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Sample records for cashew nut shell

  1. CORROSION INHIBITION BY CASHEW NUT SHELL LIQUID

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF CARBON STEEL. CORROSION INHIBITION BY CASHEW NUT SHELL. LIQUID. JYN Philip, J Buchweishaija and LL Mkayula. Department of Chemistry, University of Dar es Salaam,. P. O. Box 35061, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ABSTRACT. The inhibition mechanism of the Cashew Nut Shell ...

  2. Comparison of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNS) Resin with Polyester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    natural resin is the cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). Cashew nut shell liquid is a very sticky secretion (gum) from cashew nuts which is similar to gum Arabic. It can be used as a substitute for liquid glue for paper in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries (Mwaikambo and Anseli, 2001). Cashew gum (like polyester resin) is a ...

  3. Cashew nut shell liquid as an alternative corrosion inhibitor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) has been tested as a corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 3% aqueous NaCl solution (pH 6) saturated with carbon dioxide gas at 30°C under static conditions using ac-impedance and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques. It was found that CNSL reduces the extent of the ...

  4. Micron-sized polymer particles from tanzanian cashew nut shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micron-sized polymer particles (MSPP) were prepared by formaldehyde condensation polymerization of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) previously emulsified with sodium lauryl sulphate. The sizes of the MSPP were found to range from 0.1 to 4.4 mm. Increasing the emulsifier concentration had the effect of increasing the ...

  5. Micron-sized polymer particles from Tanzanian cashew nut shell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ABSTRACT. Micron-sized polymer particles (MSPP) were prepared by formaldehyde condensation polymerization of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) previously emulsified with sodium lauryl sulphate. The sizes of the MSPP were found to range from 0.1 to 4.4 μm. Increasing the emulsifier concentration had the effect of ...

  6. Synthesis of organoamine-silica hybrids using cashew nut shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis of organoamine-silica hybrids using cashew nut shell liquid components as templates for the catalysis of a model Henry reaction. ... The prepared materials were characterized by diffuse reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Atomic Force Microscopy and acid titration. Results indicated that indeed the ...

  7. micron-sized polymeric particles from cashew nut shell liquid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micron-sized polymeric particles from cashew nut shell liquid … 38 to 0.21 µm. When the concentration of. NaOH was increased further to 1.2 g/dm3 while keeping constant the values of the other variables, the extent of coagulation in the latex was found to have intensified; this gave rise to the increase in particle size to.

  8. Characterization of Liquid Volatile Matter (LVM) of Cashew Nut Shell using Pyrolysis and Gas Chomatroghaphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashuni; Jahiding, Muhammad; Sitti Ilmawati, Waode; Kurniasih, Ita; Wati, Wa; Muzirah; Burhan, Muniati

    2017-05-01

    Cashew nut areexcellent products in Southeast Sulawesi. Cashew nut is one part of the cashew plant untapped waste. Cashew nut shell potential as a producer of liquidvolatile matter (LVM) and charcoal because it contains lignocellulos. LVM is the smoke condensation products obtained from the pyrolysis reactor can used foradhesive of briquettes hybridapplication. The aim of this reseach is to produce LVM of cashew nut shellby pyrolysisand analyze the content byGas Chromatography(GC). The research procedure begin with drying the cashew nut, the sample inserting into the pyrolysis reactor then heating with three variations of temperature respectively is 400°C, 500°C and 600°C. Cashew nutshell have been heating by pyrolisis processwith high temperatures resulting chorcoal and LVM separately. Volume LVM measured,then identify is components using GC. LVM obtained respectively 200ml kg-1, 340 ml kg-1, and 340 ml kg-1. Chromatogram of the GC from LVM of cashew nut shell has ammonia, hexane, acetic acid, propanone and phenol. Phenol compounds can be used as a adhesive for hybrid briquettes applications.

  9. Comparison of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNS ) Resin with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural resins can compete effectively with the synthetic ones in composite development. In this research, cashew nuts were picked and processed for the extraction of the resin content. The resin (natural resin) so obtained was mixed with cobalt amine (accelerator), methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (catalyst) to develop two sets ...

  10. Cashew Nut Allergy in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.M. Kuiper- van der Valk (Hanna)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe content of the thesis contributes to the knowledge of the cashew nut and cashew nut allergy. Cashew nut allergy is an important healthcare problem, especially in children. The cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) belongs to the Ancardiaceae family and the major allergen components

  11. Synthesis and utilization of catalytically cracked cashew nut shell liquid in a diesel engine

    KAUST Repository

    Vedharaj, S.

    2015-09-30

    In this study, CNSL (Cashew nut shell liquid), an economically viable feedstock among the other contemporary resources, has been considered as an appropriate source of alternate fuel. Herein, CNSL was extracted from cashew nut outer shell, a waste product, through a unique approach of steam treatment process followed by mechanical crushing technique. In contrast to the past studies that have attempted to use unprocessed CNSL directly as substitute for diesel, this study has resorted to use processed CNSL by cracking it using zeolite catalyst. Thus, both the extraction of CNSL from cashew nut outer shell and processing of it through catalytic cracking process to help synthesize CC-CNSL (catalytically cracked CNSL) are different, which underscores the significance of the current work. In wake of adopting such distinct methodologies with fuel characterization, the properties of CC-CNSL such as viscosity and calorific value were figured out to be improved. Subsequently, CC-CNSL20 (20% CC-CNSL and 80% diesel) was tested at different fuel injection pressure such as 200 bar, 235 bar, 270 bar and 300 bar so as to optimize its use in a single cylinder diesel engine. From the engine experimental study, CC-CNSL20 was found to evince better engine performance than diesel and the composite emissions of CO (carbon monoxide), HC (hydrocarbon), NOX (oxides of nitrogen) and smoke, computed based on ISO 8178 D2 standard test cycle, were found to be better than diesel and incompliance with the legislative norms for genset.

  12. Comparison of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNS Resin with Polyester Resin in Composite Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Ugoamadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resins can compete effectively with the synthetic ones in composite development. In this research, cashew nuts were picked and processed for the extraction of the resin content. The resin (natural resin so obtained was mixed with cobalt amine (accelerator, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (catalyst to develop two sets of composite specimens – specimens without fibres and specimens reinforced with glass fibres. This method of sample specimen development was repeated with polyester (synthetic resin. Compressive and tensile strength tests conducted proved that composites developed with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL resin were comparable to those developed with polyester resin. In the results, CNSL has an ultimate compressive strength of 55MPa compared to that of polyester resin with an ultimate strength of 68MPa. The result of tensile strength proved cashew nut shell liquid resin (with ultimate strength of 44MPa to be better than polyester resin with 39MPa as ultimate tensile strength. This means that natural resins could be a better substitute for the synthetic ones when the required quantities of fibers (reinforcements and fillers are used in the fibre-reinforced plastic composite developments.

  13. Pre-shelling parameters and conditions that influence the whole kernel out-turn of steam-boiled cashew nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde Sunday Ogunsina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the effect of moisture content (MC, nut size distribution and steam exposure time (SET on the whole kernel out turn (WKO of cashew nuts during shelling using a 3 x 5 x 4 factorial experiment. Three nut sizes: small (18–22 mm, medium (23–25 mm and large (26–35 mm; five levels of MC: 8.34%, 11.80%, 12.57%, 15.40%, 16.84% (wet basis and four levels of steam exposure time (SET: 28, 30, 32, and 34 min were considered. Nuts were conditioned with warm water to the desired moisture content of 8.34%,11.80%, 12.57%, 15.40% and 16.84% (wb; and steam-boiled at 700 kPa for 28, 30,32, and 34 min. The pre-treated nuts were shelled using a hand-operated cashew nuts shelling machine. The results showed that the single effect of MC, steam exposure time (SET or nut size distribution is not enough for estimating WKO; it is rather by an interaction of these parameters. The optimum WKO of steam-boiled nuts was 91.74%, 90.94% and 87.98% for large, medium and small sized nuts at MC∗SET combination of 8.34%∗30 min, 11.80%∗32 min and 8.34%∗30 min, respectively. Pre-treatment of cashew nuts by steam boiling was found to improve whole kernel out-turn of the cashew nut. Whole kernel out-turn decreased as MC increased, thereby limiting the need for moisture adjustment when nuts are to be processed by steam boiling.

  14. Performance prediction and validation of equilibrium modeling for gasification of cashew nut shell char

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkata Ramanan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cashew nut shell, a waste product obtained during deshelling of cashew kernels, had in the past been deemed unfit as a fuel for gasification owing to its high occluded oil content. The oil, a source of natural phenol, oozes upon gasification, thereby clogging the gasifier throat, downstream equipment and associated utilities with oil, resulting in ineffective gasification and premature failure of utilities due to its corrosive characteristics. To overcome this drawback, the cashew shells were de-oiled by charring in closed chambers and were subsequently gasified in an autothermal downdraft gasifier. Equilibrium modeling was carried out to predict the producer gas composition under varying performance influencing parameters, viz., equivalence ratio (ER, reaction temperature (RT and moisture content (MC. The results were compared with the experimental output and are presented in this paper. The model is quite satisfactory with the experimental outcome at the ER applicable to gasification systems, i.e., 0.15 to 0.30. The results show that the mole fraction of (i H2, CO and CH4 decreases while (N2 + H2O and CO2 increases with ER, (ii H2 and CO increases while CH4, (N2 + H2O and CO2 decreases with reaction temperature, (iii H2, CH4, CO2 and (N2 + H2O increases while CO decreases with moisture content. However at an equivalence ratio less than 0.15, the model predicts an unrealistic composition and is observed to be non valid below this ER.

  15. Pyrolysis and gasification of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) shell: liquid products characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Renata Andrade; Figueiredo, Flavio Augusto Bueno; Sanchez, Caio Glauco; Sanchez, Elisabete Maria Saraiva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Combustion Lab.]. E-mails: flavioa@fem.unicamp.br; renataaf@fem.unicamp.br; caio@fem.unicamp.br; bete@fem.unicamp.br; Arauzo, Jesus; Sanchez, Jose Luis; Gonzalo, Alberto [University of Zaragoza (Spain). Aragon Institute of Engineering Research. Thermo-chemical Processes Group (GPT)]. E-mails: qtarauzo@unizar.es; jlsance@unizar.es; agonca@unizar.es

    2008-07-01

    The environment contamination with effluents generated in the biomass pyrolysis process has been waking up the scientific community's interest and concern in a larger number of countries, that are adopting measures to quantify and reduce the generated effluents. The pyrolysis and gasification are processes that can serve as alternative for the recovery of energy in the biomass usage. Considering that Brazil is one of the greatest world producers of biomass, the theme of the biomass usage in the generation of energy has been largely discussed. By the processes of pyrolysis and gasification, depending on the biomass type, the same can be transformed in fuel (liquid, char and gases in different proportions). However, the gases have a level of impurity that should be controlled to use it in a motor or turbine. The main impurities that should be controlled are tars, chars, ashes and nitrogenated compounds. The biomass used in this work is the cashew nut shell, from the Northeast of Brazil. In northeast there are industries that process the cashew nut which can use the cashew nut main reject (shell) as fuel, avoiding landfill sanitary deposit. By thermal conversion of the biomass in the pyrolysis and gasification process, it was quantified the production of solids (char), liquids (tar) and gases. It was evaluated the influences of the final temperature (800, 900 and 1000 deg C) and the use of N{sub 2} in pyrolysis case, and a mixture of N{sub 2} and vapor of water in the gasification case, in the amounts of char, tar and gas. The exhausted gas passes through a tar (liquid) condensation system, which consists of two glass condenser vessels cooled with a mixture of ice and water and an electrostatic precipitator. The liquid fractions are extracted with isopropanol and the sample is analyzed for CG-MS and CG-FID for the identification and quantification of the present compositions. Around 50 different composed have been detected in the liquid fraction obtained, most of

  16. Cashew nut shell liquid and formulation: toxicity during the germination of lettuce, tomato seeds and coffee senna and seedling formation

    OpenAIRE

    Matias,Rosemary; Rosa, Ana Carolina; Oliveira, Ademir Kleber Morbeck; Pereira,Kelly Cristina Lacerda; Rizzi, Elvia Silvia; Machado, Alexandre Alves

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) nut shell liquid (CNSL) has been successfully used in trials as an Aedes aegypti larvicide, but little is known about its environmental effects. In this study, the potential effects of CNSL and a CNSL-based phyto-product formulation on the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) and Senna obtusifolia (coffee senna) were assessed. The pH of CNSL and the formulation were 6.4 and 6.8, respectively; the electri...

  17. Cashew nut shell liquid and formulation: toxicity during the germination of lettuce, tomato seeds and coffee senna and seedling formation

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemary Matias; Ana Carolina Rosa; Ademir Kleber Morbeck de Oliveira; Kelly Cristina Lacerda Pereira; Elvia Silvia Rizzi; Alexandre Alves Machado

    2017-01-01

    Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) nut shell liquid (CNSL) has been successfully used in trials as an Aedes aegypti larvicide, but little is known about its environmental effects. In this study, the potential effects of CNSL and a CNSL-based phyto-product formulation on the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) and Senna obtusifolia (coffee senna) were assessed. The pH of CNSL and the formulation were 6.4 and 6.8, respectively; the electrical conduc...

  18. EFFECT OF ETHANOL ADDITION WITH CASHEW NUT SHELL LIQUID ON ENGINE COMBUSTION AND EXHAUST EMISSION IN A DI DIESEL ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    A.VELMURUGAN; M.LOGANATHAN

    2012-01-01

    In this study, biofuel, diesel and ethanol blends (BDEB) were tested in a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine to investigate the engine combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the engine under five engine loads at the speed of 1500 rpm. Here the ethanol is used as an additive to enhance the engine combustion. The mixture of Commercial diesel fuel, biofuel from Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) and ethanol mixture called BDEB is used to run the direct injection diesel e...

  19. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, J. P. M.; Dubois, A. E. J.; van Wijk, R. Gerth; Wichers, H. J.; de Jong, N. W.

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical

  20. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der J.P.M.; Dubois, A.E.J.; Wichers, H.J.; Jong, de N.W.; Wijk, van R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical

  1. Cashew nut shell liquid resin used as matrix for compound materials; O LCC (Liquido da castanha do caju) como matriz em materiais compostos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Hamilton Ferreira Gomes de; Nogueira, Ricardo Emilio Ferreira Quevedo [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    1996-12-31

    Cashew nut shell liquid resin a by product of cashew processing industry is a naturally occurring phenol of low cost and are used in Brazil as fuel in the industrial production of cashew nut or as a structural material when associated with coconut fiber or rice shell. A high measured Tg points to noble applications. This paper presents some properties of LCC resin and concludes that it has good perspectives as a composite matrice to work at elevated temperatures. (author) 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Comparison of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNS) Resin with Polyester Resin in Composite Development

    OpenAIRE

    C. C. Ugoamadi

    2013-01-01

    Natural resins can compete effectively with the synthetic ones in composite development. In this research, cashew nuts were picked and processed for the extraction of the resin content. The resin (natural resin) so obtained was mixed with cobalt amine (accelerator), methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (catalyst) to develop two sets of composite specimens – specimens without fibres and specimens reinforced with glass fibres. This method of sample specimen development was repeated with polyester (synt...

  3. OPTIMASI PROSES POLIMERISASI MINYAK KULIT JAMBU METE (CNSL, CASHEW NUT SHELL LIQUID DENGAN FORMALDEHID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqman Buchori

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Jambu mete represents the crop which is a lot of its benefit. From various benefit of jambu mete, there is onepart of which not yet been exploited in an optimal that is husk. Whereas in its husk is contain oil so-calledCashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL about 32-36%. This oil can be used as natural source phenol and alternativelysubstitution phenol from petroleum. This phenol is reacted by formaldehyde will form the phenol formaldehyderesin. Besides containing natural phenol, CNSL also contain the other bunch like karboksilat bunch, alkylbunch and alkenes bunch. This bunch will influence process of forming of phenol formaldehyde resin as aconsequence have an effect on characteristic and quality of resin so that require to be searched the optimumcondition in making of phenol formaldehyde resin. Objective of this research is to look for the optimumcondition in making of phenol formaldehyde resin of novolac type and also know the influence of comparison ofreactant and operating temperature for to resin yielded. Dependent variables in this research are reactorvolume (500 ml with the volume bases 250 ml, catalyst acid HCl, mixing speed (200 rpm, operating time (90minute, pH (2 and operating pressure (1 atm. Independent variables are CNSL/formaldehyde ratio andoperating temperature. Perceived parameter is free rate formaldehyde. Method is used to design and processdata is RSM (Response Surface Methodology method constructively the Static program. Result of this researchindicates that the most effect on variable is ratio CNSL/formaldehyde. Optimum condition are obtained at F/Cratio of 0.65-0.85 and temperature of 75-850C with the conversion of 0.55. The biggest rate resin obtained atF/C ratio 0.75/1 and temperature 80oC. This resin is very jell and have best sticky and also drug after runningdry. This novolac resin is applicated as furniture coating. Coating yielded have well sticky with the auburncolor.

  4. Intake, digestibility of nutrients, milk production and composition in dairy cows fed on diets containing cashew nut shell liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo Antignani Coutinho; Antonio Ferriani Branco; Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos; Milene Puntel Osmari; Ana Lucia Teodoro; Tatiana Garcia Diaz

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the effects of supplementing cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) in the diet of lactating dairy cows on the intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield and composition, and fatty acids composition of milk fat. Four Holsteincows (600±43 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21 days experimental periods. Experimental treatments consisted of CNSL inclusion in a total mixed ration (dry matter basis), as follows: 1) CNSL 0% (control, CON), 2) CNSL 0.012% (0.012), 3) CNSL ...

  5. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Encapsulated nitrate and cashew nut shell liquid on blood and rumen constituents, methane emission, and growth performance of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zaiat, H M; Araujo, R C; Soltan, Y A; Morsy, A S; Louvandini, H; Pires, A V; Patino, H O; Correa, P S; Abdalla, A L

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate can be a source of NPN for microbial growth at the same time that it reduces ruminal methane production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 encapsulated nitrate products used as urea replacers on blood and rumen constituents, methane emission, and growth performance of lambs. Eighteen Santa Inês male lambs (27 ± 4.9 kg) were individually allotted to indoor pens and assigned to a randomized complete block design with 6 blocks and 3 dietary treatments: control (CTL) = 1.5% urea, ENP = 4.51% encapsulated nitrate product (60.83% NO3(-) in the product DM), and ENP+CNSL = 4.51% ENP containing cashew nut shell liquid (60.83% NO3(-) and 2.96% cashew nut shell liquid [CNSL] in the product DM). Diets were isonitrogenous with 60:40 concentrate:forage (Tifton 85 hay) ratio. The experiment lasted for 92 d and consisted of 28 d for adaptation (a weekly 33% stepwise replacement of CTL concentrate by nitrate-containing concentrates) and 64 d for data collection. The ENP and ENP+CNSL showed greater (P 0.05) among treatments, with mean values within normal range and remaining below 1.1% of total hemoglobin. There was an increase (P 0.05) were observed on acetate to propionate ratio. Methane production (L/kg DMI) was reduced (P nitrate inclusion, recording 28.6, 19.1, and 19.5 L/kg DMI for CTL, ENP, and ENP+CNSL, respectively. Addition of CNSL did not result (P > 0.05) in further reduction of methane production when compared with ENP. Final BW, DMI, ADG, and feed efficiency were similar (P > 0.05) among treatments. Values for DMI were 1.11, 1.03, and 1.04 kg/d and for ADG were 174, 154, and 158 g for CTL, ENP, and ENP+CNSL, respectively. In conclusion, encapsulated nitrate products showed no risks of toxicity based on MetHb formation. The products persistently reduced methane production without affecting performance. Inclusion of cashew nut shell liquid in the product formulation had no additional benefits on methane mitigation.

  7. Comparison between physico-chemical properties of the technical Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL and those natural extracted from solvent and pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco H. A Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL is a by-product of the cashew kernel industry, applied mainly to produce polymeric derivatives. The technical CNSL (CNSLT was obtained industrially, extracted by roasting the cashew nut shells at temperatures between 180 and 200 ºC. Two methods were used to produce natural CNSL. For the extraction of CNSLNP, the cashew nut shells were pressed at room temperature. CNSLNS was extracted in hexane at room temperature and recovered at 50 ºC. A comparison was made of the composition determined by HPLC and properties generated by viscosity measurements and also by TG, DSC and IPDT (integral procedural decomposition temperature. Natural CNSLs displayed higher content of cardol and anacardic acid and lower percentage of cardanol than CNSLT. The higher content of cardanol in CNSLNS was the major difference between natural CNSLs. CNSLNP had higher levels of impurity, higher viscosity, lower thermoxidative stabilities and lower ebullition temperature. The CNSL obtained by cold solvent extraction and recovery at 50 ºC better preserves the original properties of the liquid.

  8. Larvicidal Activity of The Mixture of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL and Aqueous Extract of Sapindus rarak DC Against Larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Safarina Fauziah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL against the Culex quinque fasciatus in larval stage. The CNSL was diluted in water by addition of aqueous extract of Sapindus rarak DC to increase its solubility. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of that mixture. The larvae mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. LC50 and LC90 value by extrapolation were 20,52 ppm and 55,41 ppm respectively. CNSL were specified by characterizing its physico-chemical properties and  anacardic acid as marker compound by High Performance Chromatography (HPLC. The results were the mixture of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL and Aquous extract of Sapindus rarak DC had larvicidal activity against Cx. Quinque-fasciatus and further investigations were needed to identify the fatty acid derivative as active compound of CNSL which  responsible for larvicidal activity.

  9. Larvicidal Activity of A Mixture of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid and Water-Soluble Extract of Soap Nut Fruit (Sapindus rarak DC. Against 3rd Instar Larvae of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glory Resia Raraswati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL which has been known as a waste of processing cashew fruits which is contain phenolic compounds have activity as larvicides. Cashew nut shell liquid is not soluble in the water where the larvae grow. Cashew nut shell liquid mixed with water-soluble extract of soapnut fruit which serves as a natural surfactant that can emulsify oil in water. The test subjects were larvae of Aedes aegypti third instar. Test subjects were divided into treatment group and control group. In the treatment group, test subjects were  the mixture of CNSL and Ethylacetat Soluble Extract (ESE in tap water. The Larvae mortality observations were done 24 hours after the treatment. LC50 and LC90 as final test data were analyzed using probit analysis. Extract constituents   of CNSL and Water Soluble Extract of SoapNut fruit (WSEoSN were  investigated using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC method. The effect of CNSL as larvicides against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti with were LC50 of 14,12 ppm, while the LC90 of 24,85 ppm.

  10. Effect of technical cashew nut shell liquid on rumen methane emission and lactation performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, A F; Giallongo, F; Frederick, T; Weeks, H; Oh, J; Hristov, A N

    2015-06-01

    Technical-grade cashew nut shell liquid (TCNSL) is a by-product of the cashew nut industry in tropical countries, and is known to exhibit a wide range of biological activities, including inhibitory effect against gram-positive bacteria. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of TCNSL (73.3% cardanol, 16.4% cardol, and 3.0% methylcardol) on rumen methane emission, nutrient digestibility, dry matter intake, and milk yield and composition in dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design trial with two 21-d experimental periods. The diet was based on corn silage and alfalfa haylage and was formulated to meet or exceed the energy and metabolizable protein requirements of the cows. Treatments were control (no TCNSL supplementation) or 30 g/cow per day of TCNSL. Rumen carbon dioxide emission was not affected by TCNSL. Treatment had no effect on methane emission (542 vs. 511±35.3 g/cow per day, respectively) and methane emission intensity (15.0 vs. 13.9±0.58 g/kg of energy-corrected milk, respectively) and tended to decrease methane emission per kilogram of dry matter intake (20.2 vs. 18.6±1.04 g/kg, respectively). Dry matter intake (average 26.9±1.00 kg/d), milk yield (40.0±1.73 kg/d), and milk composition were not different between treatments. The TCNSL had no effect on N losses in urine and feces and total-tract apparent digestibility of nutrients, except digestibility of neutral detergent fiber tended to be increased compared with the control. Plasma urea and glucose concentrations were not affected by TCNSL. Concentration of milk C18:0 tended to be decreased (17%) by TCNSL compared with the control. In this study, TCNSL did not alter absolute methane emission in the rumen, but tended to decrease it by 8% per kilogram of dry matter intake. The TCNSL had no effect on milk yield and composition in dairy cows. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel adsorbent from agricultural waste (cashew NUT shell for methylene blue dye removal: Optimization by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Subramaniam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon, prepared from an agricultural waste, cashew nut shell (CNS was utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB dye from aqueous solution. Batch adsorption study was carried out with variables like pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration and time. The response surface methodology (RSM was applied to design the experiments, model the process and optimize the variable. A 24 full factorial central composite design was successfully employed for experimental design and analysis of the results. The parameters pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, and time considered for this investigation play an important role in the adsorption studies of methylene blue dye removal. The experimental values were in good agreement with the model predicted values. The optimum values of pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration and time are found to be 10, 2.1846 g/L, 50 mg/L and 63 min for complete removal of MB dye respectively.

  12. Reduction of silver (I) using defatted cashew nut shell starch and its structural comparison with commercial product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Park, Jung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Jang, Jum-Suk; Yi, Young-Joo; Han, Sang-Sub; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Kwang-Min; Cho, Min; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2015-11-20

    In this current study, we report on the reduction of noble metal silver into silver nanoparticles using defatted cashew nut shell (CNS) starch as both the reducing and capping agents. Furthermore, it was compared with commercially available silver nanopowder for the first time. Color changes, ultraviolet-visible spectra (433.76nm), X-ray diffraction peaks (2θ=37.8, 46.3, 66.2, and 77.92) revealed the face-centered cubic (fcc) geometry of silver nanoparticles, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy confirmed the presence of elemental silver nanoparticles and the defatted CNS starch silver nanoparticle structures was in accordance to commercial silver nanopowder. The size of both the nanoparticles was found to be similar in the range of 10-50nm as analyzed using high resolution-transmission electron micrographs. The FT-IR spectroscopy revealed the shifting of NH and OH of defatted CNS starch, starch based silver nanoparticle and commercial silver nanopowder has parallel functional groups. The use of environmentally benign and renewable materials like defatted CNS starch offers an alternative to large scale synthesis of silver nanoparticle and includes numerous benefits like eco-friendly and compatibility for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intake, digestibility of nutrients, milk production and composition in dairy cows fed on diets containing cashew nut shell liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Antignani Coutinho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of supplementing cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL in the diet of lactating dairy cows on the intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield and composition, and fatty acids composition of milk fat. Four Holsteincows (600±43 kg were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21 days experimental periods. Experimental treatments consisted of CNSL inclusion in a total mixed ration (dry matter basis, as follows: 1 CNSL 0% (control, CON, 2 CNSL 0.012% (0.012, 3 CNSL 0.024% (0.024 and 4 CNSL 0.036% (0.036. Dry matter and nutrients intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients, fat corrected milk yield and milk composition were not affected (p > 0.05 by the inclusion of CNSL in the ration. CNSL linearly decreased the C6:0 concentration (p < 0.02, produced a quadratic response on C13:1n-5 concentration (p < 0.03 and a linear increase on C16:1n-7 concentration (p < 0.04. Results show that an intake of up to 7 gcow-1day-1 (0.036% of CNSL may alter the milk fatty acid composition but does not influence intake, nutrient digestibility and milk yield.

  14. Cashew nut shell liquid and formulation: toxicity during the germination of lettuce, tomato seeds and coffee senna and seedling formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Matias

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cashew (Anacardium occidentale nut shell liquid (CNSL has been successfully used in trials as an Aedes aegypti larvicide, but little is known about its environmental effects. In this study, the potential effects of CNSL and a CNSL-based phyto-product formulation on the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce, Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato and Senna obtusifolia (coffee senna were assessed. The pH of CNSL and the formulation were 6.4 and 6.8, respectively; the electrical conductivities were 2.89 μS cm-1 (CNSL and 2.21 μS cm-1 (formulation, respectively, and both contained anacardic acid (53.2% and degradation products. In bioassays for germination and growth, CNSL (25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg mL-1, the formulation (100 mg mL-1 and the control were used in a completely randomized design. The results demonstrated the chemical effects of CNSL, which negatively affected the germination and vigor of lettuce and tomato and the vigor of coffee senna; for growth, it negatively influenced both the root and aerial parts of lettuce and tomato, but only the roots of coffee senna. The formulation had negative effects on the vigor of coffee senna and the growth of tomato and lettuce seedlings (roots and aerial parts. The results indicate the phytotoxicity of CNSL and the formulation for the plant species tested.

  15. Removal of lead(II ions from aqueous solutions using cashew nut shell liquid-templated thiol-silica materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. G. Mdoe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A range of thiol-silica composites were prepared using cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL or one of its phenolic constituents, cardanol, as templates. The procedure involved formation of a CNSL or cardanol emulsion in a water-ethanol system into which (3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane and tetraethyl orthosilicate were simultaneously added at various ratios. The reaction mixture was aged at room temperature for 18 h followed by a Soxhlet extraction of the template and drying. The materials were characterized by diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared, nitrogen physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and acid titration. Results indicated that indeed the thiol-silica composites were successfully prepared, with thiol group loadings ranging from 1.6-2.5 mmol/g. The materials were tested for lead(II adsorption, and results showed that they had maximum adsorption capacities up to 66.7 mg/g, depending on the thiol group loading and type of template used in preparing the adsorbent. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v28i3.5

  16. Serum biochemical profile, enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation in organs of laying hens fed diets containing cashew nut shell liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, N M; Freitas, E R; Trevisan, M T S; do Nascimento, G A J; Salles, R P R; Cruz, C E B; Farias, N N P; da Silva, I N G; Watanabe, P H

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding laying hens diets containing cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) as a source of anacardic acid on the blood biochemical parameters as well as the enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation of liver and tissues of the reproductive system (ovary, magnum, and uterus). A total of 216 Hisex White commercial laying hens were distributed randomly into six treatments, with six replicates of six birds. Treatments consisted of a diet without growth promoter (GP); a diet with GP; and diets without GP, with addition of increasing levels of CNSL (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0%). Addition of CNSL to the diet did not affect the blood biochemical parameters (uric acid, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins and triglycerides), the enzymatic activity (superoxide dismutase and nonprotein sulphydryl groups) in the organs (liver, ovary, magnum and uterus) or the peroxidation of lipids from the blood serum, liver, magnum and uterus (p > 0.05). However, the addition of 0.75% and 1.00% CNSL provided a lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content in the birds' ovary (p < 0.001) compared to birds of other treatments, whereas the treatment without the GP provided a higher value. Addition of up to 1% of the CNSL as a source of anacardic acid in the laying hens' diets does not influence blood biochemical parameters or the endogenous enzymatic activity in the liver, ovary, magnum and uterus, but affects the lipid peroxidation in the ovary, although the problem is reduced from the inclusion of 0.75% CNSL. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. [Allergy to cashew nuts and peanuts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, H

    2007-05-05

    Anaphylaxis due to the ingestion of peanuts is a serious, common condition, known to both the general public and physicians. Recently, an increasing number ofpatients with an anaphylactic reaction after eating small amounts of cashew nuts have been reported. In three children, a boy aged 7 and two girls aged 9 and 10 years, respectively, with heterogeneous case histories involving allergic upper airway and conjunctival symptoms and constitutional eczema, allergy for cashew nuts was diagnosed in the first two and allergy for peanuts in the third. They were given dietary advice and an adrenaline auto-injector for emergencies. In most cases, a detailed food history, together with the demonstration of IgE against cashew nuts by means of serology or skin prick tests, are sufficient to establish the diagnosis. If the clinical relevance of a sensitisation to cashew nuts is unknown, a food provocation test may be necessary. The treatment consists of dietary intervention, and an adrenaline auto-injector is prescribed for a serious anaphylactic reaction. So far, three major allergens from the cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) have been identified and purified.

  18. Efficiency measurement of cashew nut marketing in Enugu State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the profit function and structural performance of cashew nut marketing in Enugu State, Nigeria. Six markets were selected from three Local Government Areas where there is high production and sale of cashew nuts in the State. Data were collected from 120 cashew nut sellers, randomly selected from ...

  19. Pharmacological properties of cashew ( Anacardium occidentale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Net of cashew nut shell is classified according to the method of production of: (1) net of the shell of natural cashew nut (60-65% anacardic acid; 15-20% cardol and 10% of cardanol) and (2) liquid from the technical cashew nut shell ... Keywords: Cashew liquid, cosmetics, pharmacological, pharmaceutical, preparation ...

  20. Low percentage of clinically relevant pistachio nut and mango co-sensitisation in cashew nut sensitised children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der J.P.M.; Bouche, el R.; Gerth van Wijk, R.; Groot, de H.; Wichers, H.J.; Dubois, A.E.J.; Jong, de N.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cashew nut, pistachio nut and mango belong to the Anacardiaceae family and are botanically related. Therefore, cashew nut sensitised children are frequently advised to eliminate cashew nuts and pistachio nuts from their diet. The ‘Improvement of Diagnostic mEthods for ALlergy

  1. Low percentage of clinically relevant pistachio nut and mango co-sensitisation in cashew nut sensitised children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.M. van der Valk; Bouche, R.E. (R. el); R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); H. de Groot (Hans); H.J. Wichers; A.E.J. Dubois; N.W. de Jong (Nicolette)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Cashew nut, pistachio nut and mango belong to the Anacardiaceae family and are botanically related. Therefore, cashew nut sensitised children are frequently advised to eliminate cashew nuts and pistachio nuts from their diet. The ‘Improvement of Diagnostic mEthods for ALlergy

  2. Low percentage of clinically relevant pistachio nut and mango co-sensitisation in cashew nut sensitised children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, J. P. M.; el Bouche, R.; van Wijk, R. Gerth; de Groot, H.; Wichers, H. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.; de Jong, N. W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cashew nut, pistachio nut and mango belong to the Anacardiaceae family and are botanically related. Therefore, cashew nut sensitised children are frequently advised to eliminate cashew nuts and pistachio nuts from their diet. The 'Improvement of Diagnostic mEthods for ALlergy assessment

  3. The reduction of formaldehyde and VOCs emission from wood-based flooring by green adhesive using cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sumin

    2010-10-15

    To discuss the reduction of formaldehyde and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from engineered flooring, cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL)-formaldehyde (CF) resin and CF/PVAc resin were applied for the maple face of the veneer bonding on plywood. The CF resin was used to replace urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin in the formaldehyde-based resin system in order to reduce formaldehyde and VOC emissions from the adhesives used between the plywoods and fancy veneers. For the CF/PVAc resins, 5, 10, 20 or 30% of PVAc was added to the CF resin. The CF/PVAc resins showed better bonding than the commercial natural tannin adhesive with a higher level of wood penetration. The standard formaldehyde emission test and a VOC analyzer were used to determine the formaldehyde and VOC emissions, respectively, from the engineered floorings. The CF resin and CF/PVAc resin systems with UV coating satisfied the E(1) and E(0) grades of the Korean Standard. TVOC emission was slightly increased by the PVAc addition. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Micron-sized polymer particles from tanzanian cashew nut shell liquid. Part I: Preparation, functionalization with chloroacetic acid and utilization as cation exchange resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Ilomo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Micron-sized polymer particles (MSPP were prepared by formaldehyde condensation polymerization of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL previously emulsified with sodium lauryl sulphate. The sizes of the MSPP were found to range from 0.1 to 4.4 μm. Increasing the emulsifier concentration had the effect of increasing the average particle size as well as the rate of polymerization. On the other hand, the polymerization rate decreased as the amount of the catalyst (sodium hydroxide increased. The MSPP were also found to be insoluble and stable in many organic solvents and in some inorganic reagents. The average number of surface OH groups was found to be 2.29 x 1018 per milligram of polymer particles. Micron-sized carboxylated cation exchange resins (MCCER were obtained by treating MSPP with monochloroacetic acid in an alkaline medium. The MCCER were found to exchange up to about 86 mg of calcium ion per gram of polymer at 30 ºC while the MSPP could exchange up to only about 6 mg of calcium ion per gram of polymer, at the same temperature. Compared to MSPP, the MCCER showed more than a thirteen-fold improvement in cation exchange capacity.

  5. Cashew Nut Allergy: Clinical Relevance and Allergen Characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Cíntia; Costa, Joana; Vicente, António A; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2016-09-01

    Cashew plant (Anacardium occidentale L.) is the most relevant species of the Anacardium genus. It presents high economic value since it is widely used in human nutrition and in several industrial applications. Cashew nut is a well-appreciated food (belongs to the tree nut group), being widely consumed as snacks and in processed foods by the majority of world's population. However, cashew nut is also classified as a potent allergenic food known to be responsible for triggering severe and systemic immune reactions (e.g. anaphylaxis) in sensitised/allergic individuals that often demand epinephrine treatment and hospitalisation. So far, three groups of allergenic proteins have been identified and characterised in cashew nut: Ana o 1 and Ana o 2 (cupin superfamily) and Ana o 3 (prolamin superfamily), which are all classified as major allergens. The prevalence of cashew nut allergy seems to be rising in industrialised countries with the increasing consumption of this nut. There is still no cure for cashew nut allergy, as well as for other food allergies; thus, the allergic patients are advised to eliminate it from their diets. Accordingly, when carefully choosing processed foods that are commercially available, the allergic consumers have to rely on proper food labelling. In this sense, the control of labelling compliance is much needed, which has prompted the development of proficient analytical methods for allergen analysis. In the recent years, significant research advances in cashew nut allergy have been accomplished, which are highlighted and discussed in this review.

  6. Mycology and spoilage of retail cashew nuts | Adebajo | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the species recovered induced detectable loss in weights of the milled nuts, though to varying extents and would be expected to cause considerable spoilage of the nuts. Key words: Cashew nut, Anacardium occidentale, fungal count, mycology, Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., spoilage. African Journal of Biotechnology ...

  7. Egg quality and yolk lipid composition of laying hens fed diets containing cashew nut meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fontoura Vidal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the addition of cashew nuts meal (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% to laying hen diets on egg quality and yolk composition. The variables studied were: egg weight, specific gravity, Haugh Units, percentages of shell, albumen, and yolk, moisture, total solids, total lipids, fatty acids profile, and yolk cholesterol. The addition of up to 25% of cashew nuts meal to hen diets did not affect egg quality and freshness, moisture and total solids content. However, an increase in total lipid content and a decrease in yolk pigmentation was observed. Oleic acid level increased in the yolk, whereas palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid levels decreased. The addition of cashew nuts meal increased the monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio in the yolk and reduced the cholesterol content. Therefore, the use of cashew nuts meal in laying hen diets favorably modifies the fatty acid composition of egg yolk and contributes to a better acceptance of this food by consumers since it also reduces yolk cholesterol levels.

  8. Nutritional content of roasted Anacardium Occidentae (Cashew) nut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work was aimed at determining the nutritional content of roasted cashew nut namely moisture, ash, lipids, crude fibre, protein, carbohydrate and minerals. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) was used to determine the metals, while Kjeldahl and Soxhlet extractions were used for protein and lipids ...

  9. Antifouling potential of seaweed, sponge and cashew nut oil extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seaweeds, Sargassum wightii, Ulva lactuca; sponge Desmopsongiae sp., and cashew nut oil extracts were tested in vitro against ten marine fouling bacteria isolated from test panels and the green mussel Perna viridis. The biofilm bacteria growth was inhibited by methanol extracts of the seaweeds S. wightii, U. lactuca, ...

  10. Multicentre Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Food Challenge Study in Children Sensitised to Cashew Nut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, Johanna P. M.; van Wijk, Roy Gerth; Dubois, Anthony E. J.; de Groot, Hans; Reitsma, Marit; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Wichers, Harry J.; de Jong, Nicolette W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies with a limited number of patients have provided indications that cashew-allergic patients may experience severe allergic reactions to minimal amounts of cashew nut. The objectives of this multicentre study were to assess the clinical relevance of cashew nut sensitisation, to

  11. Multicentre double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge study in children sensitised to cashew nut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der J.P.M.; Gerth van Wijk, R.; Dubois, A.E.J.; Groot, de H.; Reitsma, M.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B.J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wichers, H.J.; Jong, de N.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background
    Few studies with a limited number of patients have provided indications that cashew-allergic patients may experience severe allergic reactions to minimal amounts of cashew nut. The objectives of this multicentre study were to assess the clinical relevance of cashew nut sensitisation,

  12. Multicentre double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge study in children sensitised to cashew nut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.M. van der Valk; R.G. van Wijk (Roy Gerth); A.E.J. Dubois; H. de Groot (Hans); M. Reitsma (Marit); B.J. Vlieg-Boerstra; H.F.J. Savelkoul (Huub); H.J. Wichers; N.W. de Jong (Nicolette)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Few studies with a limited number of patients have provided indications that cashew-allergic patients may experience severe allergic reactions to minimal amounts of cashew nut. The objectives of this multicentre study were to assess the clinical relevance of cashew nut

  13. Prevalence of Salmonella in Cashews, Hazelnuts, Macadamia Nuts, Pecans, Pine Nuts, and Walnuts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Hu, Lijun; Melka, David; Wang, Hua; Laasri, Anna; Brown, Eric W; Strain, Errol; Allard, Marc; Bunning, Vincent K; Musser, Steven M; Johnson, Rhoma; Santillana Farakos, Sofia; Scott, Virginia N; Pouillot, Régis; Doren, Jane M Van; Hammack, Thomas S

    2017-03-01

    Nuts have been identified as a vector for salmonellosis. The objective of this project was to estimate the prevalence and contamination level of Salmonella in raw tree nuts (cashews, pecans, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts) at retail markets in the United States. A total of 3,656 samples of six types of tree nuts were collected from different types of retail stores and markets nationwide between October 2014 and October 2015. These samples were analyzed using a modified version of the Salmonella culture method from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Of the 3,656 samples collected and tested, 32 were culturally confirmed as containing Salmonella. These isolates represented 25 serotypes. Salmonella was not detected in pecans and in-shell hazelnuts. Salmonella prevalence estimates (and 95% confidence intervals) in cashews, shelled hazelnuts, pine nuts, walnuts, and macadamia nuts were 0.55% [0.15, 1.40], 0.35% [0.04, 1.20], 0.48% [0.10, 1.40], 1.20% [0.53, 2.40], and 4.20% [2.40, 6.90], respectively. The rates of Salmonella isolation from major or big chain supermarkets, small chain supermarkets, discount, variety, or drug stores, and online were 0.64% [0.38, 1.00], 1.60% [0.80, 2.90], 0.00% [0.00, 2.40], and 13.64% [2.90, 35.00], respectively (Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test: P = 0.02). The rates of Salmonella isolation for conventional and organic nuts were not significantly different. Of the samples containing Salmonella, 60.7% had levels less than 0.003 most probable number (MPN)/g. The highest contamination level observed was 0.092 MPN/g. The prevalence and levels of Salmonella in these tree nut samples were comparable to those previously reported for similar foods.

  14. Chromatographic techniques for the determination of alkyl-phenols, tocopherols and other minor polar compounds in raw and roasted cold pressed cashew nut oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Verardo, Vito; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2010-11-19

    Anacardium occidentale belongs to the family Anacardiaceae and is principally grown in tropical America (Mexico, Peru, Brazil, etc.) and India. Cashew nuts contain low amounts of hydroxy alkyl phenols that come from an oily liquid present in their shell and that is known as cashew-nut shell liquid. This paper reports the alkyl phenols composition of cold pressed raw and roasted cashew nut oil. First of all, cashew nut shell liquid was used for a basic fractionation of the alkyl phenol classes by preparative TLC and definitively identified by GC-MS and GC-FID. Anacardic acids were the major alkylphenols contained in both oils followed by cardol, cardanol and 2-methylcardol compounds, respectively. Raw and roasted oils did not show different compositions except for cardanols. The oil produced from roasted cashew nut reported a higher concentration of cardanols. Furthermore, tocopherols and other minor polar compounds were determined by HPLC-FLD and HPLC-DAD-MS, respectively. Tocopherol content varied in a range of 171.48-29.56mg/100g from raw to roasted cashew nut oil, being β-tocopherol the one which presented a higher decrease (93.68%). Also minor polar compounds in cashew oil decreased after roasting from 346.52 to 262.83mg/kg. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of an adjuvant-free cashew nut allergy mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvataneni, Sitaram; Gonipeta, Babu; Tempelman, Robert J; Gangur, Venu

    2009-01-01

    Cashew nut allergy is an emerging food allergy with a high risk of systemic anaphylaxis. Currently, an adjuvant-free animal model to study cashew nut allergy is not available. BALB/c mice were exposed to cashew nut protein using a transdermal sensitization protocol that does not use adjuvant. Systemic IgE antibody response, systemic anaphylaxis to oral challenge and allergen-driven, spleen-cell, type-2 cytokine responses were studied. Transdermal exposure to cashew nut resulted in a significant dose-dependent allergic response. Oral challenge of sensitized mice with cashew resulted in severe signs of systemic anaphylaxis and a significant hypothermia. Spleen cell culture with cashew nut protein resulted in allergen-driven IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 responses only in sensitized but not in saline control mice. These data demonstrate that (i) transdermal exposure to cashew nut protein elicits a robust IgE response leading to clinical sensitization of mice for systemic anaphylaxis to oral cashew nut challenge; (ii) cashew nut is a potent activator of type-2 cytokines, thus explaining the mechanism of cashew allergy, and (iii) this mouse model may be useful for further basic and preclinical studies on cashew nut allergy. Copyright (C) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Mycology and spoilage of retail cashew nuts | Adebajo | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-two samples of retail cashew nuts from Lagos, Nigeria were examined on two media. The pH values (5.1-6.3) of all the samples were conducive for fungal growth and mycotoxin production. Moisture content levels ranged between 4.1 and 6.8%. Fifteen samples had moisture contents up to or above 5.8%, the highest ...

  17. Multicentre Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Food Challenge Study in Children Sensitised to Cashew Nut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna P M van der Valk

    Full Text Available Few studies with a limited number of patients have provided indications that cashew-allergic patients may experience severe allergic reactions to minimal amounts of cashew nut. The objectives of this multicentre study were to assess the clinical relevance of cashew nut sensitisation, to study the clinical reaction patterns in double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge tests and to establish the amount of cashew nuts that can elicit an allergic reaction.A total of 179 children were included (median age 9.0 years; range 2-17 years with cashew nut sensitisation and a clinical history of reactions to cashew nuts or unknown exposure. Sensitised children who could tolerate cashew nuts were excluded. The study included three clinical visits and a telephone consultation. During the first visit, the medical history was evaluated, physical examinations were conducted, blood samples were drawn and skin prick tests were performed. The children underwent a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test with cashew nut during the second and third visits. The study showed that 137 (76.5% of the sensitised children suspected of allergy to cashew nut had a positive double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test, with 46% (63 manifesting subjective symptoms to the lowest dose of 1 mg cashew nut protein and 11% (15 developing objective symptoms to the lowest dose. Children most frequently had gastro-intestinal symptoms, followed by oral allergy and skin symptoms. A total of 36% (49/137 of the children experienced an anaphylactic reaction and 6% (8/137 of the children were treated with epinephrine.This prospective study demonstrated a strikingly high percentage of clinical reactions to cashew nut in this third line population. Severe allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis requiring epinephrine, were observed. These reactions were to minimal amounts of cashew nut, demonstrated the high potency of this allergens.www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed NTR3572.

  18. Pharmacological properties of cashew (Anacardium occidentale)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rai Pablo Sousa de Aguiar

    2016-08-31

    Aug 31, 2016 ... Anacardium occidentale L. is a tree native to Brazil, which is rich in phenolic lipids. Nowadays, the cashew bark (Cashew Nut Shell Liquid) has received great attention in the pharmaceutical industry, due to its economy, abundance and important chemical compounds. Net of cashew nut shell is classified.

  19. Utilization Of Diets Containing Cashew-Nut Reject Meal By Weaner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial was conducted to assess the performance and digestibility of weaner pigs fed diets containing cashew nut reject meal (CNM). A control diet was formulated without cashew nut reject meal while two other diets were also formulated to contain either 50g or 100g/kg diet. The CNM replaced soybean meal in the control ...

  20. Estudo da interatividade entre macromoléculas asfaltênicas e compostos estabilizantes: LCC e Cardanol Study of the interactivity between asphaltenic macromolecules and stabilizing compounds: cashew-nut Shell liquid and Cardanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando B. Moreira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O asfalteno contido no petróleo pode se depositar gerando inúmeros problemas que podem afetar não só a produção, mas também todas as etapas que envolvem o transporte, armazenamento e processamento do óleo cru. Este trabalho apresenta uma adaptação matemática de modelos de interatividade para o sistema asfalteno/estabilizante capaz de prever o desempenho do estabilizante em evitar a precipitação de asfalteno. A capacidade do líquido da casca da castanha de caju (LCC e de um dos seus derivados, o cardanol, foi estudada empregando-se o teste de peptização. Tanto o LCC quanto o cardanol apresentaram propriedades estabilizadoras de asfaltenos e exibiram interatividade positiva em ambos os casos.Asphaltenes deposition may cause serious problems for crude oil production, treatment and refining. Additives that disperse or peptisize asphaltenes particles may prevent this deposition process, avoiding serious technological problems. The results presented in this paper show that the oil extracted from cashew nut shell and cardanol, one of its components, may be used as peptizing agent for asphaltenes. Furthermore, it is shown that dispersants display binding isotherms presenting typical co-operative association.

  1. Particularities in a Child With Cashew Nut Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Soares MD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy affects many young children and tree nut allergy is accountable for a large number of severe, life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Cross-reactivity can occur not only with foods that are in the same biological family but also between certain fruits or vegetables and latex (latex–fruit syndrome. We present the case of a previous healthy 5-year-old girl referred to Pediatric/Allergology Consultation after an episode of sialorrhea, perioral urticarial rash, tongue swelling, and immediate vomiting after oral contact with cashew nut. Investigation revealed the following: positive skin prick test to walnut and positive specific IgE for cashew nut, walnut, hazelnut, and almond. ImmunoCAP ISAC was positive for storage proteins of walnut and hazelnut (Jug r 1 e Cor a 9 and for a specific allergen of latex (Hev b 3. It is interesting that anaphylaxis was the first manifestation of allergy in a healthy child. Also, we emphasize the importance to latex sensitization with potential future clinical relevance and the sensitization to Hev b 3, which is not documented to be involved in cross-reactivity phenomena/latex–fruit syndrome or present in an otherwise healthy child.

  2. Cashew nut meal in the feeding of meat quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Danilo Rodrigues; Freitas, Ednardo Rodrigues; Watanabe, Pedro Henrique; Filgueira, Thales Marcel Bezerra; Cruz, Carlos Eduardo Braga; do Nascimento, Germano Augusto Jerônimo; Aguiar, Geovana Costa; Nascimento, Etho Robério Medeiros

    2016-04-01

    A study was aimed to evaluate the effects of cashew nut meal inclusion (CNM) on nutrient digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics of meat quails. A total of 432 meat quails with 7 days of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and nine replicates of eight birds each. Treatments were obtained with inclusion of CNM at levels of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 g/kg. According to regression analysis, the inclusion of CNM, at levels above 50 g/kg, provided a linear reduction in digestibility of dry matter and metabolizable energy of diets, linear increase in feed intake and an increase in feed conversion ratio, not influencing weight gain and carcass characteristics. Comparing the results obtained with the different inclusion levels compared to those obtained with the diet without CNM (control group), it was noted that diets with 200 g/kg of CNM inclusion, the dry matter digestibility and metabolizable energy of diet were lower and the level of 250 g/kg provided higher feed intake. Considering the results, it can be inferred that cashew nut meal can be used as a feedstuff in meat quail's diets at levels up to 250 g/kg.

