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Sample records for cashew anacardium occidentale

  1. Morphological characterization of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... relation to nut yield that can be used to improve produc- tion of cashew in Malawi. ... cultural Development Division, Press Agriculture Limited and all the small ... DNA fingerprinting of India cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) ...

  2. Pharmacological properties of cashew (Anacardium occidentale)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rai Pablo Sousa de Aguiar

    2016-08-31

    Aug 31, 2016 ... to its economy, abundance and important chemical compounds. Net of cashew nut .... In the phytochemical analysis of cashew leaves, it is reported that it has ..... LCCI obtained by this process contains anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol .... phosphodiesterase isozymes and the design of selective inhibitors.

  3. Novel method for isolation of major phenolic constituents from cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramashivappa, R; Kumar, P P; Vithayathil, P J; Rao, A S

    2001-05-01

    Commercially available cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid (CNSL) mainly contains the phenolic constituents anacardic acid, cardol, and cardanol. These phenolic constituents are themselves heterogeneous, and each of them contains saturated, monoene, diene, and trienes in the fifteen-carbon side chain. This communication describes the separation of anacardic acid, cardol, and cardanol for industrial application. Anacardic acid was selectively isolated as calcium anacardate. The acid-free CNSL was treated with liquor ammonia and extracted with hexane/ethyl acetate (98:2) to separate the mono phenolic component, cardanol. Subsequently, ammonia solution was extracted with ethyl acetate/hexane (80:20) to obtain cardol.

  4. Process for isolation of cardanol from technical cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phani Kumar, P; Paramashivappa, R; Vithayathil, P J; Subba Rao, P V; Srinivasa Rao, A

    2002-07-31

    Commercially available technical cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid (CNSL) contains mainly cardanol (decarboxylated anacardic acid) and cardol. Cardanol, the monophenolic component of technical CNSL, is widely used as a synthon for the preparation of a number of polymers and agricultural products. This paper describes the separation of cardanol from toxic cardol. Technical CNSL was dissolved in a mixture of methanol and ammonium hydroxide (8:5) and extracted with hexane to obtain cardanol. The resultant methanolic ammonia layer was extracted with a mixture of ethyl acetate and hexane to yield cardol. This is the first industrially feasible process based on solvent extractions for the isolation of cardanol from technical CNSL.

  5. Effect of Biofield Energy Treatment on Chlorophyll Content, Pathological Study, and Molecular Analysis of Cashew Plant (Anacardium occidentale L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In the world scenario, India occupies a premier position contributing to about 43 per cent production of the cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) along with export and processing. The aim is to study the impact of biofield energy treatment on selected farms for cashew farming. The control and biofield treated farms were divided as control and treated farms, and Mr. Trivedi provided the biofield energy treatment to the treated farms. Further, the plants and fruits were analyzed for overall g...

  6. Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Of Cashew Nut (Anacardium occidentale L. Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Huynh Nhu Nguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction method was applied to extract oil from cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.. The commercial enzyme (Viscozyme cassava C was tested for effectiveness in releasing oil during the aqueous extraction. The effect of several parameters such as material/water ratio, enzyme concentration and duration for enzyme incubation on the oil yield was investigated. The conditions for maximum oil release were found with the material/water ratio of 1:9, enzyme concentration of 1% (v/w E/S, and in 3 h of enzyme incubation at 50oC with constant shaking. The maximum oil yield obtained at those conditions (38.88 % raw material was significantly (p <0.05 higher than that of the control (without enzyme (35.92 %, and it represented 86.28 % recovery of the total oil in seed. No hexane and other organic solvents were needed for this process. The cashew nut oil by enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction was relatively stable. Both peroxide value and free fatty acid value were lower than those in the oil obtained by Soxhlet method. Total un-saturated fatty acid in the cashew nut oil was about 84.43 %, in which the most abundant was oleic acid (65.0 %, followed by linoleic acid (18.53%. Cashew nut oil is a good dietary source of un-saturated fatty acids.

  7. Estimates of genetic correlations and correlated responses to selection in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes Manoel Pedroza de Azevedo

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study estimates variances and genetic and phenotypic correlations for five traits in 27 progenies of cashew trees (Anacardium occidentale L.. Data were obtained from a trial conducted in 1992 at Pacajus, Ceará, experimental station of Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical. The characters studied were plant height (PH, North-South and East-West canopy spreads (NSS, EWS, and primary and secondary branch numbers (PBN, SBN. All genetic and phenotypic correlations presented positive and significant values. Selection to increase or decrease the average of any one of the five characteristics of cashew plants in the progenies studied affected the average of the others. The 16-month-old canopy spread can be predicted from NSS or EWS since correlations between them were high. Correlations between PH and SBN were low, indicating that there is a good possibility of obtaining smaller plants without causing drastic reductions in SBN. PH and SBN showed, respectively, the lowest and highest genetic variance estimates relative to the corresponding population means.Neste trabalho são estimadas variâncias, correlações genéticas e fenotípicas e respostas correlacionadas, envolvendo cinco caracteres em 27 progênies de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.. Os dados foram obtidos em Pacajus-CE, num ensaio conduzido no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, em l992. Os caracteres estudados foram altura de planta (PH, envergaduras norte-sul (NSS e leste-oeste (EWS e número de ramos primários (PBN e secundários (SBN. Todas as correlacões genéticas e fenotípicas obtidas foram positivas e significativas. A seleção para aumentar ou reduzir a média de qualquer um dos cinco caracteres estudados nas progênies de cajueiro afetou indiretamente a média dos outros quatro caracteres. A envergadura da copa aos 16 meses pode ser representada por NSS ou EWS, tendo em vista que a correlação entre elas foi elevada. As correlações envolvendo PH

  8. Cashew-nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) Drying Study Using a Solar Dryer with Direct Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Antônio V.; Oliveira,Edson L. de; Santos, Everaldo S.; Jackson A de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    MACHADO, Antônio V. et al. Estudio del Secado de Anacardo (Anacardium occidentale L.) mediante Secador Solar de Radiación Directa. Información Tecnológica, v. 21, n. 1, p. 31-37, 2010. Resumen: Se presentan ensayos de secado con radiación solar directa y su modelado matemático, para evaluar la cinética de secado del anacardo (Anacardium occidentale L.) y comparar su eficiencia en relación al secado solar natural en tablero. Los experimentos fueron realizados con rodajas de fruta de 1 cm. y...

  9. Utilisation of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid from Anacardium occidentale as Starting Material for Organic Synthesis: A Novel Route to Lasiodiplodin from Cardols

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Maria Lucilia dos; Magalhães,Gouvan C. de

    1999-01-01

    As part of an ongoing program concerning utilisation of CNSL (Cashew Nut Shell Liquid) from Anacardium occidentale as starting material for the preparation of useful compounds, we describe the conversion of cardols (6-alkenylresorcinols) into lasiodiplodin, a naturally occurring 12-membered orsellinic acid type macrolide, which exhibits plant growth regulating and antileukemic properties.

