platform. In the case of Hibernia drilling wastes were detected only in the upper water column. Subsequent information revealed that this was due to the fact that at the time of sampling silica-based drilling mud, formulated with fresh water, was used. In 1998 Hibernia switched to synthetic muds. Since that time, no drilling mud waste was detected in the upper water column and only slight amounts in the benthic boundary layer. The explanation lies in the differences in discharge practices, such as for example pre-dilution with sea water. Overall, the results confirm the suitability of particle size analysis for the detection of particulate drilling wastes on energetic offshore banks. The technique also confirms the role of flocculation in retarding the dispersion of fine particles through increasing the settling rate. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Advancement on Drilling Technology in Petroleum Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Akpedeye, Kelvin Uruemu

    2011-01-01

    Since the birth of petroleum business, in the mid-19th century, cable tool and rotary drilling have been the only two techniques applied in the drilling phase till date. Although the rotary drilling technique has proved very successful, applying laser technology in this drilling; which is a newer technology that is already at hand, has the potential of displacing both techniques from operation. Cable tool drilling is the first of these techniques. Hole boring is achieved by repeatedly lif...

  5. Use of Biostratigraphy to Increase Production, Reduce Operating Costs and Risks and Reduce Environmental Concerns in Oil Well Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Marks

    2005-09-09

    out at the top of the late Miocene, early Mohnian: Bolivina aff hughesi, Rotalia becki, Suggrunda californica, Virgulina grandis, Virgulina ticensis, Bulimina ecuadorana, Denticula lauta and Nonion medio-costatum. Please see Appendix B, Fig. 1, Neogene Zones, p. 91 and Appendix C, chart 5, p. 99 By the use of Stratigraphy, employing both Paleontology and Lithology, we can increase hydrocarbon production, reduce operating costs and risks by the identification of the productive sections, and reduce environmental concerns by drilling less dry holes needlessly.

  6. DAME: planetary-prototype drilling automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, B; Cannon, H; Branson, M; Hanagud, S; Paulsen, G

    2008-06-01

    We describe results from the Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project, including those of the summer 2006 tests from an Arctic analog site. The drill hardware is a hardened, evolved version of the Advanced Deep Drill by Honeybee Robotics. DAME has developed diagnostic and executive software for hands-off surface operations of the evolved version of this drill. The DAME drill automation tested from 2004 through 2006 included adaptively controlled drilling operations and the downhole diagnosis of drilling faults. It also included dynamic recovery capabilities when unexpected failures or drilling conditions were discovered. DAME has developed and tested drill automation software and hardware under stressful operating conditions during its Arctic field testing campaigns at a Mars analog site.

  7. Drilling force and temperature of bone under dry and physiological drilling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linlin; Wang, Chengyong; Jiang, Min; He, Huiyu; Song, Yuexian; Chen, Hanyuan; Shen, Jingnan; Zhang, Jiayong

    2014-11-01

    Many researches on drilling force and temperature have been done with the aim to reduce the labour intensiveness of surgery, avoid unnecessary damage and improve drilling quality. However, there has not been a systematic study of mid- and high-speed drilling under dry and physiological conditions(injection of saline). Furthermore, there is no consensus on optimal drilling parameters. To study these parameters under dry and physiological drilling conditions, pig humerus bones are drilled with medical twist drills operated using a wide range of drilling speeds and feed rates. Drilling force and temperature are measured using a YDZ-II01W dynamometer and a NEC TVS-500EX thermal infrared imager, respectively, to evaluate internal bone damage. To evaluate drilling quality, bone debris and hole morphology are observed by SEM(scanning electron microscopy). Changes in drilling force and temperature give similar results during drilling such that the value of each parameter peaks just before the drill penetrates through the osteon of the compact bone into the trabeculae of the spongy bone. Drilling temperatures under physiological conditions are much lower than those observed under dry conditions, while a larger drilling force occurs under physiological conditions than dry conditions. Drilling speed and feed rate have a significant influence on drilling force, temperature, bone debris and hole morphology. The investigation of the effect of drilling force and temperature on internal bone damage reveals that a drilling speed of 4500 r/min and a feed rate of 50 mm/min are recommended for bone drilling under physiological conditions. Drilling quality peaks under these optimal parameter conditions. This paper proposes the optimal drilling parameters under mid- and high-speed surgical drilling, considering internal bone damage and drilling quality, which can be looked as a reference for surgeons performing orthopedic operations.

  8. Drilling Force and Temperature of Bone under Dry and Physiological Drilling Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Linlin; WANG Chengyong; JIANG Min; HE Huiyu; SONG Yuexian; CHEN Hanyuan; SHEN Jingnan; ZHANG Jiayong

    2014-01-01

    Many researches on drilling force and temperature have been done with the aim to reduce the labour intensiveness of surgery, avoid unnecessary damage and improve drilling quality. However, there has not been a systematic study of mid- and high-speed drilling under dry and physiological conditions(injection of saline). Furthermore, there is no consensus on optimal drilling parameters. To study these parameters under dry and physiological drilling conditions, pig humerus bones are drilled with medical twist drills operated using a wide range of drilling speeds and feed rates. Drilling force and temperature are measured using a YDZ-II01W dynamometer and a NEC TVS-500EX thermal infrared imager, respectively, to evaluate internal bone damage. To evaluate drilling quality, bone debris and hole morphology are observed by SEM(scanning electron microscopy). Changes in drilling force and temperature give similar results during drilling such that the value of each parameter peaks just before the drill penetrates through the osteon of the compact bone into the trabeculae of the spongy bone. Drilling temperatures under physiological conditions are much lower than those observed under dry conditions, while a larger drilling force occurs under physiological conditions than dry conditions. Drilling speed and feed rate have a significant influence on drilling force, temperature, bone debris and hole morphology. The investigation of the effect of drilling force and temperature on internal bone damage reveals that a drilling speed of 4500 r/min and a feed rate of 50 mm/min are recommended for bone drilling under physiological conditions. Drilling quality peaks under these optimal parameter conditions. This paper proposes the optimal drilling parameters under mid- and high-speed surgical drilling, considering internal bone damage and drilling quality, which can be looked as a reference for surgeons performing orthopedic operations.

  9. Development and verification of a dynamic underbalanced drilling simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.; Vefring, E.H.; Rommetveit, R. [RF-Rogaland Research, Bergen (Norway); Bieseman, T. [Shell RTS, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Maglione, R. [Agip Spa, Milano (Italy); Lage, A.C.; Nakagawa, E. [Petrobras/CENPES, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    A dynamic underbalanced drilling (UBD) simulator has been developed in a joint industry project. The simulator incorporates models for multiphase flow, well-reservoir interaction, gas/oil solubility and gas injection systems. The fluid components in the system include injected gases, mud, produced gas, produced oil and water and drilled cuttings. Both coiled tubing and conventional jointed pipe can be simulated. The primary use of the simulator is in the planning phase of an UBD operation. An UBD operation is very dynamic due to the changes in flow conditions and other operations. The importance of the dynamic effects is illustrated by a field example. The dynamic simulator allows for the analysis of various operations that cannot be analyzed with a steady state simulator. Some of these operations include starting/stopping circulation; various gas injection techniques, e.g.: parasitic string, parasitic casing, through completion, and drill string injection; drilling operations: drilling, tripping, pipe connections, and BHA deployment. To verify the simulator, two phase flow tests in near-horizontal annulus were performed in order to provide data for validation. Field data are actively collected for this purpose. In this paper, two field cases are presented. One is a coiled tubing drilling operation in Dalen field in the Netherlands where a Nitrogen lift test was performed in a through completion configuration. The second case is a UBD operation in Candeias field in Brazil. In this case, drillstring gas injection tests were performed in a cemented 9-5/8-in. casing at 1,800 m.

  10. Retrograde Percutaneous Drilling for Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Head of the Talus: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Laura; Sanpera, Ignacio; Masrouha, Karim; Sanpera-Iglesias, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Osteochondral lesions of the talus might be a more common cause of pain than previously recognized, especially among those involved in athletic activities. However, the location of an osteochondral lesion on the talar head is much less common than such lesions localized to the dome of the talus and can pose diagnostic difficulties. We present the case of a 14-year-old soccer player who complained of longstanding pain in his left foot. After unsuccessful conservative treatment consisting of rest and bracing, he was ultimately treated with retrograde percutaneous drilling of the talar head performed by a medial approach. This was followed by casting and non-weightbearing for 6 weeks, after which physical therapy was undertaken. He was able to return to full activity and remained asymptomatic during a 5-year observation period. Although rare, osteochondritis dissecans of the talar head should be considered in young athletes with persistent foot pain that is unresponsive to reasonable therapy.

  11. 井下凿岩机器人自主操作方法研究进展%Research progress on autogenous operation method of underground rock-drilling robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄开启; 苏建华; 张宇仁

    2013-01-01

    凿岩机器人是有效解决并下人工凿岩带来的安全、效率和钻爆精度等诸多问题的重要装备,凿岩智能化也是实现“少、无人矿山”和“数字化矿山”的重要研究方向.井下复杂环境的矿道断面感知、凿岩运动规划和钻孔精确自定位、智能钻孔控制和基于钻孔参数信息提取的凿岩岩层识别是凿岩机器人实现自主操作的4个关键技术.分析与总结了国内外井下凿岩机器人自主操作方法的研究现状与进展,并对相关研究做出展望.%The rock-drilling robot is an important equipment to solve many issues such as safety and efficiency of underground artificial drilling as well as precision of drilling and blasting. And intelligent drilling is the main research direction to realize "little-manned or unmanned mine" and "digital mine". Perception of mine tunnel landforms, scheduling of drilling motion and accurate self-positioning of drilling, control of intelligent drilling and rock identification based on drilling parameter data are the four key technologies to achieve autogenous operation of rock-drilling robot. In addition, the current research status and progress on autogenous operation methods of rock-drilling robot at home and abroad were analyzed and summerized, and relevant research was forecasted.

  12. A 3D Seismic Case: Shooting around a CCS Drill Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.

    2013-12-01

    The reduction of carbon dioxide emission to lessen the global warming has become an important international issue in recent years. The CCS technique (Carbon-dioxide Capture and Storage) is among the most recommended methods. The capture of CO2 during its manufacturing process in the electric power plant and storing in the adjacent area is considered to be an economical and feasible choice. This research uses the 2D and 3D high-resolution seismic reflection method to investigate possible CCS sites along the coast in Taiwan. The site is near an electric power plant and is planned to be a CCS experiment laboratory. The main objective is to detect the proper geologic structure and to prepare the baseline data for the future CO2 monitoring. The size of the high-resolution method applied in this study is much smaller than that used in the oil exploration. The obtained high quality and high resolution data can resolve very detailed structures. The survey parameters in 2D are 4m interval, 240 channels. The bin size in 3D seismic is 8m x 4m, 288 channels. Both 2D and 3D used the Minivibe as a source with 40Hz geophones, and having an average of 30 folds. The 3D seismic survey was conducted around the planned drill site. A surrounding type of 3D data acquisition was taken with sources at outside and receivers at the center. Such a deployment design is quite suitable for the drill site investigation. The structural layer as thin as 4m is able to be detected even under a depth of 3000m. Such a high resolution allows us not only to estimate the structure, but also able to monitor the migration of CO 2 after storage. The results of seismic survey after comparing with a nearby borehole data show that : 1) the caprock is Chinshui shale which is at a depth of 880m to 1000m with a thickness about 120m, 2) the Nanchuang formation and Kueichulin formation with high porosity can be proper reservoir layers which are located at the depth between 1000m to 1700m. In conclusion, this site

  13. 30 CFR 250.462 - What are the requirements for well-control drills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Other Drilling Requirements § 250.462 What are the requirements for well-control drills? You must conduct a weekly well-control drill with each drilling crew. Your drill must familiarize the crew with...

  14. Beyond the Next Generation in Drilling Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroud, Tom; Heysse, Dale

    1998-12-31

    This presentation looks back at the history of offshore drilling and then projects a number of evolutionary developments into the years from 1998 to 2005: (1) By the end of 1999, LWD formation testers and nuclear magnetic resonance tools will become field proven. (2) Global personal networks should be further enhanced when such new communications satellites as Motorola`s Iridium enter operation. Global communications will lead to remote pay zone steering of offshore wells. (3) Casing will be expanded downhole, enabling drilling of smaller uniform diameter wells. (4) Riserless drilling will become available for more applications. (5) There will be increased used of multilateral well designs. (6) Somebody will drill an extended reach well longer than 15 km. (7) The current trend toward subsea production and large floating facilities will continue. (8) `Smart` well completions will mature and become more common, including downhole separation of oil, gas and water. Beyond 2005, rig efficiency will increase, riserless drilling will become commercially available for deepwater applications, computing and communication will become integrated worldwide, and seafloor gas-to-liquids conversion may become commercial. 16 refs.

  15. 表层套管钻井技术在红山嘴油田的应用%Application of surface casing drilling technology in Hongshanzui Oilifeld

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 艾尼瓦尔; 雷宇; 刘凯; 梁跃林; 热苏力

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce drilling cost, reduce downhole accidents and realize economic and effective development of oil/gas re-serves, experimental research was conducted on surface casing drilling technology in Karamay Oilifeld. In line with the geologic features of the oilifeld and self development of process and tool equipment, research was conducted on casing drilling technology and auxiliary drilling tool techniques. The casing hanger and reamer while drilling were developed and were tested in four wells in Hongshanzui Oilifeld in Junggar Basin in Xinjiang, which was very successful. The average penetration rate was increased by 92.2%compared with conventional drilling, which proves that casing drilling technology, after being improved, and achieved the goals of reducing drilling cost and improve economic beneifts. So the technology has a broad development prospect.%为了降低钻井成本、减少井下事故,实现油气储量经济有效的开采,克拉玛依油田开展了表层套管钻井技术的试验研究,针对油田地质特点,立足于工艺及工具设备的自主研发,进行了套管钻井工艺及工具配套技术的研究,研制出套管悬挂器及随钻扩眼器,并在新疆准噶尔盆地红山嘴油田进行了4口井的现场试验,取得了较好的效果,平均机械钻速相对于常规钻井提高了92.2%。证明套管钻井技术经过完善后,可望达到降低钻井成本、提高效益的目的,具有广阔的发展前景。

  16. Drilling successful from ROV Ventana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakes, Debra S.; McFarlane, James A. R.; Holloway, G. Leon; Greene, H. Gary

    Cores of granite and deformed sediment from the walls of Monterey Canyon were successfully recovered from December 30 to 31, 1992, by Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Ventana using a small-diameter, double-barrel drill with a diamond bit. This HSTR (Holloway-Stakes-Tengdin-Rajcula) drill was developed to drill cores horizontally from sulfide/sulfate walls of active black smokers. The drill was first successfully used by the submersible Alvin in October 1991 to drill into massive sulfide chimneys, on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (Eos, June 30, 1992, p. 273), and it was subsequently used with equal success on the chalcopyrite-rich chimneys from 21°N and 9°N on the East Pacific Rise. The recent December dives, however, marked the first time that drilling has ever been attempted from the smaller ROV and the first time coring into the harder igneous rock substrate has been attempted.

  17. Study of waste generation in the drilling and cementing operations during construction of offshore oil and gas wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Ferraço de Campos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to present drilling and cementing activities which take place during the construction of offshore oil and gas wells, listing the waste generated in each step. IBAMA, the environmental agency that regulates the activity, allows two disposal options for these wastes: disposal in open sea or treatment followed by disposal on shore. The documentary research applied in this article details the destination options showing that the monitoring required by the environmental agency is a way to track the actual results of the activities described.

  18. Buckling and dynamic analysis of drill strings for core sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziada, H.H., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-15

    This supporting document presents buckling and dynamic stability analyses of the drill strings used for core sampling. The results of the drill string analyses provide limiting operating axial loads and rotational speeds to prevent drill string failure, instability and drill bit overheating during core sampling. The recommended loads and speeds provide controls necessary for Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic field operations.

  19. 30 CFR 250.463 - Who establishes field drilling rules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who establishes field drilling rules? 250.463... GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Other Drilling Requirements § 250.463 Who establishes field drilling rules? (a) The District Manager...

  20. Advances in core drilling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, G.

    Some notable technical advances in drill design were reported at the meeting, held in Canada August 30-September 1, 1982, at the University of Calgary. Chief amongst these was a battery powered, computer assisted electromechanical core drill which has recently been used by the Danes in Greenland to continuously core to the base of the ice sheet at 2038 m. This is the deepest coring operation so far on the Greenland ice sheet. (The record for deep glacier drilling is held by the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory for the continuous coring through 2164 m of ice to bedrock at Byrd Station, Antarctica, in 1968). In early 1982, a current Soviet core drilling operation was reported to be at a depth of 2000 m at Vostok station, Antarctica, where the total ice thickness is about 4000 m; the goal of core drilling the entire ice thickness there could be achieved before the end of 1983.

  1. Case histories : implementation of new liner hanger technology in south central Venezuela significantly improves operations in complex wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, C.; Soto, S.; Leon, A. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Marval, P.; Schoener-Scott, M. [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Liner hangers are used in deep drilling operations to eliminate the need for full casing strings. However, conventional liner-hanger system do not always permit tool rotation, and liner-hanger failures can result in the complete loss of the wellbore. This study discussed an expandable liner hanger designed to withstand aggressive reaming as well as drilling to depths. Three case histories of wells located in southern Venezuela were used to compare the use of traditional and expandable liner hanger systems. The studies considered liner weight, and the pressure differentials caused by the use of positive seals. The study showed that conventional liner systems are not suited to the extreme environments of the Venezuelan heavy oil reserves. Multiple leak paths were observed. The expandable liner system provided a gas-tight seal, improved flow paths, and reduced the need for remedial cement jobs. It was concluded that use of the expandable systems also increased worker safety. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  2. Whole-body Vibration Exposure of Drill Operators in Iron Ore Mines and Role of Machine-Related, Individual, and Rock-Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Dhanjee Kumar; Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Patra, Aditya Kumar; Chau, Nearkasen

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure among large blast hole drill machine operators with regard to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) recommended threshold values and its association with machine- and rock-related factors and workers' individual characteristics. The study population included 28 drill machine operators who had worked in four opencast iron ore mines in eastern India. The study protocol comprised the following: measurements of WBV exposure [frequency weighted root mean square (RMS) acceleration (m/s(2))], machine-related data (manufacturer of machine, age of machine, seat height, thickness, and rest height) collected from mine management offices, measurements of rock hardness, uniaxial compressive strength and density, and workers' characteristics via face-to-face interviews. More than 90% of the operators were exposed to a higher level WBV than the ISO upper limit and only 3.6% between the lower and upper limits, mainly in the vertical axis. Bivariate correlations revealed that potential predictors of total WBV exposure were: machine manufacturer (r = 0.453, p = 0.015), age of drill (r = 0.533, p = 0.003), and hardness of rock (r = 0.561, p = 0.002). The stepwise multiple regression model revealed that the potential predictors are age of operator (regression coefficient β = -0.052, standard error SE = 0.023), manufacturer (β = 1.093, SE = 0.227), rock hardness (β = 0.045, SE = 0.018), uniaxial compressive strength (β = 0.027, SE = 0.009), and density (β = -1.135, SE = 0.235). Prevention should include using appropriate machines to handle rock hardness, rock uniaxial compressive strength and density, and seat improvement using ergonomic approaches such as including a suspension system.

  3. Computer monitors drilling performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    Computer systems that can monitor over 40 drilling variables, display them graphically, record and transmit the information have been developed separately by two French companies. The systems, Vigigraphic and Visufora, involve the linking of a master computer with various surface and downhole sensors to measure the data on a real-time (as experienced) basis and compute the information. Vigigraphic is able to produce graphic displays grouped on four screens - drilling, tripping, geological and mud data. It computes at least 200 variables from the sensor readings, and it can store over 100 variables. Visufora allows the operator to group the drilling variables as desired. It can monitor and analyze surface and downhole parameters. The system can be linked with MWD tools. Twenty channels of input are assigned to surface values and the remaining 20 channels can be used to monitor downhole instrumentation.

  4. Approved Applications for Permit to Drill - Not Drilled: As of Sept. 30, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This table contains the total number of applications for permit to drill (APDs) by state that had not been drilled as of Sept. 30, 2011. Oil and gas operators may...

  5. The Oman Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2014-12-01

    With seed funds from the Sloan Foundation, the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) approved a proposal by 39 international proponents for scientific drilling in the Oman ophiolite. Via observations on core, geophysical logging, fluid sampling, hydrological measurements, and microbiological sampling in a series of boreholes, we will address long-standing, unresolved questions regarding melt and solid transport in the mantle beneath oceanic spreading ridges, igneous accretion of oceanic crust, mass transfer between the oceans and the crust via hydrothermal alteration, and recycling of volatile components in subduction zones. We will undertake frontier exploration of subsurface weathering processes in mantle peridotite, including natural mechanisms of carbon dioxide uptake from surface waters and the atmosphere, and the nature of the subsurface biosphere. Societally relevant aspects include involvement and training of university students, including numerous students from Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. Studies of natural mineral carbonation will contribute to design of engineered systems for geological carbon dioxide capture and storage. Studies of alteration will contribute to fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of reaction-driven cracking, which could enhance geothermal power generation and extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. We hope to begin drilling in late 2015. Meanwhile, we are seeking an additional $2M to match the combined Sloan and ICDP funding from national and international funding agencies. Matching funds are needed for operational costs of drilling, geophysical logging, downhole fluid sampling, and core description. Information on becoming part of the named investigator pool is in Appendix 14 (page 70) of the ICDP proposal, available at https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/gpg/projects/icdp-workshop-oman-drilling-project. This formal process should begin at about the time of the 2014 Fall AGU Meeting. Meanwhile, potential

  6. Establishing nuclear facility drill programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of DOE Handbook, Establishing Nuclear Facility Drill Programs, is to provide DOE contractor organizations with guidance for development or modification of drill programs that both train on and evaluate facility training and procedures dealing with a variety of abnormal and emergency operating situations likely to occur at a facility. The handbook focuses on conducting drills as part of a training and qualification program (typically within a single facility), and is not intended to included responses of personnel beyond the site boundary, e.g. Local or State Emergency Management, Law Enforcement, etc. Each facility is expected to develop its own facility specific scenarios, and should not limit them to equipment failures but should include personnel injuries and other likely events. A well-developed and consistently administered drill program can effectively provide training and evaluation of facility operating personnel in controlling abnormal and emergency operating situations. To ensure the drills are meeting their intended purpose they should have evaluation criteria for evaluating the knowledge and skills of the facility operating personnel. Training and evaluation of staff skills and knowledge such as component and system interrelationship, reasoning and judgment, team interactions, and communications can be accomplished with drills. The appendices to this Handbook contain both models and additional guidance for establishing drill programs at the Department`s nuclear facilities.

  7. Assessment of the Technology and Practice for Determining Casing Degradation during Offshore Drilling Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Ecologic Instruments Bohemia NY Envirotech 12881 Knott Ave. Ste 106 Ecosystem Research and Garden Grove, CA 92645 Technology Corp. P. 0. Box 35712...Environmental Olympus Corp. of America/ Instruments, Inc. Indusria fib ericDe P. 0. Box 590 Industrial Fiberoptics Dept. Pilgrim Station 2 Nevada Drive

  8. Laser Drilling Practical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces laser drilling processes including modelling, quality assessment of drilled holes, and laser drilling applications. It provides insights into the laser drilling process and the relation among the drilling parameters pertinent to improved end product quality. This book is written for engineers and scientists working on laser machining, particularly laser drilling.

  9. Statistical test of reproducibility and operator variance in thin-section modal analysis of textures and phenocrysts in the Topopah Spring member, drill hole USW VH-2, Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L.M.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Broxton, D.E.

    1989-06-01

    A thin-section operator-variance test was given to the 2 junior authors, petrographers, by the senior author, a statistician, using 16 thin sections cut from core plugs drilled by the US Geological Survey from drill hole USW VH-2 standard (HCQ) drill core. The thin sections are samples of Topopah Spring devitrified rhyolite tuff from four textural zones, in ascending order: (1) lower nonlithophysal, (2) lower lithopysal, (3) middle nonlithophysal, and (4) upper lithophysal. Drill hole USW-VH-2 is near the center of the Crater Flat, about 6 miles WSW of the Yucca Mountain in Exploration Block. The original thin-section labels were opaqued out with removable enamel and renumbered with alpha-numeric labels. The sliders were then given to the petrographer operators for quantitative thin-section modal (point-count) analysis of cryptocrystalline, spherulitic, granophyric, and void textures, as well as phenocryst minerals. Between operator variance was tested by giving the two petrographers the same slide, and within-operator variance was tested by the same operator the same slide to count in a second test set, administered at least three months after the first set. Both operators were unaware that they were receiving the same slide to recount. 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Bucket drill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezverkhiy, V.M.; Nabokov, I.M.; Podoksik, D.Z.; Sadovskiy, S.S.; Shanyukevich, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    The bucket drill including a cylindrical housing with bottom, ground intake windows and cutting knives is hinged to the housing, the mechanism of rotation of the cutting knives including rods connected by the cutter knives, and drive shaft is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the effectiveness of drilling by automatic change in the angle of cutting depending on the strength of the drillable rock, the drill is equipped with elastic elements and cap with annular slits in which there are elastic elements. The mechanism of rotation of the cutting knives is equipped with levers hinged to the housing, pins with shaft and rocker arm. The rods are made with a slit and from one end are rigidly connected to the cutting knives, and from the other end to the levers by means of pins which are arranged in slits of the rod with the possibility of movement. The upper ends of the levers are installed with the possibility of movement in the pins whose shafts are arranged with the possibility of rotation in the rocker arm rigidly connected to the drive shaft. The drive shaft is equipped with cantilevers installed in the cap with the possibility of rotation and interaction with the elastic elements.

  11. Geothermal well drilling manual at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez P., A.; Flores S., M.

    1982-08-10

    The objective of the drilling manual is to solve all problems directly related to drilling during the construction of a well. In this case, the topics dealt which are drilling fluids and hydraulics to be applied in the field to improve drilling progress, eliminate risks and achieve good well-completion. There are other topics that are applicable such as drill bits and the drilling string, which are closely linked to drilling progress. On this occasion drilling fluid and hydraulics programs are presented, in addition to a computing program for a Casio FX-502P calculator to be applied in the field to optimize hydraulics and in the analysis of hydraulics for development and exploration wells at their different intervals.

  12. 套管钻井技术在委内瑞拉ZM-351井的应用%Application of casing drilling technology in ZM-351 well in Venezuela

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于顺明; 常淑敏

    2009-01-01

    ZM-351 is one experimental surface casing drilling well with diameter of 339.7 mm, which is located in block CAMPO MATA, Anaco Oil Filed of PDVSA. The well adopts the advanced international casing drilling technology, i.e. top drill lock assembly & bottom drill lock device. Compared with the close wells that are the same well structure and at the same block, the ZM-351 well completion time is shortened, the cost is reduced, and fully showing the advantage of casing drilling. The thesis describes ZM-351 casing drilling process, casing drilling key technology, drilling rig selection and its accessories and etc. so as to provide some experience for casing drilling in China.%ZM-351井是委内瑞拉国家石油公司PDVSA在东部ANACO油田CAMPO MATA区块的一口Φ339.7 mm套管钻井技术试验井.该井采用了国际先进的套管钻井顶部缩紧总成和底部缩紧装置,成功地完成了Φ339.7mm套管钻井技术试验,与相同区块、相同井身结构的临井相比,大大缩短了钻井周期,降低了钻井成本,充分体现了套管钻井技术的优越性.详细介绍了ZM-351井套管钻井工艺、套管钻井关键技术、钻机选型和设备配套等情况,为国内推广应用套管钻井技术提供了经验.

  13. Comprehensive borehole management for shorter drilling time; Umfassendes Bohrfortschrittsmanagement zur Verkuerzung der Bohrprojektdauer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehrlich, M. [ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    In 2006, the trademarked ExxonMobil Fast Drill Process (FDP) was introduced also in the German ExxonMobil boreholes. The process is to maximize the drilling speed for every meter drilled. The process makes it possible to ensure borehole management on the basis of quantitative data and in consideration of all phases that are relevant for sinking a borehole. The FDP is used world-wide in all ExxonMobil drilling departments. More than 1.35 million meters are drilled annually in many different boreholes with different geological conditions, drilling profiles and international sites. The results were similar in many cases, with a significant increase in ROP and drill bit life, and with less damage caused by vibrations. FDP was developed on the basis of real time monitoring of the specific mechanical energy (MSE) required for drilling. MSE monitoring was found to be an effective tool dor detecting inefficient functioning of the drill bit and the overall system. To make operation more efficient, the causes must be identified and measures must be taken accordingly, taking into account the potential risks involved in such measures. MSE monitoring is a tool while FDPL is a broad management process ensuring that MSE and many other data sources are used effectively for optimisation of the ROP. Consequent implementation of the process resulted in a significant increase of the ROP. The major elements required for achieving this goal are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Direction of drilling wells. Wiercenie otworow kierunkowych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szostak, L.

    1980-01-01

    In the example of the most widespread drilling of vertical wells, an examination is made of the mining-geological and technical-technological reasons and methods for evaluating the amount of their twisting. Methods are presented for stabilizing the drilling shaft, features of drilling vertical wells by turbodrills and groups of wells for freezing rocks. Characteristics are presented for the features of directional drilling, model profiles of directed wells, drilling of wells with assigned deviation of the face from the vertical axis. Possibilities are indicated for controlling the trajectory of movement of the face of the well with the rotary method of drilling, in particular, with the use of a deviating wedge, cement plug, etc., methods of drilling inclined wells on cased and uncased sections. Features are examined of creating and controlling the inclination of a well with the use of turbodrills of different design, technology of drilling and casing of multiple-face wells, drilling of a fan of wells from one position of the drilling unit, for example, with unfavorable relief of the earth's surface and drilling of offshore wells by using floating drilling units.

  15. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, H.D.; Gray, M.A.; Oliver, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    In the Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), air percussion is used to drill directionally in hard formations. Compared to mud or air powered PDM motors, SPADS offers directional drilling at high penetration rate, reduced mud costs, negligible formation damage, and immediate indication of hole productivity. Field tests turned up problems ranging from tool design to operation procedures; remedies were developed. There is an optimum WOB (weight on bit) at which torque is reasonably low. The hammer was tested at three different line pressures (200, 300, 350 psig) at optimum WOB in granite, limestone, and sandstone.

  16. 30 CFR 250.1608 - Well casing and cementing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... driving, jetting, or drilling to a minimum depth of 100 feet below the mud line or such other depth, as... combinations thereof. Safety factors in the drilling and casing program designs shall be of sufficient magnitude to provide well control during drilling and to assure safe operations for the life of the well....

  17. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K. (eds.)

    1992-04-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

  18. Directional location of buried objects using three-component magnetic borehole data demonstrated for the case of a drill string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmann, S.; Virgil, C.; Hördt, A.; Leven, M.

    2016-06-01

    One of the main applications of magnetic field measurements in boreholes is the detection of unexploded ordnance or buried utility structures like pipes or tiebacks. Even though the advantage of fully oriented magnetic vector measurements have long been recognized and could significantly reduce costs and risks, the tools used for those purposes typically measure only the total magnetic field, the vertical and horizontal components or gradients thereof. The Göttingen Bohrloch Magnetometer uses three fibre optic gyros to record its orientation and thus enables us to compute high-quality three-component magnetic vector data regardless of borehole orientation. The measurements described in this paper were run in the scientific borehole Cuxhaven Lüdingworth 1/1A, which was drilled as a part of the `Coastal Aquifer Test field' project to study the dynamics of the saltwater/freshwater interface. As the drill string got stuck during drilling of the first borehole, a second hole was drilled in the immediate vicinity. The drill string lies at a depth between 80 and 114 m at a distance of only 2.5 m southeast of the borehole used for the measurements, making it an ideal target to demonstrate the benefits of vector magnetic surveys. Although the theories to calculate magnetic fields of objects with different shapes is well established and do not need to be tested, they almost exclusively include approximations of the geometry. It is not obvious whether these approximations are suited to describe real data, or whether additional effects or refinements have to be considered. We use both a simplified monopole model and a cylinder model to fit the data and are able to determine the position of the drill string within a statistical error of approximately 10 cm. Additionally, we show that the location of the drill string could not have been determined by measurements of the total field or its horizontal and vertical component alone and that those methods would require the drilling

  19. A Case Against Systematic Operational Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    the operational level.18 SOD theory was greatly influenced by the writings of the French postmodern philosophers, specifically Gilles Deleuze ...writings of Deleuze and Guattari, who drew inspiration from guerrilla organizations and “nomadic wars.”30 The Israeli military also used the theories of

  20. Drilling and Completion of the Urach III HDR Test Well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, U.; Ernst, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    The hot dry rock (HDR) test well, urach III, was drilled and completed in 1979. The borehole is located in Southwest Germany in the geothermal anomaly of Urach. The purpose of project Urach was to study drilling and completion problems of HDR wells and to provide a test site for a HDR research program. The Urach III borehole was drilled to a total depth of 3,334 meters (10,939 feet), penetrating 1,700 meters (5,578 feet) into the granitic basement. Extensive coring was required to provide samples for geophysical and geochemical studies. Positive displacement downhole motors were used for coring and normal drilling operations. It was found that these motors in combination with the proper bits gave better results than conventional rotary drilling. Loss of circulation was encountered not only in sedimentary rocks but also in the granite. After drilling and completion of the borehole, a number of hydraulic fracturing experiments were performed in the open hole as well as in the cased section of Urach III. A circulation loop was established by using the single-borehole concept. It is not yet clear whether new fractures have actually been generated or preexisting joints and fissures have been reactivated. Evaluation of the results of this first step is almost completed and the planning of Phase II of the Urach project is under way.

  1. New generation of membrane efficient water-based drilling fluids: pragmatic and cost-effective solutions to borehole stability problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tare, U.A. [Haliburton, Calgary, AB (Canada); Mody, F.K. [Shell International E and P Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Tan, C.P. [CSIRO Petroleum, Kensington, WA (Australia)

    2002-06-01

    Drilling and completion operations in shales often suffer as a result of wellbore instability. Mechanical failure of the rock around a wellbore is the primary cause of shale instability. This process can be exacerbated by physico-chemical interactions between drilling fluids and shales. Water-based drilling fluids are used more and more due to environmental awareness that becomes more prevalent. Wellbore instability problems can however result from an improper application of water-based drilling fluids in those cases where drilling occurs in sensitive clay-rich formations. To meet the requirements of the petroleum industry, considerable collaborative efforts were expanded in the development of innovative environmentally acceptable water-based drilling fluids. In this paper, the authors describe the process that leads to the development of these drilling fluids. It is possible to achieve shale stability through an osmotic outflow of pore fluid and prevention/minimization of mud pressure penetration, as laboratory experiments on shale samples under realistic downhole conditions exposed to these drilling fluids prove. High membrane efficiencies, in excess of 80 per cent, were generated by this new generation of membrane efficient water-based drilling fluids. Drilling objectives resulting from an improved application of water-based drilling fluids are made possible by a fundamental understanding of the main drilling fluid-shale interaction mechanisms for shale stability and the application of experimental data to field conditions. The authors indicate that the achievement of trouble-free drilling of shales and notable reductions in non-productive time is accomplished by following the practical guidelines included in this paper for maintaining shale stability with the new generation of water-based drilling fluids. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  2. Downhole drilling motors: technical review. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, W.C.; McDonald, W.J.; Nixon, J.D.; Matson, L.W.

    1977-08-01

    Dyna-Drills and turbodrills are used primarily for directional drilling where it is critical that the drillpipe not be rotated. These tools are not widely used for straight-hole drilling because of problems with bearing failures, low power outputs, low bit pressures, and high rotary speeds. The high rotary speeds produce bit bearing failures in 10 to 15 h, compared to 100 to 200 h life at lower rotary speeds. The technology now exists to develop reliable high-torque motors which will operate roller bits at speeds of 150 to 250 RPM and diamond bits at speeds of 400 to 800 RPM for periods of 100 to 200 hours. Sealed bearing assemblies which allow the bearings to operate in lubricant are being developed. These improved bearings allow bits to operate at the high bit weights needed for optimum drilling. Improved drilling motors can reduce drilling costs to significantly increase the number of wells drilled per drilling rig per year. Now, this is increasingly important because of the drilling rig shortage developing in this country. At least ten companies are working on the development of improved drilling motors and it is likely that several of these new motors will become commercially available within the next 2 to 3 years. Several companies are working on the development of improved high speed roller bits for use on drilling motors. The development of these high speed bits should significantly increase the use of drilling motors since bit bearing failures are a major problem when drilling with motors. The development of reliable, high-speed STRATAPAX bits should also increase motor useage since these bits drilling most effectively at rotary speeds of 300 to 500 RPM.

  3. Barite: a case study of import reliance on an essential material for oil and gas exploration and development drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.; Miller, M. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Global dependence on a limited number of countries for specific mineral commodities could lead to sudden supply disruptions for the United States, and barite is one such commodity. Analyses of barite supply amounts and sources for the United States are demonstrative of mineral commodities on which the country is import reliant. Mineral commodity trade flows can be analyzed more easily than import reliances for commodities in which U.S. domestic demand is primarily met by materials contained within manufactured products, as with the rare-earth elements in cellular phones and computers. Barite plays an essential role as a weighting material in drilling muds used in oil and gas drilling, primarily to prevent the explosive release of gas and oil during drilling. The Nation’s efforts to become more energy independent are based largely on the domestic oil and gas industry’s ability to explore and develop onshore and offshore fuel deposits. These activities include increased efforts by the United States to locate and recover oil and gas within unconventional deposits, such as those in the Bakken, Eagle Ford, and Marcellus Formations, using advanced drilling technologies.

  4. CBM Well Drilling Operation Technology in Junlian Karst Developed Block, Southern Sichuan%川南筠连岩溶发育区块煤层气钻井施工工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬玉平

    2012-01-01

    川南筠连地区煤层气资源丰富,但该区块岩溶发育,地质条件复杂,在煤层气钻井施工过程中容易出现井漏、井斜、井塌、排渣困难等问题,造成钻井效率低下.针对此神情况,采用了空气潜孔锤和普通钻井液循环相结合的钻井工艺:一开采用空气潜孔锤钻进,至一开完钻后,下入表层套管固井,继续采用空气钻井至最大井深,然后换用常规钻井液钻井至完钻.钻探效果显示,该种工艺的钻进周期比常规的钻井方法缩短了4~10d,钻井效率较高,取得了良好的经济效益.%CBM resources are abundant in the Junlian area, southern Sichuan. But since the well developed karst in this block, and complicated geological condition, issues of drilling mud loss, well deflection, well collapsing and difficult cutting removal are often happened during CBM well drilling process, and caused low drilling efficiency. In allusion to the situation, drilling technology of air down-the-hole hammer combined with common drilling fluid circulation is used: using air down-the-hole hammer in primary spudding, when it is finished, lowering down superficial casing to consolidate the well; continue to use air drilling to the maximum depth, then using traditional fluid drilling through to well completion. The drilling effect has demonstrated that the method can shorten drilling duration 4-10 days less than traditional drilling, thus high efficiency and good economic benefit.