  3. Estimating energy requirement in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut processing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jekayinfa, S.O. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria); Bamgboye, A.I. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2006-07-15

    This work deals with a study on estimation of energy consumption in eight readily defined unit operations of cashew nut processing. Data for analysis were collected from nine cashew nut mills stratified into small, medium and large categories to represent different mechanization levels. Series of equations were developed to easily compute requirements of electricity, fuel and labour for each of the unit operations. The computation of energy use was done using spreadsheet program on Microsoft Excel. The results of application test of the equations show that the total energy intensity in the cashew nut mills varied between 0.21 and 1.161MJ/kg. Electrical energy intensity varied between 0.0052 and 0.029MJ/kg, while thermal energy intensity varied from 0.085 to 1.064MJ/kg. The two identified energy intensive operations in cashew nut processing are cashew nut drying and cashew nut roasting, altogether accounting for over 85% of the total energy consumption in all the three mill categories. Thermal energy, obtained from diesel fuel, represented about 90% of the unit energy cost for cashew nut processing. The developed equations have therefore proven to be a useful tool for carrying out budgeting, forecasting energy requirements and planning plant expansion. (author)

  4. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of cashew nut in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Ferdelie E; Taylor, Steve L

    2011-01-01

    The presence of undeclared cashew can pose a health risk to cashew-allergic consumers. The food industry has the responsibility to declare the presence of cashews on packaged foods even when trace residues are or might be present. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, sensitive, and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of cashew residues. Raw and roasted cashews were defatted and used separately to immunize sheep, goats, and rabbits. The cashew ELISA was developed using sheep and rabbit polyclonal anti-roasted cashew sera as capture and detector reagents, respectively, with visualization through an alkaline phosphatase-mediated substrate reaction. The cashew ELISA was shown to have a limit of quantification of 1 ppm (1 μg cashew/g). The ELISA was highly specific except that substantial cross-reactivity was noted with pistachio and a lesser degree of cross-reactivity was noted with hazelnut. The performance of the ELISA was assessed by manufacturing cookies, ice cream, and milk chocolate with added known amounts (0 to 1000 ppm) of cashew. The mean percent recoveries for ice cream, cookies, and milk chocolate were 118%± 2.9%, 84.3%± 4.0%, and 104%± 3.0%, respectively. In a limited retail survey, 4/5 retail samples with cashew declared on ingredient labels tested positive for cashew compared to 5/36 samples of foods with precautionary labels indicating the possible presence of one or more tree nuts and 0/18 samples without cashew declared on the label in any manner. The cashew ELISA can be used to detect undeclared cashew residue in foods and as a potential tool for the food industry to assess the effectiveness of allergen control strategies and to guarantee compliance with food labeling regulatory requirements. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Cashew nut analysis by magnetic resonance tomography; Analise da castanha do cajueiro por tomografia de ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Joao Rodrigues de; Lima, Antonio Calixto [EMBRAPA, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Agroindustria Tropical]. E-mail: paiva@cnpat.embrapa.br; Biscegli, Clovis Isberto [EMBRAPA, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Agroindustria Tropical]. E-mail: clovis@cnpdia.embrapa.br

    2004-11-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the technique of magnetic resonance tomography for cashew nut analysis, compared to the traditional method of clone selection. Samples of cashew nut from 40 clones harvested in 2002 were analyzed using both methods. Using traditional method most of clones showed high and medium values of the industrial indicators nut and seed mass and industrial yield and low values of seed breakage. By magnetic resonance tomography majority of clones showed cashew nuts with empty spaces between the nut and the endocarp, which can protect the seed during decortication. The results for the two methods were complementary and the tomography, besides being a promising option for the quality evaluation of cashew nut, can give support to other researches related to cashew nut study. (author)

  6. CASHEW NUT MEAL IN THE FEEDING OF BROWN LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Braga Cruz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative foods to replace conventional foods is becoming a source of research for many researchers. The cashew nut meal (CNM has high energy and protein value, may be a partial substitute for corn and soybean meal for poultry feed. In this context, this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of CNM on the utilization of nutrients in the ration for laying hens, as well as the performance and characteristics of the eggs. The study used 180 Dekalb Brown laying hens 27 weeks of age, distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and five replicates of six birds. Treatments consisted of a control diet without CNM and others with the inclusion of this food at levels of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%. Upon regression analysis, a linear increase in nitrogen metabolism, crude energy and apparently metabolizable energy was seen. The dry matter digestibility and metabolizable energy corrected for rations were not affected by the inclusion of the CNM. Feed intake and egg weight were not affected by the inclusion of the CNM; however, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion, and yolk color worsened linearly with inclusion of CNM. Compared to control diet, the inclusion of CNM worsened the egg mass and feed conversion from 15%, and yolk color from 20%. As a result, it is recommended the inclusion of the CNM in the diet of laying hens at a maximum level of 10%.

  7. Effects of Industrial Cashew Nut Processing on Anacardic Acid Content and Allergen Recognition by IgE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashew nuts are consumed worldwide and are in high demand, but they can also cause food allergy in some individuals. The present study aimed to assess the effect(s) of industrial processing on anacardic acids and allergens present in cashew nuts. Sample analyses were performed using liquid chromat...

  8. Yield and composition of milk from dairy cows fed diets containing cashew nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Guimarães Pimentel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work evaluated the production and composition of milk from dairy cows fed increasing levels of cashew nuts in the concentrate portion of the diet. Eight Holstein multiparous cows were used, between the third and fifth lactation, with an average milk yield of 28.0 ? 4.0 kg day-1, arranged in a double 4 x 4 Latin square experimental design. The assessed diets consisted of including different amounts of ground cashew nuts (CN: 0; 80; 160 and 240 g kg-1 of concentrate portion, which resulted in ether extract contents of 31.6; 46.0; 68.9 and 73.1 g kg-1 of dietary dry matter, respectively. Corn silage was used as the only roughage at a proportion of 50% and diets were formulated to be isoprotein. Diet was offered as a complete mixture. Average milk yield was 30.3 kg day-1. The concentration of protein, N-urea and lactose did not present significant variations (p>0.05 among the diets. The inclusion of 24% of cashew nut in the concentrate portion of the diet, maintains milk production, reduces milk fat content and together with the reduction in the concentration of short chain fatty acids and the increase in the concentrations of long chain fatty acids, provide a greater nutraceutical value to milk, making the use of cashew nut an excellent alternative for obtaining milk with more benefits to human health.

  9. A Newly Observed Inhibitory Effect of Cashew Nut Extract on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 120 organisms comprising 20 Proteus species, 20 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 Candida albicans and 10 Enterococcus faecalis were used for this assay. The following organisms were susceptible to crude extract of cashew nut with mean zone diameters of 14mm for Escherichia coli, 22mm for Pseudomonas ...

  10. Life Cycle Cost of Solar Biomass Hybrid Dryer Systems for Cashew Drying of Nuts in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanushkodi, Saravanan; Wilson, Vincent H.; Sudhakar, Kumarasamy

    2015-12-01

    Cashew nut farming in India is mostly carried out in small and marginal holdings. Energy consumption in the small scale cashew nut processing industry is very high and is mainly due to the high energy consumption of the drying process. The drying operation provides a lot of scope for energy saving and substitutions of other renewable energy sources. Renewable energy-based drying systems with loading capacity of 40 kg were proposed for application in small scale cashew nut processing industries. The main objective of this work is to perform economic feasibility of substituting solar, biomass and hybrid dryer in place of conventional steam drying for cashew drying. Four economic indicators were used to assess the feasibility of three renewable based drying technologies. The payback time was 1.58 yr. for solar, 1.32 for biomass and 1.99 for the hybrid drying system, whereas as the cost-benefit estimates were 5.23 for solar, 4.15 for biomass and 3.32 for the hybrid system. It was found that it is of paramount importance to develop solar biomass hybrid dryer for small scale processing industries.

  11. Life Cycle Cost of Solar Biomass Hybrid Dryer Systems for Cashew Drying of Nuts in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanushkodi Saravanan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cashew nut farming in India is mostly carried out in small and marginal holdings. Energy consumption in the small scale cashew nut processing industry is very high and is mainly due to the high energy consumption of the drying process. The drying operation provides a lot of scope for energy saving and substitutions of other renewable energy sources. Renewable energy-based drying systems with loading capacity of 40 kg were proposed for application in small scale cashew nut processing industries. The main objective of this work is to perform economic feasibility of substituting solar, biomass and hybrid dryer in place of conventional steam drying for cashew drying. Four economic indicators were used to assess the feasibility of three renewable based drying technologies. The payback time was 1.58 yr. for solar, 1.32 for biomass and 1.99 for the hybrid drying system, whereas as the cost-benefit estimates were 5.23 for solar, 4.15 for biomass and 3.32 for the hybrid system. It was found that it is of paramount importance to develop solar biomass hybrid dryer for small scale processing industries.

  12. Antifouling potential of seaweed, sponge and cashew nut oil extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... by methanol extracts of the seaweeds S. wightii, U. lactuca, sponge Desmospongae sp., and the tropical cashew ... The byssus thread formation of the mussel was completely inhibited by methanol extracts of S. wightii,. U. lactuca and ... the fuel efficiency of ships underway due to increased drag. Biofouling ...

  13. Air pollution:a case study of a cashew nut factory

    OpenAIRE

    Rjumohan, A.

    2009-01-01

    Probably the first experience of the human beings from the impact of air pollution might have taken place when they built fires in poorly ventilated caves. Since then our planet Earth has suffered much from man-made pollution. Cashew nut processing involves the hazards of both air pollution and indoor pollution; the former burns away our planet Earth and the latter affects the health of the factory workers engaged in different processes. The present study deals with only the latter: the occup...

  14. Nutritional evaluation of almond cashew nut by-products in diets for slow-growing broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. V. Fernandes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the apparent digestibility and energy value of almond cashew nut by-products for slow-growing broiler chickens. Seventy-six chickens (males and females were allocated in a completely randomized design to four treatments: a control diet and the same diet in which the conventional ingredients were replaced with 30% (kg/kg almond cashew nut film, almond cashew nut meal or almond cashew nut mass. The animals were housed in individual cages adapted for excreta collection. The apparent digestibility coefficients of film, full meal and almond mass were, respectively, 81.3, 87.3 and 86.2% for dry matter; 32.1, 71.2 and 56.7% for crude protein (CP; 82.7, 92.6 and 92.8% for ether extract; 10.9, 29.9 and 34.7% for neutral detergent fiber; 7.7, 17.9 and 19.6% for acid detergent fiber; 41.9, 57.2 and 66.7% for coefficient of gross energy metabolism (CGEM; 1,189, 2,648 and 3,719 kcal/kg for apparent metabolizable energy (AME; 8.1, 19.9 and 12.9% for digestible protein, and 3.9, 15.2 and 6.3% for mineral matter (MM. The CP and MM apparent digestibility coefficients of full meal were higher than those of film and almond cashew nut mass, while the latter exhibited higher apparent digestibility of fiber, CGEM and AME compared to the other by-products. The inclusion of almond cashew nut by-products in diets for slow-growing broiler chickens results in lower nutrient digestibility, except for ether extract, neutral detergent fiber and AME, in diets containing 30% almond cashew nut mass.

  15. A Survey of the Bacteriological Quality of Preroasted Peanut, Almond, Cashew, Hazelnut, and Brazil Nut Kernels Received into Three Australian Nut-Processing Facilities over a Period of 3 Years

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eglezos, Sofroni; Huang, Bixing; Stuttard, E.d

    2008-01-01

    .... An investigation of the bacteriological quality of preroasted peanut, almond, cashew, hazelnut, and Brazil nut kernels received into three Australian nut-processing facilities was performed over a period of 3 years...

  16. Anacardic acid from brazilian cashew nut trees reduces dentine erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Cintia; Oliveira, Flávia; Dos Santos, Maria Lucilia; de Freitas, Thiago; Imparato, José Carlos; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of solutions containing saturated anacardic acid (AA) on dentine erosion in vitro. AA was chemically isolated from natural cashew nutshell liquid obtained by continuous extraction in a Soxhlet extractor and was fully saturated by catalytic hydrogenation. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activity, when exposed to buffers containing 100 µmol/l AA, was analyzed using zymography. Bovine root samples were subjected to erosive demineralization (Sprite Zero™, 4 × 90 s/day) and remineralization with artificial saliva between the erosive cycles for 5 days. The samples were treated as follows, after the first and the last acid exposure (1 min; n = 12/group): (1) 100 µmol/l epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (positive control); (2) 0.05% NaF; (3) 100 µmol/l saturated AA; (4) saturated AA and EGCG; (5) saturated AA, EGCG and NaF; (6) untreated (negative control). Dentine erosion was measured using a contact profilometer. Two dentine samples from each group were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Saturated AA reduced the activity of MMP-2. ANOVA and Tukey's test revealed that all treatments significantly reduced dentine loss compared to the negative control (6.03 ± 0.98 µm). Solutions containing saturated AA (1.97 ± 1.02 µm) showed the greatest reduction in dentine erosion compared to the NaF (3.93 ± 1.54 µm) and EGCG (3.79 ± 0.83 µm) solutions. Therefore, it may be concluded that AA significantly reduces dentine erosion in vitro, possibly by acting as an MMP-2 inhibitor.

  17. Estudo da atividade antimicrobiana dos ácidos anacárdicos do óleo da casca da castanha de caju (CNSL dos clones de cajueiro-anão-precoce CCP-76 e CCP-09 em cinco estágios de maturação sobre microrganismos da cavidade bucal Study of the antibacterial activity of anacardic acids from the cashew Anacardium occidentale nut shell oil of the clone of cashew-midget-precocious CCP-76 and and CCP-09 in five stages of maturation on oral microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto de A. LIMA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A atividade antimicrobiana dos ácidos anacárdicos do óleo da casca da castanha de caju (CNSL Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae foi estudada sobre os microrganismos da cavidade bucal Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12598, Candida albicans ATCC 10231 e Candida utilis. Os ácidos anacárdicos obtidos dos extratos etílicos do CNSL apresentaram atividade antibacteriana contra os microganismos citados, porém a maior atividade inibitória ocorreu sobre a bactéria Gram positiva Streptococcus mutans, considerada predominante na cárie dentária. As cáries dentárias são uma das mais freqüentes doenças infecciosas nos países em desenvolvimento. Os elementos que influenciam na cárie dentária incluem o estado nutricional, a ingestão de açúcar e a presença da microbiota cariogênica.The antimicrobial activity of the anacardic acids of the cashew nut shell oil Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae was studied on the oral microorganisms Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12598, Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Candida utilis. The anacardic acids obtained from the ethyl extract of the cashew nut shell oil presented activity antibacterial against the mentioned microorganisms, but the most inhibitory activity occurred with the Gram positive bacteria Streptococcus mutans, which is known to be one of the main cause of tooth decay. The tooth decay is one of the most frequent infectious diseases in the countries in development. The elements that influence in the tooth decay include the nutritional state, the ingestion of sugar and the presence of the microflora cariogênica.

  18. Estudo das características químicas e físicas da cinza da casca da castanha de caju para uso em materiais cimentícios = A study of the chemical and physical properties of cashew nut shell ash for use in cement materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Araujo Lima

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As cinzas ocupam lugar de destaque dentre os resíduos agroindustriais por resultarem de processos de geração de energia. Sabe-se que muitas dessas cinzas possuem reatividade pozolânica, podendo ser utilizadas como adição mineral em matrizes de cimento Portland. O presente estudo tem como objetivo investigar as características físicas equímicas da cinza da casca da castanha de caju (CCCC, por meio dos seguintes ensaios: análise química, massa unitária, massa específica, extratos lixiviado e solubilizado, difratometria de raios X (DrX, superfície específica (BET e análise da pozolanicidade com o cimento Portland e com a cal. O conjunto de análises deste trabalho indica a restrição ao uso da CCCC em matrizes cimentícias em função da baixa reatividade com o hidróxido de cálcio (CH e dos altos teores de álcalis, dos metais pesados e do fenol detectados nessa cinza.Ash occupies a prominent place among agro-industrial wastes, as it is derived from energy generation processes. Several types of ash havepozzolanic reactivity, and might be used as replacement material for cement, resulting in less energy waste and lower cost. This work aimed to investigate the physical and chemical properties of the cashew nut shell ash (CNSA, by performing the following measurementtests: chemical analysis, bulk density, specific mass, leaching and solubilization process, Xray diffraction (XrD, specific surface area (BET and pozzolanicity analysis with cement and lime. The results indicate a low reactivity of CNSA and the presence of heavy metals,alkalis and phenol.

  19. Inactivation of Salmonella and Surrogate Bacteria on Cashews and Macadamia Nuts Exposed to Commercial Propylene Oxide Processing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Thomas; Wu, Jian; Williams, Robert C; Huang, Haibo; Ponder, Monica A

    2018-03-01

    Propylene oxide (PPO), a chemical fumigant, has been validated to reduce Salmonella on bulk almonds but has not been evaluated for other tree nuts. There is a need to identify nonpathogenic surrogate microorganisms whose inactivation is comparable to that of Salmonella to assure effective PPO processing parameters in different packaging configurations without introducing Salmonella into the pasteurization facility. The objective of this research was to compare the reduction of Salmonella and three potential surrogate bacterial strains, Enterococcus faecium ATCC 8459, Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8042, or Staphylococcus carnosus ATCC 51365, on cashews and macadamia nuts processed by using PPO. Whole cashews and macadamia nuts were coinoculated with a five-strain cocktail of Salmonella and one surrogate, dried to the original water activity of 0.44 to 0.51 before being packaged in woven polypropylene bags (2.3 kg), and shipped overnight in Styrofoam containers under ambient conditions to a commercial facility for PPO treatment. Salmonella and surrogates were recovered by vigorous shaking in phosphate buffer (1:1, m/v), serial diluted, and plated onto tryptic soy agar with an overlay of xylose lysine Tergitol 4 for Salmonella or mannitol salt agar or bile esculin azide agar for each surrogate. The mean log reductions of Salmonella and each surrogate ( n = 18), within a sample and among all trials (three independent), were compared by using a matched pairs t test. Reduction in log CFU per gram of Salmonella was significantly greater than that of E. faecium on both macadamia nuts (7.3 ± 0.19 versus 6.4 ± 0.31) and cashews (5.4 ± 0.15 versus 5.1 ± 0.25) and significantly greater than P. acidilactici on both nuts (7.8 ± 0.22 versus 6.3 ± 0.33 on macadamia nuts and 4.9 ± 0.22 versus 4.1 ± 0.25 on cashews). Reduction of S. carnosus exceeded that of Salmonella. E. faecium and P. acidilactici may be considered as surrogates for Salmonella on whole macadamia nuts and

  20. Prevalent fatty acids in cashew nuts obtained from conventional and organic cultivation in different stages of processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Josino Soares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the three largest producers of fruits in the world, and among those fruit trees, the cashew tree stands out due to the high nutritional and commercial value of its products. During its fruit processing, there are losses in some compounds and few studies address this issue. Over the last decade the conventional system of food production has been substituted for the organic cultivation system, which is a promising alternative source of income given the global demand for healthy food. Therefore, this research aimed to characterize and quantify the prevalent fatty acids found in cashew nuts obtained from conventional and organic cultivation during various stages of processing. The prevalent fatty acids found were palmitic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic acid. The average of these fatty acids were 6.93 ± 0.55; 16.99 ± 0.61; 67.62 ± 1.00 and 8.42 ± 0.55 g/100 g, respectively. There was no reduction in the palmitic, oleic and stearic fatty acid contents during processing. Very little difference was observed between the nuts obtained from conventional and organic cultivation, indicating that the method of cultivation used has little or no influence on the content of cashew nut fatty acids.

  1. Dropping macadamia nuts-in-shell reduces kernel roasting quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, David A; Wallace, Helen M

    2010-10-01

    Macadamia nuts ('nuts-in-shell') are subjected to many impacts from dropping during postharvest handling, resulting in damage to the raw kernel. The effect of dropping on roasted kernel quality is unknown. Macadamia nuts-in-shell were dropped in various combinations of moisture content, number of drops and receiving surface in three experiments. After dropping, samples from each treatment and undropped controls were dry oven-roasted for 20 min at 130 °C, and kernels were assessed for colour, mottled colour and surface damage. Dropping nuts-in-shell onto a bed of nuts-in-shell at 3% moisture content or 20% moisture content increased the percentage of dark roasted kernels. Kernels from nuts dropped first at 20%, then 10% moisture content, onto a metal plate had increased mottled colour. Dropping nuts-in-shell at 3% moisture content onto nuts-in-shell significantly increased surface damage. Similarly, surface damage increased for kernels dropped onto a metal plate at 20%, then at 10% moisture content. Postharvest dropping of macadamia nuts-in-shell causes concealed cellular damage to kernels, the effects not evident until roasting. This damage provides the reagents needed for non-enzymatic browning reactions. Improvements in handling, such as reducing the number of drops and improving handling equipment, will reduce cellular damage and after-roast darkening. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Cashew nut roasting: Chemical characterization of particulate matter and genotocixity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Galvão, Marcos Felipe de [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil); Melo Cabral, Thiago de; André, Paulo Afonso de [Departamento de Patologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fátima Andrade, Maria de; Miranda, Regina Maura de [Departamento de Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento [Departamento de Patologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Castro Vasconcellos, Pérola de [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina, E-mail: sbatistu@cb.ufrn.br [Departamento de Biologia Celular e Genética, CB – UFRN, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário, Lagoa Nova, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2014-05-01

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) is potentially harmful to health and related to genotoxic events, an increase in the number of hospitalizations and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The present study conducted the first characterization of elemental composition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analysis of PM, as well as the biomonitoring of genotoxic activity associated to artisanal cashew nut roasting, an important economic and social activity worldwide. Methods: The levels of PM{sub 2.5} and black carbon were also measured by gravimetric analysis and light reflectance. The elemental composition was determined using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and PAH analysis was carried out by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Genotoxic activity was measured by the Tradescantia pallida micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN). Other biomarkers of DNA damage, such as nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear fragments, were also quantified. Results: The mean amount of PM{sub 2.5} accumulated in the filters (January 2124.2 µg/m{sup 3}; May 1022.2 µg/m{sup 3}; September 1291.9 µg/m{sup 3}), black carbon (January 363.6 µg/m{sup 3}; May 70 µg/m{sup 3}; September 69.4 µg/m{sup 3}) and concentrations of Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br and Pb were significantly higher than the non-exposed area. Biomass burning tracers K, Cl, and S were the major inorganic compounds found. Benzo[k]fluoranthene, indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, phenanthrene and benzo[b]fluoranthene were the most abundant PAHs. Mean benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent carcinogenic power values showed a significant cancer risk. The Trad-MCN bioassay revealed an increase in micronucleus frequency, 2–7 times higher than the negative control and significantly higher in all the months analyzed, possibly related to the mutagenic PAHs found. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that artisanal cashew nut roasting is a serious occupational problem, with harmful

  3. Effect of Moisture Content, Nut Size and Hot-Oil Roasting Time on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nuts were then shelled using a hand-operated shelling machine. The results showed that pre-shelling treatment of cashew nuts enhanced WKO. The single effect of MC, roasting time (RT) or nut size distribution is not enough for estimating WKO; it is rather by an interaction of these parameters. The average WKO of raw ...

  4. In-shell pistachio nuts reduce caloric intake compared to shelled nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honselman, Carla S; Painter, James E; Kennedy-Hagan, Karla J; Halvorson, Amber; Rhodes, Kathy; Brooks, Tamatha L; Skwir, Kaitlin

    2011-10-01

    It was hypothesized that consuming in-shell pistachios, compared to shelled pistachios, causes individuals to consume less. A convenience sample of students at a mid-western university (n=140) was recruited, asking them to evaluate a variety of brands of pistachios. A survey at the end of class determined fullness and satisfaction. Subjects entering the classroom were given a 16-ounce cup and asked to self-select a portion of pistachios. Portion weight was recorded and subjects consumed pistachios at their leisure during class. At class end, pistachios remaining in the cup were weighed and total consumption by weight was determined. The caloric content of each portion was then calculated. In condition one, subjects offered in-shell pistachios consumed an average of 125 calories. In condition two, subjects offered shelled pistachios consumed an average of 211 calories; a difference of 86 calories. Subjects in condition one consumed 41% fewer calories compared to subjects in condition two (p≤.01). Fullness and satisfaction ratings were not significantly different (p≥.01). Caloric intake was influenced by the initial form of the food. The difference in calories consumed may be due to the additional time needed to shell the nuts or the extra volume perceived when consuming in-shell nuts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estabilidade de pasta de amêndoa de castanha de caju Stability of cashew nut butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Ribeiro Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou avaliar a estabilidade de pasta de castanha de caju obtida pela moagem de amêndoas quebradas com açúcar, sal e lecitina de soja. A influência de diferentes embalagens (potes de vidro e de polipropileno e do uso de antioxidantes (BHA, BHT e tocoferóis na qualidade do produto também foi investigada. Características físico-químicas (atividade de água, índice de acidez, cor e textura instrumentais, microbiológicas (coliformes totais e fecais, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e bolores e leveduras e aceitação sensorial (aparência, aroma, sabor e textura, foram acompanhadas durante 300 dias de armazenamento à temperatura ambiente (28 °C. Foi observado aumento do índice de acidez, redução da maciez e descoloração. No entanto, essas alterações pouco afetaram a aceitação sensorial, que ficou entre "gostei ligeiramente" e "gostei moderadamente", após os 300 dias de armazenamento. As análises microbiológicas demonstraram boa qualidade do produto, estando dentro dos padrões exigidos pela legislação brasileira: contagem de coliformes a 45 °C (fecais menor que 10 NMP.g -1 e ausência de Salmonella spp. em 25 gramas. Os resultados demonstraram que as pastas podem ser armazenadas nas condições e tempo testados, e que não houve influência dos materiais de embalagem utilizados e nem dos antioxidantes na estabilidade do produto.This work involved an evaluation of the stability of cashew nut butter obtained by grinding up broken cashew kernels with sugar, salt and soy lecithin. The influence of different packaging materials (glass and polypropylene containers and antioxidants (BHA, BHT and tocopherols on product quality was also evaluated. Physicochemical (water activity, acidity index, instrumental color and texture and microbiological characteristics (total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., coagulase-positive staphylococci, yeast and mold and

  6. Occupational exposure of cashew nut workers to Kyasanur Forest disease in Goa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Y. Patil

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of suspected cases of Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD in subjects returning to Belgaum in Karnataka State from Goa, India, is reported herein. KFD was confirmed in 13 out of 76 cases, either by real time RT-PCR or IgM ELISA. No case fatality was recorded. KFD virus positivity was also recorded among humans and monkeys from Sattari taluk in Goa during the same period. The envelope gene sequence of positive human samples from Belgaum showed highest identity of 99.98% to 99.99% with sequences of KFD virus isolated from human cases and monkeys from Goa. KFD activity has been reported from Goa among humans and monkeys since 2015. However, it has not been reported from Belgaum to date. These findings suggest that the cases (migrant laborers contracted infection during cashew nut harvesting from KFD-affected Keri village, Sattari taluk, Goa and became ill after or during migration from the affected area to their native residence.

  7. Physical and chemical characteristics of cashew nut flour stored and packaged with different packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Carolina GADANI

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical changes in cashew nut flour under different packaging and storage conditions. The flour samples were characterized according to their chemical composition, packaged in polystyrene trays associated with covering chloride polyvinyl (PVC, plastic pot of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, plastic packaging polyethylene (POL and without coating polystyrene trays (CON. All packages were stored for 225 days, evaluating every 45 days the moisture content of the flour as well as extracting their oil by the cold method for characterization on the following indexes: acidity, saponification, iodine, peroxide and refraction. There was slight and gradual increase in the moisture content from the 45th to the 225th day, especially for products packaged in PVC and without coating polystyrene trays (CON. The oil saponification indexes showed gradual decrease during storage, especially in flour without packaging (CON. There was a gradual increase in the iodine index until the 135th day, followed by decay. The acidity and peroxide indexes increased along with the storage time. However packages with lower oxygen and moisture permeability, such as PET and POL, minimized such changes, being therefore the most suitable for long-term storage.

  8. Effects of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) component upon Aedes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cells from the basal membrane, and disintegration of the brush border and damage of the peritrophic membrane occurred. CNSL caused damage to the midgut of 3rd instars of A. aegypti by irreversibly disrupting their complete larval development. Key words: Dengue fever, bioinsecticids from plants, morfology of midgut ...

  9. Micron-sized polymeric particles from cashew nut shell liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of emulsifier concentration, sodium hydroxide concentration and stirring rate on average particle size and size distribution was studied for the given geometry of the reactor and the stirrer. It was found that these variables have a significant effect on the particle size and particle size distribution and that average ...

  10. synthesis of organoamine-silica hybrids using cashew nut shell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Jones 2001). Due to the low yield obtained when anarcadic acid was used as a template, most of the hybrids reported in this work were prepared using cardanol as a template. Since the prepared materials were basic in nature, HCl acid titration ...

  11. Separation of cashew nut shell liquid by column chromatography ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compounds was separated into cardanol, cardol, and 2 - methylcardol using column chromatography. The separation was aimed at recovering cardanol that can be used in the synthesis of cation-exchange resin. The separation was effected using a mixture of equal portions of benzene and chloroform as the mobile phase ...

  12. synthesis of organoamine-silica hybrids using cashew nut shell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    The prepared materials were characterized by diffuse reflectance Fourier ... The discovery of ordered mesoporous ..... Triamino-silica Composites Using ... New J. Chem. 23: 539-544. Mdoe JEG 2002 Preparation,. Characterisation and ...

  13. Development of briquette fuel from cashew shells and rice husk mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohana, Eflita; Arijanto, Kalyana, Ivan Edgar; Lazuardi, Andy

    2017-01-01

    In Indonesia, a large amount of biomasses are available from cashew plantations and rice fields and constitute one of the raw material sources for thermal energy. Annually, 130.052 tons of whole cashews can produce cashew shells with a total energy content of 4,933x109 kcal. In addition, 49 million tons of rice is produced annually in Indonesia. From this sum, 7.5-10 million tons of rice husks are obtained with a total energy content of 2.64x1013 kcal. The purpose of this research is to review the briquette of biomass made from a mixture of cashew shells and rice husks with polyvinyl acetate (PVA) as the adhesive. The mixture ratio of cashew shells and rice husks is varied with a range of 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75 % weight. Briquettes are made in a cylinder mold and pressed using a hydraulic press machine. The pressing pressure varies from 2.500, 5.000, and 7.500 kg/m2. Results show that a briquette with a mixture ratio of 75:25 % shows good pressure tenacity. A model is used to relate density with briquetting pressure. This model shows that the briquette has low compressibility at 0.13. Enhancement of the heating value for the briquettes is also carried out using the torrefaction treatment. The torrefaction process produces biomass briquettes made from a mixture of cashew shells and rice husks with a heating value on par to sub-bituminous coal according to the ASTM D 388 standard classification with a heating value of 6.712 kcal/kg.

  14. Characterization of the particulate matter and relationship between buccal micronucleus and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels among cashew nut roasting workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Galvão, Marcos Felipe; de Queiroz, Jana Dara Freires; Duarte, Ediclê de Souza Fernandes; Hoelzemann, Judith Johanna; de André, Paulo Afonso; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Menezes Filho, José Antônio; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina

    2017-01-01

    The present study is the first assessment of occupational risk associated with artisanal cashew nut roasting using exposure and effect biomarkers, as well as a characterization and dispersion analysis of the released particulate matter (PM). A real-time particle monitor was used to quantify PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10. Furthermore, the PM was sampled using a Handi-vol sampler, and the physicochemical characteristics were determined by SEM-EDS analysis. Trajectories, dispersion and deposition of the emitted material were calculated using the NOAA-HYSPLIT model. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels were analyzed by HPLC. DNA damage, chromosomal instability and cell death were measured by a buccal micronucleus cytome assay (BMCyt). The PM concentrations for all measurements in the exposed area were higher than in the non-exposed area. SEM-EDS analyses exhibited a wide variety of particles, and K, Cl, S and Ca biomass burning tracers were the major inorganic compounds. In addition, atmospheric modeling analysis suggested that these particles can reach regions farther away than 40 kilometers. Occupational polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure was confirmed by increases in 1-OHP levels in cashew nut workers. Frequencies of BMCyt biomarkers of genotoxicity (micronuclei and nuclear bud) and cytotoxicity (pyknosis, karyolysis, karyorrhexis and condensed chromatin) were higher in the exposed group compared with the controls. The influence of factors, such as age, on the micronuclei frequencies was demonstrated, and a correlation between 1-OHP and micronuclei was observed. To the best of our knowledge, no other study has demonstrated a correlation between these types of biomarkers. The use of exposure (1-OHP) and effect (BMCyt) biomarkers were therefore efficient in assessing the occupational risk associated with artisanal cashew nut roasting, and the high rates of PM2.5 are considered to be a potential contributor to this effect. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by

  15. Effects of cashew nut testa levels as an alternative to wheat bran in gestating sow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lin Hu; Hong, Young Gi; Hong, Jin Su; Jeong, Jae Hark; Han, Young Geol; Kwon, In Hyuk; Kim, Y Y

    2017-12-19

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary cashew nut testa (CNT) as an alternative feed ingredient to wheat bran on reproductive performance, litter performance, milk composition, and blood profiles of gestating sows. Forth multiparous sows (Yorkshire × Landrace) were fed experimental diets starting at 35 days of pregnancy and an initial average body weight (BW) of 211.53 ± 8.86 kg. Each sow was assigned to a treatment based on BW, backfat thickness (BF) and parity with 10 sows per treatment. Treatments were as follows: 1) corn-SBM based diet with 6% of wheat bran (C0); 2) basal diet with 2% of CNT and 4% of wheat bran (C2); 3) basal diet with 4% of CNT and 2% of wheat bran (C4); and 4) basal diet with 6% of CNT (C6). There were no statistically significant differences in BW and BF of gestating sows throughout the experimental period. However, changes in BF (P = 0.09) and the daily feed intake of sows (P = 0.09) tended to linearly increase during the lactation period. The weaning to estrus interval (WEI) showed a quadratic response to CNT treatment (P = 0.02), and the C2 diet showed the shortest WEI. Litter birth weight (P = 0.04) and piglet birth weight (P = 0.06) were linearly decreased with increase in CNT. Furthermore, there had no significant differences in piglet weight and litter weight in 21 day. Insulin concentration at day 70 of gestation was linearly reduced with increasing CNT level in diets (P = 0.03). When 6% CNT replaced wheat bran in gestating sow diets, there were no negative effects on sow performance, but litter birth weight and piglet birth weight were decreased when CNT level increased in gestating sow diets.

  16. Production of protein concentrate and isolate from cashew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated methods of producing protein concentrates and isolates from cashew nut in order to increase the global utilization of cashew nut and increase the availability of affordable, good quality protein for people. Cashew nuts were processed to obtain roasted cashew kernel. The roasted cashew kernels were ...

  17. Characterization of Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, Diego; Heeres, H. J.; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    The characterization of Physic nut shells was done using the wet chemical analysis of wood components. The obtained fractions were analyzed using IR, NMR, GPC, ICP and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. TGA was used to determine the fixed carbon (+ash) and water content of the shells. The results of wet

  18. The cashew allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, Marit

    2017-01-01

    Cashew nut allergy can be a severe food allergy of which the prevalence appears to be increasing. The aim of this thesis was a comprehensive molecular and serological characterisation of the cashew nut allergens Ana o 1, 2 and 3 for improved diagnosis and characterisation of patient populations.

  19. Research advances in contact model and mechanism configuration for nut shelling manipulation based on metamorphic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulan BAO

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nuts are the important economic forest tree species of China. De-shell is the key operation of nut deep processing. There are some problems in the current nut cracking devices such as the low decorticating rate, the high nuts losses rate and nutmeat integrity problems, etc.. The foundation of force analysis is to establish contact model for nut and mechanical. The nut surface is rough and irregular, so the contact area cannot be modeled as regular shape. How to set up contact constraint model is the key problem to accomplish non-loss shelling. In order to study the shell-breaking mechanism and structural design of the nut shelling manipulation, a multi-fingered metamorphic manipulator is presented. An overview of the nut shelling technology and the contact manipulator modeling are proposed. The origin and application of metamorphic mechanisms are introduced. Then the research contents and development prospects of nut shelling manipulator are described.

  20. Carboxy methylation of cashew nut tree exudate gum; Carboximetilacao da goma exsudada do cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Durcilene A. da; Paula, Regina C.M. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: rpaula@dqoi.ufc.br

    2001-07-01

    Anacardium occidentale exudate polysaccharide was carboxymethylated with monochloroacetic acid. The samples were characterized by NMR, solution viscometry, GPC and thermal analysis. Carboxymethylated cashew gum (CMGC) with a degree of substitution between 0,1-0,16 was obtained. Solution viscometry and GPC analysis showed that polymer molar mass degradation occurred. Sample with higher DS shows higher peak molar mass, intrinsic viscosity and thermal stability. NMR spectrum indicated that the carboxy methylation reaction occurs preferentially in C-6 of galactose residue. (author)

  1. Análise da castanha do cajueiro por tomografia de ressonância magnética Cashew nut analysis by magnetic resonance tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Rodrigues de Paiva

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a técnica de tomografia de ressonância magnética na análise de castanhas de cajueiro, em relação ao método tradicional, visando sua aplicação na seleção de clones. Amostras de castanhas de 40 clones de cajueiro comum, colhidas na safra de 2002, foram analisadas por ambos os métodos. Pelo método tradicional, a maioria dos clones apresentou altos e médios valores dos indicadores industriais massa de castanha, massa de amêndoa e rendimento industrial e baixos índices de quebra das amêndoas. Pela tomografia, a maioria dos clones apresentou castanhas com espaços vazios entre a amêndoa e o endocarpo, que podem proteger a amêndoa durante a decorticação. Os resultados dos dois métodos foram complementares, e a tomografia, além de alternativa promissora na avaliação da qualidade de castanha, pode subsidiar outras áreas de pesquisa relacionadas ao estudo da castanha.The objective of this work was to evaluate the technique of magnetic resonance tomography for cashew nut analysis, compared to the traditional method of clone selection. Samples of cashew nut from 40 clones harvested in 2002 were analyzed using both methods. Using traditional method most of clones showed high and medium values of the industrial indicators nut and seed mass and industrial yield and low values of seed breakage. By magnetic resonance tomography majority of clones showed cashew nuts with empty spaces between the nut and the endocarp, which can protect the seed during decortication. The results for the two methods were complementary and the tomography, besides being a promising option for the quality evaluation of cashew nut, can give support to other researches related to cashew nut study.

  2. Pastas de castanha-de-caju com incorporação de sabores Flavored cashew nut butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Ribeiro Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliaram-se as características de pastas de castanha-de-caju com incorporação de chocolate e canela. As formulações foram elaboradas pela moagem dos ingredientes até obtenção de uma pasta homogênea. Analisaram-se: umidade, pH, cinzas, proteína, gordura, índice de acidez, atividade de água, textura e aceitação sensorial. Os produtos obtidos caracterizaram-se por baixos valores de atividade de água (Characteristics of cashew nut butter with added chocolate and cinnamon were evaluated. Formulations were obtained by grinding ingredients onto a homogeneous paste, which was analyzed for moisture, pH, ash, protein, fat, acid value, water activity, texture and sensory acceptance. Products obtained showed low water activity (<0.32 as well as moisture content (<1.4%. Fat (45.3 to 49.1% and protein (15.4 to 16.3% content were high. Nut butter formulations showed good sensory acceptance (82.9 to 100.0% and purchase intent (60.0 to 80.0% by the tasters.

  3. Torrefaction of pomaces and nut shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical: Apple, grape, olive, and tomato pomaces as well as almond and walnut shells were torrefied at different temperatures and times in a muffle furnace. The fiber content and thermal stability of the raw byproducts were examined using fiber analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respec...

  4. Preliminary Investigation of Kaduna-Grown Cashew Nutshell Liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Myina O M

    dried and the nutshell separated by hitting the nuts with a pestle until the shell broke; just freeing the kernel. The nutshell was then ground into powder using pestle and mortar; and stored in polyethene bags. Extraction of CNSL: The cashew nutshell liquid was thermo extracted with n-Hexane. (BDH) using Soxhlet extraction ...

  5. Polyclonal Antibody-based ELISA in combination with specific PCR amplification of ITS 1 regions for the detection and quantitation of Lasiodiplodia theobromae, causal agent of 2 gummosis in cashew nut plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muniz, C.R.; Freire, F.C.O.; Viana, F.M.P.; Cardoso, J.E.; Correia, D.; Jalink, H.; Kema, G.H.J.; Silva, G.F.; Guedes, M.I.F.

    2012-01-01

    Members of Botryosphaeriaceae family are associated with serious diseases in different plants 18 across the world. In cashew nut plants (Anacardium occidentale L.), the fungus Lasiodiplodia 19 theobromae causes a severe group of symptoms related to gummosis that results in decreased nut 20

  6. Torrefaction of pomaces and nut shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Bor-Sen; Valenzuela-Medina, Diana; Bilbao-Sainz, Cristina; Klamczynski, Artur K; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Milczarek, Rebecca R; Du, Wen-Xian; Glenn, Greg M; Orts, William J

    2015-02-01

    Apple, grape, olive, and tomato pomaces as well as almond and walnut shells were torrefied at different temperatures and times in a muffle furnace. The fiber content and thermal stability of the raw byproducts were examined and the moisture and ash contents, elemental composition, and gross calorific values of the raw and torrefied samples were characterized. Response surface methodology and a central composite design were used to examine the effects of temperature and time on mass and energy yields of the torrefied byproducts. Raw apple pomace had the highest hemicellulose content, whereas raw grape pomace had the highest lignin content. Raw tomato pomace had the highest gross calorific value because of its high carbon content. Temperature had a larger effect on mass and energy yields than time. Grape pomace generally had the highest mass and energy yields. Also, energy yields of the byproducts could be predicted from mass loss values. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Germination and seedlings performance of cashew ( Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... effects of nut-sowing orientations on the germination of cashew nuts and the responses of the resultant seedlings to cotyledon removed were studied in the nursery. While cashew nuts sown flat and those with stylar-end up had highest mean germination of 91.67 % and 92.50 % respectively the nuts sown with stalked-end ...

  8. Characteristics of in-shell Brazil nuts and their relationship to aflatoxin contamination: criteria for sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mello, Fernanda Robert; Scussel, Vildes Maria

    2007-10-31

    External characteristics of in-shell Brazil nuts were evaluated for dimensions (length and face width), weight, chromaticity, and shell thickness. The internal characteristics evaluated were moisture content (mc), aflatoxin contamination (analyzed by LC-MS/MS), and shell/nut ratio. According to their length, Brazil nuts were classified in three groups: I, II, and III, corresponding to large, medium, and small sizes, respectively. It was possible to establish the following parameters as standards for normal/healthy nuts: length (53.2, 43.9, and 36.6 mm), weight (12.9, 8.8, and 6.3 g), and shell chromaticity components (L*, 38.3, 39.5, and 41.6; a*, 8.0, 7.9, and 7.8; and b*, 17.6, 18.0, and 18.7), for the three groups, respectively. The mean of shell thicknesses were 1.92 and 2.68 mm taken from each face and nut top. The nuts, classified as small (Group III), presented aflatoxin B1 contamination at a level of 5.62 microg/kg. The Groups shell/nut ratios were 1.2, 1.2, and 1.3 for normal whole and healthy nuts. No aflatoxin was detected in Groups I and II. The data obtained from the Brazil nut measured characteristics can help to distinguish healthy/safe and deteriorated nuts and will be useful for Brazil nut sorting and machine development.

  9. Determination of aflatoxin risk components for in-shell Brazil nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, E A; dos Santos, E A; Whitaker, T B; Slate, A B

    2011-09-01

    A study was conducted on the risk from aflatoxins associated with the kernels and shells of Brazil nuts. Samples were collected from processing plants in Amazonia, Brazil. A total of 54 test samples (40 kg) were taken from 13 in-shell Brazil nut lots ready for market. Each in-shell sample was shelled and the kernels and shells were sorted in five fractions: good kernels, rotten kernels, good shells with kernel residue, good shells without kernel residue, and rotten shells, and analysed for aflatoxins. The kernel:shell ratio mass (w/w) was 50.2/49.8%. The Brazil nut shell was found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Rotten nuts were found to be a high-risk fraction for aflatoxin in in-shell Brazil nut lots. Rotten nuts contributed only 4.2% of the sample mass (kg), but contributed 76.6% of the total aflatoxin mass (µg) in the in-shell test sample. The highest correlations were found between the aflatoxin concentration in in-shell Brazil nuts samples and the aflatoxin concentration in all defective fractions (R(2)=0.97). The aflatoxin mass of all defective fractions (R(2)=0.90) as well as that of the rotten nut (R(2)=0.88) were also strongly correlated with the aflatoxin concentration of the in-shell test samples. Process factors of 0.17, 0.16 and 0.24 were respectively calculated to estimate the aflatoxin concentration in the good kernels (edible) and good nuts by measuring the aflatoxin concentration in the in-shell test sample and in all kernels, respectively. © 2011 Taylor & Francis

  10. No difference in health-related quality of life, after a food challenge with cashew nut in children participating in a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, J P M; Gerth van Wijk, R; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J; van der Velde, J L; de Groot, H; Wichers, H J; Dubois, A E J; de Jong, N W

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies showed that health-related quality of life (HRQL) significantly improved after the food challenge, with greater improvements in HRQL after a negative outcome than after a positive outcome. It is currently unknown whether this also occurs in patients undergoing DBPCFCs with cashew nut in the context of a clinical trial. Quality of life was studied in children enrolled in a cashew nut study using Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaires (FAQLQs). Children, teenagers and parents of the children completed the questionnaires before the challenge test and 6 months after the DBPCFC with cashew nut. The difference in the change in HRQL between the children with a positive and negative DBPCFC outcome was studied by Mann-Whitney U-test. In total, 112 children (67 boys, median age of 9 years) were included. The children, teenagers and parents of the children completed 143 sets of questionnaires in total. There were no significant differences in baseline total and domain scores compared to the follow-up scores in the FAQLQ-CF, FAQLQ-TF and FAQLQ-PF. In children, the delta FAIM score in the negative DBPCFC tested group was significantly better than the delta FAIM score in the positive challenged group (p = 0.026). There were no significant differences in the changes in the scores of the FAQLQ-CF and FAQLQ-PF in the children with a positive challenge outcome, compared to the children with a negative challenge result. However, there was a significant difference in the change in score between the latter groups in the domain 'accidental exposure' of the FAQLQ-TF (p = 0.049). This study showed no difference in the change in HRQL scores after a DBPCFC with cashew nut in children participating in a clinical trial. The utility of HRQL as an outcome for clinical trials in food allergy may be limited if participant baseline HRQL is relatively unimpaired. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of Nutritional Quality of Dried Cashew Nut Testa Using Laboratory Rat as a Model for Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong Donkoh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried cashew nut testa (DCNT was characterized with respect to proximate, mineral, and energy profile. The crude protein, crude fibre, and fat and ash contents were, in g kg−1 DM, 190.0, 103.0, 20.1, and 20.2, respectively, with metabolizable energy of 7.12 MJ kg−1 DM. In a feeding trial, isoproteic diets containing DCNT (O, 50, 100, and 150 g kg−1 were fed ad libitum to 4 groups of Sprague-Dawley male rats (110 g body weight, =20 for a period of 4 weeks. The rats, used as model for pigs, had free access to water. As the dietary DCNT content was increased from 0 to 150 g kg−1, there was a significant (<0.01 decrease in feed intake (=−0.99, water intake (=−0.87, and a reduction in body weight gain (=−0.93 and efficiency of feed utilization (=0.78. However, no deaths or health-related problems were recorded during the study. Dietary treatments had no impact on liver, heart, lungs, kidneys, and intestinal weights. Cost per gram feed and feed cost per gram live weight gain were reduced when DCNT was used. The experimental diet containing 50 g DCNT kg−1 supported the best growth performance with the lowest feed cost per gram live weight gain of GHȼ0.18. Seasonal increases in the prices of conventional feedstuffs like maize and fishmeal would make the use of agroindustrial by-products such as DCNT in pig diets even more attractive.

  12. Mineral content, based in the Recommended Daily Intake, in cashew nut obtained from conventional and organic cultivation in different stages of processingTeor de minerais, baseado na Ingestão Diária Recomendada, em castanhas de caju obtidas dos cultivos convencional e orgânico em diferentes etapas de processamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Josino Soares

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The cashew nut has a high nutritional value since it is a source of protein, fatty acids and carbohydrates. The minerals quantification in food is important, since these are important constituents from the nutritional point of view. Given the above, this research aimed to characterize and quantify the minerals of the cashew nuts from conventional and organic cultivation during various stages of processing with emphasis in the Recommended Daily Intake of these minerals. The study was performed with cashew nuts collected at four stages of processing (after shelling, before peeling, after peeling and packing. The minerals sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt, nickel and selenium were quantified. The nuts presented good content of all minerals studied. There was little variation in the content of the potassium, magnesium, zinc and cobalt minerals during the processing. The cashew nuts from conventional cultivation presented similar content of minerals to the nuts from organic cultivation. A castanha de caju possui elevado valor nutricional por ser fonte de proteína, ácidos graxos e carboidratos. A quantificação dos minerais em alimentos é importante, já que estes constituintes são muito importantes do ponto de vista nutricional. Diante do exposto, essa pesquisa teve como objetivo caracterizar e quantificar os minerais na amêndoa de castanha de caju dos cultivos convencional e orgânico em diferentes etapas de processamento com ênfase à Ingestão Diária Recomendada destes minerais. O estudo foi realizado com amêndoas de castanha de caju coletadas em quatro etapas da linha de processamento (após a decorticação, antes da despeliculagem, após a despeliculagem e embalagam. Os minerais sódio, potássio, cálcio, magnésio, ferro, cobre, zinco, manganês, cobalto, níquel e selênio foram quantificados. As amêndoas apresentaram boas quantidades de todos os minerais estudados. Ocorreu pequena varia

  13. Diversity in Secondary Metabolites Including Mycotoxins from Strains of Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolated from Raw Cashew Nuts from Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboni, Yendouban; Nielsen, Kristian F; Linnemann, Anita R; Gezgin, Yüksel; Hell, Kerstin; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Tamo, Manuele; van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, raw cashew kernels were assayed for the fungal contamination focusing on strains belonging to the genus Aspergillus and on aflatoxins producers. These samples showed high contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri species and absence of aflatoxins. To investigate the diversity of secondary metabolites, including mycotoxins, the species of A. section Nigri may produce and thus threaten to contaminate the raw cashew kernels, 150 strains were isolated from cashew samples and assayed for their production of secondary metabolites using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Seven species of black Aspergilli were isolated based on morphological and chemical identification: A. tubingensis (44%), A. niger (32%), A. brasiliensis (10%), A. carbonarius (8.7%), A. luchuensis (2.7%), A. aculeatus (2%) and A. aculeatinus (0.7%). From these, 45 metabolites and their isomers were identified. Aurasperone and pyranonigrin A, produced by all species excluding A. aculeatus and A. aculeatinus, were most prevalent and were encountered in 146 (97.3%) and 145 (95.7%) isolates, respectively. Three mycotoxins groups were detected: fumonisins (B2 and B4) (2.7%) ochratoxin A (13.3%), and secalonic acids (2%), indicating that these mycotoxins could occur in raw cashew nuts. Thirty strains of black Aspergilli were randomly sampled for verification of species identity based on sequences of β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. Among them, 27 isolates were positive to the primers used and 11 were identified as A. niger, 7 as A. tubingensis, 6 as A. carbonarius, 2 as A. luchuensis and 1 as A. welwitschiae confirming the species names as based on morphology and chemical features. These strains clustered in 5 clades in A. section Nigri. Chemical profile clustering also showed also 5 groups confirming the species specific metabolites production.

  14. Partition of proteins in aqueous two-phase systems based on Cashew-nut tree gum and poly(ethylene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Asfora Sarubbo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning of two proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA and trypsin was studied in an aqueous poly(ethylene glycol(PEG- Cashew-nut tree gum system. The phase diagram was provided for Cashew-nut tree gum and PEG molecular weight of 1500 at two different temperatures. The influence of several parameters including concentrations of polymers, pH, salt addition and temperature on the partitioning of these proteins were investigated.. The results of this research demonstrated the importance of the protein characteristics for partitioning in aqueous biphasic system.A partição de duas proteínas, albumina de soro bovino (BSA e tripsina foi estudada no sistema bifásico aquoso Polietileno glicol(PEG - Goma do cajueiro. O diagrama de fases foi estabelecido para a Goma do Cajueiro e para PEG de peso molecular 1500 em duas diferentes temperaturas. A influência de vários parâmetros na partição destas proteínas, incluindo concentração dos polímeros, pH, adição de sal e temperatura foi investigada. Os resultados desta pesquisa demonstraram a importância das características da proteína na partição em sistemas bifásicos aquosos.