  10. O uso da casca da castanha do caju, Anacardium occidentale, como moluscicida alternativo The use of cashew nut shell of caju (Anacardium occidentale as alternative molluscicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Pereira de Souza

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioensaios usando extratos hexânicos de cascas da castanha do caju, Anacardium occidentale, coletadas no Ceará em 1972 (amostra 1 e em 1987 (amostra 2 foram feitos sobre moluscos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila e B. straminea, no laboratório e no campo. As cascas, 18,5 g, sem triturar amostra 1, também foram testadas sobre moluscos adultos e desovas das três espécies. A toxidez do extrato foi testada ainda sobre peixes (Poecilia reticulata e girinos. As concentrações letais CL90, amostra 1, foram de 2,0 a 2,2 ppm para os moluscos das três espécies. Para B. glabrata adultos, recém-eclodidos e desovas as CL90, amostra 2, foram de 2,0, 0,5 e 30,0 ppm respectivamente. As cascas causaram mortalidade de 40 a 80% dos moluscos e de 22 a 35% dos embriões, ocasionando redução de 40 a 55% na oviposição das três espécies. O extrato hexânico, amostra 2, foi inócuo para girinos e peixes até 2 ppm. No campo, em poços com água parada, tratados com 20 ppm do extrato, amostra 1, ocorreu 97,1% de mortalidade de B. straminea e 100% de B. glabrata e B. tenagophila. Com a niclosamida a 3 ppm ocorreu 100% de mortalidade das três espécies.Bioassays using hexanolic extracts of cashew nut shells, of Anacardium occidentale, collected in Ceará in 1972 (Sample 1 and 1987 (Sample 2 were undertaken with adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea both in the laboratory and in the field. Non extracted shells, 18.5 g, sample 1, were also tested with adult snails and egg masses of the three species. The toxicity of extract was tested with fish (Poecilia reticulata and tadpoles. The lethal concentration, CL90, of sample 1 was from 2.0 to 2.2 ppm for adult snails of the three species. With sample 2, the CL90 was 2.0, 0.5 and 30.0 ppm for B. glabrata adults, newly hatched snails and egg mass respectively. Non extracted shells caused 40 - 80% mortality of adult snails, 22 - 35% mortality

  11. Carotenoids, carotenoid esters, and anthocyanins of yellow-, orange-, and red-peeled cashew apples (Anacardium occidentale L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Vargas, Ester; Conrad, Jürgen; Hempel, Judith; Gras, Claudia C; Ziegler, Jochen U; Mayer, Angelika; Jiménez, Víctor; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2016-06-01

    Pigment profiles of yellow-, orange-, and red-peeled cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) apples were investigated. Among 15 identified carotenoids and carotenoid esters, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin palmitate were the most abundant in peels and pulp of all samples. Total carotenoid concentrations in the pulp of yellow- and red-peeled cashew apples were low (0.69-0.73 mg/100g FW) compared to that of orange-peeled samples (2.2mg/100g FW). The color difference between the equally carotenoid-rich yellow and red colored samples indicated the presence of a further non-carotenoid pigment type in red peels. Among four detected anthocyanins, the major anthocyanin was unambiguously identified as 7-O-methylcyanidin 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside by NMR spectroscopy. Red and yellow peel color was chiefly determined by the presence and absence of anthocyanins, respectively, while the orange appearance of the peel was mainly caused by increased carotenoid concentrations. Thus, orange-peeled fruits represent a rich source of provitamin A (ca. 124 μg retinol-activity-equivalents/100g pulp, FW).

  12. Contribution of the cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) for development of layer-by-layer films with potential application in nanobiomedical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, I M S; Zampa, M F; Moura, J B; dos Santos, J R; Eaton, P; Zucolotto, V; Veras, L M C; de Paula, R C M; Feitosa, J P A; Leite, J R S A; Eiras, C

    2012-08-01

    The search for bioactive molecules to be employed as recognition elements in biosensors has stimulated researchers to pore over the rich Brazilian biodiversity. In this sense, we introduce the use of natural cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) as an active biomaterial to be used in the form of layer-by-layer films, in conjunction with phthalocyanines, which were tested as electrochemical sensors for dopamine detection. We investigated the effects of chemical composition of cashew gum from two different regions of Brazil (Piauí and Ceará states) on the physico-chemical characteristics of these nanostructures. The morphology of the nanostructures containing cashew gum was studied by atomic force microscopy which indicates that smooth films punctuated by globular features were formed that showed low roughness values. The results indicate that, independent of the origin, cashew gum stands out as an excellent film forming material with potential application in nanobiomedical devices as electrochemical sensors.

  13. Antiulcerogenic effect and acute toxicity of a hydroethanolic extract from the cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konan, Nzi André; Bacchi, Elfriede Marianne

    2007-06-13

    The antiulcerogenic effect of a hydroethanolic extract of Anacardium occidentale L. leaves was investigated. The extract inhibited gastric lesions induced by HCl/ethanol in female rats. A dose-response effect study showed that the ED50 was 150 mg/kgb.w. Extract doses higher than 100 mg/kgb.w. were more effective than 30 mg/kg of lansoprazol in inhibiting gastric lesions. A methanolic fraction (257.12 mg/kg) which reduced gastric lesion at 88.20% is likely to contain the active principle of the antiulcer effect. No signs of acute toxicity were observed when mice were treated with extract dose up to 2000 mg/kgb.w. A chemical analysis of the extract allowed the identification of phenolic compounds as the major components. Glycosylated quercetin, amentoflavone derivate and a tetramer of proanthocyanidin were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The level of total phenolics in the extract was evaluated at 35.5% and flavonoid content was 2.58%.

  14. [Development of mixed beverages made of caja (Spondias mombin L.) and cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale) added of fructooligosaccharides and inulin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Larissa Morais Ribeiro da; Lima, Andréa da Silva; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; Rodrigues, Maria do Carmo Passos; Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane de; Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado de

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop three mixed drinks based on caja (Spondias mombin L.) and cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale) pulps, added prebiotic ingredients and to evaluate their chemical, physicochemical and sensory properties. Four formulations with combinations of two pulp fruit, sucrose and prebiotic ingredients (Standard inulin, inulin high performance-HP-and fructooligosaccharides FOS) were developed. The mixed drinks were submitted the following analysis pH, acidity, soluble solids, sugars, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, total polyphenols and acceptance ratings of the sensory attributes such as: consistency, sweetness and overall impression, attitude and consumers purchase preference. The pH, total soluble solids and polyphenol results showed difference (p sweetness, consistency and attitude of buying showed no difference (p > 0.05) between drinks, however, differed significantly (p < or = 0.05) for the attribute of overall impression. The drink with FOS showed a similar acceptance when compared to traditional (sucrose) drink, showing an option of meeting the functional food expectations of consumers, who seek healthy, nutritious and tasty foods.