  5. Operational performace of horizontal drillings in the deep aquiferous gas storage Kalle; Betriebsverhalten von Horizontalbohrungen im tiefen Aquifergasspeicher Kalle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klafki, M.; Kammel, D. [DBI Gas- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Freiberg (Germany); Below, P.J. [VEW Energie AG, Dortmund (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The aquiferous structure Kalle, located in the Emsland, has contained compressed natural gas in the middle sandstone formation of the Volpriehausen-sandstone for 20 years. The storage stratum is between 2100 and 2200 m deep, 10-13 m thick and sufficiently porous and permeable. Gas storage operation and operational performance of the horizontal holes are described in this article. Filling and injection performance are also described. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] Die im Emsland gelegene Aquiferstruktur Kalle fuehrt im Volpriehausen-Sandstein der geologischen Formation `Mittlerer Buntsandstein` nunmehr seit fast 20 Jahren eingepresstes Erdgas. Die Speicherschicht ist dort 2100 bis 2200 m tief, 10 bis 13 m maechtig und ausreichend poroes und permeabel. Im Folgenden werden der Gasspeicherbetrieb und das Betriebsverhalten der Horizontalbohrungen beschrieben. Das Ausspeisungsverhalten und das Injektionsverhalten werden ebenfalls erlaeutert. (orig./MSK)

  6. Affecting factors research on the risks of deep water drilling operation in West Africa%西非深水JDZ-2-1井钻井工程整体风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯珂; 管志川; 张君亚; 王斌; 崔允

    2009-01-01

    Because of the high investment and high risk characteristic of drilling operation in deep water, pre-drilling risk evaluation was completed for the deep water Well-JDZ-2-1 in West Africa, it has significant benefits for emergency response. The influences of thunder storm, hurricane, wave, tide, fog, water depth, submarine ocean current, shallow geologic hazards, gas hydrate, abnormal pressure, narrow pore pressure/fracture pressure window and earthquake to the deep water drilling operation are covered in this paper.The real natural environment and geologic conditions of JDZ-2 Block was also considered when build up and evaluate the integrated risk hierarchical structure of drilling operation by using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (APH) method as per the normal component parts of conventional drilling operation in deep water. According to the analysis results, the influence of different factors to drilling fluid are significant and has the highest risk, the risk of drilling operation, coring operation and logging is lower. This analysis and research provided good reference for the selection of risk associated measures.%由于深水钻井具有高投资、高风险的特点,在西非深水JDZ-2-1井钻前对其进行风险评价,对做好应急备案具有重要意义.分别阐述了雷暴、暴风、波浪、潮汐、雾、水深、水下洋流、浅层地质灾害、天然气水合物、异常压力、狭窄的地层孔隙/破裂压力窗口和地震因素等对深水钻井作业的影响及危害,并结合JDZ-2区块的实际自然环境和地质条件,利用层次风险评价方法(APH),按照深水钻井常规作业的组成部分,建立钻井工程整体风险层次结构,对其进行整体风险评价.分析结果表明,JDZ-2-1井在钻井液性能受到各因素的影响较为明显时,其风险值最大,而钻进作业、取心和测井作业风险次之.该分析研究为制定应对风险的措施提供了参考.

  7. New optimized drill pipe size for deep-water, extended reach and ultra-deep drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jellison, Michael J.; Delgado, Ivanni [Grant Prideco, Inc., Hoston, TX (United States); Falcao, Jose Luiz; Sato, Ademar Takashi [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Moura, Carlos Amsler [Comercial Perfuradora Delba Baiana Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    A new drill pipe size, 5-7/8 in. OD, represents enabling technology for Extended Reach Drilling (ERD), deep water and other deep well applications. Most world-class ERD and deep water wells have traditionally been drilled with 5-1/2 in. drill pipe or a combination of 6-5/8 in. and 5-1/2 in. drill pipe. The hydraulic performance of 5-1/2 in. drill pipe can be a major limitation in substantial ERD and deep water wells resulting in poor cuttings removal, slower penetration rates, diminished control over well trajectory and more tendency for drill pipe sticking. The 5-7/8 in. drill pipe provides a significant improvement in hydraulic efficiency compared to 5-1/2 in. drill pipe and does not suffer from the disadvantages associated with use of 6-5/8 in. drill pipe. It represents a drill pipe assembly that is optimized dimensionally and on a performance basis for casing and bit programs that are commonly used for ERD, deep water and ultra-deep wells. The paper discusses the engineering philosophy behind 5-7/8 in. drill pipe, the design challenges associated with development of the product and reviews the features and capabilities of the second-generation double-shoulder connection. The paper provides drilling case history information on significant projects where the pipe has been used and details results achieved with the pipe. (author)

  8. Heliportable drilling in the 21. century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argue, F. [Academy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Korach, D. [Nabors Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States); Read, M. [Nabors Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The access season for conventional ice roads has been reduced. Therefore, efficient drilling programs are required for a short winter drilling, and long wells are not able to compete in one season. Heliportable drilling provides non-ice access. This presentation outlined the merits of heliportable drilling in the twenty-first century. Conventional heliportable drilling was discussed and several images of current and past heliportable drilling rigs were presented. New technologies were also illustrated and discussed, with particular reference to the Mi26T enabler, a Russian super heavy lift helicopter, leased to Airborne Energy Solutions. Operating data for the Mi26T was also presented and the heli-drill system was explained. Several twenty-first century heli-rigs were also illustrated and described, including rig 119H, rig 103AC, rig 106E, rig 99AC, and rig 105E. Last, the presentation identified the next steps for heli-rigs. tabs., figs.

  9. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  10. Thermal numerical assessment of jawbone drilling factor during implantology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Pirjamali Neisiani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Optimization drilling parameters in order to temperature decrease during creation of hole in the bone is an interested issue. The aim of this study was to achieve optimum values of drilling parameters based on the creation of minimum temperature during jawbone drilling. Materials and Methods: In this study two models of mandible and maxilla was created and teeth 2, 5 and 8 from maxilla and teeth 25, 28 and 31 from mandible were removed. The drilling operation was performed under different conditions on jawbone models using finite element analysis and the maximum temperatures were measured in adjacent of holes. Results: Drill bit head angle of 70 degrees was created the lowest maximum temperature during drilling operation. The lowest maximum temperatures were observed in the drill bit rotational speed, drill bit feed rate and the force exerted on the drill bit equal to 200 rpm, 120 mm/min and 60 N, respectively. The use of irrigation can decrease the maximum bone temperature about 7ºC. The maximum temperature differences in various regions of mandible and maxilla were approximately about 1ºC. Conclusion: Sharpness of drill bit head angle, reduction of drill bit rotational speed, increasing drill bit feed rate and exerted force on drill bit and also the use of irrigation played effective roles in temperature decrease during jawbone drilling. Drilling site did not have important effect on the temperature changes during jawbone drilling.

  11. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  12. Drilling miniature holes, Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1978-07-01

    Miniature components for precision electromechanical mechanisms such as switches, timers, and actuators typically require a number of small holes. Because of the precision required, the workpiece materials, and the geometry of the parts, most of these holes must be produced by conventional drilling techniques. The use of such techniques is tedious and often requires considerable trial and error to prevent drill breakage, minimize hole mislocation and variations in hole diameter. This study of eight commercial drill designs revealed that printed circuit board drills produced better locational and size repeatability than did other drills when centerdrilling was not used. Boring holes 1 mm in dia, or less, as a general rule did not improve hole location in brass or stainless steel. Hole locations of patterns of 0.66-mm holes can be maintained within 25.4-..mu..m diametral positional tolerance if setup misalignments can be eliminated. Size tolerances of +- 3.8 ..mu..m can be maintained under some conditions when drilling flat plates. While these levels of precision are possible with existing off-the-shelf drills, they may not be practical in many cases.

  13. Biological effects of drilling wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranford, P. J. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2000-07-01

    An argument is made for the point of view that economic realities require that a sustainable fishery must co-exist with the offshore petroleum industry, and therefore to sustain the fishery comprehensive studies are needed to identify and minimize the impact of operational drilling wastes on fishery resources. Moreover, laboratory and field studies indicate that operational drilling platforms impact on fisheries at great distances, therefore studies should not be limited to the immediate vicinity of drilling sites. Studies on long-term exposure of resident organisms to low level contaminants and the chronic lethal and sublethal biological effects of production drilling wastes must be conducted under environmentally relevant conditions to ensure the validity of the results. Studies at the Bedford Institute of Oceanography on sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) shows them to be highly sensitive to impacts from drilling wastes. Results of these studies, integrated with toxicity data and information on the distribution and transport of drilling wastes have been used by regulatory agencies and industrial interests to develop scientifically sound and justifiable regulations. They also led to the development of practical, sensitive and cost-effective technologies that use resident resource species to detect environmental impacts at offshore production sites. 1 fig.

  14. Unit for cleaning drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorosh, M.M.; Dera, Ya.I.; Fesenko, M.M.; Makedonov, N.I.; Surkov, V.T.

    1983-01-01

    A design is proposed for a unit for cleaning drilling muds which includes a settling tank with input sleeve and a sleeve of the purified mud and hydrocyclones. In order to improve the effectiveness of the degree of purification, the unit is equipped with an ejector and sludge filter arranged under the settling tank in the form of a grid installed in the upper part of the settling tank and connected to the sleeve of purified mud, while the inlet sleeve is arranged tangentially. The proposed unit can operate during drilling with the use of muds on water and carbon bases. As a result of its use, the degree of purification of the drilling mud reaches 30-35%; there is an increase in mechanical drilling rate, the service life of the sand-separator and the silt separators and decrease in wear of the pump equipment.

  15. Long hole waterjet drilling for gas drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Stockwell; M. Gledhill; S. Hildebrand; S. Adam; Tim Meyer [CMTE (Australia)

    2003-04-01

    In-seam drilling for gas drainage is now an essential part of operations at many Australian underground coalmines. The objective of this project is to develop and trial a new drilling method for the accurate and efficient installation of long inseam boreholes (>1000 metres). This involves the integration of pure water-jet drilling technology (i.e. not water-jet assisted rotary drilling) developed by CMTE with conventional directional drilling technology. The system was similar to conventional directional drilling methods, but instead of relying on a down-hole-motor (DHM) rotating a mechanical drill bit for cutting, high pressure water-jets were used. The testing of the system did not achieve the full objectives set down in the project plan. A borehole greater than 1000 metres was not achieved. The first trial site had coal that was weathered, oxidized and dry. These conditions significantly affected the ability of the drilling tool to stay 'in-seam'. Due to the poor conditions at the first trial, many experimental objectives were forwarded to the second field trial. In the second trial drilling difficulties were experienced, this was due to the interaction between the confinement of the borehole and the dimensions of the down hole drilling assembly. This ultimately reduced the productivity of the system and the distance that could be drilled within the specified trial periods. Testing in the first field trial did not show any indication that the system would have this difficulty.

  16. Modeling and experimentation of bone drilling forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JuEun; Gozen, B Arda; Ozdoganlar, O Burak

    2012-04-05

    Prediction and control of bone drilling forces are critical to the success of many orthopaedic operations. Uncontrolled and large forces can cause drill-bit breakage, drill breakthrough, excessive heat generation, and mechanical damage to the bone. This paper presents a mechanistic model for prediction of thrust forces and torques experienced during bone drilling. The model incorporates the radially varying drill-bit geometry and cutting conditions analytically, while capturing the material and friction properties empirically through a specific energy formulation. The forces from the chisel edge are modeled by considering the indentation process that occurs in the vicinity of the drill-bit axis. A procedure is outlined to calibrate the specific energies, where only a small number of calibration experiments are required for a wide range of drilling conditions and drill-bit geometry. The calibration parameters for the cortical portions of bovine tibia are identified through drilling tests. Subsequently, a series of validation tests are conducted under different feed rates and spindle speeds. The thrust forces and torques were observed to vary considerably between bones from different animals. The forces from the model were seen to match well with those from the experimentation within the inherent variations from the bone characteristics. The model can be used to select favorable drilling conditions, to assist in robotic surgeries, and to design optimal orthopaedic drill bits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of non-edible vegetable based oil as cutting fluid on chip, surface roughness and cutting force during drilling operation of Mild Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmitha, M.; Sharan, P.; Jyothi, P. N.

    2016-09-01

    Friction between work piece-cutting tool-chip generates heat in the machining zone. The heat generated reduces the tool life, increases surface roughness and decreases the dimensional sensitiveness of work material. This can be overcome by using cutting fluids during machining. They are used to provide lubrication and cooling effects between cutting tool and work piece and cutting tool and chip during machining operation. As a result, important benefits would be achieved such longer tool life, easy chip flow and higher machining quality in the machining processes. Non-edible vegetable oils have received considerable research attention in the last decades owing to their remarkable improved tribological characteristics and due to increasing attention to environmental issues, have driven the lubricant industry toward eco friendly products from renewable sources. In the present work, different non-edible vegetable oils are used as cutting fluid during drilling of Mild steel work piece. Non-edible vegetable oils, used are Karanja oil (Honge), Neem oil and blend of these two oils. The effect of these cutting fluids on chip formation, surface roughness and cutting force are investigated and the results obtained are compared with results obtained with petroleum based cutting fluids and dry conditions.

  18. Electrotechnical complex of drill rig with adjustable electric drives

    OpenAIRE

    Nikulin Oleg; Shabanov Vitaliy

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers the electrotechnical complex of a drill rig with adjustable electric drives of the main mechanisms. A computer model has been developed for the electrical complex of the drill rig, which allows studying processes in case of interruptions in the power supply system, changes in the technological parameters of drilling, etc. The article presents the simulation results for short circuits in the power supply system of the drilling rig and for drilling a well.

  19. Electrotechnical complex of drill rig with adjustable electric drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikulin Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the electrotechnical complex of a drill rig with adjustable electric drives of the main mechanisms. A computer model has been developed for the electrical complex of the drill rig, which allows studying processes in case of interruptions in the power supply system, changes in the technological parameters of drilling, etc. The article presents the simulation results for short circuits in the power supply system of the drilling rig and for drilling a well.

  20. Application of common knowledge operator and disruptive thinking perspective in case of mobile operating system market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Gircys

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper is a case study of mobile operating systems market, where mobile operating system makers share adistributed knowledge of mobile operating system basics and different levels of information about consumer expectations. According to the basic logics, it is reasonable to expect that if it is commonly known that a choice A is better than a choice B, any agent i will prefer the choice instead of an inferior one. In case the mobile operating system makers some chose a completely different outcome which is rather based on disruptive thinking instead of common knowledge.

  1. Gas reservoir evaluation for underbalanced horizontal drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of surface equipment for monitoring the parameters of fluid and pressure while drilling was developed, and mathematical models for gas reservoir seepage and wellbore two-phase flow were established. Based on drilling operation parameters, well structure and monitored parameters, the wellbore pressure and the gas reservoir permeability could be predicted theoretically for underbalanced horizontal drilling. Based on the monitored gas production along the well depth, the gas reservoir type could be identified.

  2. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judzis, Arnis [Salt Lake City, UT; Black, Alan D [Coral Springs, FL; Green, Sidney J [Salt Lake City, UT; Robertson, Homer A [West Jordan, UT; Bland, Ronald G [Houston, TX; Curry, David Alexander [The Woodlands, TX; Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W.

    2011-04-19

    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

  3. 30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations... necessary to ensure well control. You must determine those quantities based on known or anticipated drilling... drilling fluid material to maintain well control, you must suspend drilling operations....

  4. The radial cutting torch device application due to drill string sticking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leković Branko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stuck pipe is a common problem with tremendous impact on drilling efficiency and costs in the oil industry. Generally, the stuck pipe troubles are solved after their occurrences by using some standard operational procedures such as working the drill string up or down, attempting to rotate the string and pumping mud at higher flow rates through the drill bit to aid pipe release. One may also place different fluids around the stick area and use a drilling jar. However, in cases where common solutions don't work, then the cutoff is the last resort. To have a successful cutoff operation, estimating the location of the free point and choosing the right cutting tool is of vital importance. This paper presents the Radial Cutting Torch (RCT as a innovative cutting tool and its oilfield application in stuck pipe events.

  5. Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iraj A. Salehi; Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

    2007-02-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has been the leading investigator in the field of high power laser applications research for well construction and completion applications. Since 1997, GTI (then as Gas Research Institute- GRI) has investigated several military and industrial laser systems and their ability to cut and drill into reservoir type rocks. In this report, GTI continues its investigation with a 5.34 kW ytterbium-doped multi-clad high power fiber laser (HPFL). When compared to its competitors; the HPFL represents a technology that is more cost effective to operate, capable of remote operations, and requires considerably less maintenance and repair. Work performed under this contract included design and implementation of laboratory experiments to investigate the effects of high power laser energy on a variety of rock types. All previous laser/rock interaction tests were performed on samples in the lab at atmospheric pressure. To determine the effect of downhole pressure conditions, a sophisticated tri-axial cell was designed and tested. For the first time, Berea sandstone, limestone and clad core samples were lased under various combinations of confining, axial and pore pressures. Composite core samples consisted of steel cemented to rock in an effort to represent material penetrated in a cased hole. The results of this experiment will assist in the development of a downhole laser perforation or side tracking prototype tool. To determine how this promising laser would perform under high pressure in-situ conditions, GTI performed a number of experiments with results directly comparable to previous data. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of laser input parameters on representative reservoir rock types of sandstone and limestone. The focus of the experiments was on laser/rock interaction under confining pressure as would be the case for all drilling and completion operations. As such, the results would be applicable to drilling, perforation, and

  6. Overcoming Operational Challenges to Ebola Case Investigation in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T Boland, Samuel; Polich, Erin; Connolly, Allison; Hoar, Adam; Sesay, Tom; Tran, Anh-Minh A

    2017-09-27

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that hit West Africa in 2013 was the worst outbreak of EVD in recorded history. While much has been published regarding the international and national-level EVD responses, there is a dearth of literature on district-level coordination and operational structures, successes, and failures. This article seeks to understand how the EVD response unfolded at the district level, namely the challenges to operationalizing EVD surveillance over the course of the outbreak in Port Loko and Kambia districts of Sierra Leone. We present here GOAL Global's understanding of the fundamental challenges to case investigation operations during the EVD response, including environmental and infrastructural, sociocultural, and political and organizational challenges, with insight complemented by a survey of 42 case investigators. Major challenges included deficiencies in transportation and communication resources, low morale and fatigue among case investigators, mismanagement of data, mistrust among communities, and leadership challenges. Without addressing these operational challenges, technical surveillance solutions are difficult to implement and hold limited relevance, due to the poor quality and quantity of data being collected. The low prioritization of operational needs came at a high cost. To mediate this, GOAL addressed these operational challenges by acquiring critical transportation and communication resources to facilitate case investigation, including vehicles, boats, fuel, drivers, phones, and closed user groups; addressing fatigue and low morale by hiring more case investigators, making timely payments, arranging for time off, and providing meals and personal protective equipment; improving data tracking efforts through standard operating procedures, training, and mentorship to build higher-quality case histories and make it easier to access information; strengthening trust in communities by ensuring familiarity and consistency of case

  7. Post-operative bilateral adrenal haemorrhage: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E. McNicol

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: This case highlights the importance of awareness of both the symptoms and signs and variation in electrolyte profile when assessing surgical patients post-operatively. In addition, this case highlights the benefit of early recognition and initiation of treatment and the importance of follow-up as long-term medical management is often required to prevent further relapse.

  8. Instrumentation for the PICO deep ice coring drill

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    An electronic data collection and control system has been developed for the PICO 13.2cm deep ice coring drill. It monitors a variety of drilling parameters including inclination, depth, temperature, pressure, RPM, weight and others. It also displays this data for the drill operator and allows the operator to control speed and direction of the drill motor. The display program allows setting limits on all parameters so an alarm sounds if anything goes wrong. This instrumentation package will be...

  9. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System and Horizontal Directional Drilling Technology Demonstration, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Myers, D.A.; Gardner, M.G.; Williamson, T.; Huffman, J.

    1999-06-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) system and Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) were successfully demonstrated at the Mock Tank Leak Simulation Site and the Drilling Technology Test Site, Hanford, Washington. The use of directional drilling offers an alternative to vertical drilling site characterization. Directional drilling can develop a borehole under a structure, such as a waste tank, from an angled entry and leveling off to horizontal at the desired depth. The EMWD system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The technology demonstration consisted of the development of one borehole under a mock waste tank at a depth of {approximately} {minus}8 m ({minus}27 ft.), following a predetermined drill path, tracking the drill path to within a radius of {approximately}1.5 m (5 ft.), and monitoring for zones of radiological activity using the EMWD system. The purpose of the second borehole was to demonstrate the capability of drilling to a depth of {approximately} {minus}21 m ({minus}70 ft.), the depth needed to obtain access under the Hanford waste tanks, and continue drilling horizontally. This report presents information on the HDD and EMWD technologies, demonstration design, results of the demonstrations, and lessons learned.

  10. HIGH-POWER TURBODRILL AND DRILL BIT FOR DRILLING WITH COILED TUBING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke; David Glowka; Man Mohan Rai; David Conroy; Tim Beaton; Rocky Seale; Joseph Hanna; Smith Neyrfor; Homer Robertson

    2008-03-31

    Commercial introduction of Microhole Technology to the gas and oil drilling industry requires an effective downhole drive mechanism which operates efficiently at relatively high RPM and low bit weight for delivering efficient power to the special high RPM drill bit for ensuring both high penetration rate and long bit life. This project entails developing and testing a more efficient 2-7/8 in. diameter Turbodrill and a novel 4-1/8 in. diameter drill bit for drilling with coiled tubing. The high-power Turbodrill were developed to deliver efficient power, and the more durable drill bit employed high-temperature cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. This project teams Schlumberger Smith Neyrfor and Smith Bits, and NASA AMES Research Center with Technology International, Inc (TII), to deliver a downhole, hydraulically-driven power unit, matched with a custom drill bit designed to drill 4-1/8 in. boreholes with a purpose-built coiled tubing rig. The U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory has funded Technology International Inc. Houston, Texas to develop a higher power Turbodrill and drill bit for use in drilling with a coiled tubing unit. This project entails developing and testing an effective downhole drive mechanism and a novel drill bit for drilling 'microholes' with coiled tubing. The new higher power Turbodrill is shorter, delivers power more efficiently, operates at relatively high revolutions per minute, and requires low weight on bit. The more durable thermally stable diamond drill bit employs high-temperature TSP (thermally stable) diamond cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. Expectations are that widespread adoption of microhole technology could spawn a wave of 'infill development' drilling of wells spaced between existing wells, which could tap potentially billions of barrels of bypassed oil at shallow depths in mature producing areas. At the same time, microhole

  11. Reliability-Growth of Triplex Drilling Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Yu; ZhaoZhong

    1996-01-01

    @@ Introduction to triplex pump The triplex pump widely used in oilfields is composed of power end assembly, fluid end assembly, piston-liner spraying system, lubrication system and charging system.The pump delivers mud into oil well. Through nozzles of drilling bit, the mud inside the drilling shaft comes to the annular space between drilling shaft and casing string and then returns to surface.

  12. An innovative drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nees, J.; Dickinson, E.; Dickinson, W.; Dykstra, H.

    1991-05-01

    The principal project objectives were the following: To demonstrate the capability of the Ultrashort Radius Radial System to drill and complete multiple horizontal radials in a heavy oil formation which had a production history of thermal operations. To study the effects that horizontal radials have on steam placement at specific elevations and on reducing gravity override. To demonstrate that horizontal radials could be utilized for cyclic production, i.e. for purposes of oil production as well as for steam injection. Each of these objectives was successfully achieved in the project. Early production results indicate that radials positively influenced cyclic performance. This report documents those results. 15 refs., 29 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Gas hydrate inhibition of drilling fluid additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaolan, L.; Baojiang, S.; Shaoran, R. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Dongying (China). Inst. of Petroleum Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Gas hydrates that form during offshore well drilling can have adverse impacts on well operational safety. The hydrates typically form in the risers and the annulus between the casing and the drillstring, and can stop the circulation of drilling fluids. In this study, experiments were conducted to measure the effect of drilling fluid additives on hydrate inhibition. Polyalcohols, well-stability control agents, lubricating agents, and polymeric materials were investigated in a stirred tank reactor at temperatures ranging from -10 degree C to 60 degrees C. Pressure, temperature, and torque were used to detect onset points of hydrate formation and dissociation. The inhibitive effect of the additives on hydrate formation was quantified. Phase boundary shifts were measured in terms of temperature difference or sub-cooling gained when chemicals were added to pure water. Results showed that the multiple hydroxyl groups in polyalcohol chemicals significantly inhibited hydrate formation. Polymeric and polyacrylamide materials had only a small impact on hydrate formation, while sulfonated methyl tannins were found to increase hydrate formation. 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  14. Steerable system adds precision to Gulf drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierschwale, H.; Ridley, R.

    1988-05-02

    A well bore intersection was achieved ahead of schedule with a steerable drilling system in the Gulf of Mexico. A computer-generated proximity survey comparing the directional surveys of the initial and replacement wells, confirmed that the wells were within 1 ft. of each other near the planned intersection depth of 8,890 ft. All objectives for the 9,050-ft. replacement well were accomplished 4 days ahead of schedule. This operation illustrates the effectiveness of the steerable drilling system for obtaining better directional control, increased drilling efficiently, and reduced overall drilling time. This article explains how the project was completed.

  15. Straight hole drilling machines for coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonin, VV; Kokoulin, DI; Alekseev, SE; Kubanychbek, B.

    2017-02-01

    The authors prove the demand for drilling machines capable of making long straight holes in rocks with the strength up to 120 MPa. The paper describes the designed, manufactured and tested down-the-hole hammers for rotary–percussion drilling of long straight directional holes. The hammers have been delivered to Berezovskaya Mine for further trial and commercial operation.

  16. The Need for Scientific Ocean Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphris, Susan E.; deMenocal, Peter B.; Edwards, Katrina J.; Fisher, Andrew T.; Saffer, Demian

    2011-03-01

    Mark Twain once said, “I was seldom able to see an opportunity until it had ceased to be one.” The scientific community could soon miss an opportunity in ocean drilling. A recent article in Eos by D. K. Smith et al. (Ocean drilling: Forty years of international collaboration, Eos, 91(43), 393-394, 2010) summarized the history of scientific ocean drilling and presented an overview of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) as it currently operates. IODP will end in 2013, and an ambitious science plan is being developed to launch a new drilling program. Some people have asked, Given the program's past successes, why do we need more scientific ocean drilling?

  17. Sensorineural hearing loss after ossicular manipulation and drill-generated acoustic trauma in type I tympanoplasty with and without mastoidectomy: A series of 51 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazikdas, K Cagdas; Onal, Kazim; Yildirim, Nadir

    2015-09-01

    Recognized causes of high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) after tympanoplasty with and without mastoidectomy include acoustic trauma from manipulation of the ossicles, the noise generated by suctioning and, in the case of mastoidectomy, the noise generated by temporal bone drilling. We conducted a retrospective study to identify the effects of ossicular manipulation and mastoid drilling on high-frequency SNHL. Our study population was made up of 51 patients-20 males and 31 females, aged 10 to 59 years (mean: 28.5). Of this group, 26 patients had undergone a unilateral over-under tympanoplasty only (tympanoplasty group) and 25 had undergone a unilateral tympanoplasty plus additional mastoid surgery (mastoidectomy group). Bone-conduction audiograms were obtained pre- and postoperatively; the latter were obtained within 24 hours after surgery and again at 6 months of follow-up. In the tympanoplasty group, a significant SNHL, primarily at 2 kHz, was seen in 6 patients (23%) at 24 hours, but at 6 months there was no depression of bone-conduction thresholds. In the mastoidectomy group, a significant SNHL, primarily at 2 and 4 kHz, occurred in 12 patients (48%) at 24 hours, and bone-conduction deterioration was still present in 4 patients (16%) 6 months after surgery. The difference between the preoperative audiograms and the 6-month audiograms in both groups was statistically significant (p = 0.034). We conclude that (1) over-under tympanoplasty, which requires significant manipulation of the ossicles, can cause temporary SNHL after surgery, and (2) prolonged exposure to the noise generated by mastoid drilling can result in permanent SNHL.

  18. Optimization of Mud Hammer Drilling Performance--A Program to Benchmark the Viability of Advanced Mud Hammer Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnis Judzis

    2006-03-01

    Operators continue to look for ways to improve hard rock drilling performance through emerging technologies. A consortium of Department of Energy, operator and industry participants put together an effort to test and optimize mud driven fluid hammers as one emerging technology that has shown promise to increase penetration rates in hard rock. The thrust of this program has been to test and record the performance of fluid hammers in full scale test conditions including, hard formations at simulated depth, high density/high solids drilling muds, and realistic fluid power levels. This paper details the testing and results of testing two 7 3/4 inch diameter mud hammers with 8 1/2 inch hammer bits. A Novatek MHN5 and an SDS Digger FH185 mud hammer were tested with several bit types, with performance being compared to a conventional (IADC Code 537) tricone bit. These tools functionally operated in all of the simulated downhole environments. The performance was in the range of the baseline ticone or better at lower borehole pressures, but at higher borehole pressures the performance was in the lower range or below that of the baseline tricone bit. A new drilling mode was observed, while operating the MHN5 mud hammer. This mode was noticed as the weight on bit (WOB) was in transition from low to high applied load. During this new ''transition drilling mode'', performance was substantially improved and in some cases outperformed the tricone bit. Improvements were noted for the SDS tool while drilling with a more aggressive bit design. Future work includes the optimization of these or the next generation tools for operating in higher density and higher borehole pressure conditions and improving bit design and technology based on the knowledge gained from this test program.

  19. Short-radius horizontal well re-entry learning curve: prize, cost and operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boote, K. [Ocelot Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); MacDonald, R. [Lauron Engineering Ltd, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Six mature vertical wells in Alberta belonging to Ocelot Energy Inc., were reentered and drilled horizontally. Experiences gained, the modifications made to the drilling program and the rewards in the form of incremental oil, were discussed. Details of pre- and post-performance, operational experiences with exiting the casing, building the curve, overbalance versus underbalanced drilling, motors, directional equipment, setting liners, remedial workovers and the cost of the operation were part of the discussion.

  20. Impact of exploratory offshore drilling on benthic communities in the Minerva gas field, Port Campbell, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currie, D.R.; Isaacs, L.R. [Central Queensland Univ., Gladstone (Australia). Centre for Environmental Management

    2005-04-01

    Changes to benthic infauna caused by exploratory gas drilling operations in the Minerva field were examined experimentally using a BACI (before, after, control, impact) design. Analysis of 72 x 0.1 m{sup 2} Smith-McIntyre grab samples obtained from one pre-drilling and three post-drilling periods yielded a diverse fauna consisting of 196 invertebrate species and 5035 individuals. Changes to benthic community structure were assessed using ANOVA and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS). The abundances of two common species (Apseudes sp. 1 and Prionospio coorilla) decreased significantly at the well-head site immediately after drilling. The size of these reductions in abundance ranged between 71% and 88%, and persisted for less than 4 months after drilling. A third common species (Katlysia sp. 1) increased in abundance 200 m east of the well-head following drilling. Most species occurred at densities too low to be analysed individually and so were pooled at higher taxonomic levels. Changes in the abundance of species aggregated by phylum varied, but significant declines in the most abundant phyla (Crustaceans and Polychaetes) of 45-73% were observed at all sites within a 100 m radius of the well-head following drilling. In most cases these changes became undetectable four months after drilling following species recruitments. MDS ordinations confirm that drilling related changes to benthic community structure are most pronounced at stations located closest to the well-head. Additionally, the ordinations indicate that modified communities persist at the well-head for more than 11 months following exploratory drilling. (author)

  1. Study and Application of Case Overshot for Sidetrack Drilling Horizontal Well Technology%套管开窗侧钻水平井技术的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程安新

    2011-01-01

    The application of case overshot for sidetrack drilling horizontal welltechnology in overall managing casing damage wells and tapping the potential remainingoil in the maturing oilfield has got obvious effects on opening up the oilstorage in uncontrolled areas and residual oil in dead space, while itsapplication inless permeable and thin oil paylayer may increase single well production and recovery. To guaranteetechnology effects of sidetrack horizontal well requires making a careful studyof geological condition about oil wells and deciding a sound operational planand a proper well completion pattern to fully meet the demand for later perioddevelopment operation.%套管开窗侧钻水平井技术应用于老油田套损井综合治理和老区剩余油挖潜改造,对开发未受控面积内的储油和死角残余油效果明显;应用于低渗透、薄油层,可有效提高单井产量和采收率。要保证侧钻水平井的工艺效果,必须仔细研究油井地质状况,制定完善的施工方案和适宜的完井方式,使之充分满足后期开发作业的要求。

  2. Stability Operations in Somalia 1992-1993: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    routes, to get the food moving, and to prepare the way for a U.N. peacekeeping force to keep it mov- ing. This operation is not open -ended. We will...local governance mechanism in place, conditions in Baidoa began to improve. By early January, people were back on the streets, the markets were open ...STABILITY OPERATIONS IN SOMALIA 1992-1993: A CASE STUDY Glenn M. HarnedUSAWC Website FOR THIS AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS, VISIT US AT http

  3. Vertex Operators for Irregular Conformal Blocks: Supersymmetric Case

    CERN Document Server

    Polyakov, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    We construct supersymmetric irregular vertex operators of arbitrary rank, appearing in the colliding limit of primary fields. We find that the structure of the supersymmetric irregular vertices differs significantly from the bosonic case: upon supersymmetrization, the irregular operators are no longer the eigenstates of positive Virasoro and $W_N$ generators but block-diagonalize them. We relate the block-diagonal structure of the irregular vertices to contributions of the Ramond sector to the colliding limit.

  4. Sample application to test site No. 1, Kenedy Co. [Offset well information, drilling fluids program, cost estimates, and data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podio, A.L.; Gray, K.E.; Isokrari, O.F.; Knapp, R.M.; Silberberg, I.H.; Thompson, T.W.

    1976-01-01

    In order to satisfy the objective of outlining the preliminary plan and schedules as well as obtaining representative costs for drilling a geopressured geothermal well the guidelines have been applied to one of the possible test sites identified by the Resource Assessment Phase I of the project. The specific site is the Armstrong lease in the Candelaria Field in Kenedy County, Texas. Offset well information including bit records, drilling fluid programs, formation pressure encountered and casing programs for the Armstrong No. 20 and No. 22 wells are presented. Based on this information a preliminary drilling program has been prepared. Well completion and production considerations were taken into account in the preparation of the drilling program. A brief description of drilling operations is also included to clarify the terminology used.

  5. Use of Hardware Battery Drill in Orthopedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, Bhava R J; Shahdi, Masood; Ramarao, Duddupudi; Ranganadham, Atmakuri V; Kalamegam, Sundaresan

    2017-03-01

    Among the power drills (Electrical/Pneumatic/Battery) used in Orthopedic surgery, battery drill has got several advantages. Surgeons in low resource settings could not routinely use Orthopedic battery drills (OBD) due to the prohibitive cost of good drills or poor quality of other drills. "Hardware" or Engineering battery drill (HBD) is a viable alternative to OBD. HBD is easy to procure, rugged in nature, easy to maintain, durable, easily serviceable and 70 to 75 times cheaper than the standard high end OBD. We consider HBD as one of the cost effective equipment in Orthopedic operation theatres.

  6. Software Operational Profile Based Test Case Allocation Using Fuzzy Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Software operational profile (SOP) is used in software reliability prediction, software quality assessment, performance analysis of software, test case allocation, determination of "when to stop testing," etc. Due to the limited data resources and large efforts required to collect and convert the gathered data into point estimates, reluctance is observed by the software professionals to develop the SOP. A framework is proposed to develop SOP using fuzzy logic, which requires usage data in the form of linguistics. The resulting profile is named fuzzy software operational profile (FSOP). Based on this work, this paper proposes a generalized approach for the allocation of test cases, in which occurrence probability of operations obtained from FSOP are combined with the criticality of the operations using fuzzy inference system (FIS). Traditional methods for the allocation of test cases do not consider the application in which software operates. This is intuitively incorrect. To solve this problem, allocation of test cases with respect to software application using the FIS model is also proposed in this paper.

  7. Method and apparatus of assessing down-hole drilling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Johnson, Monte L.; Bartholomew, David B.; Fox, Joe

    2007-04-24

    A method and apparatus for use in assessing down-hole drilling conditions are disclosed. The apparatus includes a drill string, a plurality of sensors, a computing device, and a down-hole network. The sensors are distributed along the length of the drill string and are capable of sensing localized down-hole conditions while drilling. The computing device is coupled to at least one sensor of the plurality of sensors. The data is transmitted from the sensors to the computing device over the down-hole network. The computing device analyzes data output by the sensors and representative of the sensed localized conditions to assess the down-hole drilling conditions. The method includes sensing localized drilling conditions at a plurality of points distributed along the length of a drill string during drilling operations; transmitting data representative of the sensed localized conditions to a predetermined location; and analyzing the transmitted data to assess the down-hole drilling conditions.

  8. Microhole High-Pressure Jet Drill for Coiled Tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Theimer; Jack Kolle

    2007-06-30

    coiled tubing. In a chamber test, the BHA delivered up to 50 kW (67 hhp) hydraulic power. The tool drilled uncertified class-G cement samples cast into casing at a rate of 0.04 to 0.17 m/min (8 to 33 ft/hr), within the range projected for this tool but slower than a conventional PDM. While the tool met most of the performance goals, reliability requires further improvement. It will be difficult for this tool, as currently configured, to compete with conventional positive displacement downhole motors for most coil tubing drill applications. Mechanical cutters on the rotating nozzle head would improve cutting. This tool can be easily adapted for well descaling operations. A variant of the Microhole jet drilling gas separator was further developed for use with positive displacement downhole motors (PDM) operating on commingled nitrogen and water. A fit-for-purpose motor gas separator was designed and yard tested within the Microhole program. Four commercial units of that design are currently involved in a 10-well field demonstration with Baker Oil Tools in Wyoming. Initial results indicate that the motor gas separators provide significant benefit.

  9. [Results of Papineua's operation. Apropos of 46 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Camille, R; Reignier, B; Saillant, G; Berteaux, D

    1976-01-01

    The authors analyse about one and a half years later, the results of 46 Papineau operations divided in three groups depending of the initial excision. The complete healing was obtained for 44 patients and by the sole Papineau operation in 70 p. 100 of the cases, with relatively short delays: 6 months without a solution of bone continuity, 9 months with a small solution of bone continuity, 11 months in the case of major solution of bone continuity. They insist on the absence of amputation, the small number of complications and in particular of interative fractures in this series.

  10. Post-operative Abdominal Wall Mucormycosis-a Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nain, Prabhdeep Singh; Matta, Harish; Singh, Kuldip; Chhina, Deepinder; Trehan, Munish; Batta, Nishant

    2015-12-01

    Mucormycosis is caused by saprophtytic fungi which cause acute invasive zygomycosis. It clinically presents with necrosis, and on histopathology, acute and chronic infiltrates are seen. It rarely infects a healthy host, but is devastating in an immunocompromised host. We studied five cases with post-operative abdominal wall mucormycosis, three females and two males. Three patients were post-operative while the other two had mucormycosis following trauma and infection was found in sutured wound. All were initially diagnosed as cases of necrotizing fasciitis. Two patients eventually survived after intensive medical therapy and extensive debridements.