  15. Caracterização sensorial de amêndoas de castanha-de-caju fritas e salgadas Sensory characterization of cashew nut kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice R. LIMA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Amêndoas de castanha-de-caju fritas e salgadas foram acondicionadas em três embalagens flexíveis (PP/PE=polipropileno/polietileno; PETmet/PE= polietileno tereftalato metalizado/polietileno; PET/Al/PEBD= polietileno tereftalato/alumínio/polietileno de baixa densidade com diferentes propriedades de barreira ao vapor de água e ao oxigênio. As amêndoas foram armazenadas durante 1 ano, a 30° C e 80% de umidade relativa. No final do período de 1 ano de armazenamento, realizou-se análise sensorial descritiva quantitativa (ADQ. Os termos descritivos levantados para caracterização sensorial das amêndoas foram, para aparência: cor torrada, uniformidade de cor e rugosidade; para aroma: castanha torrada, doce, ranço e velho; para sabor: castanha torrada, doce, ranço, velho, sal e amargo; para textura: crocância. Observou-se que os fatores mais diretamente responsáveis pela perda de qualidade sensorial das amêndoas de castanha-de-caju foram desenvolvimento de aroma e sabor de velho e de ranço, perda de sabor e aroma de castanha torrada e perda de crocância. Após o período de armazenamento, estes fatores foram observados com maior intensidade nas amêndoas embaladas em PP/PE.Shelled, roasted and salted cashew nut kernels were packaged in three different flexible materials (PP/PE= polypropylene / polyethylene; PETmet/PE= metallized polyethylene terephthalate / polyethylene; PET/Al/LDPE= polyethylene terephthalate / aluminum foil / low density polyethylene , with different barrier properties. Kernels were stored for one year at 30° C and 80% relative humidity. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis (QDA were performed at the end of storage time. Descriptive terms obtained for kernels characterization were brown color, color uniformity and rugosity for appearance; toasted kernel, sweet, old and rancidity for odor; toasted kernel, sweet, old rancidity, salt and bitter for taste, crispness for texture. QDA showed that factors responsible

  16. Heat-induced alterations in cashew allergen solubility and IgE binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashew nuts are included in a group of 8 foods that commonly cause food allergies. IgE binding to allergens within the nuts can cause allergic reactions that can be severe. Foods containing cashew nuts must be labeled to prevent accidental exposure to people who suffer from allergy to cashew nuts....

  17. for a cottage cashew juice factory.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emphasised. Agricultural commodities are shifting from exploitation in their primary to processed forms. Cashew apple, a product of the fruit of cashew tree and a by-product of cashew nut harvest, is presently under-utilised in Nigeria. There is so much.

  18. Tree nut phytochemicals: composition, antioxidant capacity, bioactivity, impact factors. A systematic review of almonds, Brazils, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree nuts contain an array of phytochemicals including carotenoids, phenolic acids, phytosterols and polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids, proanthocyanidins (PAC) and stilbenes, all of which are included in nutrient databases, as well as phytates, sphingolipids, alkylphenols and lignans, which ...

  19. Óleo da castanha de caju: oportunidades e desafios no contexto do desenvolvimento e sustentabilidade industrial Cashew nut oil: opportunities and challenges in the context of sustainable industrial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Elaine Mazzetto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The new millennium is marked by a growing search for renewable fuels and alternative raw materials from biomass in the petrochemicals industry. However, there are many challenges to overcome regarding technological and human resources aspects. In this scenario, cashew nut oil, which is rich in natural phenols, is considered to be very promising for the development of synthetic and functional products and as a feedstock for production of fine chemicals and a wide variety of new materials.

  20. Stereo and scanning electron microscopy of in-shell Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.): part two-surface sound nut fungi spoilage susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scussel, Vildes M; Manfio, Daniel; Savi, Geovana D; Moecke, Elisa H S

    2014-11-01

    This work reports the in-shell Brazil nut spoilage susceptible morpho-histological characteristics and fungi infection (shell, edible part, and brown skin) through stereo and scanning electron microscopies (SEM). The following characteristics related to shell (a) morphology-that allow fungi and insects' entrance to inner nut, and (b) histology-that allow humidity absorption, improving environment conditions for living organisms development, were identified. (a.1) locule in testae-the nut navel, which is a cavity formed during nut detaching from pods (located at 1.0 to 2.0/4th of the shell B&C nut faces linkage). It allows the nut brown skin (between shell and edible part) first contact to the external environment, through the (a.2) nut channel-the locule prolongation path, which has the water/nutrients cambium function for their transport and distribution to the inner seed (while still on the tree/pod). Both, locule followed by the channel, are the main natural entrance of living organisms (fungi and insects), including moisture to the inner seed structures. In addition, the (a.3) nut shell surface-which has a crinkled and uneven surface morphology-allows water absorption, thus adding to the deterioration processes too. The main shell histological characteristic, which also allows water absorption (thus improving environment conditions for fungi proliferation), is the (b.1) cell wall porosity-the multilayered wall and porous rich cells that compose the shell faces double tissue layers and the (b.2) soft tissue-the mix of tissues 2 faces corner/linkage. This work also shows in details the SEM nut spoilage susceptible features highly fungi infected with hyphae and reproductive structures distribution. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Preparation of activated carbons from macadamia nut shell and coconut shell by air activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, M.S.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1999-11-01

    A novel, three-step process for the production of high-quality activated carbons from macadamia nut shell and coconut shell charcoals is described. In this process the charcoal is (1) heated to a high temperature (carbonized), (2) oxidized in air following a stepwise heating program from low (ca. 450 K) to high (ca. 660 K) temperatures (oxygenated), and (3) heated again in an inert environment to a high temperature (activated). By use of this procedure, activated carbons with surface areas greater than 1,000 m{sub 2}/g are manufactured with an overall yield of 15% (based on the dry shell feed). Removal of carbon mass by the development of mesopores and macropores is largely responsible for increases in the surface area of the carbons above 600 m{sub 2}/g. Thus, the surface area per gram of activated carbon can be represented by an inverse function of the yield for burnoffs between 15 and 60%. These findings are supported by mass-transfer calculations and pore-size distribution measurements. A kinetic model for gasification of carbon by oxygen, which provides for an Eley-Rideal type reaction of a surface oxide with oxygen in air, fits the measured gasification rates reasonably well over the temperature range of 550--660 K.

  2. Study of the stability of cashew nuts obtained from conventional and organic cultivationEstudo da estabilidade de amêndoas de castanha de caju obtidas dos cultivos convencional e orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Josino Soares

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available From the cashew tree, the cashew fruit is obtained which is composed of the nut and the cashew apple. In the last decade, there has been a substitution of the conventional system of food production for the organic cultivation system. Given the above, this research aimed to study the stability of cashew nuts obtained from conventional and organic cultivation. There were differences in the content of total soluble sugars and soluble solids between the two methods of cultivation studied, where the highest values were observed in nuts from conventional cultivation. As for the content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity by ABTS•+ and DPPH• radicals, the mean values observed were 65 mg GAE/100 g, 6.6 ?M Trolox/g and 30682 g of nut/g DPPH•. There was no reduction of the antioxidant activity of the cashew nuts during the storage in flexible packaging covered with laminated film, at room temperature (25 °C during 180 days. Do cajueiro obtém-se o caju, que é composto pela castanha e pedúnculo. Nas últimas décadas, vem ocorrendo a substituição do sistema convencional de produção de alimentos pelo sistema de cultivo orgânico. Diante do exposto, essa pesquisa objetivou estudar a estabilidade de amêndoas de castanha de caju obtidas dos cultivos convencional e orgânico. Houve diferença no conteúdo de açúcares solúveis totais e sólidos solúveis entre as duas formas de cultivos estudadas, sendo os maiores valores observados nas amêndoas de cultivo convencional. Quanto ao conteúdo de compostos fenólicos, atividade antioxidante pelo radical ABTS•+ e pelo radical DPPH•, os valores médios observados foram de 65 mg GAE/100 g de amêndoa, 6,6 ?M Trolox/g de amêndoa e 30682 g de amêndoa/g de DPPH•. Não houve redução da atividade antioxidante das amêndoas de castanha de caju durante o armazenamento em embalagem flexível recoberta com filme laminado, a temperatura ambiente (25 °C durante 180 dias.

  3. Brazil nut sorting for aflatoxin prevention: a comparison between automatic and manual shelling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Mendonça Pacheco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of automatic and manual shelling methods during manual/visual sorting of different batches of Brazil nuts from the 2010 and 2011 harvests was evaluated in order to investigate aflatoxin prevention.The samples were tested as follows: in-shell, shell, shelled, and pieces in order to evaluate the moisture content (mc, water activity (Aw, and total aflatoxin (LOD = 0.3 µg/kg and LOQ 0.85 µg/kg at the Brazil nut processing plant. The results of aflatoxins obtained for the manually shelled nut samples ranged from 3.0 to 60.3 µg/g and from 2.0 to 31.0 µg/g for the automatically shelled samples. All samples showed levels of mc below the limit of 15%; on the other hand, shelled samples from both harvests showed levels of Aw above the limit. There were no significant differences concerning the manual or automatic shelling results during the sorting stages. On the other hand, the visual sorting was effective in decreasing the aflatoxin contamination in both methods.

  4. Work related health problems of female workers engaged in Cashew processing Industries- a cross-sectional study from Kollam district, Kerala, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincy Nelson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: India accounted for one third of the global export market for cashew kernels. Unhealthy sitting posture, working near furnaces and contact with the cashew nut shell liquid may make the workers in the cashew sector vulnerable to many health issues Aims & Objectives: To identify the health related problems among female workers of cashew processing industries in Kollam district, southern Kerala, Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in selected cashew units of Kollam, Kerala. Material & Methods: An interviewer administered and structured questionnaire was used to collect health related issues from 301 female cashew processing workers. Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics using frequencies was done and chi square test was used to detect difference between proportions. Results: Low back pain was the predominant problem (48.8% followed by hand and wrist pain (46.6%, knee pain (37.8% and neck pain (32.5%. Among the workers engaged in roasting, 86.6% had experienced a burn (p < 0.001. Workers engaged in roasting (53.3% and shelling (43.7% had blackish staining of their palms and fingers. Conclusion: Health related issues pertaining to musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, and skin conditions are highly prevalent among women engaged in cashew processing industry. A comprehensive programme to prevent health related issues may be considered to promote health of women engaged in cashew processing industries

  5. In Vitro evaluation of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) as a fungicide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anacardium occidentale) was evaluated in vitro for fungitoxicity against Coriolopsis polyzona, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Ganoderma lucidum and Lenzites palisoti that cause serious decay on wood in Nigeria. Growth of the four pathogens in the ...

  6. Porphyrin synthesized from cashew nut shell liquid as part of a novel superparamagnetic fluorescence nanosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, C. S.; Ribeiro, V. G. P.; Sousa, J. E. A.; Maia, F. J. N.; Barreto, A. C. H. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Laboratorio de Produtos e Tecnologia em Processos (LPT) (Brazil); Andrade, N. F. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Departamento de Fisica (Brazil); Denardin, J. C. [Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Departamento de Fisica (Chile); Mele, G. [Universita del Salento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione (Italy); Carbone, L. [NNL, Istituto Nanoscienze UOS Lecce (Italy); Mazzetto, S. E. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Laboratorio de Produtos e Tecnologia em Processos (LPT) (Brazil); Fechine, P. B. A., E-mail: fechine@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Grupo de Quimica de Materiais Avancados (GQMAT), Departamento de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with average size approximately 11 nm were first oleic acid coated to interact with the meso-porphyrin derivative from CNSL. This procedure produced a novel superparamagnetic fluorescent nanosystem (SFN) linked by van der Waals interactions. This system was characterized by transmission electron microscope, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, magnetic measurements, UV-Vis absorption, and fluorescence emission measurements. These results showed that SFN has good thermal stability, excellent magnetization, and nanosized dimensions ({approx}13 nm). It exhibited emission peaks at 668 and 725 nm with a maximum emission at 467 nm of excitation wavelength. The type of interaction between porphyrin and magnetic nanoparticles allowed to obtain a material with interesting optical properties which might be used as an imaging agent for contrast in cells as well as heterogeneous photocatalysis.

  7. Cashew nut shell liquid: an agricultural by-product with great ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This practice pollutes the environment profoundly through emission of thick dark smoke with particulate matter. No CNSL is recovered in Kenya currently. The aim of this review paper is to highlight a number of products which can be manufactured in Kenya based on research initially done at Kenya Industrial Research and ...

  8. The Physicochemical Optimization and Acceptability of a Cashew Nut-Based Beverage Varying in Mango Juice and Sugar: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina C. Rebouças

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of a lactose-free beverage comes as a new feeding alternative to a product with excellent nutritional and functional characteristics to individuals with food restrictions related to milk. Thus, this study aimed to develop a cashew nut beverage with added mango juice and prebiotic substances by means of evaluating its sensory characteristics and physicochemical optimization. A 22 central composite rotatable design with five repetitions at the central point was applied to evaluate the effect of sugar and juice contents on the analyzed parameters. Data were evaluated by means of the response surface methodology, analysis of variance, and the means comparison test. Formulations with greater combined concentrations of juice and sugar obtained satisfactory acceptance. The means comparison test showed that the formulation that allows for the beverage’s greatest acceptance must contain 40% mango juice and 8% sugar. Soluble solids content was influenced only by the addition of sugar, where the formulations that presented greater solids concentration were the ones which obtained greater sensory acceptance. The beverage’s acidity was influenced only by the juice content, which, besides making formulations significantly more acid, did not affect their acceptance.

  9. Effect of Oxygen-Reducing Atmospheres on the Safety of Packaged Shelled Brazil Nuts during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vildes Maria Scussel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the application of oxygen-(O2- reducing atmosphere methods on stored shelled Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K. packs aiming to evaluate the degree of aflatoxin degradation, nuts lipid oxidative stability, fungi control, and hygienic conditions improvement. The methods applied were (a ozone: O3, (b carbon dioxide: CO2, and (c O2 absorber pads with and without vacuum. From all modified atmospheres evaluated, the best performance was obtained with O3, either with or without vacuum. It was the only nut treatment that was able to degrade aflatoxins. None of the spiked (AFLs: 15 μg·kg−1 nut samples O3- treated had aflatoxins detected up to the LC-MS/MS method LOQ (0.36 μg·kg−1 for total AFLs, thus producing safer nuts. Also it kept the fatty acid oxidation indicator—malondialdehyde stable and improved the sensory attributes for consumer acceptance. In addition, the destruction of fungi and yeast was observed since the O3 application (from 1.8×104 cfu/g to NG = no growth. All other treatments stabilized and/or inhibited microorganisms' growth only. By adding CO2 gas also played an important role in the nut quality. Regarding cost, gaseous O3 showed to be of low cost for application in the nut packs.

  10. A STUDY OF PYROLYSIS OF MACADAMIA NUT SHELL: PARAMETRIC SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF THE IPR MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Xavier

    Full Text Available Abstract The macadamia tree is known for producing fruit high in fats, enclosed in very hard woody shells. Macadamia nut shell, considered as a by-product from macadamia nut processing, may be a suitable option for pyrolysis. These residues are constituted of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and extractives. The Independent Parallel Reaction (IPR Model has been applied in this work to study the pyrolysis of macadamia nut shell from thermogravimetric experiments. The kinetic parameters and mass fraction of each component were estimated using the Differential Evolution Algorithm. The influence of the model parameters was also analyzed by means of sensitivity studies. The results showed that the decomposition of the macadamia nut shell is more sensitive to the parameters related to the decomposition of lignin. The results of sensitivity analysis also showed that the activation energy affects the total biomass conversion more strongly than the other parameters and the contribution of extractives in the IPR model is as important as the hemicellulose.

  11. Developing hot air assisted radio frequency drying for in-shell Macadamia nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehydration offers a means of preserving foods in a stable and safe condition as it reduces water activity and extends shelf-life of perishable agricultural products. The purpose of this study was to develop radio frequency (RF) drying protocols for in-shell macadamia nuts based on conventional hot ...

  12. The cashew ( Anacardium occidentale L.) powdery mildew disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cashew powdery mildew disease caused by Oidium anacardii Noack is identified as a major cause of low cashew nut production in Kenya. The disease either singly or in synergism with other pests or factors causes pre-mature flower and fruit drop. The evergreen perennial cycle of the neglected cashew trees is ...

  13. Antioxidant Properties of Pecan Nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] Shell Infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro do Prado, A. C.; Monalise Aragao, A.; Fett, R.; Block, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The nutritional composition of Pecan nut [Ca rya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] shells and the total phenolic and condensed tannin contents of Pecan nut shell infusion were determined and the antioxidant activity of the infusion was evaluated through ABTS, DPPH and {beta}-carotene/linoleic acid systems. The shell presented high fiber content (48% {+-} 0.06), the total phenolic content ranged from 116 to 167 mg GAE/g and the condensed tannin content was between 35 and 48 mg CE/g. The antioxidant activity varied from 1112 and 1763 {mu}mol TEAC/g in the ABTS system. In the DPPH method, the antioxidant activity was from 305 to 488 mg TEAC/g (30 minutes reaction) and from 482 to 683 mg TEAC/g (24 h reaction). The oxidation inhibition percentage obtained in the {beta}-carotene/linoleic acid system varied from 70 to 96%. The results indicated the high phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Pecan nut shell infusion. (Author) 28 refs.

  14. Effect of electron beam irradiation on mechanical properties of gelatin/Brazil nut shell fiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Shimazaki, Kleber; Moura, Esperidiana Augusta Barretos de; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: patyoko@yahoo.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Colombo, Maria Aparecida [Faculdade de Tecnologia da Zona Leste (FATEC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rosa, Ricardo de [Amazon Brazil Nuts, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The use of natural fiber as polymeric matrix reinforcement has attracted interest, as fibers are renewable, of low cost, biodegradable and possesses non-toxic properties. In the present paper, Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) shell fiber (10% w/w) were mixed with gelatin (25% w/w), glycerin as plasticizer and acrylamide as copolymer to investigate the resultant mechanical properties effects upon ionizing radiation. The samples were irradiated at 40 kGy using a Dynamitron electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in the presence of air. The results showed that samples of gelatin with 10% of Brazil nuts shell fiber and irradiated at 40 kGy presented promising results for mechanical performance. (author)

  15. Effects of electron-beam irradiation on HDPE/Brazil nut shell fiber composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maiara S.; Sartori, Mariana N.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B., E-mail: maiara.sferreira@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In recent years, research on the replacement of synthetic fibers by natural fibers as reinforcement in thermoplastic composites has increased dramatically due to the advantages of natural fibers, such as low density, low cost, environmental appeal and recyclability. In the present work, the influence of electron-beam irradiation on mechanical properties of HDPE and HDPE/Brazil Nut Shell (Bertholletia excelsa) fiber compositive was investigated. The HDPE composite reinforced with 5% or 10%, by weight of Brazil nut shell fiber powder with particle sizes equal or smaller than 250 μm were obtained by extrusion, using a twin screw extruder. The materials were irradiated at 200 kGy using a 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in presence of air. The irradiated and non-irradiated specimens tests samples were submitted to mechanical and thermo-mechanical tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and sol-gel analysis and the correlation between their properties was discussed. The results showed significant changes in HDPE mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties due to Brazil nut shell fibers addition and electron-beam irradiation. The surface of the cryo fractured composite samples irradiated showed important visual changes which suggest a better fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion, due to irradiation treatment. These results showed that it is possible to get interesting property gains by using waste from renewable sources instead of the traditional ones and electron-beam radiation treatment. (author)

  16. Diversity in secondary metabolites including mycotoxins from strains of aspergillus section nigri isolated from raw cashew nuts from benin, west africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamboni, Yendouban; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Linnemann, Anita R.; Gezgin, Yué Ksel; Hell, Kerstin; Nout, Rob; Smid, Eddy J.; Tamo, Manuele; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Hoof, Jakob Blñsbjerg; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, raw cashew kernels were assayed for the fungal contamination focusin on strains belonging to the genus Aspergillus and on aflatoxins producers. These sample showed high contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri species and absence o aflatoxins. To investigate the diversity

  17. Market Behavior for in Shell Brazil Nuts Produced in Brazil from 2000 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Lobo Schirigatti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper aimed to analyze the market behavior of in shell Brazil nuts produced by Brazil during the period of 2000 to 2010. In order to do it, structural brakes in the data were identified, the existence of correlations between the variables price, quantity and value was investigated; and the shift of the supply and demand curves was described for the nuts production. The trend model was used to identify the direction of the shift, by calculating the growth rates of national prices and of produced quantities. When analyzing the whole period (2000-2010, there was a positive shift of the demand curve, but when separately analyzing the two sub periods defined by the Chow test (2000-2005 and 2006-2010, a negative shift of the supply curve was identified on the first sub period, while the second subperiod revealed a positive shift of the supply curve. The results showed that the market of Brazil nuts is ascending and that the government’s incentive policies to the activity were effective.

  18. Cleaning oil refining drainage waters out of emulsified oil products with thermic treated cedar nut shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatanova, P. A.; Adeeva, L. N.

    2017-08-01

    It was elaborated the ability of the sorbent produced by thermic treatment of cedar nut shell to destruct model and real first kind (direct) emulsions in static and dynamic conditions. In static conditions optimal ratio sorbent-emulsion with the original concentration of oil products 800 mg/l was in the range of 2.0 g per 100 ml of emulsion which corresponds to the level of treatment 94.9%. The time of emulsion destruction was 40 minutes. This sorbent is highly active in dynamic processes of oil-contaminated water treatment, the level of treatment 96.0% is being achieved. Full dynamic sorptive capacity of the sorbent is 0.85 g/g. Sorbent based on the thermic treated cedar nut shell can be elaborated as sorptive filter element of local treatment facilities of oil refining and petrochemical processes. After the treatment with this sorbent of drainage waters of oil refinery in dynamic conditions the concentration of oil products became less than mpc on oil products for waste waters coming to biological treatment.

  19. PHYSICO-CHEMICALANALYSIS OF THE CASHEW NUT PRODUCTION WASTE AIMING THEIR USE IN CEMENT COMPOSITES / ANÁLISE FÍSICO-QUÍMICA DA CINZA DA CASCA DA CASTANHA DE CAJU VISANDO SUAAPLICAÇÃO EM MATERIAIS CIMENTÍCIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOFIA ARAÚJO LIMA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Ashes have a prominent place among the agroindustrial wastes, as they result from the energy generation process. Most ashes have pozzolanic activity, and may be used as a cement replacement material, resulting in less energy waste and low cost composite. The present paper investigates the physical and chemical properties of cashew nut shell ash (CNSA by the following measurement tests: chemical analysis, bulk density, specific mass, leaching and solubilization process, X-Ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and specific surface area (BET. A low content of silicon (SiO2 was observed by means of the chemical tests and heavy metals were found in the analysis of the CNSA solubilized extract. These results will be important for the determination of the pozzolanicity of CNSA in a next stage, as well as the development of a new product for civil building reducing the solubilization of the CNSA in the environment. 

  20. Consumo, produção de leite e estresse térmico em vacas da raça Pardo-Suíça alimentadas com castanha de caju Dry mater intake, milk yield, and heat stress indicators of dairy cows fed diets with cashew nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Pimentel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo de matéria seca, a produção de leite e os indicadores de estresse térmico de vacas Pardo-Suíça alimentadas com castanha de caju no semi-árido do Nordeste do Brasil. Doze animais foram distribuídos em um ensaio de reversão, com quatro tratamentos: 0, 8, 16 e 24% de castanha no concentrado. As vacas receberam cana-de-açúcar à vontade e sete quilos de concentrado por dia. Maior consumo de matéria seca de cana-de-açúcar foi observado no tratamento com concentrado sem castanha (7,70kgMS/dia em relação aos tratamentos com 16% e 24% de castanha (7,35 e 7,05kgMS/dia, respectivamente. O consumo no tratamento com concentrado sem castanha não diferiu do consumo no tratamento com 8% (7,59kgMS/dia. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre a produção de leite e sobre as variáveis indicativas de estresse térmico (P>0,05.A study was carried out to evaluate dry matter intake, milk yield, and heat stress parameters in Brown Swiss cows fed diets with cashew nut. Animals were raised in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian Northeast. Twelve cows were subjected to a switch back experimental design, with four treatments: 0, 8, 16, and 24% of cashew nut in the concentrate. Each cow received 7kg of concentrate per day and had free access to sugar cane. Dry matter (DM intake and milk yield were daily taken as well as measurements of rectal and milk temperature; and cardiac and respiratory rates. The highest intake of forage (sugar cane was obtained when the concentrate had no cashew nut (7.7kgDM/day. This value was not different when the concentrate contained 8% of cashew nut (7.59kgDM/day but greater than dry matter intake of cows receiving diets with 16% of cashew nut (7.35kgDM/day; P0.05. Such low variability in daily milk yield could be associated with the higher energy density of diets containing more cashew nut. Finally, indicators of heat stress were not influenced by changes in the diets, given the air temperatures and

  1. Antioxidant Properties of Pecan Nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C. Koch] Shell Infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fett, Roseane

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional composition of Pecan nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C. Koch] shells and the total phenolic and condensed tannin contents of Pecan nut shell infusion were determined and the antioxidant activity of the infusion was evaluated through ABTS, DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid systems. The shell presented high fiber content (48% ± 0.06, the total phenolic content ranged from 116 to 167 mg GAE/g and the condensed tannin content was between 35 and 48 mg CE/g. The antioxidant activity varied from 1112 and 1763 μmol TEAC/g in the ABTS system. In the DPPH method, the antioxidant activity was from 305 to 488 mg TEAC/g (30 minutes reaction and from 482 to 683 mg TEAC/g (24 h reaction. The oxidation inhibition percentage obtained in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system varied from 70 to 96%. The results indicated the high phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Pecan nut shell infusion.La composición nutricional de la cáscara de nuez Pecana [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C. Koch] y los contenidos de fenoles totales y de taninos condensados de la infusión de la cáscara de nuez Pecana se determinaron en este trabajo. La actividad antioxidante de la infusión se evaluó a través de los sistemas ABTS, DPPH y β-caroteno/ácido linoleico. La cáscara presentó un contenido elevado de fibras (48% ± 0,06, el contenido de fenoles totales varió de 116 a 167 mg GAE/g y el de taninos condensados se encontró entre 35 y 48 mg CE/g. La actividad antioxidante varió entre 1112 y 1763 μmol TEAC/g en el sistema ABTS. Por el método DPPH, la actividad antioxidante fue de 305 a 488 mg TEAC/g (30 minutos de reacción y de 482 a 683 mg TEAC/g (24 h de reacción. El porcentaje de inhibición de la oxidación que se obtuvo en el sistema β -caroteno/ácido linoleico varió de 70 a 96%. Los resultados indicaron un elevado contenido de fenoles y una elevada actividad antioxidante para la infusión de la cáscara de nuez Pecana.

  2. Maintaining high moisture content of macadamia nuts-in-shell during storage induces brown centres in raw kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, David A; Randall, Bruce W; Le Lagadec, Marie D; Wallace, Helen M

    2013-09-01

    Kernel brown centres in macadamia are a defect causing internal discolouration of kernels. This study investigates the effect on the incidence of brown centres in raw kernel after maintaining high moisture content in macadamia nuts-in-shell stored at temperatures of 30°C, 35°C, 40°C and 45°C. Brown centres of raw kernel increased with nuts-in-shell storage time and temperature when high moisture content was maintained by sealing in polyethylene bags. Almost all kernels developed the defect when kept at high moisture content for 5 days at 45°C, and 44% developed brown centres after only 2 days of storage at high moisture content at 45°C. This contrasted with only 0.76% when stored for 2 days at 45°C but allowed to dry in open-mesh bags. At storage temperatures below 45°C, there were fewer brown centres, but there were still significant differences between those stored at high moisture content and those allowed to dry (P in-shell storage increases the incidence of brown centres in raw kernels and the defect increases with time and temperature. On-farm nuts-in-shell drying and storage practices should rapidly remove moisture to reduce losses. Ideally, nuts-in-shell should not be stored at high moisture content on-farm at temperatures over 30°C. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Barreiras às novas formas de coordenação no agrossistema do caju na região nordeste, Brasil Barriers to new coordination forms in the cashew nut agricultural system in northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildo Meirelles de Souza Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora a produção brasileira de amêndoa de castanha-de-caju tenha crescido nos anos 2000, sua participação no mercado internacional reduziu-se, revelando perda de competitividade desse agrossistema. A produtividade na produção rural é baixa e subsiste uma antiquada estrutura de governança das relações entre produtores, intermediários e processadores de castanha em casca. Novas formas de coordenação estão sendo testadas, mas ainda não foram capazes de substituir a antiga. O objetivo desse artigo é identificar o conjunto de barreiras à transformação dessa estrutura. O referencial teórico adotado encontra-se fundamentalmente na Economia de Custos de Transação. Para investigação empírica, adotou-se o método de pesquisa rápida (rapid appraisal, compreendendo entrevistas junto a uma amostra não probabilística de agentes da cadeia nos estados do Ceará, Piauí e Rio Grande do Norte. Os resultados mostram que há resiliência da estrutura de governança antiga, a qual está assentada na funcionalidade e capacidade de reação dos intermediários. Assim, a estratégia de mudança cautelosa das empresas processadoras é, por um lado, racional diante de grandes incertezas, e, por outro, lenta diante das transformações do mercado internacional.Although the Brazilian production of cashew nuts has increased in the years 2000, its international market-share has decreased revealing competitiveness loss of this agri-system. Agricultural yields are low and a traditional governance structure among farmers, intermediaries, and cashew nut processing industries still subsists. New coordination forms have been tested, but they have not been able to substitute the old one. The objective of this article is the identification of barriers to the changes of this structure. The Economy of Transaction Cost is the theoretical approach adopted. For empirical investigation, a rapid appraisal method was adopted comprising interviews with

  4. 21 CFR 164.110 - Mixed nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products... and not more than 80 percent by weight of the finished food. For purposes of this section, each kind... to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Almonds, black walnuts, Brazil nuts, cashews, English...

  5. Adsorption of 4-Nitrophenol (PNP Using Pilli Nut Shell Active Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. O. Nwosu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An economically feasible technology for the removal of pollutants from wastewater is adsorption. Active carbon was prepared by single stage method via chemical impregnation of pili Nut-Shell (PNS with orthophosphoric acid and activation at a temperature of 450oC using precursor-acid ratio of 1:4 for a period of 2 h. The effects of initial concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose and pH on the uptake of 4-nitrophenol / para-nitrophenol (PNP using pili nut-based active carbon (PAC were determined. The PAC maximum adsorption capacity value (190.39 mg/g was obtained at an initial concentration of 1000 mg/L and was found to be greater than that of a commercial granular active carbon (CGAC (166.97 mg/g at an initial concentration of 800 mg/L. The BET surface area and total pore volume of PAC (960 m2/g, 0.422 cm3/g respectively were also greater than that of CGAC (426.3 m2/g, 0.208 cm3/g. The pore size distribution of the PAC (2.842 nm classifies it to be within range of super-microporous and as such could be used for toxic gas removal as well as small liquid molecules. The Langmuir isotherm best described the adsorption of PNP onto PAC, while pseudo second order kinetics fitted best. The adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Thus, active carbon produced from PNS can be used to adsorb PNP.

  6. Anacardic Acid Isolated From Cashew Nut Shell (Anacardium occidentale Affects Methane and Other Products in the Rumen Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Saenab

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofat is a hexane extract containing several bioactive compounds with anacardic acid as the major compound. This study aimed to examine the effect of anacardic acid on rumen fermentation, especially methane and its degradation in the in vitro rumen fermentation. The study was arranged in a completely randomized block design. The treatments were control (substrate or complete feed, biofat (substrate + 0.75 uL/mL biofat, and anacardic acid (substrate + 0.75 uL/mL anacardic acid. Measured variables were total gas production, methane, pH, concentration of ammonia (NH3, dry matter degrability (DMD, organic matter degrability (OMD, and neutral detergent fiber degrability (NDFD in the rumen. The chromatogram GC-MS analysis results indicated that the anacardic acid isolation process of the biofat produced nearly pure isolate (99.44%, and significantly decreased the production of methane by 51.21% and 39.62%, respectively. Anacardic acid degradation pattern in the in vitro rumen test showed a shifting of retention factor (Rf value after anacardic acid being incubated with the degradation of anacardic acid occurred after 24 h of fermentation. In conclusion, anacardic acid isolated from biofat has a dominant role to reduce the in vitro methane production. Anacardic acid is very potential to be used as a methane reducing agent.

  7. Brazil nut shells as a new biosorbent to remove methylene blue and indigo carmine from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Brito, Suzana Modesto; Andrade, Heloysa Martins Carvalho; Soares, Luciana Frota; de Azevedo, Rafael Pires

    2010-02-15

    The adsorption of methylene blue and indigo carmine, respectively a basic and an acid dye, was studied on raw Brazil nut shells. The dye removal from solution by BNS was governed by: (i) polarization effects between the colored ions and the surface sites, leading to physisorbed species due to weak electrostatic forces and (ii) diffusion limitations affecting the kinetic parameters. Thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption of methylene blue and of indigo carmine was spontaneous and exothermic occurring with entropy decrease. H(0) values confirmed the physical nature of the adsorption processes. The adsorption followed the Langmuir model and pseudo-second order kinetics over the entire range of tested concentrations but the process was controlled by intraparticle diffusion. The maximal uptakes were 7.81 mg g(-1), for methylene blue, and 1.09 mg g(-1) for indigo carmine, at room temperature. These results indicate that Brazil nut shells may be useful as adsorbent either for basic or acid dyes.

  8. Morphological characterization of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... 40 accessions into 4 clusters with 14 sub-clusters and the principal component analysis revealed that apple length, apple nut ... Key words: Accessions, Anacardium occidentale, clusters, population, UPGMA. INTRODUCTION ... The Malawi cashew industry has a cultivation history of about 50 years and is ...

  9. Brazil nut shells as a new biosorbent to remove methylene blue and indigo carmine from aqueous solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Suzana Modesto de Oliveira; Andrade, Heloysa Martins Carvalho; Soares, Luciana Frota; Azevedo, Rafael Pires de

    2010-01-01

    Trabalho completo: acesso restrito, p. 84–92 The adsorption of methylene blue and indigo carmine, respectively a basic and an acid dye, was studied on raw Brazil nut shells. The dye removal from solution by BNS was governed by: (i) polarization effects between the colored ions and the surface sites, leading to physisorbed species due to weak electrostatic forces and (ii) diffusion limitations affecting the kinetic parameters. Thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption of methylene bl...

  10. REMOVAL OF INDIGO CARMINE DYE (IC) BY BATCH ADSORPTION METHOD ONTO DRIED COLA NUT SHELLS AND ITS ACTIVE CARBON FROM AQUEOUS MEDIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Ankoro Naphtali Odogu*; Kouotou Daouda; Belibi Belibi Placide Desiré; Ndi Julius Nsami; Ketcha Joseph Mbadcam

    2016-01-01

    Natural cola nut shells and its active carbons were used to remove indigo carmine dye from aqueous solution using batch adsorption test. The effect of pH, contact time (t), adsorbent dose (m) and initial concentrations (Co) were investigated. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubin-Kaganer-Raduskushkevich classical isotherm models. This equilibrium data best fits with all the four isotherm models for cola nut shells. Langmuir and Freundlich equ...

  11. Bio-composites based on polylactic acid and argan nut shell: Production and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaziz, Sana Ait; Raji, Marya; Hilali, Elmokhtar; Essabir, Hamid; Rodrigue, Denis; Bouhfid, Rachid; Qaiss, Abou El Kacem

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a new bio-composite based on polylactic acid (PLA) reinforced with argan nut shells (ANS). In this study, the effect of ANS chemical surface treatments on the morphological, mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties of PLA was investigated. In particular, a comparison between three chemical treatments (alkali, bleaching, and silane) is made for two filler concentrations (8 and 15% wt.). Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis, and tensile measurements were used to determine the morphology (particle distribution/dispersion/adhesion), thermal stability, mechanical behavior and rheological properties of the bio-composites compared with neat PLA. The results showed that the highest Young's modulus improvement (16%) was obtained with 15% of bleached ANS particles, while the highest tensile strength (1%) and strain at yield (8.5%) improvements were obtained with a silane treatment. These results were associated with good ANS-PLA interfacial adhesion and distribution in the matrix. Nevertheless, lower thermal stability (onset degradation temperature) for all the bio-composites was observed when compared to neat PLA. To complete the characterizations, water absorption and water contact angle were determined indicating better resistance of the bio-composites when ANS surface treatment was applied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Adsorption Efficiency of Chemically Prepared Activated Carbon from Cola Nut Shells by on Methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Ndi Nsami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution onto activated carbon prepared from cola nut shell has been investigated under batch mode. The influence of major parameters governing the efficiency of the process such as, solution pH, sorbent dose, initial concentration, and contact time on the removal process was investigated. The time-dependent experimental studies showed that the adsorption quantity of methylene blue increases with initial concentration and decreasing adsorbent dosage. The equilibrium time of 180 min was observed and maximum adsorption was favoured at pH 3.5. The dye removal using 0.1 g of adsorbent was more than 90%. This dosage (0.1 g was considered as the optimum dosage to remove methylene blue from aqueous solutions. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by the Freundlich, Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. The kinetics of methylene blue solution was discussed by pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and Elovich models. The adsorption process follows the Elovich rate kinetic model, having a correlation coefficient in the range between 0.9811 and 1.

  13. Toward new benchmark adsorbents: preparation and characterization of activated carbon from argan nut shell for bisphenol A removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbair, Mohamed; Ainassaari, Kaisu; Drif, Asmaa; Ojala, Satu; Bottlinger, Michael; Pirilä, Minna; Keiski, Riitta L; Bensitel, Mohammed; Brahmi, Rachid

    2018-01-01

    The use of argan nut shell as a precursor for producing activated carbon was investigated in this work. Two activated carbons AC-HP and AC-Na were prepared from argan nut shell by chemical activation method using phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH), respectively. Textural, morphological, and surface chemistry characteristics were studied by nitrogen physisorption, TGA, SEM, TXRF, FTIR, XRD, and by determining the pHPZC of the AC-HP. The adsorption experiments revealed that AC-HP was more efficient in adsorption of BPA due to high specific surface area (1372 m2/g) compared to AC-Na (798 m2/g). The obtained adsorption data of BPA on AC-HP correlated well with the pseudo-second-order model and the Langmuir isotherm (Qmax = 1250 mg/g at 293 K). The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG° < 0, ΔH° < 0, and ΔS° < 0) indicate that adsorption of BPA on AC-HP was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The regeneration of AC-HP showed excellent results after 5 cycles (95-93%). This work does not only provide a potential way to use argan nut shell but also represents a sustainable approach to synthesize AC-HP, which might be an ideal material for various applications (energy storage, catalysis, and environmental remediation).

  14. In vitro regeneration of hybrid plantlets of cashew (Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Embryos from immature nuts of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) were cultured in vitro to regenerate improved hybrid plantlets. Explants (embryo) were excised from developing F1 hybrid immature nuts derived from diallel cross and harvested at 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-weeks after pollination (WAPo) for in vitro culture.

  15. Heat-induced alterations in cashew allergen solubility and IgE binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Mattison

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cashew nuts are an increasingly common cause of food allergy. We compare the soluble protein profile of cashew nuts following heating. SDS-PAGE indicate that heating can alter the solubility of cashew nut proteins. The 11S legumin, Ana o 2, dominates the soluble protein content in ready to eat and mildly heated cashew nuts. However, we found that in dark-roasted cashew nuts, the soluble protein profile shifts and the 2S albumin Ana o 3 composes up to 40% of the soluble protein. Analysis of trypsin-treated extracts by LC/MS/MS indicate changes in the relative number and intensity of peptides. The relative cumulative intensity of the 5 most commonly observed Ana o 1 and 2 peptides are altered by heating, while those of the 5 most commonly observed Ana o 3 peptides remaine relatively constant. ELISA experiments indicate that there is a decrease in rabbit IgG and human serum IgE binding to soluble cashew proteins following heating. Our findings indicate that heating can alter the solubility of cashew allergens, resulting in altered IgE binding. Our results support the use of both Ana o 2 and Ana o 3 as potential cashew allergen diagnostic targets.

  16. Brazil nut shells as a new biosorbent to remove methylene blue and indigo carmine from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modesto de Oliveira Brito, Suzana, E-mail: smobrito@uefs.br [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana - UEFS, Av. Transnordestina s/n, Novo Horizonte, 44036-900 Feira de Santana, Bahia (Brazil); Carvalho Andrade, Heloysa Martins [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia - UFBA, End: Rua Barao de, Jeremoabo, s/n - Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40170-115 Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Soares, Luciana Frota; Pires de Azevedo, Rafael [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana - UEFS, Av. Transnordestina s/n, Novo Horizonte, 44036-900 Feira de Santana, Bahia (Brazil)

    2010-02-15

    The adsorption of methylene blue and indigo carmine, respectively a basic and an acid dye, was studied on raw Brazil nut shells. The dye removal from solution by BNS was governed by: (i) polarization effects between the colored ions and the surface sites, leading to physisorbed species due to weak electrostatic forces and (ii) diffusion limitations affecting the kinetic parameters. Thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption of methylene blue and of indigo carmine was spontaneous and exothermic occurring with entropy decrease. H{sup 0} values confirmed the physical nature of the adsorption processes. The adsorption followed the Langmuir model and pseudo-second order kinetics over the entire range of tested concentrations but the process was controlled by intraparticle diffusion. The maximal uptakes were 7.81 mg g{sup -1}, for methylene blue, and 1.09 mg g{sup -1} for indigo carmine, at room temperature. These results indicate that Brazil nut shells may be useful as adsorbent either for basic or acid dyes.

  17. Barrier function test: Laboratory evaluation of the protective function of some barrier creams against cashewnut shell oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A barrier function test has been designed to screen the protective capacity of a cream against the cauterizing effect of cashew nut shell oil (CNSO on the skin. The test consists of applying the barrier cream on a 5 cm circular area of skin on the back of a human volunteer and then at its centre applying a 1 cm sq Whatman no. 3 paper disc soaked in the CNSO for 15 minutes and looking for the evidence of cauterization reaction after 48 hours. Of the various creams containing a variety of paraffins, bees wax, polyethylene glycols, methyl cellulose gel, and petrolatum, only polyethylene glycol (PEG cream was found to afford adequate protection against cashew nut shell oil. Addition of 10% zinc oxide or 10% kaolin to the PEG cream did not seem to afford any additional protection. Castor oil already being used by the workers was found to be inferior to the PEG cream.

  18. Quality of in-shell Brazil nuts after drying using a pilot natural convection oven in the state of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Aquino da Costa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The natural drying of in-shell Brazil nuts carried out by the extractivists is not effective in reducing contamination by aflatoxin-producing fungi. Thus the use of an artificial heater could prove to be a favourable method to bring about a rapid reduction in the moisture content of the nuts and thereby prevent fungal growth. Hence the objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a natural convection-type drier with respect to the physical, physicochemical and microbiological quality of nuts after drying for 6 hours at 45 °C. A random block experimental design with two treatments (nuts before and after drying was used, using 10 replications of 3 kg. The nuts were analysed for their moisture, ash, protein, dietary fibre, total carbohydrates and lipid contents, water activity, total count of filamentous, potentially aflatoxin-producing fungi, and also the quantification of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and the total aflatoxins. There was no effect of drying on the Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus counts or on the physicochemical composition of the nuts, except for the ash content. However the moisture content of the nuts was reduced by 39.7% and there was a decrease in the contamination by pre-existing total filamentous fungi. The dryer was effective in reducing the average time taken for drying as compared to the traditional method used by extractivists.

  19. Sorting of in-shell Pistachio nuts from kernels using color imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorting pistachio kernels from in-shell pistachios currently requires automated and hand sorting, an expensive and labor-intensive two-stage process. This paper examines the feasibility and effectiveness of using color imaging as a basis for identifying both regular and small in-shell pistachio nu...

  20. Diversity in Secondary Metabolites Including Mycotoxins from Strains of Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolated from Raw Cashew Nuts from Benin, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamboni, Leo Yendouban; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Linnemann, Anita R.

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, raw cashew kernels were assayed for the fungal contamination focusing on strains belonging to the genus Aspergillus and on aflatoxins producers. These samples showed high contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri species and absence of aflatoxins. To investigate the divers...

  1. Decreased immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to cashew allergens following sodium sulfite treatment and heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashew nut and other nut allergies can result in serious and sometimes life threatening reactions. Linear and conformational epitopes within food allergens are important for immunoglobulin E binding. Methods that disrupt allergen structure can reduce immunoglobulin E binding and lessen the likelih...

  2. Pyrolysis polygeneration of pine nut shell: Quality of pyrolysis products and study on the preparation of activated carbon from biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Chen, Xiaojuan; Sun, Jun; Zheng, Zhongcheng; Fu, Kexin

    2016-09-01

    A lab-scale pyrolysis reactor was utilized to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature (300-700°C) on the yield, quality, and energy distribution of products issued from the pyrolysis polygeneration of pine nut shells. Afterward, activated carbon was prepared from biochar using the steam activation method. Pyrolysis temperatures ranging from 500 to 600°C were found to be optimal in inducing products with improved properties, such as higher heating values of non-condensable gas, lower water content and elevated heating values of bio-oil, and substantial fixed carbon content and greater specific surface area of biochar. In addition, it was noticed that the activation conditions had a significant effect on the yield and adsorption performance of the activated carbon. As a result, activated carbon with elevated specific surface area reaching 1057.8m(2)/g was obtained at the optimal conditions of 850°C activation temperature, 80min activation time, and 1.5 steam/biochar ratio. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic parameters for adsorptive removal of dye Basic Blue 9 by ground nut shells and Eichhornia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanjit

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of dye Basic Blue 9 (BB9 was studied using ground nut shells charcoal (GNC, and Eichhornia charcoal (EC as adsorbents. The characterization was done with FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Batch adsorption studies have been investigated by measuring the effect of pH, adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration, contact time, temperature, and ionic strength. Adsorption of the dye increased with increase in contact time, temperature, amount of adsorbent and initial concentration. The kinetic experimental data were fitted to pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, intra-particle diffusion, Elovich model and Bangham’s model and corresponding constants were calculated and discussed. Pseudo-second order kinetics was found to describe the adsorption of dye BB9 on both the adsorbents and rate is mainly controlled by intra particle diffusion. A study of five isotherm models; Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin and Radushkevich and generalized isotherms have been made and important thermodynamic parameters have been obtained. The adsorption of BB9 onto GNC and EC was spontaneous and endothermic as concluded from thermodynamic assays. Experimental results confirmed that dye BB9 can be successfully removed from the aqueous solutions economically and efficiently.

  4. Utilization of Pine Nut Shell derived carbon as an efficient alternate for the sequestration of phthalates from aqueous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umair A. Qureshi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the importance of a cheap bio waste; Pine Nut Shell (PNS, from which a carbon is synthesized that can efficiently remove toxic phthalates from an aqueous system. PNS derived carbon shows high affinity toward phthalates in descending order along with adsorption capacity i.e., dibutyl phthalate (DBP 5.65 mg/g > diallyl phthalate (DAP 3.64 mg/g > diethyl phthalate (DEP and 2.87 mg/g > dimethyl phthalate (DMP 2.48 mg/g. Different characterization techniques such as FTIR, elemental analysis, point of zero electric charge (PZC, SEM, EDX and BET were employed to investigate the binding sites and surface area of the adsorbent. Adsorption experiments were performed both in batch and column modes. Equilibrium studies showed that the Langmuir isotherm fits best to experimental data. Kinetically, adsorption phenomena obeyed pseudo second order. Furthermore, thermodynamic results expressed the exothermic nature of adsorption on the basis of negative value of enthalpy change. Column sorption method was also adapted to check the feasibility of the adsorption process through the investigation of flow rate, breakthrough curve and pre-concentration factor which is found to be 13 for DMP and DEP and 16 for DAP and DBP. Methanol was found to be best solvent for the recovery of phthalates. Application in real water samples also showed good efficiency of PNS derived carbon for the removal of phthalates.

  5. Sequestering Potential of Peach Nut Shells as an Efficient Sorbent for Sequestering Some Toxic Metal Ions from Aqueous Waste: A Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashraf Shaheen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The peach nut shells potential as a low cost biosorbent for separation of certain metal ions from aqueous media was investigated. The effects of different parameters such as pH, shaking speed, initial metal ions concentration and their contact time with adsorbent on sorption efficiency of biosorbent was investigated to optimize the parameters for maximum sorption. The FT–IR spectroscopy and TGA were used to characterize the biosorbent. A significant increase in sorption was noted with rise in pH of metal ions solution and maximum sorption was observed at pH 6. The isothermal data was fitted to Langmuir, Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R, Freundlich isotherms and equilibrium process was best fitted to Langmuir isotherm. The removal efficiency of chemically activated samples was found to be ~35 to 45% greater than raw sample. The results showed that peach nut shell was an effective biosorbent for the remediation of the contaminated water with lead (II, Nickle (II and Chromium (III ions. Being low cost material, PNS has a potential to be exploited in waste water treatment technologies. This study shows that activated PNS exhibited appreciable sorption for Pb, Cr and Ni metals ions (97%, 95% and 94% respectively from aqueous solution even at very low concentration of sorbent. The chemical and thermal activation of peach nut shells enhances the removal efficiency for all the metal ions and from the reported data; it was found that the adsorption ability of Pb ions was greater than nickel and chromium.

  6. Traditional pattern of cashew cultivation : A lesson from Sumenep-Madura, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadid, Nurul; Sutikno, Dewi, Dyah Santhi; Nurhidayati, Tutik; Abdulgani, Nurlita; Muzaki, Farid Kamal; Arraniry, Byan Arasyi; Mardika, Rizal Kharisma; Rakhman, R. Yuvita

    2017-11-01

    Belonging to the Anacardiaceae family, the cashew tree (Anacardium Occidentale, Linn.) is one of the important tropical plants that possess high economic value. This plant is commonly grown in Indonesian regions including Sumenep, Madura, where the red sandy loam type of soil is commonly present. This study aims to obtain rough data on the pattern of cashew cultivation and identify the cashew cultivation knowledge of local communities. Data were taken in Bringin village, Sumenep-Madura. Our field survey showed that the cashew's cultivation pattern in this village applies the so-called traditional organic farming. Cashew trees are planted along the boundaries of the owner's farm field, functioning as a fence of their farm. Nevertheless, our survey also indicated that this pattern of cultivation is still below standard of cultivation. The planting distance between the cashew trees with one another is relatively close (trees. Finally, knowledge of the community about post-harvest processing is limited. Therefore, we suggest that educating the community about good standard cashew cultivation is required to improve productivity as well as the quality of cashew nuts.

  7. Recent advances in cardanol chemistry in a nutshell: from a nut to nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Vijai Shankar; Jadhav, Swapnil Rohidas; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; John, George

    2013-01-21

    This tutorial review could serve as an introduction of cardanol into the world of soft nanomaterials; it is a biobased lipid-mixture obtained from the plant Anacardium occidentale L. Cardanol is a renewable raw material derived from a byproduct of cashew nut processing industry: Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL). Cardanol is a rich mixture of non-isoprenoic phenolic compounds that is a valuable raw material for generating a variety of soft nanomaterials such as nanotubes, nanofibers, gels and surfactants. These nanostructures may then serve as templates for the synthesis of additional nanomaterials. The wealth and diversity of cardanol-derived functional nanomaterials has urged us to present an article that will give readers a taste of a new class of cardanol-derived functional amphiphiles, along with their ability to generate hierarchical functional nanomaterials through non-covalent soft-chemical routes. In this concise review, we discuss selected examples of novel biobased surfactants, glycolipids, and polymers derived from cardanol, and their subsequent self-assembly into functional soft materials.