  15. Contribution of the cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) for development of layer-by-layer films with potential application in nanobiomedical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, I.M.S. [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, CCN, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Teresina, PI, 64049-550 (Brazil); Nucleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Parnaiba, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64202-020 (Brazil); Zampa, M.F. [Nucleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Parnaiba, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64202-020 (Brazil); Campus Parnaiba, Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologia do Piaui, IFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64210-260 (Brazil); Moura, J.B.; Santos, J.R. dos [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, CCN, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Teresina, PI, 64049-550 (Brazil); Eaton, P. [REQUIMTE, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, Porto, 4169-007 (Portugal); Zucolotto, V. [Grupo de Biofisica Molecular Sergio Mascarenhas, Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, IFSC, USP, Sao Carlos, SP, 13566-590 (Brazil); and others

    2012-08-01

    The search for bioactive molecules to be employed as recognition elements in biosensors has stimulated researchers to pore over the rich Brazilian biodiversity. In this sense, we introduce the use of natural cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) as an active biomaterial to be used in the form of layer-by-layer films, in conjunction with phthalocyanines, which were tested as electrochemical sensors for dopamine detection. We investigated the effects of chemical composition of cashew gum from two different regions of Brazil (Piaui and Ceara states) on the physico-chemical characteristics of these nanostructures. The morphology of the nanostructures containing cashew gum was studied by atomic force microscopy which indicates that smooth films punctuated by globular features were formed that showed low roughness values. The results indicate that, independent of the origin, cashew gum stands out as an excellent film forming material with potential application in nanobiomedical devices as electrochemical sensors. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study focused on the use of cashew gum for the formation of LbL films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LbL films containing cashew gums were investigated by AFM and cyclic voltammetry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cashew gum contributed to obtain stable films with well-defined redox processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cashew gum films detected dopamine in low concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These LbL films presented potential application in nanobiomedical devices.

  16. Alterações químicas e físico-químicas no processamento de suco de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. Physicochemical changes in cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L. Juice processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya de Oliveira Sancho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as alterações físico-químicas do suco de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. com alto teor de polpa, em diferentes etapas do seu processamento industrial. Observou-se que a acidez e o teor de ácido ascórbico do suco diminuíram progressivamente com o processamento industrial, exibindo os menores teores na etapa de pasteurização. Os teores de ácido fólico apresentaram comportamento diferenciado, apresentando os maiores teores na etapa de homogeneização do suco. Os valores de açúcares redutores, não-redutores e totais, assim como o pH, se mantiveram constantes.This work aimed to study the physicochemical changes occurring in cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L. juice with high pulp content in various stages of the industrial process. The acidity and ascorbic acid contents were found to decrease progressively along the process, presenting their lowest values in the pasteurization stage. Folic acid content was highest in the juice homogenizing stage. Reducing and non-reducing sugars, as well as pH values remained constant throughout the process.

  17. Characterization of alkyl phenols in cashew (Anacardium occidentale) products and assay of their antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, M T S; Pfundstein, B; Haubner, R; Würtele, G; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H; Owen, R W

    2006-02-01

    In this study the content of anacardic acids, cardanols and cardols in cashew apple, nut (raw and roasted) and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) were analysed. The higher amounts (353.6 g/kg) of the major alkyl phenols, anacardic acids were detected in CNSL followed by cashew fibre 6.1 g/kg) while the lowest (0.65 g/kg) amounts were detected in roasted cashew nut. Cashew apple and fibre contained anacardic acids exclusively, whereas CNSL also contained an abundance of cardanols and cardols. Cashew nut (raw and roasted) also contained low amounts of hydroxy alkyl phenols. Cashew nut shell liquid was used for a basic fractionation of the alkyl phenol classes and the individual anacardic acids, major cardanols and cardols were purified to homogeneity from these fractions by semi-preparative HPLC and definitively identified by nano-ESI-MS-MS, GC-MS and NMR analyses. The hexane extracts (10 mg/ml) of all cashew products tested plus CNSL, displayed significant antioxidant capacity. Cashew nut shell liquid was the more efficient (inhibition=100%) followed by the hexane extract of cashew fibre (94%) and apple (53%). The antioxidant capacity correlated significantly (P4.0 mM). The data shows that of these substances, anacardic-1 was by far the more potent antioxidant (IC50=0.27 mM) compared to cardol-1 (IC50=1.71 mM) and cardanol-1 (IC50>4.0 mM). The antioxidant capacity of anacardic acid-1 is more related to inhibition of superoxide generation (IC50=0.04 mM) and xanthine oxidase (IC50=0.30 mM) than to scavenging of hydroxyl radicals. At present a substantial amount of cashew fibre is mostly used in formulations of animal or poultry feeds. The data presented in this study, indicates that this waste product along with CNSL, both of which contain high contents of anacardic acids, could be better utilized in functional food formulations and may represent a cheap source of cancer chemopreventive agents.

  18. Antimutagenic activity of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale Sapindales, Anacardiaceae) fresh juice and processed juice (cajuína) against methyl methanesulfonate, 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide and benzo[a]pyrene

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Cashew apple juice (CAJ), produced from the native Brazilian cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale), and has been reported to have antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor, antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. Both the fresh unprocessed juice and the processed juice (cajuína in Portuguese) has been shown to consist of a complex mixture containing high concentrations of anacardic and ascorbic acids plus several carotenoids, phenolic compounds and metals. We assessed both types of juice for thei...

  19. Separation of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid with supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R L; Malaluan, R M; Setianto, W B; Inomata, H; Arai, K

    2003-05-01

    Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) represents the largest readily available bioresource of alkenyl phenolic compounds. In this work, separation of CNSL from the pericarp of the cashew nut with supercritical carbon dioxide was studied. In the initial extractions with CO(2) at 40-60 degrees C and at pressures from 14.7 to 29.4 MPa, low yields were obtained. However, when the extractions were performed with one or more intermediate depressurization steps, the yield of CNSL increased to as high as 94%. Most of the oil did not separate from the shell during the depressurization step, but was obtained during the subsequent repressurization. The CNSL extract had a clear light brownish pink color and exhibited no evidence of polymerization or degradation. The pressure profile extraction method proposed in this work increases the possible CNSL extraction yields and greatly reduces the amount of CO(2) required for CNSL separation.

  20. Lipids Characterization and Industrial Potentials of Pumpkin Seeds (Telfairia occidentalis and Cashew Nuts (Anacardium occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Eddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil from Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentale has been extracted and characterized. The lipid content of the Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentalis were 58.41% and 42.15% respectively. The physicochemical parameters of Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentale seeds were; boiling point; (58.90, 62.60 °C, melting point; (18.50, 21.80 °C, refractive index; (1.462, 1.498, specific gravity; (0.87, 0.69 saponification value; (91.16, 92.57 iodine value; (51.52, 47.20, acid value; (0.76, 3.74 ester value; (90.40, 88.87, % free fatty acid; (.38, 1.88 and peroxide value; (11.75, 15.23 respectively. Oils from these seeds were found to exhibit the needed potentials for utilization in paint and food industries and as biofuel.