  11. 30 CFR 250.422 - When may I resume drilling after cementing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations... composition, effects of nippling down, presence of potential drilling hazards, well conditions during drilling... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may I resume drilling after cementing?...

  12. 30 CFR 250.410 - How do I obtain approval to drill a well?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I obtain approval to drill a well? 250... OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.410 How do I obtain approval to drill a well? You must obtain...

  13. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  14. Introduction to drilling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Malcom

    1989-12-01

    Terrestrial drilling technology is reviewed. The general requirements for a drilling system are given and conventional drilling techniques (rotary drag-bit, rotary roller-bit, percussive, rotary percussive) are described. Unconventional techniques for penetrating solids are outlined, including thermal drilling (spalling or melting), projectile penetration, high pressure liquid jets, explosive jets, erosion by projectile streams, and chemical penetration. Special attention is given to drilling in ice and frozen soils, performance data are given, including values for penetration rate and specific energy consumption. The principles, theory and equipment relating to each drilling technique are indicated by means of diagrams.

  15. Drilling optimization methodology - 25 de Mayo El Medanito - Neuquen - Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguero, Guillermo [Smith International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Lugones, Juan M. [PETROBRAS Argentina S.A. (Argentina); Marzialetti, Humberto [Pride San Antonio (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    This paper was prepared based on the optimization of the performance and wear pattern of Polycrystalline Diamond Cutter (PDC) bits used in 25 de Mayo S.E. El Medanito Field, Neuquen/Argentina out of a joint effort done by the operator and the service company. The main objective was to reach the casing point in a single bit run at a reasonable penetration rate of the 8 1/2'' section (Choiyoi Formation - Igneous Rock), in order to avoid the use of an extra tungsten carbide insert roller cone bit to reach (4400 ft) which increases the drilling costs as well as allows to a higher exposure to accidents during trips in and out of the hole. A methodology was introduced to the field operations enabling a close follow-up to optimize the drill bit cutting structures, operating conditions, as well as the incorporation of state-of-the-art technology regarding cutters and its geometry. This proved less wear on cutting structures of PDC bits, leading to the achievement of the established casing set depth with reduction of drilling hours and being cost effective to the Operator. (author)

  16. Parameter definition using vibration prediction software leads to significant drilling performance improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Dalmo; Hanley, Chris Hanley; Fonseca, Isaac; Santos, Juliana [National Oilwell Varco, Houston TX (United States); Leite, Daltro J.; Borella, Augusto; Gozzi, Danilo [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    field monitoring. Vibration prediction diminishes the importance of trial-and-error procedures such as drill-off tests, which are valid only for short sections. It also solves an existing lapse in Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) real-time drilling control programs applying the theory of Teale, which states that a drilling system is perfectly efficient when it spends the exact energy to overcome the in situ rock strength. Using the proprietary software tool this paper will examine the resonant vibration modes that may be initiated while drilling with different BHA's and drill string designs, showing that the combination of a proper BHA design along with the correct selection of input parameters results in an overall improvement to drilling efficiency. Also, being the BHA predictively analyzed, it will be reduced the potential for vibration or stress fatigue in the drill string components, leading to a safer operation. In the recent years there has been an increased focus on vibration detection, analysis, and mitigation techniques, where new technologies, like the Drilling Dynamics Data Recorders (DDDR), may provide the capability to capture high frequency dynamics data at multiple points along the drilling system. These tools allow the achievement of drilling performance improvements not possible before, opening a whole new array of opportunities for optimization and for verification of predictions calculated by the drill string dynamics modeling software tool. The results of this study will identify how the dynamics from the drilling system, interacting with formation, directly relate to inefficiencies and to the possible solutions to mitigate drilling vibrations in order to improve drilling performance. Software vibration prediction and downhole measurements can be used for non-drilling operations like drilling out casing or reaming, where extremely high vibration levels - devastating to the cutting structure of the bit before it has even touched bottom - have

  17. A novel method of removal of a broken drill bit in the femoral medullary canal during internal fixation of a type C distal femoral fracture: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Varatharaj Mounasamy; Pingal Desai; Satya Mallu; Senthil Sambandam

    2012-01-01

    Breakage of surgical instruments and implants during operative procedures is not uncommon in any surgical discipline.The need for removal and the outcome of leaving the broken instruments and implants in the surgical area have not been described in detail.Few studies have suggested removal if they are lying loosely in the tissues or joint,close to neurovascular structures.Challenges and the amount of time spent in the retrieval of broken instruments and implants are well known among surgeons,so most choose to leave them in situ.We reported a novel method of retrieval of a broken drill bit in the femoral medullary canal during internal fixation of a type C distal femoral fracture.

  18. A novel method of removal of a broken drill bit in the femoral medullary canal during internal fixation of a type C distal femoral fracture: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounasamy Varatharaj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Breakage of surgical instruments and implants during operative procedures is not uncommon in any surgical discipline. The need for removal and the out-come of leaving the broken instruments and implants in the surgical area have not been described in detail. Few studies have suggested removal if they are lying loosely in the tis-sues or joint, close to neurovascular structures. Challenges and the amount of time spent in the retrieval of broken in-struments and implants are well known among surgeons, so most choose to leave them in situ. We reported a novel method of retrieval of a broken drill bit in the femoral medul-lary canal during internal fixation of a type C distal femoral fracture. Key words: Fracture fixation, internal; Femoral fractures; Surgical instruments

  19. 21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric cranial drill motor. 882.4360 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4360 Electric cranial drill motor. (a) Identification. An electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source...

  20. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section 882.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated...

  1. Histopathological analysis of 177 cases with operated intracranial meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guner Menekse

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Aim of this study is to evaluate histopathologic properties of patients with intracranial meningioma who were operated due to intracranial mass. Method: 177 cases diagnosed with intracranial meningioma were retrospectively examined in our clinic between the years of 2007-2012 and their age, sex, tumor localization, and histopathologic properties were analyzed. Results: 74.6% of 177 intracranial meningioma cases were females, 25.4% were males and the ratio of Male/Female was found 3.4/10. The age interval of the cases was between 12-105 years old. It was most frequently seen at the interval of 51-60. In histopathologic examination, 163 cases (92.1% were noted as WHO Grade I, 11 cases (6.2% were WHO Grade II, and 3 cases (1.7% were WHO Grade III. While meningotelial transitional, and psammomatous type was the most frequently seen in WHO Grade I, atypical meningioma was only dominant in Grade II. In WHO Grade II and III cases, dominance of the male sex was present. While 88.1% of the cases had supratentorial localization, 11.9% had infratentorial localization, 1 case had lateral ventricle localization. In 7 cases (3.9% of the series, multiple meningiomas were determined. Conclusion: In a series of 177 cases, intracranial meningiomas were seen between 51-60 years old and its most frequent localization was convexity. While Grade I cases were seen in the female sex, dominance of the male sex was present in Grade II and III cases. Additionally, all of multiple meningiomas detected were female cases. Meningotelial meningiomas constitute the most commonly seen subtype among Grade I cases. Key Words: Intracranial meningioma, histopathological classification, clinical study [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 41-59

  2. Forecast and Prevention of Coal and Gas Outbursts in the Case of Application of a New Mining Method - Drilling of a Coal Pillar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Hudeček

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Coal and gas outbursts are one of risk factors accompanying the mining of coal in low seams in the Ostrava-Karviná Coalfield.At the use of the method of longwall mining, all coal reserves have not been mined out owing to tectonic faults. For mining outthe residual reserves, the application of a new mining method - drilling of a coal pillar was proposed.The method of mining of a coal seam utilizing long large diameter boreholes is verified in the Paskov Mine (company OKD, JSC –Czech Republic under conditions of rock mass with hazard of rock and gas outbursts in localities of residual pillars left in seams afterfinishing the mining operations performed with using the classical method of longwall working along the strike. [5]Forecast and preventive measures applied to the verification of the new method were based on previous experience withthe mining of seams with hazard of coal and gas outbursts. They accepted fully valid legislation, i.e. Ordinance of Ostrava RegionalMining Authority No. 3895/2002 and supplementary materials (Instructions and Guidelines. The proposed measures respectedthe character of the method being verified. [4]For all areas being mined, projects containing also chapters specifying the problems of ensuring the safety of mining worksand operation under conditions of hazard of coal and gas outbursts were prepared.In the contributions, basic proposals for the principles of coal and gas outburst forecast and prevention when applying the newmining method – drilling of a coal pillar are presented

  3. Modern Shale Gas Horizontal Drilling: Review of Best Practices for Exploration Phase Planning and Execution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nathaniel Harding; Stephen Smith; John Shelton; Mike D. Bumaman

    2009-01-01

    The challenging characteristics of shale formations often require horizontal drilling to economically develop their potential. While every shale gas play is unique, there are several best practices for the proper planning and execution of a horizontal well. In planning a horizontal well, the optimal method and technology for building inclination and extending the lateral section must be determined. Properly specified logging-while-drilling tools are essential to keep the wellbore within the target formation. Planning must also focus on casing design. Doing so will help ensure stability and enable reliable and productive completions. Shales pose a challenge for these elements of well planning due to their thin strata and potentially low mechanical competence when foreign fluids are introduced. Once a plan is developed, executing it is even more important to prove a viable exploration program. Fast, efficient drilling with wellbore control and minimal torque and drag should be the priority. This may be achieved by focusing on fluid hydraulics and rheology and bottom hole assembly. Managed pressure drilling (MPD) will help fast drilling, well control and stability. If MPD can be combined with new generation rotary steerable systems that allow the drill string to maintain rotation, impressive efficiencies are possible. Modern drilling parameter analysis represents the newest opportunity for executing shale gas horizontal wells. A method for ROP analysis to improve operational parameters and equipment selection is also proposed.

  4. A comparative analysis of 21 inch and 16 inch drilling riser for deepwater application

    OpenAIRE

    Permana, Whida Elastu

    2012-01-01

    When offshore drilling needs to be conducted in deepwater and ultra-deepwater area, a significant increase of weight to be accommodated by the drilling rig due to more riser joints and larger drilling mud volume becomes a challenge that has to be carefully looked after. However, with the growing technology of semisubmersible drilling rigs, drilling systems and methods, subsea and downhole systems, and so on, the deepwater and ultra-deepwater drilling operation has been more enabled than ever....

  5. IMPACT OF DRILLING WASTE ON HYDROBIONTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Guseinova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to determine and make an analysis of the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons and other metals in the waste drilling: drill cuttings (DC and mud (DM, collected in the area of drilling, to assess and forecast the state of biological resources of natural sea water.Methods. Experimental studies of DC and DM showed the petroleum hydrocarbons content, the concentration of which varies depending on the timing of exposure. By quantitative and qualitative indicators, the metal content in the drill cuttings and mud is nonequivalent and this depends on the structure and hardness achieved during drilling the rocks as well as on the degree of contamination with metals.Results. The concentration level of petroleum hydrocarbons and other metals in the drilling waste (drill cuttings and mud imposes a major problem associated with the conservation of biological resources of the Caspian Sea.Main conclusions. Environmental effects from the discharges of drilling waste on the high seas can be detected only during drilling operations and in close proximity (typically up to 200-500 m from the discharge point. Persistent damages in communities and ecosystems occur only at long exposures and are adaptive in nature.

  6. Exploration, Drilling and Development Operations in the Bottle Rock Area of the Geysers Steam Field, With New Geologic Insights and Models Defining Reservoir Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebein, Jeffrey J.

    1983-12-15

    MCR Geothermal Corporation pioneered successful exploratiory drilling the Bottle Rock area of the Geysers Steam Field in 1976. The wellfield is characterized by a deep reservoir with varied flowrates, temperatures, pressures, and stem chemistries being quite acceptable. More detailed reservoir engineering tests will follow as production commences.

  7. C++ and operating systems performance - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Vincent F.; Madany, Peter W.; Campbell, Roy H.

    1990-01-01

    Object-oriented design and programming has many software engineering advantages. Its application to large systems, however, has previously been constrained by performance concerns. The Choices operating system, which has over 75,000 lines of code, is object-oriented and programmed in C++. This paper is a case study of the performance of Choices.

  8. Berengario's drill: origin and inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorney, Michael A; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2014-04-01

    Craniotomies are among the oldest neurosurgical procedures, as evidenced by early human skulls discovered with holes in the calvaria. Though devices change, the principles to safely transgress the skull are identical. Modern neurosurgeons regularly use electric power drills in the operating theater; however, nonelectric trephining instruments remain trusted by professionals in certain emergent settings in the rare instance that an electric drill is unavailable. Until the late Middle Ages, innovation in craniotomy instrumentation remained stunted without much documented redesign. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's (c. 1457-1530 CE) text Tractatus de Fractura Calvae sive Cranei depicts a drill previously unseen in a medical volume. Written in 1518 CE, the book was motivated by defeat over the course of Lorenzo II de'Medici's medical care. Berengario's interchangeable bit with a compound brace ("vertibulum"), known today as the Hudson brace, symbolizes a pivotal device in neurosurgery and medical tool design. This drill permitted surgeons to stock multiple bits, perform the craniotomy faster, and decrease equipment costs during a period of increased incidence of cranial fractures, and thus the need for craniotomies, which was attributable to the introduction of gunpowder. The inspiration stemmed from a school of thought growing within a population of physicians trained as mathematicians, engineers, and astrologers prior to entering the medical profession. Berengario may have been the first to record the use of such a unique drill, but whether he invented this instrument or merely adapted its use for the craniotomy remains clouded.

  9. Application of the pedicle drill template navigation technology in the operation of complicated lumbar spine ;disease%导板导航在复杂腰椎椎弓根螺钉置入手术中的初步应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 赵昌松; 袁征; 蔡娟; 李鑫

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨导航导板椎弓根螺钉置入技术在复杂腰椎疾病手术中的应用价值。方法回顾性研究本组7例患者:严重退行性腰椎脊柱侧弯4例,退变性腰椎术后翻修3例,其中HIV阳性患者2例。应用三维CT断层扫描腰椎,保存数据为DICOM格式输入计算机处理,然后进行病变区域的数字化三维重建和快速成型,根据快速成型脊柱模型制作椎弓根导航导板,并将其应用于临床。同时随机抽取未做脊柱模型的7例严重腰椎患者作对照研究。结果7例患者按计划成功完成了手术,无脊髓、神经、血管损伤手术并发症,术后效果满意,术中所见与术前数字化三维重建模型的形状和测量结果完全一致,椎弓根导航导板效果良好,术后X 线和CT复查显示椎弓根螺钉位置正确。结论快速成型脊柱模型椎弓根导板导航是一种新的技术方法,技术简单,不需要特殊的手术经验,并且可以缩短手术时间,减少术中出血,减少或避免手术中透视,为严重腰椎疾病手术中准确、安全有效的辅助技术手段。%Objective To investigate the valuation of the pedicle drill template navigation technology in the operation of complicated lumbar spine disease. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed in seven patients include: 4 cases of the degenerative complicated lumbar spinal scoliosis, 3 cases revision surgery after lumbar spine operation. 2 cases with HIV positive. A three-dimensional CT scan of their lumbar spine was performed, and the data were transferred via a DICOM network to a computer workstation. Three dimensional reconstruction and rapid prototype were achieved. The navigation drill template was manufactured by rapid prototyping for clinical operation using. 7 cases of complicated lumbar spine disease cases were selective randomly as control group. Results Seven patients were successfully operated as surgical planning without

  10. Technology strategy for cost-effective drilling and intervention; Technology Target Areas; TTA4 - Cost effective drilling and intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    well intervention research and development needs should be communicated to the principal developers and suppliers of new drilling and well intervention technology, including the service companies, research institutes, universities, operators, and other organizations involved in drilling and well intervention technology development; The needs and gaps in the area of drilling and well intervention should be reviewed on an annual basis and communicated to the appropriate government agencies; The government should increase seed funding via the Research Council of Norway for proposals that address the strategic drilling and well intervention needs; Where consistent with business interests, operators should consider increased funding for development of drilling and well intervention technology that meet the strategic needs for Norway; The industry should develop new creative partnering and risk sharing models for development of capital-intensive new drilling and well intervention technology. (Author)

  11. Extreme Temperature Motor and Drill System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to the need for motors, actuators and drilling systems that can operate in the harsh venusian environment for extended periods of time, on the order of...

  12. The Hans Tausen drill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Sigfus Johann; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder

    2007-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, excellent results from the GRIP and GISP2 deep drilling projects in Greenland opened up funding for continued ice-coring efforts in Antarctica (EPICA) and Greenland (NorthGRIP). The Glaciology Group of the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, was assigned the task...... of providing drilling capability for these projects, as it had done for the GRIP project. The group decided to further simplify existing deep drill designs for better reliability and ease of handling. The drill design decided upon was successfully tested on Hans Tausen Ice Cap, Peary Land, Greenland, in 1995....... The 5.0 m long Hans Tausen (HT) drill was a prototype for the ~11 m long EPICA and NorthGRIP versions of the drill which were mechanically identical to the HT drill except for a much longer core barrel and chips chamber. These drills could deliver up to 4 m long ice cores after some design improvements...

  13. Integrating Nuclear Energy to Oilfield Operations – Two Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson; Lee O. Nelson; Michael G. McKellar; Anastasia M. Gandrik; Mike W. Patterson

    2011-11-01

    Fossil fuel resources that require large energy inputs for extraction, such as the Canadian oil sands and the Green River oil shale resource in the western USA, could benefit from the use of nuclear power instead of power generated by natural gas combustion. This paper discusses the technical and economic aspects of integrating nuclear energy with oil sands operations and the development of oil shale resources. A high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) that produces heat in the form of high pressure steam (no electricity production) was selected as the nuclear power source for both fossil fuel resources. Both cases were based on 50,000 bbl/day output. The oil sands case was a steam-assisted, gravity-drainage (SAGD) operation located in the Canadian oil sands belt. The oil shale development was an in-situ oil shale retorting operation located in western Colorado, USA. The technical feasibility of the integrating nuclear power was assessed. The economic feasibility of each case was evaluated using a discounted cash flow, rate of return analysis. Integrating an HTGR to both the SAGD oil sands operation and the oil shale development was found to be technically feasible for both cases. In the oil sands case, integrating an HTGR eliminated natural gas combustion and associated CO2 emissions, although there were still some emissions associated with imported electrical power. In the in situ oil shale case, integrating an HTGR reduced CO2 emissions by 88% and increased natural gas production by 100%. Economic viabilities of both nuclear integrated cases were poorer than the non-nuclear-integrated cases when CO2 emissions were not taxed. However, taxing the CO2 emissions had a significant effect on the economics of the non-nuclear base cases, bringing them in line with the economics of the nuclear-integrated cases. As we move toward limiting CO2 emissions, integrating non-CO2-emitting energy sources to the development of energy-intense fossil fuel resources is becoming

  14. Joint Rescue Drill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ships gather for a joint rescue drill at the Waigaoqiao Dock in Shanghai on August 24.A large-scale rescue drill, combining maritime and air forces,was held as part of the ongoing World Maritime Rescue Conference 2011 in the city.During the drill,

  15. Impact of task design on task performance and injury risk: case study of a simulated drilling task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdulkarim, Saad; Nussbaum, Maury A; Rashedi, Ehsan; Kim, Sunwook; Agnew, Michael; Gardner, Richard

    2016-08-31

    Existing evidence is limited regarding the influence of task design on performance and ergonomic risk, or the association between these two outcomes. In a controlled experiment, we constructed a mock fuselage to simulate a drilling task common in aircraft manufacturing, and examined the effect of three levels of workstation adjustability on performance as measured by productivity (e.g. fuselage completion time) and quality (e.g. fuselage defective holes), and ergonomic risk as quantified using two common methods (rapid upper limb assessment and the strain index). The primary finding was that both productivity and quality significantly improved with increased adjustability, yet this occurred only when that adjustability succeeded in reducing ergonomic risk. Supporting the inverse association between ergonomic risk and performance, the condition with highest adjustability created the lowest ergonomic risk and the best performance while there was not a substantial difference in ergonomic risk between the other two conditions, in which performance was also comparable. Practitioner Summary: Findings of this study supported a causal relationship between task design and both ergonomic risk and performance, and that ergonomic risk and performance are inversely associated. While future work is needed under more realistic conditions and a broader population, these results may be useful for task (re)design and to help cost-justify some ergonomic interventions.

  16. Facility for testing ice drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Dennis L.; Delahunty, Chris; Goodge, John W.; Severinghaus, Jeffery P.

    2017-05-01

    The Rapid Access Ice Drill (RAID) is designed for subsurface scientific investigations in Antarctica. Its objectives are to drill rapidly through ice, to core samples of the transition zone and bedrock, and to leave behind a borehole observatory. These objectives required the engineering and fabrication of an entirely new drilling system that included a modified mining-style coring rig, a unique fluid circulation system, a rod skid, a power unit, and a workshop with areas for the storage of supplies and consumables. An important milestone in fabrication of the RAID was the construction of a North American Test (NAT) facility where we were able to test drilling and fluid processing functions in an environment that is as close as possible to that expected in Antarctica. Our criteria for site selection was that the area should be cold during the winter months, be located in an area of low heat flow, and be at relatively high elevation. We selected a site for the facility near Bear Lake, Utah, USA. The general design of the NAT well (NAT-1) started with a 27.3 cm (10.75 in.) outer casing cemented in a 152 m deep hole. Within that casing, we hung a 14 cm (5.5 in.) casing string, and, within that casing, a column of ice was formed. The annulus between the 14 and 27.3 cm casings provided the path for circulation of a refrigerant. After in-depth study, we chose to use liquid CO2 to cool the hole. In order to minimize the likelihood of the casing splitting due to the volume increase associated with freezing water, the hole was first cooled and then ice was formed in increments from the bottom upward. First, ice cubes were placed in the inner liner and then water was added. Using this method, a column of ice was incrementally prepared for drilling tests. The drilling tests successfully demonstrated the functioning of the RAID system. Reproducing such a facility for testing of other ice drilling systems could be advantageous to other research programs in the future.

  17. High Temperature 300°C Directional Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Kamalesh [Baker Hughes Oilfield Operations, Houston, TX (United States); Aaron, Dick [Baker Hughes Oilfield Operations, Houston, TX (United States); Macpherson, John [Baker Hughes Oilfield Operations, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Many countries around the world, including the USA, have untapped geothermal energy potential. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology is needed to economically utilize this resource. Temperatures in some EGS reservoirs can exceed 300°C. To effectively utilize EGS resources, an array of injector and production wells must be accurately placed in the formation fracture network. This requires a high temperature directional drilling system. Most commercial services for directional drilling systems are rated for 175°C while geothermal wells require operation at much higher temperatures. Two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) projects have been initiated to develop a 300°C capable directional drilling system, the first developing a drill bit, directional motor, and drilling fluid, and the second adding navigation and telemetry systems. This report is for the first project, “High Temperature 300°C Directional Drilling System, including drill bit, directional motor and drilling fluid, for enhanced geothermal systems,” award number DE-EE0002782. The drilling system consists of a drill bit, a directional motor, and drilling fluid. The DOE deliverables are three prototype drilling systems. We have developed three drilling motors; we have developed four roller-cone and five Kymera® bits; and finally, we have developed a 300°C stable drilling fluid, along with a lubricant additive for the metal-to-metal motor. Metal-to-metal directional motors require coatings to the rotor and stator for wear and corrosion resistance, and this coating research has been a significant part of the project. The drill bits performed well in the drill bit simulator test, and the complete drilling system has been tested drilling granite at Baker Hughes’ Experimental Test Facility in Oklahoma. The metal-to-metal motor was additionally subjected to a flow loop test in Baker Hughes’ Celle Technology Center in Germany, where it ran for more than 100

  18. Solid/liquid dispersions in drilling and production; Fluides charges en forage et production petroliere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peysson, Y. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2004-07-01

    To reach the new oil and gas fields, the oil industry is developing more and more sophisticated drilling and production schemes. Wells trajectories are now deviated, horizontal, with high extended reach, multi-branched, ultra deep offshore, etc. Extended reach wells are up to 10 km and offshore drilling is close to 3000 m of water depth. In these cases, drilling and production techniques are pushed to the limits. The operating conditions, the properties of the different materials employed must be controlled and operated in a more accurate way. This is the case for solid/liquid dispersions that are common in these operations: drilling, fluids, cements, hydrates dispersions oil and gas phases, sand venue with reservoir fluids, etc. These mixtures present some specific properties that can be at the limit between solid or liquid behaviour. For particular conditions the solid phase can create structures able to support large stresses and in others circumstances the mixture can flow like a viscous paste. Modeling of these characteristics is not easy and needs to use knowledge of different areas: Theology, physico-chemistry, hydrodynamics. thermodynamics, etc. In this revue, different systems used in the drilling and production industry will be discussed. Main properties of these systems and different development conducted by IFP will be addressed. (authors)

  19. Equilibrium equations for nonlinear buckling analysis of drill-strings in 3D curved well-bores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    With the development of drilling technology, the oil/gas well has evolved from its early vertical straight form to the inclined, horizontal, plane curved, or even 3D curved well-bore. Understanding of the buck- ling behavior of a drill-string in a well-bore is crucial for the success of a drilling operation. Therefore, equilibrium equations for analyzing the buckling behavior of a drill-string in a 3D curved well-bore are required. Based on Love’s equilibrium equations for a curved and twisted rod in space, a set of equi- librium equations for the nonlinear buckling analysis of a drill-string in a 3D curved well-bore are de- rived by introducing a radial constraint of the well-bore. The proposed formulae can account for the well curvature and tortuosity. Thus, it can be used to analyze the buckling behaviors of a drill-string constrained in a well-bore and subjected to axial compression, torsion at its upper end, and gravity simultaneously. It is worth noting that the existing equations in the literature for a drill-string in a straight and plane curved well-bore with a constant curvature are a special case of the proposed model. Thus, the present model can provide a theoretical basis for the nonlinear buckling analysis of a drill-string constrained in a 3D curved well-bore.

  20. Equilibrium equations for nonlinear buckling analysis of drill-strings in 3D curved well-bores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN MeiLan; GAN LiFei

    2009-01-01

    With the development of drilling technology, the oil/gas well has evolved from its early vertical straight form to the inclined, horizontal, plane curved, or even 3D curved well-bore. Understanding of the buck-ling behavior of a drill-string in a well-bore is crucial for the success of a drilling operation. Therefore, equilibrium equations for analyzing the buckling behavior of a drill-string in a 3D curved well-bore are required. Based on Love's equilibrium equations for a curved and twisted rod in space, s set of equi-librium equations for the nonlinear buckling analysis of a drill-string in a 3D curved well-bore are de-rived by introducing a radial constraint of the well-bore. The proposed formulae can account for the well curvature and tortuosity. Thus, it can be used to analyze the buckling behaviors of a drill-string constrained in a well-bore and subjected to axial compression, torsion at its upper end, and gravity simultaneously. It is worth noting that the existing equations in the literature for a drill-string in a straight and plane curved well-bore with a constant curvature are a special case of the proposed model. Thus, the present model can provide s theoretical basis for the nonlinear buckling analysis of a drill-string constrained in a 3D curved well-bore.

  1. Successful application of MPD (managed pressure drilling) for prevention, control, and detection of borehole ballooning in tight gas reservoir in Cuervito Field, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa, A.; Acevedo, O.; Nieto, L. [Petrobras (United States); Lambarria, J.E. [PEMEX Exploration and Production (Mexico); Perez, H. [Weatherford (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Cuervito field is an oil play located in the Burgos Basin in northeastern Mexico. In order to reach the highest yielding sands, wells in the Cuervito field are usually set up with 3 casings. However, the ballooning effect, an elastoplastic behavior of a well's walls, occurs during drilling operations, leading to loss of circulation. Two methods, based on geological and geopressure data, were found to minimize this effect: either putting in an extra casing, or using an unconventional drilling technique. As the managed pressure drilling (MPD) technique is less complex and more elegant, a pilot project was implemented using this method on a well. Results showed that MPD minimized lost time and enhanced drilling efficiency. This paper demonstrated that the use of MPD in the Cuervito field is a good solution for identifying and controlling the ballooning effect and this technique was successfully applied to the next 3 wells drilled subsequently.

  2. Method of indicating the position of a drill head of a shaft drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, G.D.; Fayner, L.B.; Gurerich, D.I.

    1982-01-01

    A method of indicating the position of a drill head of a shaft drilling unit consists of duplicating its position by an indicator which moves along with movement of the drill head during its forward and backward movements. In order to reduce time spent on auxilliary operations mismatching of the reading of the indicator and the position of the drill head is accomplished due to automatic rejection of the accumulated air during backward motion. The indicated mismatching is rejected at the end of the backward cycle.

  3. Neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Chih; Lin, Hsin-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Yo; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation system that provides assistance throughout the complete bone drilling process. The system comprised neurosurgical robotic arm navigation combining robotic and surgical navigation, 3D medical imaging based surgical planning that could identify lesion location and plan the surgical path on 3D images, and automatic bone drilling control that would stop drilling when the bone was to be drilled-through. Three kinds of experiment were designed. The average positioning error deduced from 3D images of the robotic arm was 0.502 ± 0.069 mm. The correlation between automatically and manually planned paths was 0.975. The average distance error between automatically planned paths and risky zones was 0.279 ± 0.401 mm. The drilling auto-stopping algorithm had 0.00% unstopped cases (26.32% in control group 1) and 70.53% non-drilled-through cases (8.42% and 4.21% in control groups 1 and 2). The system may be useful for neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Study on temperature field of the drilling machine during the course of drilling in coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-chao; YU Ming-gao; ZHENG Li-gang; PAN Rong-kun

    2006-01-01

    The working conditions of the MK-3 type full hydraulic tunnel drilling machine during the course of drilling were analyzed. Based on the energy balance governing equations for the drill rod, the temperature field of drill rod at the normal and non-normal working conditions was numerically obtained. The numerical results show that the maximum temperature at the head of drill rod under the normal working circumstance is insufficient to ignite the gas. But under the non-normal working condition, the local high temperature can ignite the gas easily and cause the fire. In order to prevent the gas fire, the occurrence of the non-normal operating condition must be prevented as far as possible during the drilling.

  5. Final Technical Report for “A Heliportable Sonic Drilling Platform for Microhole Drilling and Exploration”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, Peter

    2008-05-05

    The Phase I objectives were fully achieved the execution of a program that included the: • Development of a comprehensive model of the sonic drill technology and interaction of the dynamic drilling parameters with the impedance of the earth. • Operation and measurement of the sonic drilling process in the field at full scale. • Comparison of the analytical and experimental results to form an objective and quantified approach to describe the fundamental phenomena and to develop a methodology for automated control of the sonic drilling process. • Conceptual design of a modular sonic drilling system that can be transported to remote sites by helicopter. As a result, the feasibility of a commercially viable sonic drilling technology that can produce microholes up to 1,500 feet in depth, and that is field deployable to remote, environmentally sensitive sites via a helicopter, has been demonstrated.

  6. 8. report of the Standing Senate Committee on energy, the environment and natural resources : facts do not justify banning Canada's current offshore drilling operations : a Senate review in the wake of BP's Deepwater Horizon incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus, W.D.; Mitchell, G. (comps.)

    2010-08-15

    The blowout of BP's Macondo well in the Gulf of Mexico has prompted many drilling practice reviews worldwide. This review by Canada's Senate Committee on Energy, the Environment and Natural Resources investigated Canadian offshore drilling practices. It showed that the risk of an offshore accident is quite low, partly because of the small amount of drilling currently underway in Canada. As a result, the committee recommended against a moratorium on offshore drilling. The study found that Canada's regulations for safety are more stringent than regulations in the United States. This report has elicited further reviews of liability and responsibility issues regarding offshore drilling. The Canadian legislation specifies that oil and gas companies are responsible for all spill clean-up costs and damage compensation. A $30 million absolute liability fund covers blowout costs for drilling in Canada's east offshore coast. A second civil liability fund requires drilling companies to provide Canadian regulators access to $70 million to cover damages from fault or negligence in offshore drilling. In addition, well operators may be required to provide evidence that they have a minimum of $250 million to fund well control, well safety and spill cleanup expenses. This report recommended a comprehensive review of liability, including whether thresholds should be adjusted to reflect current economic realities. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Active Suppression of Drilling System Vibrations For Deep Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W.; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Buerger, Stephen; Mesh, Mikhail; Radigan, William Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic stability of deep drillstrings is challenged by an inability to impart controllability with ever-changing conditions introduced by geology, depth, structural dynamic properties and operating conditions. A multi-organizational LDRD project team at Sandia National Laboratories successfully demonstrated advanced technologies for mitigating drillstring vibrations to improve the reliability of drilling systems used for construction of deep, high-value wells. Using computational modeling and dynamic substructuring techniques, the benefit of controllable actuators at discrete locations in the drillstring is determined. Prototype downhole tools were developed and evaluated in laboratory test fixtures simulating the structural dynamic response of a deep drillstring. A laboratory-based drilling applicability demonstration was conducted to demonstrate the benefit available from deployment of an autonomous, downhole tool with self-actuation capabilities in response to the dynamic response of the host drillstring. A concept is presented for a prototype drilling tool based upon the technical advances. The technology described herein is the subject of U.S. Patent Application No. 62219481, entitled "DRILLING SYSTEM VIBRATION SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS AND METHODS", filed September 16, 2015.

  8. Wellbore Surveying While Drilling Based on Kalman Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud ElGizawy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Oil and gas are global fuels obtained primarily from drilling wells in underground terrestrial reservoirs. Vertical drilling is preferred because of its simplicity and therefore low cost, but subsurface targets can often be procured only by directing the wellbore along predefined non-vertical trajectories. For instance, directional drilling must be employed to reach locations inaccessible to the drilling rig, to side track an existing well (multilateral drilling, or to drill multiple wells from the same offshore platform (horizontal drilling. Approach: A complete knowledge of the wellbore direction and orientation during the drilling process is essential to guarantee proper directional drilling procedure. Results: Thus, besides the conventional drilling assembly, directional drilling operations require sensors to provide azimuth, inclination and toolface angles of the drill. These sensors are part of the Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD tool, which in current technology is installed several feet behind the drill bit. In such systems, values for inclination and toolface angles are determined from accelerometer measurements at predetermined stationary surveying stations; these values are then incorporated with magnetometer measurements to deliver the azimuth angle. Values for inclination and azimuth angles at the current surveying station are combined with those from the previous station to compute the position of the probe. However, there is no accurate information about the wellbore trajectory between survey stations. Additionally, the magnetic field of the magnetometers has deleterious effect on the overall accuracy of surveying measurements. Conclusion: A method to provide continuous information about the wellbore trajectory has been developed in this study. The module developed integrates a Rotary Steerable System (RSS and MWD tool into one drilling probe utilizing Inertial Navigation System (INS technology. This is achieved

  9. Experimental survey on geothermal well drilling for improvement of the drilling work efficiency. Chinetsui kussakuno noritsu kojoni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    In order to reduce the geothermal well drilling cost which amounts to 40 to 60 % of the total geothermal energy development cost, various factors relevant to the drilling operation have been extracted and examined, aiming at the reduction in the well drilling time which is the most definite factor for the well drilling cost. The following items have been studied on their current situations: drilling time analysis on 13 geothermal wells drilled by NEDO; questionare to 9 domestic geothermal developer enterprises to obtain information on their bussiness status; to investigate current activities of 5 geothermal well drilling companies in U.S.A. and Italy. Investigations of countermeasures for improving well drilling work efficiency, such as reducing the time of rig-up and rig-down, prevention and countermeasures against borehole troubles, improvement of rate of penetration have been carried out. Furthermore, investigations of organization for well drilling work such as education and training of drilling crew and secure of drilling supervisors have been conducted. Having summerized the items examined for improving the geothermal well drilling efficiency, the goals of improvement of the efficiency and the future tasks in the mainly technical aspect are extracted. Example of the content is as follows, shortening rig-up and down time set to less than 15 days for rig-up and less than 10 days for rig-down, by securing drilling site area. (50 figs, 13 tabs, 13 refs)

  10. Drilling fluids engineering to drill extra-heavy oil reservoir on the Orinoco Oil Belt, eastern Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pino, R.; Gonazalez, W. [Proamsa, Maturin, Monagas (Venezuela)

    2008-07-01

    Petrocedeno is an exploration and development company operating in Venezuela. As part of a multidisciplinary group, Proamsa has been working with Petrocedeno to drill horizontal wells while minimizing issues related to the handling of drilling fluids. Proamsa is the only 100 per cent Venezuelan Company involved in drilling extra-heavy oil wells. The drilling plan for Petrocedeno was divided into two campaigns. More than 400 horizontal wells were drilled during the first campaign from 1999 to 2003 which represented over 2,500,000 drilled feet into the Oficina Formation (pay zone of the field). From 2006, during the second drilling campaign, and another 154 horizontal wells having been drilled until 2006 utilizing the xantam gum viscoelastic fluid. This paper discussed the field geology of the Orinoco oil belt. Well design was also explained and discussed and drilling fluid design and new fluid formations were presented. The benefits of xantam gum viscoelastic fluid were also discussed. It was concluded that recycling of drilling fluid from well to well minimized volume and reduced costs. In addition, centrifugation of drilling fluids either on intermediate or horizontals sections while the rig was skidding was always a very good practice avoiding mixing additional volumes. It was also demonstrated that the initial idea to provide a drilling fluid service company with a 100 per cent national value was a success, as demonstrated by the high performance shown by Proamsa during the second drilling campaign with external technologic support. 6 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. 25 CFR 226.25 - Gas well drilled by oil lessees and vice versa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas well drilled by oil lessees and vice versa. 226.25... OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 226.25 Gas well drilled by oil lessees and... to drill. When an oil lessee in drilling a well encounters a formation or zone having indications...

  12. An evaluation of calculation procedures affecting the constituent factors of equivalent circulating density for drilling hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, William J.

    1996-12-31

    This Dr. ing. thesis covers a study of drilling hydraulics offshore. The purpose of drilling hydraulics is to provide information about downhole pressure, suitable surface pump rates, the quality of hole cleaning and optimum tripping speeds during drilling operations. Main fields covered are drilling hydraulics, fluid characterisation, pressure losses, and equivalent circulating density. 197 refs., 23 figs., 22 tabs.

  13. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  14. Study on real-time ultra-sonic kick detection technique along riser during deep water drilling operations%深水钻井沿隔水管超声波气侵实时监测技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿亚楠; 李轶明; 朱磊; 马昭华; 朱连望; 周云健

    2016-01-01

    早期溢流监测对预防石油开发钻井过程中井喷失控恶性事故具有至关重要的作用.深水钻井作业过程中在不破坏钻井隔水管力学结构的前提下,基于非接触式超声波测量手段沿程监测隔水管内部钻井液流动特征参数,设计了适合深水钻井隔水管气侵监测系统.实验模拟分析了深水钻井隔水管气侵监测系统超声波时差法和超声波多普勒法的气侵监测效果,结果表明:超声波时差法虽然在清水中可以实现含气率测量,但是对于水基钻井液并不适合;极小含气情况下,多普勒频移量出现极大衰减,并随着含气率的增加而下降,因此超声波多普勒方法对气侵早期识别具有可行性.上述成果对于深水钻井早期溢流监测有指导意义.%Early kick detection is of great significance to prevent blowout in well drilling operations.During deep water drilling operations,early kick detection can be realized by using non-intrusive ultrasonic meas-urements to monitor the flow characteristics of the drilling fluid inside the riser without changing the riser's mechanical structure.And then the kick detection system for deep water drilling operations was designed. The phenomena of kicking inside the riser were experimentally investigated in the laboratory by ultrasonic time difference method and ultrasonic Doppler method.It is found that the time difference method is suit-able to measure the void fraction of water,but not for the water-based drilling fluid.It is also found that the frequency shift of Doppler severely attenuates when the void fraction is tiny,and it keeps decreasing as the void fraction increases.Hence the feasibility of using Doppler method to detect the early kick inside the riser is proved from this study.The above findings can be used for guiding the early kick detection during deep water drilling operations.