  8. Sacha inchi as potential source of essential fatty acids and tocopherols: multivariate study of nut and shell - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.19193

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisio Henrique Pereira de Souza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the fatty acid composition, tocopherols and nutritional factors in the nut and shell of Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis through multivariate data analysis. The nut showed a high lipid content (48.5%, while the shell showed a low content (1.2%, although both parts of the plant had similar fatty acid composition. Low contents of saturated fatty acids were found in both parts, indicating anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombogenic and hypercholesterolemic effects. The content of n-3 fatty acids (438.7 mg g-1 of total lipids found in the nut corroborates with the literature, while the content found in shell (329.4 mg g-1 is not previously described. The total tocopherol content was higher than other oilseeds. The great amount of α-tocopherol present in the shell is highlighted since this is considered primarily responsible for the metabolic activity of vitamin E. Dietary Reference Intakes proved that both parts of Sacha inchi have a good nutritional supply. The use of multivariate analysis allowed nuts and shells to be distinguished and their constituents to be checked. The incorporation of Sacha inchi in the human diet is promising due to its intrinsic characteristics, as well as the use of the shell in food processing.  

  9. Mathematical modeling of drying behavior of cashew in a solar biomass hybrid dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dhanushkodi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to analyze the drying behavior of cashew nut experimentally in a solar biomass hybrid dryer using mathematical models. Suitability of fifteen different mathematical drying models available in the literature is used to describe the drying characteristics of cashew. Experimental data of moisture ratio, temperature and relative humidity obtained from different dryer conditions were fitted to the various empirical drying models. The performance of the drying model was compared based on their correlation co-efficient (R2, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE and Reduced Chi-Square (χ2 between the observed moisture ratios. The two terms and Midilli models showed the best fit under solar drying. Page model was found to be the best model for describing the thin layer drying behavior of cashew for biomass drying and hybrid drying. Keywords: Drying models, Solar drying, Biomass drying, Hybrid drying, Cashew kernel moisture ratio

  10. Characterization of the effects of proteolysis and reduction on cashew allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance to digestive proteases is a common characteristic of food allergens. Among nut proteins, 2S albumins are refractory to digestion, and are potent food allergens. Allergic reactions to cashew have been described as more frequently severe than peanut reactions. The purpose of this study i...

  11. Induction of glutathione S-Transferase in Helicoverpa zea fed cashew flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. zea and other insects have evolved strategies to counteract the plant protective proteins and defensive compounds they may encounter during feeding. We sought to take advantage of this phenomenon by identifying proteins upregulated in H. zea in response to the inclusion of cashew nut flour in th...

  12. Survival and growth of salmonella in high-moisture pecan nutmeats, in-shell pecans, inedible nut components, and orchard soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A

    2010-11-01

    Outbreaks of salmonellosis associated with almonds have raised interest in better understanding the behavior of Salmonella on other tree nuts. We undertook a study to determine the survival and growth characteristics of Salmonella on high-moisture (water activity of 0.96 to 0.99) pecan nutmeats, in-shell pecans, and inedible components (shuck, shell, and middle septum tissue) of in-shell pecans. Salmonella did not grow on high-moisture nutmeat halves, pieces, or granules stored at 4°C for up to 48 h. Growth did occur, however, at 21, 30, and 37°C. Increases of 1.77 to 5.87 log CFU/g of nutmeats occurred within 48 h at 37°C; the order in which nutmeats supported growth was granules > pieces > halves. Populations of Salmonella on and in high-moisture in-shell pecans (kernel water activity of 0.94) stored at 4, 21, 30, and 37°C for 8 days decreased by 0.52 to 1.19 log CFU/g. The pathogen grew on the surface of high-moisture (water activity of 0.99) pecan shucks and shells but died on middle septum tissue stored at 21, 30, and 37°C for up to 6 days. Salmonella died in water extracts of shucks and in pecan orchard soil saturated with water or shuck extract, but survived well for at least 18 weeks in dry soil. The ability of the pathogen to grow on high-moisture nutmeats and some of the inedible components of pecans emphasizes the importance of controlling or limiting the time pecans are exposed to water in preharvest and postharvest environments.

  13. Feasibility of dibromochloropropane (DBCP) and trichloroethylene (TCE) adsorption onto activated carbons made from nut shells of different almond varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steam-activated carbons were made from shells from five different almond varieties (‘Nonpareil,’ ‘Padre,’ Tuono,’ ‘23-122,’ and ‘Y120-74’) and from a mix of almond types. The purpose of the work was to evaluate if the composition of shells had any effect on the performance of the final product. The ...

  14. Caracterização físico-química de pedúnculos e castanhas de clones de cajueiro-anão precoce nas condições do norte de Minas Gerais Physical-chemical characterization of precocious dwarf clones cashew nuts and stalks in north of the Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Cristian Toledo Pereira

    2005-01-01

    jobs. This study aimed at evaluating physical-chemical characteristics of precocious dwarf cashew nuts and stalks from Experimental Unit of EMBRAPA Technological Business, located in Nova Porteirinha district, State of Minas Gerais. Clones CCP 76, CCP 06, and CCP 1001 e CCP 09 were utilized corresponding to the four treatments. The experiment was designed in a completely-randomized block with five replications and four fruits per parcel. The stalks were harvested in September of 2002 and carried in harvest trays to Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Post-harvest Technology of Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros (UNIMONTES, situated in Campus of Janaúba-MG. Physical and Chemical characteristics were evaluated and subjected to variance analysis and Tukey test. Amongst evaluated materials, stalks of CCP 76 clone showed appropriate aspect of market purposes in nature, with deep orange coloration; pear-shaped format, good chemical features and stalks with adjusted firmness, making possible greater post-harvest conservation. Although good characteristics, the clone CCP 09 presented little intense orange coloration and low firmness. Probably the larger diameter stalk is minor firmness at post-harvest will be.

  15. Cashew cultivation in Guinea-Bissau – risks and challenges of the success of a cash crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Catarino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades a boom in cashew (Anacardium occidentalecultivation has taken place in Guinea-Bissau, leading to the replacement of traditional slash-and-burn agriculture by a cash crop. As a result, the country is currently one of the world’s largest producers of raw cashew nuts and the cashew sector has acquired enormous importance in Guinea-Bissau’s economy. Changes induced by the cashew boom at social and environmental levels are yet to be analyzed and understood. The present study provides an account of the process of cashew expansion in Guinea-Bissau, reviews the current situation and discusses its future prospects. The cashew tree was introduced into the country by the Portuguese in the XIXth century, but only effectively expanded in the mid-1980s. It is largely cultivated by small farmers around villages and also plays a role in land ownership, since land tenure practices are linked to the planting of trees. The effects of this cashew boom on habitat fragmentation, fire regimes and biodiversity are still to be assessed. On the other hand, the spread of pests and diseases is becoming a problem. Strong dependence on a single cash crop also renders the country vulnerable to market fluctuations, entailing risks to local producers and the national economy. In the medium term, losses of export earnings can occur, which may impact the living standards and food security of Bissau-Guineans both in urban and rural areas.

  16. Determination of some mechanical properties of shea nuts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper forces and the corresponding deformations of shelled and unshelled nuts at three chosen moisture contents were determined at points of linear limit, bioyield points and rupture points by subjecting the nuts to compression test. The minimum force and corresponding deformation to rupture shelled nuts were ...

  17. Long chain phenols: Part XI. Composition of natural cashew nutshell liquid (Anacardium occidentale) from various sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyman, J H; Kiong, L S

    1978-08-01

    The composition of cashew nutsAnacardium occidentale from different terrestrial sources has been studied. Samples from Brazil, Ceylon, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, and Tanzania have been solvent extracted to recover the phenolic shell liquid (natural CNSL) separate from the kernel oil. The recovered materials from the different sources were present from 23.6% to 27.7%. After hydrogenation of the side chains and methylation of the acidic groups, the component phenols anacardic acid (74.1% to 77.4%), cardol (15.0% to 20.1%), 2-methyl cardol (1.7% to 2.6%), and cardanol (1.2% to 9.2%) were determined by gas liquid chromatography on polyethyleneglycol adipate. The component phenols have been separated by adsorption thin layer chromatography, and their triene (AN-15∶3, 36.3% to 50.4%), diene (AN-15∶2, 17.8% to 32.1%), monoene (AN-15∶1, 25.0%, to 33.3%), and saturated (AN-15∶0, 2.2% to 3.0%) constituents determined by mass spectroscopy. The results of mass spectroscopic analysis have been confirmed by methylation of the separated component phenols and gas liquid chromatography. It is apparent that the largest variation is in the % cardanol (1.2% to 9.2%). While the total percentage of unsaturated constituents is quite similar, the distribution of triene, diene, and monoene varies widely.

  18. Occurrence of Aspergillus section Flavi and section Nigri and aflatoxins in raw cashew kernels (Anacardiumoccidentale L.) from Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamboni, Y.; Frisvad, J.C.; Hell, K.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Tamo, M.; Nielsen, K.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smid, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of Aspergillus section Flavi and A. section Nigri in cashew nuts harvested in the Northern Guinea (NG) and Southern Sudanian (SS) agro-ecological zones of Benin. Also, the presence of aflatoxins was investigated. For detection of fungal

  19. Tiger Nut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tiger Nut and Health, 2013). Chufa tubers can be used for the production of alcohol by fermentation (Des-Vries, 1991). Roasted tubers are used as a coffee substitute (Oderinde and Tahir, 1988). The oil of tiger nut (C. esculentus) is used for the.

  20. Tiger Nut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The study aimed at phytochemical screening, elemental and proximate composition of two varieties of Cyperus esculentus (tiger nut) big yellow and small brown nuts using standard methods. The phytochemicals tested for were alkaloid, saponin, tannin, glycoside, flavonoid, steroid and resin. All the ...

  1. Estimation of moisture and oil content of in-shell nuts with a capacitance sensor using discrete wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Chari V.; Sundaram, Jaya; Govindarajan, K. N.; Butts, Chris L.; Subbiah, Jeyam

    2009-03-01

    Moisture and oil contents are important quality factors often measured and monitored in the processing and storage of food products such as corn and peanuts. For estimating these parameters for peanuts nondestructively a parallel-plate capacitance sensor was used in conjunction with an impedance analyzer. Impedance, phase angle and dissipation factor were measured for the parallel-plate system, holding the in-shell peanut samples between its plates, at frequencies ranging between 1MHz and 30 MHz in intervals of 0.5 MHz. The acquired signals were analyzed with discrete wavelet analysis. The signals were decomposed to 6 levels using Daubechies mother wavelet. The decomposition coefficients of the sixth level were passed onto a stepwise variable selection routine to select significant variables. A linear regression was developed using only the significant variables to predict the moisture and oil content of peanut pods (inshell peanuts) from the impedance measurements. The wavelet analysis yielded similar R2 values with fewer variables as compared to multiple linear and partial least squares regressions. The estimated values were found to be in good agreement with the standard values for the samples tested. Ability to estimate the moisture and oil contents in peanuts without shelling them will be of considerable help to the peanut industry.

  2. PROFITABILITY OF VALUE ADDITION TO CASHEW FARMING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale L.) is an economic crop in Nigeria grown in small plantations in almost every State because of the ease of cultivation and need for minimum attention. Cashew apple wastes on planta- tions and this reduces cashew farming household incomes. This study examined value addition ...

  3. Factors influencing income generating potentials amongst cashew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified the income generating potentials of cashew fruits and attitude of farmers towards adding value to cashew in Ogbomoso, Oyo state, Nigeria. A structured interview schedule was designed to elicit information on selected personal characteristics, level of income generated from cashew fruits, sources of ...

  4. DESIGN AND THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF THE SOLAR BIOMASS HYBRID DRYER FOR CASHEW DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Dhanuskodi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying of Cashew nut to remove testa is one of the most energy-intensive processes of cashew nut process industry. For this reason a hybrid dryer consisting of a solar flat plate collector, a biomass heater and a drying chamber is designed and fabricated. 40 kg of Cashew nut with initial moisture of 9 % is used in the experiment. The performance test of the dryer is carried out in two modes of operation: hybrid-forced convection and hybrid-natural convection. Drying time and drying efficiency during these two modes of operation are estimated and compared with the sun drying. The system is capable of attaining drying temperature between 50º and 70ºC. In the hybrid forced drying, the required moisture content of 3% is achieved within 7 hours and the average system efficiency is estimated as 5.08%. In the hybrid natural drying, the required moisture content is obtained in 9 hours and the average system efficiency is 3.17%. The fuel consumption during the drying process is 0.5 kg/hr and 0.75 kg/hr for forced mode and natural mode, respectively. The drying process in the hybrid forced mode of operation is twice faster than the sun drying. The dryer can be operated in any climatic conditions: as a solar dryer on normal sunny days, as a biomass dryer at night time and as a hybrid dryer on cloudy days. Based on the experimental study, it is concluded that the developed hybrid dryer is suitable for small scale cashew nut farmers in rural areas of developing countries.

  5. Review of nut phytochemicals, fat-soluble bioactives, antioxidant components and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Bolling, Bradley W

    2015-04-01

    The levels of phytochemicals (total phenols, proanthocyanidins, gallic acid + gallotannins, ellagic acid + ellagitannins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, stilbenes and phytates), fat-soluble bioactives (lipid, tocols, phytosterols, sphingolipids, carotenoids, chlorophylls and alkyl phenols) as well as natural antioxidants (nutrient and non-nutrient) present in commonly consumed twelve nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, chestnut, hazelnut, heartnut, macadamia, peanut, pecan, pine nut, pistachio and walnut) are compared and reported. Recent studies adding new evidence for the health benefits of nuts are also discussed. Research findings from over 112 references, many of which have been published within last 10 years, have been compiled and reported.

  6. Physicochemical parameters and fatty acid composition of cashew nut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Others were, free fatty acid (4.52%oleic acid), acid value (7.04%oleic acid), saponification value (145.00mgKOH/goil), peroxide value (7.73meq.peroxide/kg) and iodine value (37.30mg iodine/100g). The fatty acid detected and there values were myristic acid (0.10%), palmitic acid (13.77%) ,palmitoleic acid (0.68%), stearic ...

  7. Mycology and spoilage of retail cashew nuts | Adebajo | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 10 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  8. Evaluation of Toxicological Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Shells from the Pecan Nut Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch and the Possible Association with Its Inorganic Constituents and Major Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Luiz Carlos S; da Silva, Juliana; Sousa, Karen; Ambrozio, Mariana L; de Almeida, Aline; Dos Santos, Carla Eliete I; Dias, Johnny F; Allgayer, Mariangela C; Dos Santos, Marcela S; Pereira, Patrícia; Ferraz, Alexandre B F; Picada, Jaqueline N

    2016-01-01

    Background. Industrial processing of the pecan nut Carya illinoinensis K. Koch generated a large amount of shells, which have been used to prepare nutritional supplements and medicinal products; however, the safe use of shells requires assessment. This study evaluated the toxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of pecan shell aqueous extract (PSAE) and the possible contribution of phenolic compounds, ellagic and gallic acids, and inorganic elements present in PSAE to induce toxicity. Results. Levels of inorganic elements like K, P, Cl, and Rb quantified using the Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission method were higher in PSAE than in pecan shells, while Mg and Mn levels were higher in shells. Mice showed neurobehavioral toxicity when given high PSAE doses (200-2,000 mg kg(-1)). The LD50 was 1,166.3 mg kg(-1). However, PSAE (50-200 mg·kg(-1)) and the phenolic compounds (10-100 mg·kg(-1)) did not induce DNA damage or mutagenicity evaluated using the comet assay and micronucleus test. Treatment with ellagic acid (10-100 mg·kg(-1)) decreased triglyceride and glucose levels, while treatments with PSAE and gallic acid had no effect. Conclusion. Pecan shell toxicity might be associated with high concentrations of inorganic elements such as Mn, Al, Cu, and Fe acting on the central nervous system, besides phytochemical components, suggesting that the definition of the safe dose should take into account the consumption of micronutrients.

  9. Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria José da, E-mail: maryquimica@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Química – Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rue Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n. Dois irmãos, 52171-900 Recife, PE (Brazil); Paim, Ana Paula S. [Departamento de Química Fundamental – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária, 50740-550 Recife, PE (Brazil); Pimentel, Maria Fernanda [Departamento de Engenharia Química – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Cervera, M. Luisa; Guardia, Miguel de la [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Research Building, University of Valencia, 50th Dr. Moliner Street, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Direct analysis of Hg in nuts has been improved by a previous fat removal. • Comparison of cold vapour atomic fluorescence and direct analysis of Hg in nuts. • Mercury content in tree nuts was determined. - Abstract: Total mercury, at μg kg{sup −1} level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7 μg kg{sup −1} by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3 μg kg{sup −1}, respectively.

  10. Clinical Features of Four Cases with Cashew Nut Allergy and Cross-Reactivity between Cashew Nut and Pistachio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Hasegawa

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: In CN allergy, a small amount of CN could induce a severe anaphylactic reaction. Moreover, in cases of suspected CN allergy, reactions to not only CN but also pistachio, which could be cross-reactive to CN, should be examined.

  11. Growth and ion accumulation in dwarf cashew plants at different times of salinity exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdineia Soares Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the influence of salt stress exposition on growth and ion accumulation in dwarf cashew plants. For this purpose, cashew nuts (CCP 06 clone were sown in plastic trays containing vermiculite moistened with nutrient solution containing NaCl with electrical conductivities ranging from 0.0 to 18.0 dS m-1. Plants were harvested after 30 and 60 days under salt stress. It was determined the shoot dry masses (SDM and root (RDM, the SDM/RDM ratio, Na+, K+, Cl- and NO3 - contents and the Na+ and Cl- fluxes for whole plant in the period between two times of exposure to salt stress. The cashew growth was affected by salinity and by the exposure time to this stress, and the plants subjected to 60 days of stress were the most affected by NaCl. The Na+ and Cl- contents increased in all plant tissues, while the NO3 - content was reduced and K+ content has not changed by salinity. The Na+ and Cl-fluxes increased with salinity; however Cl- seemed to be more harmful to plants, since this ion has been absorbed in a higher ratio than Na+. The growth reduction in dwarf cashew is intensified when exposure to salt stress is longer and it is more associated with uptake and excessive accumulation of Cl- than Na+.

  12. The Integrated Management Of An Emerging Insect Pest Of Cashew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Integrated Management Of An Emerging Insect Pest Of Cashew: A Case Study Of The Cashew Root And Stem Borer, Plocaederus ferrugineus In Ibadan, Nigeria. ... With mode of damage to cashew and about 25% trees infestation per hectare recorded so far, the cashew root and stem borer, P. ferrugineus can now be ...

  13. Chromosome studies in Cashew ( Anacardium occidentale L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromosome studies in Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) OM Aliyu, JA Awopetu. Abstract. Despite the increased cultivation of cashew as a commodity crop in sub-Sahara Africa, Asia and South America there are few chromosome studies on it. The present study investigates number, structure and behavior of ...

  14. SMB chromatography applied to the separation/purification of fructose from cashew apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C.S. Azevedo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The simulated moving-bed (SMB technology has been successfully used in separations in petrochemical, food and fine chemical industries. This work is intended to show a potencial economic alternative for the industrial processing of the cashew apple juice. The cashew tree is a native tropical plant abundant in Northeastern Brazil, whose commercial value relies mainly on the processing of its nut. The penduncle of the fruit is called the cashew apple. Despite its high nutrition value, around 90% of the crop spoils on the soil. Simulation and experimental results are presented for SMB separation of fructose from glucose, both present (~40 kg/m³ in the aqueous phase of comercial cashew apple juice. Kinetic and equilibrium data for fructose and glucose on packed columns using cation-exchange resins are reported. Experimental results for SMB operation indicate close to 90% purity in each product (fructose-rich extract and glucose-rich raffinate. Simulated unit performance and internal profiles agree well with experimental values. To increase the added-value and versatility of the products, either a step of isomerization of the raffinate or diverse SMB fluid-solid flowrate ratios may be applied. By this way, a wide range of products may be obtained, from nearly pure fructose to 42%, 55% and 90% solutions, which are the standard high fructose syrup concentrations. If solids content is conveniently raised to the usual HFCS (high fructose corn syrup comercial standards, these products may be used as food additives, thus confirming a potentially attractive use of cashew apple juice.

  15. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stepparents Be a Green Kid Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Nut and Peanut Allergy Print ... previous continue How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might have ...

  16. Tree Nut Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U.S., you will often find it in Morocco. People with cashew allergy may be at higher risk for allergy to pink peppercorn (known as Brazilian Pepper, Rose Pepper, Christmasberry and others). This dried ...

  17. Determination of Trace Elements in Edible Nuts in the Beijing Market by ICP-M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liang Liang; Tian, Qing; Shao, Xian Zhang; Kong, Xiang Yin; Ji, Yan Qin

    2015-06-01

    Nuts have received increased attention from the public in recent years as important sources of some essential elements, and information on the levels of elements in edible nuts is useful to consumers. Determination of the elemental distributions in nuts is not only necessary in evaluating the total dietary intake of the essential elements, but also useful in detecting heavy metal contamination in food. The aim of this study was to determine the mineral contents in edible nuts, and to assess the food safety of nuts in the Beijing market. Levels of Li, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb, Th, and U in 11 types of edible nuts and seeds (macadamia nuts, lotus nuts, pistachios, sunflower seeds, pine nuts, almonds, walnuts, chestnuts, hazelnuts, cashews, and ginkgo nuts) as well as raisins were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The accuracy of the method was validated using standard reference materials GBW10014 (cabbage) and GBW10016 (tea). Our results provide useful information for evaluating the levels of trace elements in edible nuts in the Beijing market, will be helpful for improving food safety, and will aid in better protecting consumer interests. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  18. Influência do tempo de detenção hidráulica em um sistema UASB seguido de um reator biológico com fungos para tratar efluentes de indústria de castanha de caju Influence of the time of detention hidraulic of a sistem UASB followed by a biological reactor with fungi to treat efluent of cashew nut industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília Maria Alves Santos

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa, estudou-se a influência do tempo de detenção hidráulica (TDH em um sistema constituído de um reator anaeróbio tipo UASB seguido de um reator biológico com fungos (RBF para tratar efluente de uma indústria de beneficiamento de castanha de caju. O presente trabalho foi dividido em uma fase de fluxo descontínuo (batelada e uma fase de fluxo contínuo (UASB - RBF, que constituiu-se de sete etapas ( 8h e 2h, 8h e 1h, 4h e 8h, 4h e 6h, 4h e 4h, 4h e 2h e 4h e 1h, onde foi avaliada a influência do TDH na remoção de: DQO (Demanda Química de Oxigênio, amônia, nitrato e ortofosfato. Uma combinação que apresentou melhores resultados, foi a etapa de 4h (TDH do reator UASB e 2h (TDH do RBF, apresentando remoções de: 93,8% de DQO, 86,7% de nitrato, 38,3% de amônia e 16% de ortofosfato.In this research, it was studied the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT in a system comprised of an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB reactor and a Biological Reactor with Fungi (BRF for treatment of the efluent of the industry of cashew nut improvement. The work was divided in two phases: batch reactors using shaking flasks and continuous-feed reactors (UASB-BRF. The UASB reactor was operated at HRT of 4 and 8 h, whereas the BRF was operated at HRT varying from 1 to 8 h. The performance of both reactors was evaluated based on the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD, ammonium, nitrate, and orthophosfate. The results show that the best results were achieved when the UASB was operated at HRT of 4 h and the BRF was operated at HRT of 2 h, when the system removed 93,8% of the COD, 86,7% of the nitrate, 38,3% of the ammonium and 16% of the orthophosfate.

  19. Effect of Interaction Between Seed Size and Sowing Deph Of Cashew

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akos et al.

    nut shell liquid extracted from hard shell is a versatile industrial raw material being use in preparing resins, vanishes ... kernel, leaves, shell (oil), roots and branches, there is the need for a better method of cultivation as main ..... and functional properties of full fat fluted pumpkin seed flour (Telfairia occidentalis). Nigeria Food ...

  20. UAM Journal Formatted 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    work on organic fungicides development from cashew plant. The shell of the nut obtained from seeds of cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) iis the source of the liquid extract known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). Common wood preservation methods used in. Lagos and Ibadan Metropolis-Nigeria include: cold and ...

  1. Shell

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Susie MacMurray's Shell installation manifests in Pallant House Gallery, Chichester, like some pulsing exotica, a heavily-textured wall-paper, darkly decorative, heavily luxurious, broodingly present, with more than a hint of the uncanny or the gothic. A remarkable undertaking by an artist of significance, this work's life-span will be just one year, and then it will disappear, leaving no physical trace, but undoubtedly contributing in a much less tangible way to an already rich layering of n...

  2. Profitability of value addition to cashew farming households in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale L.) is an economic crop in Nigeria grown in small plantations in almost every State because of the ease of cultivation and need for minimum attention. Cashew apple wastes on plantations and this reduces cashew farming household incomes. This study examined value addition to ...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10026 - Cashew, nutshell liq., ethoxylated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cashew, nutshell liq., ethoxylated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10026 Cashew, nutshell liq., ethoxylated. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cashew, nutshell liq...

  4. A review of cashew ( Anacardiumoccidentale L.) apple: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review including the processing techniques, properties and uses of cashew apple juice is reported. Cashew apple has multi-purpose; it can be processed to obtain human food. The process of cashew apple into several by-products can affect its nutritional, microbiological, and sensorial quality attributes. Therefore ...

  5. Optimization of cashew ( Anacardium occidentale L.) apple juice's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study aims to optimize cashew apple juice clarification by using cassava and rice starch. Materiel and methods: Effects of dose of cassava and rice starch, incubation time at 30°C on clarity of cashew apple juice were investigated. Parameters such as, tannins, phenols, colour, vitamin C contents of cashew ...

  6. Determination of Optimum Moisture Content of Palm Nut Cracking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT: After processing the palm fruit for oil, the nut is usually dried in order to loosen the kernel from the shell. The ... cracked nuts yielding whole kernels after impact cracking was used to determine the optimum moisture content the average ... At this moisture content the proportion of evaporable water retained in.

  7. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Indian) foods often contain peanuts or tree nuts. Mexican and Mediterranean foods may also use nuts, so ... watch for cross-contamination that can happen on kitchen surfaces and utensils — everything from knives and cutting ...

  8. Channel nut tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Marvin

    2016-01-12

    A method, system, and apparatus for installing channel nuts includes a shank, a handle formed on a first end of a shank, and an end piece with a threaded shaft configured to receive a channel nut formed on the second end of the shaft. The tool can be used to insert or remove a channel nut in a channel framing system and then removed from the channel nut.

  9. A report on occurrence of aphidophagous predators of Aphis odinae (van der Goot (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cashew ecosystem from Goa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy Maruthadurai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aphid, Aphis odinae (Van der Goot (Hemiptera: Aphididae is a polyphagous, occasional insect pest of cashew.  A field survey was conducted from 2014 to 2015 in cashew plantations to record the incidence of aphid and its predators.  Periodical sampling revealed, the occurrence of six species of aphidophagous predators comprising three species of coccinellids, viz., Scymnus castaneus Sicard, Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius and Pseudaspidimerus flaviceps (Walker and three species of syrphids, viz., Paragus serratus (Fabricius, Dideopsis aegrota (Fabricius and Ischidon scutellaris (Fabricius were found predating on A. odinae.  All the immature stages of predators were found predating on first, second, third and fourth instars of the aphid.  Among the coccinellids, the dominant species were S. castaneus (4.26 grubs/nut followed by C. sexmaculata (0.42 grubs/leaf and P. flaviceps (0.14 grubs/nut.  Of the syrphids, P. serratus 2.39 larvae/nut was the major predator. The species D. aegrota (1.2 larvae/leaf and I. scutellaris (0.5 larvae/nut were recorded as minor predators.  Seasonal abundance of predators was synchronized with the aphid with a maximum occurrence during February 2015.  The aphid population gradually reduced from April onwards due to the voracious feeding activity of the predators.  The study concluded that the aphidophagous predators, viz., coccinellids and syrphids play a  major role in managing the aphid A. odinae in cashew and could be encouraged for augmentation and conservation of these predators in a cashew based ecosystem.

  10. Climate change and cashew (Anacardium occidentale L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    217 RESULTS ... 2Integrated Soil and Crop Management Research Unit, Laboratory of Soil Sciences, School of Science and. Technic of Crop ... This study aimed at analyzing the perceptions of cashew producers of the climate change, climate change effect on ... Benin are the most vulnerable to climate risks: drought, late and ...

  11. Identification of antimicrobial properties of cashew, Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Anacardium occidentale L. (Family Anacardiaceae), is a multipurpose tree of the tropics which attains a height of about 15m. They grow on relatively dry soil in nature but in cultivation grow well in the tropical rain forest. The cashew tree produces many products and resources. According to Duke (2001), the bark and leaves ...

  12. Identification of antimicrobial properties of cashew, Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial capabilities of plant extract derived from the leaves of the cashew plant, Anacardium occidentale L. (Family Anacardiaceae), on two common human pathogens of clinical importance, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. All test organisms were identified to be sensitive to the ...

  13. Chromosome studies in Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    Jan 18, 2007 ... Genetica, 54(1): 42-44. Agarwal K, PK Gupta (1983). Cytological studies in the genus Tephrosi. Pers. Cytologia, 48: 795-801. Akinwale SA, EB Esan (1989). Advances in cashew breeding in Nigeria. In: Progress in Tree Crop Research. 2nd edition, Cocoa Research. Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria.

  14. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of pecan nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh C. Koch] shell aqueous extract on minimally processed lettuce leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina CAXAMBÚ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pecan nutshell is a residue from food industry that has potential to be used as biopreservative in foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of pecan nutshell aqueous extract in vitro and its effectiveness to inhibit spoilage microorganisms on lettuce leaves. The results indicate that the aqueous extract presents inhibitory activity against important foodborne pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrobial activity was not observed against Corynebacterium fimi, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, and the phytopathogenic fungi tested. When applied onto lettuce leaves, pecan nutshell extract reduced the counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria in 2 and 4 log CFU/g, respectively, during storage of leafy for 5 days at refrigeration temperature (5 °C. The extract was not effective to inhibit yeast on lettuce leaves. Thus, the aqueous extract of pecan shell showed great potential to be used as a natural preservative in foods, acting mainly in the inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria.

  15. Nuts and Your Heart: Eating Nuts for Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... four servings of unsalted nuts a week. Select raw or dry-roasted nuts rather than those cooked in oil. A serving is a small handful (1.5 ounces) of whole nuts or 2 tablespoons of nut butter. But again, do this as part of a heart-healthy diet. Just eating nuts and not cutting back on ...

  16. Physic Nut Thrips Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Asbani, Nur; Sartiami, Dewi

    2011-01-01

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a relatively new agricultural crop commodity in Indonesia. Hence, the thrips associated with this plant are not well recognized. The research objective was to provide information and tool for identification of thrips associated with physic nut. Survey method was conducted in some areas of Java, Madura, and Lombok island. The results showed that 10 species of thrips were found associated with physic nut. They belonged to nine genera and three family i.e. Thri...

  17. Beyond the wild nut: moving toward profitable black walnut nut crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Hammons; Felix, Jr. Ponder; John Rickman

    2004-01-01

    Currently, about 2 million pounds of black walnut nutmeats are consumed annually, requiring about 26 million pounds of wild in-shell nuts (hulled, wet weight). Walnuts from wild trees are variable in quality, yield, and moisture, reducing the amount of good, salable nutmeats produced. Consequently, the price that can be paid to the harvester/producer is limited....

  18. Metaphysics of kola nut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Point of Departure. Apart from economic and medicinal importance of kola nut, its metaphysical significance especially among the traditional Igbo. Africans, calls for more exposition. In this paper, within the context of Igbo Africans' worldview, we shall expose the nature, existence and reality of kola nut especially the ...

  19. Quick-Connect Nut

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a specially-designed nut, called the Quick-Connect Nut, for quick and easy assembly of components in the harsh environment of space, as in assembly of International Space Station. The design permits nuts to be installed simply by pushing them onto standard bolts, then giving a quick twist. To remove, they are unscrewed like conventional nuts. Possible applications include the mining industry for erecting support barriers, assembling underwater oil drilling platforms, fire-fighting equipment, scaffolding, assembly-line machinery, industrial cranes, and even changing lug nuts on race cars. The speed of assembly can make the difference between life and death in different aspects of life on Earth.

  20. Homology modelling and conformational analysis of IgE-binding epitopes of Ara h 3 and other legumin allergens with a cupin fold from tree nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, Annick; Jacquet, Geraldine; Sordet, Camille; Culerrier, Raphaël; Rougé, Pierre

    2007-05-01

    Linear IgE-binding epitopes identified in legumin allergens of peanut (Ara h 3) and other allergenic tree nuts (Jug r 4 of walnut, Cor a 9 of hazelnut, Ana o 2 cashew nut) were mapped on three-dimensional models of the proteins built up by homology modelling. A conformational analysis revealed that consensual surface-exposed IgE-binding epitopes exhibited some structural homology susceptible to account for the IgE-binding cross-reactivity observed among peanut and tree nut allergens. This structurally related cross-reactivity seems irrespective of the botanical origin of the allergens and thus demands that persons allergic to peanut avoid other three nuts to prevent possible allergic reactions. IgE-binding epitopes similar to those found in 11S globulin allergens do not apparently occur in other vicilin allergens with the cupin fold from peanut (Ara h 1) or tree nuts (Jug r 2 of walnut, Cor a 1 of hazel nut, Ana o 3 of cashew nut).

  1. Biodiversity of mycobiota throughout the Brazil nut supply chain: From rainforest to consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Ferranti, Larissa S.

    2017-01-01

    A total of 172 Brazil nut samples (114 in shell and 58 shelled) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo state, Brazil was collected at different stages of the Brazil nut production chain: rainforest, street markets, processing plants and supermarkets. The mycobiota of the Brazil nut samples......%) and A. flavus (41%). Tenuazonic acid, a toxin commonly found in Alternaria species was produced by A. bertholletius (47%), A. caelatus (77%), A. nomius (55%), A. pseudonomius (75%), A. arachidicola (50%) and A. bombycis (100%). This work shows the changes of Brazil nut mycobiota and the potential...

  2. Antibacterial Potential of Cashew Apple ( Anacardium occidentale L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to determine antibacterial potential of cashew apple juice against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. Agar well diffusion assay was employed to screen the antibacterial efficacy of the condensed cashew apple juice. Clinical isolates of S. aureus were more ...

  3. A review of cashew (Anacardiumoccidentale L.) apple: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-09-17

    Sep 17, 2015 ... A review including the processing techniques, properties and uses of cashew apple juice is reported. Cashew apple has ... used in the fortification of the nutritional quality of some tropical foods,because of its high percentage of vitamin C. ..... mild heat treatment, pH reduction, addition of ascorbic acid, 1000 ...

  4. Cashew wine vinegar production: alcoholic and acetic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cashew wine of demi-sec grade was produced in a stirred batch reactor. The kinetic parameters obtained for cashew wine fermentation were Y X/S=0.061, Y P/S=0.3 and µmax=0.16 h-1. The yield and the productivity of cashew wine were 57.7% and 0.78 g/Lh respectively. A 2² factorial experimental design was used for the cashew wine vinegar fermentation optimization study. The cashew wine vinegar process optimization ranges found for initial concentrations of ethanol and acetic acid as independent variables were 4.8 to 6.0% and 1.0 to 1.3% respectively.

  5. Morphological characterization of cashew ( Anacardium occidentale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyses of genetic similarity based on unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) grouped the 40 accessions into 4 clusters with 14 sub-clusters and the principal component analysis revealed that apple length, apple nut ratio, nut weight, kernel weight, out turn percent and flower sex ratio accounted ...

  6. Microfocus X-ray imaging of Brazil nuts for quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Kazuyo Kobayashi Dias Franco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive quality assessment of food prior to processing is desirable in commercial facilities due to its non-invasive nature, for economic reasons and for its safety appeals. Grading Brazil nuts in this way allows for the separation of undesirable nuts to avoid contamination during the automatic nut-shelling process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of X-ray phase contrast enhanced imaging in assessing nut quality. For this goal, details of the imaging technique are described and phase contrast X-ray and microtomography imaging of nut samples are investigated. Both high quality (i.e. “sound” nuts as well as treated nuts were examined. It was concluded that both the X-ray imaging and tomography techniques have the potential to discriminate morphological features of the nut and to identify “sound” kernels from atypical ones. Larger nuts and nuts with a larger gap area between shell and kernel were concluded to have more atypical formations. Both techniques also seemed promising for use in automatic sorting lines. However, by using microtomography, the visualization of finer formations not noticeable in the X-ray images was possible. Further studies shall be carried out to investigate the nature of these formations, how they affect nut quality and their evolution with storage time.

  7. Microfocus X-ray imaging of Brazil nuts for quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Margareth Kazuyo Kobayashi Dias, E-mail: mkfranco@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Yokaichiya, Fabiano, E-mail: fabiano.yokaichiya@helmholtz-berlin.de [Department Quantum Phenomena in Novel Materials, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlim für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Kardjilov, Nikolay, E-mail: kardjilov@helmholtz-berlim.de [Institut Angewandte Materialforschung, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlim für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Ferraz, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira, E-mail: carlos@feagri.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Agricola

    2015-07-15

    Non-destructive quality assessment of food prior to processing is desirable in commercial facilities due to its non-invasive nature, for economic reasons and for its safety appeals. Grading Brazil nuts in this way allows for the separation of undesirable nuts to avoid contamination during the automatic nut shelling process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of X-ray phase contrast enhanced imaging in assessing nut quality. For this goal, details of the imaging technique are described and phase contrast X-ray and microtomography imaging of nut samples are investigated. Both high quality (i.e. 'sound' nuts as well as treated nuts were examined. It was concluded that both the X-ray imaging and tomography techniques have the potential to discriminate morphological features of the nut and to identify 'sound' kernels from atypical ones. Larger nuts and nuts with a larger gap area between shell and kernel were concluded to have more atypical formations. Both techniques also seemed promising for use in automatic sorting lines. However, by using microtomography, the visualization of finer formations not noticeable in the X-ray images was possible. Further studies shall be carried out to investigate the nature of these formations, how they affect nut quality and their evolution with storage time. (author)

  8. Public perceptions of hazards associated with Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) : evaluation of risk within an European context

    OpenAIRE

    Carreira, S.; Cunha, L. M.; Moura, Ana Pinto de; Lima, R. C.; Souza, M. P.; Souza Filho, T. A.; Silva, T. N.; Pedrozo, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important economic plants of the Amazon is the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa). Brazil nuts for international trade are mainly obtained from wild collection rather than from plantations, often cited as one of the most important products of extractive reserves in Amazonia. The European Commission (2003/493/EC) has imposed strict regulations on the import from Brazil of Brazil nuts in their shells, as the shells have been found to contain high levels of aflatoxi...

  9. YL-SUBSTITUTED PHENOLS AND THEIR POTENTIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nb

    THEIR POTENTIAL SEMISYNTHESES FROM CASHEW NUT SHELL LIQUID. Stephen JM Mdachi. Chemistry ... structural features present in phenolic constituents of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) and, thus, inspire researchers to undertake ..... obtuse, a Pathogen of Black Dead. Arm Disease of Grapevine. Eur. J.

  10. Microbiological and aflatoxin evaluation of Brazil nut pods and the effects of unit processing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrus, Katia; Blank, Greg; Clear, Randall; Holley, Richard A; Abramson, David

    2005-05-01

    Harvesting of Brazil nuts not only helps to preserve the Amazon rainforest but also provides income to individuals who would otherwise have little means of making a livelihood. Recently, the European Community has tightened the quality requirements for Brazil nuts, particularly with regard to aflatoxin levels and microbiological contamination. The objectives of this research were to gain a better understanding of the origin of aflatoxins on Brazil nuts and to microbiologically evaluate some of the operations involved in processing. In this regard, five Brazil nut pods were aseptically picked from trees located in each of three concessions of the Peruvian Amazon rainforest (Madre de Dios province). The exteriors of the pods and the nuts were examined for yeast and molds, including Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, and for bacteria, including Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Brazil nuts obtained from various commercial process operations located in Peru were similarly evaluated. Exteriors of all Brazil nut pods did not contain A. parasiticus, and only pods from one concession yielded A. flavus isolates. All isolates tested were aflatoxigenic (630 to 915 ppb total aflatoxin). Coliforms, E. coli, and salmonellae were not recovered from any of the pods. Whole, in-shell nuts obtained after opening the pods yielded no A. flavus or A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins were not detected (detection limit 1.75 ppb) in any of the nuts. Whole, in-shell and shelled nuts from various process operations were all positive for A. flavus but negative for E. coli and salmonellae. Soaking of whole, in-shell nuts before cracking or shelling increased coliform numbers, whereas levels of A. flavus decreased. In order to gain a better understanding of the sanitary performance of the unit process operations, additional evaluations should be conducted on product lots processed on different days. Also, the microbiology of product processed from common lots should be followed through the

  11. Dwarf cashew growth irrigated with saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  12. The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in brazil nuts: From rainforest to consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderari, Thaiane O.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    A total of 288 brazil nut samples (173 kernel and 115 shell) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo State, Brazil were collected at different stages of brazil nut production. Samples were analysed for: percentages of aflatoxigenic fungal species and potential for aflatoxin production and...

  13. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well...

  14. Survey and effects of plant parasitic root nematodes of cashew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Five thousand, one hundred and twenty cashew trees were sampled and nematodes in their rhizospheres extracted by modified Cobb's decanting and sieving technique. Pure cultures of the nematodes were further inoculated on 30 days old ...

  15. Colonization of cashew plants by Lasiodiplodia theobromae: Microscopical features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a phytopathogenic fungus causing gummosis, a threatening disease for cashew plants in Brazil. In an attempt to investigate the ultrastructural features of the pathogen colonization and its response to immunofluorescence labeling, light, confocal and electron microscope st...

  16. In situ analysis of soybeans and nuts by probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroselli, Gabriela; Mandal, Mridul K; Chen, Lee C; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Nonami, Hiroshi; Erra-Balsells, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    The probe electrospray ionization (PESI) is an ESI-based ionization technique that generates electrospray from the tip of a solid metal needle. In the present work, we describe the PESI mass spectra obtained by in situ measurement of soybeans and several nuts (peanuts, walnuts, cashew nuts, macadamia nuts and almonds) using different solid needles as sampling probes. It was found that PESI-MS is a valuable approach for in situ lipid analysis of these seeds. The phospholipid and triacylglycerol PESI spectra of different nuts and soybean were compared by principal component analysis (PCA). PCA shows significant differences among the data of each family of seeds. Methanolic extracts of nuts and soybean were exposed to air and sunlight for several days. PESI mass spectra were recorded before and after the treatment. Along the aging of the oil (rancidification), the formation of oxidated species with variable number of hydroperoxide groups could be observed in the PESI spectra. The relative intensity of oxidated triacylglycerols signals increased with days of exposition. Monitoring sensitivity of PESI-MS was high. This method provides a fast, simple and sensitive technique for the analysis (detection and characterization) of lipids in seed tissue and degree of oxidation of the oil samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Production of Gum from Cashew Tree Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. AZEEZ

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at producing gum from cashew tree latex, which can act as substitute for gum Arabic. The method used include drying and size reduction of the exudates gum, sieving of the gum to remove impurities, dissolution of the gum in distilled water, filtration to remove polysaccharide waste and finally concentration and stability of the gum. Glycerine, starch and Zinc oxide are some of the additives used in stabilizing the gum. The pH and Viscosity on addition of various percentage concentration of stabilizing agent were determined. Gum of the best quality was obtained with viscosity and pH of 4.52 Ns/m2 and 4.2 respectively; this is because the natural pH of gum from Acacia Senegal ranges between 3.9 - 4.9. The gum can be used as an alternative for synthetic adhesive used presently for stamps and envelopes.

  18. Lipids Characterization and Industrial Potentials of Pumpkin Seeds (Telfairia occidentalis and Cashew Nuts (Anacardium occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Eddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil from Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentale has been extracted and characterized. The lipid content of the Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentalis were 58.41% and 42.15% respectively. The physicochemical parameters of Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentale seeds were; boiling point; (58.90, 62.60 °C, melting point; (18.50, 21.80 °C, refractive index; (1.462, 1.498, specific gravity; (0.87, 0.69 saponification value; (91.16, 92.57 iodine value; (51.52, 47.20, acid value; (0.76, 3.74 ester value; (90.40, 88.87, % free fatty acid; (.38, 1.88 and peroxide value; (11.75, 15.23 respectively. Oils from these seeds were found to exhibit the needed potentials for utilization in paint and food industries and as biofuel.

  19. Removal of lead(II) ions from aqueous solutions using cashew nut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CNSL) or one of its phenolic constituents, cardanol, as templates. The procedure involved formation of a CNSL or cardanol emulsion in a water-ethanol system into which (3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane and tetraethyl orthosilicate were ...

  20. Hawaii Macadamia Nut Company

    OpenAIRE

    Tompson, George H.; Verreault, Dan; Holly B Tompson

    2009-01-01

    Owners of the Hawaii Macadamia Nut Company (HMNC) are facing an expansion opportunity. A land owner has property available that would enable the HMNC to expand its acreage and revenue by about 20%. To fully consider this opportunity the owners must decide 1) whether the expansion is strategically and financially viable, 2) how to raise capital to finance the expansion, and 3) whether they have the skills to manage the company's growth during expansion. This is a case study describing a real c...

  1. Effects of experimental variables on the degree of epoxidation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of experimental variables such as temperature, time, type of solvent and nature of the clay-supported hydrogen peroxide on the degree of epoxidation of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) and cashew nut oil (CNO) were investigated by iodine value measurements. Results show that the acid treatment of the ...

  2. Enzyme synthesis of oligosaccharides using cashew apple juice as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Maria Cristiane; Fontes, Claudia P M L; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2009-12-01

    The use of agriculture substrates in industrial biotechnological processes has been increasing because of their low cost. In this work, the use of clarified cashew apple juice was investigated as substrate for enzyme synthesis of prebiotic oligosaccharide. The results showed that cashew apple juice is a good source of reducing sugars and can be used as substrate for the production of dextransucrase by Leuconostoc citreum B-742 for the synthesis of oligosaccharides using the crude enzyme. Optimal oligosaccharide yield (approximately 80%) was obtained for sucrose concentrations lower than 60 g/L and reducing sugar concentrations higher than 100 g/L.

  3. NUT SCREW MECHANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, J.A.F.

    1958-07-01

    A reactor control mechanism is described wherein the control is achieved by the partial or total withdrawal of the fissile material which is in the form of a fuel rod. The fuel rod is designed to be raised and lowered from the reactor core area by means of two concentric ball nut and screw assemblies that may telescope one within the other. These screw mechanisms are connected through a magnetic clutch to a speed reduction gear and an accurately controllable prime motive source. With the clutch energized, the fuel rod may be moved into the reactor core area, and fine adjustments may be made through the reduction gearing. However, in the event of a power failure or an emergency signal, the magnetic clutch will become deenergized, and the fuel rod will drop out of the core area by the force of gravity, thus shutting down the operation of the reactor.

  4. Cashew gum and gelatin blend for food packaging application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashew gum (CG) and gelatin (G) films were developed using the casting method and response surface methodology. The objective was produce packaging films from CG/G blends that exhibit effective barrier properties. A study of zeta potential versus pH was first carried out to determine the isoelectric...

  5. Cottage processing of cashew apple juice in Nigeria: physico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some manually operated equipment were employed for cottage processing of cashew apples into juice. These include an extractor, mixer pasteuriser and a bottling machine. The apples were preheated with steam for 10, 20 and 30 minutes before juice extraction. The average capacity and efficiency of the extractor were ...

  6. Anthelmintic efficacy of cashew (Anarcadium occidentale L.) on in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-24

    Aug 24, 2011 ... The use of plants for the treatment of human and animal diseases continues to rise although there are few studies providing proof of these effects. Among them is the Anacardium occidentale L., popularly known as cashew. In vitro egg hatch and larval development and viability assays was conducted to.

  7. Assessing Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) feeding damage in macadamia nuts by using a biological stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Mary; Follett, Peter A; Wright, Mark G

    2006-06-01

    Damage caused by southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), to macadamia nuts, Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche, is normally determined after nuts are harvested and processed, which may be many months after damage occurred in the field. We developed a method using ruthenium red dye to stain stink bug feeding probes and indirectly assess feeding activity in macadamia nuts. By using the staining method, feeding probes were easily detected on the husk, shell, and kernel. Husk probing was highly correlated (0.80-0.90) with feeding and damage to the kernel. Failure rate to detect kernel damage from stained husk probes was generally management tactics and forecast outbreak populations.

  8. Sensing of moisture content in in-shell peanuts by NIR (Near Infra Red) reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was found earlier that moisture content (MC) of intact kernels of grain and nuts could be determined by Near Infra Red (NIR) reflectance spectrometry. However, if the MC values can be determined while the nuts are in their shells, it would save lot of labor and money spent in shelling and cleanin...

  9. Determination of aflatoxins in nuts of Tabriz confectionaries by ELISA and HPLC methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahi Shadbad, Mohammad Reza; Ansarin, Masoud; Tahavori, Ali; Ghaderi, Faranak; Nemati, Mahboob

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are a group of mycotoxins and secondary metabolites of various species of Aspergillus. There are various forms of aflatoxins including B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 types. Aflatoxins cause important health problems and have high potential effect on liver cancer. Therefore, numerous investigations have been conducted during last three decades. The aim of this work is to determine the contamination levels of nuts used by the confectionaries in Tabriz. A total of 142 samples including 35 almond , 26 walnut, 4 seeds of apricot, 6 sunflower seeds kernel, 6 sesame seed, 6 peanuts , 32 pistachio,13 hazelnuts and 14 cashews samples were collected from Tabriz confectionaries. The ELISA method was employed for the screening of total aflatoxins. In 13 cases (28.1% of pistachios, 5.1% of walnuts and 7.1% of cashews) contamination rate of higher than 15 ppb were observed. The HPLC method was applied for the confirmation of ELISA results. Aflatoxin B1 was the highest detected AFs. The overall results of the tested samples indicated that the rate of contamination of pistachios is higher than the other tested samples.

  10. Determination of aflatoxins in nuts of Tabriz confectionaries by ELISA and HPLC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siahi Shadbad Mohammad Reza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Aflatoxins (AFs are a group of mycotoxins and secondary metabolites of various species of Aspergillus. There are various forms of aflatoxins including B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 types. Aflatoxins cause important health problems and have high potential effect on liver cancer. Therefore, numerous investigations have been conducted during last three decades. The aim of this work is to determine the contamination levels of nuts used by the confectionaries in Tabriz. Methods: A total of 142 samples including 35 almond , 26 walnut, 4 seeds of apricot, 6 sunflower seeds kernel, 6 sesame seed, 6 peanuts , 32 pistachio,13 hazelnuts and 14 cashews samples were collected from Tabriz confectionaries. The ELISA method was employed for the screening of total aflatoxins. Results: In 13 cases (28.1% of pistachios, 5.1% of walnuts and 7.1% of cashews contamination rate of higher than 15 ppb were observed. The HPLC method was applied for the confirmation of ELISA results. Aflatoxin B1 was the highest detected AFs. Conclusion: The overall results of the tested samples indicated that the rate of contamination of pistachios is higher than the other tested samples.

  11. The search rate of the African weaver ant in cashew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Signe; Axelsen, Jørgen Aagaard; Lemming, Katrine Hansen

    2015-01-01

    this article, and it is unknown which functional response equations are useful for eusocial insect colonies. We investigated the search rate of O. longinoda using artificial feeding experiments in a Tanzanian cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) orchard to determine the search efficiency of the ants......, and to assess which functional response equation can be used for eusocial insects. Artificial feeding experiments consisted of providing each of ten colonies 50 pieces of sardine (175 mg dry weight in average) in cashew trees at time 0 and counting the remaining food items at four intervals of 45 minutes during...... a seven day period. The equations of Gutierrez-Baumgärtner, Lotka-Volterra, and Nicholson-Bailey were assessed and the Nicholson-Bailey equation was found to be most suitable. The Gutierrez-Baumgärtner equation is useful if the demand for storage can be assessed. A large variation in search rates...