  1. Pyrolysis and gasification of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) shell: liquid products characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Renata Andrade; Figueiredo, Flavio Augusto Bueno; Sanchez, Caio Glauco; Sanchez, Elisabete Maria Saraiva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Combustion Lab.]. E-mails: flavioa@fem.unicamp.br; renataaf@fem.unicamp.br; caio@fem.unicamp.br; bete@fem.unicamp.br; Arauzo, Jesus; Sanchez, Jose Luis; Gonzalo, Alberto [University of Zaragoza (Spain). Aragon Institute of Engineering Research. Thermo-chemical Processes Group (GPT)]. E-mails: qtarauzo@unizar.es; jlsance@unizar.es; agonca@unizar.es

    2008-07-01

    The environment contamination with effluents generated in the biomass pyrolysis process has been waking up the scientific community's interest and concern in a larger number of countries, that are adopting measures to quantify and reduce the generated effluents. The pyrolysis and gasification are processes that can serve as alternative for the recovery of energy in the biomass usage. Considering that Brazil is one of the greatest world producers of biomass, the theme of the biomass usage in the generation of energy has been largely discussed. By the processes of pyrolysis and gasification, depending on the biomass type, the same can be transformed in fuel (liquid, char and gases in different proportions). However, the gases have a level of impurity that should be controlled to use it in a motor or turbine. The main impurities that should be controlled are tars, chars, ashes and nitrogenated compounds. The biomass used in this work is the cashew nut shell, from the Northeast of Brazil. In northeast there are industries that process the cashew nut which can use the cashew nut main reject (shell) as fuel, avoiding landfill sanitary deposit. By thermal conversion of the biomass in the pyrolysis and gasification process, it was quantified the production of solids (char), liquids (tar) and gases. It was evaluated the influences of the final temperature (800, 900 and 1000 deg C) and the use of N{sub 2} in pyrolysis case, and a mixture of N{sub 2} and vapor of water in the gasification case, in the amounts of char, tar and gas. The exhausted gas passes through a tar (liquid) condensation system, which consists of two glass condenser vessels cooled with a mixture of ice and water and an electrostatic precipitator. The liquid fractions are extracted with isopropanol and the sample is analyzed for CG-MS and CG-FID for the identification and quantification of the present compositions. Around 50 different composed have been detected in the liquid fraction obtained, most of

  2. Extraction of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) nut shell liquid using supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajesh N; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu; Ganesh, Anuradda

    2006-04-01

    This work investigated the extraction of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)). Effects of process parameters such as extraction pressure, temperature and flow rate of SC-CO(2) were investigated. The yield of CNSL increased with increase in pressure, temperature and mass flow rate of SC-CO(2). However, under different operating conditions, the composition of CNSL varied. The study of physical properties and chemical composition of the oil obtained through super critical fluid extraction (SCFE) showed better quality as compared to the CNSL obtained through thermal route. Experimental results were compared with diffusion based mass transfer model. Based on this simple model, extraction time was optimized.

  3. Clastogenic and toxicological assessment of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) nut bark extracts in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owumi, Solomon E; Fatoki, John O; Gbadegesin, Michael A; Odunola, Oyeronke A

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposures to environmental toxicants have been associated with the onset of skin lesions-including cancers. Identification and reduction of exposure to such compounds is an important public health goal. We examined the effect of cashew shell oil (CSO), used in skin tattooing for its potential to induce skin transformation in rats. Corn oil and CSO (25, 50, and 100%) were topically applied to depilated sections of Wistar' rat skin (groups: I-IV) for six weeks. Effect of treatments on serum transaminases activity, histological changes in hepatocytes and induction of micronuclei in the bone marrow were examined. In addition, CSO-induced hepatocyte proliferation was also quantified. All animals survived the course of the study. Reduced percentage change in body weight and physical trauma were observed in CSO-treated rat. The effects were more prominent in Group IV (100% CSO). Relative liver weights and number of hepatocytes (cells/mm(2)) increased significantly in groups II-IV relative to control (p 0.05) affected in treated groups. Hepatic histopathology revealed moderate sinusoidal congestion (group II), in addition to portal congestion in (group III), with mononuclear cellular infiltration (group IV) animals. In addition, CSO induced significant micronuclei formation of polychromatic erythrocyte (mPCEs) in the rat bone marrow (p tattoos in humans should be discouraged and further studies need to be conducted.

  4. Effects of immature cashew nut-shell liquid (Anacardium occidentale) against oxidative damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lima, S G; Feitosa, C M; Citó, A M G L; Moita Neto, J M; Lopes, J A D; Leite, A S; Brito, M C; Dantas, S M M; Cavalcante, A A C Melo

    2008-09-09

    The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) represents one of the major cheapest sources of non-isoprenoid phenolic lipids, which have a variety of biological properties: they can act as molluscicides, insecticides, fungicides, have anti-termite properties, have medicinal applications, and demonstrate antioxidant activity in vitro. Immature cashew nut-shell liquid (iCNSL) is a unique natural source of unsaturated long-chain phenols. Their use has stimulated much research in order to prepare drug analogues for application in several fields. The objective of the present study was to determine whether iCNSL has antioxidant properties when used in strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to measure the inhibitory activity of acetylcholinesterase. The constituents were identified using thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance. The iCNSL contains anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and 2-methyl cardol. Immature cashew nut oil contains triacylglycerols, fatty acids, alkyl-substituted phenols, and cholesterol. The main constituents of the free fatty acids are palmitic (C(16:0)) and oleic acid (C(18:1)). iCNSL has excellent protective activities in strains of S. cerevisiae against oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide and inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity. iCNSL may have an important role in protecting DNA against damage induced by reactive oxygen species, as well as hydrogen peroxide, generated by intra- and extracellular mechanisms.

  5. (Anacardium occidentale) in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... native of Tropical Central and South America, notably. North Eastern Brazil, from ..... wide acceptability in European and American markets. The Government should ... Active substances in cashew nut shell with molluscicidal ...

  6. Characterization and bioassay for larvicidal activity of Anacardium occidentale (cashew) shell waste fractions against dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosalinda C; Garbo, Alicia G; Walde, Rikkamae Zinca Marie L

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies regarding the harmful effects of synthetic larvicides initiated the need to investigate for unconventional measures that are environmentally safe and target-specific against Aedes aegypti larvae. Thus, the main objectives of the study are to evaluate the larvicidal toxicity of the solvent fractions of Anacardium occidentale shell wastes against the third and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti and to compare the results with the commercial larvicide product. The shell wastes were extracted with 95% EtOH followed by polarity-based fractionation. The fractions were tested for larvicidal activity according to the World Health Organization bioassay method. These were then characterized by quantitative thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) fingerprinting. The hexane fraction gave the strongest activity among the fractions with an LC50 of 4.01 mg/L and LC90 of 11.29 mg/L highly comparable to the commercial larvicide, which exhibited an LC50 of 1.71 mg/L and LC90 of 8.41 mg/L. The dichloromethane fraction exhibited 9.70 mg/L LC50 and 18.44 mg/L LC90. The remarkable toxicity effects exhibited by these fractions indicate their potential to provide core structures from which sustainable and environmentally safe plant-based larvicidal agents can be synthesized.