  15. Study of temperature rises and forces on drilling bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth Venkataraman, Ananya

    Many different approaches have been used to prepare, store and test bone samples in order to determine its physical properties. The need to establish a standard method of specimen preparation and storage prior to experimental testing, contributed greatly to the primary part of this study. When mechanized cutting tools such as saws and drills are used, heat is produced and this raises the temperature of both the tool and the material being cut. In orthopedic and dental practices, high-speed tools are often applied to bones and teeth, and heat from these operations may result in thermal necrosis [1]. Since this can have a negative impact on the outcome of an orthopedic procedure, temperatures must be kept below the threshold that results in bone necrosis. The initial set of experiments was performed to determine the conditions under which the mechanical properties of the bone changed so as to establish the most suitable testing conditions. The hardness variation of the bone samples, under different annealing treatment conditions was used as the indicating parameter for evaluation of the change in the mechanical properties. Establishing the most appropriate section of the metacarpal sample for testing, by studying the anisotropy of the bone was another determining parameter. The second step was to examine the effects of conventional drilling as well as modulation assisted drilling on the temperature rise generated in the bone during these machining processes. In addition to this, a set of experiments were performed to ascertain how lubrication affected the temperature rise during drilling. The dynamic portions of the torque and thrust traces as well as the specific energies were compared for the different drilling conditions. Modulation showed no significant effect on the mean torque, thrust, specific energies of cutting, or temperature rise. Lubrication (flooding and misting) in both the modulation and no modulation cases drastically reduced the temperature rise

  16. Comments on some of the drilling and completion problems in Cerro Prieto geothermal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez A, B.; Sanchez G, G.

    1981-01-01

    From 1960 to the present, 85 wells with a total drilling length exceeding 160,000 m have been constructed at Cerro Prieto, a modest figure compared to an oil field. This activity took place in five stages, each characterized by changes and modifications required by various drilling and well-completion problems. Initially, the technical procedures followed were similar to those used in the oil industry. However, several problems emerged as a result of the relatively high temperatures found in the geothermal reservoir. The various problems that have been encountered can be considered to be related to drilling fluids, cements and cementing operations, lithology, geothermal fluid characteristics, and casings and their accessories. As the importance of high temperatures and the characteristics of the geothermal reservoir fluids were better understood, the criteria were modified to optimize well-completion operations, and satisfactory results have been achieved to date.

  17. Accountability and assessment of emergency drill performance at schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Kubicek, Katrina; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Wong, Marleen

    2009-01-01

    Many schools throughout the United States are mandated to hold drills, or operational exercises, to prepare for fires, earthquakes, violence, and other emergencies. However, drills have not been assessed for their effectiveness in improving preparedness at schools. This mixed-methods study measures the quantity and the quality of drills in an urban school district in Los Angeles. Compliance with California mandates was fair; most schools barely met requirements. Drills were not used as opportunities to improve procedures. Sites neither conducted any self-assessments nor made changes to procedures on the basis of performance. Suggestions include developing realistic simulated exercises, debriefing, and better school accountability for drills.

  18. Study of four cases of radiation colitis needed operation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Shigeru; Takesue, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Takashi [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    1996-09-01

    On the 4 cases of operation for the late radiation effect, the process and notes for radiation colitis were described. Case 1; a female of 57 y with cervical carcinoma (IIIb) received 59.8 Gy of external irradiation and 24.0 Gy of intracervical irradiation. About 8 months after the radiotherapy, anemia due to gut bleeding was observed and hemorrhage was seen in the colon with the colon fiber. One year later, colostomy was performed. Case 2; a female of 79 y with cervical carcinoma (IIb) received 50.0 Gy of external irradiation and 18.0 Gy of intracervical irradiation. About 8 months after the therapy, gut bleeding and ileac symptom were observed and ulcer and stenosis in the sigmoid colon were seen. Sigmoidectomy was performed. Case 3; a female of 75 y with cervical carcinoma (IIIb) received external 49.8 Gy irradiation and intracervical 23.0 Gy irradiation. About 4 months after the therapy, anemia and ulcer with hemorrhage in the sigmoidal colon were recognized. Sigmoidectomy and colostomy were performed. Case 4; a female of 68 y with cervical carcinoma (IIb) and chronic renal failure received 50.4 Gy of external irradiation post hysterectomy. About 5 months later, iliac symptom was observed. She received ileectomy and then colostomy but died of MOF due to renal failure. (K.H.)

  19. Downhole drilling spotting fluid composition and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.R.; Campbell, G.J.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a spotting fluid concentrate composition suitable for use in downhole drilling operations in a pill for releasing periodically stuck drill string. It comprises glycerophosphoric acid ester; a polyacyloxy polycarboxylic acid ester of monoglycerides, diglycerides and mixtures thereof; an optional viscosifying agent for increasing the viscosity of the dispersion; and an optional sealing agent for preventing diffusion of water into the downhole formation. This patent also describes a method for lubricating a downhole well drilling operation. It comprises mixing a spotting fluid concentrate composition comprising glycerophosphoric acid ester, a polyacyloxy polycarboxylic acid ester of monoglycerides, diglycerides and mixtures thereof, an optional viscosifying agent and an optional sealing agent with drilling mud; and circulating the mud mixture through the well.

  20. Hydraulic hammer drilling technology: Developments and capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melamed, Y.; Kiselev, A. [SKB Geotechnika, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gelfgat, M. [Aquatic Co., Moscow (Russian Federation); Dreesen, D.; Blacic, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). GeoEngineering Group

    1996-12-31

    Percussion drilling technology was considered many years ago as one of the best approaches for hard rock drilling. Unfortunately the efficiency of most hydraulic hammer (HH) designs was very low (8% maximum), so they were successfully used in shallow boreholes only. Thirty years of research and field drilling experience with HH application in Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries led to the development of a new generation of HH designs with a proven efficiency of 40%. That advance achieved good operational results in hard rock at depths up to 2,000 m and more. The most recent research has shown that there are opportunities to increase HH efficiency up to 70%. This paper presents HH basic design principles and operational features. The advantages of HH technology for coiled-tubing drilling is shown on the basis of test results recently conducted in the US.

  1. A self propelled drilling system for hard-rock, horizontal and coiled tube drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biglin, D.; Wassell, M.

    1997-12-31

    Several advancements are needed to improve the efficiency and reliability of both hard rock drilling and extended reach drilling. This paper will present a Self Propelled Drilling System (SPDS) which can grip the borehole wall in order to provide a stable platform for the application of weight on bit (WOB) and resisting the reactive torque created by the downhole drilling motor, bit and formation interaction. The system will also dampen the damaging effects of drill string vibration. This tool employs two hydraulically activated anchors (front and rear) to grip the borehole wall, and a two-way thrust mandrel to apply both the drilling force to the bit, and a retraction force to pull the drill string into the hole. Forward drilling motion will commence by sequencing the anchor pistons and thrust mandrel to allow the tool to walk in a stepping motion. The SPDS has a microprocessor to control valve timing, sensing and communication functions. An optional Measurement While Drilling (MWD) interface can provide two-way communication of critical operating parameters such as hydraulic pressure and piston location. This information can then be telemetered to the surface, or used downhole to autonomously control system parameters such as anchor and thrust force or damping characteristics.

  2. Thou should not know too much. When lack of information promotes co-operative behaviour. The case of oil-fields in Wyoming, Oklahoma and Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassler, B.

    1997-12-31

    Proper assumptions of information levels are of vital importance in all kinds of analysis of interdependent decision-making. In most cases the rule is; the more information the better. In this paper, however, it is shown that such is not always the case. Lack of information can enhance resource utilisation of resources, when the problem of co-operation is of a Prisoner`s dilemma type, and when iteration of the interaction game is unlikely. The case of oil-fields in the United States has been chosen as an empirical example of the latter. Optimal drilling procedures tend to be chosen more often the less the drillers know about the resource characteristics. This outcome is explained by the structure of the decision-making problem, where low levels of information render it advantageous to choose co-operative strategies 16 refs, 4 figs

  3. Microhole Drilling Tractor Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Western Well Tool

    2007-07-09

    In an effort to increase the U.S. energy reserves and lower costs for finding and retrieving oil, the USDOE created a solicitation to encourage industry to focus on means to operate in small diameter well-Microhole. Partially in response to this solicitation and because Western Well Tool's (WWT) corporate objective to develop small diameter coiled tubing drilling tractor, WWT responded to and was awarded a contract to design, prototype, shop test, and field demonstrate a Microhole Drilling Tractor (MDT). The benefit to the oil industry and the US consumer from the project is that with the MDT's ability to facilitate Coiled Tubing drilled wells to be 1000-3000 feet longer horizontally, US brown fields can be more efficiently exploited resulting in fewer wells, less environmental impact, greater and faster oil recovery, and lower drilling costs. Shortly after award of the contract, WWT was approached by a major oil company that strongly indicated that the specified size of a tractor of 3.0 inches diameter was inappropriate and that immediate applications for a 3.38-inch diameter tractor would substantially increase the usefulness of the tool to the oil industry. Based on this along with an understanding with the oil company to use the tractor in multiple field applications, WWT applied for and was granted a no-cost change-of-scope contract amendment to design, manufacture, assemble, shop test and field demonstrate a prototype a 3.38 inch diameter MDT. Utilizing existing WWT tractor technology and conforming to an industry developed specification for the tool, the Microhole Drilling Tractor was designed. Specific features of the MDT that increase it usefulness are: (1) Operation on differential pressure of the drilling fluid, (2) On-Off Capability, (3) Patented unique gripping elements (4) High strength and flexibility, (5) Compatibility to existing Coiled Tubing drilling equipment and operations. The ability to power the MDT with drilling fluid results in a

  4. Application of Ester based Drilling Fluid for Shale Gas Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauki, Arina; Safwan Zazarli Shah, Mohamad; Bakar, Wan Zairani Wan

    2015-05-01

    Water based mud is the most commonly used mud in drilling operation. However, it is ineffective when dealing with water-sensitive shale that can lead to shale hydration, consequently wellbore instability is compromised. The alternative way to deal with this kind of shale is using synthetic-based mud (SBM) or oil-based mud (OBM). OBM is the best option in terms of technical requirement. Nevertheless, it is toxic and will create environmental problems when it is discharged to onshore or offshore environment. SBM is safer than the OBM. The aim of this research is to formulate a drilling mud system that can carry out its essential functions for shale gas drilling to avoid borehole instability. Ester based SBM has been chosen for the mud formulation. The ester used is methyl-ester C12-C14 derived from palm oil. The best formulation of ester-based drilling fluid was selected by manipulating the oil-water ratio content in the mud which are 70/30, 80/20 and 90/10 respectively. The feasibility of using this mud for shale gas drilling was investigated by measuring the rheological properties, shale reactivity and toxicity of the mud and the results were compared with a few types of OBM and WBM. The best rheological performance can be seen at 80/20 oil-water ratio of ester based mud. The findings revealed that the rheological performance of ester based mud is comparable with the excellent performance of sarapar based OBM and about 80% better than the WBM in terms of fluid loss. Apart from that, it is less toxic than other types of OBM which can maintain 60% prawn's survival even after 96 hours exposure in 100,000 ppm of mud concentration in artificial seawater.

  5. Drilling cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capuano, L.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.

  6. 一修正设计系数的套管层次与下入深度设计方法%An improved casing design method and its application in deepwater drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯珂; 管志川; 王志远; 路保平

    2016-01-01

    传统井身结构设计过程中用以确定安全钻井液密度窗口所采用的各类设计系数均采用经验或统计估算的方法,且在全井段各设计系数取值相同。对原有安全钻井液密度窗口确定准则中的部分公式和系数进行改进和修正,并提出一种修正设计系数的井身结构设计方法,新方法中各类设计系数将根据实际井条件精细计算,避免过度浪费安全窗口空间,使井身结构设计结果更为合理高效。以西非深水区块B-1井为例进行实例计算。结果表明,不同井段、不同井眼尺寸对各类设计系数具有明显影响,尺寸差距越大,设计系数的差异性也越大,其对井身结构设计结果的影响也越大。%In conventional casing designs for oil and gas well drilling, all the design coefficients used for the determination of safe drilling fluid density window are defined by empirical evaluation or statistical methods, and a consistent value of each co-efficient is taken for all well sections. For drilling under complicated conditions, especially in deepwater drilling and at high temperature and high pressure ( HTHP) conditions or for ultra-deep wells, the safe drilling fluid density window required is much narrower, and the conventional casing design method is not appropriate. When the values of the design coefficients are taken too low, it may lead to less safe drilling conditions, but when they are too high, it can waste some safe drilling fluid window space, resulting unnecessary casing and drilling cost. In this paper, an improved casing design method was pro-posed, in which each design coefficient needed to be calculated and determined based on the well structure in order to opti-mize the safe drilling fluid density window. The new method has been applied for a case study of a deepwater well in west of Africa, and the results show that the wellbore size, depth and the drilling string size have significant influence on

  7. Study Of The Generation Of Microburrs In The Process Of Drilling And Its Subsequent Elimination By Deburring, Of Tubes Cylindrical Aluminum AA6065-T9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salueña Berna, X.; Ortiz Marzo, J. A.; Río Cano, C.; Papasseit Borrell, R.

    2009-11-01

    Creation of microburrs drilling constitute a potencial danger because their detachment can modificate the correct operation of a mechanism. The burrs must be eliminated completely in the case of pistons brake, ensuring a high productivity and a low cost. In this work has been studied the mechanism for the creation of microburrs in thru holes drilled (φ2, 02 mm) of a aluminium alloy piston AA6065-T9 in order to various parameters such as the type of drill bit, feedrate, cutting speed and lubrication, imposing a minimum feedrate of 450 mm/min not to reduce the current production. Creation of microburrs drilling is inevitable and several deburring processes have been analyzed for their total elimination. After a few first essays, It has been determined that in order that the deburring are effective must be worked with minimal and known position burrr drillings.

  8. Comparison of Deep Drill Braced Monument (DDBM) and Borehole Strainmeter (BSM) Wellhead GPS antenna mounts: a Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) case study from Dinsmore, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. B.; Austin, K. E.; Borsa, A. A.; Feaux, K.; Jackson, M. E.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.

    2010-12-01

    With the 2009 installation of GPS station P793 in Dinsmore, CA, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) created a unique opportunity to directly compare a traditional deep drill braced GPS monument (DDBM) with a borehole strainmeter (BSM) wellhead GPS monument. PBO installed a GPS antenna to the wellhead of BSM B935 to perform a direct comparison to DDBM P327 in an attempt to determine stability and long-term behavior of both. The two adjacent stations share power and communications and are roughly 20 meters apart. The steel BSM casing is cemented ~520ft in meta-sandstone & shale, while the DDBM is anchored ~30ft deep in alluvial river gravels. Both stations are located inside a rural auto wrecking yard, which has potential sources of fixed noise in the form of multipath reflections off large metal objects. Preliminary analysis indicates consistent measurements in the North-South component, and a ~3.3 mm difference in the East-West component that has been detected between the two stations over a 450-day period (~2.7 mm/yr). The analysis utilizes standard PBO data products and differences time series data from each station in the SNARF 1.0 and IGS 2005 reference frames. We estimate the time dependent seasonal variations observed at each station and compare with available temperature and precipitation data to attempt to identify the cause of differential movement between the monuments.

  9. High Temperature Battery for Drilling Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josip Caja

    2009-12-31

    In this project rechargeable cells based on the high temperature electrochemical system Na/beta''-alumina/S(IV) in AlCl3/NaCl were developed for application as an autonomous power source in oil/gas deep drilling wells. The cells operate in the temperature range from 150 C to 250 C. A prototype DD size cell was designed and built based on the results of finite element analysis and vibration testing. The cell consisted of stainless steel case serving as anode compartment with cathode compartment installed in it and a seal closing the cell. Critical element in cell design and fabrication was hermetically sealing the cell. The seal had to be leak tight, thermally and vibration stable and compatible with electrode materials. Cathode compartment was built of beta''-alumina tube which served as an electrolyte, separator and cathode compartment.

  10. 石油钻井作业的安全葡萄图管理技术%Management technology of safety grape figure in oil drilling operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练章富; 邓昌松; 韩松; 林铁军; 丁亮亮; 郭衍茹

    2012-01-01

    石油钻井作业是一个高风险行业,其风险具有严重性、突发性、隐蔽性、随机性的特点,是石油石化行业中最主要的事故频发区之一.震惊世界的“12.23”事故以后,在国家和企业安全生产的指导与监督下,事故较以前明显减少,但钻井作业的特点决定了其风险因素不会被消除,只能通过人的因素去预防事故发生.安全葡萄图从人的因素考虑,结合了人体生物节律与葡萄图两者的优点,除了具有葡萄图的特点外,还具有预测性、记录性和选拔性,是安全管理方面的一种新方法.安全葡萄图是一种以人为本的安全管理方法,通过加强人员安全管理来减少和消除事故隐患的目的.该方法简单实用,适合于钻井等高风险行业使用.%Oil drilling is a high-risk industry with the characteristics of severity,sudden,latent and randomness,and is one of the most frenquent accidents in petroleum and petrochemical industries. After the shocked-world "12.23" accident,accidents happened significantly less than before,but drilling characteristics determine that its risk factors will not be eliminated and drilling accidents can be prevented only by the human factor. The Safety Grape Figure is a people-oriented, new safety management method combining with the advantage of human biological rhythm and the Grape Figure. And it also can be predictive, record and selective. By strengthening the safety management of staff, it can reduce and eliminate the hidden hazard of accident. This method is simple and practical, and suitable for using in high-risk industry.

  11. Development and application of a packer-type drilling-free liner hanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In liner cementing, the upper cement plug and inner components of a common hanger needs to be drilled out after cementing, which will result in a poor cementing quality or even gas leakage at the flare opening. Therefore, a new packer-type drilling-free liner hanger has been developed, and a hydraulic setting-control packer, a flexible drilling-free seal box, and an auxiliary bearing back-off mechanism that go with the line hanger have been designed at the same time. Specific operation procedures include: (1 run in the liner string to the designed depth, then fully circulate the drilling fluid, finally drop the ball. When the tripping ball gets into the seat, the pressure will go up to cut off the hanging control pin and set the hanger; (2 continue to hold the pressure and cut off the ball seat pin to form circulation; (3 trip in the drill pipe to exert pressure on the hanger, back off to release the hanger from the running tool; (4 lower the drill pipe plug upon the completion of cement injection, cut off the releasing control pin of hollow casing plug, and run down further to bump with the bumping assembly; (5 remove the cementing head and connect the kelly driver, hold pressure again, then slowly pull up the drill tools, exert hydraulic pressure on the setting hydraulic cylinder of the packer assembly to cut off the setting control pin and set the packer; and (6 pull up the tools to the flare opening and wash out excessive cement slurry by circulating to realize free drilling of the whole hole. The successful application of the liner hanger in 127 mm diameter liner in Well BQ203-H1 indicates that the packer-type liner hanger has such advantages as easy hanging and back-off, accurate bumping, simple setting, and sound sealing performance.

  12. Resonant acoustic transducer system for a well drilling string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, William H.; Mitchell, Peter G.

    1981-01-01

    For use in transmitting acoustic waves propagated along a well drilling string, a piezoelectric transducer is provided operating in the relatively low loss acoustic propagation range of the well drilling string. The efficiently coupled transmitting transducer incorporates a mass-spring-piezoelectric transmitter combination permitting resonant operation in the desired low frequency range.

  13. Effect of magnesium salt contamination on the behavior of drilling fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Nagham Amer Sami

    2016-01-01

    The drilling engineer must have a good estimate of how the stability of drilling fluid changes due to salt contamination encountered during drilling operation. Two mud samples with different concentrations of magnesium chloride salt (MgCl2) were formulated in order to study its effect on the rheological properties of drilling fluid at ambient and elevated temperature conditions. This study shows that the drilling mud efficiency is affected with temperature as the result of thermal degradation...

  14. Italian Experience and Problems in Deep Geothermal Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cigni, U.; Del Gaudio, P.; Fabbri, F.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal exploration at depth is being conducted in the Larderello area of Italy, in order to ascertain whether it is possible to extract geothermal fluids from the layers which underlie the reservoir now being exploited. The main operating problems are caused by the high thermality and the chemical corrosiveness of the fluids encountered; and by the practical problems involved in drilling without circulation to the surface in mainly hard but anhomogeneous fractured formations. The technology employed for deep geothermal well drilling plays an important role in this research. In deep geothermal well drilling it is essential that the equipment and the materials employed are suitable for use in areas which are characterized by high thermality and chemical corrosiveness. The results of the experiences gained in Italy concerning the materials and tools employed in deep geothermal exploration are presented. The various problems involved are described in detail and particular mention is made of drift control, fishing operations, cementation of the deep casing, control of the circulation fluid, and choice of the tubular materials.

  15. Invasion of drilling mud into gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. Part I: effect of drilling mud properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Fulong; Zhang, Keni; Wu, Nengyou; Zhang, Ling; Li, Gang; Jiang, Guosheng; Yu, Yibing; Liu, Li; Qin, Yinghong

    2013-06-01

    To our knowledge, this study is the first to perform a numerical simulation and analysis of the dynamic behaviour of drilling mud invasion into oceanic gas-hydrate-bearing sediment (GHBS) and to consider the effects of such an invasion on borehole stability and the reliability of well logging. As a case study, the simulation background sets up the conditions of mud temperature over hydrate equilibrium temperature and overbalanced drilling, considering the first Chinese expedition to drill gas hydrate (GMGS-1). The results show that dissociating gas may form secondary hydrates in the sediment around borehole by the combined effects of increased pore pressure (caused by mud invasion and flow resistance), endothermic cooling that accompanies hydrate dissociation compounded by the Joule-Thompson effect and the lagged effect of heat transfer in sediments. The secondary hydrate ring around the borehole may be more highly saturated than the in situ sediment. Mud invasion in GHBS is a dynamic process of thermal, fluid (mud invasion), chemical (hydrate dissociation and reformation) and mechanical couplings. All of these factors interact and influence the pore pressure, flow ability, saturation of fluid and hydrates, mechanical parameters and electrical properties of sediments around the borehole, thereby having a strong effect on borehole stability and the results of well logging. The effect is particularly clear in the borehole SH7 of GMGS-1 project. The borehole collapse and resistivity distortion were observed during practical drilling and wireline logging operations in borehole SH7 of the GMGS-1.mud density (i.e. the corresponding borehole pressure), temperature and salinity have a marked influence on the dynamics of mud invasion and on hydrate stability. Therefore, perhaps well-logging distortion caused by mud invasion, hydrate dissociation and reformation should be considered for identifying and evaluating gas hydrate reservoirs. And some suitable drilling

  16. Horizontal Directional Drilling-Length Detection Technology While Drilling Based on Bi-Electro-Magnetic Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yudan; Wen, Guojun; Chen, Han

    2017-04-27

    The drilling length is an important parameter in the process of horizontal directional drilling (HDD) exploration and recovery, but there has been a lack of accurate, automatically obtained statistics regarding this parameter. Herein, a technique for real-time HDD length detection and a management system based on the electromagnetic detection method with a microprocessor and two magnetoresistive sensors employing the software LabVIEW are proposed. The basic principle is to detect the change in the magnetic-field strength near a current coil while the drill stem and drill-stem joint successively pass through the current coil forward or backward. The detection system consists of a hardware subsystem and a software subsystem. The hardware subsystem employs a single-chip microprocessor as the main controller. A current coil is installed in front of the clamping unit, and two magneto resistive sensors are installed on the sides of the coil symmetrically and perpendicular to the direction of movement of the drill pipe. Their responses are used to judge whether the drill-stem joint is passing through the clamping unit; then, the order of their responses is used to judge the movement direction. The software subsystem is composed of a visual software running on the host computer and a software running in the slave microprocessor. The host-computer software processes, displays, and saves the drilling-length data, whereas the slave microprocessor software operates the hardware system. A combined test demonstrated the feasibility of the entire drilling-length detection system.

  17. Rainfall thresholds and flood warning: an operative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Montesarchio

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available An operative methodology for rainfall thresholds definition is illustrated, in order to provide at critical river section optimal flood warnings. Threshold overcoming could produce a critical situation in river sites exposed to alluvial risk and trigger the prevention and emergency system alert. The procedure for the definition of critical rainfall threshold values is based both on the quantitative precipitation observed and the hydrological response of the basin. Thresholds values specify the precipitation amount for a given duration that generates a critical discharge in a given cross section and are estimated by hydrological modelling for several scenarios (e.g.: modifying the soil moisture conditions. Some preliminary results, in terms of reliability analysis (presence of false alarms and missed alarms, evaluated using indicators like hit rate and false alarm rate for the case study of Mignone River are presented.

  18. Integrating Strategic and Operational Decision Making Using Data-Driven Dashboards: The Case of St. Joseph Mercy Oakland Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Weiner; Balijepally, Venugopal; Tanniru, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Hospitals have invested and continue to invest heavily in building information systems to support operations at various levels of administration. These systems generate a lot of data but fail to effectively convert these data into actionable information for decision makers. Such ineffectiveness often is attributed to a lack of alignment between strategic planning and information technology (IT) initiatives supporting operational goals. We present a case study that illustrates how the use of digital dashboards at St. Joseph Mercy Oakland (SJMO) Hospital in Pontiac, Michigan, was instrumental in supporting such an alignment. Driven by a focus on key performance indicators (KPIs), dashboard applications also led to other tangible and intangible benefits. An ability to track KPIs over time and against established targets, with drill-down capabilities, allowed leadership to hold staff members accountable for achieving their performance targets. By displaying the dashboards in prominent locations (such as operational unit floors, the physicians' cafeteria, and nursing stations), SJMO ushered in transparency in the planning and monitoring processes. The need to develop KPI metrics and drive data collection efforts became ingrained in the work ethos of people at every level of the organization. Although IT-enabled dashboards have been instrumental in supporting this cultural transformation, the focus of investment was the ability of technology to make collective vision and action the responsibility of all stakeholders.

  19. 30 CFR 250.414 - What must my drilling prognosis include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations... must include a brief description of the procedures you will follow in drilling the well. This prognosis... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must my drilling prognosis include?...

  20. 30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling... and pull drill pipe and downhole tools at controlled rates so you do not swab or surge the well; (e... operations. You must maintain this equipment throughout the drilling of the well; (h) Before pulling...

  1. A Study on the Casing Wear Mechanism in Highly-deviated Well Drilling%大斜度井中套管磨损机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练章华; 于浩; 刘永辉; 林铁军; 张强

    2016-01-01

    针对套管在大斜度井中的磨损失效,首先开展了套管的磨损实验研究,根据Dawson和White提出的基于能量损失的线性磨损模型以及本文的实验数据,获得了钻杆接头与套管的磨损系数。建立了钻杆接头与套管磨损机理研究的有限元模型,通过任意拉格朗日欧拉自适应网格划分,在数值模拟过程中可以对套管磨损的节点进行“实时调整”,并对网格单元做光滑处理,不断更新钻柱接头与套管的接触关系,对钻进过程中套管磨损机理进行了研究。在磨损后套管结构形状研究的基础上,开展了套管剩余抗挤强度的数值模拟研究,得到了套管的最大磨损深度随时间的变化关系,建立了套管剩余抗挤强度与最大磨损深度的关系,进而可以预测套管在某一累积磨损时间内套管的最大磨损深度和套管的剩余强度,为磨损套管的安全性评价提供了理论依据。%Aimed at studying the wear failure in the drilling process of highly-deviated well,this paper firstly carried out casing wear experiment research. According to the liner casing wear model based on the energy loss suggested by Dawson R and White J,and the experiment,the joint-casing wear coefficient is obtained. The finite element model of casing wear mechanism research is constructed using ABAQUS software. This paper uses the re-development user subroutine and Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler mesh. In the process of numerical simulation,the location of the wear node can be adjusted timely,the mesh element is smoothed,and the contact relations between joint and casing is altered continuously,which all contribute to the study on casing wear mechanism. Based on the shape of worn casing,the numerical simulation research is carried out to determine the remaining collapse strength,as a result of which,the relationship between the maximum wear depth and wear time is obtained. On this basis,the exact relationship

  2. An electromyographic analysis of an ergonomic intervention with the jackleg drill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, S A; Marras, W S

    1990-06-01

    The jackleg drill is involved in more accidents than any other hand tool used in the underground metal/non-metal mining industries. A significant portion of these accidents are exertion injuries to the trunk. The experiments described in this paper were developed as a result of previous task and biomechanical analyses evaluating the operation of the jackleg drill. A simulated mine was developed where subjects were asked to perform transporting, positioning and removal tasks with and without an additional handle mounted on top of the drill casing. In addition, the positioning, collaring and removal tasks were conducted at three hole heights representative of those found underground. EMG results, along with predicted compression and shear via biomechanical modelling, indicate that the additional handle would need to be presented in conjunction with training in order to be an effective ergonomic aid.

  3. A fast method for morphological analysis of laser drilling holes

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Matthieu; Berthe, Laurent; Muller, Maryse; Fabbro, Rémy

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents an original method for analyzing laser drilled holes. The so-called Direct Observation of Drilled hOle (DODO) method is introduced and its applications. The hole characterization that's been made is compared with x-ray radiography and cross-section analysis. Direct Observation of Drilled hole provides instantaneously surface state, geometric shape, as well as recast layer structure, without additional operation. Since no mounting resin is used to em...

  4. Drilling and well technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milheim, K. [Mining University Leoben Institute for Drilling Technology, (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    Over a billion dollars a year is lost by exploration and production companies drilling wells because of the lack of learn curve management (LMC) practices. This paper presents the importance of the LMC concept, what it is, why LMC has not yet been recognized as a major initiative for improving drilling cost performance. The paper discusses the different types of planning, problems with implementation of plans, the use and misuse of drilling results and data bases, and the lack of post analysis practices. The major point of the paper is to show the massive savings that can be achieved by valuing LMC, learning LMC and successfully implementing LMC. . 2 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Improved Hardfacing for Drill Bits and Drilling Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Albert; Sreshta, Harry; Qiu, Bao He

    2011-01-01

    New flame spray hardfacing, DSH (DuraShell® Steel Hardfacing, US patent pending), was developed to improve thermal conductivity, abrasion wear, and erosion resistance for subterranean drilling application. The materials consisted of spherical cast WC/W2C and Ni-Si-B alloy powders. The hardfacing compositions were tailored for various processes such as flame spray and laser cladding. Typically, the hardfacing comprised hard tungsten carbide particles being uniformly distributed in a tough Ni-alloy matrix. The hardness of WC/W2C exceeded 2300 Hv.3 and that of Ni-alloy matrix varied from about 400 to 700 Hv.3. High- and low-stress abrasion resistances of these hardfacing materials were characterized and compared to the conventional hard coatings of cast WC/W2C and Ni-Cr-Si-B-Fe. The increase in thermal, wear, and erosion resistances of the hardfacing improved the durability of PDC (polycrystalline diamond compact) steel body bit and drilling tools and their cost-effective performance. Several case studies of DSH hardfacings on drill bits were described.

  6. Asbestos fibres in the lungs of an American mechanic who drilled, riveted, and ground brake linings: a case report and discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Murray M

    2015-05-01

    In North America and Europe, the use of asbestos in friction products was discontinued before the end of the 20th century. In the developing world, the use of asbestos-containing friction products continues. In 2010, Cely-Garcia and colleagues (Cely-Garcia et al., 2012) sampled three brake repair shops located in Bogota, Colombia. Both asbestos and non-asbestos containing brake linings were sold separately or attached to a shoe. When brake linings are sold separated from the shoe, they must be manipulated to attach them to the shoe before installation. The process starts with the removal of the old brake shoe from the vehicle's brake drum. If the existing brake shoe is to be reused, the old lining needs to be removed and the old shoe must be ground to prepare it for a new lining. Riveting requires drilling holes in the linings and shoes and before installing rivets, the lining must be countersunk. The borders of the lining are bevelled. On some occasions, the entire exposed surface of the lining is ground to make it thinner. Once attached to the shoe, the edges of brake linings may extend beyond the shoe. In this case, it is necessary to cut or grind the edges to match the lining to the shoe before bevelling or grinding. The authors reported that 'the sampling results indicate that the brake mechanics sampled are exposed to extremely high asbestos concentrations (i.e. based on transmission electron microscopy counts), suggesting that this occupational group could be at excess risk of asbestos-related diseases'.

  7. 76 FR 11812 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... Register on September 9, 2010 (75 FR 54912). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on January 5, 2011... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... of imports of drill pipe and drill collars from China, provided for in subheadings 7304.22,...

  8. 75 FR 10501 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of January 6, 2010 (75 FR 877). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... injury by reason of imports from China of drill pipe and drill collars, provided for in subheadings...

  9. Key technologies for well drilling and completion in ultra-deep sour gas reservoirs, Yuanba Gasfield, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxiang Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Yuanba Gasfield is a large gas field discovered by Sinopec in the Sichuan Basin in recent years, and another main exploration area for natural gas reserves and production increase after the Puguang Gasfield. The ultra-deep sour gas reservoir in the Yuanba Gasfield is characterized by complicated geologic structure, deep reservoirs and complex drilled formation, especially in the continental deep strata which are highly abrasive with low ROP (rate of penetration and long drilling period. After many years of drilling practice and technical research, the following six key drilling and completion technologies for this type reservoir are established by introducing new tools and technologies, developing specialized drill bits and optimizing drilling design. They are: casing program optimization technology for ROP increasing and safe well completion; gas drilling technology for shallow continental strata and high-efficiency drilling technology for deep high-abrasion continental strata; drilling fluid support technologies of gas–liquid conversion, ultra-deep highly-deviated wells and horizontal-well lubrication and drag reduction, hole stability control and sour gas contamination prevention; well cementing technologies for gas medium, deep-well long cementing intervals and ultra-high pressure small space; horizontal-well trajectory control technologies for measuring instrument, downhole motor optimization and bottom hole assembly design; and liner completion modes and completion string optimization technologies suitable for this gas reservoir. Field application shows that these key technologies are contributive to ROP increase and efficiency improvement of 7000 m deep horizontal wells and to significant operational cycle shortening.

  10. Archive of Core and Site/Hole Data and Photographs from the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) operated the drilling vessel JOIDES Resolution from 1984-2003 for over 100 cruises worldwide. The ODP was funded by the U.S....

  11. The Validation as Experimental and Numerical of the Values of Thrust Force and Torque in Drilling Process

    OpenAIRE

    GÖK, K.; E. Türkes; S. Neseli; Saglam, H.; GÖK, A.

    2013-01-01

    Drilling is the most common machining process whereby the operation involves making round holes in metallic and nonmetallic materials. Metal drilling operations are quite complex and usually complicated. Nevertheless, knowledge about metal drilling process related to using Finite Element Model in literature is quite limited reported. In this study, a Lagrangian Incremental Finite Element Model selected for the metal drilling process. The drilling force and torque values were obtai...

  12. GREATWALL DRILLING COMPANY HEADING FOR THE WORLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Rongfu; Wang Ni; Du Deling

    1997-01-01

    @@ Ready to Enter the International Market Based on the strategy of transnational operations, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) had established a technical service group company by the end of 1996. The main mission of the group company is to integratively organize the contracting of drilling,wireline logging, mud logging, well testing and other services from the overseas markets,including services in some leases in China where the operators are foreign companies. Greatwall Drilling Company(GWDC) is the core enterprise of the newly-founded group company.

  13. Real Time Seismic Prediction while Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F. R.; Bohlen, T.; Edelmann, T.; Kassel, A.; Heim, A.; Gehring, M.; Lüth, S.; Giese, R.; Jaksch, K.; Rechlin, A.; Kopf, M.; Stahlmann, J.; Gattermann, J.; Bruns, B.

    2009-12-01

    Efficient and safe drilling is a prerequisite to enhance the mobility of people and goods, to improve the traffic as well as utility infrastructure of growing megacities, and to ensure the growing energy demand while building geothermal and in hydroelectric power plants. Construction within the underground is often building within the unknown. An enhanced risk potential for people and the underground building may arise if drilling enters fracture zones, karsts, brittle rocks, mixed solid and soft rocks, caves, or anthropogenic obstacles. Knowing about the material behavior ahead of the drilling allows reducing the risk during drilling and construction operation. In drilling operations direct observations from boreholes can be complemented with geophysical investigations. In this presentation we focus on “real time” seismic prediction while drilling which is seen as a prerequisite while using geophysical methods in modern drilling operations. In solid rocks P- and S-wave velocity, refraction and reflection as well as seismic wave attenuation can be used for the interpretation of structures ahead of the drilling. An Integrated Seismic Imaging System (ISIS) for exploration ahead of a construction is used, where a pneumatic hammer or a magnetostrictive vibration source generate repetitive signals behind the tunneling machine. Tube waves are generated which travel along the tunnel to the working face. There the tube waves are converted to mainly S- but also P-Waves which interact with the formation ahead of the heading face. The reflected or refracted waves travel back to the working front are converted back to tube waves and recorded using three-component geophones which are fit into the tips of anchor rods. In near real time, the ISIS software allows for an integrated 3D imaging and interpretation of the observed data, geological and geotechnical parameters. Fracture zones, heterogeneities, and variations in the rock properties can be revealed during the drilling

  14. Nonpolluting drilling fluid composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E.; Mocek, C.J.; Mouton, R.J.

    1983-02-22

    Disclosed is a nonpolluting drilling fluid composition. The composition mixture consisting essentially of a concentrate and any nonpolluting oil. The concentrate consists essentially of diethanolamide, a fatty acid, and a imidazoline/amide mixture.

  15. Continental Scientific Drilling Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Resource Priorities in Continental Drilling J. J. Hemley 12 Aspects of Continental Crustal Structure and Growth Scott Smithson 13 Deep-Drilling Targets...Time of Workshop Allen F. Agnew Library of Congress Clarence R. Allen California Institute of Technology Orson L. Anderson University of California at...Skinner Yale University Norman H. Sleep Northwestern University Laurence L. Sloss Northwestern University Scott B. Smithson University of Wyoming

  16. Archive of Core and Site/Hole Data and Photographs from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The US Science Operator for the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) operated the drilling vessel JOIDES Resolution from 2004-2013 for worldwide expeditions...