  12. Oxidation of cashew tree gum exudate polysaccharide with TEMPO reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Pablyana L.R.; Maciel, Jeanny S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Sierakowski, Maria Rita [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br

    2007-07-01

    Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale trees, was oxidized with TEMPO reagent and the product (CGOX) characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and NMR), chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GPC), viscosity measurements and thermal analysis (TGA). The yield of the reaction product was 96%. The uronic acid content in starting gum (7.2 m%) was increased to 36 m%. The degree of oxidation based on free galactose and glucose units was 68%. NMR data show that oxidation occurred preferentially at primary carbons of galactose units. High degradation degree after oxidation was estimated by the difference on the expected and observed {eta}{sub CGOX}/{eta}{sub CG} ratio. The presence of organic and inorganic impurities in the new polyelectrolyte was detected by TGA. A less thermally stable cashew gum is formed after the oxidation with TEMPO based on initial decomposition temperature and IPDT. (author)

  13. Sorting of pistachio nuts using image processing techniques and an adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Abdollahnejad Barough

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pistachio nut is one of the most important agricultural products of Iran and it is priced due to the quality and type. One of the significant factors of pistachio cost is its type in terms of shell. Filled split pistachio nut has the most quality and is utilized as nuts, while the closed shell type has lower cost, at the same time is economically efficient in food industry such as confectionery. Now, pistachio sorting is performed usually by human and sometimes using electromechanical apparatuses. Classification of pistachio by human is time consuming and is done with an unacceptable accuracy, on the other hand, electromechanical and electro optical apparatuses damages pistachio because the mechanism used in them while separating. So, the need to develop automated systems that could be implemented by intelligent ways is evident to increase the speed and accuracy of classification. Materials and Methods: In this study, 300 samples of pistachios contains 100 Filled split, 100 Filled non-split and 100 split blank nuts ones are used. The training set consisted of 60 samples of each type of opened nuts, closed and empty opened shell nuts a total of 180 samples and the evaluation set consisted of 40 samples of each type of opened shell, closed shell and empty opened shell nuts a total of 120 samples. The principle of this study is implemented in two steps: 1 sample imaging and image processing to extract features 2 fuzzy network design based on the characteristics of data and training. To select useful features from the hypothesis, C4.5 decision tree is used. C4.5 algorithm makes a greedy top to bottom search on the hypothesis, and is made by the question what feature must be at the root of the tree. By the help of statistical methods, extracted features from the images were prioritized and the most appropriate features for classification of training set were selected. The algorithm chooses the best features as their number is minimum

  14. Reducing losses inflicted by insect pests on cashew, using weaver ants as a biological control agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anato, Florence; Wargui, Rosine; Sinzogan, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linnaeus) is the largest agricultural export product in Benin. However, yields and quality are lost due to inefficient pest control. Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) may control pests in this crop as they eat and deter pests. In Benin, cashew pest damages, ...

  15. Plant volatiles influence the African weaver ant-cashew tree mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant volatiles influence virtually all forms of ant plant symbioses. However, little is known about their role in the mutualistic relationship between the African weaver ant and the cashew tree. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that cashew tree volatiles from plant parts most vulnerable to h...

  16. THE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES OF CASHEW INDUSTRY IN KENDARI CITY, SOUTHEAST SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asriani Asriani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of a region should refer to the agroindustry approach. An industry is not well developed due to the constraints of internal and external factors. This research aimed to identify the internal and external factors which could affect the development of cashew industry and determine the most effective alternative strategies applied in developing the cashew industry in Kendari Southeast Sulawesi Province. The data analysis technique used  Strength, Weakness, Opportuny and Threat (SWOT methods. The results showed that the internal factors that most influenced the development of the cashew industry were availability of adequate labor and limited capital investment funds while the external factors that influence the development included the government support and limited access to markets. The alternative strategies of the cashew industry development in Kendari Southeast Sulawesi Province  include improving the marketing, maintaining the product quality and increasing the working capital.Keyword: development, strategy, cashew industry, SWOT

  17. Cylinder valve packing nut studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, S.C. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The design, manufacture, and use of cylinder valve packing nuts have been studied to improve their resistance to failure from stress corrosion cracking. Stress frozen photoelastic models have been analyzed to measure the stress concentrations at observed points of failure. The load effects induced by assembly torque and thermal expansion of stem packing were observed by strain gaging nuts. The effects of finishing operations and heat treatment were studied by the strain gage hole boring and X-ray methods. Modifications of manufacturing and operation practices are reducing the frequency of stress corrosion failures.

  18. Study of antimicrobial activity and atomic force microscopy imaging of the action mechanism of cashew tree gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Débora A; Ribeiro, Alexandra C; Costa, Eduardo M; Fernandes, João C; Tavaria, Freni K; Araruna, Felipe Bastos; Eiras, Carla; Eaton, Peter; Leite, José Roberto S A; Manuela Pintado, M

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of two grades of cashew tree gum (crude and purified) against eight microorganisms and to analyze the mechanism of cashew tree gum antimicrobial action via atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging. The results indicated strong antimicrobial properties of pure cashew tree gum against all tested microorganisms, except for Candida albicans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. On the other hand crude cashew gum showed antimicrobial activity only against Gram-positive bacteria (MRSA, MSSA, Listeria innocua and Enterococcus faecium). Atomic force microscopy imaging showed that pure cashew tree gum lead to bacterial cell collapse. In conclusion cashew tree gum presented relevant antimicrobial activity against most of the studied bacteria, and the purification of the cashew gum affected its antimicrobial spectrum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Decontamination of nuts and spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The social and economic impacts of outbreaks of foodborne illnesses and food recalls connected to consumption of microbiologically contaminated nuts, spices or their products have become important food safety concerns. Initiatives have been undertaken by regulatory and public health agencies, indust...

  20. Postharvest operations of pistachio nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolipour, Hamid

    2015-02-01

    The most important postharvest operations of pistachio nuts including handling, transportation, green hull removal, dehydration, bulk storage and packaging of pistachios were studied. Results showed that air temperature had pronounced effect on drying time and air velocity didn't any significant effect on drying time. The entire drying process occurred in falling rate period and constant rate period was not observed. The optimum conditions for bulk storage of pistachio nuts were between 0 and 10 °C and relative humidity (RH) of 65-70 % or kept at higher than 10 °C (e.g. 15 °C) and less than 32 % RH, and monolayer moisture content had the longest shelf life due to the minimum changes in its lipid quality factors. The higher temperatures and longer storage times will accelerated deteriorative reactions in pistachio nuts especially on fat component and nylon under vacuum is the best packages for pistachio nuts among other packaging materials were studied in this research.

  1. Application of cashew tree gum on the production and stability of spray-dried fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrel, Diego Alvarenga; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Fernandes, Regiane Victória de Barros; Antoniassi, Rosemar; de Faria-Machado, Adelia Ferreira; Feitosa, Judith Pessoa de Andrade; de Paula, Regina Celia Monteiro

    2017-04-15

    Evaluation of cashew gum compared to conventional materials was conducted regarding properties and oxidative stability of spray-dried fish oil. Emulsions produced with cashew gum showed lower viscosity when compared to Arabic gum. The particle size was larger (29.9μm) when cashew gum was used, and the encapsulation efficiency reached 76%, similar to that of modified starch but higher than that for Arabic gum (60%). The oxidation process for the surface oil was conducted and a relative lower formation of oxidation compounds was observed for the cashew gum treatment. GAB model was chosen to describe the moisture adsorption isotherm behaviours. Microparticles produced using Arabic and cashew gums showed greater water adsorption when exposed to higher relative humidities. Microparticles produced using cashew gum were more hygroscopic however encapsulation efficiency were higher and surface oil oxidation were less pronounced. Cashew gum can be further explored as an encapuslant material for spray drying processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of supplementary feeding of Oecophylla longinoda on their abundance and predatory activities against cashew insect pests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid Abdulla, Nassor; Rwegasira, Gration; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    2015-01-01

    ant´s search rates and in this way make them less efficient bio-agents. The experiments were conducted for two consecutive seasons at Naliendele Reseach Station. Cashew trees planted at a spacing of 12 m x 12 m in 2002 were used to investigate whether supplementary feeding could enhance foraging...... were recorded on weaver ant treatments compared to plots without weaver ants. No significant differences (P>0.05) in yields and mean damage levels were recorded between the two weaver ant treatments. Highest nut yield (4.22±0.30kg/tree and 5.37±0.27kg/tree) was recorded in the fed colonies, followed...... by non-fed colonies (4.20±0.30kg/tree and 4.88±0.24kg/tree) and the least (2.66±0.19kg/tree and 2.99±0.19kg/tree) was recorded from the untreated controls in 2012/13 and 2013/14, respectively. The studies indicated that supplementary feeding could boost weaver ants to higher population levels without...

  3. Influence of pectinolyttic and cellulotyc enzyme complexes on cashew bagasse maceration in order to obtain carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Manuella; Robrigues, Renata Débora Pinto; Pinto, Gustavo Adolfo Saavedra; de Brito, Edy Sousa

    2015-06-01

    Cashew apple bagasse is a byproduct of cashew peduncle juice processing. Such waste is a source of carotenoids, but it is usually discarded after the juice extraction. The objective of this work was to study the influence of pectinolytic and cellulolytic enzyme complexes on cashew bagasse maceration in order to obtain carotenoids. It was observed that maceration with the enzymatic complex Pectinex Batch AR showed a higher content of carotenoids, with an overall gain of 79 % over the control carried out without enzyme complex addition.

  4. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Massi, Fernanda P.; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived from the holotype. PMID:26717519

  5. EFFECT OF ADDITION OF PULP CASHEW ON THE SENSORY ACCEPTANCE OF INTEGRAL YOGURT SWEETENED WITH HONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiane Alves de Macedo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The yogurt production in Brazil increased substantially every year. Yogurt is considered a healthy food and the diversity of this product allows great overall acceptance. This work proposed to prepare a full yogurt smoothie with cashew pulp and sweetened with honey to submit good sensory characteristics and to determine the nutritional value of the formulation with better response acceptability. Three preparations with 5, 15 and 25% w/w of cashew pulp and 15% w/w of honey were evaluated with sensory analyses comprising overall acceptability, preference and purchase intent. Information table was used to determine the parameters required for nutrition labeling of the best formulation. These results showed the preparation containing 25%w/w of cashew pulp as the better choice by the sensory panel. The results suggest a feasible option and revels the cashew as a good material source to the dairy market.

  6. Response of postharvest tree nut lepidopteran pests to vacuum treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J A; Zettler, J L

    2009-10-01

    Industry concerns over insect resistance, regulatory action, and the needs of organic processors have renewed interest in nonchemical alternative postharvest treatments to fumigants used for California tree nuts. The development of inexpensive polyvinyl chloride containers capable of holding low pressures has increased the practicality of vacuum treatments for durable commodities such as tree nuts. To develop vacuum treatment protocols, we determined the relative tolerance to vacuum (50 mmHg) at 25 and 30 degrees C of different life stages of three postharvest pests of tree nuts: codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), and Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). At both temperatures, nondiapausing codling moth larvae were the least tolerant stage tested. LT95 values for diapausing Indianmeal moth larvae were similar to Indianmeal moth eggs at both temperatures. Indianmeal moth diapausing larvae and eggs were the most tolerant at 25 degrees C, whereas navel orangeworm eggs were most tolerant at 30 degrees C. Field tests using GrainPro Cocoons (GrainPro, Inc., Concord, MA) to treat shelled almonds, Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb, in bins at vacuum levels of 18-43 mmHg at average winter temperatures (6-10 degrees C) showed that diapausing codling moth larvae were the most tolerant under these conditions and that exposures of 7-13 d provided incomplete control. Summer field tests treating in-shell almonds in bags at average temperatures of 25-30 degrees C provided complete control with 48 h exposure to average vacuum levels of 50 mmHg, and navel orangeworm eggs were the most tolerant stage.

  7. Use of nut shells as fillers in polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three nutshell fillers including walnut, almond and pistachio nutshell were added to PLA. All the physical properties of samples deteriorated relative to PLA. When subjected to heat pre-treatment, although the physical properties of PLA-filler samples still deteriorated, the extent of deteriorat...

  8. Detection of isometric, dsRNA-containing viral particles in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from cashew tree

    OpenAIRE

    Figueirêdo,Lívio C. de; Figueirêdo,Girlene S. de; Giancoli,Ágata C.H.; Tanaka, Francisco A. O.; Silva,Leonor A.O. da; Kitajima, Elliot W.; A. Filho,Spartaco; Azevedo,João Lúcio

    2012-01-01

    Fungi are disease-causing agents in plants and affect crops of economic importance. One control method is to induce resistance in the host by using biological control with hypovirulent phytopathogenic fungi. Here, we report the detection of a mycovirus in a strain of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing anthracnose of cashew tree. The strain C. gloeosporioides URM 4903 was isolated from a cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) in Igarassu, PE, Brazil. After nucleic acid extraction and electro...

  9. Reaction of dwarf cashew clones to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates in controlled environment

    OpenAIRE

    LÓPEZ,Ana Maria Queijeiro; Lucas, John Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) crop is an important source of income for the population of the Brazilian Northeast, and anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides leads to significant production loss. However, there is little information on either the host resistance or the variation in the aggressiveness of the pathogen under controlled environment. The reaction of commercial (CCP-06, CCP-09, CCP-76 and CCP-1001) and one non-commercial (CAP-14) dwarf cashew clones w...

  10. Microbial Diversity in the Gut of Cashew Stem Girdler, Fabricius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Oyedokun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cashew stem girdler, Analeptes trifasciata , is a major insect pest of cashew in Nigeria causing economic damage in cashew plantations even at low density. In this study, newly emerged adults of A. trifasciata reared from field-infested cashew stems were collected from the rearing cages, sexed, and dissected to reveal the internal structures of the insects. The gut was excised and separated into the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The dissected gut compartments were blotted dry by sandwiching in sterile Whatman No. 1 (150 mm filter paper for a minute. The inoculated gut parts showed the presence of eight fungi flora, namely, Aspergillus repens, Trichoderma spp., Fusarium verticillioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae , yeast, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium spp., and Rhizopus stolonifer . The frequencies of occurrence of bacteria in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata were Enterobacter spp.: 83.33%; Escherichia coli and Streptococcus spp.: 55.56% each; Staphylococcus spp.: 44.44%; Klebsiella pneumonia : 50% and Salmonella shigella : 11.11%, while each of Serratia marceascea, Pseudomonas spp., and Micrococcus lutea had 5.56% occurrence. The occurrence of mycoflora and microbiota species varied in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata , indicating the role of these microorganisms in metabolic and other bioprocesses of A. trifasciata during digestion and synthesis of complex food substances from the cashew stem substrate. This study would provide basic information for enzymatic studies of A. trifasciata with a view to developing an integrated pest management (IPM protocol for managing the pest in cashew plantations.

  11. Pastas de castanha-de-caju com incorporação de sabores Flavored cashew nut butter

    OpenAIRE

    Janice Ribeiro Lima; Elianne de Alencar Duarte

    2006-01-01

    Neste trabalho avaliaram-se as características de pastas de castanha-de-caju com incorporação de chocolate e canela. As formulações foram elaboradas pela moagem dos ingredientes até obtenção de uma pasta homogênea. Analisaram-se: umidade, pH, cinzas, proteína, gordura, índice de acidez, atividade de água, textura e aceitação sensorial. Os produtos obtidos caracterizaram-se por baixos valores de atividade de água (

  12. Dry mater intake, milk yield, and heat stress indicators of dairy cows fed diets with cashew nut

    OpenAIRE

    P.G. Pimentel; A.A.A.N. Moura; J.N.M. Neiva; ARAÚJO, A. A. de; Tair, R.F.L.

    2007-01-01

    Avaliaram-se o consumo de matéria seca, a produção de leite e os indicadores de estresse térmico de vacas Pardo-Suíça alimentadas com castanha de caju no semi-árido do Nordeste do Brasil. Doze animais foram distribuídos em um ensaio de reversão, com quatro tratamentos: 0, 8, 16 e 24% de castanha no concentrado. As vacas receberam cana-de-açúcar à vontade e sete quilos de concentrado por dia. Maior consumo de matéria seca de cana-de-açúcar foi observado no tratamento com concentrado sem castan...

  13. Optimum drying time for palm nuts for efficient nut cracking in small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm kernel, one of the end products of oil palm fruit processing is recovered by the cracking of the palm nuts which is first dried to aid efficient kernel recovery. In small-scale mills palm nuts are air-dried. This paper investigates the optimum drying time necessary for efficient nut cracking. Such factors as wholeness of kernel, ...

  14. Usefulness of open mixed nut challenges to exclude tree nut allergy in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Erp, Francine C; Knulst, André C; Kok, Irene L; van Velzen, Maartje F; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Meijer, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To minimize the risk of accidental reactions, atopic children with multiple sensitizations to tree nuts are advised to avoid all nuts. Multiple food challenges would be needed to confirm the clinical relevance, but are too burdensome to be practical. The usefulness of open mixed nut

  15. Preparation and characterization of a chemically sulfated cashew gum polysaccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura Neto, Erico de; Maciel, Jeanny da S.; Cunha, Pablyana L. R.; Paula, Regina Celia M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A., E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Cashew gum (CG) was sulfated in pyridine:formamide using chlorosulfonic acid as the reagent. Confirmation of sulfation was obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy through the presence of an asymmetrical S=O stretching vibration at 1259 cm{sup -1}. The degrees of substitution were 0.02, 0.24 and 0.88 determined from the sulfur percentage. 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data showed that the sulfation occurred at primary carbons. An increase of at least 4% of the solution viscosity was observed due to sulfation. The thermal gravimetric curves (TGA) indicate that the derivatives are stable up to ca. 200 deg C. The sulfated CG is compared to carboxymethylated CG in order to verify the possibility of the use of the former in the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes; the latter is already being used for this application. (author)

  16. Alginate/cashew gum nanoparticles for essential oil encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Erick F; Paula, Haroldo C B; de Paula, Regina C M

    2014-01-01

    Alginate/cashew gum nanoparticles were prepared via spray-drying, aiming at the development of a biopolymer blend for encapsulation of an essential oil. Nanoparticles were characterized regarding to their hydrodynamic volume, surface charge, Lippia sidoides essential oil content and release profile, in addition to being analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal analysis (TGA/DSC) and X-ray diffractometry. Nanoparticles in solution were found to have averaged sizes in the range 223-399 nm, and zeta potential values ranging from -30 to -36 mV. Encapsulated oil levels varied from 1.9 to 4.4% with an encapsulation efficiency of up to 55%. The in vitro release profile showed that between 45 and 95% of oil was released within 30-50h. Kinetic studies revealed that release pattern follow a Korsmeyer-Peppas mechanism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Oxidative quality of commercial fried nuts: evaluation of a surface and an internal lipid fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobarganes, M. C.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative quality of commercial fried nuts was evaluated by independent analyses of two lipid fractions, the surface oil, and the internal lipid fraction. The nuts studied were 6 samples of almonds, 10 samples of peanuts, 4 samples of sunflower seeds and 2 samples of cashew nuts. The oil content, peroxide value, polymer content, and fatty acid composition were analyzed. The results showed two lipid fractions with different oxidation status. Higher oxidation levels were normally found in the oil fraction more exposed  to air, although considerably higher oxidation status in the internal oil was also detected in various samples. Oxidative quality was also evaluated in selected samples of each nut after 1 year of storage at room temperature, in the dark . Only the almonds and cashew nuts exhibited acceptable oxidative quality after storage. In addition, a study on the changes due to frying and the contribution of the frying oil to the lipids in the final product showed that the composition of the surface oil can be changed by the incorporation of substantial contents of the frying fat. Consequently, the frying fat may exert some effect on the oxidative quality and oxidative stability of the surface oil.En este estudio se evalúa la calidad oxidativa de muestras comerciales de frutos secos fritos mediante el análisis independiente de dos fracciones lipídicas, el aceite superficial, fácilmente extraíble con disolventes orgánicos, y la fracción de lípidos internos. Las muestras estudiadas fueron 6 muestras de almendras, 10 muestras de cacahuetes, 4 muestras de pipas de girasol y 2 muestras de anacardos. Se analizaron el contenido de aceite, el índice de peróxidos, el contenido de polímeros y la composición de ácidos grasos. Los resultados mostraron dos fracciones lipídicas con diferente estado de oxidación. Mayores niveles de oxidación fueron normalmente encontrados en la fracción más expuesta al aire, aunque estados de oxidaci

  18. Design and Performance Test of Locking Curved-Nut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Min Cheol; Kang, Ho Sung; Kim, Do Yeop; Lee, Suk Yong; Lee, Eung Suk [Chungbuk Nat’l Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hui Jong [Viblock Company, Cheongwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Many types of locking nut are commercializing in the various industries where has heavy vibration. Because Nut's loosing causes a serious accident. But the most locking nuts are too expensive as the complicate manufacturing process. In this study, we design the new type of locking nut, 'Curved-Nut' that is relatively simple making process. We study a relation between the elastic energy and the nut loosing mechanism. So it is analysed, the elastic energy of Curved-Nut comparing with the locking test. The Curved-Nut was manufactured on the commercial nut using a milling tool with horizontal cutting, one or two time under the nut. As the result, the more elastic energy the more prevent the loosing of the nut. We verified the performance of the loosing nut using the vibration testing equipment (NAS3350).

  19. How nut and seed butters are processed

    Science.gov (United States)

    This month's food processing column follows the theme "How Is It Porcessed?". It will explore how nut and seed butters are processed. In recent years a variety of new nut and seed butters have entered the marketplace. Their predecessor, peanut butter, as well as these new products and the process...

  20. Developmental Strategies of Betel nut Industry in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jun; Han, Xuan; Liu, Li-yun; Feng, Mei-Li; Li, Zhuan; Qin, Hai-tang

    2010-01-01

    The developmental status of the betel nut industry is introduced, including cultivation situation, processing and development situation, and consumer market situation. The result shows that the cultivation of betel nut in Hainan Province develops rapidly and the primary processing of betel nut has formed certain scale, but the deep processing of betel nut is backward. Except for the minority of the betel nuts consumed by Hainan Island, a large majority of the betel nuts are processed into dry...

  1. Cinética e caracterização físico-química do fermentado do pseudofruto do caju (Anacardium occidentale L. Kinetic and physico-chemical characterization of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto B. Torres Neto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of cashew apple wine has the purpose of minimizing the wastage in the Brazilian cashew production. Knowing that the cashew apple fermentation produces a good cashew wine, a study of alcoholic fermentation kinetics of the cashew apple and the physico-chemical characterization of the product were made. The cashew wine was produced in an stirred batch reactor. The results of the physico-chemical analysis of volatiles, residual sugars, total acidity and pH of cashew wine showed that their concentrations were within the standard limits established by the Brazilian legislation for fruit wines.

  2. Effects of tree nuts on blood lipids, apolipoproteins, and blood pressure: systematic review, meta-analysis, and dose-response of 61 controlled intervention trials123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Gobbo, Liana C; Falk, Michael C; Feldman, Robin; Lewis, Kara; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effects of nuts on major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including dose-responses and potential heterogeneity by nut type or phytosterol content, are not well established. Objectives: We examined the effects of tree nuts (walnuts, pistachios, macadamia nuts, pecans, cashews, almonds, hazelnuts, and Brazil nuts) on blood lipids [total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides], lipoproteins [apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and apolipoprotein B100], blood pressure, and inflammation (C-reactive protein) in adults aged ≥18 y without prevalent CVD. Design: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Two investigators screened 1301 potentially eligible PubMed articles in duplicate. We calculated mean differences between nut intervention and control arms, dose-standardized to one 1-oz (28.4 g) serving/d, by using inverse-variance fixed-effects meta-analysis. Dose-response for nut intake was examined by using linear regression and fractional polynomial modeling. Heterogeneity by age, sex, background diet, baseline risk factors, nut type, disease condition, duration, and quality score was assessed with meta-regression. Publication bias was evaluated by using funnel plots and Egger’s and Begg’s tests. Results: Sixty-one trials met eligibility criteria (n = 2582). Interventions ranged from 3 to 26 wk. Nut intake (per serving/d) lowered total cholesterol (−4.7 mg/dL; 95% CI: −5.3, −4.0 mg/dL), LDL cholesterol (−4.8 mg/dL; 95% CI: −5.5, −4.2 mg/dL), ApoB (−3.7 mg/dL; 95% CI: −5.2, −2.3 mg/dL), and triglycerides (−2.2 mg/dL; 95% CI: −3.8, −0.5 mg/dL) with no statistically significant effects on other outcomes. The dose-response between nut intake and total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was nonlinear (P-nonlinearity < 0.001 each); stronger effects were

  3. Caracterização física de pedúnculos de clones de cajueiro anão precoce em diferentes estádios de maturação Physical characterization of peduncles of early dwarf cashew clones at different stages of maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Maria de Almeida Lopes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar os atributos de pedúnculos de clones de cajueiro anão precoce CCP 76, CCP 09, BRS 189 e BRS 265 em sete diferentes estádios de maturação, oriundos do Campo Experimental da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical localizado no município de Pacajus (CE. As variáveis avaliadas foram: diâmetro basal e apical, comprimento dos pedúnculos, massa total dos cajus (massa da castanha + pedúnculo, massa dos pedúnculos e das castanhas e firmeza dos pedúnculos. Considerando a homogeneidade ou não das variâncias, confirmadas pelo teste F de Fisher, as médias foram comparadas por meio do Teste t de Student ao nível de 5%. O clone CCP 76 destacou-se por possuir os melhores parâmetros físicos, a exceção da firmeza dos pedúnculos, sendo o mesmo indicado para o consumo e comercialização in natura.This study was carried out in order to evaluate the attributes of peduncles of early dwarf cashew tree clones CCP 76, CCP 09, BRS 189 and BRS 265 in seven different stages of maturation, from the Experimental Farm of Pacajus located in the city of Pacajus (CE. The data that was analyzed: basal and apical diameters, length of peduncles, cashew's total mass (cashew nut mass + peduncles mass, mass of peduncles and nuts, and peduncle's firmness. Considering the homogeneity of variances, confirmed by Fisher's F test, means were compared using the Student's t test at 5%. Clone CCP 76 stood out compared to the other for having the best physical parameters, except for the firmness of the peduncles, is suitable for marketing and fresh consumption.

  4. Volatile Profile of Cashew Apple Juice Fibers from Different Production Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Oliveira Nobre

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the volatile profile of cashew apple fibers to verify which compounds are still present after successive washings and thus might be responsible for the undesirable remaining cashew-like aroma present in this co-product, which is used to formulate food products like vegetarian burgers and cereal bars. Fibers were obtained from cashew apple juice processing and washed five times in an expeller press. Compounds were analyzed by the headspace solid-phase micro extraction technique (HS-SPME and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, using a DB-5 column. Sensory analysis was also performed to compare the intensity of the cashew-like aroma of the fibers with the original juice. Altogether, 80 compounds were detected, being esters and terpenes the major chemical classes. Among the identified substances, 14 were classified as odoriferous in the literature, constituting the matrix used in the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Odoriferous esters were substantially reduced, but many compounds were extracted by the strength used in the expeller press and remained until the last wash. Among them are the odoriferous compounds ethyl octanoate, γ-dodecalactone, (E-2-decenal, copaene, and caryophyllene that may contribute for the mild but still perceptible cashew apple aroma in the fibers that have been pressed and washed five times. Development of a deodorization process should include reduction of pressing force and stop at the second wash, to save water and energy, thus reducing operational costs and contributing to process sustainability.

  5. THERMOSTABILITY OF ANTIOXIDANT AND DETERIORATIVE ENZYMES FROM SOURSOP AND CASHEW APPLE JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA CRISTINA RABELO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aimed to evaluate the thermostability of antioxidant (superoxide dismutase - SOD, catalase - CAT and ascorbate peroxidase - APX and deteriorative (guaiacol peroxidase - G-POD, polyphenoloxidase - PPO, pectin-methylesterase - PME and polygalacturonase - PG enzymes from soursop and cashew apple juices. Juices were prepared homogenizing ripe fruit pulps and submitting to different thermal treatments (55, 65, 75, 85 and 95°C for different time period (1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min then enzymatic activities were evaluated. The treatments at 55°C for soursop juice and at 75°C for cashew apple juice presented the best results, considering the low residual activities for deteriorative enzymes and the retained activity of SOD. Our results suggest appropriate technological condition to thermal processing from soursop and cashew apple juice whereby ensuring quality beyond their functionality.

  6. Stability of cashew apple juice in powder dehydrated in spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanyelle L. Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the stability of cashew apple juice in powder, dehydrated in spouted bed and stored in two vacuum-sealed packages (laminated and plastic for a period of 60 days. The parameters evaluated in this study were ascorbic acid, carotenoids, moisture, water activity, hygroscopicity, degree of caking, solubility and rehydration. Decreases in the contents of ascorbic acid and carotenoids were observed after 60 days. Moisture content remained practically unchanged during storage, and water activity showed a rising trend in the plastic package. In both packages, the powder showed low hygroscopicity and high caking formation. The solubility in both packages was higher than 90% and the time of rehydration of cashew apple juice in powder in the plastic package increased during storage. Cashew apple juice in powder stored in laminated package preserved better its physical and physico-chemical properties.

  7. Evaluation of Cashew Apple Juice for the Production of Fuel Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Álvaro Daniel Teles; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; Macedo, Gorete R.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    A commercial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used for the production of ethanol by fermentation of cashew apple juice. Growth kinetics and ethanol productivity were calculated for batch fermentation with different initial sugar (glucose + fructose) concentrations. Maximal ethanol, cell, and glycerol concentrations were obtained when 103.1 g L-1 of initial sugar concentration was used. Cell yield (Yx/s) was calculated as 0.24 (g microorganism)/(g glucose + fructose) using cashew apple juice medium with 41.3 g L-1 of initial sugar concentration. Glucose was exhausted first, followed by fructose. Furthermore, the initial concentration of sugars did not influence ethanol selectivity. These results indicate that cashew apple juice is a suitable substrate for yeast growth and ethanol production.

  8. strength properties of shea-butter nuts under compressive loading

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    Compression tests were performed on heat-treated Shea-butter nuts to study the effects of temperature and loading position on rupture force, deformation, toughness and firmness of ... Shea-butter nuts, drying of the nut, cracking of the nut, washing and crushing of the kernel, cooking of the milled product and clarification.

  9. Adsorption of Rhodamine B Dye from Aqueous Solution on Irvingia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    hulls and its immobilized form,13 cocoa pod husk,14 cashew nut shell,15 periwinkle shell,16 garlic peel,17 sugar cane bagasse,18 calcined egg shell,19 bagasse pith,20 olive waste cake,21 apple wastes,22 Bengal gram seed husk,23 oil palm fruit waste,24 castor bean cake,25 maize stem tissue26 and lignite27 have ...

  10. NUT Carcinoma of the Sublingual Gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; French, C A; Josiassen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    NUT carcinoma (NC) is a recently described, rare and extremely aggressive cancer primarily located to supradiaphragmatic structures and affecting young individuals. NC is characterized by translocations involving the NUT gene on 15q14 with the most common translocation partner gene being BRD4 on 19......p13, resulting in the t(15;19)(q14;p13) karyotype. NC is poorly differentiated and is likely to be overlooked and misdiagnosed as poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) when immunohistochemical evaluation of NUT protein expression is omitted. Previously, NC has been found in the parotid...... and submandibular glands and we present the first case in the sublingual gland arising in a 40-year-old woman. We discuss the diagnostic considerations for poorly differentiated carcinomas of the salivary glands and advocate the inclusion of NUT immunohistochemistry in this setting. Not only does the NC diagnosis...

  11. Peduncle and fruit yield, in six cropping seasons, of early dwarf cashew tree clones irrigated with different water regimes Rendimentos de pedúnculos e frutos, em seis safras, de clones de cajueiro-anão-precoce irrigados com diferentes regimes hídricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathia Maria Barbosa e Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate peduncle and fruit yield in clone MS 076 and in a clonal population of drip-irrigated, early dwarf cashew trees propagated by layering, in six cropping seasons. In order to meet the increased water requirements of the crop resulting from plant growth and development, irrigation during the dry season was performed daily according to the following water regime: 15 min/plant/day during the 1st year, 30 min/plant/day during the 2nd year, 45 min/plant/day during the 3rd year and 60 min/plant/day during all subsequent years. Water was supplied by one drip emitter/plant, at an (adjustable flow rate of 36 L/h.The research was carried out in Fortaleza-Ceará, Brazil, and a random block design was utilized, with five replicates and split-plots. The clones were assigned to plots and the cropping seasons were considered as subplots. The clonal population was superior to the clone only with regard to number of nut shells (NNS, and solely in the first season. The clone was superior to the population as to NNS and peduncle yield (PY in the second season, and also with regard to the three evaluated traits - NNS, PY, and nut shell yield, in the last three cropping seasons.O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar, em seis safras, os rendimentos de pedúnculos e frutos do clone CP 076 e de uma População Clonal de cajueiro-anão-precoce, propagados por alporquia, irrigados por gotejamento. Visando a atender às maiores necessidades hídricas da cultura, decorrentes do crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas, a irrigação, durante o período seco do ano, foi feita diariamente de acordo com o seguinte regime hídrico: 15 minutos/planta/dia durante o primeiro ano; 30 minutos/planta/dia durante o segundo ano; 45 minutos/planta/dia durante o terceiro ano, e 60 minutos/planta/dia durante os anos subseqüentes. A água foi fornecida através de uma torneira gotejadora/planta, com vazão (ajustável de 36 L/h. O trabalho foi feito

  12. Biodiversity of mycobiota throughout the Brazil nut supply chain: From rainforest to consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Marta H; Frisvad, Jens C; Ferranti, Larissa S; de Souza Lopes, Aline; Larsen, Thomas O; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Iamanaka, Beatriz T

    2017-02-01

    A total of 172 Brazil nut samples (114 in shell and 58 shelled) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo state, Brazil was collected at different stages of the Brazil nut production chain: rainforest, street markets, processing plants and supermarkets. The mycobiota of the Brazil nut samples were evaluated and also compared in relation to water activity. A huge diversity of Aspergillus and Penicillium species were found, besides Eurotium spp., Zygomycetes and dematiaceous fungi. A polyphasic approach using morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as molecular and extrolite profiles, were studied to distinguish species among the more important toxigenic ones in Aspergillus section Flavi and A. section Nigri. Several metabolites and toxins were found in these two sections. Ochratoxin A (OTA) was found in 3% of A. niger and 100% of A. carbonarius. Production of aflatoxins B and G were found in all isolates of A. arachidicola, A. bombycis, A. nomius, A. pseudocaelatus and A. pseudonomius, while aflatoxin B was found in 38% of A. flavus and all isolates of A. pseudotamarii. Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) was found in A. bertholletius (94%), A. tamarii (100%), A. caelatus (54%) and A. flavus (41%). Tenuazonic acid, a toxin commonly found in Alternaria species was produced by A. bertholletius (47%), A. caelatus (77%), A. nomius (55%), A. pseudonomius (75%), A. arachidicola (50%) and A. bombycis (100%). This work shows the changes of Brazil nut mycobiota and the potential of mycotoxin production from rainforest to consumer, considering the different environments which exist until the nuts are consumed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. NUT carcinoma presenting in the palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjornstrup, Libana Raffoul; Reibel, Jesper; Kiss, Katalin

    2017-01-01

    NUT carcinomas (NC) are rare and aggressive tumours characterized by chromosomal rearrangements of the gene encoding for nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) located on chromosome 15q14. This article presents a case of a 60-year-old woman diagnosed with NC presenting as a fast growing primary tumour...... differentiated carcinomas without glandular differentiation arising in the chest, and head and neck (Clin Cancer Res, 18, 2012, 5773)....

  14. Tannase Production by Solid State Fermentation of Cashew Apple Bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrigues, Tigressa H. S.; Dantas, Maria Alcilene A.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    The ability of Aspergillus oryzae for the production of tannase by solid state fermentation was investigated using cashew apple bagasse (CAB) as substrate. The effect of initial water content was studied and maximum enzyme production was obtained when 60 mL of water was added to 100.0 g of CAB. The fungal strain was able to grow on CAB without any supplementation but a low enzyme activity was obtained, 0.576 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Optimization of process parameters such as supplementation with tannic acid, phosphorous, and different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources was studied. The addition of tannic acid affected the enzyme production and maximum tannase activity (2.40 U/gds) was obtained with 2.5% (w/w) supplementation. Supplementation with ammonium nitrate, peptone, and yeast extract exerted no influence on tannase production. Ammonium sulphate improved the enzyme production in 3.75-fold compared with control. Based on the experimental results, CAB is a promising substrate for solid state fermentation, enabling A. oryzae growth and the production of tannase, with a maximum activity of 3.42 U/gds and enzyme productivity of 128.5×10-3 U·gds -1·h-1.

  15. A Novel Immunoassay Test System for Detection of Modified Allergen Residues Present in Almond-, Cashew-, Coconut-, Hazelnut-, and Soy-Based Nondairy Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiri, Jongkit; Benoit, Lora; Meshgi, Mahzad; Day, Jeffrey; Nadala, Cesar; Samadpour, Mansour

    2016-09-01

    A growing number of plant-based milk substitutes have become commercially available, providing an array of options for consumers with dietary restrictions. Though several of these products rival cow's milk in terms of their nutritional profiles, beverages prepared with soy and tree nuts can be a significant concern to consumers because of potential contamination with food allergens. Adding to this concern is the fact that allergen residues from plant-based beverages are modified during manufacturing, thereby decreasing the sensitivity of antibody-based detection methods. Consequently, many commercially available allergen detection kits are less effective for allergens derived from nondairy milk substitutes. To address this limitation, we developed a panel of polyclonal antibodies directed against the modified proteins present in almond, cashew, coconut, hazelnut, and soy milks and incorporated them into rapid lateral flow immunoassay tests configured in both sandwich and competitive format. The tests had robust detection capabilities when used with a panel of various brand-name products, with a sensitivity of 1 ppm and selectivity values of 3 to 5 ppm in nondairy beverages. Minimal cross-reactivity to extracts prepared from common commodities was observed. The development of a highly sensitive and rapid test specifically designed to detect trace quantities of highly modified allergen residues in plant-based, dairy-free beverages will aid food manufacturers and regulatory agencies in monitoring products for these modified allergens when testing environmental and food samples.

  16. A review of the systemic adverse effects of areca nut or betel nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Apurva; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Gupta, Prakash C

    2014-01-01

    Areca nut is widely consumed by all ages groups in many parts of the world, especially south-east Asia. The objective of this review is to systematically review and collate all the published data that are related to the systemic effects of areca nut. The literature search was performed by an electronic search of the Pubmed and Cochrane databases using keywords and included articles published till October 2012. We selected studies that covered the effect of areca nut on metabolism, and a total of 62 studies met the criteria. There is substantial evidence for carcinogenicity of areca nut in cancers of the mouth and esophagus. Areca nut affects almost all organs of the human body, including the brain, heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and reproductive organs. It causes or aggravates pre-existing conditions such as neuronal injury, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, hepatotoxicity, asthma, central obesity, type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, etc. Areca nut affects the endocrine system, leading to hypothyroidism, prostate hyperplasia and infertility. It affects the immune system leading to suppression of T-cell activity and decreased release of cytokines. It has harmful effects on the fetus when used during pregnancy. Thus, areca nut is not a harmless substance as often perceived and proclaimed by the manufacturers of areca nut products such as Pan Masala, Supari Mix, Betel quid, etc. There is an urgent need to recognize areca nut as a harmful food substance by the policy makers and prohibit its glamorization as a mouth freshener. Strict laws are necessary to regulate the production of commercial preparations of areca nut.

  17. Production of extruded barley, cassava, corn and quinoa enriched with whey proteins and cashew pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well-formulated snacks can play a positive role in enhancing health by providing essential nutrients, such as increased protein and fiber, that mitigate metabolic syndrome associated with obesity. Adding whey protein concentrate (WPC80) and cashew pulp (CP) to corn meal, a major ingredient in extru...

  18. Tracking cashew economically important diseases in the West African region using metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Filipa; Romeiras, Maria M.; Figueiredo, Andreia; Sebastiana, Mónica; Baldé, Aladje; Catarino, Luís; Batista, Dora

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, agricultural land-uses in West Africa were marked by dramatic shifts in the coverage of individual crops. Nowadays, cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is one of the most export-oriented horticulture crops, notably in Guinea-Bissau. Relying heavily on agriculture to increase their income, developing countries have been following a strong trend of moving on from traditional farming systems toward commercial production. Emerging infectious diseases, driven either by adaptation to local conditions or inadvertent importation of plant pathogens, are able to cause tremendous cashew production losses, with economic and social impact of which, in developing countries is often underestimated. Presently, plant genomics with metagenomics as an emergent tool, presents an enormous potential to better characterize diseases by providing extensive knowledge on plant pathogens at a large scale. In this perspective, we address metagenomics as a promising genomic tool to identify cashew fungal associated diseases as well as to discriminate the causal pathogens, aiming at obtaining tools to help design effective strategies for disease control and thus promote the sustainable production of cashew in West African Region. PMID:26175748

  19. Effectiveness of neem, cashew and mango trees in the uptake of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effectiveness of neem, cashew and mango trees in the uptake of heavy metals in mechanic village, Nigeria. ZO Ojekunle, DR Ubani, RO Sangowusi. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  20. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of South African Cashew Apple Juice as a Biofuel Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanie Devi Deenanath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cashew apple juice (CAJ is one of the feedstocks used for biofuel production and ethanol yield depends on the physical and chemical properties of the extracted juice. As far as can be ascertained, information on physical and chemical properties of South African cashew apple juice is limited in open literature. Therefore, this study provides information on the physical and chemical properties of the South African cashew apple juice. Physicochemical characteristics of the juice, such as specific gravity, pH, sugars, condensed tannins, Vitamin C, minerals, and total protein, were measured from a mixed variety of cashew apples. Analytical results showed the CAJ possesses specific gravity and pH of 1.050 and 4.52, respectively. The highest sugars were glucose (40.56 gL−1 and fructose (57.06 gL−1. Other chemical compositions of the juice were condensed tannin (55.34 mgL−1, Vitamin C (112 mg/100 mL, and total protein (1.78 gL−1. The minerals content was as follows: zinc (1.39 ppm, copper (2.18 ppm, magnesium (4.32 ppm, iron (1.32 ppm, sodium (5.44 ppm, and manganese (1.24 ppm. With these findings, South African CAJ is a suitable biomass feedstock for ethanol production.

  1. struduraI Resistance of Cashew (Anacardium ocCidentaie) against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leaf starts from the petiole and prog~esses to- tial resistance in local and exotic germplasm wards the apex of the leaf. This change appears collections makes resistance among cashew ge- to be associated with cuticular wax formation. notypes the possible control strategy of choice. Other workers (Rao and Hassani, 1957; ...

  2. Salt tolerance of precocious-dwarf cashew rootstocks: physiological and growth indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro Paulo Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The cashew crop (Anacardium occiedentale L. is of great economic and social importance for Northeast Brazil, a region usually affected by water and soil salinity. The present study was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the effects of four salinity levels established through electrical conductivity of irrigation water (ECw: 0.7, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8 dS m-1, at 25ºC, on growth and physiological indexes of five rootstocks of dwarf-precocious cashew varieties CCP06, CCP09, CCP1001, EMBRAPA50, and EMBRAPA51. Plant height, leaf area, dry weight of root, shoot and total; water content of leaves, root/shoot ratio, leaf area ratio, absolute and relative growth rates and rate of net assimilation were evaluated. The majority of the evaluated variables were found to be affected by ECw and the effects varied among clones; however, no significant interactive effects were observed for factors. The value of ECw = 1.39 dS m-1 was considered as a threshold tolerance for the precocious cashew rootstocks used in this study. The dwarf-precocious cashew is moderately sensible to soil salinity during the formation phase of rootstock. Clones EMBRAPA51 and EMBRAPA50 presented, respectively, the least and the best development indexes.

  3. Chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels of dehydrated cashew bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danillo Glaydson Farias Guerra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels dried cashew bagasse (DCB. Our experiment used a randomized design replicated four times, each replicate consisting of the following five treatments: 100% elephant grass; 95% elephant grass + 5% DCB; 90% elephant grass + 10% DCB; 85% elephant grass + 15% DCB; and 80% elephant grass + 20% DCB. The elephant grass was cut manually to a residual height of 5 cm at 80 days of age, and cashew bagasse was obtained from the processing of cashew stalks used in fruit pulp manufacturing in Mossoró/RN. Plastic buckets were used as experimental silos, and 90 days after ensiling the experimental silos were opened and the contents analyzed. The addition of dried cashew bagasse to silage linearly increased the levels of dried matter and crude protein by 0.59% and 0.13%, respectively, for each 1% addition (P < 0.05. The neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent content of the silages was reduced by 0.22% and 0.09%, respectively, for each 1% addition of the bagasse. The total carbohydrate content was not influenced by the bagasse addition (P > 0.05, and averaged 82.29%. The levels of non-fiber carbohydrate showed linear growth (P < 0.05 as the dehydrated cashew bagasse was added, and pH and ammoniacal nitrogen levels were reduced. The addition of the dehydrated bagasse to elephant grass silage improves its chemical composition, and it can be effectively added up to the level of 20%.

  4. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS...... sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic...

  5. THE POTENT OF METHANOL EXTRACTS OF CASHEW (Anacardium occidentale L. AGAINST METHICILLIN-RESISTANT Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Nursanty

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of antibiotics including misuse and overuse has aided natural bacterial evolution by helping the microbes become resistant such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The MRSA resistant in disease treatment with commonly used antibiotics needs new drug to treat patients. Traditional herb can be alternative treatment such as cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.. Antibacterial activities of methanol extracts of stem cashew with concentration 10%, 20% and 30% showed zone of inhibition between 17 -20 mm.

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Cashew and Mango Extracts on the Rheological Properties of Water Based Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Omotioma M; Ejikeme P. C. N

    2014-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the effects of cashew and mango extracts on the rheological properties of water based mud is presented. To control corrosion of drilling materials, corrosion inhibitor is usually used as one of the drilling mud additives. Such inhibitive substance can only be applied when it improves the rheological properties of the drilling mud. In this work, the mud samples were formulated in the absence and presence of various concentrations of cashew and mango extr...

  7. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richa Anand; Chandan Dhingra; Sumanth Prasad; Ipseeta Menon

    2014-01-01

      The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world...

  8. More Nuts and Bolts of Michaelis-Menten Enzyme Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    Several additions to a classroom activity are proposed in which an "enzyme" (the student) converts "substrates" (nut-bolt assemblies) into "products" (separated nuts and bolts) by unscrewing them. (Contains 1 table.)

  9. Activated carbons from end-products of tree nut and tree fruit production as sorbents for removing methyl bromide in ventilation effluent from postharvest chamber fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    End-products of tree nuts and tree fruits grown in California, USA were evaluated for the ability to remove methyl bromide from the ventilation effluent of postharvest chamber fumigations. Activated carbon sorbents from walnut and almond shells as well as peach and prune pits were prepared using dif...

  10. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Richa Anand; Chandan Dhingra; Sumanth Prasad; Ipseeta Menon

    2014-01-01

    The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ) and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, tw...

  11. Reaction of dwarf cashew clones to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates in controlled environment Reação de clones de cajueiro-anão a isolados de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides em ambiente controlado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Queijeiro López

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. crop is an important source of income for the population of the Brazilian Northeast, and anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides leads to significant production loss. However, there is little information on either the host resistance or the variation in the aggressiveness of the pathogen under controlled environment. The reaction of commercial (CCP-06, CCP-09, CCP-76 and CCP-1001 and one non-commercial (CAP-14 dwarf cashew clones was assessed against 36 isolates of this fungus controlled environmental conditions. All the isolates, including those from hosts other than cashew, were able to cause lesions on leaves and stems of most clones, albeit to different degrees. Clone CCP-06 was the most susceptible, while clone CCP-1001 showed a level of resistance to a number of the isolates, including isolate 905, while isolates 910 and 912 were aggressive to all clones. Injury increased the susceptibility of the clones to all isolates, indicating that resistance also might be associated with structural barriers that hinder penetration. Ripened cashew apples (8-week-old, of commercial clones were susceptible to isolates 905 and 910. Immature pseudo-fruits (2-week-old, with exception of clone CCP-76 which was susceptible to both isolates showed resistance against these isolates, suggesting the presence of structural and chemical barriers. Developed nuts (8-week-old, however, were more resistant than immature nuts (2-week-old to both isolates, probably due to their thicker exocarp cuticle and reduced number of stomatal pores.A cultura de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. é uma fonte de renda importante para a população do Nordeste brasileiro, sendo a antracnose causada por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides a doença que mais conduz a perdas de sua produção. Entretanto, há pouca informação para a resistência desse hospedeiro ou para a variação na agressividade do patógeno em ambiente

  12. Sapucaia nuts ( Lecythis pisonis ) modulate the hepatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sapucaia nuts (Lecythis pisonis) modulate the hepatic inflammatory and antioxidant metabolism activity in rats fed high-fat diets. Marcos Vidal Martins, Izabela Maria Montezano de Carvalho, Mônica Maria Magalhães Caetano, Renata Celi Lopes Toledo, Antônio Avelar Xavier, José Humberto de Queiroz ...

  13. NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF SHEA NUT (Vitellaria paradoxa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    2014-08-04

    Aug 4, 2014 ... Generally, protein composition and digestibility of the SNPs in this study were low and seem unsuitable as protein sources for Nile tilapia. Keywords: Nutritional composition, digestibility, nile tilapia, shea nut, by-product. INTRODUCTION ... animal feed trials including; poultry (Zanu et al. 2012; Dei et al., ...

  14. Properties of Brazil nuts: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-02-25

    Feb 25, 2015 ... Brazil nut is a seed with high nutritional value and of great economic importance to the Northern region of Brazil. In addition to enabling direct consumption, its nutritional potential ..... six months of storage at ambient temperature. The results showed that these three types of breakfast cereals obtained higher ...

  15. Fruit and Nut Production. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials required to teach the fruit and nut production component of a competency-based horticulture course that is intended to provide students with technical skills and the basic business skills to run a successful operation or be a productive employee. The following topics are covered in the 12…

  16. Gedefinieerde belangen: algemeen nut na de Geefwet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.C. Hemels (Sigrid)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractInleiding: Sinds 1 januari 2012 is voor het eerst sinds de introductie van het begrip ‘algemeen belang’ in de Nederlandse belastingwet in 1917 het begrip ‘algemeen nut’ gedefinieerd. Bovendien geldt nu één definitie van algemeen nut voor alle belastingwetten, doordat deze definitie is

  17. Temporal expression of pecan allergens during nut development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecan nuts and other tree nuts are among a group of eight foods that most commonly cause food allergy. The growth of pecan nuts is a highly complex process orchestrated by the temporal and spatial expression of specific genes. Three conserved seed-storage proteins from the prolamin and cupin super...

  18. Nut Growers Hear It Pays to Care for Black Walnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Jr. Ponder; James E. Jones; Rita Mueller; Andrea Clark

    2003-01-01

    Careful attention to walnut trees could pay off in nut yields. Nutrient management and improved nut varieties can make a big difference in black walnut nut production. This was the theme of the 2002 American Black Walnut Conference in Springfield, MO. The conference was sponsored by the Center For Advancement of American Black Walnut and Southwest Missouri RC&D (...

  19. Biodegradation of shea nut cake by indigenous soil bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is to isolate bacteria with high shea nut cake degrading ability and consequently select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The bacteria were grown in mineral salt medium supplemented with 2% shea nut cake as sole source of carbon. More Gram negative bacteria were involved in shea nut ...