  7. Bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacity of cashew apples (Anacardium occidentale L. during the ripening of early dwarf cashew clones Compostos bioativos e atividade antioxidante total de pedúnculos de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. durante o amadurecimento de clones de cajueiro anão-precoce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Maria de Almeida Lopes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lately, tropical fruit consumption has increased due to a higher knowledge of its nutritional and therapeutic value. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of cashew apples from different early dwarf clones during their ripening. The clones analyzed included: CCP 76, CCP 09, BRS 189 and BRS 265 in seven ripening stages. They were analyzed for vitamin C, total carotenoid, total anthocyanin, yellow flavonoids and polyphenol content and total antioxidant capacity. Clone BRS 265 ripe cashew apple presented the highest vitamin C content (279.37 mg x 100 g-1. The ripe BRS 189 cashew apple is colored bright red, and its total anthocyanin content was the highest (21.16 mg x 100 g-1. The yellow flavonoids content was higher for ripe CCP 76 and BRS 189 cashew apples with 56.32 and 50.75 mg x 100 g-1, respectively. The highest levels of extrable polyphenols and antioxidant capacity were observed in CCP 09 in the first five ripening stages. The antioxidant activity of cashew apples (Anacardium occidentale L. is mainly attributed to polyphenol content (r = 0.90; p Ultimamente, o consumo de frutas tropicais tem aumentado em razão de um maior conhecimento de seu valor nutricional e terapêutico. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o potencial antioxidante de pedúnculos de cajus de diferentes clones de cajueiro anão precoce, durante o seu amadurecimento. Os clones analisados foram: CCP 76, CCP 09, BRS 189 e BRS 265, em sete estádios de amadurecimento. Foram analisados para a vitamina C total, antocianinas, carotenóides totais, flavonóides amarelos, teor de polifenóis e capacidade antioxidante total. O clone BRS 265 maduro obteve o maior teor de vitamina C (279,37 mg x 100 g-1. O pedúnculo maduro BRS 189, apresentou o maior conteúdo de antocianinas totais (21,16 mg x 100 g-1. O conteúdo de flavonóides amarelos foi maior para os clones CCP 76 e BRS 189 maduros, com 56,32 e 50,75 mg x 100 g-1, respectivamente. Os maiores teores

  8. Purification and Characterization of Anacardium occidentale (Cashew) Allergens Ana o 1, Ana o 2, and Ana o 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, Marit; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; Sforza, Stefano; Valk, Van Der J.P.M.; Gerth Van Wijk, Van Roy; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Jong, De N.W.; Wichers, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study a fast and simple purification procedure for the three known allergens from cashew (7S globulin Ana o 1, 11S globulin Ana o 2, and 2S albumin Ana o 3) is described. The purified allergens are characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), West

  9. In vitro bioaccessibility of copper, iron, zinc and antioxidant compounds of whole cashew apple juice and cashew apple fibre (Anacardium occidentale L.) following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Ana Cristina Silva; Soares, Denise Josino; da Silva, Larissa Morais Ribeiro; de Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado; de Abreu Menezes, Eveline

    2014-10-15

    Considering the lack of research studies about nutrients' bioaccessibility in cashew apple, in this study the whole cashew apple juice and the cashew apple fibre were submitted to simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The samples were analysed before and after digestion and had their copper, iron, zinc, ascorbic acid, total extractable phenols and total antioxidant activity assessed. As a result, for the whole cashew apple juice, the content of copper and iron minerals bioaccessible fraction were 15% and 11.5% and for zinc this level was 3.7%. Regarding the cashew apple fibre, the bioaccessible fraction for these minerals was lower than 5%. The ascorbic acid, total extractable polyphenols and total antioxidant activity bioaccessible fraction for whole cashew apple juice showed bioaccessibility percentages of 26.2%, 39% and 27%, respectively, while for the cashew apple fibre, low bioaccessibles levels were found. The bioacessible percentage of zinc, ascorbic acid and total extractable polyphenols were higher in cashew apple juice than cashew apple fibre. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Occurrence of Aspergillus section Flavi and section Nigri and aflatoxins in raw cashew kernels (Anacardium occidentale L.) from Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamboni, Yendouban; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Hell, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of Aspergillus section Flavi and A. section Nigri in cashew nuts harvested in the Northern Guinea (NG) and Southern Sudanian (SS) agro-ecological zones of Benin. Also, the presence of aflatoxins was investigated. For detection of fungal...... contamination, a total of 100 kernels/sample (with disinfection) and 40 kernels/sample (without disinfection) were plated. Seventy samples from fourteen villages were used. Aflatoxins occurrence was analysed on 84 samples by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC...... predominant, in NG and SS zones (90.2% and 87.2%) respectively. When non disinfected kernels were plated, A. section Nigri was predominant in both NG and SS zones, with percentages of 89.7% and 93.4%, respectively. None of the 84 nuts samples were positive for natural occurrence of aflatoxins with a detection...

  11. Purification and Characterization of Anacardium occidentale (Cashew) Allergens Ana o 1, Ana o 2, and Ana o 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsma, Marit; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; Sforza, Stefano; van der Valk, Johanna P M; van Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Savelkoul, Huub F J; de Jong, Nicolette W; Wichers, Harry J

    2016-02-10

    In this study a fast and simple purification procedure for the three known allergens from cashew (7S globulin Ana o 1, 11S globulin Ana o 2, and 2S albumin Ana o 3) is described. The purified allergens are characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blot, glycoprotein stain, and protein identification. The purified proteins still bind IgE, and this IgE binding varied between different pools of patient serum. Ana o 1 was found to be a glycoprotein. Ana o 3 has been studied more in detail to identify both the small and large subunits, both displaying microheterogeneity, and epitope mapping of Ana o 3 has been performed.

  12. Cinética e caracterização físico-química do fermentado do pseudofruto do caju (Anacardium occidentale L. Kinetic and physico-chemical characterization of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto B. Torres Neto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of cashew apple wine has the purpose of minimizing the wastage in the Brazilian cashew production. Knowing that the cashew apple fermentation produces a good cashew wine, a study of alcoholic fermentation kinetics of the cashew apple and the physico-chemical characterization of the product were made. The cashew wine was produced in an stirred batch reactor. The results of the physico-chemical analysis of volatiles, residual sugars, total acidity and pH of cashew wine showed that their concentrations were within the standard limits established by the Brazilian legislation for fruit wines.