  17. Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

    2005-09-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has been the leading investigator in the field of high power laser applications research for well construction and completion applications. Since 1997, GTI (then as Gas Research Institute) has investigated several military and industrial laser systems and their ability to cut and drill into reservoir type rocks. In this report, GTI continues its investigation with a recently acquired 5.34 kW ytterbium-doped multi-clad high power fiber laser (HPFL). The HPFL represents a potentially disruptive technology that, when compared to its competitors, is more cost effective to operate, capable of remote operations, and requires considerably less maintenance and repair. To determine how this promising laser would perform under high pressure in-situ conditions, GTI performed a number of experiments with results directly comparable to previous data. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of laser input parameters on representative reservoir rock types of sandstone and limestone. The focus of the experiments was on completion and perforation applications, although the results and techniques apply to well construction and other rock cutting applications. All previous laser/rock interaction tests were performed on samples in the lab at atmospheric pressure. To determine the effect of downhole pressure conditions, a sophisticated tri-axial cell was designed and tested. For the first time, Berea sandstone, limestone and clad core samples were lased under various combinations of confining, axial and pore pressures. Composite core samples consisted of steel cemented to rock in an effort to represent material penetrated in a cased hole. The results of this experiment will assist in the development of a downhole laser perforation prototype tool. In the past, several combinations of laser and rock variables were investigated at standard conditions and reported in the literature. More recent experiments determined the technical feasibility of

  18. New Era of Scientific Ocean Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.; Sanada, Y.; Igarashi, C.; Kubo, Y.; Maeda, L.; Sawada, I.; Takase, K.; Kyo, N.

    2014-12-01

    The D/V Chikyu, committed to scientific ocean drilling since 2007, has completed thirteen IODP expeditions, and Chikyu's enhanced drilling technology gives us the means to reach deep targets, enhanced well logging, deep water riserless drilling, and state of the art laboratory. Chikyu recovered core samples from 2466 meters below sea floor (mbsf) in IODP Exp. 337, and drilled to 3058.5 mbsf in IODP Exp. 348, but these are still not the limit of Chikyu's capability. As deep as these depths are, they are just halfway to the 5200 mbsf plate boundary target for the NanTroSEIZE deep riser borehole. There are several active IODP proposals in the pipeline. Each has scientific targets requiring several thousand meters of penetration below the sea floor. Riser technology is the only way to collect samples and data from that depth. Well logging has been enhanced with the adoption of riser drilling, especially for logging-while-drilling (LWD). LWD has several advantages over wireline logging, and provides more opportunities for continuous measurements even in unstable boreholes. Because of the larger diameter of riser pipes and enhanced borehole stability, Chikyu can use several state-of-the-art downhole tools, e.g. fracture tester, fluid sampling tool, wider borehole imaging, and the latest sonic tools. These new technologies and tools can potentially expand the envelope of scientific ocean drilling. Chikyu gives us access to ultra-deep water riserless drilling. IODP Exp. 343/343T investigating the March 2011 Tohoku Oki Earthquake, explored the toe of the landward slope of the Japan Trench. This expedition reached the plate boundary fault target at more than 800 mbsf in water depths over 6900 m for logging-while-drilling, coring, and observatory installation. This deep-water drilling capability also expands the scientific ocean drilling envelope and provides access to previously unreachable targets. On top of these operational capabilities, Chikyu's onboard laboratory is

  19. 用新型KCl/硅酸钠钻井液缓解苏丹页岩钻进过程中的问题%Novel KCl/Silicate Drilling Fluids for Alleviating Problems in Troublesome Shale Formations in Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭健康; 鄢捷年; 范维旺; 张洪静; 王群立; 余志海

    2005-01-01

    For several decades, wells drilled in Block 6, Sudan, have experienced serious hole-instability problems related to drilling fluids due to the highly reactive and dispersive shales that exist in the Aradeiba and Abu Gabra formations. These problems included washout hole sections combined with tight holes, as well as serious sloughing. Frequent wiper trips were required and logging of the wells was not usually successful. Previously, several conventional inhibitive water-based drilling fluids such as KCl/polymer, KCl/lime/polymer and KCl/PHPA (partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide) have been used in this area, but with only marginal improvements in hole stability and drilling performance. Recently, a newly formulated KCl /sodium silicate system, which is characterized by the good rheological properties and filtration control, was developed and used for providing the necessary inhibitive character. The first trial well was drilled with this kind of drilling fluid in Block 6, Sudan, and the following benefits were observed: (1) Excellent integrity exhibited by drilled cuttings for shale formations; (2) Stable borehole kept with lower mud weight; (3) Reduced wiper trips; and (4) In-gauge borehole shown from caliper logs.Later on, five more wells were drilled with the KCl /sodium silicate system in this area. It was found that the KCl/sodium silicate system can fully meet the demands of drilling operations in this area. Case studies are presented in this paper in terms of wiper trips, inhibitive character of cuttings, hole conditions and mud weight.

  20. A new anti-slough drilling fluid study and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X. Y.; Meng, Y. F.; Hou, X. T.; Xiao, C.; Li, G.; Niu, C. C.

    2016-08-01

    Currently the BIOCAT drilling fluid system adopted in oil field results in wellbore collapsing frequently, borehole enlargement rate over 100%. In order to settle these problems, the Impermeable anti-collapsing inhibitive Polymer Drilling Fluids System is developed by optimizing the inhibitors with high anti-collapsing inhibitive instead of BIOCAT inhibitor, adding impermeable agent SMT3, sealing materials such as graphite, calcium carbonate, etc. Laboratory experiments results show that the developed drilling fluid system has stronger inhibitive and anti-collapse capacity. The swelling increment decreases by over 10% and recovery rate increases by 60%-70%, also, it can efficiently prolong the borehole wall stable period by over 100%. 24 wells applications with the Impermeable anti-collapsing inhibitive Polymer Drilling Fluids System achieved good results, comparing to adjacent wells with BIOCAT drilling fluid system, wellbore collapsing decreasing significantly and borehole diameter enlargement of unstable hole section in wells decreased from 100% to 10%, well drilling time decreased by 15%, drilling cost decreased by 10%. It shows that the developed Impermeable anti-collapsing inhibitive Polymer Drilling Fluids System KPAM-NH4PAN can provide strong and long-term inhibition, close to oil-based drilling fluid. so it is suggested that it be used in subsequent drilling operations to enhance the wellbore stability in an oilfield.

  1. Drilling forces model for lunar regolith exploration and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Ding, Xilun

    2017-02-01

    China's Chang'e lunar exploration project aims to sample and return lunar regolith samples at a minimum penetration depth of 2 m in 2017. Unlike such tasks on the Earth, automated drilling and sampling missions on the Moon are more complicated. Therefore, a delicately designed drill tool is required to minimize operational cost and enhance reliability. Penetration force and rotational torque are two critical parameters in designing the drill tool. In this paper, a novel numerical model for predicting penetration force and rotational torque in the drilling of lunar regolith is proposed. The model is based on quasi-static Mohr-Coulomb soil mechanics and explicitly describes the interaction between drill tool and lunar regolith. Geometric features of drill tool, mechanical properties of lunar regolith, and drilling parameters are taken into consideration in the model. Consequently, a drilling test bed was developed, and experimental penetration force and rotational torque were obtained in penetrating a lunar regolith simulant with different drilling parameters. Finally, theoretical and experimental results were compared to validate the proposed model. Experimental results indicated that the numerical model had good accuracy and was effective in predicting the penetration force and rotational torque in drilling the lunar regolith simulant.

  2. Design of Telerobotic Drilling Control System with Haptic Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Shah

    2013-01-01

    system with haptic feedback that allows for the remote control of the vertical drilling operation. The human operator controls the vertical penetration velocity using a haptic device while simultaneously receiving the haptic feedback from the locally implemented virtual environment. The virtual environment is rendered as a virtual spring with stiffness updated based on the estimate of the stiffness of the rock currently being cut. Based on the existing mathematical models of drill string/drive systems and rock cutting/penetration process, a robust servo controller is designed which guarantees the tracking of the reference vertical penetration velocity of the drill bit. A scheme for on-line estimation of the rock intrinsic specific energy is implemented. Simulations of the proposed control and parameter estimation algorithms have been conducted; consequently, the overall telerobotic drilling system with a human operator controlling the process using PHANTOM Omni haptic device is tested experimentally, where the drilling process is simulated in real time in virtual environment.

  3. Modeling pellet impact drilling process

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalev, Artem Vladimirovich; Ryabchikov, Sergey Yakovlevich; Isaev, Evgeniy Dmitrievich; Ulyanova, Oksana Sergeevna

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rocks. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The experiments conducted has allowed modeling t...

  4. Simulation of surge and swab pressures in well drilling operations; Simulacao do problema de 'surge' e 'swab' em atividades de perfuracao de pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Fernando T.G.M.C. de; Kimura, Hudson Faglioni; Ramalho, Vanessa; Negrao, Cezar O. Ribeiro; Junqueira, Silvio L.M. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Martins, Andre Leibsohn [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The movements of the well drilling pipe, known as trips, cause variations in the well inner pressure. When the pipe is moving downwards, in an operation called 'running', the pressure increases and is known as surge pressure and, when it is moving upwards, in an operation called 'pulling', the pressure decreases and it is so called a swab pressure. The study of this phenomenon is of great importance not only due to financial reasons but also for the determination of speeds and accelerations which should be used in running and pulling operations. Among the researchers have studied this problem, Fontenot and Clark are two of the most important. They formulated the problem solution through considerations about the friction factor. The present work's target is to develop a computational program which allows the calculus of those pressures, according to previous investigations and models found in the literature and for different types of fluids as well, such as Bingham fluid and Power Law fluid. (author)

  5. Reservoir Characterization during Underbalanced Drilling of Horizontal Wells Based on Real-Time Data Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a methodology for characterizing reservoir pore pressure and permeability during underbalanced drilling of horizontal wells was presented. The methodology utilizes a transient multiphase wellbore flow model that is extended with a transient well influx analytical model during underbalanced drilling of horizontal wells. The effects of the density behavior of drilling fluid and wellbore heat transfer are considered in our wellbore flow model. Based on Kneissl’s methodology, an improved method with a different testing procedure was used to estimate the reservoir pore pressure by introducing fluctuations in the bottom hole pressure. To acquire timely basic data for reservoir characterization, a dedicated fully automated control real-time data monitoring system was established. The methodology is applied to a realistic case, and the results indicate that the estimated reservoir pore pressure and permeability fit well to the truth values from well test after drilling. The results also show that the real-time data monitoring system is operational and can provide accurate and complete data set in real time for reservoir characterization. The methodology can handle reservoir characterization during underbalanced drilling of horizontal wells.

  6. Comparative study for surface topography of bone drilling using conventional drilling and loose abrasive machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet; Jain, Vivek; Gupta, Dheeraj

    2015-03-01

    Drilling through the bone is a complicated process in orthopaedic surgery. It involves human as a part of the work so it needs better perfection and quality which leads to the sustainability. Different studies were carried out on this curious topic and some interesting results were obtained, which help the orthopaedic surgeon on the operation table. Major problems faced during bone drilling were crack initiation, thermal necrosis and burr formation. The surface topography of the bone is an indirect indication for the sustainability of bone joint. In this study, a comparison is made between conventional and a loose abrasive unconventional drilling technique for the surface characterization of the bone. The attempt has been made to show the feasibility of bone drilling with non-conventional technique and its aftereffect on the bone structure. The burr formation during conventional bone drilling was found to be more which leads to problems such as crack initiation and thermal necrosis. Scanning electrode microscope and surface roughness tester were used to characterize the surface of the fine drilled bone specimen and the results testified quite better surface finish and least crack formation while drilling with loose abrasive unconventional technique.

  7. Horizontal drilling methods proven in three test wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorel, M.

    1983-05-01

    The practice of drilling horizontally through a reservoir by deviating the wellbore 90/sup 0/ from vertical requires precise planning and sound engineering practices. This article takes a look at the operational, engineering and planning aspects of three successfully drilled drainholes. It also presents a field-tested horizontal well logging procedure that may help extend and improve this technology.

  8. Evaluation of an air drilling cuttings containment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westmoreland, J.

    1994-04-01

    Drilling at hazardous waste sites for environmental remediation or monitoring requires containment of all drilling fluids and cuttings to protect personnel and the environment. At many sites, air drilling techniques have advantages over other drilling methods, requiring effective filtering and containment of the return air/cuttings stream. A study of. current containment methods indicated improvements could be made in the filtering of radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, and in equipment like alarms, instrumentation or pressure safety features. Sandia National Laboratories, Dept. 61 11 Environmental Drilling Projects Group, initiated this work to address these concerns. A look at the industry showed that asbestos abatement equipment could be adapted for containment and filtration of air drilling returns. An industry manufacturer was selected to build a prototype machine. The machine was leased and put through a six-month testing and evaluation period at Sandia National Laboratories. Various materials were vacuumed and filtered with the machine during this time. In addition, it was used in an actual air drive drilling operation. Results of these tests indicate that the vacuum/filter unit will meet or exceed our drilling requirements. This vacuum/filter unit could be employed at a hazardous waste site or any site where drilling operations require cuttings and air containment.

  9. Data integration modeling applied to drill hole planning through semi-supervised learning: A case study from the Dalli Cu-Au porphyry deposit in the central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehi, Moslem; Asadi, Hooshang H.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the application of a transductive support vector machine (TSVM), an innovative semi-supervised learning algorithm, has been proposed for mapping the potential drill targets at a detailed exploration stage. The semi-supervised learning method is a hybrid of supervised and unsupervised learning approach that simultaneously uses both training and non-training data to design a classifier. By using the TSVM algorithm, exploration layers at the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit in the central Iran were integrated to locate the boundary of the Cu-Au mineralization for further drilling. By applying this algorithm on the non-training (unlabeled) and limited training (labeled) Dalli exploration data, the study area was classified in two domains of Cu-Au ore and waste. Then, the results were validated by the earlier block models created, using the available borehole and trench data. In addition to TSVM, the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was also implemented on the study area for comparison. Thirty percent of the labeled exploration data was used to evaluate the performance of these two algorithms. The results revealed 87 percent correct recognition accuracy for the TSVM algorithm and 82 percent for the SVM algorithm. The deepest inclined borehole, recently drilled in the western part of the Dalli deposit, indicated that the boundary of Cu-Au mineralization, as identified by the TSVM algorithm, was only 15 m off from the actual boundary intersected by this borehole. According to the results of the TSVM algorithm, six new boreholes were suggested for further drilling at the Dalli deposit. This study showed that the TSVM algorithm could be a useful tool for enhancing the mineralization zones and consequently, ensuring a more accurate drill hole planning.

  10. Technology assessment of vertical and horizontal air drilling potential in the United States. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carden, R.S.

    1993-08-18

    The objective of the research was to assess the potential for vertical, directional and horizontal air drilling in the United States and to evaluate the current technology used in air drilling. To accomplish the task, the continental United States was divided into drilling regions and provinces. The map in Appendix A shows the divisions. Air drilling data were accumulated for as many provinces as possible. The data were used to define the potential problems associated with air drilling, to determine the limitations of air drilling and to analyze the relative economics of drilling with air versus drilling mud. While gathering the drilling data, operators, drilling contractors, air drilling contractors, and service companies were contacted. Their opinion as to the advantages and limitations of air drilling were discussed. Each was specifically asked if they thought air drilling could be expanded within the continental United States and where that expansion could take place. The well data were collected and placed in a data base. Over 165 records were collected. Once in the data base, the information was analyzed to determine the economics of air drilling and to determine the limiting factors associated with air drilling.

  11. Well successfully drilled with high performance water-based fluid: Santos Basins, offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasier, Frank C.; Luzardo, Juan P. [Halliburton Company, Houston, TX (United States); Bishnoi, M.L. [Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltda. (ONGC), Dehradun (India)

    2012-07-01

    takes into consideration four quadrants aspects: technical, logistical, economical, and environmental considerations. In addition, it was used to successfully drill the 8-1/2 inch interval with no NPT during horizontal drilling operations, tripping, running casing and cementing. No bit balling was observed, and it allowed excellent performance as demonstrated by wellbore conditions while tripping. The drilling fluid was left in hole for around 4 months. Only circulating and minimum treatments, like alkalinity agents and biocides, were applied. Throughout this period, the drilling fluids properties remained stable, and the caliper log presented excellent quality. (author)

  12. Operating room management and operating room productivity: the case of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Maresi; Berry-Stölzle, Thomas; Schleppers, Alexander

    2008-09-01

    We examine operating room productivity on the example of hospitals in Germany with independent anesthesiology departments. Linked to anesthesiology group literature, we use the ln(Total Surgical Time/Total Anesthesiologists Salary) as a proxy for operating room productivity. We test the association between operating room productivity and different structural, organizational and management characteristics based on survey data from 87 hospitals. Our empirical analysis links improved operating room productivity to greater operating room capacity, appropriate scheduling behavior and management methods to realign interests. From this analysis, the enforcing jurisdiction and avoiding advance over-scheduling appear to be the implementable tools for improving operating room productivity.

  13. Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) Technology and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. G. Cai; X. N. Wang

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1 What is Horizontal Directional Drilling? Horizontal Directional Drilling, accurately steered drilling, has become state -of- the -art drilling technique in the world. Specially- designed directionsteerable corebarrel and accurate direction measurement tool are available for the use together with wire line core drilling machine. That makes it feasible to extract cores and to measure the drill travel line &length while drilling in a curve.

  14. PCB Drill Path Optimization by Combinatorial Cuckoo Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen Esmonde Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of drill path can lead to significant reduction in machining time which directly improves productivity of manufacturing systems. In a batch production of a large number of items to be drilled such as printed circuit boards (PCB, the travel time of the drilling device is a significant portion of the overall manufacturing process. To increase PCB manufacturing productivity and to reduce production costs, a good option is to minimize the drill path route using an optimization algorithm. This paper reports a combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm for solving drill path optimization problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested and verified with three case studies from the literature. The computational experience conducted in this research indicates that the proposed algorithm is capable of efficiently finding the optimal path for PCB holes drilling process.

  15. PCB drill path optimization by combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wei Chen Esmonde; Kanagaraj, G; Ponnambalam, S G

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of drill path can lead to significant reduction in machining time which directly improves productivity of manufacturing systems. In a batch production of a large number of items to be drilled such as printed circuit boards (PCB), the travel time of the drilling device is a significant portion of the overall manufacturing process. To increase PCB manufacturing productivity and to reduce production costs, a good option is to minimize the drill path route using an optimization algorithm. This paper reports a combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm for solving drill path optimization problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested and verified with three case studies from the literature. The computational experience conducted in this research indicates that the proposed algorithm is capable of efficiently finding the optimal path for PCB holes drilling process.

  16. Metal and hydrocarbon behavior in sediments from Brazilian shallow waters drilling activities using nonaqueous drilling fluids (NAFs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo R Peralba, Maria; Pozebon, Dirce; dos Santos, João H Z; Maia, Sandra M; Pizzolato, Tânia M; Cioccari, Giovani; Barrionuevo, Simone

    2010-08-01

    The impact of drilling oil activities in the Brazilian Bonito Field/Campos Basin (Rio de Janeiro) shell drilling (300 m) using nonaqueous fluids (NAFs) was investigated with respect to Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Co, Pb, Cu, As, Hg, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd, V, and aliphatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the sediment. Sampling took place in three different times during approximately 33 months. For the metals Al, As, Co, Cr, Cu, Cd, Fe, Ni, Mn, V, and Zn, no significant variation was observed after drilling activities in most of the stations. However, an increase was found in Ba concentration--due to the drilling activity--without return to the levels found 22 months after drilling. High Ba contents was already detected prior to well drilling, probably due to drilling activities in other wells nearby. Hydrocarbon contents also suggest previous anthropogenic activities. Aliphatic hydrocarbon contents were in the range usually reported in other drilling sites. The same behavior was observed in the case of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Nevertheless, the n-alkane concentration increased sharply after drilling, returning almost to predrilling levels 22 months after drilling activities.

  17. Evacuation drill at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont-Sagorin and Christoph Schaefer

    2012-01-01

    Training personnel, including evacuation guides and shifters, checking procedures, improving collaboration with the CERN Fire Brigade: the first real-life evacuation drill at CMS took place on Friday 3 February from 12p.m. to 3p.m. in the two caverns located at Point 5 of the LHC.   CERN personnel during the evacuation drill at CMS. Evacuation drills are required by law and have to be organized periodically in all areas of CERN, both above and below ground. The last drill at CMS, which took place in June 2007, revealed some desiderata, most notably the need for a public address system. With this equipment in place, it is now possible to broadcast audio messages from the CMS control room to the underground areas.   The CMS Technical Coordination Team and the GLIMOS have focused particularly on preparing collaborators for emergency situations by providing training and organizing regular safety drills with the HSE Unit and the CERN Fire Brigade. This Friday, the practical traini...

  18. The Automatic Drilling System of 6R-2P Mining Drill Jumbos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujun Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of underground mining and tunneling operations and to realize automatic drilling, it is necessary to develop the automation system for large drill jumbos. This work focuses on one such mining drill jumbo which is actually a redundant robotic manipulator with eight degrees of freedom, because it has six revolute joints and two prismatic joints. To realize the autonomous drilling operation, algorithms are proposed to calculate the desired pose of the end-effector and to solve the inverse kinematics of the drill jumbo, which is one of the key issues for developing the automation system. After that, a control strategy is proposed to independently control the eight joint variables using PID feedback control approaches. The simulation model is developed in Simulink. As the closed-loop controllers corresponding to all joints are local and independent of each other, the whole system is not a closed-loop feedback control. In order to estimate the possible maximal pose error, the analysis of the pose error caused by the errors of the joint variables is conducted. The results are satisfactory for mining applications and the developed automation system is being applied in the drill jumbos built by Mining Technologies International Inc.

  19. Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Drill Pipes in Deep Drilling Oil and Natural Gas Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2012-06-01

    Corrosion fatigue (CF), hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) and sulfide stress cracking (SSC), or environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) have been identified as the most challenging causes of catastrophic brittle fracture of drill pipes during drilling operations of deep oil and natural gas wells. Although corrosion rates can be low and tensile stresses during service can be below the material yield stress, a simultaneous action between the stress and corrosive environment can cause a sudden brittle failure of a drill component. Overall, EAC failure consists of two stages: incubation and propagation. Defects, such as pits, second-phase inclusions, etc., serve as preferential sites for the EAC failure during the incubation stage. Deep oil and gas well environments are rich in chlorides and dissolved hydrogen sulfide, which are extremely detrimental to steels used in drilling operations. This article discusses catastrophic brittle fracture mechanisms due to EAC of drill pipe materials, and the corrosion challenges that need to be overcome for drilling ultra-deep oil and natural gas wells.

  20. One case of maintenance of CS-160 high-speed turbine dental drill%CS-160型高速涡轮牙钻机故障检修一例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇红

    2011-01-01

    The article stated a compressor cylinder locked problem which arose from the use of high-speed turbine dental drill in teaching, provided information of analysis and maintenance, summarized reasons for the damage to equipment and matters need to be paid attention to in operation%针对高速涡轮牙钻机在教学使用中出现的一次压缩机卡缸故障,进行分析和检修,总结设备损坏的原因和设备使用及操作的注意事项.

  1. Electronic Performance Support for Operational Systems: A Case Study of the Link Monitor and Control Operator Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Randall W., Jr.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1993-01-01

    For complex operational systems, help needs to come from the inside out. It is often not realistic to call a help desk for problems that need immediate attention, especially for tasks that put a heavy cognitive load on the system operator. This session addresses the issues associated with providing electronic performance support for operational systems, including situations where the system is already fielded and can only change through evolution rather than revolution. We present a case study based on our experiences in developing the Link Monitor and Control Operator Assistant for NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN). The goals of the Operator Assistant are to improve the operability of the system and increase the efficiency of mission operations.

  2. Papers of the CADE/CAODC spring drilling conference: efficiency and creativity: the competitive advantage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    More than 40 papers were presented at this conference in which issues related to drilling techniques and advances in drilling technology were discussed. New advances in underbalanced drilling and coiled tubing applied in horizontal wells received much attention. Other issues discussed included topics such as environmental management of oilfield wastes generated from drilling operations, drilling contract issues and the need for well drilling training programs. Excellent prospects and increases in the number of horizontal wells were predicted as a result of improved technologies and decreasing costs. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Airport operator and aircraft operator in case of bird strike. Relations, obligations and liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia KACZYŃSKA-ADAMCZYK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Air transport is subject to various risks. One of them is bird strike hazard. Despite numerous regulations concerning prevention from this type of occurrence, it is not possible to eliminate them entirely.Bird strikes most often take place during take-off and landing, that is on or in the vicinity of an airport. For that reason airport operators are the first parties that can be made accountable for this occurence. International law imposes numerous responsibilities on airport operators in terms of bird strike hazard prevention on air operations, thus placing airport operators in a “key position” in the system of safety. However, the party that suffers significant damages in the first instance, is the aircraft operator. If a bird strike takes place on or in the vicinity of an airport, an aicraft operator can sue the airport operator for compensation of damages. Generally, the issue of indemnity is subject to out of court negotiations, however instances in which there is a lack of agreement between the parties, i.e. airport operator, aircraft operator or their insurers, lead to legal proceedings for compensation.This article attempts to illustrate the relationship between air traffic participants such as airport operators and aircraft operators in connection with their obligations and liability, particulary taking into account the legal obligations of an airport operator.

  4. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2017-10-10

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for performing a laser operation. A system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam having a wavelength less than 1060 nm through the electrical motor.

  5. Comparison of Management-Operational Efficiency of Agricultural Machinery Operating Systems (Case Study Alborz Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Omidi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Measuring the efficiency of operating systems in comparison with the methods of comparing the performance of systems explains the various dimensions of issues such as, the lack of full use of agricultural machinery capacity, improper selection of machine, incorrect use of machinery, ownership, etc.. Any improvement in operating system conditions reduces costs,, consumption of inputs, increases the efficiency of production factors and consequently reduces the price and increases agricultural profitability. The main objective of this research is to compare the operational-management efficiency of operating systems in Alborz province and comparison of managerial and operational efficiency of agricultural machinery farming systems by calculating the efficiency of its major components in agricultural machinery farming systems including efficiency, social, economic, technical-operational and managerial and ranking them in order to understand the optimal model of agricultural machinery systems. Materials and Methods This research is a survey study.The study population was beneficiaries of agricultural machinery in the Alborz province which in the multi-stage random sample was determined. Alborz province has 31,438 agricultural operations, of which 543 are exploited agricultural machinery. Cochran formula was used to determine sample size. Since, Cronbach's alpha coefficient greater than 0.7 was obtained by questionnaire, the reliability of the questionnaires was assessed as desirable. To calculate the efficiency the component data were extracted from 4 specialized questionnaires after the initial examination and encoding, then they were analyzed using the software SPSS, MCDM Engine. TOPSIS techniques were used for ranking managerial performance operating system for operating agricultural machinery Alborz province. Results and Discussion The results showed that social efficiency of dedicated-professional operation with an average of 6.6 had

  6. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  7. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  8. Drill on Android

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    HES-SO DRILLER est une application de drill disponible sur Cyberlearn qui permet aux utilisateurs d’effectuer des quizz relatifs à la programmation. Le principe étant que les professeurs créent leurs quizz et les étudiants puissent y jouer. Les scores obtenus sont comptabilisés et comparés sur Facebook. Ce projet a pour but d’analyser cette application et de l’adapter afin de l’utiliser sur un client mobile Android sous le nom de Drill on Android.

  9. Experimental Investigations on Microcracks in Vibrational and Conventional Drilling of Cortical Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone drilling is widely used in orthopedic surgery. Microcracks will be generated in bone drilling, which may cause fatigue damages and stress fractures. Fresh bovine cortical bones were drilled via vibrational and conventional ways. Drilling operations were performed by a dynamic material testing machine, which can provide the vibration while maintaining uniform feed motion. The drill site and bone debris were observed through scanning electron microscope (SEM. The experimental results showed that fewer and shorter micro-cracks were formed in vibrational drilling than those formed in conventional way. And the surface morphology of bone debris from two different drilling ways was also quite different. It is expected that vibrational drilling in orthopedic surgery operation could decrease the microdamage to the bone, which could lower the incidence of stress fracture and contribute to the postoperative recovery.

  10. Towards Efficient Road Transport in Logistics Operations : A Case Study of IKEA China

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Zhu; Haoqi, Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Purpose- The purpose of this research is to explore the role of road transport in logistics operations, and to investigate and analyze how IKEA China does operate on road transport in logistics operations. Design/methodology/approach- A single case study has been conducted at IKEA China, including semi-structured interviews and review of internal documents. Along with the case study, literature reviews have been conducted within the areas of efficient road transport in logistics operations.  ...

  11. Classifying zones of suitability for manual drilling using textural and hydraulic parameters of shallow aquifers: a case study in northwestern Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussi, F. Fabio; Fumagalli, Letizia; Fava, Francesco; Di Mauro, Biagio; Kane, Cheik Hamidou; Niang, Magatte; Wade, Souleye; Hamidou, Barry; Colombo, Roberto; Bonomi, Tullia

    2017-08-01

    A method is proposed that uses analysis of borehole stratigraphic logs for the characterization of shallow aquifers and for the assessment of areas suitable for manual drilling. The model is based on available borehole-log parameters: depth to hard rock, depth to water, thickness of laterite and hydraulic transmissivity of the shallow aquifer. The model is applied to a study area in northwestern Senegal. A dataset of boreholes logs has been processed using a software package (TANGAFRIC) developed during the research. After a manual procedure to assign a standard category describing the lithological characteristics, the next step is the automated extraction of different textural parameters and the estimation of hydraulic conductivity using reference values available in the literature. The hydraulic conductivity values estimated from stratigraphic data have been partially validated, by comparing them with measured values from a series of pumping tests carried out in large-diameter wells. The results show that this method is able to produce a reliable interpretation of the shallow hydrogeological context using information generally available in the region. The research contributes to improving the identification of areas where conditions are suitable for manual drilling. This is achieved by applying the described method, based on a structured and semi-quantitative approach, to classify the zones of suitability for given manual drilling techniques using data available in most African countries. Ultimately, this work will support proposed international programs aimed at promoting low-cost water supply in Africa and enhancing access to safe drinking water for the population.

  12. Test Case Generation using Mutation Operators and Fault Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Jeevarathinam, Mrs R

    2010-01-01

    Software testing is the important phase of software development process. But, this phase can be easily missed by software developers because of their limited time to complete the project. Since, software developers finish their software nearer to the delivery time; they dont get enough time to test their program by creating effective test cases. . One of the major difficulties in software testing is the generation of test cases that satisfy the given adequacy criterion Moreover, creating manual test cases is a tedious work for software developers in the final rush hours. A new approach which generates test cases can help the software developers to create test cases from software specifications in early stage of software development (before coding) and as well as from program execution traces from after software development (after coding). Heuristic techniques can be applied for creating quality test cases. Mutation testing is a technique for testing software units that has great potential for improving the qu...

  13. Rotary ultrasonic bone drilling: Improved pullout strength and reduced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Pandey, Pulak M; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2017-03-01

    Bone drilling is one of the most common operations used to repair fractured parts of bones. During a bone drilling process, microcracks are generated on the inner surface of the drilled holes that can detrimentally affect osteosynthesis and healing. This study focuses on the investigation of microcracks and pullout strength of cortical-bone screws in drilled holes. It compares conventional surgical bone drilling (CSBD) with rotary ultrasonic bone drilling (RUBD), a novel approach employing ultrasonic vibration with a diamond-coated hollow tool. Both techniques were used to drill holes in porcine bones in an in-vitro study. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe microcracks and surface morphology. The results obtained showed a significant decrease in the number and dimensions of microcracks generated on the inner surface of drilled holes with the RUBD process in comparison to CSBD. It was also observed that a higher rotational speed and a lower feed rate resulted in lower damage, i.e. fewer microcracks. Biomechanical axial pullout strength of a cortical bone screw inserted into a hole drilled with RUBD was found to be much higher (55-385%) than that for CSBD.

  14. Rotary and Rotary-Percussive Drilling of Lunar Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, G.; Zacny, K.; Maksymuk, M.; Wilson, J.; Santoro, C.; Chu, P.; Davis, K.; Roberts, D.; Kumar, N.; Kusack, A.

    2008-12-01

    Honeybee Robotics has been developing a rotary and a rotary-preliminary drill system for planetary exploration. This is a test drill with a power rating of 1000 Watt, whose purpose it to test various drill bits and augers in rotary and rotary percussive operation. It is not optimized for power or mass but rather to acquire qualitative drilling data such as penetration rate, power, and torque, temperature, Weight on Bit, vibration energy and others. In addition, the design of the drill allows it to acquire drill bit temperatures and use pneumatic system (instead of augers) for removing of rock cuttings. The drill is designed to have a 1 meter stroke. In addition to the drill system, we have been developing a matching split vacuum chamber, which is 3ft wide, 3ft deep and 11 feet tall. The chamber consists of two smaller chambers (84 inches tall and 48 inches tall) assembled on top of each other. This allows for additional flexibility if only a smaller chamber is required for some testing. The chamber will be able to maintain pressure of below 1 torr. Maintaining sample temperature will be achieved by closed loop cooling system down to -40C or by using liquid nitrogen that allows a temperature of 77K. The test samples can be varied raging from solid rocks, to loose soils to icy soils and pure ice. The sample holder could also be integrated with temperatures for acquiring of thermal data during drilling process.

  15. Innovative collaboration important to rotary steerable drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2000-05-01

    Sperry-Sun Drilling Services' recently commercialized Geo-Pilot{sup T}M rotary steerable drilling system is described. The system consists of the Geo-Pilot{sup T}M rotary steerable tool, a logging-while-drilling (LWD) system, specially designed long-gauge bits and the INSITE{sup T}M data acquisition and management system. The system brings a completely new approach to rotary steerable drilling. It uses 'point-the-bit' technology to deflect a rotating drive shaft off center, causing the drive shaft to flex and alter the direction of the drilling. The tool provides real-time steering information and at-bit inclination measurement, both of which are integrated with the INSITE{sup T}M rig information system. The real-time data can be displayed along with other formation evaluation information. The system has been evaluated at the Gas Research Institute's Oklahoma test facility; it has been used commercially by Canadian, Norwegian and US operators, with complete success. Worldwide deployment of the system is in the planning stages.

  16. Drilling fluid technologies : what goes in must come out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polczer, S.

    1998-03-01

    The treatment of drilling wastes contaminated with invert drilling muds was discussed. The tight emulsion properties which make invert drilling muds useful are the same properties that make their disposal so difficult. Potential long-term liability associated with inverts is another reason for reluctance to use these products. Inverts are toxic and highly mobile in the environment, and must therefore be handled with care. Often the costs associated with their disposal are greater than their potential benefits. Petro-Canada Lubricants has formulated a new, non-diesel based product called Drill Mud Oil HT40N which completely eliminates toxic aromatic molecules. It is composed of 98 per cent plus of cyclic and branched isoparaffins with an average carbon number of C16. The level of polynuclear aromatics is reduced to parts per billion levels. Drill Mud Oil HT40N was being used at Hibernia until an even newer product, IPAR3 synthetic drill mud oil, was developed exclusively for offshore use. Drill Mud Oil HT40N is less prone to flash fires, is odourless and is more likely to be used in places such as the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Drill Mud Oil HT40N works almost exactly the same as a diesel-based drill mud oil but has many advantages in terms of safety and ease of disposal, particularly in landfarming operations. Drill Mud Oil HT40N does not irritate the skin or release toxic fumes. The cost of Drill Mud Oil HT40N is higher than conventional diesel-based drilling muds. 2 figs.

  17. Development and Manufacture of Cost-Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James C. Leslie

    2008-12-31

    fields up to 74 kilohertz (KHz), a removable section of copper wire can be placed inside the composite pipe to short the tool joints electrically allowing electromagnetic signals inside the collar to induce and measure the same within the rock formation. By embedding a pair of wires in the composite section and using standard drill pipe box and pin ends equipped with a specially developed direct contact joint electrical interface, power can be supplied to measurement-while-drilling (MWD) and logging-while-drilling (LWD) bottom hole assemblies. Instantaneous high-speed data communications between near drill bit and the surface are obtainable utilizing this 'smart' drilling technology. The composite drill pipe developed by ACPT has been field tested successfully in several wells nationally and internationally. These tests were primarily for short radius and ultra short radius directional drilling. The CDP in most cases performed flawlessly with little or no appreciable wear. ACPT is currently marketing a complete line of composite drill collars, subs, isolators, casing, and drill pipe to meet the drilling industry's needs and tailored to replace metal for specific application requirements.

  18. From Arctic greenhouse to icehouse: the Cenozoic development of the West Greenland-Baffin Bay margin and the case for scientific drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutz, Paul; Gregersen, Ulrik; Hopper, John R.; Dybkjær, Karen; Nøhr-Hansen, Henrik; Sheldon, Emma; Huuse, Mads

    2016-04-01

    The long-term evolution of glaciated margins plays an essential role in understanding the driving forces and interactions that determine the build-up and decay of ice sheets. The Greenland continental margin towards Baffin Bay is densely covered by industry seismic data and several exploration wells have been drilled, providing a regional stratigraphic framework for the sedimentary successions. This presentation provides an overview of the major depositional units and stratigraphy of the mid-late Cenozoic (since mid-Eocene), with examples demonstrating the different processes that have formed this margin. A sedimentary succession up to 3.5 km thick, of mid-Eocene to mid-Miocene age (mega-unit D), infills the pronounced ridge-basin structures of the rifted and tectonically inverted margin. The lower part of this interval, presumably late Eocene-Oligocene in age, is interpreted as basin-floor fan deposits, while the upper section, of early-middle Miocene age, is mainly marine mudstone. The basin infilling strata are overlain by a late Miocene-Pliocene succession consisting of two mega-units (B and C), with typical thicknesses of 0.5-1 km. The units are characterised by upslope-climbing sediment waves and along-slope trending sedimentary prisms reminiscent of giant contourite drifts. The borehole data associates the prism accumulations with a deep shelf environment influenced by strong marine currents and nearby fluvial sources. On the slope and in the deep basin of Baffin Bay the late Neogene succession is strongly influenced by mass wasting correlated with erosional scars updip. The uppermost seismic mega-unit (A) is dominated by aggradational wedges and prograding fan deposits displaying depocentres >3 km thick, formed at the terminus of palaeo-ice streams. Borehole information associates this interval with deposition of primarily diamict sediments and suggests a late Pliocene onset of major shelf based glaciations on the NW Greenland margin. The southwest margin

  19. 30 CFR 250.1605 - Drilling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... specific bottom-founded drilling unit under the site-specific soil and oceanographic conditions, the District Manager may require that additional surveys and soil borings be performed and the results... string of casing, or production liner, and at total depth. Composite directional surveys shall...

  20. 30 CFR 250.1617 - Application for permit to drill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... instrumentation logic; and the operating procedure to be used by personnel, and (iii) A schematic drawing of the... survey program for directionally drilled wells; (9) An H2S Contingency Plan, if applicable, and if...

  1. Microhole Wireless Steering While Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Macpherson; Thomas Gregg

    2007-12-31

    A background to Coiled Tubing Bottom Hole Assemblies (CT-BHA) is given, and the development of a bi-directional communications and power module (BCPM)component is described. The successful operation of this component in both the laboratory and field environment is described. The primary conclusion of this development is that the BCPM component operates as anticipated within the CT-BHA, and significantly extends the possibility of drilling with coiled tubing in the microhole environment.

  2. Deep Drilling Technology of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Rongfu

    1995-01-01

    @@ Since the drilling of well Songji-6 by the drilling crew No. 32139 in Daqing in 1963,there havebeen some 1600 over 4 000 m deep wells completed till 1993, among which two are above 7 000 m in depth.