  20. Engineering of Rocking Nut Maker Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulharman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There had been mechanically conducted an engineering of Rocking Nut Maker Tools for rocking nut small industry. The objective is to engineer a maker tool for rocking nut which can work with the assistance of motor without using manpower, thus it will increase the production of rocking nut. Making method on rocking nut maker tool includes: (1 Designing tool; (2 tool making; (3 Tool testing. According to the result of engineering tool, there were obtained: frame for tray that was made from angle iron: the height was 450 mm, the length was 1500 mm, and the width was 500 mm width, while the thickness was 3 mm. The tray was made from aluminium with 60 mm height, 1485 mm length, 485 mm width and 3 mm plate thickness. The motor had the power capacity of ½ HP, single phase and 1400 rpm while gearbox was 1:10. The wheels were made from iron with the diameter of 60 mm and the thickness of 20 mm. There are 4 wheels which were installed under the tray. Popper mechanism was made from iron that included iron plate with the diameter of 210 mm, the thickness of 7 mm and iron bar with the diameter of 15 mm and the length of 220 mm. This was equipped with speed variable. The result from tools performance could increase the production capacity by 400%; the bumpy texture on peanut surface could attach more strongly, the storage capacity increased for 6 months, while the production only lasted for 3 months if it was by manual. The capacity of rocking nut maker was 45 kg/day; it was only 7.5 kg/day by manual. The average time consumed for rocking nut making was 1.5 hours/ processing, while by manual was 3 hours/ processing. The rocking speed was 89-99rpm. This was an economical technology, by using this engineered tool, the production capacity per month was increased by 750 kg or equivalent with Rp. 47,250,000.- and by using this tool, there was an increase in profit of Rp. 13,450/ kg while by manual was only Rp 2,250/ kg. On the other side, the production cost by

  1. Quality and energetic evaluation of the charcoal made of babassu nut residues used in the steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the only country in the world that uses large scale charcoal in steel-making blast furnaces. Meantime, the monoculture plantations of Eucalyptus are not able to meet the demand for charcoal from the steel industries.Therefore, research is necessary, in order to use lignocellulosic residues for the production of charcoal with technological properties which are suitable for the reduction of iron ore. Given the above, the objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of charcoal which was made with babassu nut shell and designed for utilization in the steel industry in the function of the final carbonization temperature. All three layers of babassu nut shell (epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp were used together. The initial temperature of the test was 100ºC and the final temperatures were: 450ºC, 550ºC, 650ºC, 750ºC and 850ºC. For the charcoals produced, the following properties were determined: apparent relative density, energy density and fixed carbon stock, in addition to chemical compositions (immediate and elemental and heating values (higher and lower. Charcoal made of babassu nut shell showed high values of apparent density and energy density, and has a potential to replace coal and wood charcoal in the steel industry. The effect of the final carbonization temperature was expressed for all characteristics evaluated, except for the nitrogen content. Babassu nut shell must be carbonized at temperatures higher than 550ºC, so that the charcoal produced can be used in steel-making blast furnaces.

  2. Effect of varying relative humidity on the rancidity of cashew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... Within the outer shell, there is a honey combed structure. (mesocarp) in the cells .... All the isolates were identified using microscopic, biochemical and .... pH of 9.5 under the defined assay condition (Young and Wood,. 1977).

  3. Nut-enriched bread is an effective and acceptable vehicle to improve regular nut consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Asika; Chisholm, Alexandra; Gray, Andrew; Tey, Siew Ling; Williamson-Poutama, Destynee; Cameron, Sonya L; Brown, Rachel C

    2016-10-01

    Consuming 30 g of nuts/day is recommended to reduce chronic disease. However, nut consumption appears far from ideal among several populations. A potential strategy to increase consumption is to add nuts to a staple, for example, bread. Whether the health benefits and acceptability of nuts persist in this form is currently unknown. Thus, we examined the effects of consuming three nut-enriched breads on postprandial glycaemia, satiety, gastrointestinal tolerance, dietary intakes, and acceptance. In this controlled, crossover study, 32 participants were randomly allocated to receive one of four breads for 8 days each. Three breads contained either 30 g of finely sliced hazelnuts, 30 g semi-defatted hazelnut flour, or 15 g of each (amounts per 120 g bread) and were compared with a control nut-free bread. Blood glucose response was measured over 120 min, along with ratings of gastrointestinal discomfort. Appetite ratings and diet diaries were completed during each treatment period. Area under the blood glucose curve was significantly lower for the nut breads compared to the control bread (all P breads (all P ≥ 0.130). There were no significant differences in satiety (all P ≥ 0.135) or gastrointestinal symptoms (all P ≥ 0.102) between the breads. Acceptance was highest for the finely sliced hazelnut bread. Furthermore, consuming hazelnut-enriched bread improved diet quality, increasing monounsaturated fat, vitamin E, and dietary fibre intakes. Bread appears to be an effective and acceptable vehicle for increasing nut consumption, resulting in improved postprandial glycaemia and diet profiles. Long-term studies are now required.

  4. EFFECT OF TANNASE ON CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF CASHEW APPLE JUICE (Anacardium occidentale Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita Arian Sari Anwar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We previously produced tannase from Aspergillus niger using solid state medium. In the present study the enzyme used cashew apple juice. The aim this research was to know effect of tannase on chemical parameters of cashew apple juice. The concentration of tannase used was 0%; 0.02%; 0.04%; 0.06%; 0.08% and 0.1% (v/v. The chemical properties of the juice produced by enzymatic method were compared with the juiced produced through high temperature treatment (100oC. This research showed that the addition of 0.1% of tannase enzyme provide the best product according to the lower content of tannins than the content of tannins in the juice produced with high temperature treatment. The tannase treatment did not change the vitamin C content, content of protein and pH. Meanwhile, high temperature treatment decreased the content of vitamin C and protein.

  5. Bioconversion of hydrolyzed cashew peduncle bagasse for ethanol and xylitol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena L. de Medeiros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The agro-industrial waste deposited in the environment causes problems in nature that can be solved with the use and generation of bioproducts. Thus, the objective was to study the lignocellulosic fraction of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. peduncle bagasse and fermentation on large scale (8-16 times using the strain Candida guilliermondii CCT-3544 as production agent. According to the obtained results, it can be noted that the dry cashew peduncle bagasse has 21.45% of cellulose, 10.96% of hemicellulose and 35.39% of lignin. During fermentation, C. guilliermondii 3544-CAT was able to grow on medium containing hydrolysate, with maximum cell growth concentration of 3.5 g L-1. The behavior of the sugars in the fermentation process was similar in the different variables, with maximum production of ethanol and xylitol at 48 h of fermentation.

  6. Molecular detection of cashew husk (Anacardium occidentale) adulteration in market samples of dry tea (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Bandana; Singh, Mahipal

    2003-09-01

    Species-specific PCR primers were developed from intergenic spacer regions of 5S ribosomal RNA genes and used successfully in the detection of adulteration of cashew husk (Anacardium occidentale L.) in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] samples. This is the first report of detecting adulteration in tea using molecular tools. Application of this approach in detecting adulteration of other biological materials in tea, medicinal herbs and the composition of admixtures of ayurvedic herbs has been discussed.

  7. Shell supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    A new statical and conceptual model for membrane shell structures - the stringer system - has been found. The principle was first published at the IASS conference in Copenhagen (OHL91), and later the theory has been further developed (ALMO3)(ALMO4). From the analysis of the stringer model it can...... be concluded that all membrane shells can be described by a limited number of basic configurations of which quite a few have free edges....

  8. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil nuts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta H Taniwaki

    Full Text Available During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228.

  9. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228). PMID:22952594

  10. Contribution of the cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) for development of layer-by-layer films with potential application in nanobiomedical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, I.M.S. [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, CCN, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Teresina, PI, 64049-550 (Brazil); Nucleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Parnaiba, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64202-020 (Brazil); Zampa, M.F. [Nucleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Parnaiba, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64202-020 (Brazil); Campus Parnaiba, Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologia do Piaui, IFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64210-260 (Brazil); Moura, J.B.; Santos, J.R. dos [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, CCN, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Teresina, PI, 64049-550 (Brazil); Eaton, P. [REQUIMTE, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, Porto, 4169-007 (Portugal); Zucolotto, V. [Grupo de Biofisica Molecular Sergio Mascarenhas, Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, IFSC, USP, Sao Carlos, SP, 13566-590 (Brazil); and others

    2012-08-01

    The search for bioactive molecules to be employed as recognition elements in biosensors has stimulated researchers to pore over the rich Brazilian biodiversity. In this sense, we introduce the use of natural cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) as an active biomaterial to be used in the form of layer-by-layer films, in conjunction with phthalocyanines, which were tested as electrochemical sensors for dopamine detection. We investigated the effects of chemical composition of cashew gum from two different regions of Brazil (Piaui and Ceara states) on the physico-chemical characteristics of these nanostructures. The morphology of the nanostructures containing cashew gum was studied by atomic force microscopy which indicates that smooth films punctuated by globular features were formed that showed low roughness values. The results indicate that, independent of the origin, cashew gum stands out as an excellent film forming material with potential application in nanobiomedical devices as electrochemical sensors. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study focused on the use of cashew gum for the formation of LbL films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LbL films containing cashew gums were investigated by AFM and cyclic voltammetry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cashew gum contributed to obtain stable films with well-defined redox processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cashew gum films detected dopamine in low concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These LbL films presented potential application in nanobiomedical devices.

  11. Smallholder Information Sources and Communication Pathways for Cashew Production and Marketing in Tanzania: An Ex-Post Study in Tandahimba and Lindi Rural Districts, Southern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambo, Brigitte; Ligate, Elly

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To identify and review production and marketing information sources and flows for smallholder cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) growers in Tanzania and recommend systems improvements for better technology uptake. Design/methodology/approach: Two-stage purposive samples were drawn. First, two districts in the main cashew producing areas,…

  12. Factors affecting infiltration and survival of Salmonella on in-shell pecans and pecan nutmeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A

    2010-07-01

    A study was done to determine the infiltration and survival characteristics of Salmonella in pecans. The rate of infiltration of water into in-shell nuts varied among six varieties evaluated and was significantly (alpha = 0.05) affected by the extent of shell damage. The rate of infiltration at -20 or 4 degrees C was lower than the rate of infiltration into nuts at 21 or 37 degrees C when nuts were immersed in water at 21 degrees C. In-shell nuts immersed in a suspension of Salmonella (8.66 or 2.82 log CFU/ml) for 1 h contained populations of 6.94 to 6.99 and 1.85 to 1.95 log CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella that infiltrated in-shell nuts reached the kernel and remained viable after drying and during subsequent storage at 4 degrees C. Initially high (5.78 log CFU/g) and low (1.53 log CFU/g) populations of Salmonella did not significantly decrease in in-shell pecans stored at -20 and 4 degrees C for 78 weeks (18 months). Significant reductions of 2.49 and 3.29 log CFU/g occurred in in-shell nuts stored for 78 weeks at 21 and 37 degrees C, respectively. High (6.16 log CFU/g) and low (2.56 log CFU/g) populations on pecan halves and high (7.13 log CFU/g) and low (4.71 log CFU/g) populations on medium pieces stored for 52 weeks at -20 and 4 degrees C decreased slightly, but not always significantly. Significant reductions occurred on nutmeats stored for 52 weeks at 21 and 37 degrees C, but the pathogen was detectable, regardless of the initial inoculum level. Results emphasize the importance of applying process treatments that will inactivate Salmonella.

  13. Circular orbits in the Taub-NUT and massless Taub-NUT spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    In this work, we study the equatorial causal geodesics of the Taub-NUT (TN) spacetime in comparison with massless TN spacetime. We emphasized both on the null circular geodesics and time-like circular geodesics. From the effective potential diagram of null and time-like geodesics, we differentiate the geodesics structure between TN spacetime and massless TN spacetime. It has been shown that there is a key role of the NUT parameter to changes the shape of pattern of the potential well in the NUT spacetime in comparison with massless NUT spacetime. We compared the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO), marginally bound circular orbit (MBCO) and circular photon orbit (CPO) of the said spacetime with graphically in comparison with massless cases. Moreover, we compute the radius of ISCO, MBCO and CPO for extreme TN black hole (BH). Interestingly, we show that these three radii coincides with the Killing horizon, i.e. the null geodesic generators of the horizon. Finally in Appendix A, we compute the center-of-mass (CM) energy for TN BH and massless TN BH. We show that in both cases, the CM energy is finite. For extreme NUT BH, we found that the diverging nature of CM energy. First, we have observed that a non-asymptotic flat, spherically symmetric and stationary extreme BH showing such feature.

  14. Peanut and tree nut allergic reactions in restaurants and other food establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, T J; DeSimone, J; Sicherer, S H

    2001-11-01

    from ingestion of food not intended for them, ingestion of food selected from buffet/food bars, or skin contact/inhalation (residual food on tables, 2; peanut shells covering floors, 2; being within 2 feet of the cooking of the food, 1). Restaurants and other food establishments pose a number of dangers for peanut- and tree nut-allergic individuals, particularly with respect to cross-contamination and unexpected ingredients in desserts and Asian food. Failure to establish a clear line of communication between patron and establishment is a frequent cause of errors.

  15. Nut consumption for vascular health and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Jayne A; Howe, Peter R C; Buckley, Jonathan D; Bryan, Janet; Coates, Alison M

    2014-06-01

    Nuts are rich in many nutrients that can benefit multiple cardiometabolic functions, including arterial compliance, blood pressure, inflammation, glucoregulation and endothelial vasodilatation. Impaired vasodilatation may contribute to impaired cognitive performance due to poor cerebral perfusion. The present narrative review examines associations between nut consumption, vascular health and cognitive function. It includes a systematic search which identified seventy-one epidemiological or intervention studies in which effects of chronic nut consumption on blood pressure, glucoregulation, endothelial vasodilator function, arterial compliance, inflammatory biomarkers and cognitive performance were evaluated. Weighted mean changes were estimated where data were available; they indicate that nut consumption reduces blood pressure and improves glucoregulation, endothelial vasodilator function and inflammation, whilst a limited number of studies suggest that nut consumption may also improve cognitive performance. Further clinical trials are warranted to explore relationships between nut consumption, endothelial function and cognitive function.

  16. Fatty acids profile of pulp and nuts of Brazilian fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso da Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and nuts from the North and Northeast regions of Brazil were collected to determine the fatty acid profile of their oils. The species studied were Brazil (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Mucajá (Couma rigida M., Inajá (Maximiliana maripa D., Jenipapo (Genipa Americana L., and Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L. nuts. Fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Brazil nut major fatty acid was 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid, and Buriti nut had approximately 23 times more 18:3n-3 than the pulp. Mucajá nut presented high content of 12:0 (lauric acid and 16:0 (palmitic acid, and Mucajá pulp showed significant levels of 18:2n-6 (linoleic acid. Considering the PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid sum values, almost all fruits and nuts analyzed presented very high levels of these compounds. Regarding n-6/n-3 ratio, only Brazil Nut, Buriti Nut, Inajá pulp, and Jenipapo pulp corresponded to the desired profile. These Brazilian fruits and nuts could be of potential interest due to their high nutritive value and lipid content.

  17. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Whey Cheese with Pine Nuts

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc; Laura Zăpărţan; Laura Stan; Carmen R. Pop; Maria Doiniţa Borş; Ancuţa M. Rotar

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a value-added whey cheese through addition of pine nuts. Therefore, different concentrations of pine nuts [2, 4, 6 and 8% (w/w)] were added to whey cheese. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of pine nuts on physicochemical and sensory properties of whey cheese. The addition of pine nuts resulted in an increase in fat content and total solids and a decrease in moisture content. However, no statistically significant difference was found in pH values. Se...

  18. (shell) nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    equations for the scattering of electromagnetic radiation by particles with spherical or cylindrical symmetry. Aden and Kerker have published complete details of scattering from concentric spherical shells in 1951 [28]. In Mie theory, the harmonically oscillating electromagnetic fields are expressed in terms of a set of spherical ...

  19. Pesticide residues in nut-planted soils of China and their relationship between nut/soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongxiang; Mo, Runhong; Yuan, Xinyue; Zhong, Donglian; Tang, Fubin; Ye, Caifen; Liu, Yihua

    2017-08-01

    Twenty-nine pesticide residues in nut-planted soils from China were investigated. One organophosphate (chlorpyrifos) was detected in 5.3% soils, and the residue levels of 7.2 μg/kg to 77.2 μg/kg. The concentrations of six organochlorines (DDT, HCH, endosulfan, quintozene, aldrin and dieldrin) detected in 78.9% soils were 0.6 μg/kg to 90.1 μg/kg. The residue levels of six pyrethroids (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin) detected in 65.8% soils were 1.5 μg/kg to 884.3 μg/kg. Triadimefon and buprofezin were found in 71.1% and 52.6% samples, respectively, with the corresponding concentrations of 9.8 μg/kg to 193.7 μg/kg and 87.9 μg/kg to 807.4 μg/kg. The multiple residues were found in 76.3% soils. A significant correlation between pesticide residues in nuts and soils was observed, with the correlation coefficient (r) 0.83 (P soils into nuts were ranged from 0.8 to 16.5. The results showed that some pesticides could accumulate in nut by the uptake effect from soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical Characterization of Major and Minor Compounds of Nut Oils: Almond, Hazelnut, and Pecan Nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel D. Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the major and minor compounds of laboratory-extracted and commercial oils from sweet almond, hazelnut, and pecan nut. Oils from sweet almond, hazelnut, and pecan nut were obtained by means of an expeller system, while the corresponding commercial oils were provided from Vital Âtman (BR. The contents of triacylglycerols, fatty acids, aliphatic and terpenic alcohols, desmethyl-, methyl-, and dimethylsterols, squalene, and tocopherols were determined. Oleic, palmitic, and linoleic acids were the main fatty acids. Desmethylsterols were the principal minor compounds with β-sitosterol being the most abundant component. Low amounts of aliphatic and terpenic alcohols were also found. The major tocopherol in hazelnut and sweet almond oils was α-tocopherol, whereas γ-tocopherol prevailed in pecan nut oil. Principal component analysis made it possible for us to differentiate among samples, as well as to distinguish between commercial and laboratory-extracted oils. Heatmap highlighted the main variables featuring each sample. Globally, these results have brought a new approach on nut oil characterization.

  1. Biotechnological process for obtaining new fermented products from cashew apple fruit by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Suzane Macêdo; Silva, Cristina Ferraz; Moreira, Jane Jesus Silveira; Narain, Narendra; Souza, Roberto Rodrigues

    2011-09-01

    In Brazil, the use of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) to obtain new products by biotechnological process represents an important alternative to avoid wastage of a large quantity of this fruit, which reaches about 85% of the annual production of 1 million tons. This work focuses on the development of an alcoholic product obtained by the fermentation of cashew apple juice. The inoculation with two different strains of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae viz. SCP and SCT, were standardized to a concentration of 10(7 )cells ml(-1). Each inoculum was added to 1,500 ml of cashew must. Fermentation was performed at 28 ± 3°C and aliquots were withdrawn every 24 h to monitor soluble sugar concentrations, pH, and dry matter contents. The volatile compounds in fermented products were analyzed using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system. After 6 days, the fermentation process was completed, cells removed by filtration and centrifugation, and the products were stabilized under refrigeration for a period of 20 days. The stabilized products were stored in glass bottles and pasteurized at 60 ± 5°C/30 min. Both fermented products contained ethanol concentration above 6% (v v(-1)) while methanol was not detected and total acidity was below 90 mEq l(-1), representing a pH of 3.8-3.9. The volatile compounds were characterized by the presence of aldehyde (butyl aldehyde diethyl acetal, 2,4-dimethyl-hepta-2,4-dienal, and 2-methyl-2-pentenal) and ester (ethyl α-methylbutyrate) representing fruity aroma. The strain SCT was found to be better and efficient and this produced 10% more alcohol over that of strain SCP.

  2. Fermentation parameter optimization of microbial oxalic acid production from cashew apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betiku, Eriola; Emeko, Harrison A; Solomon, Bamidele O

    2016-02-01

    The potential of cashew apple juice (CAJ) as a carbon source for oxalic acid (OA) production via fermentation process was investigated in this study. The effects and interactions of CAJ concentration, time, pH, NaNO3 concentration and methanol concentration on OA production were determined in a central composite design (CCD) and the process was modelled and optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that OA fermentation can be described significantly (p fermentative OA production, the resulting model could be used in the design of a typical pilot plant for a scale up production.

  3. Development and Antibacterial Activity of Cashew Gum-Based Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José dos S. Soares

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the development of a green synthesis of silver nanoparticles reduced and stabilized by exuded gum from Anacardium occidentale L. and evaluates in vitro their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. Characterization of cashew gum-based silver nanoparticles (AgNPs was carried out based on UV–Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis which revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape, measuring about 4 nm in size with a uniform dispersal. AgNPs presented antibacterial activity, especially against Gram-negative bacteria, in concentrations where no significant cytotoxicity was observed.

  4. Removal of tannin from Shea nut cake by Pseudomonas strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 (70%) and enhanced biodegradation of tannin in the shea nut cake, removing up to 95% of total tannins in shea nut cake in 20 days. Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences (2016) 5(1), 17-22. Keywords: Tannins, biodegradability ...

  5. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Whey Cheese with Pine Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a value-added whey cheese through addition of pine nuts. Therefore, different concentrations of pine nuts [2, 4, 6 and 8% (w/w] were added to whey cheese. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of pine nuts on physicochemical and sensory properties of whey cheese. The addition of pine nuts resulted in an increase in fat content and total solids and a decrease in moisture content. However, no statistically significant difference was found in pH values. Sensory analysis was performed using the 9-point hedonic scale, with selected assessors. The whey cheese sample with 4% pine nuts was the most appreciated (7.6 points, followed by the classic whey cheese, whey cheese with 6 and 8% pine nuts (7.4 points, and whey cheese with 2% pine nuts (7.3 points. Nevertheless, the sensory characteristics of whey cheese were not significantly influenced by the addition of pine nuts. Whey cheese sensory profiling was successful in differential characterization of whey cheese samples.

  6. Sapucaia nuts (Lecythis pisonis) modulate the hepatic inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mariella

    2016-06-22

    Jun 22, 2016 ... Lecythis pisonis Cambess is commonly known as “sapucaia” nut. Previous studies show that it is rich in unsaturated fatty acids and in antioxidant minerals. The aim of the present study was to assess the antioxidant and anti-inflamatory effects of this nut after its introduction into a control (AIN-93G) or high-.

  7. Biodegradation of shea nut cake by indigenous soil bacteria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    degraded 71.25% shea nut cake, while Pseudomonas strain G38 degraded 50.35% shea nut cake ... ate wealth and bridge the poverty gap between the ..... contaminated soil. Ray, (1994) reported Pseudomonas as the most predominant isolate in crude oil polluted soils and water. Pseudomonas has been reported to.

  8. A baseline survey of tiger nut ( Cyperus esculentus ) production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) is a minor but important crop in Ghana. In a survey conducted on the production and marketing of the crop at Aduamoa in the Kwahu South District of Ghana, it was observed that tiger nut production was predominantly the work of women, with 70 per cent of farmers being women and 30 per ...

  9. An investigation on mechanisms of blanked nut formation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different pollination types significantly affected flower cluster set including no flower cluster set produced in no pollination treatment. ... to the reproductive shoots by girdling and defoliation made no difference to nut number and size but the kernel percent and blank nut ratio were highly sensitive to carbohydrate availability.

  10. Soap Production From Shea nut Butter | Warra | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to explore the use of shea butter for soap production. The traditional method of extraction of the shea nut oil was employed. A simple cold-process alkali hydrolysis of the shea nut oil, which is a village adoptable technology was used in producing the soap. The chemical analysis of the oil revealed ...

  11. Energy from seed shells of Jatropha curcas; Energie aus Samenschalen von Jatropha curcas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratzeisen, Martin [Hohenheim Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Agrartechnik in den Tropen und Subtropen; Mueller, Joachim

    2009-07-01

    The seed shells of the oleiferous fruit Jatropha curcas is a promising fuel in tropical and subtropical countries. The thermal energy can be applied in many ways for example for drying Jatropha nuts or processing biodiesel from Jatropha oil. The calorific value of the shells is between 16-17 MJ/kg and thus similar to wood, which is a main energy source in developing countries until now. (orig.)

  12. Shell worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kenneth I.; Kennedy, Robert G., III; Fields, David E.

    2013-02-01

    The traditional concept of terraforming assumes ready availability of candidate planets with acceptable qualities: orbiting a star in its "Goldilocks zone", liquid water, enough mass, years longer than days, magnetic field, etc. But even stipulating affordable interstellar travel, we still might never find a good candidate elsewhere. Whatever we found likely would require centuries of heavy terraforming, just as Mars or Venus would here. Our increasing appreciation of the ubiquity of life suggests that any terra nova would already possess it. We would then face the dilemma of introducing alien life forms (us, our microbes) into another living world. Instead, we propose a novel method to create habitable environments for humanity by enclosing airless, sterile, otherwise useless planets, moons, and even large asteroids within engineered shells, which avoids the conundrum. These shells are subject to two opposing internal stresses: compression due to the primary's gravity, and tension from atmospheric pressure contained inside. By careful design, these two cancel each other resulting in zero net shell stress. Beneath the shell an Earth-like environment could be created similar in almost all respects to that of Home, except for gravity, regardless of the distance to the sun or other star. Englobing a small planet, moon, or even a dwarf planet like Ceres, would require astronomical amounts of material (quadrillions of tons) and energy, plus a great deal of time. It would be a quantum leap in difficulty over building Dyson Dots or industrializing our solar system, perhaps comparable to a mission across interstellar space with a living crew within their lifetime. But when accomplished, these constructs would be complete (albeit small) worlds, not merely large habitats. They could be stable across historic timescales, possibly geologic. Each would contain a full, self-sustaining ecology, which might evolve in curious directions over time. This has interesting implications

  13. Performance, dry matter intake, seminal parameters and proteomics of seminal plasma and sperm membrane of Morada Nova sheep fed the diet cashew nut base

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas dos Santos Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    O presente estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da inclusÃo de 13% de farelo de castanha de caju na dieta de carneiros da raÃa Morada Nova sobre o ganho de peso, consumo de matÃria seca, rendimento de carcaÃa, pesos dos ÃrgÃos sexuais, qualidade seminal e proteÃnas seminais e membranares do espermatozoide. Para tanto, vinte carneiros foram divididos em dois grupos alimentados com dietas contendo 13% (GCA, n=10) ou 0% (GCO, n=10) de farelo de castanha de caju. As dietas fo...

  14. Physical properties of wild mango fruit and nut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehiem, J. C.; Simonyan, K. J.

    2012-02-01

    Physical properties of two wild mango varieties were studied at 81.9 and 24.5% moisture (w.b.) for the fruits and nuts, respectively. The shape and size of the fruit are the same while that of nuts differs at P = 0.05. The mass, density and bulk density of the fruits are statistically different at P = 0.05 but the volume is the same. The shape and size, volume and bulk density of the nuts are statistically the same at P = 0.05. The nuts of both varieties are also the same at P = 0.05 in terms of mass and density. The packing factor for both fruits and nut of the two varieties are the same at 0.95. The relevant data obtained for the two varieties would be useful for design and development of machines and equipment for processing and handling operations.

  15. Purification and Characterization of Anacardium occidentale (Cashew) Allergens Ana o 1, Ana o 2, and Ana o 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, Marit; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; Sforza, Stefano; Valk, Van Der J.P.M.; Gerth Van Wijk, Van Roy; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Jong, De N.W.; Wichers, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study a fast and simple purification procedure for the three known allergens from cashew (7S globulin Ana o 1, 11S globulin Ana o 2, and 2S albumin Ana o 3) is described. The purified allergens are characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE),

  16. Effect of treatment with adsorbent resin on the volatile profile and physicochemical characteristics of clarified cashew apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Dutra Sousa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased preference for healthy and functional foods could be an opportunity to increase the consumption of clarified cashew apple juice. Given its level of fructose, glucose, and vitamin C, it can be used as a base in blends. However, its characteristic odor can interfere with the acceptance of these formulations, especially by consumers who are not familiar with cashew aroma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with macroporous resins (FPA54, FPX66, XAD761, and XAD4 on the volatile profile and physicochemical characteristics of clarified cashew apple juice. After the treatment with the resins, the volatile profile was evaluated using solid-phase microextraction (SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The physicochemical analyses performed were: pH, soluble solids (ºBrix, total titrable acidity, reducing sugars, and vitamin C. Gas chromatography analyses showed that XAD4 and FPX66 led to a reduction of the initial amount of volatile compounds to 14.05% and 15.72%, respectively. These two resins also did not affect the physicochemical characteristics of the clarified cashew apple juice.

  17. Evidences of the sustainable innovation in the cashew agribusiness context in Ceará –Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Gois Lima Oliveira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The state of Ceará is the major Brazilian cashew producer and highlights the social and economical feature of its agribusiness, capable of generating wealth and assisting in people’s settlement in the countryside. Despite the support of several organizations which compose the local innovation system, seeking generation, adaptation and diffusion of innovations, the productive chain of cashew agribusiness lacks of innovations. In that context, it is assumed that the “sustainable innovation” would appear from the social-environmental management, stimulating, consequently, the local system. Based on this discussion, this paper contributes on the identification of innovation possibilities through the introduction of the Cleaner Production approach, contemplating on the mobilization of local system of Ceará’s cashew agribusiness. The qualitative methodology is based on the documental compilation and in interviews/debates with a group constituted by specialists who work in the sector. The analysis was performed using the Thematic Analysis technique, which belongs to the Analysis of Content techniques group. It was verified that the local system mobilization includes the increasing of interactions among participant agents, facilitating the spread of sustainable innovations from the complete use of cashew, enlarging, consequently, the economical spaces with new business and market opportunities.

  18. Palauans who chew betel nut: social impact of oral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn Griffin, M T; Mott, M; Burrell, P M; Fitzpatrick, J J

    2014-03-01

    Chewing betel nut is a tradition extending from Southeast Asia to the Pacific. Globally, betel nut is the fourth main psychotropic substance containing a stimulant, arecoline, that has a similar effect to nicotine. In Palau, there is broad acceptance of betel nut chewing. One of the largest immigrant groups in Hawaii is the Palauans. Chewing betel nut has significant social implications that make it difficult for those who engage in this practice to separate potential oral disease from the social importance. However, little is known about the social impact of oral disease from chewing betel nut on Palauans in Hawaii. The study aimed to describe the perceptions of betel-chewing Palauans in Hawaii regarding betel nut and to determine the social impact of oral disease among these individuals. Descriptive study conducted on the island of Oahu, Hawaii with 30 adult Palauans. Data were collected using the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 to measure perceptions of social impact of oral disease on well-being. Demographic and general health information was collected. Participants perceived little negative social impact of oral disease on well-being. Families, peers and society exert a strong influence on the decision to chew betel nut, a known carcinogen. Participants in this study showed little concern on the impact of betel nut chewing on their oral health. They continue the habit in spite of the awareness of potential for oral disease. Nurses face challenges in educating Palauans about the negative aspects of betel nut, particularly those related to oral health especially when they do not perceive problems. Nurses must be involved in the development of health policies to design and implement strategies to promote behavioural change, and to ensure clinical services that are culturally sensitive to betel nut chewers. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  19. Areca (Betel) Nut Chewing Practices in Micronesian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Yvette C; Novotny, Rachel; Miller, Mary Jane; Murphy, Suzanne P

    2011-03-01

    To describe the areca nut/betel quid chewing practices of Micronesian chewers living in Guam. Two studies were conducted using qualitative data from focus groups and quantitative cross-sectional data from the 2007 Guam Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Ten focus groups included 49 men and women aged 18-60 years living in Guam in 2007. Participants were areca nut/betel quid chewers selected to reflect Guam's age and ethnic group (Chamorro, Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese) distributions. Salient themes were extracted from transcripts of the sessions by three expert reviewers. A second method, latent class analysis, was used to identify unique groups of chewers. The groups were then compared on demographics and chewing-related behaviors. Areca nut and betel quid recipes collected from the focus groups showed that Chamorros had a preference for the ripe nut and swallowed the nut, whereas, the Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese groups preferred the unripe nut and did not swallow it. Similarly, latent class analysis resulted in the identification of two groups of areca nut/betel quid chewers. Group 1 was all Chamorros. Compared to Group 2, the chewers in Group 1 preferred red and ripe nuts, did not add slake lime (calcium hydroxide) or tobacco, and swallowed the masticated areca nut (with or without Piper betle leaf). The quantitative analysis confirmed the qualitative exploration of areca nut/betel quid chewers in Guam, thus providing evidence that chewing practices vary among Micronesian populations. If future research should include an intervention, the differences in chewing practices among Micronesian populations should be taken into consideration to ensure programmatic success.

  20. NUT carcinoma in children and adults: A multicenter retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemelle, Lauriane; Pierron, Gaëlle; Fréneaux, Paul; Huybrechts, Sophie; Spiegel, Alexandra; Plantaz, Dominique; Julieron, Morbize; Dumoucel, Sophie; Italiano, Antoine; Millot, Fréderic; Le Tourneau, Christophe; Leverger, Guy; Chastagner, Pascal; Carton, Matthieu; Orbach, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) carcinoma (formerly NUT midline carcinoma) is an aggressive tumor defined by the presence of NUT rearrangement with a poor prognosis. This rare cancer is underdiagnosed and poorly treated. The primary objective of this study was to describe the clinical, radiologic, and biological features of NUT carcinoma. The secondary objective was to describe the various treatments and assess their efficacy. This retrospective multicenter study was based on review of the medical records of children and adults with NUT carcinoma with specific rearrangement or positive anti-NUT nuclear staining (>50%). This series of 12 patients had a median age of 18.1 years (ranges: 12.3-49.7 years). The primary tumor was located in the chest in eight patients, the head and neck in three patients, and one patient had a multifocal tumor. Nine patients presented regional lymph node involvement and eight distant metastases. One-half of patients were initially misdiagnosed. Specific NUT antibody was positive in all cases tested. A transient response to chemotherapy was observed in four of 11 patients. Only two patients were treated by surgery and five received radiotherapy with curative intent. At the end of follow-up, only one patient was still in remission more than 12 years after the diagnosis. Median overall survival was 4.7 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1-17.7). NUT carcinoma is an aggressive disease refractory to conventional therapy. Early diagnosis by NUT-specific antibody immunostaining in cases of undifferentiated or poorly differentiated carcinoma to identify the specific rearrangement of NUT gene is useful to propose the optimal therapeutic strategy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Potential Biological Applications of Bio-Based Anacardic Acids and Their Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma B. Hamad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cashew nut shells (CNS, which are agro wastes from cashew nut processing factories, have proven to be among the most versatile bio-based renewable materials in the search for functional materials and chemicals from renewable resources. CNS are produced in the cashew nut processing process as waste, but they contain cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL up to about 30–35 wt. % of the nut shell weight depending on the method of extraction. CNSL is a mixture of anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and methyl cardol, and the structures of these phenols offer opportunities for the development of diverse products. For anacardic acid, the combination of phenolic, carboxylic, and a 15-carbon alkyl side chain functional group makes it attractive in biological applications or as a synthon for the synthesis of a multitude of bioactive compounds. Anacardic acid, which is about 65% of a CNSL mixture, can be extracted from the agro waste. This shows that CNS waste can be used to extract useful chemicals and thus provide alternative green sources of chemicals, apart from relying only on the otherwise declining petroleum based sources. This paper reviews the potential of anacardic acids and their semi-synthetic derivatives for antibacterial, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The review focuses on natural anacardic acids from CNS and other plants and their semi-synthetic derivatives as possible lead compounds in medicine. In addition, the use of anacardic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of various biologically active compounds and complexes is reported.

  2. Potential Biological Applications of Bio-Based Anacardic Acids and Their Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Fatma B.; Mubofu, Egid B.

    2015-01-01

    Cashew nut shells (CNS), which are agro wastes from cashew nut processing factories, have proven to be among the most versatile bio-based renewable materials in the search for functional materials and chemicals from renewable resources. CNS are produced in the cashew nut processing process as waste, but they contain cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) up to about 30–35 wt. % of the nut shell weight depending on the method of extraction. CNSL is a mixture of anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and methyl cardol, and the structures of these phenols offer opportunities for the development of diverse products. For anacardic acid, the combination of phenolic, carboxylic, and a 15-carbon alkyl side chain functional group makes it attractive in biological applications or as a synthon for the synthesis of a multitude of bioactive compounds. Anacardic acid, which is about 65% of a CNSL mixture, can be extracted from the agro waste. This shows that CNS waste can be used to extract useful chemicals and thus provide alternative green sources of chemicals, apart from relying only on the otherwise declining petroleum based sources. This paper reviews the potential of anacardic acids and their semi-synthetic derivatives for antibacterial, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The review focuses on natural anacardic acids from CNS and other plants and their semi-synthetic derivatives as possible lead compounds in medicine. In addition, the use of anacardic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of various biologically active compounds and complexes is reported. PMID:25894225

  3. Optimization of the extraction process of polyphenols from cashew apple agro-industrial residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Araújo Milanez de Sena Andrade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the chemical composition of cashew apples agro-industrial residue and optimize the process of polyphenols extraction in this residue. The extraction process conditions were defined using a 24-1 fractional factorial experimental design using acetone and methanol as solvents. The independent variables were: time (30 to 90 min, temperature (30 to 50 °C, solvent concentrations (50% to 90%, agitation speed (100 to 300 rpm; the dependent variables were: total phenolic content and DPPH scavenging capacity. The optimized process was carried out by applying the Central Composite Rotational Design (CCRD considering the results obtained with the 24-1 fractional factorial experimental design. The residue presented bioactive compounds in its composition, with emphasis on the content of total phenolic compounds (1975.64 mg/ 100 g. The extraction process was not affected by methanol; however, acetone affected the amounts of extracted phytochemicals. Extracts with high levels of polyphenols and strong DPPH scavenging capacity (> 80% were obtained using 55% acetone, 30 minutes, 30 °C, and 150 rpm. The results showed that cashew apple residue is a potential natural source of bioactive compounds with strong antioxidant capacity. These compounds could be used partially or totally to replace synthetic antioxidants.

  4. Thermochemical Properties of Hydrophilic Polymers from Cashew and Khaya Exudates and Their Implications on Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O. Olorunsola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of a polymer is essential for determining its suitability for a particular purpose. Thermochemical properties of cashew gum (CSG extracted from exudates of Anacardium occidentale L. and khaya gum (KYG extracted from exudates of Khaya senegalensis were determined and compared with those of acacia gum BP (ACG. The polymers were subjected to different thermal and chemical analyses. Exudates of CSG contained higher amount of hydrophilic polymer. The pH of 2% w/v gum dispersions was in the order KYG < CSG < ACG. Calcium was the predominant ion in CSG while potassium was predominant in KYG. The FTIR spectra of CSG and KYG were similar and slightly different from that of ACG. Acacia and khaya gums exhibited the same thermal behaviour which is different from that of CSG. X-ray diffraction revealed that the three gums are the same type of polymer, the major difference being the concentration of metal ions. This work suggests the application of cashew gum for formulation of basic and oxidizable drugs while using khaya gum for acidic drugs.

  5. Twisted Black Hole Is Taub-NUT

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, Yen Chin

    2016-01-01

    Recently a purportedly novel solution of the vacuum Einstein field equations was discovered: it supposedly describes an asymptotically flat twisted black hole in 4-dimensions whose exterior spacetime rotates in a peculiar manner -- the frame dragging in the northern hemisphere is opposite from that of the southern hemisphere, which results in a globally vanishing angular momentum. Furthermore it was shown that the spacetime has no curvature singularity. We show that the geometry of this black hole spacetime is nevertheless not free of pathological features. In particular, it harbors a rather drastic conical singularity along the axis of rotation. In addition, there exist closed timelike curves due to the fact that the constant r and constant t surfaces are not globally Riemannian. In fact, none of these are that surprising since the solution is just the Taub-NUT geometry.

  6. Properties of Brazil nuts: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-02-25

    Feb 25, 2015 ... dehydration to obtain the dehydrated kernel (safe humidity below 15%) to be processed in-shell or .... The “cake” is considered an excellent source of vegetable protein due to its richness in sulphur amino acids, methionine and cysteine, which are usually missing in other vegetable proteins (Cohen et al., ...

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 268 ... Vol 38, No 3 (2012), Biorecognition Ability of Polysaccharides as Piezo Quartz Biosensors, Abstract PDF. EN Kalmykova, CA Mgina. Vol 27, No 1 (2001), Cashew nut shell liquid as an alternative corrosion inhibitor for carbon steels. Abstract PDF. JYN Philip, J Buchweishaija, LL Mkayula. Vol 30 (2004): ...

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparation of Tetramethylguanidine-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica as a Catalyst for the Epoxidation of Electron Deficient Alkenes Abstract PDF · Vol 38, No 1 (2012) - Articles Synthesis of organoamine-silica hybrids using cashew nut shell liquid components as templates for the catalysis of a model Henry reaction

  9. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. A Srinivas Rao. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 124 Issue 3 May 2012 pp 723-730. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of sulfonamide derivatives at C-8 alkyl chain of anacardic acid mixture isolated from a natural product cashew nut shell liquid ...

  10. Agro-waste as source of fine and industrial chemicals: synthesis of 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on the synthesis of 2-formyl-6-hydroxybenzoic acid (8) and 4 methoxyisobenzofuran-1,3-dione (10) from a renewable natural material Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) achieved in five and seven steps, respectively. Anacardic acid was isolated from CNSL, dimethoxylated into (E)-methyl ...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of polyesters from renewable cardol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardol - a diol component of the natural product cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) was isolated and reacted with adipoyl chloride and terephthaloyl chloride in a 1:1 molar ratio in hexane and toluene as solvents at 170 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. The cardol based polyesters [poly(cardyl adipate) and poly(cardyl ...

  12. Synthesis of a cardanol-amine derivative using an ionic liquid catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardanol is a biobased raw material derived from cashew nut shell liquid. In order to extend its utility, new derivatives and additional applications are useful. In this work cardanol was first epoxidized, and a novel aniline derivative prepared from it under mild reaction conditions with the help o...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Johnson, W. Vol 31 (2005): - Articles Micron-sized polymeric particles from cashew nut shell liquid: Influence of reaction parameters on particle size. Abstract PDF · Vol 38, No 3 (2012) - Articles Activity of Enzyme Trypsin Immobilized onto Macroporous Poly(Epoxy-Acrylamide) Cryogel Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2507-7961.

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract PDF · Vol 31 (2005): - Articles Micron-sized polymeric particles from cashew nut shell liquid: Influence of reaction parameters on particle size. Abstract PDF · Vol 38, No 3 (2012) - Articles Activity of Enzyme Trypsin Immobilized onto Macroporous Poly(Epoxy-Acrylamide) Cryogel Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2507-7961.

  15. The effects of resin content variation on the physical and mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research developments have revealed that it is possible to produce particleboards using natural resins such as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), hydrolyzed tannin etc as the binders. In this research, two particleboards of different densities were made from coffee husks as the reinforcement and varied resin content of ...

  16. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new salicylate macrolactones from anacardic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logrado, Lucio P.L.; Santos, Maria Lucilia dos [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Isolamento e Transformacao de Moleculas Organicas]. E-mail: mlsantos@unb.br; Silveira, Damaris [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude; Romeiro, Luiz A.S. [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, Taguatinga, DF (Brazil). Nucleo de Quimica Bioorganica e Medicinal; Moraes, Manoel O. de; Cavalcanti, Bruno C.; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V.; Pessoa, Claudia do O [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lab. de Oncologia Experimental

    2005-11-15

    onnection with our ongoing investigation in the search for new bioactive compounds using non-isoprenoid phenolic lipids from Anacardium occidentale as starting material, we describe the synthesis and cytotoxicity screening of some novel salicylate macrolactones prepared from anacardic acids, the major constituents of natural cashew nut-shell liquid (CNSL). (author)

  17. Tanzania Journal of Science - Vol 28 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pretreatment of robusta coffee hulls and co-digestion with cow-dung for enhanced anaerobic digestion · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ... Mechanistic studies of carbon steel corrosion inhibition by cashew nut shell liquid · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ...

  18. (Anacardium occidentale) in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Revista Medica de Mocambique. 2: 78-82. Casadei E, Bruheim S, Latis T (1984). Active substances in cashew nut shell with molluscicidal activity: Possible use in Schistosomiasis control programmes. Revista Medica de Mocambique. 2: 35-39. CBN (2005). Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Annual report and.

  19. Resistance of treated rubber wood ( Hevea brasiliensis ) to termite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spent rubber trees from a 25 year old plantation were cut, sawn and treated with Copper Chromium Arsenate (CCA) and Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL). Two sets of wood samples were treated with CCA and CNSL respectively while the third set was not treated to serve as control. The three sets were exposed to termite ...

  20. MICRON-SIZED POLYMER PARTICLES FROM TANZANIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micron sized polymeric particles were prepared from cashew nut shell liquid and subsequently functionalized to produce micron-sized carboxylated cation exchange resin (MCCER). By titrimetry and analytical procedures employing atomic absorption spectrometry, an assessment of the cation exchange capability of the ...

  1. Capacitance and phase-angle measurement for estimating moisture content in nuts and grain nondestructively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Chari V.; Butts, Chris L.

    2006-03-01

    The design and performance of an electrical instrument that would be useful in estimating the moisture content (mc) of agricultural products such as grain and nuts nondestructively and rapidly is described here. The instrument, here after called the impedance meter, determines the capacitance and phase angle of a sample of the produce (about 100 g), filling the space between two parallel-plate electrodes, at two frequencies 1 and 5 MHz. The measured values were used in a semi-empirical equation to obtain the mc of the sample. In this paper, capacitance and phase angle were determined for in-shell peanuts in the moisture range between 6 and 25% by the impedance meter, and their moisture contents were calculated. The calculated values were compared with the mc values obtained by the standard air-oven method. The estimated values were in good agreement with the standard values. This method is applicable to produce such as corn, wheat and pecans also.

  2. Analysis of total oil and fatty acids composition by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy in edible nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Chari V.; Sundaram, Jaya

    2014-10-01

    Near Infrared (NIR) Reflectance spectroscopy has established itself as an important tool in quantifying water and oil present in various food materials. It is rapid and nondestructive, easier to use, and does not require processing the samples with corrosive chemicals that would render them non-edible. Earlier, the samples had to be ground into powder form before making any measurements. With the development of new soft ware packages, NIR techniques could now be used in the analysis of intact grain and nuts. While most of the commercial instruments presently available work well with small grain size materials such as wheat and corn, the method present here is suitable for large kernel size products such as shelled or in-shell peanuts. Absorbance spectra were collected from 400 nm to 2500 nm using a NIR instrument. Average values of total oil contents (TOC) of peanut samples were determined by standard extraction methods, and fatty acids were determined using gas chromatography. Partial least square (PLS) analysis was performed on the calibration set of absorption spectra, and models were developed for prediction of total oil and fatty acids. The best model was selected based on the coefficient of determination (R2), Standard error of prediction (SEP) and residual percent deviation (RPD) values. Peanut samples analyzed showed RPD values greater than 5.0 for both absorbance and reflectance models and thus could be used for quality control and analysis. Ability to rapidly and nondestructively measure the TOC, and analyze the fatty acid composition, will be immensely useful in peanut varietal improvement as well as in the grading process of grain and nuts.

  3. Nutrition attributes and health effects of pistachio nuts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bulló, M; Juanola-Falgarona, M; Hernández-Alonso, P; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological and/or clinical trials have suggested that nut consumption has a beneficial impact on health outcomes such as hypertension, diabetes, CVD, cancer, other inflammatory conditions and total mortality...

  4. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of several seeds and nuts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padilla, F C; Rincón, A M; Bou-Rached, L

    2008-01-01

    ..., cataracts and oxidative stress dysfunctions. The objective of this work was to evaluate total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of several seeds, nuts, or grains such as Theobroma cacao, Canpsiandra comosa Benth (chiga...

  5. The Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Actions of Tree Nuts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolling, Bradley W; McKay, Diane L; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2010-01-01

    In addition to being a rich source of several essential vitamins and minerals, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and fibre, most tree nuts provide an array of phytochemicals that may contribute...

  6. Betel nut chewing during pregnancy, Madang province, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, M; Baiwog, F; Winmai, J; Mueller, I; Rogerson, S; Senn, N

    2009-11-01

    In Papua New Guinea, betel nut chewing is very common in the general population and in pregnant women. It has similarities in terms of use and complications of use to chewing tobacco (=smokeless tobacco), as its active agent, arecoline is similar to nicotine. The present study investigates the habits of betel nut chewing and possible impact on pregnancy. In a cross-sectional survey 310 pregnant women attending Alexishafen Health Centre (Madang Province) were interviewed with a survey measuring: detailed demographic data, betel nut chewing habits, other potential addictions (smoking, alcohol and drug use) and a medical examination (weight, height, blood pressure and hemoglobin level were recorded). Their babies have been assessed for birth weight and signs of prematurity. Among pregnant women, 94% regularly chew betel nut, 9% smoke and 1% used alcohol. 31% are heavy chewers (>10 nuts/day). The principal reasons for pregnant women to chew are: to prevent morning sickness (28%), to prevent having a smelly mouth (26%), the habit of chewing (20%), being addicted (10%). Primigravidity, betel nut chewing and low BMI had a statistically significant impact on birth weight reduction of 467 g (p<0.001), 238 g (p=0.02) and 175 g (p=0.005) respectively. 80% of the women thought that chewing would not have any effect on the fetus. Given the high use of "pure" betel nut among pregnant women, a significant impact on birth weight reduction and a poor knowledge about the adverse health effects of this substance, prevention programs in pregnant women should include betel nut chewing as a risk factor for poor pregnancy outcome.

  7. ANTIARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF MILK EXTRACT OF SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM NUT

    OpenAIRE

    Dhirendra Prakash; M. C. Bindal; Santosh Kumar Gupta; Anil Kumar Gupta; Vedpal

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nut using inhibition of protein denaturation model and human red blood cell Membrane stabilization model. Diclofenac sodium was used as a standard drug. Results revealed that the milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nut at different concentrations possessed significant anti-arthritic activity as compared to standard drug used as Diclofenac sodium. The results obtained in the present in...

  8. Shakedown Analysis for the Hydraulic Nut Device of Reactor Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyu Wan; Kim, Jong Min; Park, Sung Ho; Choi, Taek Sang [KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The hydraulic nut system is a tensioning system that is a direct retrofit for any existing tensioning system currently used on the reactor vessel. The system itself is of a modular design tensioner and integrated mechanical lock ring to retain load generated through the use of hydraulics. The hydraulic nuts allow for 100% tensioning of all studs simultaneously, so reduction in critical path time and radiation exposure for both installation and removal laborers can be achieved by adopting this device. Structural analyses for the hydraulic nut device which will be applied to the Nuclear Power Plant reactor vessel have been performed to evaluate the effect of the replacement on the structural integrity of both the reactor vessel closure head area and the hydraulic nuts. Shakedown analyses have been performed because the primary plus secondary (P+Q) stress intensity limit of the hydraulic nut is exceeded in several locations. It is concluded that shakedown will occur and structural integrity of the reactor vessel closure head area will be maintained with the application of the hydraulic nut system

  9. Production of Biosurfactant by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Grown on Cashew Apple Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Maria V. P.; Souza, Maria C. M.; Benedicto, Sofia C. L.; Bezerra, Márcio S.; Macedo, Gorete R.; Saavedra Pinto, Gustavo A.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    In this work, the ability of biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in batch cultivation using cashew apple juice (CAJ) and mineral media was evaluated. P. aeruginosa was cultivated in CAJ, which was supplemented with peptone (5.0 g/L) and nutritive broth. All fermentation assays were performed in Erlenmeyer flasks containing 300 mL, incubated at 30°C and 150 rpm. Cell growth (biomass and cell density), pH, and superficial tension were monitored vs time. Surface tension was reduced by 10.58 and 41% when P. aeruginosa was cultivated in nutrient broth and CAJ supplemented with peptone, respectively. These results indicated that CAJ is an adequate medium for growth and biosurfactant production. Best results of biosurfactant production were obtained when CAJ was supplemented with peptone.

  10. The potential of cashew gum functionalization as building blocks for layer-by-layer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Álvaro J; Costa, Rui R; Costa, Ana M S; Maciel, Jeanny S; Costa, José F G; de Paula, Regina C M; Mano, João F

    2017-10-15

    Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale trees, was carboxymethylated (CGCm) and oxidized (CGO). These derivatives were characterized by FTIR and zeta potential measurements confirming the success of carboxymethylation and oxidation reactions. Nanostructured multilayered films were then produced through layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly in conjugation with chitosan via electrostatic interactions or Schiff bases covalent bonds. The films were analyzed by QCM-D and AFM. CG functionalization increased the film thickness, with the highest thickness being achieved for the lowest oxidation degree. The roughest surface was obtained for the CGO with the highest oxidation degree due to the predominance of covalent Schiff bases. This work shows that nanostructured films can be assembled and stabilized by covalent bonds in alternative to the conventional electrostatic ones. Moreover, the functionalization of CG can increase its feasibility in multilayers films, widening its potential in biomedical, food industry, or environmental applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Machine recognition of navel orange worm damage in X-ray images of pistachio nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keagy, P.M.; Schatzki, T.F. [USDA-ARS Western Regional Research Center, Albany, CA (United States); Parvin, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Insect infestation increases the probability of aflatoxin contamination in pistachio nuts. A non-destructive test is currently not available to determine the insect content of pistachio nuts. This paper presents the use of film X-ray images of various types of pistachio nuts to assess the possibility of machine recognition of insect infested nuts. Histogram parameters of four derived images are used in discriminant functions to select insect infested nuts from specific processing streams.