  13. Protective effect of anacardic acids from cashew (Anacardium occidentale) on ethanol-induced gastric damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Talita C; Pinto, Natália B; Carvalho, Karine Maria M B; Rios, Jeison B; Ricardo, Nagila Maria P S; Trevisan, Maria Teresa S; Rao, Vietla S; Santos, Flávia A

    2010-01-05

    Cashew nut-shell liquid and the contained anacardic acids (AAs) have been shown to possess antioxidant, lipoxygenase inhibitory, anti-Helicobacter pylori and antitumor properties. Despite these known effects, hitherto there were no published reports on their likely gastroprotective effects. The present study was designed to verify whether AAs afford gastroprotection against the ethanol-induced gastric damage and to examine the underlying mechanism(s). Gastric damage was induced by intragastric administration of 0.2mL of ethanol (96%). Mice in groups were pretreated orally with AAs (10, 30 and 100mg/kg), misoprostol (50 microg/kg), or vehicle (2% Tween 80 in saline, 10mL/kg), 45min before ethanol administration. They were sacrificed 30min later, the stomachs excised, and the mucosal lesion area (mm(2)) measured by planimetry. Gastroprotection was assessed in relation to inhibition of gastric lesion area. To study the gastroprotective mechanism(s), its relations to capsaicin-sensitive fibers, endogenous prostaglandins, nitric oxide and ATP-sensitive potassium channels were analysed. Treatments effects on ethanol-associated oxidative stress markers GSH, MDA, catalase, SOD, and total nitrate/nitrite levels as an index of NO were measured in gastric tissue. Besides, the effects of AAs on gastric secretory volume and total acidity were analysed in 4-h pylorus-ligated rat. AAs afforded a dose-related gastroprotection against the ethanol damage and further prevented the ethanol-induced changes in the levels of GSH, MDA, catalase, SOD and nitrate/nitrite. However, they failed to modify the gastric secretion or the total acidity. It was observed that the gastroprotection by AAs was greatly reduced in animals pretreated with capsazepine, indomethacin, l-NAME or glibenclamide. These results suggest that AAs afford gastroprotection principally through an antioxidant mechanism. Other complementary mechanisms include the activation of capsaicin-sensitive gastric afferents

  14. Insect fauna associated with Anacardium occidentale (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in Benin, West Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Agboton, C.; Onzo, A.; Ouessou, F. I.; Goergen, G.; Vidal, S; Tamò, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cashew, Anacardium occidentale L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), is an important cash crop in Benin. However, its production is threatened by several biotic factors, especially insects. In Benin, very few studies have focused on insects and just listed species commonly found on cashew worldwide. The present investigation fills this gap by presenting an exhaustive inventory of insect species associated with this crop in the country. The survey was carried out from September 2009 to August 2010 i...

  15. Identification of antimicrobial properties of cashew, Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The antimicrobial capabilities of plant extract derived from the leaves of the cashew plant, ... Medicinal plants are of great importance to the health ... Harcourt, Rivers State. .... occidentale should involve refining or purifying and.

  16. Study of rheological behavior of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale, l., acerola (Malpighia emarginata, d.c. and mango (Mangifera indica, l. pulpsEstudo do comportamento reológico de polpas de caju (Anacardium occidentale, l., acerola (Malpighia emarginata, d.c. e manga (Mangifera indica, l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evânia Altina Teixeira de Figueiredo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the fruit tropical pulps rheological behavior have a great importance for the consumers and food process industries. In this work it was studied the rheological behavior of the cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale, L., mango (Mangifera indica, L and acerola (Malpighia emarginata, DC single strength, frozen and pasteurized pulps. The experimental measurements were carried out in concentric cylinder rheometer and the experimental data were fitted to models of Ostwald-de-Waelle and Bingham. There were evaluated chemical, physical-chemical and microbiological parameters. In this work, in order to adjust the rheological parameters, the model that presented the best description was the Ostwald-de-Waelle for the mango and acerola pulps, and Bingham for cashew apple pulp. The samples presented non-Newtonian and pseudoplastic character. The chemical and physicochemical analysis showed the nutritional value of the studied fruits. The microbiological results presented satisfactory hygienic and sanitary conditions in pulps processing.O conhecimento do comportamento reológico das polpas de frutas tropicais é muito importante para os consumidores e para a indústria de alimentos. Neste trabalho se estudou o comportamento reológico de polpas de caju (Anacardium occidentale, L., manga (Mangifera indica, L e acerola (Malpighia emarginata, D.C. integrais, pasteurizadas e congeladas. As medidas experimentais foram realizadas em reômetro rotacional de cilindros concêntricos e os dados experimentais foram ajustados aos modelos de Ostwald-de-Waelle e Bingham. Também foram avaliados os parâmetros químicos, físico-químicos e microbiológicos. No estudo, para o ajuste dos parâmetros reológicos, o modelo que apresentou maior ajuste foi o de Ostwald-de-Waelle para as polpas de acerola e manga e Bingham para a polpa de caju. As amostras apresentaram comportamento não-newtoniano e caráter pseudoplástico. As caracterizações químicas e f

  17. Antimutagenic activity of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale Sapindales, Anacardiaceae fresh juice and processed juice (cajuína against methyl methanesulfonate, 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide and benzo[a]pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amelia Melo-Cavalcante

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cashew apple juice (CAJ, produced from the native Brazilian cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale, and has been reported to have antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor, antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. Both the fresh unprocessed juice and the processed juice (cajuína in Portuguese has been shown to consist of a complex mixture containing high concentrations of anacardic and ascorbic acids plus several carotenoids, phenolic compounds and metals. We assessed both types of juice for their antimutagenic properties against the direct mutagens methyl methanesulfonate (MMS and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO and the indirect mutagen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP using pre-treatment, co-treatment and post-treatment assays with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA102, and TA97a. In pre-treatment experiments with strains TA100 and TA102 the fresh juice showed high antimutagenic activity against MMS but, conversely, co-treatment with both juices enhanced MMS mutagenicity and there was an indication of toxicity in the post-treatment regime. In pre-, co-, and post-treatments with TA97a as test strain, antimutagenic effects were also observed against 4-NQO and BaP. These results suggest that both fresh and processed CAJ can protect the cells against mutagenesis induced by direct and indirect mutagens.