  3. Intelligent Detection of Drill Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. I.; Chen, W. Y.; Anatharaman, K. S.

    1998-11-01

    Backpropagation neural networks (BPNs) were used for on-line detection of drill wear. The neural network consisted of three layers: input, hidden, and output. The input vector comprised drill size, feed rate, spindle speed, and eight features obtained by processing the thrust and torque signals. The output was the drill wear state which either usable or failure. Drilling experiments with various drill sizes, feed rates and spindle speeds were carried out. The learning process was performed effectively by utilising backpropagation with smoothing and an activation function slope. The on-line detection of drill wear states using BPNs achieved 100% reliability even when the drill size, feed rate and spindle speed were changed. In other words, the developed on-line drill wear detection systems have very high robustness and hence can be used in very complex production environments, such as flexible manufacturing systems.

  4. Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

    2004-09-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has been the leading investigator in the field of high power laser applications research for well construction and completion applications. Since 1997, GTI (then as Gas Research Institute) has investigated several military and industrial laser systems and their ability to cut and drill into reservoir type rocks. In this report, GTI continues its investigation with a recently acquired 5.34 kW ytterbium-doped multi-clad high power fiber laser (HPFL). The HPFL represents a potentially disruptive technology that, when compared to its competitors, is more cost effective to operate, capable of remote operations, and requires considerably less maintenance and repair. To determine how this promising laser compares with other lasers used in past experimental work, GTI performed a number of experiments with results directly comparable to previous data. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of laser input parameters on representative reservoir rock types of sandstone and limestone. The focus of the experiments was on completion and perforation applications, although the results and techniques apply to well construction and other rock cutting applications. Variables investigated include laser power, beam intensity, external purging of cut materials, sample orientation, beam duration, beam shape, and beam frequency. The investigation also studied the thermal effects on the two sample rock types and their methods of destruction: spallation for sandstone, and thermal dissociation for limestone. Optimal operating conditions were identified for each rock type and condition. As a result of this experimental work, the HPFL has demonstrated a better capability of cutting and drilling limestone and sandstone when compared with other military and industrial lasers previously tested. Consideration should be given to the HPFL as the leading candidate for near term remote high power laser applications for well construction and completion.

  5. 30 CFR 254.47 - Determining the volume of oil of your worst case discharge scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drilling operations, the size of your worst case discharge scenario is the daily volume possible from an... break. You must calculate this volume as follows: (1) Add the pipeline system leak detection time to...

  6. Age and compositional data of zircon from sepiolite drilling mud to identify contamination of ocean drilling samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Graham D. M.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Busby, Cathy J.; Brown, Sarah R.; Blum, Peter; Harvey, Janet. C.

    2016-08-01

    Zircon extracted from drilled oceanic rocks is increasingly used to answer geologic questions related to igneous and sedimentary sequences. Recent zircon studies using samples obtained from marine drill cores revealed that drilling muds used in the coring process may contaminate the samples. The JOIDES Resolution Science Operator of the International Ocean Discovery Program has been using two types of clays, sepiolite and attapulgite, which both have salt water viscosifier properties able to create a gel-like slurry that carries drill cuttings out of the holes several hundred meters deep. The dominantly used drilling mud is sepiolite originating from southwestern Nevada, USA. This sepiolite contains abundant zircon crystals with U-Pb ages ranging from 1.89 to 2889 Ma and continental trace element, δ18O, and ɛHf isotopic compositions. A dominant population of 11-16 Ma zircons in sepiolite drilling mud makes identification of contamination in drilled Neogene successions particularly challenging. Interpretation of zircon analyses related to ocean drilling should be cautious of zircon ages in violation of independently constrained age models and that have age populations overlapping those in the sepiolite. Because individual geochronologic and geochemical characteristics lack absolute discriminatory power, it is recommended to comprehensively analyze all dated zircon crystals from cores exposed to drill mud for trace element, δ18O, and ɛHf isotopic compositions. Zircon analyzed in situ (i.e., in petrographic sections) are assumed to be trustworthy.

  7. Steerable shaft drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigott, C.P. (Pigott Shaft Drilling Ltd., Preston (UK))

    1990-03-01

    The paper outlines the techniques of steerable shaft drilling and gives brief details of the various machines currently available to carry out this task. It summarizes the many potential benefits of using this method, which could lead to more mines having multiple shafts, each serving a specific purpose. 8 figs.

  8. Crosswell Imaging Technology & Advanced DSR Navigation for Horizontal Directional Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Stolarczyk

    2008-08-08

    The objective of Phase II is to develop and demonstrate real-time measurement-while-drilling (MWD) for guidance and navigation of drill strings during horizontal drilling operations applicable to both short and long holes. The end product of Phase II is a functional drill-string assembly outfitted with a commercial version of Drill String Radar (DSR). Project Objectives Develop and demonstrate a dual-phase methodology of in-seam drilling, imaging, and structure confirmation. This methodology, illustrated in Figure 1, includes: (1) Using RIM to image between drill holes for seam thickness estimates and in-seam structures detection. Completed, February 2005; and (2) Using DSR for real-time MWD guidance and navigation of drillstrings during horizontal drilling operations. Completed, November 2008. As of November 2008, the Phase II portion of Contract DE-FC26-04NT42085 is about 99% complete, including milestones and tasks original outlined as Phase II work. The one percent deficiency results from MSHA-related approvals which have yet to be granted (at the time of reporting). These approvals are pending and are do not negatively impact the scope of work or project objectives.

  9. Laser drilling of thermal barrier coated jet-engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, H. K.

    Aero engine hot end components are often covered with ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs). Laser drilling in the TBC coated components can be a source of service life TBC degradation and spallation. The present study aims to understand the mechanisms of TBC delamination and develop techniques to drill holes without damaging the TBC, Nimonic 263 workpieces coated with TBC are used in the experiments. Microwave non-destructive testing (NDT) is employed to monitor the integrity of the coating /substrate interfaces of the post-laser drilled materials. A numerical modelling technique is used to investigate the role of melt ejection on TBC delamination. The model accounts for the vapour and the assist gas flow effects in the process. Broadly, melt ejection induced mechanical stresses for the TBC coating / bond coating and thermal effects for the bond coating / substrate interfaces are found the key delamination mechanisms. Experiments are carried out to validate the findings from the model. Various techniques that enable laser drilling without damaging the TBC are demonstrated. Twin jet assisted acute angle laser drilling is one successful technique that has been analysed using the melt ejection simulation. Optimisation of the twin jet assisted acute angle laser drilling process parameters is carried out using Design of Experiments (DoE) and statistical modelling approaches. Finally, an industrial case study to develop a high speed, high quality laser drilling system for combustor cans is described. Holes are drilled by percussion and trepan drilling in TBC coated and uncoated Haynes 230 workpieces. The production rate of percussion drilling is significantly higher than the trepan drilling, however metallurgical hole quality and reproducibility is poor. A number of process parameters are investigated to improve these characteristics. Gas type and gas pressure effects on various characteristics of the inclined laser drilled holes are investigated through theoretical

  10. Drilling Optimization Utilizing Surface Instrumentaton for Downhole Event Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Cohen; Greg Deskins

    2006-02-01

    and recording data to determine if signatures could be recorded and identified that, after analysis, might signify particular types of drilling activities or conditions. Tests included normal rig operations as well as dropping the string, bit stick/slip, bit bounce, and rough drilling. The sub worked very well throughout these tests, and signatures were obtained for each of the conditions. Some events, most notably stick/slip and rough drilling, exhibited unique signatures that were recorded by the instrumented sub. The final field tests were conducted in a relatively shallow well, and further testing is needed to determine the range of depths from which usable signals can be detected. However, these tests clearly demonstrated that useful data can be gathered in this manner and that much of this data, typically collected by several sensors in various locations, can be collected at a single point and that the data are of higher quality than is often the case.

  11. Study on Drill String Fatigue Life in Deepwater Drilling%深水钻井钻柱疲劳寿命研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳佳; 陈建民

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic response of the deepwater drilling platform increases alternating loads of the drilling string�As a consequence, the calculation of drill string fatigue life becomes more complicated�By using the numeri⁃cal simulation method, a method for studying drill string fatigue life is proposed based on AQWA module, transi⁃ent dynamic analysis module and fatigue analysis module of Ansys⁃Workbench�A case study was conducted to ob⁃tain motion response of some marine platform and further get the drill string fatigue life of about 102�61 d�Calculation results show that the drill string serving up to 100 days must have flaw detection to determine whether it can continue to run in the deepwater drilling operation up to 1 000 m�In particular, great attention should be paid to the drilling string near the surface.%深水钻井作业中平台的动力响应将使钻柱承受更多的交变载荷,钻柱疲劳寿命的计算过程更为复杂。应用数值模拟方法,通过Ansys⁃Workbench中的AQWA模块、瞬态动力学分析模块以及疲劳分析模块,提出了一种研究深水钻井中钻柱疲劳寿命问题的方法。通过实例计算,得到了某海洋环境下平台的运动响应,进而得到钻柱的疲劳极限寿命约102�61 d。计算结果表明,对于水深1000 m的深水钻井作业,服役时间达到100 d的钻柱必须经过探伤检测,方能确定是否继续使用,且尤其应注意靠近水面部分的钻柱。

  12. Scientific Drilling with the Sea Floor Drill Rig MeBo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerold Wefer

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In March 2007 the sea floor drill rig MeBo (short for “Meeresboden-Bohrgerät”, ‘sea floor drill rig’ in German returned from a 17-day scientific cruise with the new German research vessel Maria S. Merian. Four sites between 350 m and 1700 m water depth were sampled at the continental slope off Morocco by push coring and rotary drilling. Up to 41.5-m-long sediment cores were recovered from Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene marls. MeBo bridges the gapbetween conventional sampling methods from standard multipurpose research vessels (gravity corer, piston corer, dredges and drill ships. Most bigger research vessels will be able to support deployment of the MeBo. Since the drill system can be easily transported within 20-ft containers, worldwide operation from vessels of opportunity is possible. With the MeBo a new system is available for marine geosciences that allows the recovery of high quality samples from soft sediments and hard rock from the deep sea withoutrelying on the services of expensive drilling vessels.

  13. GHGfrack: An Open-Source Model for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Combustion of Fuel during Drilling and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafi, Kourosh; Brandt, Adam

    2016-07-19

    This paper introduces GHGfrack, an open-source engineering-based model that estimates energy consumption and associated GHG emissions from drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations. We describe verification and calibration of GHGfrack against field data for energy and fuel consumption. We run GHGfrack using data from 6927 wells in Eagle Ford and 4431 wells in Bakken oil fields. The average estimated energy consumption in Eagle Ford wells using lateral hole diameters of 8 (3)/4 and 6 (1)/8 in. are 2.25 and 2.73 TJ/well, respectively. The average estimated energy consumption in Bakken wells using hole diameters of 6 in. for horizontal section is 2.16 TJ/well. We estimate average greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of 419 and 510 tonne of equivalent CO2 per well (tonne of CO2 eq/well) for the two aforementioned assumed geometries in Eagle Ford, respectively, and 417 tonne of CO2 eq/well for the case of Bakken. These estimates are limited only to GHG emissions from combustion of diesel fuel to supply energy only for rotation of drill string, drilling mud circulation, and fracturing pumps. Sensitivity analysis of the model shows that the top three key variables in driving energy intensity in drilling are the lateral hole diameter, drill pipe internal diameter, and mud flow rate. In hydraulic fracturing, the top three are lateral casing diameter, fracturing fluid volume, and length of the lateral.

  14. Horizontal Directional Drilling-Length Detection Technology While Drilling Based on Bi-Electro-Magnetic Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudan Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The drilling length is an important parameter in the process of horizontal directional drilling (HDD exploration and recovery, but there has been a lack of accurate, automatically obtained statistics regarding this parameter. Herein, a technique for real-time HDD length detection and a management system based on the electromagnetic detection method with a microprocessor and two magnetoresistive sensors employing the software LabVIEW are proposed. The basic principle is to detect the change in the magnetic-field strength near a current coil while the drill stem and drill-stem joint successively pass through the current coil forward or backward. The detection system consists of a hardware subsystem and a software subsystem. The hardware subsystem employs a single-chip microprocessor as the main controller. A current coil is installed in front of the clamping unit, and two magneto resistive sensors are installed on the sides of the coil symmetrically and perpendicular to the direction of movement of the drill pipe. Their responses are used to judge whether the drill-stem joint is passing through the clamping unit; then, the order of their responses is used to judge the movement direction. The software subsystem is composed of a visual software running on the host computer and a software running in the slave microprocessor. The host-computer software processes, displays, and saves the drilling-length data, whereas the slave microprocessor software operates the hardware system. A combined test demonstrated the feasibility of the entire drilling-length detection system.

  15. 45130-Drilling Crew First Enter into the International Drilling Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Zhixian; Drilling

    1995-01-01

    @@ 45130-Drilling Crew subordinate to the Fourth Drilling Company of Zhongyuan Petroleum Exploration Bureau, won the two bids of risk exploration drilling projects, respectively for China Ltd. Co. of New Zealand Petroleum Exploration Company worked in the Dongtinghu Basin in 1992 and Amoco Orient Oil Co.worked in the Fuyang area, Anhui Province in November of 1993.According to the two contracts that have been signed, the two drilling wells were successfully completed,all drilling parameters are in accordance with the requirements of both contracts.

  16. Flexible roof drill for low coal. Volume 2. Phase III and Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoup, N.H.

    1977-09-01

    Design specifications were developed for a flexible drilling and bolting system. The system configuration is based on the use of the Galis dual-boom roof drill as a vehicle for the drilling/bolting system. The WSU Flex-drill drivehead is mounted on the Galis drill boom and the Galis parts are modified to accommodate the revised system. The flexible drillhead supports a bolt bender/inserter designed by Bendix Corporation and is integrated into the system operation. A supplemental bolt thruster was designed to complete insertion of the roof bolt following operation and removal of the Bendix bender from the bolt shank. The complete cycle of drilling a 1-3/8-in. diameter bolt hole, bending a roof bolt into the hole, thrusting the bolt head and washer to the roof surface, and final torquing of the bolt is manually controlled by the operator located in the new position behind the bolting line. The new operating position is beneath newly bolted roof in a safer location in back of the stab jack ad roof jacks positioning the drill boom and drivehead. The Flex-drill/bolting system prototype was constructed from both purchased components and parts specially fabricated in the shops for this design. This unit was assembled and test-operated with appropriate support equipment in a laboratory test stand. Numerous test holes were drilled in blocks of concrete at feed rates of 5 ft/min with drill rotation speeds of 360 rpm. The drill feeds uniformly and cuts smoothly with no difficulty in collection of dust or clogging of the drill bit. The holes drilled were straight, as evidence by passage of a 1-1/4-in. diameter bar full depth into the hole with no binding or evidence of curvature. The flexible drill is capable of drilling 8-ft-deep roof bolt holes in low coal 36 in. in height.

  17. 78 FR 72688 - Information Collection Activities: Application for Permit To Drill; Proposed Collection; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ..., casing setting depths, drilling fluid (mud) programs, cementing programs and blowout preventer (BOP...; 134E1700D2 EEEE500000 ET1SF0000.DAQ000] Information Collection Activities: Application for Permit To Drill... data and information that is submitted with an Application for Permit to Drill (APD), a Revised...

  18. Biological treatment of drilling waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perie, F.H.; Seris, J.L.; Martignon, A.P.

    1995-12-01

    Off shore operators are now faced with more stringent forthcoming regulations regarding waste discharge. Several aspects are to be taken into account when considering waste disposal in the sea; among them, the total amount of COD and the toxicity. While, in many regards, the problem caused by the processing fluids toxicity has been addressed, the elimination of residual COD from the waste is yet to be solved. Biodegradation of drilling waste is one of the major routes taken by third party contracters to address the reduction of COD in sea-discharged cuttings. This report describes a technique specifically developed to enhance drilling waste biodegradation under selected conditions. The suggested treatment involved biological catalysts used in conjunction with or prior to the biodegradation. We demonstrated that the considered environment-compatible substitute for oil-based mud could be more efficiently biodegraded if an enzymatic pretreatment was carried out prior to or during the actual biodegradation. The biodegradation rate, expressed as CO{sub 2} envolvement, was significantly higher in lipase-treated cultures. In addition, we demonstrated that this treatment was applicable to substrates in emulsion, suspension, or adsorbed on solid.

  19. OPERATIONAL AND STRATEGIC CONTROLLING TOOLS IN MICROENTERPRISES – CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna KONSEK-CIECHOŃSKA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation and increasing requirements of the environment cause the executives and supervisors to search for more and more perfect solutions, allowing them to streamline and improve the effectiveness of company operations. One of such tools, used more and more often, is controlling, the role of which has substantially increased in the recent years. It is already implemented not only in large companies with foreign capital, but also in increasingly smaller entities, which begin to notice the positive effects of the implications of the principles and tools of controlling - both operational and strategic. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the practical side of controlling tools that can be used for the purposes of operations conducted by microenterprises.

  20. Operated DeBakey type III dissecting aortic aneurysm: review of 12 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hi Eun; Lee, Ghi Jai; Oh, Sang Joon; Yoon, Sei Ra; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun; Han, Chang Yul [Inje University, Seoul Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    We evaluated the indications of operation and radiologic findings in 12 operated DeBakey type III aortic dissections. We retrospectively reviewed radiologic findings of 12 operated DeBakey type III aortic dissections, using CT, MRI, or aortography, and correlations were made with clinical course of the patients. Three cases were uncomplicated dissections. There were aneurysm rupture in 4 cases, impending rupture in 4 cases, occlusion of common iliac artery in 2 cases, occlusion of renal artery in 1 case, and compression of bronchus and esophagus by dilated aorta in 1 case. Associated clinical sign and symptoms were chest and back pain in 12 cases, claudication in 3 cases, dyspnea and dysphagia in 1 case, hoarseness in 1 case, and hemoptysis in 1 case. Post-operative complications were death from aneurysm rupture in 1 case, paraplegia in 2 cases, acute renal failure in 3 cases, and hemopericardium in 1 case. Although medical therapy is preferred in management of DeBakey type III aortic dissection, surgical treatment should be considered in patients with radiological findings of aortic rupture, impending rupture, occlusion of aortic major branches.

  1. FY 79 Lava Lake Drilling Program: results of drilling experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neel, R.R.; Striker, R.P.; Curlee, R.M.

    1979-12-01

    A drilling program was conducted in December 1978 and January and February 1979 to continue the characterization of the solid and liquid rock components of the Kilauea Iki lava lake. Six holes were drilled from the surface and two previously drilled holes were reentered and deepened for the purposes of measuring downhole temperature profiles, recovering samples of solid, plastic, and molten rock, measuring crust permeability, and determining the performance of conventional and special drilling techniques. Conventional HQ-size (3.78 inches diameter) core drilling equipment using water for cooling and cuttings removal was used to successfully drill during initial entry into 1052/sup 0/C formations. Conventional drilling in reentering flow-back rock was less reliable. The specially designed water jet-augmented drag bit or water jet-augmented core bit was needed to drill reliably into the plastic flow-back rock and through liquid rock veins. This document contains the drill performance data which were recorded during drilling in the crust and the plastic and molten rock zones using both conventional and special drilling procedures and equipment.

  2. Better Assessment of Operational Suitability. Volume 2. Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    improved bolts Salt-water fording No changes required, waterproof system Cold starting Additional grounding straps, rerouting of preheate exhaust Front...window, but the impact is primarily cosmetic . Video degradation requires prolonged operation in the sand environment and is gradual. In SWA, 24 windows

  3. 全套管钻孔咬合桩在临近地铁基坑工程中的应用%Application of Drilling Occlusive Pile with Full Casing in Foundation Pit Engineering for Adjacent Subway in Suzho u

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱芝同; 宋志彬; 冯起赠; 和国磊

    2014-01-01

    以苏州某商业大楼咬合桩的施工为例,介绍全套管钻孔咬合桩在临近地铁基坑支护工程中的应用情况以及咬合桩施工技术要点。施工结果表明,全套管钻孔咬合桩对周围环境影响小,对地层扰动小、施工快、造价低,在苏州软土及高水位土层基坑支护中具有广阔的应用前景。%Taking the construction of an occlusive pile in Suzhou as the example, the paper introduces the application of drilling occlusive pile with full casing in foundation pit support engineering for adjacent subway and the main points of con-struction technology.The results show that the drilling occlusive pile with full casing has advantages of little influence on environment, small disturbance to the ground, rapid construction and low cost, which has a broad application prospect for foundation pit support engineering in soft soil and high water level ground of Suzhou.

  4. Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.A.; Rubin, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    When downhole contact between the BHA and formation was optimum, as it was during rotation, high signal levels were experienced. Survey data acquired at the connections, when the BHA was totally at rest, is excellent. GEC intends modifying the system to optimize operations consistent with these disparate factors. A Mean-Time-To-Failure (MTTF) of 89.9 hours appears reasonable from the data. It is not possible to infer an MTBF figure from this test. It is quite obvious, however, that the system reliability performance has been significantly improved since FT {number_sign}5 was performed almost two years earlier. Based on the above results, GEC concludes that it is certainly feasible to attain 100 hours MTBF, for the Model 27, in any and all situations, and hence to provide a reliable MWD for air-drilling.

  5. Method of drilling with magnetorheological fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitha, P.L.J.

    2003-01-01

    A method of drilling a bore hole into a stratum, wherein via the drill hole drilling fluid is introduced and fed to the drill head. In order to avoid dilution or leak-off of the drilling fluid the same is in accordance with the invention a magnetorheological drilling fluid, and when an undesirable p

  6. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona

    2010-11-30

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  7. Case seven. Managing mature operations in a competitive environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J D

    1990-01-01

    In this case, a medical center learns how to evaluate each of its services along a Product Life Cycle curve. Each stage of the cycle has characteristics that suggest appropriate strategic growth and action orientations. When services were plotted along the Product Life Cycle curve, many of the services were found to be mature or making the transition from growth to maturity. At the time of the case, Memorial Medical Center's competitors were entering many of its traditional markets creating a strong competition for market share. Greater competitive emphasis on performance and price reduced profits in the medical center's mature services. The case reports the medical center's approach to modifying its action orientation in light of a better understanding of organizational competence.

  8. Operating an Advertising Programmatic Buying Platform: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Gonzalvez-Cabañas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses how new technological developments and the possibilities generated by the internet are shaping the online advertising market. More specifically it focuses on a programmatic advertising case study. The origin of the problem is how publishers resort to automated buying and selling when trying to shift unsold inventory. To carry out our case study, we will use a programmatic online advertising sales platform, which identifies the optimal way of promoting a given product. The platform executes, evaluates, manages and optimizes display advertising campaigns, all in real-time. The empirical analysis carried out in the case study reveals that the platform and its exclusion algorithms are suitable mechanisms for analysing the performance and efficiency of the various segments that might be used to promote products. Thanks to Big Data tools and artificial intelligence the platform performs automatically, providing information in a user-friendly and simple manner.

  9. Drilling techniques for osteochondritis dissecans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, Benton E; Edmonds, Eric W; Murnaghan, M Lucas; Kocher, Mininder S

    2014-04-01

    Although the advanced stages of osteochondritis dissecans remain challenging to treat, most early-stage lesions in skeletally immature patients, if managed appropriately, can be stimulated to heal. For stable lesions that do not demonstrate adequate healing with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, weight-bearing protection, or bracing, drilling of the subchondral bone has emerged as the gold standard of management. Several techniques of drilling exist, including transarticular drilling, retroarticular drilling, and notch drilling. Although each technique has been shown to be effective in small retrospective studies, higher-powered prospective comparative studies are needed to better elucidate their relative advantages and disadvantages.

  10. GRED STUDIES AND DRILLING OF AMERICULTURE STATE 2, AMERICULTURE TILAPIA FARM LIGHTNING DOCK KGRA, ANIMAS VALLEY, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witcher, James

    2006-08-01

    This report summarizes the GRED drilling operations in the AmeriCulture State 2 well with an overview of the preliminary geologic and geothermal findings, from drill cuttings, core, geophysical logs and water geochemical sampling.

  11. Archive of Historic Core Data from the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Legs 101-129 (Pre-JANUS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) operated the drilling vessel JOIDES Resolution from 1984-2003 for over 100 cruises worldwide. The ODP was funded by the U.S....

  12. Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure Deep Drilling Project Completes Coring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the Scientific Staff of the Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure Deep Drilling Project

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure Deep Drilling Project (CBIS Project completed its coring operations during September–December 2005 and April–May 2006. Cores were collected continuously to a total depth of 1766 m. The recovered section consists of 1322 m of impactites beneath 444 m of post-impact continental shelf sediments.The CBIS Project is a joint venture of the International Continental Scientifi c Drilling Program (ICDP and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS. Project activities began with a planning workshop in September 2003 attended by sixtythree scientists from ten countries. Field operations began with site preparation in July 2005, and coring began in September 2005. Drilling, Observation and Sampling of theEarth’s Continental Crust (DOSECC was the general contractor for the drilling operations throughout 2005.

  13. Drilling Path Optimization Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guangyu; ZHANG Weibo; DU Yuexiang

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for solving the drilling path optimization problem belonging to discrete space. Because the standard PSO algorithm is not guaranteed to be global convergence or local convergence, based on the mathematical algorithm model, the algorithm is improved by adopting the method of generate the stop evolution particle over again to get the ability of convergence to the global optimization solution. And the operators are improved by establishing the duality transposition method and the handle manner for the elements of the operator, the improved operator can satisfy the need of integer coding in drilling path optimization. The experiment with small node numbers indicates that the improved algorithm has the characteristics of easy realize, fast convergence speed, and better global convergence characteristics, hence the new PSO can play a role in solving the problem of drilling path optimization in drilling holes.

  14. Case Studies on UN Information Operations: Ethiopia, Liberia, and Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Operations, 23 56Ibid., 24 57Ibid., 22 34 avenues of the media like popular music, soap operas , live radio or television programs with call-ins...also be used in IODP such as talk shows, cartoons, TV and radio dramas, comedy shows, quiz shows, soap operas , comic books, theatre presentations and...and education throughout this program have provided many insights that contributed to our success. xvi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 0

  15. Operating Conditions Effects Onenzyme Activity: Case Enzyme Protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Oueslati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Proteases an enzyme added to detergents to degrade the protein spots origin.Their action is manifested through its activity the middle of washing clothes. This activity depends on the operating conditions. In this article, the effects of temperature and pH of the reaction and the substrate concentration and time of washing medium on the enzyme activity were studied. There action mechanism has been shown. The activity measurements were made by absorption spectrometry

  16. Business Case Analysis of the Special Operations Air Mobility Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    be to become trained on hang gliders or non-motorized aircraft gliders (i.e., Towed gliders ). Going in a different direction with alternatives, a...simplicity they do not have a lower end substitute. To find possible substitutes you would have to look at hang gliders , powered parachutes, and...design, the aircraft is essentially a powered glider . In the event of an engine failure, this allows the aircraft to operate and land safely without

  17. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    for developing, utilizing, and exploiting the low-frequency SeismicPULSER{trademark} source in a variety of applications. Risks will be minimized since Drill Bit SWD will not interfere with the drilling operation, and can be performed in a relatively quiet environment when the pumps are turned off. The new source must be integrated with other Measurement While Drilling (MWD) tools. To date, each of the oil companies and service companies contacted have shown interest in participating in the commercialization of the low-frequency SeismicPULSER{trademark} source. A technical paper has been accepted for presentation at the 2009 Offshore Technology Conference (OTC) in a Society of Exploration Geologists/American Association of Petroleum Geophysicists (SEG/AAPG) technical session.

  18. Drill failure during ORIF of the mandible. Complication management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Lipa; Woldenberg, Yizthak; Puterman, Max

    2007-12-01

    A case of a drill breakage during open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of a mandibular fracture is reported. The clinical decision, diagnosis and surgical management of the complication are described.

  19. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, H.D.; Meyers, J.A.; Yost, A.B. II

    1998-12-31

    By increasing penetration rates and bit life, especially in hard formations, the use of down-hole air hammers in the oil field has significantly reduced drilling costs in the Northeast US and West Texas. Unfortunately, drilling by this percussion method has been limited mostly to straight hole applications. This paper presents a new concept of a percussion drilling tool which performs both the function of a down-hole hammer as well as that of a down-hole motor. Such a drilling tool, being introduced here as Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), eliminates the necessity to rotate the drill string and, consequently, enables the use of down-hole air hammers to drill directional wells.

  20. 基于钻头运动诱发套管头振动信号检测的井眼防碰监测方法%Anti-collision monitoring based on detecting casing head vibration induced by drill movements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何保生; 刘刚; 王平双; 文敏

    2011-01-01

    针对海上加密调整井的井眼防碰问题,设计了一种井筒防碰地面监测预警系统,并进行了现场应用.系统利用加速度传感器监测通过套管传输到套管头上的钻头振动信号,利用数据采集、信号滤波放大和专门编制的监测软件记录分析传感器采集的振动信号,通过对信号的时域、频域分析,确定信号特征与井间相对距离的关系,识别钻头对风险井套管的趋近或碰撞.应用结果表明,该系统能有效感知通过地层、套管传输到套管头的钻头振动信号,并能识别出钻头对风险邻井的趋近,验证了系统在设计理论和方法上的可行性,为加密调整井的井眼防碰、保证钻井安全提供了一种有效的手段.%Now encryption adjustment wells are getting widely used in offshore, and the risk of well collision increases greatly. Well anti-collision is becoming more and more important. An anti-collision monitoring system based on detecting casing head vibration induced by drilling movements has been build and rig-site utilized.The acceleration sensors were fixed on the casing head to fell the vibration, the time domain analysis and frequency domain analysis were used in signal processing to recognize the approach motive of the drilling bit to the risk case of production well. The result of rig-site test shows that the newly disigned monitoring system can recognize the vibration caused by bit work and detecting the drilling bit approaching the case. It also indicates that the anti-collision monitoring system for detecting casing head vibration is practicable.

  1. Incidence of and Factors Associated with Sinus Membrane Perforation During Maxillary Sinus Augmentation Using the Reamer Drilling Approach: A Double-Center Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Alberto; Monje-Gil, Florencio; Burgueño, Miguel; Gonzalez-Garcia, Raúl; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2016-01-01

    Maxillary sinus membrane perforation has been reported as the most common intraoperative complication during sinus augmentation, potentially leading to postoperative infection and consequent loss of graft or even implant failure. Numerous anatomical factors have been demonstrated to affect membrane tearing. However, careful use of proper instrumentation, such as a reamer, seems to play an important role in minimizing the incidence of these complications. Hence, the aim of the present study was to (1) investigate the reliability of reamer drilling for lateral window preparation; (2) examine the incidence of membrane perforation; and (3) study the factors that might influence membrane perforation. Results from this study showed the safety and effectiveness of using a reamer to perform lateral window approach sinus augmentation. The sinus membrane perforation rate was found to be 12.5%. A slightly higher perforation rate was noted in thinner maxillary lateral walls (< 1.25 mm). The authors concluded that reamer drilling is a safe and effective alternate technique for opening the lateral window wall when the lateral wall thickness is ≥ 1.25mm.

  2. Offset drilling obligations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, K.D.; Kalmakoff, J.J. [Kanuka Thuringer, Regina, SK (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    A review of the `offset well` clause found in freehold and Crown natural gas and petroleum leases was presented. The objective was to provide lessors and lessees with a clear understanding of the rights and obligations associated with offset wells. It was noted that offset well obligations vary according to the form of lease used, the type of offsetting well, the regulatory regime and the geophysical characteristics of the producing formation. Some suggestions were made as to how current versions of the offset well clause can be amended to overcome some of the problems encountered in applying the clause to an offset horizontal well that has been drilled on adjoining lands. Failure to resolve the new issues presented by horizontal drilling technology in terms of documentation, which records respective rights and obligations on the basis of generally accepted principles, will result in large numbers of conflicts and unnecessary litigation. 144 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Telescopic drilling rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, I.L.; Berezov, S.I.; Gavrilov, G.A.; Goykhman, Ya.A.; Makushkin, D.O.; Rachev, M.P.; Voynich, L.K.

    1981-09-07

    The telescopic drilling rod includes an inner section of the rod, in whose center cable has been passed and is attached a bearing assembly connecting it to the winch, outer section of rod along which there is pipeline connecting the working cavity formed by the inner section of rod and the housing, installed on the lower end of the outer section of rod, with cavity formed by framework of the guide swivel and end piece and connected to the hydraulic system of the machine by pipeline, as well as clamping elements. In order to drill wells to a depth greater than the length of the outer sectrion of the rod, the latter jointly with the inner section of rod is lowered into the extreme lower position until swivel rests on the feed mechanism. With further slipping of cable and the absence of pressure in the hydraulic system, clamping elements do not have an effect on the inner section of rod. It has the opportunity to freely move along the outer section of rod downwards to the face. When pressure is supplied on pipeline into cavity and further through pipeline into working cavity, the inner section of rod is clamped with feed of the outer section in the process of drilling, both sections move jointly. Because of the link between working cavity of sleeve installed on the lower end of the outer section of rod, and the hydraulic system of the machine through the swivel cavity, it is possible to fix the drilling rod in any mutual axial position of the section.

  4. Development of a Mine Rescue Drilling System (MRDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gaither, Katherine N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Polsky, Yarom [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knudsen, Steven D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Broome, Scott Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Su, Jiann-Cherng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blankenship, Douglas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Costin, Laurence S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has a long history in developing compact, mobile, very high-speed drilling systems and this technology could be applied to increasing the rate at which boreholes are drilled during a mine accident response. The present study reviews current technical approaches, primarily based on technology developed under other programs, analyzes mine rescue specific requirements to develop a conceptual mine rescue drilling approach, and finally, proposes development of a phased mine rescue drilling system (MRDS) that accomplishes (1) development of rapid drilling MRDS equipment; (2) structuring improved web communication through the Mine Safety & Health Administration (MSHA) web site; (3) development of an improved protocol for employment of existing drilling technology in emergencies; (4) deployment of advanced technologies to complement mine rescue drilling operations during emergency events; and (5) preliminary discussion of potential future technology development of specialized MRDS equipment. This phased approach allows for rapid fielding of a basic system for improved rescue drilling, with the ability to improve the system over time at a reasonable cost.

  5. Drilling Penetration Rate Estimation using Rock Drillability Characterization Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Abbas; Qao, Qi; Chanda, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    Rock drilling Penetration Rate (PR) is influenced by many parameters including rock properties, machine parameters of the chosen rig and the working process. Five datasets were utilized to quantitatively assess the effect of various rock properties on PR. The datasets consisted of two sets of diamond and percussive drilling and one set of rotary drilling data. A new rating system called Rock Drillability Characterization index (RDCi) is proposed to predict PR for different drilling methods. This drillability model incorporates the uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock, the P-wave velocity and the density of rock. The RDCi system is further applied to predict PR in the diamond rotary drilling, non-coring rotary drilling and percussive drilling. Strong correlations between PR and RDCi values were observed indicating that the developed drillability rating model is relevant and can be utilized to effectively predict the rock drillability in any operating environment. A practical procedure for predicting PR using the RDCi was established. The drilling engineers can follow this procedure to use RDCi as an effective method to estimate drillability.

  6. Study on Earthquake Emergency Evacuation Drill Trainer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChangJiang, L.

    2016-12-01

    With the improvement of China's urbanization, to ensure people survive the earthquake needs scientific routine emergency evacuation drills. Drawing on cellular automaton, shortest path algorithm and collision avoidance, we designed a model of earthquake emergency evacuation drill for school scenes. Based on this model, we made simulation software for earthquake emergency evacuation drill. The software is able to perform the simulation of earthquake emergency evacuation drill by building spatial structural model and selecting the information of people's location grounds on actual conditions of constructions. Based on the data of simulation, we can operate drilling in the same building. RFID technology could be used here for drill data collection which read personal information and send it to the evacuation simulation software via WIFI. Then the simulation software would contrast simulative data with the information of actual evacuation process, such as evacuation time, evacuation path, congestion nodes and so on. In the end, it would provide a contrastive analysis report to report assessment result and optimum proposal. We hope the earthquake emergency evacuation drill software and trainer can provide overall process disposal concept for earthquake emergency evacuation drill in assembly occupancies. The trainer can make the earthquake emergency evacuation more orderly, efficient, reasonable and scientific to fulfill the increase in coping capacity of urban hazard.

  7. Development of a Mine Rescue Drilling System (MRDS) :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W.; Gaither, Katherine N.; Polsky, Yarom; Knudsen, Steven D.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Costin, Laurence S.

    2014-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has a long history in developing compact, mobile, very high-speed drilling systems and this technology could be applied to increasing the rate at which boreholes are drilled during a mine accident response. The present study reviews current technical approaches, primarily based on technology developed under other programs, analyzes mine rescue specific requirements to develop a conceptual mine rescue drilling approach, and finally, proposes development of a phased mine rescue drilling system (MRDS) that accomplishes (1) development of rapid drilling MRDS equipment; (2) structuring improved web communication through the Mine Safety & Health Administration (MSHA) web site; (3) development of an improved protocol for employment of existing drilling technology in emergencies; (4) deployment of advanced technologies to complement mine rescue drilling operations during emergency events; and (5) preliminary discussion of potential future technology development of specialized MRDS equipment. This phased approach allows for rapid fielding of a basic system for improved rescue drilling, with the ability to improve the system over time at a reasonable cost.

  8. Retrieving Drill Bit Seismic Signals Using Surface Seismometers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linfei Wang; Huaishan Liu; Siyou Tong; Yanxin Yin; Lei Xing; Zhihui Zou; Xiugang Xu

    2015-01-01

    Seismic while drilling (SWD) is an emerging borehole seismic imaging technique that uses the downhole drill-bit vibrations as seismic source. Without interrupting drilling, SWD technique can make near-real-time images of the rock formations ahead of the bit and optimize drilling operation, with reduction of costs and the risk of drilling. However, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of surface SWD-data is severely low for the surface acquisition of SWD data. Here, we propose a new method to retrieve the drill-bit signal from the surface data recorded by an array of broadband seismometers. Taking advantages of wavefield analysis, different types of noises are identified and removed from the surface SWD-data, resulting in the significant improvement of SNR. We also optimally synthesize seis-mic response of the bit source, using a statistical cross-coherence analysis to further improve the SNR and retrieve both the drill-bit direct arrivals and reflections which are then used to establish a reverse vertical seismic profile (RVSP) data set for the continuous drilling depth. The subsurface images de-rived from these data compare well with the corresponding images of the three-dimension surface seis-mic survey cross the well.

  9. Operations research at CSIR: A brief history through cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HW Ittmann

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Apart from work in the mining industry during the 1950s, the first real Operations Research (OR group in South Africa was established at CSIR in the early 1960s. Those initially involved in this group played a significant role in establishing OR at various universities in South Africa. The OR group at CSIR did, however, continue and today the group still exists. This paper presents a brief history of this group and endeavours to provide a glimpse of some of the projects conducted over the many years since its establishment.