  12. The Coronal Analysis of SHocks and Waves (CASHeW) framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarev, Kamen A.; Davey, Alisdair; Kendrick, Alexander; Hammer, Michael; Keith, Celeste

    2017-11-01

    Coronal bright fronts (CBF) are large-scale wavelike disturbances in the solar corona, related to solar eruptions. They are observed (mostly in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light) as transient bright fronts of finite width, propagating away from the eruption source location. Recent studies of individual solar eruptive events have used EUV observations of CBFs and metric radio type II burst observations to show the intimate connection between waves in the low corona and coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven shocks. EUV imaging with the atmospheric imaging assembly instrument on the solar dynamics observatory has proven particularly useful for detecting large-scale short-lived CBFs, which, combined with radio and in situ observations, holds great promise for early CME-driven shock characterization capability. This characterization can further be automated, and related to models of particle acceleration to produce estimates of particle fluxes in the corona and in the near Earth environment early in events. We present a framework for the coronal analysis of shocks and waves (CASHeW). It combines analysis of NASA Heliophysics System Observatory data products and relevant data-driven models, into an automated system for the characterization of off-limb coronal waves and shocks and the evaluation of their capability to accelerate solar energetic particles (SEPs). The system utilizes EUV observations and models written in the interactive data language. In addition, it leverages analysis tools from the SolarSoft package of libraries, as well as third party libraries. We have tested the CASHeW framework on a representative list of coronal bright front events. Here we present its features, as well as initial results. With this framework, we hope to contribute to the overall understanding of coronal shock waves, their importance for energetic particle acceleration, as well as to the better ability to forecast SEP events fluxes.

  13. [Determination of aflatoxins in cashew by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ruifeng; Fan, Zhixian; Fu, Meng

    2011-12-01

    A method for the determination of four aflatoxins in cashew using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The sample was extracted with methanol-water (8: 2, v/v) solution, followed by a cleanup procedure with Florisil column. The target compounds were eluted using 5 mL acetone-water-formic acid (96: 3.5:0.5, v/v/v) solution. The eluate was dried under N2, then dissolved in 1 mL methanol. Four aflatoxins were separated in MG C18 column (100 mm x 3.0 mm, 3 microm) adopting a gradient program within 15 min. A triple quadrupole mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization source operated in the positive ion mode was used to detect the aflatoxins. The good correlation coefficients (r2 > 0.997) of the four aflatoxins were obtained within their respective linear ranges. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were between 0.009 microg/kg and 0.04 microg/kg, and the limits of quantification (S/N = 10) were between 0.03 microg/kg and 0.12 microg/kg. The recoveries were in a range of 63.0% -78.5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) varied from 2.8% to 9.1%. The validation results meet the requirements of trace assay. Matrix effects were estimated and the signal suppression/enhancement ranged from 88.8% to 99.4%. The results indicate that the developed method is simple, fast, accurate, and can be applied for the determination of fours aflatoxins in cashew.

  14. The Coronal Analysis of SHocks and Waves (CASHeW framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozarev Kamen A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronal bright fronts (CBF are large-scale wavelike disturbances in the solar corona, related to solar eruptions. They are observed (mostly in extreme ultraviolet (EUV light as transient bright fronts of finite width, propagating away from the eruption source location. Recent studies of individual solar eruptive events have used EUV observations of CBFs and metric radio type II burst observations to show the intimate connection between waves in the low corona and coronal mass ejection (CME-driven shocks. EUV imaging with the atmospheric imaging assembly instrument on the solar dynamics observatory has proven particularly useful for detecting large-scale short-lived CBFs, which, combined with radio and in situ observations, holds great promise for early CME-driven shock characterization capability. This characterization can further be automated, and related to models of particle acceleration to produce estimates of particle fluxes in the corona and in the near Earth environment early in events. We present a framework for the coronal analysis of shocks and waves (CASHeW. It combines analysis of NASA Heliophysics System Observatory data products and relevant data-driven models, into an automated system for the characterization of off-limb coronal waves and shocks and the evaluation of their capability to accelerate solar energetic particles (SEPs. The system utilizes EUV observations and models written in the interactive data language. In addition, it leverages analysis tools from the SolarSoft package of libraries, as well as third party libraries. We have tested the CASHeW framework on a representative list of coronal bright front events. Here we present its features, as well as initial results. With this framework, we hope to contribute to the overall understanding of coronal shock waves, their importance for energetic particle acceleration, as well as to the better ability to forecast SEP events fluxes.

  15. Identification and pest status of Holopothrips fulvus (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae on dwarf-cashew crops in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G.A. Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Cashew, Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae, is one of the most important sources of agricultural income in northeastern Brazil, but many of the arthropods associated with the crop have yet to be identified. We describe here for the first time the damage caused by Holopothrips fulvus (Morgan (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae to dwarf-cashew trees cultivated in the municipality of Pacajús, Ceará, Brazil. Leaf tissue injuries were caused by the sucking mouthparts of the insect and were characterized by dark necrotic spots on the epidermis that resulted in yellowing, wilting and, ultimately, abscission of the leaves. H. fulvus also fed on developing kernels and pseudofruits producing injuries that manifested in the form of chlorotic specks. Additional information is given on the pest status and important aspects of the morphology of the insect, including sexual dimorphism, redescription of the adults and description of the second instar larvae.

  16. Anticandidal efficacy of denture cleansing tablet, Triphala, Aloe vera, and Cashew leaf on complete dentures of institutionalized elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Pooja J.; Hegde, Vijaya; Gomes, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in the number of dependent elderly, there is a need to introduce few natural products for denture cleansing, which are easily and economically available. Hence the aim of this study was to compare the anticandidal efficacy of denture cleansing tablet (sodium bicarbonate and sodium perborate monohydrate), Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica fruits powders in equal proportion), cashew leaf, Aloe vera and water (control) on complete dentures of institutionalized elderly. Study population consisted of 50 institutionalized elderly of Mangalore, Karnataka, with 10 in each group. Swabs were collected from the dentures before and after the use of denture cleansing tablet, Triphala, cashew leaf, Aloe vera, and water (control). Thereafter, the swabs were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and the total candida counts were determined. Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna showed a statistically significant reduction in Candida counts (P < 0.05). Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna were found to be more effective. PMID:24812470

  17. Anticandidal efficacy of denture cleansing tablet, Triphala, Aloe vera, and Cashew leaf on complete dentures of institutionalized elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja J Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With an increase in the number of dependent elderly, there is a need to introduce few natural products for denture cleansing, which are easily and economically available. Hence the aim of this study was to compare the anticandidal efficacy of denture cleansing tablet (sodium bicarbonate and sodium perborate monohydrate, Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica fruits powders in equal proportion, cashew leaf, Aloe vera and water (control on complete dentures of institutionalized elderly. Study population consisted of 50 institutionalized elderly of Mangalore, Karnataka, with 10 in each group. Swabs were collected from the dentures before and after the use of denture cleansing tablet, Triphala, cashew leaf, Aloe vera, and water (control. Thereafter, the swabs were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and the total candida counts were determined. Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna showed a statistically significant reduction in Candida counts (P < 0.05. Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna were found to be more effective.

  18. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in cashew apple juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, C.; Moreira, C. F. F.; Lavinas, F. C.; Lopes, M. L. M.; Fialho, E.; Valente-Mesquita, V. L.

    2010-12-01

    The cashew apple is native to Brazil, but there is insufficient information regarding the nutritional properties of this fruit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of high pressure processing (HPP) at room temperature (25 °C) on phenolic compound and ascorbic acid contents and antioxidant capacity of cashew apple juice. This study showed that HPP at 250 or 400 MPa for 3, 5 and 7 min did not change pH, acidity, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid or hydrolysable polyphenol contents. However, juice pressurized for 3 and 5 min showed higher soluble polyphenol contents. Antioxidant capacity, measured by the ferric-reducing antioxidant power method, was not altered by HPP, but when treated at 250 MPa for 3 min, it resulted in an increased value when 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl was used. These data demonstrate that HPP can be used in the food industry for the generation of products with higher nutritional quality.

  19. Association of Areca Nut Chewing With Risk of Erectile Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yung-Jui; Jiann, Bang-Ping

    2017-09-01

    Areca nut chewing has been shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but its association with erectile dysfunction (ED) has not been investigated. To investigate the association between areca nut chewing and risk of ED. Consecutive men at public health centers for oral malignancy screening or health checkup were invited to complete a questionnaire. The Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM). Of the 2,652 respondents, 1,038 (mean age = 43.8 ± 11.1 years) were eligible for the areca nut chewing group and 1,090 non-areca nut chewers were selected as the age-matched control group. In the areca nut group, the mean duration of chewing was 13.2 ± 9.6 years, 61.7% consumed more than 10 portions per day, and 76.2% used it with betel leaf, 16.7% used it with betel inflorescence, and 7.1% used it with betel leaf and inflorescence. Smoking, alcohol drinking, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes were more predominant in areca nut chewers compared with controls. ED defined by self-report and by SHIM score was more prevalent in areca nut chewers than in controls (13.7% vs 9.8% and 48.7% vs 43.3%, respectively; P nut use with betel inflorescence was associated with a higher risk of ED (odds ratio = 2.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.55-3.28) with a dose-dependent effect, whereas using it with betel leaf was not (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% confidence interval = 0.79-1.26) after adjustment of possible confounders. Areca nut chewing with betel inflorescence was associated with an increased risk of ED. These findings warrant further studies. Huang Y-J, Jiann B-P. Association of Areca Nut Chewing With Risk of Erectile Dysfunction. Sex Med 2017;5:e163-e168. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Inactivation of Salmonella on in-shell pecans during conditioning treatments preceding cracking and shelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A

    2011-04-01

    Studies were done to determine the effectiveness of conditioning treatments for killing Salmonella in and on immersion-inoculated and surface-inoculated in-shell pecans. Treatment of immersion-inoculated, dried, stored pecans in chlorinated water (400 μg/ml) reduced Salmonella by not more than 1.6 log CFU/g. Treatment of immersion-inoculated, dried, stored pecans in chlorinated water (200 μg/ml, 1 min) followed by soaking in water for 2 h at 21°C and treating for 10 min in water at 85 to 95°C reduced Salmonella by >5.12 log CFU/g; treatment of nuts containing a low population of Salmonella (in-shell pecans (kernel moisture, 4.75%; water activity, 0.62) that had been dried and stored at 4°C for 3 to 5 weeks was more resistant to conditioning treatments than was Salmonella on surface-inoculated pecans (kernel moisture, 5.60%; water activity, 0.73) that were not thoroughly dried. Conditioning treatments were less effective for killing Salmonella on immersion-inoculated pecans than on surface-inoculated pecans. Response of Salmonella to conditioning treatments varied, depending on the method of inoculation and whether nuts were dried and stored between the time of inoculation and treatment, which emphasizes the importance of following practices commonly used by commercial pecan shellers when validating the lethality of conditioning treatments.

  1. Betel nut chewing associated with increased risk of arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Ting; Chou, Yu-Tsung; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chou, Chieh-Ying; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Chang, Chih-Jen; Wu, Jin-Shang

    2017-11-01

    Betel nut chewing is associated with certain cardiovascular outcomes. Subclinical atherosclerosis may be one link between betel nut chewing and cardiovascular risk. Few studies have examined the association between chewing betel nut and arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was thus to determine the relationship between betel nut chewing and arterial stiffness in a Taiwanese population. We enrolled 7540 eligible subjects in National Cheng Kung University Hospital from October 2006 to August 2009. The exclusion criteria included history of cerebrovascular events, coronary artery disease, and taking lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensives, and hypoglycemic agents. Increased arterial stiffness was defined as brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) ≥1400cm/s. According to their habit of betel nut use, the subjects were categorized into non-, ex-, and current chewers. The prevalence of increased arterial stiffness was 32.7, 43.3, and 43.2% in non-, ex- and current chewers, respectively (p=0.011). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that ex-chewers (odds ratio [OR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-2.65) and current chewers (OR 2.29, 95% CI=1.05-4.99) had elevated risks of increased arterial stiffness after adjustment for co-variables. Both ex- and current betel nut chewing were associated with a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness. Stopping betel nut chewing may thus potentially be beneficial to reduce cardiovascular risk, based on the principals of preventive medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Technical intelligence and culture: Nut cracking in humans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Christophe; Bombjaková, Daša; Boyette, Adam; Meier, Amelia

    2017-06-01

    According to the technical intelligence hypothesis, humans are superior to all other animal species in understanding and using tools. However, the vast majority of comparative studies between humans and chimpanzees, both proficient tool users, have not controlled for the effects of age, prior knowledge, past experience, rearing conditions, or differences in experimental procedures. We tested whether humans are superior to chimpanzees in selecting better tools, using them more dexteriously, achieving higher performance and gaining access to more resource as predicted under the technical intelligence hypothesis. Aka and Mbendjele hunter-gatherers in the rainforest of Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo, respectively, and Taï chimpanzees in the rainforest of Côte d'Ivoire were observed cracking hard Panda oleosa nuts with different tools, as well as the soft Coula edulis and Elaeis guinensis nuts. The nut-cracking techniques, hammer material selection and two efficiency measures were compared. As predicted, the Aka and the Mbendjele were able to exploit more species of hard nuts in the forest than chimpanzees. However, the chimpanzees were sometimes more efficient than the humans. Social roles differed between the two species, with the Aka and especially the Mbendjele exhibiting cooperation between nut-crackers whereas the chimpanzees were mainly individualistic. Observations of nut-cracking by humans and chimpanzees only partially supported the technical intelligence hypothesis as higher degrees of flexibility in tool selection seen in chimpanzees compensated for use of less efficient tool material than in humans. Nut cracking was a stronger social undertaking in humans than in chimpanzees. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Effect of Temperature and Air Velocity on Drying Kinetics of Pistachio Nuts during Roasting by using Hot Air Flow

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    A Dini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pistachio nut is one of the most delicious and nutritious nuts in the world and it is being used as a saltedand roasted product or as an ingredient in snacks, ice cream, desserts, etc. The purpose of roasting is to promote flavour and texture changes in nuts that ultimately increase the overall palatability of the product.Roasting involves a number of physico-chemical changes, including heat exchange, chemical reactions and drying. Knowledge of desorption kinetics is essential to predict the behavior of the material during roasting process and to design roaster equipment.The main aim of this research was to evaluate suitable models for predicting moisture ratio, the effect of air temperature and velocity on the drying kinetics of pistachio nuts and obtain the effective diffusivity coefficient and activation energy in the drying process during the roasting of pistachio nuts. Materials and Methods Dried Ahmadaghaei pistachio nuts were supplied from Kashefan Kavir company (Doraj co. in Rafsanjan. Pistachio nuts were soaked in 17% salt solution for 8 minute and roasting was investigated at air temperatures of 120,130, 145, 160 and 170 °C and air velocities of 0.6, 0.88, 1.3, 1.72 and 2 ms-1. Five semi-theoretical and two empirical kinetic models were fitted to drying experimental data using nonlinear regression analysis techniques in the Curve Expert 2.2 computer program. Results and Discussion Tow-way ANOVA indicated that temperature and hot air velocity significantly affected the drying process during roasting of shelled pistachio nuts. The higher roasting temperatures and air velocities resulted in the higher drying rates. During first 10 min of roasting at constant air velocity of 1.3 ms-1, 64.5%, 70.3%, 77.1%, 83.5%, 89.7% of the moisture were removed at roasting air temperatures of 120 °C, 130 °C, 145 °C, 160 °C, 170 °C, respectively. The high regression coefficients (R2>0.996 and low reduced chi-square (χ2, mean relative

  4. Hyaluronic acid depolymerization by ascorbate-redox effects on solid state cultivation of Streptococcus zooepidemicus in cashew apple fruit bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, André Casimiro; Santana, Maria Helena Andrade

    2012-05-01

    The cashew fruit (Anacardium occidentale L.) has been used as a promising agricultural resource for the production of low-molecular weight (M(W)) hyaluronic acid (HA) (10(4)-10(5) Da). The cashew juice is a rich source of vitamin C containing, 1.2-2.0 g L(-1). This work explores the effects of the initial concentration of the ascorbate on the solid fermentation of the juice-moisturized bagasse from the cashew apple fruit. The results show that the M(W) reduction of HA is proportional to the initial ascorbate concentration. The presence of ascorbate did not influence the Streptococcus zooepidemicus metabolism. However, the HA productivity was increased from 0.18 to 0.28 mg g(-1) h(-1) when the ascorbate concentration ranged from 1.7 to 10 mg mL(-1). These findings contribute to the controlled production of HA in a low M(W) range, which is important in cell signalization, angiogenesis and nanoparticles production.

  5. Taking actions to quit chewing betel nuts and starting a new life: taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsui-Yun; Lin, Hung-Ru

    2017-04-01

    To understand taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing. Previous studies verified that betel nut chewing significantly increases the risk of oral cancer. In Taiwan, taxi drivers work for approximately 10-13 hours per day, and 31·7-80% of them choose to chew betel nuts for their invigorating qualities, which enable them to work more hours and receive more income. A qualitative research design was used. This study used the grounded theory method with purposive sampling to perform in-depth interviews with male taxi drivers who had successfully quit betel nut chewing for more than six months. The interviewed participants were 25 taxi drivers aged 45-67 who had chewed betel nuts for an average of 30·9 years. A constant comparative analysis of the 25 interviews revealed six categories, namely the first experience of chewing betel nuts, a part of work and life, perceiving the impact of betel nuts, trying to change, acting to quit betel nut chewing and starting a new life. During the cessation process, taxi drivers tended to be affected by their addiction to chewing betel nuts and the temptation of friends' invitations to chew betel nuts. However, their recognition of the physical effects of betel nut chewing and their sense of responsibility and commitment to family were the critical factors affecting their determination to quit betel nut chewing. Their willpower to not to chew betel nuts and the source of their motivation to exercise self-control also contributed to their success. Healthcare personnel should understand the experiences and perceptions of betel nut chewers, strengthen their understanding of the effects of betel nut chewing on physical health during the cessation period and support their self-efficacy and quitting behaviours with the assistance of significant others. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Textural, Rheological and Sensory Properties and Oxidative Stability of Nut Spreads—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tree nuts are rich in macro and micronutrients, phytochemicals, tocopherols and phenolic compounds. The development of nut spreads would potentially increase the food uses of nuts and introduce consumers with a healthier, non-animal breakfast snack food. Nut spreads are spreadable products made from nuts that are ground into paste. Roasting and milling (particle size reduction are two important stages for the production of nut spreads that affected the textural, rheological characteristic and overall quality of the nut spread. Textural, color, and flavor properties of nut spreads play a major role in consumer appeal, buying decisions and eventual consumption. Stability of nut spreads is influenced by its particle size. Proper combination of ingredients (nut paste, sweetener, vegetable oil and protein sources is also required to ensure a stable nut spread product is produced. Most of the nut spreads behaved like a non-Newtonian pseudo-plastic fluid under yield stress which help the producers how to start pumping and stirring of the nut spreads. Similar to other high oil content products, nut spreads are susceptible to autoxidation. Their oxidation can be controlled by application of antioxidants, using processing techniques that minimize tocopherol and other natural antioxidant losses.

  7. Betel nut chewing, oral premalignant lesions, and the oral microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes

  8. Evaluation of sanitizers for inactivating Salmonella on in-shell pecans and pecan nutmeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A; Alali, Walid Q

    2012-11-01

    Chlorine, organic acids, and water extracts of inedible pecan components were tested for effectiveness in killing Salmonella on pecans. In-shell pecans and nutmeats (U.S. Department of Agriculture medium pieces) were immersion inoculated with a mixture of five Salmonella serotypes, dried to 3.7% moisture, and stored at 4°C for 3 to 6 weeks. In-shell nuts were immersed in chlorinated water (200, 400, and 1,000 μg/ml), lactic acid (0.5, 1, and 2%), and levulinic acid (0.5, 1, and 2%) with and without 0.05% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and a mixed peroxyacid sanitizer (Tsunami 200, 40 μg/ml) for up to 20 min at 21°C. The rate of reduction of free chlorine in conditioning water decreased as the ratio of in-shell nuts/water was increased. The rate of reduction was more rapid when nuts were not precleaned before treatment. The initial population of Salmonella on in-shell nuts (5.9 to 6.3 log CFU/g) was reduced by 2.8 log CFU/g after treating with chlorinated water (1,000 μg/ml). Treatment with 2% lactic acid plus SDS or 2% levulinic acid plus SDS reduced the pathogen by 3.7 and 3.4 log CFU/g, respectively. Lactic and levulinic acids (2%) without SDS were less effective (3.3- and 2.1-log CFU/g reductions, respectively) than acids with SDS. Treatment with Tsunami 200 resulted in a 2.4-log CFU/g reduction. In-shell nuts and nutmeats were immersed in water extracts of ground pecan shucks (hulls), shells, a mixture of shells and pith, and pith. The general order of lethality of extracts to Salmonella was shuck in-shell pecans before conditioning in chlorinated water and the need for sanitizers with increased effectiveness in killing Salmonella on pecans.

  9. Attention Inhibition Training Can Reduce Betel-Nut Chewing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chou Ho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Betel nut (or areca is the fourth most commonly used drug worldwide after tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. Many chemical ingredients of betel nut are carcinogenic. We examined whether the manipulation of attentional inhibition toward the areca-related stimuli could affect betel-nut chewing time. Three matched groups of habitual chewers were recruited: inhibit-areca, inhibit-non-areca, and control. This study consisted of a Go/No-Go task for inhibition training, followed by a taste test for observing chewing behavior. The Go/No-Go task constituted three phases (pretest, training and posttest. In the taste test, the habitual chewers were asked to rate the flavors of one betel nut and one gum. The purpose (blind to the chewers of this taste test was to observe whether their picking order and chewing time were affected by experimental manipulation. Results from the Go/No-Go task showed successful training. Further, the training groups (the inhibit-areca and inhibit-non-areca groups showed a significant reduction in betel nut chewing time, in comparison to the control group. Since both training groups showed reduced chewing time, the inhibition training may affect general control ability, in regardless of the stimulus (areca or not to be inhibited. Reduced chewing time is important for reducing areca-related diseases.

  10. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Anand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  11. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Richa; Dhingra, Chandan; Prasad, Sumanth; Menon, Ipseeta

    2014-01-01

    The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ) and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  12. Effect of betel nut chewing on the otolithic reflex system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan-Yi; Young, Yi-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of betel nut chewing on the otolithic reflex system. Seventeen healthy volunteers without any experience of chewing betel nut (fresh chewers) and 17 habitual chewers underwent vital sign measurements, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) tests prior to the study. Each subject then chewed two pieces of betel nut for 2min (dosing). The same paradigm was repeated immediately, 10min, and 20min after chewing. On a different day, 10 fresh chewers masticated chewing gum as control. Fresh chewers exhibited significantly decreased response rates of oVEMP (53%) and cVEMP (71%) after dosing compared with those from the predosing period. These abnormal VEMPs returned to normal 20min after dosing. In contrast, 100% response rates of oVEMP and cVEMP were observed before and after masticating chewing gum. In habitual chewers, the response rates of oVEMP and cVEMP were 32% and 29%, respectively, 20min after dosing. Chewing betel nuts induced a transient loss of the otolithic reflexes in fresh chewers but may cause permanent loss in habitual chewers. Chewing betel nuts can cause a loss of otholitic reflex function. This creates a risk for disturbed balance and malfunction, for instance, during driving. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Soil Nutrient Dynamics under Old and Young Cocoa, Coffee and Cashew Plantations at Uhonmora, Edo State, Nigeria

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    Rotimi Rufus Ipinmoroti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess nutrient dynamics of soils under old and young cocoa, coffee and cashew plantations and the leaf nutrient contents of the crops at Uhonmora, Edo State, Nigeria for proper cultural and soil fertility management of the plantations. Soil and crop leaf samples were collected from each plantation using a random sampling technique. The samples were analyzed using standard procedures for sand, silt, clay, pH (H2O, electrical conductivity (EC, total N, available P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, and Effective Cation Exchange Capacity (ECEC. Leaf samples were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na. Data were compared with the corresponding soil and foliar critical nutrient values for each crop. Results indicated that the soils were texturally sandy clay loam and acidic. The soils varied in their nutrient contents, with soil P for the old cocoa, young coffee and cashew plantations far below critical values. The young cashew plot was low in N content but adequate for other plots. However, the soil ECEC increased with the increasing of calcium contents. Leaf N was below critical for all the crops. Leaf K was low for cocoa and coffee plants, leaf Ca was low for the young cashew plants, while leaf Mg was low for the young cocoa and old cashew. The high soil Mg/K ratio of 8.7- 22.3 as against the established value of 2.0 might have resulted in gross nutrient imbalance which must have affected the absorption and utilization of other nutrients. Hence, adequate soil N did not translate the same availability to the crops. The ECEC showed that the soil needs to be improved upon for sustainable productivity. Soil nutrient content variation across the plantations with age of establishment will necessitate the need for consistent routine soil nutrient assessment for proper and balanced soil nutrient supply to the crops, for healthy crop growth and optimum yield. Management practices of soil surface mulching using organic wastes and cover crops under

  14. Symptoms with betel nut and betel nut with tobacco among Micronesian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Tut, Ohnmar K; Gallen, Marcelle; Mancl, Lloyd; Spillane, Nichea; Chi, Donald L; Ramsay, Douglas S

    2016-02-01

    Betel nut has been stated to be addictive, but evidence is lacking. This study describes dependence symptoms among adolescents using betel alone or with tobacco. In the first study, participants were 151 9th graders in Saipan. In the second study, participants were 269 9th graders in Pohnpei and Yap. Participants completed a confidential questionnaire adapted from the U.S. National Survey of Drug Use and Health, which measured dependence symptoms. The 15 items were summed to form a scale, with a range of 0-15, where higher scores indicated greater endorsement of dependence symptoms. In the first study, 39.1% had used betel. More than two-thirds of all users (69.5%) used betel in the previous month: 87.8% also used tobacco with the betel. The mean (SD) dependence symptoms scale score among tobacco users was 8.2±4.0 versus 3.4±2.9 among those who used betel alone [t(7)=3.3, p=0.015]. In the second study, 38% from Pohnpei and 85% from Yap had used betel and most of the current users used it in the previous month (67% from Pohnpei, 91% from Yap). Among those who had used betel in the previous month, 90% from Pohnpei and 64% from Yap were using betel with tobacco. The dependence score was positively associated with frequency of tobacco use (e.g., mean (SD)=11.3 (±2.4) among most frequent users versus a mean (SD)=4.8 (±3.5) among the never users [F(3109)=28.8, pBetel nut users who also use tobacco may benefit from tobacco cessation strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rethinking Timber: Investigation into the Use of Waste Macadamia Nut Shells for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdis, Jordan; Gaudion, Lauren; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Löschke, Sandra; Dong, Andy

    2017-03-01

    In this article, the feasibility of turning macadamia nutshells, a waste product from the forestry and agricultural industries, into a three-dimensional (3D) printed, innovative, microtimber product is examined by composing a wood plastic feed stock for fusion deposition modeling. Different ratios of micro-ground macadamia nutshells and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastics were mixed with a binding agent to extrude a range of filaments. By using a commercial 3D printer, these filaments helped to fabricate specimens that were tested in tension and compression. The results show that printed samples of macadamia-nutshell—ABS composites offer a viable alternative to commercially available wood polymer composite filaments. Although they possess similar mechanical properties, they have a lower density, making them suitable for a range of lightweight product applications. The research demonstrates that there are new opportunities for the use of macadamia nutshell filament in additive manufacturing as a result of its enhanced properties compared with traditional wood filaments.

  16. Valorisation of Jatropha curcas L. plant parts : Nut shell conversion to fast pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manurung, R.; Weuer, D. A. Z.; Wildschut, J.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Hidayat, H.; van Dam, J. E. G.; Leijenhorst, E. J.; Broekhuis, A. A.; Heeres, H. J.; Wever, D. A. Z.

    The biorefinery concept is a very powerful concept to optimise the conversion of biomass resources to value-added products with a minimum loss of energy and mass and a maximum overall value of the production chain. We here report our activities on the application of this concept to valorise the

  17. Valorisation of Jatropha curcas L. plant parts : nut shell conversion to fast pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manurung, R.; Wever, D.A.Z.; Wildschut, J.; Venderbosch, R.H.; Hidayat, H.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Leijenhorst, E.J.; Broekhuis, A.A.; Heeres, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    The biorefinery concept is a very powerful concept to optimise the conversion of biomass resources to value-added products with a minimum loss of energy and mass and a maximum overall value of the production chain. We here report our activities on the application of this concept to valorise the

  18. The Oncoprotein BRD4-NUT Generates Aberrant Histone Modification Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry M Zee

    Full Text Available Defects in chromatin proteins frequently manifest in diseases. A striking case of a chromatin-centric disease is NUT-midline carcinoma (NMC, which is characterized by expression of NUT as a fusion partner most frequently with BRD4. ChIP-sequencing studies from NMC patients revealed that BRD4-NUT (B4N covers large genomic regions and elevates transcription within these domains. To investigate how B4N modulates chromatin, we performed affinity purification of B4N when ectopically expressed in 293-TREx cells and quantified the associated histone posttranslational modifications (PTM using proteomics. We observed significant enrichment of acetylation particularly on H3 K18 and of combinatorial patterns such as H3 K27 acetylation paired with K36 methylation. We postulate that B4N complexes override the preexisting histone code with new PTM patterns that reflect aberrant transcription and that epigenetically modulate the nucleosome environment toward the NMC state.

  19. Identification of antiplatelet and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory constituents in betel nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayur, Muhammad Nabeel; Kazim, Syed Faraz; Rasheed, Huma; Khalid, Asaad; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the possible mechanism and the compound(s) responsible for the antiplatelet and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory effects of Areca catechu crude extract (Ac.Cr). Aqueous-methanol (70%) was used for extraction of plant material (betel nut). Antiplatelet activity was measured in human platelet-rich plasma by using a Lumi-aggregometer while anti-AChE activity was measured spectrophotometrically in vitro. In an attempt to find the responsible compound(s) in betel nut for antiplatelet and anti-AChE activities, different commercially available betel nut compounds were tested. Ac.Cr inhibited platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid (AA), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), platelet-activating factor (PAF), epinephrine and Ca(2+)-ionophore. Ac.Cr was the most potent in inhibiting ADP- and Ca(2+)-ionophore-induced aggregation. In the AChE assay, Ac.Cr showed significant AChE inhibitory activity with almost complete inhibition of the enzyme. Out of the tested compounds, none of the compounds in betel nut showed any antiplatelet effect except for catechin that was the most potent against epinephrine-induced aggregation. Catechin was significantly less potent than Ac.Cr, indicating a presence of additional compound(s) with antiplatelet activity. For the AChE inhibitory effect, only tannic acid, gallic acid, diosgenin and isoguvacine were found to be active, whereby tannic acid was more potent than Ac.Cr. This study shows the possible antiplatelet and AChE inhibitory potential of betel nut while further studies are needed to confirm and identify more compounds in betel nut for these actions.

  20. Relationship between Some Traits and Nut Production in Walnut Cultivars and Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mahmoodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Walnut is one of the most important nut crops in Iran. Because of its sexual propagation in Iran, the tree shows a high genetic diversity. In this study, the correlations between trunk cross-sectional area, scaffold cross area, crop density per trunk cross-sectional area and scaffold cross area, number of leaves and leaf area per nut, nut number to branch cross-sectional area, leaf number to branch cross-sectional area, leaf area to branch cross-sectional area and alternate bearing in eight terminal and lateral nutting genotypes were studied in walnut collection of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute of Iran in two years. Number of nuts to trunk cross sectional area and number of nuts to scaffold cross area were 1.68 (nuts/cm2 and 19.43 (nuts/m2, respectively. The average number of leaves and leaf area per nut were 4.42 (leaf/nut and 1346.33 (cm2 leaf/nut, respectively. The lowest nut density (number of nut/cm2 branch cross sectional area was found to be in genotype H1-1 (2.74 and the highest value was found in ‘Pedro’ (4.36. The correlation coefficient between nut density and leaf area per nut was -0.7. The highest alternate bearing was detected in ‘Hartley’ (15.38 %. This study showed that nut number and branch cross sectional area, nut number and branch leaf area, and branch leaf area and branch cross sectional area had very high correlations, and the polynomial regression model was appropriate for studying the relationship between the evaluated traits with high determination coefficients.

  1. [Epidemiological investigation of chewing fresh or dried betel nut and oral mucosal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongxiu, Du; Dongye, Sun; Xinchun, Jian; Qiuhua, Mao; Yanan, Cheng; Pu, Xu

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of chewing fresh or dried betel nut on the inci-dence and canceration of oral mucosa disease in Haikou City in Hainan Province. Through a survey questionnaire, clinical examination, and regular follow-up, we collected clinical data from 1 722 cases and divided them into two groups, among which 704 of the afflicted people chew dried betel nut, whereas the other 1 018 chew fresh betel nut. The data were 
statistically analyzed using different variables which included age, number, time of onset of the disease, and the cancerous condition associated with common oral mucosa disease, including oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), oral leukoplakia (OLK), and oral Lichen planus (OLP). 1) The study found no significant difference in the prevalence of oral mucosa diseases between the dried betel nut group (n=704) and fresh betel nut group (n=1 018) among the 1 722 cases (P>0.05), but the peak age of oral mucosal disease was more advanced in the dried betel nut group (Pbetel nut group was significantly higher than that in the fresh betel nut group (Pbetel nut group was significantly higher than that in the fresh betel nut group (Pbetel nut is more pathogenic and carcinogenic than chewing fresh betel nut. The extremely harmful components of the dried betel nut synergistically play a vital role in the occurrence and carcinogenesis of oral mucosal diseases.

  2. Parents' attitudes when purchasing products for children with nut allergy: a UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noimark, L; Gardner, J; Warner, J O

    2009-08-01

    Food avoidance remains the main strategy in prevention of anaphylaxis in children with acute food allergies. To achieve this aim, product labelling needs to be clear and accurate and parents educated on optimal avoidance measures. Food product labelling although improved often still remains ambiguous. The aim of this study was to understand and quantify the attitudes of parents of children with nut allergy towards labels informing that the product could contain nuts. An anonymous questionnaire was filled out by parents of children with nut allergy attending a tertiary paediatric allergy clinic to assess response to differing descriptive labelling of foods containing nuts. In 184 questionnaire responses, 80% of parents would not purchase a product labelled 'not suitable for nut allergy sufferers' or 'may contain nuts'. However, other labels including 'this product does not contain any nuts but is made in a factory that uses nuts', 'cannot guarantee is nut free' and 'may contain traces of nuts' were avoided by only around 50% of parents. Previous allergic reaction to nut products had no bearing on outcome. Additionally, large numbers of parents did not read labels for the presence of nuts in non-food products. A large number of patients with nut allergy continue risk-taking by either ignoring warning labels on foods or assuming that there is a gradation of risk depending on the wording of label warnings. Further tightening of labelling legislation and improved education would help to decrease the risk of anaphylaxis.

  3. The ethics of betel nut consumption in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Joseph; Sem, Geoffrey; Sit, Eugene; Tai, Michael Cheng-Tek

    2017-11-01

    The ethics of betel nut use in Taiwan are examined in this article. It first presents scientific facts about the betel quid, its consumption and negative health consequences and then analyses the cultural background and economic factors contributing to its popularity in Asia. Governmental and institutional attempts to curb betel nut cultivation, distribution and sales are also described. Finally, the bioethical implications of this often ignored subject are considered. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Activity levels of gamma-emitters in Brazil nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, M. J.A.; Maihara, V.A.; Silva, P.S.C.; Saiki, M., E-mail: marmelin@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisas. Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Cozzolino, S.M.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2016-11-01

    Activity concentrations of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra were determined in Brazil nuts acquired at points of sale between 2010 and 2013. Results indicated that the estimated annual effective radioactive dose due to ingestion of Brazil nuts is 27% of the annual dose limit of 1 mSv y{sup -1} for public exposure, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To estimate this dose the highest activity concentration obtained for each radionuclide was considered, assuming an annual consumption of 1.5 kg y{sup -1} per individual. (author)

  5. Estimates of genetic correlations and correlated responses to selection in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes Manoel Pedroza de Azevedo

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study estimates variances and genetic and phenotypic correlations for five traits in 27 progenies of cashew trees (Anacardium occidentale L.. Data were obtained from a trial conducted in 1992 at Pacajus, Ceará, experimental station of Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical. The characters studied were plant height (PH, North-South and East-West canopy spreads (NSS, EWS, and primary and secondary branch numbers (PBN, SBN. All genetic and phenotypic correlations presented positive and significant values. Selection to increase or decrease the average of any one of the five characteristics of cashew plants in the progenies studied affected the average of the others. The 16-month-old canopy spread can be predicted from NSS or EWS since correlations between them were high. Correlations between PH and SBN were low, indicating that there is a good possibility of obtaining smaller plants without causing drastic reductions in SBN. PH and SBN showed, respectively, the lowest and highest genetic variance estimates relative to the corresponding population means.Neste trabalho são estimadas variâncias, correlações genéticas e fenotípicas e respostas correlacionadas, envolvendo cinco caracteres em 27 progênies de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.. Os dados foram obtidos em Pacajus-CE, num ensaio conduzido no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, em l992. Os caracteres estudados foram altura de planta (PH, envergaduras norte-sul (NSS e leste-oeste (EWS e número de ramos primários (PBN e secundários (SBN. Todas as correlacões genéticas e fenotípicas obtidas foram positivas e significativas. A seleção para aumentar ou reduzir a média de qualquer um dos cinco caracteres estudados nas progênies de cajueiro afetou indiretamente a média dos outros quatro caracteres. A envergadura da copa aos 16 meses pode ser representada por NSS ou EWS, tendo em vista que a correlação entre elas foi elevada. As correlações envolvendo PH

  6. Shell ontogeny in radiolarians

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anderson, O.R.; Gupta, S.M.

    The ontogeny of the shells in modern and ancient radiolarian species, Acrosphaera cyrtodon were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The shells of A. cyrtodon were obtained from core samples collected from the Central Indian...

  7. Ultra-high density peptide arrays demonstrate unique patient-specific IgE and IgG4 epitope patterns for peanut allergens that persist over multiple years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, A.; Hansen, Christian Skjødt; Eiwegger, T.

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians are seeing a growing number of cashew nut allergic patients. One of the peculiarities of this allergy is that a minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause severe allergic reactions, suggesting high potency of the allergen comparable to other tree nuts and peanuts.The double blind...... placebo controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) test is currently the gold standard to establish cashew nut allergy. The development of predictive tools in diagnosing cashew nut allergy is needed and research should be done on cross-sensitization between cashew nut and other botanically related allergens....

  8. Shell concrete pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-10-01

    This report describes the testing performed with reef shell, clam shell and a combination of reef and clam shell used as coarse aggregate to determine if a low modulus concrete could be developed for use as a base material as an alternate to the pres...

  9. Estimation and Comparison of Copper Content in Raw Areca Nuts and Commercial Areca Nut Products: Implications in Increasing Prevalence of Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Philips; Austin, Ravi David; Varghese, Soma Susan; Manojkumar

    2014-01-01

    Oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is often preceded by potentially malignant disorders (PMDs) like oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF). The rate of transformation of OSMF to OSCC ranges from 3 to 19%. OSMF is etiologically related to chewing of areca nut (betel nut), a habit prevalent among the population groups in south-east Asia. Along with alkaloids, the high copper content in areca nut plays an important role in the pathogenesis of OSMF. The increased prevalence of OSMF in the last two decades or so corresponds with the increased processing and commercialization of areca nut products. The aim of the study was to estimate and compare the copper content of raw areca nuts in three different stages of maturity, and commercial areca nut products. Raw areca nut samples of three different maturities were obtained from four plantations in Sullia, Karnataka, India and commercial areca nut products were obtained from local shops in Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India. The samples were grounded and subjected to Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) for copper analysis. There was statistically significant difference in copper content in raw areca nuts of all three maturities (pnuts. Importantly copper level was significantly higher in the commercial products compared to raw areca nuts of different degrees of maturity (pnuts in all three stages of maturity. The increase in copper content on processing and post commercialization can be related to the increasing prevalence of OSMF.

  10. The Gregory–Laflamme instability and non-uniform generalizations of NUT strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Radu, Eugen

    2014-02-05

    We explore via linearized perturbation theory the Gregory–Laflamme instability of the NUT string (i.e. the D=4 Lorentzian NUT solution uplifted to five dimensions). Our results indicate that the Gregory–Laflamme instability persists in the presence of a NUT charge n, the critical length of the extra-dimension increasing with n for the same value of mass. The non-uniform branch of NUT strings is numerically extended into the full nonlinear regime.

  11. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/cashew gum beads loaded with Lippia sidoides essential oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Haroldo C.B., E-mail: hpaula@ufc.br [Department of Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Federal University of Ceara, UFC, Fortaleza-CE (Brazil); Sombra, Fernanda Matoso; Cavalcante, Rafaela de Freitas; Abreu, Flavia O.M.S. [Department of Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Federal University of Ceara, UFC, Fortaleza-CE (Brazil); Paula, Regina C.M. de [Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Federal University of Ceara, UFC, Fortaleza-CE (Brazil)

    2011-03-12

    Beads based on chitosan (CH) and cashew gum (CG), were prepared and loaded with an essential oil with larvicide activity (Lippia sidoides - Ls). CH and CH-CG beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared and UV-VIS spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), as well as, regarding their larvicide loading, swelling, in vitro and in vivo release kinetics. The oil encapsulation was evidenced by FTIR analysis and LS loading ranges from 2.4% to 4.4%. CH beads duly showed swelling degree (Q) values from 4.0 to 6.7, reaching equilibrium after 30 min, whereas crosslinked CH-CG beads showed lower swelling values, from 0.4 to 3.8, exhibiting a longer equilibrium time. Liquid transport parameters have revealed diffusion coefficient for CH-CG beads, as low as 2 x 10{sup -15} m{sup 2}/s. TGA and DSC revealed that CH:CG crosslinked beads are more thermally stable than CH beads. In vitro release follows a non-Fickian diffusion profile for both bead types, however, and a prolonged release being achieved only after beads crosslinking. In vivo release showed that both CH and CH-CG presented a prolonged larvicide effect. These aforesaid results, indicate that CH-CG beads loaded with LS are efficient for A. aegypti larval control.

  12. Fermentation parameter optimization of microbial oxalic acid production from cashew apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriola Betiku

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The potential of cashew apple juice (CAJ as a carbon source for oxalic acid (OA production via fermentation process was investigated in this study. The effects and interactions of CAJ concentration, time, pH, NaNO3 concentration and methanol concentration on OA production were determined in a central composite design (CCD and the process was modelled and optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. The results showed that OA fermentation can be described significantly (p < 0.05 by a quadratic model giving regression coefficient (R2 of 0.9964. NaNO3 concentration was the most significant positive variable while methanol was not a significant variable. A maximum OA concentration of 122.68 g/l could be obtained using the optimum levels of CAJ of 150.0 g/l, pH of 5.4, time of 7.31 days, NaNO3 of 2 g/l and methanol of 1% volume. The production of OA was found to increase from 106.75 to 122.68 g/l using the statistically design optimization. This study revealed that CAJ could serve as an inexpensive and abundant feedstock for fermentative OA production, the resulting model could be used in the design of a typical pilot plant for a scale up production.

  13. Wettability and morphology of the leaf surface in cashew tree from the Amazon, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Quaresma Ramos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaves surfaces, which represent an interface with plants and the environment, have several structures with specific functions. Some foliar properties, including wettability and mechanical containment, are inferred in terms of cellular adaptation and the presence or absence of cuticular wax. Various morphological parameters, ranging from macro- to nano scales, are analyzed and contribute to the study of taxonomy, pharmacognosy, and ecology of plants. The aim of this paper was to analyze the effect and influence of epicuticular wax granules on the hydrophobicity of Anacardium occidentale L. leaf surfaces. Leaf specimens were directly examined with an environmental scanning electron microscope without metal coating. Images revealed epidermis ornament, stomata type, was, and trichomes. Static contact angle between water and the surface was also measured on both sides. On the adaxial side, an angle of 104.09° ± 0.95° was found, suggesting that adaxial surface is hydrophobic. On the abaxial side, the angle was 62.20° ± 1.60°, which indicates a hydrophilic nature, probably because of the greater amount of epicuticular wax on the adaxial leaf surface. The present investigation provided an important contribution to morphological and ultrastructural characterization of leaves of cashew tree, which is a plant of great medicinal and economic importance.

  14. Potential prebiotic properties of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) agro-industrial byproduct on Lactobacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Francisca Nayara Dantas; Rodrigues, Jéssica Bezerra; da Costa Lima, Maiara; Lima, Marcos Dos Santos; Pacheco, Maria Teresa Bertoldo; Pintado, Maria Manuela Estevez; de Souza Aquino, Jailane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2017-08-01

    The prebiotic effects of a cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) agro-industrial byproduct powder (CAP) on different potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains, namely Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-05, Lactobacillus casei L-26 and Lactobacillus paracasei L-10, were assessed using in vitro experimental models. Accordingly, the growth of the Lactobacillus strains when cultivated in a broth containing CAP (20 or 30 g L-1 ), glucose (20 g L-1 ) or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) (20 g L-1 ) was monitored over 48 h; the prebiotic activity scores of CAP were determined; and the changes in pH values, production of organic acids and consumption of sugars in growth media were verified. During the 48-h cultivation, similar viable cell counts were observed for the Lactobacillus strains grown in the different media tested. The CAP presented positive prebiotic activity scores toward all the tested Lactobacillus strains, indicating a desirable selective fermentable activity relative to enteric organisms. The cultivation of the Lactobacillus strains in broth containing glucose, FOS or CAP resulted in high viable cell counts, a decreased pH, the production of organic acids and the consumption of sugars over time, revealing intense bacterial metabolic activity. The CAP exerts potential prebiotic effects on different potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains and should be an added-value ingredient for the food industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Schistosomicidal Activity of Alkyl-phenols from the Cashew Anacardium occidentale against Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Tavane A; de Oliveira, Pollyanna F; de Souza, Julia M; Tavares, Denise C; Andrade E Silva, Márcio L; Cunha, Wilson R; Groppo, Milton; Januário, Ana H; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Pauletti, Patrícia M

    2016-11-23

    Bioassay-guided study of the ethanol extract from the cashew Anacardium occidentale furnished cardol triene (1), cardol diene (2), anacardic acid triene (3), cardol monoene (4), anacardic acid diene (5), 2-methylcardol triene (6), and 2-methylcardol diene (7). 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments and HRMS analysis confirmed the structures of compounds 1-7. Compounds 2 and 7 were active against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms in vitro, with LC50 values of 32.2 and 14.5 μM and selectivity indices of 6.1 and 21.2, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy of the tegument of male worms in the presence of compound 7 at 25 μM after 24 h of incubation showed severe damage as well as peeling and reduction in the number of spine tubercles. Transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed swollen mitochondrial membrane, vacuoles, and altered tegument in worms incubated with compound 2 (25 μM after 24 h). Worms incubated with compound 7 (25 μM after 24 h) had lysed interstitial tissue, degenerated mitochondria, and drastically altered tegument. Together, the results indicated that compound 7 presents promising in vitro schistosomicidal activity.

  16. Sustainable energy for cashew production chain using innovative clean technology project developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannir Selvam, P.V.; Nandenha, Julio; Santiago, Brunno Henrique de Souza; Silva, Rosalia Tatiane da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (GPEC/DEQ/UFRN), Lagoa Nova, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Pesquisa em Engenharia de Custos e Processos], e-mail: pannirbr@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    The main objective is to develop a new process synthesis based on the residual biomass waste for the energy production applied to the fruit processing plant with co-production of hot, cold thermal energy using biogas from the wood biomass and animal wastes. After carried out the bibliographical research about the current state of art technology, an engineering project had been developed with the use of the software Super Pro Designer V 4.9. Some simulations of processes of the fast pyrolysis, gasification, bio digestion, generation of energy have been realized including the system integration of energy production as innovation of the present work. Three cases study have been developed: first, the current process of conventional energy using combustion, another one using combined pyrolysis and gasification, and the last one with bio digestion for combined power, heat and chilling. The results about the project investment and the cost analysis, economic viability and cash balance were obtained using software Orc 2004. Several techno-economic parameters of the selected cases study involving process innovation were obtained and compared, where a better energy and materials utilization were observed in relation to conventional process. This project which is still in development phase, involves small scale energy integrated system design. The energy and the process integration cashew fruit production chain, based on the clean technology process design, has enable significant improvement in terms of economic and environmental using optimal system configurations with viability and sustainability. (author)

  17. Effects of raw bambara nut ( Voandzeia subterranea l) waste and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of graded levels of raw bambara nut (Voandzeia subterranea L) waste and supplementary enzyme (Roxayzme G) on performance of broiler chicks were investigated. One hundred and twenty 14-day old unsexed commercial broiler chicks (Anak strain) were randomly divided into eight groups of 15 birds each.

  18. The Health Effects of Kava/Sakau and Betel Nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Harvey

    For generations Pacific Islanders have used kava root and betel nut for a variety of cultural, medicinal, and ceremonial purposes: to overcome social barriers and lubricate social interactions; to cure bodily afflictions; and to accompany traditional and religious rituals. Kava, also known as ava, sakau, and yaqona has a long tradition as a…

  19. Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of a Thevetia Nut Cracking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    aforementioned problem, this work focused on the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of a thevetia nut cracking machine. The machine works based on the principle of attrition force. Some of the parts designed for were diameter of shaft (13 mm solid shaft) and length of belt (A55), power required to operate the ...

  20. Penicilllium discolor, a new species from cheese, nuts and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.; Rassing, Birgitte A.

    1997-01-01

    The new species Penicillum discolor, frequently isolated from nuts, vegetables and cheese is described. It is characterised by rough, dark green conidia, synnemateous growth on malt agar and the production of the secondary metabolites chaetoglobosins A, B and C, palitantin, cyclopenin, cyclopenol...

  1. Production and Quality Evaluation of Candies from Date Nut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production and quality evaluation of candies produced from blends of date nuts (Phoenix dactylifera) and groundnut (Arachis hypogea) pastes was studied. The samples were analyzed for proximate, vitamin, physicochemical and sensory properties using standard methods. Results showed that, there were significant ...

  2. Properties of Brazil nuts: A review | Kluczkovski | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brazil nut is a seed with high nutritional value and of great economic importance to the Northern region of Brazil. In addition to enabling direct consumption, its nutritional potential enables the development of various products. Among its nutrients, emphasis is given to the amino acid-rich proteins, lipid content and selenium, ...

  3. Genetic diversity and molecular characterization of physic nut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... 4Agricultural Research Company of Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil. 5Departament of Agricultural Sciences, State University of Montes Claros, Janaúba, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Accepted 5 October, 2012. The genetic diversity among 46 accessions of physic nut was estimated with Nei ...

  4. The Comparative Effects Of Chronic Consumption Of Kola Nut (Cola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The comparative effects of chronic (28 days) consumption of kola nut and its active constituent, caffeine diets on locomotor behaviour and body weights in mice were investigated. 30 adult Swiss white mice (15- 30g body weight), were used for the study. The open field-maze was employed for the evaluation of ...

  5. Role of fruits, nuts, and vegetables in maintaining cognitive health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population aging is leading to an increase in the incidence of age-related cognitive dysfunction and, with it, the health care burden of caring for older adults. Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of fruits, nuts, and vegetables is positively associated with cognitive ability; howev...

  6. GROUND NUT HUSK ASH (GHA) AS A PARTIAL REPLACEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    %, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% ash ... Groundnut is an important cash crop produced in large quantity in Nigeria. The production of ground nut ... that ash replacement level of more than 10% is not recommended. The results of water absorption ...