  18. Estimulantes químicos na extração da goma de cajueiro(Anacardium occidentale, L. Chemical stimulants in the extraction of the gum of cashew tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Calixto Lima

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi instalado no campo experimental de Pacajus - Ceará - Brasil, pertencente ao Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Caju (CNPAT/EMBRAPA, no decurso do ano agrícola 1991 / 1992, tendo como objetivo avaliar o uso de estimulantes químicos na extração da goma de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale, L., bem como estudar sua interferência sobre safras futuras da referida matéria. Na pesquisa, foram testadas, através de esquema fatorial, concentrações de 0, 15, 30 e 45% de ácido sulfúrico, combinadas com um nível de dimetil sulfóxido (5% mais 5 níveis de ethephon que variaram de 0 a 20% do ácido 2 - cloroetilfosfônico. Obteve-se um aumento generalizado das produções de goma nos meses que se seguiram à primeira operação de estriamentos por efeito dos estimulantes aplicados. O ácido sulfúrico não interferiu na exsudação, enquanto a solução de 15% de ácido 2-cloroetilfosfônico promoveu a melhor resposta sobre a produção de goma.The work was carried out at the Experimental Field Station of the National Institute of Cashew Research (CNPAT/EMBRAPA in Pacajus County, State of Ceará, Brazil, in order to study the influence of chemical stimulants to extract gum from cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale, L., as well as to study its interference on future gum productions. Sulphuric acid concentrations of 0, 15, 30 and 45%, combined with concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% of 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid and 5% dimetil sulphoxide were tested in a factorial design. The influence of the stimulant over the future gum exudation was also assessed. A general increase of gum exudation was obtained in all months following the stimulant applications; sulphuric acid did not increase gum exudation in any of the used concentrations. On the other hand, a 15% concentration of 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid allowed the highest rate of gum exudation.

  19. DYNAMICS OF THE RUMINAL FERMENTATION IN SHEEP FEEDING WITH RATION CONTAINING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CASHEW BY-PRODUCTS (Anacardium occidentale Efecto de la inclusion en los níveles crescentes del subproducto de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. en la dinámica de la fermentacion ruminal de ovinos DINÂMICA DA FERMENTAÇÃO RUMINAL EM OVINOS ALIMENTADOS COM RAÇÕES CONTENDO DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE COPRODUTOS DE CAJU (Anacardium occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Cláudio Rogério

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The study aimed to evaluate the inclusion of cashew by-product (Anacardium occidentale L. on the ammoniac nitrogen concentrations (N-NH3, pH and vollatile fatty acids concentrations (VFA of the ruminal fluid, in sheep that received diets containing the cited by-product. Twenty male, entire sheep had been distributed in four treatments with different levels of cashew by-product inclusion (zero; 19%; 38%; 52% in a randomized block design, in a split-plot project, having in the parcels the diets and the sub-parcels the times of collection (zero, two, five, eight hours after-feeding with five replications. PH was remained inside of the normal standards cited by same literature in the raised cashew by-product inclusions. Diets with zero and 52% had gotten the biggest concentrations of N-NH3. The molar ratio of the AGV in the ruminal liquid in the diets with cashew by-product was typical of rich diets in voluminous. The relation acetate: propionate was not affected by the inclusion of the cashew by-product. The inclusion of the cashew by-product in up to 19 % of the dietary total presented better resulted in that it says respect to the parameters analyzed in this work.

    KEY WORDS: Ammoniac nitrogen, Ovis aries, pH, parameters ruminate, ruminants, volatile fatty acids.

    El estudio apunto evaluar la inclusión del subproducto de caju (Anacardium occidentale en la concentración de nitrogeno amoniacal (N-NH3, el pH y las concentraciones de los acidos grasos vollatiles (AGV en el liquido ruminal de ovinos CASHEW PULP MEALS (Anacardium occidentale L. FOR GROWING PIG: NUTRIENT METABOLISM AND PERFORMANCE PSEUDOFRUTO DO CAJUEIRO (Anacardium occidentale L. PARA SUÍNOS EM CRESCIMENTO: METABOLISMO DE NUTRIENTES E DESEMPENHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Atta Farias

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available These researches was planned to evaluate the digestibility and metabolizability of nutrient and nitrogen balance of the cashew pulp for growing pigs, as well as to evaluate the performance of these animals fed with different levels of inclusion of this by-product in the diets. The physiological aspects of the animal and economic viability of the diets was evaluated. In the metabolism assay, four pigs were fed with a standard ration and others four received a test ration, with 30% of substitution of the standard ration for the cashew pulp. In the performance assay, forty animals were distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of the experimental rations with the levels 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of inclusion of the cashew pulp. The values obtained for the digestibility and metabolizability coefficients of the protein and energy of the cashew pulp meals were 12.30% and 11.38%; 23.43% and 21.91%, respectively. The digestible and metabolizability energy of cashew pulp meals is 1.123 and 1.051 kcal/kg. The cashew pulp meals can be included in diets until the level of 20% of the ration, and this inclusion of the by-product increases the financial yield of the production.KEY WORDS: Alternative feed, nitrogen balance, temperature, weight gain. A pesquisa destinou-se a avaliar a digestibilidade, o metabolismo de nutrientes e o balanço de nitrogênio do pseudofruto do cajueiro para suínos em crescimento, bem como o desempenho desses animais alimentados com diferentes níveis de inclusão desse subproduto nas dietas. Avaliaram-se ainda os aspectos fisiol

  1. Bioethanol production by cashew apple bagasse (Anacardium occidentale L.): comparison of acid diluted and alkali pre-treatments; Producao de bioetanol a partir da fibra do caju (Anacardium occidentale L.): comparacao entre o pre-tratamento acido e alcalino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Tigressa H.S.; Pinheiro, Alvaro D.T.; Goncalves, Luciana R.B. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Rocha, Maria V.P.; Macedo, Gorete R. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the growing environmental awareness on the negative impact resulting from utilization of fossil fuels, and in the search for renewable energy sources, biofuels' interest as Bioethanol has rapidly expanded recently. In this context, lignocellulosic compounds have become center of attention as an abundant and economic alternative source of carbohydrates for ethanol production. In this study, cashew's bagasse acid hydrolysis was initially studied for glucose synthesis and its fermentation towards ethanol production. Sulfuric acid concentration, solids concentration and time were some of the factors evaluated. The highest glucose productivity value (162,9 mg.g de bagaco{sup -1}) , was obtained for 0,6 mol.L{sup -1} of sulfuric acid in an autoclave at 121 deg C for 15 min. For the fermentation of the hydrolyzed material by S. cerevisiae containing 16 {+-} 2,0 g.L{sup -1} of glucose metabolic, the yield and productivity obtained were 0,63 g-g glucose{sup -1} and 1,43 g.L{sup -1}h{sup -1} respectively. Ethanol concentration after 6 h of fermentation of this hydrolyzed was 11 g.L{sup -1}. In the best conditions of acid hydrolysis, a second pre-treatment with diluted sulfuric acid was performed to evaluate availability of hemicelluloses at 160 deg C and 180 deg C. For comparative purposes, alkali pre-treatment was evaluated under the conditions of 0,6 mol.L{sup -1}, 30% p/v of bagasse thermically treated at 121 deg C for 15 minutes. However, concentration of sugars was not sufficient for fermentation. Also, nitrogen supplementation of the hydrolyzed fraction did not influence significantly ethanol production. The results demonstrate that the hydrolyzed fraction from the acid pre-treatment of cashew's bagasse could be utilized for ethanol production. (author)