  10. Case study: City of Industry landfill gas recovery operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-11-01

    Development of civic, recreation, and conservation facilities throughout a 150-acre site which had been used for waste disposal from 1951 to 1970 is described. The history of the landfill site, the geology of the site, and a test well program to assess the feasibility of recoverying landfill gas economically from the site are discussed. Based on results of the test well program, the City of Industry authorized the design and installation of a full-scale landfill gas recovery system. Design, construction, and operation of the system are described. The landfill gas system provides fuel for use in boilers to meet space heating and hot water demands for site development (MCW)

  11. Operational Research for Developing Countries - a case of transfer of technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Ravn, Hans V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is concerned with some fundamental aspects of the process of transfer of operational research from the industrialized countries to the Third World. Two complementary conceptions of operational research are identified: technical and social operational research. The main contribution...... of this paper is to regard the discussion of operational research for developing countries as a case of transfer of technology. Finally, some proposals for action and further research will be briefly outlined....

  12. DYNAMIC MODELLING OF VIBRATIONS ASSISTED DRILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu LADONNE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The number of multi-materials staking configurations for aeronautical structures is increasing, with the evolution of composite and metallic materials. For drilling the fastening holes, the processes of Vibration Assisted Drilling (VAD expand rapidly, as it permits to improve reliability of drilling operations on multilayer structures. Among these processes of VAD, the solution with forced vibrations added to conventional feed to create a discontinuous cutting is the more developed in industry. The back and forth movement allows to improve the evacuation of chips by breaking it. This technology introduces two new operating parameters, the frequency and the amplitude of the oscillation. To optimize the process, the choice of those parameters requires first to model precisely the operation cutting and dynamics. In this paper, a kinematic modelling of the process is firstly proposed. The limits of the model are analysed through comparison between simulations and measurements. The proposed model is used to develop a cutting force model that allows foreseeing the operating conditions which ensure good chips breaking and tool life improvement.

  13. Exploring Pre-Operational and Concrete Operational Children's Thinking on Nutrition: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouse, Corey H.; Chow, Tracy H. F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In this exploratory study, we observed the process in which children make food choices from a cognitive development perspective and the implications that these choices have on the areas of cognitive development and health and nutrition education. Design: This was a cross-sectional case study that involved an in-depth examination of the…

  14. Drilling Polar Oceans with the European Research Icebreaker AURORA BOREALIS: the IODP Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembke-Jene, Lester; Wolff-Boenisch, Bonnie; Azzolini, Roberto; Thiede, Joern; Biebow, Nicole; Eldholm, Olav; Egerton, Paul

    2010-05-01

    -European partners), a multidisciplinary platform for studies ranging from the sub-seafloor into the atmosphere. AURORA BOREALIS was planned for her role in deep-sea drilling in consultation with engineers and technical experts familiar with the program and the operation of these vessels. All techniques currently deployed on IODP expeditions can be implemented onboard the vessel under polar weather and ice conditions, including the full range of re-entry, casing and cementing, and instrumentation options and the entire suite of downhole logging tools. Due to sufficient laboratory space, a full analytical workflow can be easily established comparable to existing permanent platforms, including clean rooms, diverse scanning and logging or incubation facilities. While the vessel is equipped with a dedicated deep-sea drilling rig, other coring and drilling techniques can be employed if needed (e.g. Rockdrill, MEBO, large diameter Kasten cores). AURORA BOREALIS is fitted to operate a CALYPSO Piston Coring System in polar waters. Future mud-return systems under consideration and testing for IODP to provide controlled borehole conditions in difficult facies are compatible with the layout of AURORA BOREALIS. The berthing capacity of 120 personnel total (scientists, technical support and crew) allows to accommodate a sufficient number of science party members offshore. The present scientific implementation documents plan for about one polar scientific drilling expedition per year in a to-be-determined configuration. As the vessel is a multi-dsiciplinary platform, operations for the entire year are not dependant on drilling operations alone. While principal access to the vessel will be based on a competitive proposal review and evaluation system, the allocation of timeslots specifically for drilling would preferably be given over to IODP handling and planning systems in a cooperative mode using the strengths and capacitites of the future program. Depending on interests and needs of the

  15. Social license to operate: case from brazilian mining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Ana Lúcia F.; Demajorovic, Jacques; Aledo, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The approach of the Social License to Operate (SLO) emerges as an important element in academic discussions and business practices related to extractive industries. It appears that in productive activities with great potential to produce economic, social and environmental impacts, conventional approaches based on legal compliance no longer sufficient to legitimize the actions of companies and engagement stakeholders. Studies highlight the need of mining activities receiving a SLO "issued" by companies stakeholders, including society, government, non-governmental organizations, media and communities. However, local communities appears as major stakeholders in governance arrangements, by virtue of its proximity to extractive areas and ability to affect the company's results. Stakeholders with unmet expectations can generate conflicts and risks to the company, the knowledge of these expectations and an awareness of company managers of the importance of Social License to Operate (SLO), can generate strategies and mitigating actions to prevent and or minimize possible conflicts. The concept of SLO arises in engineering extractive industry, when you need to respond to social challenges, beyond the usual environmental challenges, technological and management. According to Franks and Cohen (2012) there is a tendency of engineering sectors, sustainability, environmental, safety and especially in risk mappings, treat the technological issues in a neutral manner, separating the technological research projects of social influences. I want to contribute to the advancement of the debate on stakeholder engagement and adopting as focus on the company's relationship with the community, the aim of this study was to understand how a social project held by one of the largest mining companies in Brazil contributed to the process of SLO. This methodological procedure adopted was a qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory interviews with the communities located in rural areas of direct

  16. Post-operative Supplementary Motor Area Syndrome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satter, A R; Asif, D S; Zannat, S; Gaddam, S K

    2017-04-01

    The supplementary motor area (SMA-proper) is important for the programming and execution of motor, speech, and other elaborative functions. SMA is frequently involved by brain tumors (particularly WHO grade II gliomas). Surgery in this area can be followed by the 'SMA syndrome', characterised by contralateral akinesia and mutism. We present a case of Falcine meningioma in the region of the right SMA which developed SMA syndrome. Our patient showed complete recovery of neurological function but the process was slow with a specific pattern.

  17. Business Case: Sustainable Energy for De-mining Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Finnemann, Winie

    2011-01-01

    small, Danish companies work with an NGO and two university partners to develop a sustainable energy solution for humanitarian landmine removal in Angola as an alternative to the presently used diesel generators. I will discuss the challenges that face the companies, if they are to bring the project......It is very difficult for companies in the industrialised West to establish business in developing countries, both because of lack of knowledge of local conditions and procedures, and because there is less infrastructure to rely on. This paper describes a case of an innovation project in which four...

  18. A Case for Enlisted Unmanned Aerial System Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-25

    Abrams main battle tank is a very good weapons system to compare to the primary Air Force UAS, the MQ-1 Predator. The M1A1/2 Abrams main battle tank...the case of close air support targets. Given that the Army has less than 5,000 Abrams tanks in its inventory, it could also adopt a policy that only...Air Command and Staff College, April 1984. Floyd D. Spence National Defense Authorization Act for FY2001. Public Law 106-398, Section 220. 114 Stat

  19. Technology Solutions Case Study: Hydronic Systems: Designing for Setback Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-01

    For years, conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has specified two points: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads, and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step-by-step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  20. Technology Solutions Case Study: Hydronic Systems: Designing for Setback Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-01

    For years, conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has specified two points: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads, and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step-by-step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  1. In the zone - first rotary steerable liner-while-drilling system; Drilling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Statoil recently successfully tested the world's first rotary steerable liner-while-drilling system from its Brage platform in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. This innovative technology - with applications in new and mature fields - was jointly developed by Statoil and Baker Hughes Incorporated. The concept of a rotary steerable system that gives operators the ability to accurately drill and log three-dimensional well profiles with a liner attached directly to the drillstring is entirely new. The system is designed to withstand high circulation rates and high torque loads while providing liner connect and disconnect capabilities. (Author)

  2. An empirical investigation on the effects of organizational and individual factors creating conflicts on employee performance: A case study of logistics management of national Iranian drilling company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Deris Soltanpour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a survey on the effects of organizational and individual factors causing conflict on employee performance of national Iranian drilling company's logistics management. It has been of descriptive type and carried out by using the random sampling method. The statistical population included all the employees of logistics management. Invariable t-test was used in this research for data analysis. The results showed that the average factors such as education, age, personal ethics, scarcity of resources, work dependence, organizational structure and organizational culture were significantly higher than the average value (3 and the average factors such as personality, evaluation structure and reward were significantly lower than the average value (3. According to the results of this survey, feeling dependence was number one priority for creating conflict followed by personal ethics, education, resources, organizational culture, age, organizational structure, evaluation and individual personality was the last item.

  3. IMMEDIATE POST - OPERATIVE VENTRICULAR BIGEMINY IN A PATIENT OPERATED FOR OVARIAN CYSTECTOMY : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Narayanan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year s female who was recently diagnosed as RHD with MR was posted for Rt. Ovarian cystectomy. Immediately after extubation she was having continuous ventricular bigeminy which persisted even after giving 60mg of 2% lignocaine i.v. Later 2mg of metoprolol was given which stopped the ventricular ectopics from occurring. The case report discusses the successful treatment of the ventricular bigeminy and the prevention of any c omplications from arising in this particular patient.

  4. Geologic applications of an MWD communications system in a development drilling project, Point Pedernales unit, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krase, S.J.; Wagnon, J.P. (Teleco Oilfield Services, Broussard, LA (USA)); Lothringer, C. (Unocal, Bakersfield, CA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    A low-cost communication system for measurement while drilling has been developed. This system has been used effectively on a major development project offshore California. The Point Pedemales unit is currently being developed from platform Irene with Unocal serving as the operator. The user end (remote) of the system is designed to reside on any IBM-compatible personal computer. For the Point Pedernales project, the software was installed on a Unocal system and used the existing microwave voice phone communications. The availability of real-time data in the operator's office results in the elimination of unnecessary trips to the rig site. The flexible plotting capabilities allow true stratigraphic thickness logs to be generated. In high-angle, long-reach wells, these plots allow for more accurate correlation not typically achievable with measured depth and true vertical depth logs. This capability allows for casing point selection to be made accurately. The cost savings associated with accurate casing point selection can be significant. The ability to transmit MWD data from the drilling rig to the office allows all personnel involved in a project to take advantage of the real-time benefits of MWD. The systems lends itself to installation on any drilling Project where voice phone communications, including cellular networks, are available.

  5. 颅内血肿钻孔引流术后早期应用补阳还五汤治疗高血压脑出血的效果观察%Effect observation of early application of Buyang Huanwu decoction in the treatment of hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage after the operation of drilling drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景志军; 杨建青; 刘亚宁; 李永利; 杨维艳; 周瑞涛; 毕艳平

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of early application of Buyang Huanwu decoction in the treatment of hyper-tensive cerebral hemorrhage after the operation of drilling drainage. Methods 150 patients with hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage from March 2013 to February 2015 in our hospital were selected and randomly divided into the treatment group and the control group,75 cases in each group.The control group was treated with drilling drainage and taken care of in routine treatment of western medicine,the treatment group was treated with Buyang Huanwu decoction by orally or nasal feeding on the basis of the control group.The effect in two groups was compared. Results The proportion of con-scious awareness in the treatment group was higher than that in the control group,the recovery time of the conscious-ness in the treatment group was shorter than that in the control group,with significant difference (P<0.05).The recovery condition of limb muscle strength in the treatment group was better than that in the control group,with significant differ-ence (P<0.05). The proportion of language clarity in the treatment group was higher than that in the control group,with significant difference (P<0.05).The cure rate,the healing rate and the total effective rate in the treatment group was higher than that in the control group,with significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion The curative effect of early appli-cation of Buyang Huanwu decoction in the treatment of hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage after the operation of drilling drainage is significant better than that in simple surgical treatment.%目的:探讨高血压脑出血患者行钻孔引流术后早期应用补阳还五汤的效果。方法选取本院2013年3月~2015年2月收治的150例高血压脑出血患者作为研究对象,随机分为治疗组和对照组,各75例。对照组采用颅内血肿钻孔引流术,并给予西医常规治疗,治疗组在对照组的基础上给予补阳还五汤加减鼻饲或口

  6. Field Testing of Environmentally Friendly Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Burnett

    2009-05-31

    The Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program addresses new low-impact technology that reduces the footprint of drilling activities, integrates light weight drilling rigs with reduced emission engine packages, addresses on-site waste management, optimizes the systems to fit the needs of a specific development sites and provides stewardship of the environment. In addition, the program includes industry, the public, environmental organizations, and elected officials in a collaboration that addresses concerns on development of unconventional natural gas resources in environmentally sensitive areas. The EFD program provides the fundamentals to result in greater access, reasonable regulatory controls, lower development cost and reduction of the environmental footprint associated with operations for unconventional natural gas. Industry Sponsors have supported the program with significant financial and technical support. This final report compendium is organized into segments corresponding directly with the DOE approved scope of work for the term 2005-2009 (10 Sections). Each specific project is defined by (a) its goals, (b) its deliverable, and (c) its future direction. A web site has been established that contains all of these detailed engineering reports produced with their efforts. The goals of the project are to (1) identify critical enabling technologies for a prototype low-impact drilling system, (2) test the prototype systems in field laboratories, and (3) demonstrate the advanced technology to show how these practices would benefit the environment.

  7. [An operated case of a meningioma causing acute subdural hematoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, Masashi; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Koyama, Shinya; Kon, Hiroyuki; Sannohe, Seiya; Kurotaki, Hidekachi; Midorikawa, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Nishijima, Michiharu

    2013-03-01

    We report a rare case of a meningioma causing acute hematoma. A 67-year-old woman presented with sudden headache. No evidence of trauma was seen. CT demonstrated a subdural hematoma in the convexity of the fronto-temporal lobe. Magnetic resonance imaging showed marked signal heterogeneity in the convexity of the frontal lobe. One week later, the patient underwent hematoma evacuation and tumor resection including the attached dura mater. The histological diagnosis was meningothelial meningioma. The clot was connected directly to the tumor and the origin of the subdural hematoma was identified as the meningioma. Postoperative course was uneventful, and the headache improved. Meningiomas have a relatively benign course but rarely present with hemorrhage. Surgical exploration is the effective and recommended treatment.

  8. Operative treatment of chondroblastoma: a study of 11 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapa, Onur; Karakaşlı, Ahmet; Demirkıran, Nihat Demirhan; Akdeniz, Olcay; Havitçioğlu, Hasan

    2016-03-01

    Aim of the study was to review the radiological, clinical results of 11 chondroblastoma cases treated at our institute between 2003-2013. All patients with chondroblastoma included in this study underwent intra-lesional curettage+/-bone grafting. Follow up for healing of chondroblastoma lesions and detection of any local recurrence was assessed on clinical and radiological bases. The functional outcome was assessed by the Musculoskeletal Tumour Society scoring system. The mean follow-up period was 6.1 years. There were three recurrences (two femoral head, one proximal tibia). The mean Musculoskeletal Tumour Society functional score was 21. First line aggressive treatment seems appropriate for chondroblastoma especially when localized at lower extremities.

  9. "EFFECTS OF HIGH-SPEED DRILL NOISE ON DENTISTS’ HEARING "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Akbakhanzadeh

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with noise problems associated with the use of air-turbine drills in dental practice. Noise level measurements were made on various types of dental handpieces, when operated free running and when used to cut tooth tissue. Hearing acuity tests were also undertaken in 12 randomly selected dental surgeons who have been using these drills for a number of years. The results indicate that although the danger to hearing from high speed drills is small, the possibility of hazardous effects-at least, for susceptible ears- is not excluded.

  10. Making the Traffic Operations Case for Congestion Pricing: Operational Impacts of Congestion Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Hu, Patricia S [ORNL; Davidson, Diane [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    Congestion begins when an excess of vehicles on a segment of roadway at a given time, resulting in speeds that are significantly slower than normal or 'free flow' speeds. Congestion often means stop-and-go traffic. The transition occurs when vehicle density (the number of vehicles per mile in a lane) exceeds a critical level. Once traffic enters a state of congestion, recovery or time to return to a free-flow state is lengthy; and during the recovery process, delay continues to accumulate. The breakdown in speed and flow greatly impedes the efficient operation of the freeway system, resulting in economic, mobility, environmental and safety problems. Freeways are designed to function as access-controlled highways characterized by uninterrupted traffic flow so references to freeway performance relate primarily to the quality of traffic flow or traffic conditions as experienced by users of the freeway. The maximum flow or capacity of a freeway segment is reached while traffic is moving freely. As a result, freeways are most productive when they carry capacity flows at 60 mph, whereas lower speeds impose freeway delay, resulting in bottlenecks. Bottlenecks may be caused by physical disruptions, such as a reduced number of lanes, a change in grade, or an on-ramp with a short merge lane. This type of bottleneck occurs on a predictable or 'recurrent' basis at the same time of day and same day of week. Recurrent congestion totals 45% of congestion and is primarily from bottlenecks (40%) as well as inadequate signal timing (5%). Nonrecurring bottlenecks result from crashes, work zone disruptions, adverse weather conditions, and special events that create surges in demand and that account for over 55% of experienced congestion. Figure 1.1 shows that nonrecurring congestion is composed of traffic incidents (25%), severe weather (15%), work zones, (10%), and special events (5%). Between 1995 and 2005, the average percentage change in increased peak traveler

  11. Technical drilling data acquisition and processing with an integrated computer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, J.J.; Quetier, F.P.; Marshall, D.W.

    1986-04-01

    Sedco Forex has developed an integrated computer system to enhance the technical performance of the company at various operational levels and to increase the understanding and knowledge of the drill crews. This paper describes the system and how it is used for recording and processing drilling data at the rig site, for associated technical analyses, and for well design, planning, and drilling performance studies at the operational centers. Some capabilities related to the statistical analysis of the company's operational records are also described, and future development of rig computing systems for drilling applications and management tasks is discussed.

  12. European Geothermal Drilling Experience. Problem Areas and Case Studies L'expérience du forage géothermique en Europe. Nature des problèmes et études de cas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baron G.

    2006-11-01

    . Current geothermal drilling practice in Europe is illustrated by three typical case studies. En Europe Occidentale, le forage géothermique est resté longtemps limité au seul champ géothermique de Larderello en Italie pour la production de vapeur sèche. Au cours des dernières années, une expérience plus large s'est accumulée à la suite de l'intensification des programmes d'exploration et de développement entrepris pour évaluer et produire en parallèle les ressources géothermiques haute et basse enthalpies. Un échantillonnage d'une quarantaine de puits indique les sources des problèmes. 1. Forage géothermique basse enthalpie Par suite de situations similaires - système d'eau chaude s'écoulant dans des formations sédimentaires à des tem-pératures s'étalant de 40 à 140 °C et des profondeurs s'étageant de 1000 à 3500 m - la technologie est ici fortement liée à la pratique du forage des puits à huile et à gaz. Cependant, des problèmes spécifiques demeurent dans le domaine de la reconnaissance des réservoirs multiples et de la complétion des puits au niveau de la production et de la réinjection, particulièrement dans les séries fluvio-deltaïques faiblement consolidées amenant des problèmes de contrôle des venues de sables et de gonflement des argiles. Des travaux d'expertise sont nécessaires en vue de diminuer les coûts, d'assurer des capacités de production élevées, de longues durées d'exploitation, des frais de maintenance minimaux compatibles avec l'économie et l'absence de moyens convenables pour les travaux de reprise de puits. 2. Forage géothermique haute enthalpie Le forage d'exploration combine, en langage courant, le forage de recherche et les investigations plus profondes sur les champs connus. Les pertes de circulation, la corrosion des trains de tiges, les tubages, les boues de forage et les cimentations et la maîtrise de la déviation constituent les difficultés les plus fréquemment rencontrées dans les

  13. Study of 433 Operated Cases of Thoracic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakmak, Muharrem; Nail Kandemir, Mehmet

    2016-12-01

    Patients with thoracic trauma constitute one third of all the trauma cases. Of traumatic patients, 20-25 % die because of thoracic trauma. Our aim was to compare our clinical experience and the results with the related literature. Four hundred thirty-three patients, who underwent surgical interventions due to thoracic trauma, were evaluated. The latest form of treatment applied were taken as the criteria for the quantitative detection of patients. Continuous variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, while categorical variables were explained as number and percentage. The significance of the analysis results was evaluated using Fisher's exact test. p values tamponade in 1 patient (0.23 %). It was demonstrated that 385 of 433 patients examined in the study underwent tube thoracostomy, 41 were treated with thoracotomy, while 6 of them underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), and 1 underwent sternotomy. No correlation was observed between mortality, morbidity, and gender and type of trauma and location of trauma (p > 0.05). However, statistically significant correlation was found between mortaxlity, morbidity, and the presence of concomitant injuries, the duration between injury and admission being more than 1 h (p < 0.05). Urgent intervention, early diagnosis, and fast transport are vital for patients with thoracic injuries.

  14. Water base drilling fluids for high-angle wells; Fluidos a base de agua para perfuracao de pocos com elevada inclinacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarelli, Rui [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Perfuracao. Div. de Fluidos de Perfuracao; Lomba, Rosana Fatima T. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao

    1989-12-31

    Horizontal drilling has experimented a large increase in last years. In Brazil, two horizontal wells were drilled in Fazenda Belem and Carmopolis Fields. The first one reached a final measured depth of 1128 m and the horizontal length was 533 m. The drilling fluid program was elaborated after a large number of laboratory tests, in order to get a composition that best fitted the drilling requirements, mainly the desirable lubricity. The idea of using a water-base fluid instead of an oil-based, known as more suitable in this case, arose because the Company is interested in drilling this kind of well offshore, in deep water, where the use of oil-base muds is forbidden. Different compositions of water base muds were developed and tested in laboratory and the results led to low-solids salt fluids having a lubricant in its composition. The lubricity coefficients of these fluids are similar to those obtained with oil-base muds. 9-FZB-446D-CE well was drilled with the chosen fluid and high values of torque and drag were not registered, being the operation a total success. (author) 10 tabs.

  15. Reporting from the Iceland Deep Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Karl

    2017-04-01

    Geoscience-related topics are in many cases difficult to communicate to the public: Often they include dead soil which not easily tells lively stories. And it is hard to sell those topics to editors of public media. In addition the topics might also be politically supercharged if they are resource-related with a visible environmental impact. Therefore any researcher involved might be overcautious while talking to journalists. With a grant from the EGU Science Journalist Fellowship I travelled to Iceland in autumn 2016 to report about the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP). The project which started just weeks prior to my arrival aimed to drill the deepest borehole in a volcanically active region. During earlier trials the borehole collapsed or the drill string unintentionally hit magma. If successful the IDDP promises a much higher level of geothermal energy harvested. The IDDP was therefore ideally suited to be sold to public media outlets since Iceland's volcanic legacy easily tells a lively story. But the drilling's potential environmental impact makes it a political topic in Iceland - even though geothermal energy has a positive public perception. Therefore the IDDP included some pitfalls I observed several times before while reporting about geoscience research. Those could be circumvented if researchers and journalists knew better about their expectations before any interview takes place.

  16. Bulb turbine operating at medium head: XIA JIANG case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, F.; Desrats, C.; Petit, P.; Liu, J.

    2012-11-01

    With lots of references for 4-blade bulb turbines, such as these of Wu Jin Xia (4 units - 36.1 MW per unit - 9.2 m rated head), Chang Zhou (15 units - 46.7 MW per unit - 9.5 m rated head) and Tong Wan (4 units - 46.2 MW per unit - 11 m rated head), ALSTOM Power Hydro is one of the major suppliers of bulb turbines operating under medium head for the Chinese market. ALSTOM Power Hydro has been awarded in November 2010 a contract by Jiang Xi Province Xia Jiang Water Control Project Headquarters to equip Xia Jiang's new hydropower plant. The power dam is located on the Gan Jiang river, at about 160 km away from Nan Chang town in South Eastern China. The supply will consist in 5 bulb units including the furniture of both the turbine and its generator, for a total capacity of 200 MW, under a rated net head of 8.6 m. The prototype turbine is a 7.8 m diameter runner, rotating at 71.4 rpm speed. For this project, ALSTOM has proposed a fully new design of 4-blade bulb runner. This paper outlines the main steps of the hydraulic development. First of all, a fine tuning of the blade geometry was performed to enhance the runner behaviour at high loads and low heads, so that to fulfill the demanding requirements of efficiencies and maximum output. The challenge was also to keep an excellent cavitation behaviour, especially at the outer blade diameter in order to avoid cavitation erosion on the prototype. The shape of the blade was optimized by using the latest tools in computational fluid dynamics. Steady state simulations of the distributor and the runner were performed, in order to simulate more accurately the pressure fields on the blade and the velocity distribution at the outlet of the runner. Moreover, draft tube computations have been performed close to the design point and at higher loads. Then, a model fully homologous with the prototype was manufactured and tested at ALSTOM's laboratory in Grenoble (France). The model test results confirmed the predicted ones: the

  17. Cognitive constraints on ordering operations: the case of geometric analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, L R; Tversky, B

    1987-03-01

    Many tasks (e.g., solving algebraic equations and running errands) require the execution of several component processes in an unconstrained order. The research reported here uses the geometric analogy task as a paradigm case for studying the ordering of component processes in this type of task. In solving geometric analogies by applying mental transformations such as rotate, change size, and add a part, the order of performing the transformations is unconstrained and does not in principle affect solution accuracy. Nevertheless, solvers may bring cognitive constraints with them to the analogy task that influence the ordering of the transformations. First, we demonstrate that solvers have a preferred order for performing mental transformations during analogy solution. We then investigate three classes of explanations for the preferred order, one based on general information processing considerations, another based on task-specific considerations, and a third based on individual differences in analogy ability. In the first and third experiments, college students solved geometric analogies requiring two or three transformations and indicated the order in which they performed the transformations. There was close agreement on nearly the same order for both types of analogies. In the second experiment, subjects were directed to perform pairs of transformations in the preferred or unpreferred order. Both speed and accuracy were greater for the preferred orders, thus validating subjects' reported orders. Ability differences were observed for only the more difficult three-transformation problems: High- and middle-ability subjects agreed on an overall performance order, but the highs were more consistent in their use of this order. Low-ability subjects did not consistently order the transformations for these difficult problems. The general information processing factor examined was working-memory load. A number of task factors have been shown to affect working-memory load

  18. Sea Bed Drilling Technology MARUM-MeBo: Overview on recent scientific drilling campaigns and technical developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenthal, Tim; Bergenthal, Markus; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Pape, Thomas; Kopf, Achim; Huhn-Frehers, Katrin; Gohl, Karsten; Wefer, Gerold

    2017-04-01

    The MARUM-MeBo (abbreviation for Meeresboden-Bohrgerät, the German expression for seafloor drill rig) is a robotic drilling system that is developed since 2004 at the MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at the University of Bremen in close cooperation with Bauer Maschinen GmbH and other industry partners. The MARUM-MeBo drill rigs can be deployed from multipurpose research vessel like, RV MARIA S. MERIAN, RV METEOR, RV SONNE and RV POLARSTERN and are used for getting long cores both in soft sediments as well as hard rocks in the deep sea. The first generation drill rig, the MARUM-MeBo70 is dedicated for a drilling depth of more than 70 m (Freudenthal and Wefer, 2013). Between 2005 and 2016 it was deployed on 17 research expeditions and drilled about 3 km into different types of geology including carbonate and crystalline rocks, gas hydrates, glacial tills, sands and gravel, glacial till and hemipelagic mud with an average recovery rate of about 70 %. We used the development and operational experiences of MARUM-MeBo70 for the development of a second generation drill rig MARUM-MeBo200. This drill rig is dedicated for conducting core drilling down to 200 m below sea floor. After successful sea trials in the North Sea in October 2014 the MeBo200 was used on a scientific expedition on the research vessel RV SONNE (SO247) in March/April 2016. During 12 deployments we drilled altogether 514 m in hemipelagic sediments with volcanic ashes as well as in muddy and sandy slide deposits off New Zealand. The average core recovery was about 54%. The maximum drilling depth was 105 m below sea floor. Developments for the MeBo drilling technology include the development of a pressure core barrel that was successfully deployed on two research expeditions so far. Bore hole logging adds to the coring capacity. Several autonomous logging probes have been developed in the last years for a deployment with MeBo in the logging while tripping mode - a sonic probe measuring in

  19. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  20. Recent R&D in Drilling Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zuchen; Huang Zhiqian

    1997-01-01

    @@ Situation for Drilling Equipment Technical performance of drilling equipment and perfection of supporting systems hold the key to drilling safety, technical procedure development and drilling cost. In the end of the 1980s, the stituation for drilling equipment was not optimistic in China because of poor technical performance, low-level supporting system and scarcity of electric-driven rigs.

  1. EIA completes corrections to drilling estimates series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trapmann, W.; Shambaugh, P. [Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-11-23

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has published monthly and annual estimates of US oil and gas drilling activity since 1978. These data are key information for many industry analysts, serving as a leading indicator of trends in the industry and a barometer of general industry status. They are assessed directly for trends, as well as in combination with other measures to assess the productivity and profitability of upstream industry operations. They are major reference points for federal and state policymakers. EIA does not itself collect drilling activity data. Instead, it relies on an external source for data on oil, bas, and dry well completions. These data are provided to EIA monthly on an as reported basis. During a recent effort to enhance EIA`s well completion data system, the detection of unusual patterns in the well completion data as received led to an expanded examination of these data. Substantial discrepancies between the data as received by EIA and correct record counts since 1987 were identified. For total wells by year, the errors ranged up to more than 2,300 wells, 11% of the 1995 total, and the impact of these errors extended backward in time to at least the early 1980s. When the magnitude and extent of the as reported well completion data problem were confirmed, EIA suspended its publication and distribution of updated drilling data. EIA staff proceeded to acquire replacement files with the as reported records and then revise the statistical portion of its drilling data system to reflect the new information. The replacement files unfortunately also included erroneous data based on the improper allocation of wells between exploration and development. EIA has now resolved the two data problems and generated revised time series estimates for well completions and footage drilled. The paper describes the problems in the data, differences between the series, and maintaining future data quality.

  2. Handbook of Best Practices for Geothermal Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, John Travis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blankenship, Douglas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This Handbook is a description of the complex process that comprises drilling a geothermal well. The focus of the detailed Chapters covering various aspects of the process (casing design, cementing, logging and instrumentation, etc) is on techniques and hardware that have proven successful in geothermal reservoirs around the world. The Handbook will eventually be linked to the GIA web site, with the hope and expectation that it can be continually updated as new methods are demonstrated or proven.

  3. Contamination effects of drilling fluid additives on cement slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youzhi Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During the cementation of deep wells, contamination at the contact surface between cement slurry and drilling fluid will present a technical challenge, which may threaten operation safety. To deal with the problem, lab tests and analysis were performed specifically on the compatibility of fluids during cementation in Sichuan and Chongqing gas fields. Impacts of commonly used additives for drilling fluids were determined on fluidity and thickening time of conventional cement slurry. Through the infrared spectrum analysis, SEM and XRD, infrared spectrum data of kalium polyacrylamide (KPAM and bio-viscosifier were obtained, together with infrared spectrum, SEM and XRD data of cement slurry with additives. Contamination mechanisms of the cement slurry by conventional additives for drilling fluid were reviewed. Test results show that both KPAM and bio-viscosifier are such high-molecular materials that the long chains in these materials may easily absorb cement particles in the slurry to form mixed network structures; as a result, cement particles were prone to agglomeration and eventually lost their pumpability. Finally, assessment of and testing methods for the contamination effects of drilling fluid additives on cement slurry were further improved to form standards and codes that may help solve the said problems. This study will provide technological supports for the preparation of drilling fluids with desirable properties prior to cementation, the selection of optimal drilling fluids additives, and the development of innovative drilling fluids additives.

  4. DOLOMITE AS AN ALTERNATIVE WEIGHTING AGENT IN DRILLING FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. BADRUL

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of experimental tests have been conducted to assess the suitability of using dolomite as an alternative weighting agent in drilling fluids. Currently, barite is widely used as weighting agent in drilling fluids slurry to ensure proper weights are achieved. However, barite contains toxic materials which make it unattractive from health and environment point of views. This is especially true when drilling operations are offshore, where most of the used drilling fluids will be dumped back into the sea. In this work, rheological properties of dolomite blend drilling fluids slurry were studied. Dolomite rocks were first crushed to produce dolomite powder, before being mixed with water and bentonite at various proportions. A total of 10 samples which contains various percentages of water, bentonite and dolomite were studied. For each sample, its rheological properties were determined. Such properties include density from mud balance, viscosity from viscometer, filtrate loss from API filter press and gel strength. The effect of aging on the properties of drilling fluids was also studied. From the study, it is concluded that Sample E, which consists of 70% dolomite by weight, produces the most stable drilling fluids. It is also observed that the amount of 336 g of dolomite in the sample shows the similar physical and rheological properties to that of the 480 g barite in the sample although the density for both samples is not same.

  5. 30 CFR 250.445 - What are the requirements for kelly valves, inside BOPs, and drill-string safety valves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). You must be able to strip the lower kelly valve through the BOP stack; (c) If you drill with a mud..., inside BOPs, and drill-string safety valves? 250.445 Section 250.445 Mineral Resources MINERALS... CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Blowout Preventer (bop) System Requirements § 250.445...

  6. National Cases combining promotion scheme, ownership structure and operational strategy for Denmark, France and Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Ana; Kroff, Pablo; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2011-01-01

    by means of energy systems analysis and studies on central cases for each of the participating project partners. This document comprises results from Work Package 6 – National Cases combining support schemes, ownership structures and operational strategies of the FC4Home research project. It integrates...

  7. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  8. Boundedness of Multilinear Operators on Herz Type Spaces:Extreme Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang wu; Da Chun YANG

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, two classes of closely related multilinear singular and fractional integrals,which include the commutators as special cases, are studied and their boundedness on Herz type spaces is discussed. In fact, it is proved that these operators are actually not bounded in certain extreme cases.

  9. Purpose-built PDC bit successfully drills 7-in liner equipment and formation: An integrated solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puennel, J.G.A.; Huppertz, A.; Huizing, J. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Historically, drilling out the 7-in, liner equipment has been a time consuming operation with a limited success ratio. The success of the operation is highly dependent on the type of drill bit employed. Tungsten carbide mills and mill tooth rock bits required from 7.5 to 11.5 hours respectively to drill the pack-off bushings, landing collar, shoe track and shoe. Rates of penetration dropped dramatically when drilling the float equipment. While conventional PDC bits have drilled the liner equipment successfully (averaging 9.7 hours), severe bit damage invariably prevented them from continuing to drill the formation at cost-effective penetration rates. This paper describes the integrated development and application of an IADC M433 Class PDC bit, which was designed specifically to drill out the 7-in. liner equipment and continue drilling the formation at satisfactory penetration rates. The development was the result of a joint investigation There the operator and bit/liner manufacturers shared their expertise in solving a drilling problem, The heavy-set bit was developed following drill-off tests conducted to investigate the drillability of the 7-in. liner equipment. Key features of the new bit and its application onshore The Netherlands will be presented and analyzed.

  10. A Study on Problems Arises in Practicing Fire Drill in High Rise Building in Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahari N.F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire drill is one of the steps taken to mitigate the risk trapped in a building during outbreak of fire. Hence, it is very important for every building to practice fire drill, especially high-rise building. Referring to Fire and Rescue Department of Malaysia(BOMBA, high-rise building had a higher risk compared to other type of buildings. However, there might be problems arise to practice fire drill especially in high-rise building. This research intends to study on fire drill procedure and identify any possible common problems arises when practicing fire drill in high-rise building in Kuala Lumpur. Information was gained through regulations and guidelines associated with fire drill procedure and also parties involved in the practice. Besides, a survey is done for awareness of occupants in high-rise building on fire drill practice. For the case study, three high-rise building are selected in Kuala Lumpur based on specific criteria. Analysis for this research comprises of comparative and descriptive approach as well as statistical analysis which are documented based on case studies and questionnaire survey. The findings indicates that there is no standardized procedure in fire drill, while the most common problems that can be seen in practicing fire drill are lack of commitment among occupants, lack of information on fire drill and output on weaknesses after fire drill been practiced.

  11. Operational Research for Developing Countries - a case of transfer of technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Ravn, Hans V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is concerned with some fundamental aspects of the process of transfer of operational research from the industrialized countries to the Third World. Two complementary conceptions of operational research are identified: technical and social operational research. The main contribution of ...... of this paper is to regard the discussion of operational research for developing countries as a case of transfer of technology. Finally, some proposals for action and further research will be briefly outlined.......This paper is concerned with some fundamental aspects of the process of transfer of operational research from the industrialized countries to the Third World. Two complementary conceptions of operational research are identified: technical and social operational research. The main contribution...

  12. Pre-operative planning and intra-operative guidance in modern neurosurgery: a review of 300 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadley, J.; Dorward, N.; Kitchen, N.; Thomas, D.

    1999-01-01

    Operative neurosurgery has recently entered an exciting era of image guided surgery or neuronavigation and application of this novel technology is beginning to have a significant impact in many ways in a variety of intracranial procedures. In order to fully assess the advantages of image guided techniques over conventional planning and surgery in selected cases, detailed prospective evaluation has been carried out during the advanced development of an optically tracked neuronavigation system. Over a 2-year period, 300 operative neurosurgical procedures have been performed with the assistance of interactive image guidance, as well as the development of new software applications and hardware tools. A broad range of intracranial neurosurgical procedures were seen to benefit from image guidance, including 163 craniotomies, 53 interactive stereotactic biopsies, 7 tracked neuroendoscopies and 37 complex skull base procedures. The most common pathological diagnoses were cerebral glioma in 98 cases, meningioma in 64 and metastasis in 23. Detailed analysis of a battery of postoperative questions revealed benefits in operative planning, appreciation of anatomy, lesion location, safety of surgery and greatly enhanced surgical confidence. The authors believe that image guided surgical technology, with new developments such as those described, has a significant role to play in contemporary neurosurgery and its widespread adoption in practice will be realised in the near future. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10615186

  13. New Technology of Drilling Fluids Conversion after Gas Drilling%气体钻井后气液转换新工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马庆涛

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the problems such as formation hydration ,erosion ,borehole collapse ,loss of circulation ,which are likely to occur during drilling fluid conversion after gas drilling ,the gas-drilling fluid alteration process after gas drilling was studied .Three kinds of risks associated with conventional gas-drill-ing fluid conversion were analyzed .According to wettability reversal theory ,spraying wet reversal agent to borehole to make it oil-wet for keeping borehole stability .The procedure includes pulling the bit back up to the last casing ,then rotating bit ,spraying wet reversal agent to change the borehole wettability .Finally ,the drilling bit can be run to the bottom ,and pumping drilling fluids at low flow rate w hile tripping out at slow speed .The application of the procedure in Well Yuanye HF 1 in Yuanba Block showed ,the operation time was only 47% that of conversional method ,and the consumption of wet reversal agent was only 13% of that in conversional ways ,was no trouble occurred .It indicated that new alteration process for gas-drilling fluid was safe ,simple ,economic ,and effective ,could provide technical support for drilling fluid alteration after gas drilling in the future .%为了解决气体钻井后气液转换过程中容易出现的地层水化剥蚀、井壁坍塌、钻井液漏失等问题,对气体钻井后的气液转换工艺进行了研究。分析了3种常规气液转换工艺存在的风险,根据井壁润湿反转理论,在井壁上喷淋润湿反转剂使其形成亲油状态,保护井壁不坍塌;在注入钻井液前先将钻头提至上一层套管内,然后旋转钻头喷淋润湿反转剂,对井壁进行润湿反转处理;最后将钻头下到井底,边慢速起钻边小排量注入钻井液。在元坝区块元页H F 1井的应用表明,转换时间仅为常规气液转换工艺的47%,润湿反转剂消耗量仅为常规气液转换工艺的13%,整个过程无井下故障发生。这

  14. Sound Coiled-Tubing Drilling Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Thomas; Deskins, Greg (Maurer Technology Inc.); Ward, Stephen L. (Advantage Energy Services Ltd); Hightower, Mel

    2001-09-30

    This Coiled-Tubing Drilling (CTD) Sound Practices Manual provides tools needed by CTD engineers and supervisors to plan, design and perform safe, successful CTD operations. As emphasized throughout, both careful planning and attention to detail are mandatory for success. A bibliography of many useful CTD references is presented in Chapter 6. This manual is organized according to three processes: 1) Pre-Job Planning Process, 2) Operations Execution Process, and 3) Post-Job Review Process. Each is discussed in a logical and sequential format.