  7. Tiger nut: as a plant, its derivatives and benefits | Bamishaiye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... for lesser known and un-exploited crops, many of which are potentially valuable as human and animal foods has been on the high side now to retain the equilibrium between population growth and agricultural ... Key words: nut, nutrition, tuber, health, benefit ...

  8. Nutritional profiles of tiger Nut ( Cyperus esculentus ) plant organs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine major nutrient profiles changes of tiger nut plant during its growth period. The plant leaves, roots, tuber moisture, starch, fat and protein were analyzed by oven drying, enzymatic hydrolysis, glucose assay, soxhlet extraction and kjeldahl methods. The results show the moisture content ...

  9. Cognition: the new frontier for nuts and berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inclusion of nuts in the diet is associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, gallstones, diabetes, cancer, metabolic syndrome and visceral obesity; frequent consumption of berries seems to be associated with improved cardiovascular and cancer outcomes, improved immune fun...

  10. Areca nut chewing and systemic inflammation : evidence of a common pathway for systemic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafique, Kashif; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Vart, Priya; Memon, Abdul Rauf; Arain, Moin Islam; Tareen, Muhammad Farooq; Haq, Zia Ul

    2012-01-01

    Background: Areca nut, the seed of fruit of an oriental palm, known as Areca catechu, is commonly chewed in many countries. Diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, oropharyngeal and oesophageal cancers have been associated with areca nut chewing and the mechanism by which areca nut chewing

  11. Kinetic and equilibrium studies on fluoride removal by zirconium (IV: Impregnated groundnut shell carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagumuthu G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The carbonized ground nut shell (GNSC was impregnated with zirconium oxy chloride, and tested to determine its capacity and kinetics for fluoride adsorption from aqueous solutions. The analysis of the isotherm equilibrium data using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson equations by linear methods showed that the data fitted better with Freundlich model than the other two. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the spontaneous nature of fluoride adsorption with increase of entropy and an endothermic process. The kinetic data obtained for fluoride adsorption on zirconium impregnated ground nut shell carbon (ZIGNSC obeyed the pseudo-second order equation. X-ray diffraction (XRD studies confirmed the deposition of fluoride on material and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR studies also showed the involvement of adsorbate on the adsorbent surface in the adsorption interaction. The ZIGNSC provides a cost effective material to the defluoridation problem in the developing countries by its great potential application in the fluoride removal from water.

  12. Presence of cholinomimetic and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory constituents in betel nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Anwar H; Ghayur, M Nabeel; Saify, Zafar S; Ahmed, Shahida P; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Khalid, Asaad

    2004-10-01

    In this investigation, we report the presence of cholinomimetic and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory constituents in betel nut, the most commonly used drug in the world after tobacco, ethanol and caffeine. The crude extract of betel nuts or Areca catechu (Ac.Cr) caused a dose-dependent (0.3-300 microg/mL) spasmogenic effect in the isolated rabbit jejunum. The spasmogenic effect was blocked by atropine, similar to that of acetylcholine (ACh), suggestive of muscarinic receptor mediated effect. Both the extract (0.3-10 microg/mL) and physostigmine (0.1-3.0 microM) potentiated the effect of a fixed dose of ACh (10 microM) in a dose-dependent fashion, suggesting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory effect. This effect was confirmed in the in vitro assay where both the crude extract (1-100 microg/mL) and physostigmine inhibited the enzyme. In the in vivo model of gastrointestinal transit, Ac.Cr (10-30 mg/kg) enhanced the travel of charcoal meal and also exhibited a laxative effect in mice. The plant extract was subjected to activity-directed fractionation and all resultant fractions showed atropine-sensitive spasmogenicity in rabbit jejunum and also AChE inhibitory effect at doses similar to that for the parent crude extract, the ethyl acetate fraction being slightly less potent. Some of the known constituents of betel nut, including arecoline, were tested for the possible inhibitory effect on AChE, none were found active. The study provides first evidence for the presence of AChE inhibitory constituents in betel nut, though additional direct muscarinic stimulatory effect cannot be ruled out and this study provides sound scientific basis for some of the folkloric uses associated with betel nut chewing.

  13. The challenges for nut-allergic consumers of eating out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leftwich, J; Barnett, J; Muncer, K; Shepherd, R; Raats, M M; Hazel Gowland, M; Lucas, J S

    2011-02-01

    For individuals with a nut allergy, the avoidance of allergens is particularly challenging in situations where they are not preparing their own food. Many allergic reactions occur when eating outside the home. To identify and explore the challenges faced by nut-allergic individuals (NAIs) when they are eating in restaurants and other eating establishments. A qualitative interview study was conducted with 32 adults with a clinical history of allergy to peanuts and/or tree nuts. The main strategies that participants adopted to manage the risk of allergic reactions when eating outside the home were avoidance and communication. They avoided types of restaurants, meal courses or particular foods. Seeking familiarity was a key strategy that enabled NAIs to reduce uncertainty and anxiety. Language differences were a major barrier to confident communication about food content. The need to check whether the food on offer may contain nuts was a source of social embarrassment for many participants and the desire to avoid this sometimes led to increased risk taking. Some did not disclose their allergy to restaurant staff as they feared a conservative reaction that would further constrain food choices. NAIs often have to plan where to eat out. The consequent lack of spontaneity was a source of regret to some. Communication patterns of nut-allergic adults are often grounded in legitimate everyday social considerations around embarrassment, choice and spontaneity. Education and training strategies are needed that recognize and take account of this. Focusing on communication deficits of NAIs may be unhelpful; responsibility for food safety must be shared with the food industry. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Radio frequency heating: a potential method for post-harvest pest control in nuts and dry products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-jin; Tang, Ju-ming

    2004-01-01

    The multi-billion dollar US tree nut industries rely heavily on methyl bromide fumigation for postharvest insect control and are facing a major challenge with the mandated cessation by 2005 of its use for most applications. There is an urgent need to develop effective and economically viable alternative treatments to replace current phytosanitary and quarantine practices in order to maintain the competitiveness of US agriculture in domestic and international markets. With the reliable heating block system, the thermal death kinetics for fifth-instar codling moth, Indianmeal moth, and navel orangeworm were determined at a heating rate of 18 °C/min. A practical process protocol was developed to control the most heat resistant insect pest, fifth-instar navel orangeworm, in in-shell walnuts using a 27 MHz pilot scale radio frequency (RF) system. RF heating to 55 °C and holding in hot air for at least 5 min resulted in 100% mortality of the fifth-instar navel orangeworm. Rancidity, sensory qualities and shell characteristics were not affected by the treatments. If this method can be economically integrated into the handling process, it should have excellent potential as a disinfestation method for in-shell walnuts. PMID:15362185

  15. Fluctuating shells under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulose, Jayson; Vliegenthart, Gerard A.; Gompper, Gerhard; Nelson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal fluctuations strongly modify the large length-scale elastic behavior of cross-linked membranes, giving rise to scale-dependent elastic moduli. Whereas thermal effects in flat membranes are well understood, many natural and artificial microstructures are modeled as thin elastic shells. Shells are distinguished from flat membranes by their nonzero curvature, which provides a size-dependent coupling between the in-plane stretching modes and the out-of-plane undulations. In addition, a shell can support a pressure difference between its interior and its exterior. Little is known about the effect of thermal fluctuations on the elastic properties of shells. Here, we study the statistical mechanics of shape fluctuations in a pressurized spherical shell, using perturbation theory and Monte Carlo computer simulations, explicitly including the effects of curvature and an inward pressure. We predict novel properties of fluctuating thin shells under point indentations and pressure-induced deformations. The contribution due to thermal fluctuations increases with increasing ratio of shell radius to thickness and dominates the response when the product of this ratio and the thermal energy becomes large compared with the bending rigidity of the shell. Thermal effects are enhanced when a large uniform inward pressure acts on the shell and diverge as this pressure approaches the classical buckling transition of the shell. Our results are relevant for the elasticity and osmotic collapse of microcapsules. PMID:23150558

  16. Betel nut chewing and related factors in adolescent students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-Chen; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te; Hong, Yu-Jue

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence of betel nut chewing and related factors among adolescent students in general, manufacturing, commercial, agricultural and medical technology schools in Taiwan. To make suggestions regarding how health authorities can reduce the number of students taking up the habit. A cross-sectional survey was designed, and 10,288 students answered the questionnaire. Significantly more male than female students were betel nut chewers. The less urbanized areas were also associated with a higher prevalence of the habit. The prevalence of the habit grew with increasing age. By analysing betel nut chewing behaviour, it was found that most students started chewing betel nuts because of curiosity, and most obtained betel nuts from their friends and classmates. Betel nut chewing behaviour is definitely related to peer pressure. Most betel nut chewers did not realize that withdrawal could lead to physiological reactions, and they were ignorant of any risk to health even though they were compulsive betel nut chewers. The health-harming behaviours of both smoking and drinking were found in many betel nut chewers, particularly smoking. This study confirmed the need for a health education programme dealing with the health risks of betel nut chewing for students at risk. The health authorities could also develop a programme for betel nut chewing among Taiwan's adolescent students, emphasizing the dangers of this habit.

  17. Effect of tiger nut-derived products in gluten-free batter and bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Núria; Albanell, Elena; Miñarro, Begoña; Guamis, Buenaventura; Capellas, Marta

    2015-07-01

    Tiger nut is a tuber used to produce tiger nut milk that yields a high quantity of solid waste, which can be dried and used as fiber source. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the quality of gluten-free bread formulated with different tiger nut-derived products in order to substitute soya flour (which is an allergen ingredient) and, at the same time, increase the use of tiger nut-derived products. Four gluten-free formulations based on corn starch and containing tiger nut milk, tiger nut milk by-product, tiger nut flour, or soya flour (as reference formulation) were studied. Tiger nut milk increased G' of gluten-free batter and rendered breads with the softest crumb (502.46 g ± 102.05), the highest loaf-specific volume (3.35 cm(3)/g ± 0.25), and it was mostly preferred by consumers (61.02%). Breads elaborated with tiger nut flour had similar characteristics than soya flour breads (except in color and crumb structure). The addition of tiger nut milk by-product resulted in a hard (1047.64 g ± 145.74) and dark (L(*)  = 70.02 ± 3.38) crumb bread, which was the least preferred by consumers. Results showed that tiger nut is a promising ingredient to formulate gluten-free baked products. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Betel nut usage is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Bawany, Faizan Imran; Ahmed, Muhammad Umer; Hussain, Mehwish; Khan, Asadullah; Lashari, Muhammad Nawaz

    2013-12-27

    The objective of our study was to assess betel nut usage as one of the major risk factors associated with coronary artery disease. This case control study consisted of 300 controls and 300 cases. A structured questionnaire was administered to the participants to assess consumption of betel nut and confounding variables. A respondent was considered a regular consumer of betel nut if he/she consumed one or more pieces of betel nut every day for a period of greater than 6 months. About 8 in 10 betel nut chewers developed coronary artery disease. After adjusting for diabetes and hypertension, the odds ratio analysis depicted 7.72 times greater likelihood for coronary artery disease in patients who chewed betel nut for more than 10 years. Our study concludes that betel nut chewing is a significant risk factor leading to the development of coronary artery disease.

  19. Ultrasound processing to enhance drying of cashew apple bagasse puree: Influence on antioxidant properties and in vitro bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonteles, Thatyane Vidal; Leite, Ana Karoline Ferreira; Silva, Ana Raquel Araújo; Carneiro, Alessandra Pinheiro Góes; Miguel, Emilio de Castro; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Fernandes, Fabiano André Narciso; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2016-07-01

    The present study has evaluated the effects of power ultrasound pre-treatment on air-drying and bioactive compounds of cashew apple bagasse. The sonication induced the disruption of cashew bagasse parenchyma, which resulted in lower resistance to water diffusion, less hysteresis, and increased rehydration rate. The processing did not affect the lignocellulose fibers or the sclerenchyma cells. For sonicated samples, water activity reached values below 0.4, after 2h of drying, which is appropriate to prevent bacterial and fungi growth. The sorption isotherms of cashew apple bagasse presented sigmoid-shape for all samples and followed the type II according to BET classification. Sonicated cashew apple bagasse showed higher antioxidant activity, higher total phenolic compounds (TPC) and higher vitamin C content when compared to the non-sonicated sample. The increase in TPC and vitamin C contributed to the product antioxidant activity. A slight reduction on Vitamin C bioaccessibility was observed, but the TPC bioaccessibility has increased. Sonication reduced the quality loss of conventional drying treatments improving the quality of the dried product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa MSIC02 in cashew apple juice using a 24 full factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Maria Valderez Ponte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the production of biosurfactants from cashew apple juice by P. aeruginosa MSIC02 was investigate by carrying out a 24 full factorial experimental design, using temperature, glucose concentration from cashew apple juice, phosphorous concentration and cultivation time as variables. The response variable was the percentage of reduction in surface tension in the cell-free culture medium, since it indicates the surface-active agent production. Maximum biosurfactant production, equivalent to a 58% reduction in surface tension, was obtained at 37°C, with glucose concentration of 5.0 g/L and no phosphorous supplementation. Surface tension reduction was significant, since low values were observed in the cell-free medium (27.50 dyne/cm, indicating that biosurfactant was produced. The biosurfactant emulsified different hydrophobic sources and showed stability in the face of salinity, exposure to high temperatures and extreme pH conditions. These physiochemical properties demonstrate the potential for using biosurfactants produced by P. aeruginosa MSIC02 in various applications.

  1. Shell-like structures

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2011-01-01

    In this volume, scientists and researchers from industry discuss the new trends in simulation and computing shell-like structures. The focus is put on the following problems: new theories (based on two-dimensional field equations but describing non-classical effects), new constitutive equations (for materials like sandwiches, foams, etc. and which can be combined with the two-dimensional shell equations), complex structures (folded, branching and/or self intersecting shell structures, etc.) and shell-like structures on different scales (for example: nano-tubes) or very thin structures (similar

  2. Dowel-nut connection in Douglas-fir peeler cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe; John R. King; Agron. Gjinolli

    As part of an effort to encourage more efficient use of small-diameter timber, the Forest Products Laboratory cooperated with Geiger Engineers in a study of the structural properties of Douglas-fir peeler cores and the efficacy of a bdowel-nutc connection detail for application in the design of a space frame roof system. A 44.5-mm- (1.75-in.-) diameter dowel-nut...

  3. Design And Performance Characteristics Of Palm Kernel Nuts Drier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cabinet drier with dimensions 0.82m x 0.45m x 0.52m, having four trays and capable of drying 4kg of palm kernel nuts per hour was constructed. A control circuit to regulate the temperature of the heating chamber was installed in the appropriate parts of the drier. Using electrical heating, hot air is produced and allowed to ...

  4. Microbiological Spoilage of Spices, Nuts, Cocoa, and Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkas, Joan M.; Battista, Karen; Morille-Hinds, Theodora

    Spices, nuts, cocoa, and coffee are raw materials that may be used alone or as ingredients in the manufacture of processed food products. The control of microbiological spoilage of these raw materials at the ingredient stage will enable the food processor to better assure the production of high-quality foods with an acceptable shelf life. While this chapter is limited to four materials, many of the spoilage control procedures recommended can also be applied to other raw materials of a similar nature.

  5. Quality of Brazil nuts stored in forced aeration silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Aquino da Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The traditional system of collection and storage of Brazil nut compromises seriously the quality of these almonds as it contributes to the high incidence of contaminants, like fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which can produce aflatoxins. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the influence of the storage period in studied conditions, on the physicochemical characteristics and on the microbiological contamination of Brazil nuts. The experimental was designed as completely randomized, considering as treatments the storage period (0 - control, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days with four replicates of 3 kg of Brazil nuts each. The samples were submitted to physicochemical and microbiological analysis. It was observed that almonds submitted to the storage had their moisture content reduced by 78.2% at 150 days of storage, however, this reduction was not fast enough to avoid surface contamination by filamentous and potentially aflatoxins producing fungi. The critical period of contamination occurred on the first 30 days of storage when there was an increase of the studied fungi, as well as B1 and total aflatoxin. The studied storage conditions were four times more effective in reducing the product moisture content than the traditional methods, however, pre-drying is necessary to avoid contamination of the product.

  6. Coming to America: betel nut and oral submucous fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shahid R

    2010-04-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is an insidious precancerous disease affecting the oral cavity, pharynx and upper digestive tract. Its etiology is linked directly to betel nut use, which is common to the Indian subcontinent. With the increase in immigration of people from the Indian subcontinent to the United States, many American dental professionals will encounter this disease in the near future. The author provides a general overview of OSF. The author provides a literature review of OSF, including its epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, histopathology and treatment modalities. OSF is a precancerous oral disease linked definitively to the use of betel nut. It is endemic to people in the Indian subcontinent. Patients' primary complaint is progressive trismus. Treatment is based on disease severity. OSF is a debilitating but preventable oral disease. Its incidence in the United States will increase as the South Asian immigrant population expands. Consequently, American dental professionals may encounter patients with this disease, and it is important that they are aware of it. In addition, for dental care professionals practicing in a South Asian American community, public health education is important to inform the population about the deleterious oral health effects of betel nut consumption.

  7. NUTS and BOLTS: Applications of Fluorescence Detected Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroe, Rachel R.; Laue, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    Analytical ultracentrifugation is a widely used method for characterizing the solution behavior of macromolecules. However, the two commonly used detectors (absorbance and interference) impose some fundamental restrictions on the concentrations and complexity of the solutions that can be analyzed. The recent addition of a fluorescence detector for the XL-I analytical ultracentrifuge (AU-FDS) enables two different types of sedimentation experiments. First, the AU-FDS can detect picomolar concentrations of labeled solutes allowing the characterization of very dilute solutions of macromolecules, applications we call Normal Use Tracer Sedimentation (NUTS). The great sensitivity of NUTS analysis allows the characterization of small quantities of materials and high affinity interactions. Second, AU-FDS allows characterization of trace quantities of labeled molecules in solutions containing high concentrations and complex mixtures of unlabeled molecules, applications we call Biological On Line Tracer Sedimentation (BOLTS). The discrimination of BOLTS enables the size distribution of a labeled macromolecule to be determined in biological milieu such as cell lysates and serum. Examples are presented that embody features of both NUTS and BOLTS applications, along with our observations on these applications. PMID:19103145

  8. Determination of selenium in nuts by cathodic stripping potentiometry (CSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugo, Giacomo; La Pera, Lara; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Mavrogeni, Ekaterini; Alfa, Maria

    2003-06-18

    The aim of this work was to determine the selenium content in nut samples by cathodic stripping potentiometry. Dry-powdered nuts were digested by HNO(3) and dissolved with concentrated hydrochloric acid. To avoid the interference of natural oxygen, the potentiometric determination of selenium was carried out in an electrolyte solution consisting of 2 M CaCl(2) and 4 M HCl. The analysis was executed applying an electrolysis potential of -150 mV for 60 s and a constant current of -30 microA. Under these conditions, detection limits lower than 1.0 ng g(-)(1) were obtained for selenium analysis in nuts. The relative standard deviation of these measurements (expressed as rsd %) ranged from 0.44 to 0.88% while recoveries ranged from 90.2 to 95.3%. The results obtained with the proposed method were compared with those obtained via hydride vapor generation atomic absorption spectroscopy, a common method for determining selenium. The results of the two methods agreed within 5% for almond, hazelnut, and pistachio samples. The mean concentrations of selenium determined in Sicilian samples of almond, hazelnut, and pistachio were 531 +/- 1, 865 +/- 1, and 893 +/- 4 microg/kg, respectively.

  9. The oral health consequences of chewing areca nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedy, C R; Craig, G; Warnakulasuriya, S

    2002-01-01

    Deleterious effects of areca nut on oral soft tissues are published extensively in the dental literature. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal tissues, two major oral diseases, are less well researched. Areca-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa or tongue are reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers a condition known as betel chewer's mucosa, a discoloured areca nut-encrusted change, is often found where the quid particles are retained. Areca nut chewing is implicated in oral leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes in Asian populations. In 1985 the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there is limited evidence to conclude that areca chewing may directly lead to oral cancer. There is, however, new information linking oral cancer to pan chewing without tobacco, suggesting a strong cancer risk associated with this habit. Public health measures to quit areca use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as submucous fibrosis and oral cancer among Asian populations.

  10. Reaction of dwarf cashew clones to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates in controlled environment Reação de clones de cajueiro-anão a isolados de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides em ambiente controlado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana Maria Queijeiro López; John Alexander Lucas

    2010-01-01

    The cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) crop is an important source of income for the population of the Brazilian Northeast, and anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides leads to significant production loss...

  11. Association between betel-nut chewing and chronic kidney disease in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Che-Yi; Cheng, Shi-Yann; Liu, Jiung-Hsiun; Cheng, Wen-Chun; Kang, I-Min; Tseng, Yu-Hsiang; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Chen, Walter

    2009-05-01

    Betel-nut use is associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity. However, the association between betel-nut chewing and risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. The present study was conducted to determine the association between betel-nut chewing and CKD in men. We retrospectively reviewed health-check records of 3264 men in a hospital-based cross-sectional screening programme from 2003 to 2006. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 calculated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Risk factors for CKD including diabetes, hypertension, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption and age were also considered. A total of 677 (20.7 %) men were found to have CKD and 427 (13.1 %) participants reported a history of betel-nut use. The prevalence (24.8 %) of CKD in betel-nut users was significantly higher than that (11.3 %) of participants without betel-nut use (P = 0.026). In multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjustments for age, hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia, betel-nut use was independently associated with CKD (P betel-nut use was 2.572 (95 % CI 1.917, 3.451). Betel-nut use is associated with CKD in men. The association between betel-nut use and CKD is independent of age, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia.

  12. Reaction of dwarf cashew clones to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates in controlled environment Reação de clones de cajueiro-anão a isolados de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides em ambiente controlado

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Queijeiro López; John Alexander Lucas

    2010-01-01

    The cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) crop is an important source of income for the population of the Brazilian Northeast, and anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides leads to significant production loss. However, there is little information on either the host resistance or the variation in the aggressiveness of the pathogen under controlled environment. The reaction of commercial (CCP-06, CCP-09, CCP-76 and CCP-1001) and one non-commercial (CAP-14) dwarf cashew clones w...

  13. SHELL ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Valley. Although fossil specimens of this subspecies have been used in palaeoclimatic reconstruction, there have been no previous reports of living examples. Here We describe the local habitat, climate and some aspects of ecology and isotopic variation within the snail shell. If isotope data can be obtained for fossil shells, ...

  14. Learning the Bash Shell

    CERN Document Server

    Newham, Cameron

    2005-01-01

    This refreshed edition serves as the most valuable guide yet to the bash shell. It's full of practical examples of shell commands and programs guaranteed to make everyday use of Linux that much easier. Includes information on key bindings, command line editing and processing, integrated programming features, signal handling, and much more!

  15. Determination of cannabinoids in hemp nut products in Taiwan by HPLC-MS/MS coupled with chemometric analysis: quality evaluation and a pilot human study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Tung, Chun-Wei; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Wu, Yu-Tse; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2017-06-01

    Hemp nuts are mature cannabis seeds obtained after shelling and that are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating functional constipation. In this work, we screened hemp nut products, classified them, and verified the legality of consuming them. A total of 18 products were purchased from Taiwan, China, and Canada. Validated high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry methods were developed for analyzing the cannabinoid (i.e., Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol) content of the products and the concentration of urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC. Chemometric techniques, namely hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were applied for rapidly classifying 11 concentrated powder products in Taiwan. A pilot human study comprising single and multiple administrations of a product with 1.5 µg/g of THC was conducted to examine the urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC concentration. Through optimization of 32 full factorial design, using 60% isopropanol as the extraction solvent exhibited the highest yield of cannabinoids and was applied as the optimal condition in further analysis. The results of HCA and PCA on quality evaluation were in good agreement; however, the tested products possessed distinct CBD-to-THC ratios which ranged widely from 0.1:1 to 46.8:1. Particularly, the products with CBD-to-THC ratios higher than 1:1 were the majority in Taiwan. Our data suggested that all the tested hemp nut products met the Taiwan restriction criterion of 10 µg/g of THC. We propose a usual consumption amount of hemp nut products in Taiwan would unlikely to violate the cut-off point of 15 ng/mL of urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Anaphylaxis due to Brazil nut skin testing in a walnut-allergic subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, G; Bonadonna, P; Crivellaro, M; Schiappoli, M; Passalacqua, G

    2005-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of nut allergy can be difficult because of the possible severity of the clinical manifestations and the cross reactivity between different species. We report a case of anaphylaxis due to skin testing in a young adult with clinically ascertained walnut allergy. After an episode of anaphylaxis due to walnut ingestion, a routine diagnostic workup was carried out, involving skin prick test with commercial extracts, prick by prick with fresh food and CAP-RAST assay for different nuts. Immediately after pricking with fresh Brazil nut, a severe episode of anaphylaxis occurred, that required epinephrine and intravenous steroids. The subject had never eaten Brazil nut before. Therefore we hypothesize a cross reactivity effect, since this phenomenon is well known for tree nuts. Our case suggests that in vivo diagnosis, especially if fresh nuts are used, should be performed only if adequate equipment to treat anaphylaxis is available.

  17. Areca nut chewing and dependency syndrome: Is the dependence comparable to smoking? a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Kashif

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Areca nut is the seed of fruit oriental palm known as Areca catechu. Many adverse effects of nut chewing have been well documented in the medical literature. As these nuts are mixed with some other substances like tobacco and flavouring agents, it has been hypothesized that it might also cause some dependency symptoms among its users. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate dependency syndrome among areca nut users with and without tobacco additives and compare it with dependency associated with cigarette smoking among the male Pakistani population. Methods This was an observational cross sectional study carried out on healthy individuals, who were users of any one of the three products (areca nut only, areca nut with tobacco additives, cigarette smokers. Participants were selected by convenience sampling of people coming to hospital to seek a free oral check up. Information was collected about the socio-demographic profile, pattern of use and symptoms of dependency using the DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence. We carried out multiple logistic regressions to investigate association between socio-demographic profile, pattern of substance use and dependency syndrome. Results We carried out final analysis on 851 individuals, of which 36.8% (n = 314 were areca nut users, 28.4% (n = 242 were the chewers of areca with tobacco additives and 34.7% (n = 295 were regular cigarette smokers. Multivariate analyses showed that individuals using areca nut with tobacco additives were significantly more likely to have dependency syndrome (OR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.39-3.40 while cigarette smokers were eight times more likely to have dependency syndrome as compared to areca nut only users. Conclusions Areca nut use with and without tobacco additives was significantly associated with dependency syndrome. In comparison to exclusive areca nut users, the smokers were eight times more likely to develop dependence while areca nut

  18. Liver function tests as a measure of hepatotoxicity in areca nut chewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Singroha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Areca nut has been listed as a carcinogenic agent in humans and is linked to cancers of oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and hepatobiliary system. Liver function tests (LFTs, the estimation of enzymes specific to the hepatic system, give an assessment of its cellular integrity, and functionality. Aim and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the state of the liver in patients consuming areca nut and its products over a period. Materials and Methods: LFTs were carried out on 10 nonareca nut chewers and thirty patients with a history of areca nut, quid or a combination of tobacco and areca nut chewing, extending from 6 months to 30 years. The LFTs included estimation of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, direct bilirubin, albumin, and total protein content. A comparative analysis was done for each biochemical marker with duration, form (betel nut alone, quid, and betel nut with tobacco, and frequency of chewing areca nut. Results: A mild increment in AST was seen in 33.3% cases. Statistically significant association (P < 0.05 was observed between the control and cases for AST, ALP, and total protein content. A significant positive Pearson's correlation (+0.417 was obtained for a form of areca nut chewing (areca nut and tobacco and AST. A significant negative Pearson's correlation (−0.05 was observed between total protein content and form of chewing (areca nut and tobacco. Conclusion: The results of the study seem to indicate that even long-term chewing of areca nut is not hepatotoxic. Minor alterations in LFTs were well within limits.

  19. The areca nut chewing habit and oral squamous cell carcinoma in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion between nut chewing and cheek cancer. The odds ratio (OR) for oral cancer in WOlllen 25 years and older who only chewed the nut was 43,9 and the attributable risk (AR) 0,89 (89%). With tobacco the OR increases to 47,42 and the AR to. 0,91 (91%). The data showed that the areca nut habit with or without tobacco use ...

  20. Areca nut chewing and systemic inflammation: evidence of a common pathway for systemic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Kashif

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Areca nut, the seed of fruit of an oriental palm, known as Areca catechu, is commonly chewed in many countries. Diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, oropharyngeal and oesophageal cancers have been associated with areca nut chewing and the mechanism by which areca nut chewing increases the risk of systemic diseases remains elusive. We hypothesize that systemic inflammation may be elevated among areca nut users, which is linked with many systemic diseases. Therefore, this present study was conducted to examine the systemic inflammation among areca nut chewers and healthy controls. Methods This was an observational cross sectional study carried out on areca nut chewers and healthy individuals in Karachi, Pakistan. Participants were selected from a region of the city by invitation request sent from door to door. Information was collected regarding the socio-demographic profile and the pattern of use, and a blood sample was obtained to measure the level of C-reactive protein (CRP. We carried out multiple logistic regressions to investigate the association between socio-demographic profile, areca nut chewing and CRP levels. Results We carried out final analysis on 1112 individuals of which 556 were areca nut chewers and 556 were the age, gender and area matched controls. Areca nut chewers had a significantly higher proportion of men (15.1%, n = 84 who had an elevated CRP (>10 mg/dl as compared to controls (5.2%, n = 29. Multivariate analyses showed that areca nut chewers had significantly higher odds of an elevated CRP (OR = 3.23, 95% CI 2.08-5.02, p value Conclusions Areca nut chewing has a significant association with systemic inflammation. Further work is required to confirm that systemic inflammation is the main pathway by which areca nut use increases the risk of systemic diseases.

  1. Physicochemical, functional and sensory attributes of milk prepared from irradiated tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Okyere, Abenaa A.; Odamtten, George T.

    2014-01-01

    Five tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) cultivars were collected from four different regions of Ghana and irradiated. The aim of this study was to evaluate some physicochemical, functional and sensory qualities of milk produced from irradiated tiger nut samples. Analysis was carried out for pH, total solids, moisture, sugar brix and viscosity. Finally the consumer acceptability of the milk prepared from the nuts was determined by a taste panel using the parameters of colour, taste, aroma, mout...

  2. Soy and Brazil nut beverage: processing, composition, sensory, and color evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Felberg,Ilana; Antoniassi,Rosemar; Deliza, Rosires; Freitas, Sidinea Cordeiro de; Modesta,Regina Celia Della

    2009-01-01

    Despite its high nutritional value, soymilk consumption in Western countries is limited mainly due to undesirable flavors developed during the traditional elaboration process. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) has pleasant flavor and recognized nutritional value. Thus, the aim of this work was to elaborate a soy and Brazil nut beverage exploring the use of two national products of high nutritional quality. The process for manufacturing a soy and Brazil nut beverage consisted of elaboration, f...

  3. Betel Nut Usage Is a Major Risk Factor for Coronary Artery Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Bawany, Faizan Imran; Ahmed, Muhammad Umer; Hussain, Mehwish; Khan, Asadullah; Lashari, Muhammad Nawaz

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The objective of our study was to assess betel nut usage as one of the major risk factors associated with coronary artery disease. Methods: This case control study consisted of 300 controls and 300 cases. A structured questionnaire was administered to the participants to assess consumption of betel nut and confounding variables. A respondent was considered a regular consumer of betel nut if he/she consumed one or more pieces of betel nut every day for a period of greater than 6 months. R...

  4. Oral lichenoid contact lesions induced by areca nut and betel quid chewing: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichart, Peter A; Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    2012-08-01

    Betel quid (BQ) and areca nut chewing is widely prevalent in many parts of Asia and Asian-migrant communities throughout the world. Global reports estimate 600 million users. Sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity has been found for BQ and its main ingredient, areca nut. BQ areca nut users have an increased risk of potentially malignant disorders. Among chewers, BQ remains in contact with the oral mucosa for prolonged periods. This review examines the clinical and pathological aspects of lichenoid lesions caused by areca nut and BQ, a condition that has received little attention in the published literature. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Nut consumption has favorable effects on lipid profiles of Korean women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Joo; Nam, Ga Eun; Seo, Ji A; Yoon, Taehyung; Seo, Ilwon; Lee, Jin Hee; Im, Donggil; Bahn, Kyeong-Nyeo; Jeong, Si An; Kang, Tae Seok; Ahn, Jae Hee; Kim, Do Hoon; Kim, Nan Hee

    2014-09-01

    Nut consumption has been studied for its cardioprotective effects. However, the findings of clinical intervention studies are inconsistent; and no intervention studies have been conducted in the Korean population. We hypothesized that nut supplementation may have favorable influence on metabolic markers. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of nut consumption on metabolic parameters and biomarkers related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial function in Korean adults with metabolic syndrome. To this end, we designed a randomized, parallel, controlled dietary intervention study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02023749). Subjects with metabolic syndrome and a body mass index of at least 23 kg/m(2) were randomized to the Control group and the Nut group, which received supplementation with 30 g/d of mixed nuts (walnuts, peanuts, and pine nuts) for 6 weeks. Sixty volunteers were included in the final analysis. Metabolic markers were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the study. Total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels significantly improved in the Nut group compared to those in the Control group (P = .023 and P = .016, respectively) in women. Biomarkers related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial function did not significantly change from baseline in either group. Thus, supplementing a usual diet with mixed nuts for 6 weeks had favorable effects on several lipid parameters in Korean women with metabolic syndrome. These findings present a possible mechanism for the cardioprotective effects of nut consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Benefits of Nut Consumption on Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Multiple Potential Mechanisms of Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoona Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies have indicated that nut consumption could be a healthy dietary strategy to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM and related cardiovascular disease (CVD. The objective of this review is to examine the potential mechanisms of action of nuts addressing effects on glycemic control, weight management, energy balance, appetite, gut microbiota modification, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial function and blood pressure with a focus on data from both animal and human studies. The favourable effects of nuts could be explained by the unique nutrient composition and bioactive compounds in nuts. Unsaturated fatty acids (monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids present in nuts may play a role in glucose control and appetite suppression. Fiber and polyphenols in nuts may also have an anti-diabetic effect by altering gut microbiota. Nuts lower serum cholesterol by reduced cholesterol absorption, inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase and increased bile acid production by stimulation of 7-α hydroxylase. Arginine and magnesium improve inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial function and blood pressure. In conclusion, nuts contain compounds that favourably influence glucose homeostasis, weight control and vascular health. Further investigations are required to identify the most important mechanisms by which nuts decrease the risk of T2DM and CVD.

  7. Nuclear shell theory

    CERN Document Server

    de-Shalit, Amos; Massey, H S W

    1963-01-01

    Nuclear Shell Theory is a comprehensive textbook dealing with modern methods of the nuclear shell model. This book deals with the mathematical theory of a system of Fermions in a central field. It is divided into three parts. Part I discusses the single particle shell model. The second part focuses on the tensor algebra, two-particle systems. The last part covers three or more particle systems. Chapters on wave functions in a central field, tensor fields, and the m-Scheme are also presented. Physicists, graduate students, and teachers of nuclear physics will find the book invaluable.

  8. Selective conversion of polyenes to monoenes by RuCl(3) -catalyzed transfer hydrogenation: the case of cashew nutshell liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdriau, Sébastien; Harder, Sjoerd; Heeres, Hero J; de Vries, Johannes G

    2012-12-01

    Cardanol, a constituent of cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL), was subjected to transfer hydrogenation catalyzed by RuCl(3) using isopropanol as a reductant. The side chain of cardanol, which is a mixture of a triene, a diene, and a monoene, was selectively reduced to the monoene. Surprisingly, it is the C8-C9 double bond that is retained with high selectivity. A similar transfer hydrogenation of linoleic acid derivatives succeeded only if the substrate contained an aromatic ring, such as a benzyl ester. TEM and a negative mercury test showed that the catalyst was homogeneous. By using ESI-MS, ruthenium complexes were identified that contained one, two, or even three molecules of substrate, most likely as allyl complexes. The interaction between ruthenium and the aromatic ring determines selectivity in the hydrogenation reaction. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Immobilization of cationic antimicrobial peptides and natural cashew gum in nanosheet systems for the investigation of anti-leishmanial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Bittencourt, Clicia; Oliveira Farias, Emanuel Airton de; Costa Bezerra, Karla; Costa Véras, Leiz Maria [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Ministro Reis Velloso, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piauí, UFPI, Parnaíba, PI 64202020 (Brazil); Costa Silva, Vladimir [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Ministro Reis Velloso, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piauí, UFPI, Parnaíba, PI 64202020 (Brazil); Laboratório de Pesquisas em Leishmanioses, Instituto de Doenças Tropicais Natan Portela–IDTNP, Teresina 64001450 (Brazil); Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery [Laboratório de Pesquisas em Leishmanioses, Instituto de Doenças Tropicais Natan Portela–IDTNP, Teresina 64001450 (Brazil); Bemquerer, Marcelo P. [EMBRAPA Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, 70770-917 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Laboratório de Espectrometria de Massa, LEM, Sala de Nanotecnologia, EMBRAPA, Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, Brasília, DF 70770-917 (Brazil); Silva, Luciano Paulino [EMBRAPA Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, 70770-917 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Souza de Almeida Leite, José Roberto de [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Ministro Reis Velloso, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piauí, UFPI, Parnaíba, PI 64202020 (Brazil); and others

    2016-02-01

    This report details the development of thin films containing an antimicrobial peptide, specifically, dermaseptin 01 (GLWSTIKQKGKEAAIAAA-KAAGQAALGAL-NH{sub 2}, [DRS 01]), and a natural polysaccharide, for a novel application in detecting the presence of Leishmania cells and maintaining anti-leishmanial activity. The peptide DRS 01 was immobilized in conjunction with natural cashew gum (CG) onto an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate using the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition technique. The LbL film ITO/CG/DRS 01, containing DRS 01 as the outer layer, was capable of detecting the presence of Leishmania cells and acting as an anti-leishmanial system. Detection was performed using cyclic voltammetry (CV) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.2) in the presence of promastigote cells (0–10{sup 7} cells/mL). The results showed a linear and inversely proportional relation between the concentration of Leishmania infantum protozoan cells and the measured current values obtained for the films, which was attributed to the effect of peptide-induced lysis of the cell membrane, and resulted in freed residues that were adsorbed on the electrode surface. With this, the paper shows a method using thin films with this new material to demonstrate the anti-leishmanial activity in vitro models of carpet-like mechanisms. - Highlights: • Layer-by-Layer films based on a natural polysaccharide (cashew gum) and an antimicrobial peptide (DRS 01) were prepared and characterized. • The films produced were capable of detecting the presence of Leishmania cells, acting as an antileishmanial system.

  10. Propolis or cashew and castor oils effects on composition of Longissimus muscle of crossbred bulls finished in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Velandia Valero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural additive products (propolis or essential oils, in replacing antibiotics, could be used as an alternative for feed strategies to improve animal production. This work was performed to evaluate the effect of natural additives as propolis or essential oils on meat quality of crossbred (Aberdeen Angus vs. Nellore bulls. Thirty bulls were kept in feedlot (individual pen for 55 d and randomly assigned to one of three diets (n = 10: control (CON, propolis (PRO, or essential oils (OIL. CON diet consists of corn silage (45% DM and concentrate (cracked corn, soybean meal, glycerin, limestone, and mineral salt, 55% DM. The PRO group received same CON diet plus 3 g animal-1 d-1 of propolis premix added to the concentrate. The OIL group received same CON diet and 3 g animal-1 d-1 of a premix (cashew Anacardium occidentale L. and castor Ricinus communis L. oils added to the concentrate. Fat thickness (5.0 mm, pH (5.9, Longissimus muscle area 58.0 cm², marbling, texture, color (L* = 36.6, a* = 17.3, and b* = 5.9, lipid oxidation (0.08 malonaldehyde kg-1 meat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (3.3 kg were unaffected by the diet. PRO and OIL diets had no effect neither on moisture (73.7%, ashes (1.1%, protein (23.8%, and lipids (1.7%, fatty acid composition or polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid (PUFA/ SFA, 0.13, and n-6/n-3 ratio (6.9 on Longissimus muscle. Addition of natural additives as propolis extract or cashew and castor oils in the diet of bulls when they are finished in a feedlot did not change meat qualities.

  11. Nutritional evaluation of elephant-grass silages with different levels of by-products from the cashew juice industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Holanda Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the intake, apparent digestibility (AD, and degradability in situ of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum silages containing 0, 35.0, 70.0, 105.0, and 140.0 g kg-1 by-product from dried cashew apple (DCBP (as fed basis. A completely randomized design with four replicates was adopted. For the study of degradability in situ, one adult male cattle was used in a completely randomized design with split plots. Intake and AD of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicellulose, and cellulose were evaluated, and the digestible energy (DE and nitrogen balance (NB of the silages were determined. The degradability in situ of DM, CP, and NDF was also determined. Addition of DCBP provided an increase in the intakes of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF. No effects of the levels of addition of DCBP were observed on the coefficients of AD of the silages. Regarding NB, positive values were only detected in the treatment with 105.0 g kg-1 DCBP. In the analysis of the degradability in situ, the incubation periods increased the rates of disappearance of DM, CP, and NDF. However, no effect of the levels of DCBP were observed on the effective degradability of DM. The by-product from dried cashew apple can be included at up to 140.0 g kg-1 in silages of elephant grass, but the high contents of acid detergent insoluble nitrogen may compromise the use and availability of nitrogen to the animals.

  12. Shells and Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutley, Jane

    2009-01-01

    "Shells and Patterns" was a project the author felt would easily put smiles on the faces of her fifth-graders, and teach them about unity and the use of watercolor pencils as well. It was thrilling to see the excitement in her students as they made their line drawings of shells come to life. For the most part, they quickly got the hang of…

  13. Prevalence and factors associated with the consumption of betel-nut among military conscripts in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Chu, Nain-Feng; Wu, Der-Min; Shen, Mu-Han

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluates the prevalence of betel-nut chewing among military personnel stationed on Taiwan's offshore islands. Furthermore, this study examines variables to identify which may predict a greater predilection toward betel-nut chewing among the conscript population studied. A cross-sectional mass screening was conducted of compulsory military service personnel stationed on Taiwan's offshore islands between August 1 and December 31, 2001. A total of 7574 military employees were included in this survey. Information regarding betel-nut chewing habits were ascertained using a standard structured questionnaire, which including the level and duration of betel-nut chewing as well as respondents' knowledge, attitude and practices with regard to consumption of this product. Conscripts were found to be less likely to chew betel-nut regularly while performing military service. There are 1535 (20.3%) of respondents reporting to habitually chew betel-nut prior to active duty shrank to 1048 (13.8%) after going on active-duty. The most reasons to chew betel-nut among the recruits after military services are curiosity (33.3%) and as a stimulant (29.8%). About 46% of military employees who currently chew betel-nut report an interest to quit in the future. The risk factors for betel-nut chewing include individual factors (e.g., age, education, knowledge, and attitude toward betel-nut chewing), lifestyle habits (e.g., cigarette smoking), and familial factors (e.g., consumption of betel-nut by parents). More interesting, the recruits had the habit of cigarette smoking associated with increase risk for betel-nut chewing (OR: 7.18; 95% CI: 5.66-9.20). Although the military has made considerable progress in reducing betel-nut chewing on military campuses, the prevalence of betel-nut chewing is still relatively high and, in 2001, affected about one quarter of all military personnel stationed on the abovementioned offshore islands. In future efforts to lower betel-nut consumption

  14. Betel nut chewing: the prevalence and the intergenerational effect of parental behavior on adolescent students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-Chen; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te; Hong, Yu-Jue

    2004-03-01

    To explore the betel nut chewing prevalence among students, analyze the probability and the odds ratio of ex-chewers and current chewers, as well as the correlation between parental behavior characteristics and those of adolescents chewing betel nut. A cross-sectional survey was designed and 10,288 Taiwanese students answered the questionnaires in 2002. A structured questionnaire included information about betel nut chewing behavior among the adolescent students, sociodemographic data, and the betel nut chewing practice among parents or classmates. Samples were randomly chosen from each cluster of different types of schools in various areas. Three different grade levels of the first, second, and third grade (ages 16-18 years) were selected. Frequency distribution was used to analyze the prevalence among adolescent students, and Chi-square tests were used to compare the differences of betel nut chewing behavior among genders and the effect of parental behavior and socioeconomic factors. Logistic regression was used to analyze the odds ratio of the prevalence of adolescent students' betel nut chewing in the different types of schools and by gender. When the parents' marriage was not successful, or was of a lower social status, a higher incidence of adolescent betel nut chewing was observed. It was easy to experience betel nut chewing in adolescence if either parent chewed betel nut. The prevalence of betel nut chewing among male students was higher than female students and among vocational school students than general school students. The odds ratio of agricultural school students to general school students was highest of all the ex-chewers and current chewers from different types of schools. Betel nut chewing behavior is related to the effect of parental behavior on adolescent students. Apparently, it is indicated that there is a significant intergenerational effect of the parent's behavior on their children's behavior.

  15. SYNTHESIS ALKANOLAMIDE TETRAHIDROXY OCTADECANOATE COMPOUND FROM CANDLE NUT OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Daniel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Candle nut oil could be transesterificated by methanol with concentrated H2SO4 as a catalyst to form fatty acid methyl esther. Methyl linoleate could be separated by Column Chromatography mechanism technic partition from fatty acid methyl ester (FAME mixture, then it was treated by ethanolamine at base condition in benzene as solvent and sodium methylate as a catalyst at reflux condition for 6 hours to form an alkanolamide. Alkanolamide could be epoxydized by tert-buthyl hydroperoxyde and peroxygenase as a catalyst and it was refluxed for 6 hours at 40 °C and nitrogen gas condition to form the epoxy alkanolamide octadecanoate, and then it was hydrolyzed by HCl 0.1 M to form alkanolamide tetrahidroxy octadecanoate (Polyol. Alkanolamide tetrahidroxy octadecanoate could be separated by Column Chromatography using silica gel H 40 and the eluent was the mixture of chloroform, ethyl acetate, formic acid in a ratio 90:10:1 (v/v/v/. Determination of HLB value from alknolamide tetrahydroxy octadecanoate is 13.096. Therefore, this compound was particularly suitable for application as an o/w emulsifiers. All af the reaction steps were confirmed by using FT-IR, 1H-NMR, GC-MS, Gas Chromatography and TLC.   Keywords: Esterification, Candle nut oil, Surfactant, Amidation, Polyol.

  16. Genetic gains in physic nut using selection indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Lopes Bhering

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate genetic gains in physic nut (Jatropha curcas using selection indexes and to establish the best selection strategy for the species. Direct and indirect selection was carried out using different selection indexes, totalizing 14 strategies. One hundred and seventy five families from the active germplasm bank of Embrapa Agroenergy, Brasília, Brazil, were analyzed in a randomized complete block design with two replicates. The evaluated traits were: grain yield; seeds per fruit; endosperm/seed ratio; seed weight, length, width, and thickness; branches per plant at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m; plant height; stem diameter; canopy projection on rows and between lines; canopy volume; juvenility (days to the first flowering; and height of the first inflorescence. Evaluations were done during the second year of cultivation. The use of selection indexes is relevant to maximize the genetic gains in physic nut, favoring a better distribution of desirable traits. The multiplicative and restrictive indexes are considered the most promising for selection.

  17. Chronic administration of cardanol (ginkgol) extracted from ginkgo biloba leaves and cashew nutshell liquid improves working memory-related learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobinaga, Seisho; Hashimoto, Michio; Utsunomiya, Iku; Taguchi, Kyoji; Nakamura, Morihiko; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    2012-01-01

    Cardanol (ginkgol) extracted from Ginkgo biloba leaves and cashew nutshell liquid enhances the growth of NSC-34 immortalized motor neuron-like cells and, when chronically administered to young rats, improves working memory-related learning ability as assessed by eight-arm radial maze tasks. These findings suggest that cardanol is one of the components in Ginkgo biloba leaves that improves cognitive learning ability.

  18. Salt-induced delay in cotyledonary globulin mobilization is abolished by induction of proteases and leaf growth sink strength at late seedling establishment in cashew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Luiz Ferreira Aguiar; Silva, André Luis Coelho da; Carvalho, Fabrício Eulálio Leite; Maia, Josemir Moura; Voigt, Eduardo Luiz; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio Gomes

    2014-09-15

    Seedling establishment in saline conditions is crucial for plant survival and productivity. This study was performed to elucidate the biochemical and physiological mechanisms involved with the recovery and establishment of cashew seedlings subjected to salinity. The changes in the Na+ levels and K/Na ratios, associated with relative water content, indicated that osmotic effects were more important than salt toxicity in the inhibition of seedling growth and cotyledonary protein mobilization. Salinity (50mM NaCl) induced a strong delay in protein breakdown and amino acid accumulation in cotyledons, and this effect was closely related to azocaseinolytic and protease activities. In parallel, proline and free amino acids accumulated in the leaves whereas the protein content decreased. Assays with specific inhibitors indicated that the most important proteases in cotyledons were of serine, cysteine and aspartic types. Proteomic analysis revealed that most of the cashew reserve proteins are 11S globulin-type and that these proteins were similarly degraded under salinity. In the late establishment phase, the salt-treated seedlings displayed an unexpected recovery in terms of leaf growth and N mobilization from cotyledon to leaves. This recovery coordinately involved a great leaf expansion, decreased amino acid content and increased protein synthesis in leaves. This response occurred in parallel with a prominent induction in the cotyledon proteolytic activity. Altogether, these data suggest that a source-sink mechanism involving leaf growth and protein synthesis may have acted as an important sink for reserve mobilization contributing to the seedling establishment under salinity. The amino acids that accumulated in the leaves may have exerted negative feedback to act as a signal for the induction of protease activity in the cotyledon. Overall, these mechanisms employed by cashew seedlings may be part of an adaptive process for the efficient rescue of cotyledonary proteins

  19. Effect of pistachio nut consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, Ravi R; Bansal, Manish; Mehrotra, Rahul; Yeptho, Kajal Pandya; Trehan, Naresh

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of regular consumption of pistachio nuts on glycemic, lipid, and oxidative stress parameters. The aim of this study was to determine its effect on vascular health, which has not been adequately studied so far. In this open label, randomized parallel-group study, 60 adults with mild dyslipidemia were randomized to lifestyle modification (LSM) alone or LSM with consumption of 80 g (in-shell) pistachios (equivalent to 40 g or 1.5 oz shelled pistachios) daily for 3 mo. Biochemical parameters, brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (BAFMD), and carotid-femoral and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (cfPWV and baPWV, respectively) were measured before and after the intervention. At 3 mo, there was no change in any of the clinical or biochemical parameters in the LSM group. However, the patients in the pistachio group had a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; 35.7 ± 8.8 mg/dL versus 37.8 ± 10.1 mg/dL; P = 0.04) and a reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (137.2 ± 32.6 mg/dL versus 127.6 ± 34.0 mg/dL; P = 0.02), total cholesterol (TC)-to-HDL-C ratio (5.8 ± 1.3 mg/dL versus 5.3 ± 1.1 mg/dL; P = 0.001), and fasting blood sugar (88.8 ± 7.1 mg/dL versus 86.6 ± 6.3 mg/dL; P = 0.05). Additionally, whereas LSM alone was associated with no improvement in BAFMD or PWV, individuals in the pistachio group had significant reduction in left baPWV (1261.7 ± 187.5 cm/sec versus 1192.4 ± 152.5 cm/sec; P = 0.02) and statistically nonsignificant improvement in most other parameters, including BAFMD. As a result, at 3 mo the patients in the pistachio group had lower cfPWV (770.9 ± 96.5 cm/sec versus 846.4 ± 162.0 cm/sec; P = 0.08), lower left baPWV (1192.4 ± 152.5 cm/sec versus 1326.3 ± 253.7 cm/sec; P = 0.05), and lower average baPWV (1208.2 ± 118.4 cm/sec versus 1295.8 ± 194.1 cm/sec; P = 0.08) compared

  20. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48. Banana, cacao, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 48 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released banana, plantain, and cacao cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. ...