  15. Great Progress of Drilling Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Kexiang

    1994-01-01

    @@ A great progress has been made in drilling technology in China from 1986 to 1990 by popularizing research achievements and emphasizing high economic efficiency of exploration and development, high quality of drilling engineering, high drilling rate and formation damage prevention.

  16. DRILL BITS FOR HORIZONTAL WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Macini

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper underlines the importance of the correct drill bit application in horizontal wells. Afler the analysis of the peculiarities of horizontal wells and drainholes drilling techniques, advantages and disadvantages of the application of both roller cone and fixed cutters drill bits have been discussed. Also, a review of the potential specific featuries useful for a correct drill bit selection in horizontal small diameter holes has been highlighted. Drill bits for these special applications, whose importance is quickly increasing nowadays, should be characterised by a design capable to deliver a good penetration rate low WOB, and, at the same time, be able to withstand high RPM without premature cutting structure failure and undergauge. Formation properties will also determine the cutting structure type and the eventual specific features for additional gauge and shoulder protection.

  17. The Marskhod Egyptian Drill Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, M. A. M.

    We describe a possible participation of Egypt in a future Mars rover Mission. It was suggested that Egypt participate through involvement in the design, building and testing of a drill to obtain sub-surface samples. The Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IKI), formally invited the Egyptian Ministry of Scientific Research to study the concept for potential use on the Russian Mars 2001 Mission. As one of the objectives of the Marskhod mission was the analysis of sub-surface samples, a drilling mechanism in the payload would be essential. The Egyptian expertise in drill development is associated with the archaeological exploration of the Pyramids. A sophisticated drilling system perforated limestone to a depth of 2 m without the use of lubricants or cooling fluids that might have contaminated the Pit's environment. This experience could have been applied to a drill development Mars 2001 mission, which was unfortunately canceled due to economic problems.

  18. Feasibility Study of a Hand Guided Robotic Drill for Cochleostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brett

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a hand guided robotic drill has been inspired by an automated, arm supported robotic drill recently applied in clinical practice to produce cochleostomies without penetrating the endosteum ready for inserting cochlear electrodes. The smart tactile sensing scheme within the drill enables precise control of the state of interaction between tissues and tools in real-time. This paper reports development studies of the hand guided robotic drill where the same consistent outcomes, augmentation of surgeon control and skill, and similar reduction of induced disturbances on the hearing organ are achieved. The device operates with differing presentation of tissues resulting from variation in anatomy and demonstrates the ability to control or avoid penetration of tissue layers as required and to respond to intended rather than involuntary motion of the surgeon operator. The advantage of hand guided over an arm supported system is that it offers flexibility in adjusting the drilling trajectory. This can be important to initiate cutting on a hard convex tissue surface without slipping and then to proceed on the desired trajectory after cutting has commenced. The results for trials on phantoms show that drill unit compliance is an important factor in the design.

  19. Initial Feasibility Study to Drill and Core the Ocean Mantle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pilisi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An initial feasibility study (Pilisi and Whitney, 2011 of drilling through the Mohorovičić discontinuity (Moho into the oceanic mantle specifically focused on future requirements for planning, drilling and coring a hole 500 m into the oceanic mantle from three candidate locations in the Pacific Ocean (Cocos Plate, Baja California, and offshore Hawaii. The study points out some of the critical issues that need to be resolved before embarking upon such a challengingproject. It was conducted on the basis of data provided by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program–Management International (IODP-MI, the Center for Deep Earth Exploration (CDEX operating the drilling vessel Chikyu within IODP, public domain information, and past experience that Blade Energy Partners (hereafter mentioned as “Blade”; http://www.blade-energy.com/ has had with frontier projects in the offshore deepwater oil and gas and geothermal industries.

  20. An innovative optical and chemical drill core scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöqvist, A. S. L.; Arthursson, M.; Lundström, A.; Calderón Estrada, E.; Inerfeldt, A.; Lorenz, H.

    2015-05-01

    We describe a new innovative drill core scanner that semi-automatedly analyses drill cores directly in drill core trays with X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, without the need for much sample preparation or operator intervention. The instrument is fed with entire core trays, which are photographed at high resolution and scanned by a 3-D profiling laser. Algorithms recognise the geometry of the core tray, number of slots, location of the drill cores, calculate the optimal scanning path, and execute a continuous XRF analysis of 2 cm width along the core. The instrument is equipped with critical analytical components that allow an effective QA/QC routine to be implemented. It is a mobile instrument that can be manoeuvred by a single person with a manual pallet jack.

  1. Sensor and control for consistent seed drill coulter depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren; Nørremark, Michael; Green, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The consistent depth placement of seeds is vital for achieving the optimum yield of agricultural crops. In state-of-the-art seeding machines, the depth of drill coulters will vary with changes in soil resistance. This paper presents the retrofitting of an angle sensor to the pivoting point...... of a drill coulter, providing sensor feedback to a control system via an electro hydraulic actuator that delivers an even coulter depth. The results showed a strong correlation between the angle of the coulter and the coulter depth under static (R^2=0.9996) and dynamic (R^2=0.987) operations, verified...... by a sub-millimetre accurate positioning system (iGPS, Nikon Metrology NV, Belgium) mounted on the drill coulter. At a drill coulter depth of 55 mm and controlled by an ordinary fixed spring loaded down force only, the change in soil resistance decreased the mean depth by 23 mm. By dynamically controlling...

  2. Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole: Window to the Precambrian bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Suvi; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Ahonen, Lasse; Kukkonen, Ilmo

    2017-04-01

    Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole is located in eastern Finland, at latitude 62°43'4'' N and longitude 29°3'43'' E. This 2516 m long and fully cored deep hole has been utilized as a geolaboratory open for researchers worldwide since it was drilled in 2004-2005. The 220 mm diameter drill hole is open without a casing (excluding the uppermost 40 m) and thus provides a direct access to in situ conditions to 2.5 km depth. There is a wide range of wire-line logs carried out by the drilling contractor and later by ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) in several logging sessions for geothermal, hydrogeological and deep biosphere studies. Lithology, metamorphism, fluid inclusions, density, magnetic properties, seismic velocities and thermal properties of the drill core have been studied by several international groups. The hole has kept open since the end of drilling enabling future studies to be conducted in it. The drill hole is situated in the southwestern part of the Outokumpu historical mining district famous for its Cu-Co-Zn sulfide deposits. These sulfide deposits are hosted by 1.96 Ga old ophiolitic rock types, known as the Outokumpu assemblage, also penetrated by the deep drill hole at 1314-1515 m depth. Laboratory and in situ petrophysical measurements have provided valuable information about physical properties of the typical rocks of the area that can be utilized in the mineral exploration efforts. The drill site of Outokumpu was chosen based on strong reflectivity observed in the high resolution seismic profiles acquired earlier in the area. Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole revealed that these reflections originate from the acoustic impedance variations caused by the ore hosting Outokumpu assemblage. In 2006, surface seismic reflection and vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data were measured in the drill site, and these data show that not only is Outokumpu assemblage rocks reflective but also water bearing fracture at 965 m depth is observed as a

  3. A new concept drilling hoisting systems rigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Artymiuk

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In rig constructions two nev designs have been introduced apart from the conventional hoisting system. The first one is the Maritime Hydraulics A.S RamRig© drilling concept, based on hydraulic cylinders as actuators powered by up to 3.4 MW of hydraulic power in a closed loop hydraulic system. This synthesis of the well-known technology allows for the use of integrated active and passive heave compensation, as well as the storing and reuse of energy from the lowering phase of an operation. The RamRig concept makes mechanical brakes and clutches obsolete, since hoisting and lowering of the load is controlled solely by the closed loop hydraulics. This decreases the number of critical mechanical components in the hoisting system to a minimum. Safe handling and emergency shut down of extreme amounts of hydraulic power is taking care of by cartridge valves, which make rerouting of hydraulic power possible with minor losses of transferred effect.The second is a new land rig concept based on a patented rack & pinion drive system with a new generation of rigs which can instantly switch between the workover, drilling and the snubbing operations. The new rig concept has a direct drive, thus no drill line. The mobilization time is reduced as the rig has fewer truck loads, a faster rig up and a higher automation level. One land rig currently under construction will be the world’s first single operator unit, with a full pipe handling capability and a fully automated control system. The rig is fully equipped with the 250 T top drive which can be used for the rotation and snubbing, the purpose designed snubbing slips and other features supporting the multifunctional well operations. The paper will focus on features related to the land rig under construction, and how it may reduce the operational cost and improve the well performance.

  4. Drilling-induced lateral shifts along pre-existing fractures: A common cause of drilling problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maury, V.; Zurdo, C.

    1996-03-01

    Two gas well collapses showed a peculiar failure mechanism. Excessive fluid levels and temperature variations during the ultimate drilling phase and later workovers induced microannuli and cementation damage. Abnormal fluid pressures from deeper gas- or water-bearing layers channeled through damaged cementation and increased the pore pressure in uphole faults or bedding joints. Thus the effective normal stress on faults was released, inducing shear displacements and casing deformation. Weakened casings were further collapsed by later fluid-level variations. It was then suspected that this mechanism also occurred in open holes during drilling. This was shown to be so with borehole televiewer tool (BHTV) images showing borehole lateral shifts. Although never mentioned in the past in the domain of borehole stability, this mechanism explains some poorly understood drilling incidents, such as tight-holes, problems to run in hole (RIH) or pull out of hole (POOH), and abnormal torques, in spite of no indications of instability, such as cavings. This mechanism can be mitigated by taking the necessary precautions during drilling and by the adequate selection of mud characteristics.

  5. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  6. Development and testing of underbalanced drilling products. Topical report, September 1994--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medley, G.H., Jr; Maurer, W.C.; Liu, G.; Garkasi, A.Y.

    1995-09-01

    Underbalanced drilling is experiencing growth at a rate that rivals that of horizontal drilling in the mid-1980s. Problems remain, however, for applying underbalanced drilling in a wider range of geological settings and drilling environments. This report addresses the development and testing of two products designed to advance the application of underbalanced drilling techniques. A user-friendly foam fluid hydraulics model (FOAM) was developed for a PC Windows environment. The program predicts pressure and flow characteristics of foam fluids used in underbalanced drilling operations. FOAM is based on the best available mathematical models, and was validated through comparison to existing models, laboratory test well measurements, and field data. This model does not handle air or mist drilling where the foam quality is above 0.97. An incompressible drilling fluid was developed that utilizes lightweight solid additives (hollow glass spheres) to reduce the density of the mud to less than that of water. This fluid is designed for underbalanced drilling situations where compressible lightweight fluids are inadequate. In addition to development of these new products, an analysis was performed to determine the market potential of lightweight fluids, and a forecast of underbalanced drilling in the USA over the next decade was developed. This analysis indicated that up to 12,000 wells per year (i.e., 30 percent of all wells) will be drilled underbalanced in the USA within the next ten years.

  7. RELATION OF DRILLING CAPACITY TO MARKET AND PROFIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Zelenika

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Owner of drilling rigs should employ highly professional officers, who are capable to manage profit-orientated operations at all stages and make accurate analyses of the next three questions: how to deploy drilling crews to achieve the highest financial result; which kinds of equipment are compatible and employable in profitable operations, and how to compute the requirement of each type of equipment, and the number of drilling crews for a defined period and region to have profitable service. This paper introduce an original mathematical model convenient to compute exact values needed for an answer on these three questions. Application of this model is obvious for research of the relationship among: (i performance and cost of available drilling rigs, (ii condition on the market, and (iii estimated profit. Utilization of this model is possible only if records of market conditions' data, and data relating to progress and cost of operations in different conditions are established. These records will facilitate accurate estimation of input parameters' values and computation of output parameters' values using the Mathematical Model. Results of these computation should give basic data Tor precise plan of operation, rentabili-ty, and figures to decide the strategy of Drilling Company's capacity development.

  8. Spreading and deposition of drill cuttings in the Barents Sea - Plans of the Barents Sea drill cuttings research initiative (BARCUT) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junttila, Juho; Aagaard Sørensen, Steffen; Dijkstra, Noortje

    2016-04-01

    The increasing petroleum exploration activity in the Barents Sea will lead to increased release of drill cuttings onto the ocean bottom in the future. Drilling mud consists of both drilling fluid with contaminants and fine sediments. This increasing discharge of drill cuttings provides a need for further knowledge of ocean current transportation of both contaminants and fine sediment particles (clay and silt), their impact on microfauna and the prediction of their accumulation areas. The main object is to study the current status of the sediments and microfauna exposed to different types of drill cuttings in the proximity of drilled exploration wells. Detailed objectives are: 1) To identify the main physical and geochemical characteristics of the sediments near the drilled wells including main areas for drill cutting accumulation and the influence of ocean currents on sediments and drill cuttings; 2) To identify the influence of drill cutting discharge on benthic foraminifera; 3) Monitoring and prediction of future spreading, accumulation and distribution of drill cutting related pollutants. We have conducted two field sampling campaigns, and in total visited seven drilling sites, ranging in age from recently drilled (in 2015) to nearly 30 years since abandonment. In this project, we study mainly push cores taken with a remote operated underwater vehicle (ROV) in the close proximity of exploration wells in the SW Barents Sea. We will determine the modern sedimentation rates based on the ²¹°Pb dating method. We analyze sediment grain-size, heavy metal and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents. Additionally analysis on benthic foraminifera, smectite clay minerals and the total organic carbon (TOC) content will be performed.

  9. Transfer of Service Knowledge: A case from the oil industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Vianello, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    . A case study of drilling machinery for offshore oil rigs has been selected. This choice arose from the unique characteristics of this industry where solutions are specific for each rig, so re-design or adaptation of machineries and assembly is required in each project and it’s imperative to have...... a correct set of requirements and design. As the drilling machines are one-off machines, the transfer of experience between projects and knowledge from operational experience is essential. Interviews with the project team from the company owning the rig (drilling contractor), and the service engineers from...

  10. Post-operative morbidity following the use of the inverted periosteal graft: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gazal Kaushelendra; Kulkarni, Mihir Raghavendra; Thomas, Betsy Sara

    2014-01-01

    Post-operative complications following flap surgeries or mucogingival procedures are important factors influencing patient's perception of periodontal procedures. Hence, it is important to foresee such complications and take adequate measures pre- and post-operatively. We treated five consecutive cases of gingival recession in the maxillary canine-premolar area using the inverted periosteal graft with a coronally positioned flap technique. Following each of these surgeries, the patients complained of post-operative swelling the next day involving the canine space or buccal space area. The swelling persisted for at least 5 days, however, it was painless. This paper highlights the post-operative complications associated with the said procedure and makes a case for detail enquiry in the form of controlled studies.

  11. Use of Multimedia Message Service Technology in the Operation Theatre: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Tewari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mobile phones has long been controversial in the operation theatres citing various incidences wherein aberration of the electronic equipments has occurred due to their use. We hereby report a case where we used mobile phone to capture a dysrrhythmia occurring intra-operatively in a patient via multimedia messaging service (MMS technology, and sending it to the consultant in charge and a cardiologist via multimedia messaging service(MMS technology and taking immediate remedial action.

  12. Post-operative morbidity following the use of the inverted periosteal graft: A case series

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Gazal Kaushelendra; Kulkarni, Mihir Raghavendra; Thomas, Betsy Sara

    2014-01-01

    Post-operative complications following flap surgeries or mucogingival procedures are important factors influencing patient's perception of periodontal procedures. Hence, it is important to foresee such complications and take adequate measures pre- and post-operatively. We treated five consecutive cases of gingival recession in the maxillary canine-premolar area using the inverted periosteal graft with a coronally positioned flap technique. Following each of these surgeries, the patients compl...

  13. Drilling history core hole DC-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    Core hole DC-8 was completed in August, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Scisson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the core drilling activities, and geologic core logging for hole DC-8. Core hole DC-8 is located on the Hanford Site near the Wye Barricade and 50 feet northwest of rotary hole DC-7. The Hanford Site vation coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 mean sea level. The purpose of core hole DC-8 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing and cross-hole seismic shear and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-7. The total depth of core hole DC-8 was 4100.5 feet. Core recovery exceeded 97 percent of the total footage cored.

  14. Optimization on class of operator equations in the probabilistic case setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gen-sun FANG; Li-xin QIAN

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a problem of the optimization of approximate solutions of operator equations in the probabilistic case setting, and prove a general result which connects the relation between the optimal approximation order of operator equations with the asymptotic order of the probabilistic width. Moreover, using this result, we determine the exact orders on the optimal approximate solutions of multivariate Freldholm integral equations of the second kind with the kernels belonging to the multivariate Sobolev class with the mixed derivative in the probabilistic case setting.

  15. Optimization on class of operator equations in the probabilistic case setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a problem of the optimization of approximate solutions of operator equations in the probabilistic case setting, and prove a general result which connects the relation between the optimal approximation order of operator equations with the asymptotic order of the probabilistic width. Moreover, using this result, we determine the exact orders on the optimal approximate solutions of multivariate Preldholm integral equations of the second kind with the kernels belonging to the multivariate Sobolev class with the mixed derivative in the probabilistic case setting.

  16. Prognostic comparison of operative and non-operative therapies for intracerebral hemorrhage in a local hospital: Case retrospection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deming Zhao; Zenghong Jiang; Bin Wang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present, it is satisfactory for micro-trauma craniopuncture therapy for cerebral hemor rhage to treat spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Surgical treatment can decrease fatality rate of ICH patients; however, some reports suggest that there are no obvious differences of therapeutic effects between surgical treatment and medical therapy because of various states, operative indications, contraindi cations and operative styles.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of surgical treatment on ICH prognosis, especially on fatality rate. DESIGN: Retrospective-case study.SETTING: Huaibei People's Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: ① A total of 241 ICH patients selected from Huaibei People's Hospital from January 1988 to May 1989 were regarded as group A. They were all coincidence with Diagnostic Criteria of Intracerebral Hemorrhage in the National Cerebrovascular Disease Academic Meeting. There were 154 males and 87 females aged 34-94 years, and among them, 230 patients were older than 50 years (95.4%). Hemorrhage sites: Among 142 patients, 85 cases had internal capsule hemorrhage, 18 external capsule hemorrhage, 15 thalamic hemorrhage, 9 cerebellar hemorrhage, 7 brain stem hemorrhage, 7 cerebral lobe hemorrhage, and 1 corpus callosum hemorrhage. Hemorrhage volume: Among 89 clear records, 44 cases had of 1-10 mL, 35 of 11-30 mL, 5 of 31-40 mL, and 5 of 41-80 mL. Except 2 patients, other ones were treated with medical operation. ② A total of 203 ICH patients selected from the same hospital from January 2003 to December 2005 were regarded as group B. Among them, 72 cases were treated with operation, but other 131 ones were treated with non-operation. They were all diagnosed with CT. There were 113 males and 90 females aged 30-88 years, and among them, 183 patients were older than 50 years (90.1%). Hemorrhage sites: Among 203 patients, 104 cases had internal capsule hemorrhage, 17 external capsule hemorrhage, 19 thalamic hemorrhage, 9 cerebellar hemorrhage, 12 brain

  17. Airpower in contemporary interventions: stabilization, coercion, peace enforcement and peacemaking. Case: Operation Unified Protector, Libya 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa SAVA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to analyze whether airpower is decisive and irreplaceable in putting an end to violent conflict nowadays, evaluating airpower as an instrument in contemporary warfare and its role in peace operations. The research will seek to confirm or invalidate the hypothesis according to which airpower can successfully take the lead in the Western Allies’ contemporary stabilization operations given that it reduces costs in terms of human lives and resources. Moving forward, the research will focus on airpower characteristics in the Libyan case, with an analysis of NATO’s Operation Unified Protector.

  18. Drilling history core hole DC-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    Core hole DC-4 was completed at a depth of 3998 feet in December, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Sicsson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the cable tool and core drilling activities, and geological core logging for DC-4. Core hole DC-4 is located on the Hanford Site about 3 miles east of the Yakima Barricade and approximately 103 feet southwest of rotary hole DC-5, which was completed to 3990 feet in February, 1978. Hanford Site coordinates reported for hole DC-4 are north 49,385.62 feet and west 85,207.63 feet, and Washington State coordinates are north 454,468.73 feet and east 2,209,990.87 feet. No elevation survey is available for hole DC-4, but it is approximately 745 feet above mean sea level based upon the survey of hole DC-5, which has a reported elevation of 745.16 feet on the top of the 3-inch flange. The purpose of core hole DC-4 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing, cross-hole seismic shear, and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-5. Hole DC-4 was drilled through the overburden into basalt bedrock by cable tool methods (0-623 feet) and continuously cored through the final interval (623 to 3998 feet).Core recovery was 95.8 percent of the total footage cored.

  19. A case method for Sales and Operations Planning: a learning experience from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Felipe Scavarda; Bernd Hellingrath; Tobias Kreuter; Antonio Márcio Tavares Thomé; Marcelo Xavier Seeling; Jan-Hendrick Fischer; Raquel Mello

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Adequate preparation, learning, and training is required for Sales and Operations Planning (S&OP) to aid organizations in achieving the full expected benefits from its implementation. This paper presents a case method for S&OP and the learning experience of its application at the University of Münster (Germany). The “constructive alignment principle” was applied with a “team teaching” approach, involving an executive from the case company. Students improved th...

  20. The operating room case-mix problem under uncertainty and nurses capacity constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Zakaria; Eltawil, Amr B; Harraz, Nermine A

    2016-12-01

    Surgery is one of the key functions in hospitals; it generates significant revenue and admissions to hospitals. In this paper we address the decision of choosing a case-mix for a surgery department. The objective of this study is to generate an optimal case-mix plan of surgery patients with uncertain surgery operations, which includes uncertainty in surgery durations, length of stay, surgery demand and the availability of nurses. In order to obtain an optimal case-mix plan, a stochastic optimization model is proposed and the sample average approximation method is applied. The proposed model is used to determine the number of surgery cases to be weekly served, the amount of operating rooms' time dedicated to each specialty and the number of ward beds dedicated to each specialty. The optimal case-mix selection criterion is based upon a weighted score taking into account both the waiting list and the historical demand of each patient category. The score aims to maximizing the service level of the operating rooms by increasing the total number of surgery cases that could be served. A computational experiment is presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. The results show that the stochastic model solution outperforms the expected value problem solution. Additional analysis is conducted to study the effect of varying the number of ORs and nurses capacity on the overall ORs' performance.

  1. Drilling a borehole for LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    Boreholes were drilled along the earlier proposed line of the LEP tunnel under the Jura to find out the conditions likely to be encountered during the construction of the LEP tunnel (Annual Report 1981 p. 106, Fig. 10).

  2. Drilling Damage in Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Miguel P. Durão

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of carbon fibre reinforced laminates have widened their use from aerospace to domestic appliances, and new possibilities for their usage emerge almost daily. In many of the possible applications, the laminates need to be drilled for assembly purposes. It is known that a drilling process that reduces the drill thrust force can decrease the risk of delamination. In this work, damage assessment methods based on data extracted from radiographic images are compared and correlated with mechanical test results—bearing test and delamination onset test—and analytical models. The results demonstrate the importance of an adequate selection of drilling tools and machining parameters to extend the life cycle of these laminates as a consequence of enhanced reliability.

  3. Horizontal drilling activity in Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.

    1997-04-01

    An update of horizontal well drilling in Manitoba was provided. Manitoba`s productive formations are: (1) the Bakken Formation, (2) the Lodgepole Formation, (3) the Mission Canyon Formation, (4) the Amaranth Formation, and (5) the Melita Formation. A total of 28 exploratory wells and 29 development wells, including 11 horizontal wells were drilled in 1996. The 11 horizontal wells accounted for 30 per cent of the drilling meterage. The leading drillers for horizontal wells in Manitoba are Tundra Oil and Gas, Chevron, Anderson and HCO. Production from horizontal wells in 1996 totaled 310 cubic meter per day. To date, no horizontal wells have been drilled in the Bakken Formation. The least successful horizontal well application has been in the Lodgepole Formation. A summary of horizontal well production was provided for each Formation. 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  4. Geothermal drilling in Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez A., Bernardo

    1982-08-10

    The number of characteristics of the different wells that have been drilled in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field to date enable one to summarize the basic factors in the applied technology, draw some conclusions, improve systems and procedures, and define some problems that have not yet been satisfactorily solved, although the existing solution is the best now available. For all practical purposes, the 100 wells drilled in the three areas or blocks into which the Cerro Prieto field has been divided have been completed. Both exploratory and production wells have been drilled; problems of partial or total lack of control have made it necessary to abandon some of these wells, since they were unsafe to keep in production or even to be used for observation and/or study. The wells and their type, the type of constructed wells and the accumulative meters that have been drilled for such wells are summarized.

  5. 液压式套管扶正器在侧钻水平井中的应用%Application of hydraulic casing centralizer in sidetracked horizontal well drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹方雷; 白冬青; 龚建凯; 徐肇国; 于子涵; 夏进军

    2013-01-01

      常规侧钻水平井造斜段及水平段完井管柱居中困难,导致固井水泥环厚度不均,质量较差,易发生出水、出砂等问题,进而致使侧钻水平井生产寿命较短,严重影响了单井产量。现场多使用扶正器来提高套管居中度,但是常规扶正器存在扶正效果差、破坏井壁等问题,为此研制了液压式套管扶正器。该工具原始外径小、下入安全,膨胀后外径大、扶正能力强,能够极大地提高侧钻水平井完井管柱的居中程度,改善固井质量,延长侧钻水平井的生产寿命。该类扶正器现场应用简便,不影响正常的施工程序,在辽河和冀东油田进行了多口井的现场应用,效果显著。%When drilling the buildup section and horizontal section of conventional sidetracked horizontal wells, the drilling tools are difficult to be centralized, leading to uneven cement thickness, and poor cementing quality, resulting in water and sand production. The problem would lead to low production rate and short service time of sidetracked wells. In field application, centralizer is commonly used to improve the casing centralizing degree, but conventional centralizer has poor centralizing effect and would break wellbore. Therefore, a type of Hydraulic casing centralizer was developed. The tool has small original outer diameter, safe tripping process, large expended outer diameter, and great uprighting capacity, so it can greatly improve the centralizing degress of the completion string of sidetracked horizontal wells. Furthermore, the technique can improve cementing quality, enlarge service time of sidetracked horizontal wells, and increase production rate and economical effect. The tools are simple being applied in field, with no passive effect on normal drilling process

  6. 全套管钻机成孔复合型桩基降水施工新技术%Composite Pile Dewatering Construction New Technology of Hydraulic Casing Rotator Machine Drilling-holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素英

    2012-01-01

    针对基坑降水量小,围护结构外侧改移管线密布且交通繁忙无布设降水井场地,以及漂石地层中管井成孔困难和工期紧的问题,借助全套管钻机在直径1m围护桩施工时提出了一种新的复合型桩基降水方法.结合勘察报告将桩身加长,在桩底填滤料形成汲水区,用副钢筋笼内配套水泵、滤管与围护桩钢筋笼连接,排水管和水泵电线置于PVC套管中,沿围护桩钢筋笼升至地面,汲水区上部用细砂将预施围护桩隔离.计算显示围护桩内水位降深3m时,引起单桩沉降为0.12mm,小于桩顶总沉降值的10%.采用本工艺降低了施工成本,经济效益明显.%Because of small foundation excavation precipitation, pipeline densely covered on the outside of supporting structure and busy traffic, there isn ' t dewatering well sites and drilling holes is hard in boulder formation and tight schedule. A new composite pile formation dewatering method is proposed which 1 meter diameter supporting piles are drilled by hydraulic casing rotator machine. The piles body is extended with the survey report and filter material is filled in the bottom of piles to form water-absorbing area and an assistant reinforcing cage contains a pump and a filter tube which is welded to the supporting pile' reinforcing stage. Water pipeline and wire are protected in the PVC casing which is along the reinforcing stage up to the ground. In the top of the water-absorbing area, sand is filled to separate the prepared constructing supporting pile. Calculations show that the settlement of single pile caused by dewatering is 0. 12mm, when dewatering depth is 3m in a supporting pileless than 10% of the total settlement of the pile. The application of the technology reduces the construction cost and obtains economic benefit.

  7. Drill stem steels for use in geothermal environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzbrenner, R.

    1980-01-01

    Steels which are used in drill stem for conventional drilling have been selected primarily to satisfy certain static strength requirements and cost considerations. As the environments in which drilling is performed become more severe (e.g., in geothermal fluids) additional considerations must be given to the design of alloys which are resistant to general corrosion, stress corrosion, and corrosion fatigue. General design considerations for steel alloys which should provide an enhanced resistance to geothermal drilling operations are presented. These considerations include discussion of the chemistry and metallurgical substructure, and how their variation affects the mechanical and corrosion properties of steel used for drill stem applications. A duplex ferritic-martensitic steel has an advantageous combination of compositional and microstructural features which should lead to improved chemical resistance (particularly to hydrogen sulfide) as well as provide a good combination of strength and toughness properties. This duplex steel is based on the iron-2.0 weight percent silicon-0.1 weight percent carbon system, and offers the potential of enhanced performance in geothermal drilling as well as low alloy cost.

  8. Impacts on seafloor geology of drilling disturbance in shallow waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Iran C S; Toldo, Elírio E; Toledo, Felipe A L

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes the effects of drilling disturbance on the seafloor of the upper continental slope of the Campos Basin, Brazil, as a result of the project Environmental Monitoring of Offshore Drilling for Petroleum Exploration--MAPEM. Field sampling was carried out surrounding wells, operated by the company PETROBRAS, to compare sediment properties of the seafloor, including grain-size distribution, total organic carbon, and clay mineral composition, prior to drilling with samples obtained 3 and 22 months after drilling. The sampling grid used had 74 stations, 68 of which were located along 7 radials from the well up to a distance of 500 m. The other 6 stations were used as reference, and were located 2,500 m from the well. The results show no significant sedimentological variation in the area affected by drilling activity. The observed sedimentological changes include a fining of grain size, increase in total organic carbon, an increase in gibbsite, illite, and smectite, and a decrease in kaolinite after drilling took place.

  9. Development of a Low-Cost Rotary Steerable Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roney Nazarian

    2012-01-31

    The project had the goal to develop and commercialize a low-cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures to reduce operating costs by a minimum of 50% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50% over the currently offered systems. The LCRSS system developed under this project does reduce operating costs by 55% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50%. The developed product is not commercializable in its current form. The overall objective was to develop and commercialize a low cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures (20,000 psi/150 C) while reducing the operating costs by 50% and the lost-in-hole charges by 50% over the currently available systems. The proposed reduction in costs were to be realized through the significant reduction in tool complexity, a corresponding increase in tool reliability as expressed in the mean-time between failure (MTBF), and a reduction in the time and costs required to service tools after each field operation. Ultimately, the LCRSS system was to be capable of drilling 7 7/8 in. to 9 5/8 in. borehole diameters. The project was divided into three Phases, of which Phases I & II were previously completed and reported on, and are part of the case file. Therefore, the previously reported information is not repeated herein. Phase III included the fabrication of two field ready prototypes that were to be subjected to a series of drilling tests at GTI Catoosa, DOE RMOTC, and at customer partnering wells, if possible, as appropriate in the timing of the field test objectives to fully exercise all elements of the LCRSS. These tests were conducted in an iterative process based on a performance/reliability improvement cycle with the goal of demonstrating the system met all aspects required for commercial viability. These tests were conducted to achieve continuous runs of 100+ hours with well trajectories that fully

  10. Geothermal drill pipe corrosion test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, B.C.; Copass, K.S.

    1980-12-01

    Plans are presented for conducting a field test of drill pipe corrosion, comparing air and nitrogen as drilling fluids. This test will provide data for evaluating the potential of reducing geothermal well drilling costs by extending drill pipe life and reducing corrosion control costs. The 10-day test will take place during fall 1980 at the Baca Location in Sandoval County, New Mexico.

  11. Development of CNPC's Drilling Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Qingli; Qin Wengui; Zheng Yi

    2011-01-01

    @@ With further exploration and development of oil and gas fields both at home and abroad, complicated geological conditions, poor quality of reserves and abominable working environment, drilling business, the largest of upstream petroleum industry in terms of total investment and scale, is facing new challenges.China National Petroleum Corporation (hereinafter referred to as CNPC) is in urgent need of transforming development patterns of drilling, so as to enhance competitiveness, improve production efficiency, and increase economic profits.

  12. Drilling of bone: a robust automatic method for the detection of drill bit break-through.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, F R; Bouazza-Marouf, K

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to devise a robust detection method for drill bit break-through when drilling into long bones using an automated drilling system that is associated with mechatronic assisted surgery. This investigation looks into the effects of system compliance and inherent drilling force fluctuation on the profiles of drilling force, drilling force, drilling between successive samples and drill bit rotational speed. It is shown that these effects have significant influences on the bone drilling related profiles and thus on the detection of drill bit break-through. A robust method, based on a Kalman filter, has been proposed. Using a modified Kalman filter, it is possible to convert the profiles of drilling force difference between successive samples and/or the drill bit rotational speed into easily recognizable and more consistent profiles, allowing a robust and repeatable detection of drill bit break-through.

  13. Device for measuring mechanical drilling velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchaninov, Y.N.; Ippolitova, L.G.; Khizgilov, A.I.; Rolik, V.A.

    1980-12-17

    A device is proposed for measuring the mechanical drilling velocity which includes a primary drilling tool supply transformer, control block, trigger, range switch; control block, block for determining motion direction, time counter and measurement instrument. In order to guarantee continuous measurement of the mechanical velocity and to improve the accuracy of measuring the average mechanical velocity during drilling at sea, it is equipped with a block for multiplying the number of pulses, four I circuits, supply counter, supply recorder, primary neutral transformer, two controllable frequency dividers, first frequency divider, generator of prime pulses consisting of a generatror of reference frequencies and second frequency divider, time recorder, counter and velocity recorder, time recorder and digital-analog transformer. In this case the outlet of the primary transformer for drilling tool supply is connected through a in-series connected block for determining the movement direction, block for multiplying the number of pulses, first circuit I and supply counter to one of the inlets of the supply counter. Its second inlet is connected through a block of control to the primary neutral transformer and one of the inlets of the time recorder. Its second inlet is connected through a in-series connected time counter, fourth I circuit, second frequency divider, generator of reference frequency, first frequency divider, third circuit I, second controllable frequency divider, counter and velocity recorder and digital-analog transformer of the measurement instrument. The outlet of the supply recorder is connected to one of the inlets of the first controllable divider. Its second inlet is connected to the second I circuit to the outlet of the first frequency divider, and the outlet is connected to one of the trigger inlets.

  14. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, H.D.; Oliver, M.S.; Gray, M.A.

    1993-12-31

    The cost-sharing contract between the US Department of Energy and Smith International provides the funding to further develop this concept into two complete steerable percussion air drilling system prototypes, each integrated with a navigation tool (wireline steering tool), a bend sub, stabilizing devices, and to conduct laboratory and field testing necessary to prepare the system for commercial realization. Such a system would make available for the first time the ability to penetrate earthen formations by the percussion method, using compressed air as the drilling fluid, and at the same time allow the directional control and steering of the drill bit. While the drill string is not rotating (slide mode), one can orient to build angle in the desired direction at a predictable rate. This build rate can be in the range of 1--20 degrees per one hundred feet and proceeds until the desired inclination or direction has been obtained. The drill pipe is then set in rotation, nullifying the effect of the bend angle, and causes the assembly to drill straight. The sliding procedure can be repeated as often as corrections for hole`s inclination or direction are needed.

  15. Validating an artificial intelligence human proximity operations system with test cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Justin; Straub, Jeremy

    2013-05-01

    An artificial intelligence-controlled robot (AICR) operating in close proximity to humans poses risk to these humans. Validating the performance of an AICR is an ill posed problem, due to the complexity introduced by the erratic (noncomputer) actors. In order to prove the AICR's usefulness, test cases must be generated to simulate the actions of these actors. This paper discusses AICR's performance validation in the context of a common human activity, moving through a crowded corridor, using test cases created by an AI use case producer. This test is a two-dimensional simplification relevant to autonomous UAV navigation in the national airspace.

  16. Case Report of an Anthrax Presentation Relevant to Special Operations Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stephen; Enzenauer, Robert W; Karesh, James W; Pasteur, Nshimyimana; Eisnor, Derek L; Painter, Rex B; Calvano, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Special Operations Forces (SOF) medical personnel function worldwide in environments where endemic anthrax (caused by Bacillus anthracis infection) may present in one of three forms: cutaneous, pulmonary, or gastrointestinal. This report presents a rare periocular anthrax case from Haiti to emphasize the need for heightened diagnostic suspicion of unusual lesions likely to be encountered in SOF theaters.

  17. Expansion by eigenvectors in case of simple eigenvalues of singular differential operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Makhnei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymptotic formulas with large values of parameter for solutions of singular differential equation allow us to estimate Green's function of the boundary-value problem. With the help of this estimation the expansion of singular dierential operator by eigenvectors in the case of simple eigenvalues is constructed.

  18. The Adoption of Systems Innovations in Educational Organizations: A Case Study of Operation Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Ralph J.; Howard, John, Jr.

    To identify factors which affect the acceptance of innovation in school organizations, a career development product entitled Operation Guidance (OG) was the object of a case study. Five basic organizational characteristics were used to roughly quantify attributes of the organization of the six schools studied. The characteristics were:…

  19. Visual evoked potentials monitoring in a case of transient post-operative visual loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Capon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-operative visual loss (POVL is a rare, albeit potentially serious complication of general anaesthesia. This report describes the case of a 54-year-old woman who developed transient POVL after general anaesthesia following a left posterior parietal meningioma surgery in the prone position and discusses the usefulness of visual evoked potentials monitoring in such situations.

  20. Hovercraft drill probes Saraji tailings dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In early operations at BHP-Utah's Saraji Mine in central Queensland, quantities of coking coal were pumped into the tailings dam because the preparation plant's flotation circuit was unable to handle ultra-fines. A reverse circulating drilling rig mounted on a hovercraft was used to recover 22 samples (representing 9 metres of tailings from 11 x 8 x 0.09 metre cores) in an investigation into whether the tailings can now be treated economically. 1 fig.