  2. Insect fauna associated with Anacardium occidentale (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboton, C; Onzo, A; Ouessou, F I; Goergen, G; Vidal, S; Tamò, M

    2014-01-01

    Cashew, Anacardium occidentale L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), is an important cash crop in Benin. However, its production is threatened by several biotic factors, especially insects. In Benin, very few studies have focused on insects and just listed species commonly found on cashew worldwide. The present investigation fills this gap by presenting an exhaustive inventory of insect species associated with this crop in the country. The survey was carried out from September 2009 to August 2010 in 22 cashew orchards (5 young and 17 mature) distributed over three major agroecological zones where cashew is most produced in the country. Insects were collected using chemical knock-down technique and visual observation followed by capture with sweep net. In addition, infested plant organs were sampled and incubated to collect emerging insects. In total, 262 insect species were recorded and identified. Among them, the wood borer Apate terebrans Pallas, the leafminer Eteoryctis gemoniella Stainton, and the mirid bugs Helopeltis schoutedeni Reuter., and Helopeltis anacardii Miller., appeared as the most important insect species attacking cashew in Benin. Beneficial insects encountered included some predators, parasitoids, and pollinators. Few vertebrate predators were also recorded on the trees. Differences in agroecological conditions or in field cleanliness did not affect the number of insect species encountered in the cashew orchards. The results of this study represent an important baseline data for the design and implementation of strategies for cashew protection in Benin.

  3. Extracción y Caracterización Fisicoquímica del Aceite de la Semilla (Almendra del Marañón (Anacardium occidentale L Extraction and Physicochemical Characterization of Seed Oil (Almond of Cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J Lafont

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal del trabajo que se presenta en este artículo es la evaluación de diferentes métodos de extracción de aceite de semillas de almendras (Anacardium occidentale L y caracterización de sus propiedades físico-químicas. El procedimiento consiste en someter la muestra a procesos de extracción mecánica o prensado y a extracción con solventes aplicando dos métodos: inmersión e inmersión-percolación. El método más eficiente fue el de inmersión-percolación usando n-hexano como solvente. El rendimiento obtenido es del (97.78 ± 1.32%. El análisis de ácidos grasos por HPLC reveló un alto contenido de ácido oleico (61.36%. De estos resultados se recomienda la extracción con solventes para la industria de jabones, cosméticos y la extracción con prensado para la industria alimenticia.The main objective of the work presented in this paper is the evaluation of different methods for the extraction of almond oil (Anacardium occidentale L and the characterization of its physicochemical properties. The procedure involves subjecting the sample to mechanical extraction process, or pressing and solvent extraction using two methods, immersion and immersion-percolation. The most efficient method was the immersion-percolation using n-hexane as solvent. The yield obtained is (97.78 ± 1.12%. The fatty acid analysis by HPLC revealed high contení of oleic acid (61.36%. From these results solvent extraction is recommended for the soap industry, for cosmetics and extraction by pressing in the food industry.

  4. Cashew Nut Allergy in Children

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    J.P.M. Kuiper- van der Valk (Hanna)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe content of the thesis contributes to the knowledge of the cashew nut and cashew nut allergy. Cashew nut allergy is an important healthcare problem, especially in children. The cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) belongs to the Ancardiaceae family and the major allergen components

  5. In vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Anacardium occidentale and Mangifera indica in oral care

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    Geethashri Anand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is an integral and important component of general health. Infectious diseases such as caries, periodontal, and gingivitis indicate the onset of imbalance in homeostasis between oral micro biota and host. The present day medicaments used in oral health care have numerous side effects. The uses of herbal plants as an alternative have gained popularity due to side effects of antibiotics and emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Anacardium occidentale (cashew and Mangifera indica (mango have been used as traditional oral health care measures in India since time immemorial. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extracts of cashew and mango leaves were obtained by maceration method. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by clear zone produced by these plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans in agar plate method, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC, and suppression of biofilm. The cytotoxic effects of plants extract was determined by microculture tetrazolium assay on human gingival fibroblast and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79 cell lines. Results: Cashew and mango leaf extract significantly (P < 0.05 produced larger zone of inhibition against test pathogens when compared to povidone---iodine-based mouth rinses. Although the MIC and MBC/MFC values of mouth rinses were effective in lower concentrations; plant extracts significantly (P < 0.001 suppressed the biofilms of oral pathogens. The leaf extracts were less cytotoxic (P < 0.001 compared to mouth rinses. Conclusions: Plant extracts are superior to the mouth rinses and have a promising role in future oral health care.

  6. Estudo da atividade antimicrobiana dos ácidos anacárdicos do óleo da casca da castanha de caju (CNSL dos clones de cajueiro-anão-precoce CCP-76 e CCP-09 em cinco estágios de maturação sobre microrganismos da cavidade bucal Study of the antibacterial activity of anacardic acids from the cashew Anacardium occidentale nut shell oil of the clone of cashew-midget-precocious CCP-76 and and CCP-09 in five stages of maturation on oral microorganisms

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    Carlos Alberto de A. LIMA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A atividade antimicrobiana dos ácidos anacárdicos do óleo da casca da castanha de caju (CNSL Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae foi estudada sobre os microrganismos da cavidade bucal Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12598, Candida albicans ATCC 10231 e Candida utilis. Os ácidos anacárdicos obtidos dos extratos etílicos do CNSL apresentaram atividade antibacteriana contra os microganismos citados, porém a maior atividade inibitória ocorreu sobre a bactéria Gram positiva Streptococcus mutans, considerada predominante na cárie dentária. As cáries dentárias são uma das mais freqüentes doenças infecciosas nos países em desenvolvimento. Os elementos que influenciam na cárie dentária incluem o estado nutricional, a ingestão de açúcar e a presença da microbiota cariogênica.The antimicrobial activity of the anacardic acids of the cashew nut shell oil Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae was studied on the oral microorganisms Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12598, Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Candida utilis. The anacardic acids obtained from the ethyl extract of the cashew nut shell oil presented activity antibacterial against the mentioned microorganisms, but the most inhibitory activity occurred with the Gram positive bacteria Streptococcus mutans, which is known to be one of the main cause of tooth decay. The tooth decay is one of the most frequent infectious diseases in the countries in development. The elements that influence in the tooth decay include the nutritional state, the ingestion of sugar and the presence of the microflora cariogênica.

  7. Interaction of gamma radiation on the functionality of the molluscicidal extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos [Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR) . Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Edvane Borges da [Centro Academico de Vitoria. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil); Amorim, Elba Lucia C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu J.S., E-mail: elba@ufpe.br [Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Melo, Ana Maria Mendonca de Albuquerque; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Biological control of Biomphalaria glabrata that is the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, through molluscicides has been an alternative against schistosomiasis. Many studies have been developed to obtain molluscicide products, from plants. Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew), a plant rich in phenolic compounds shows molluscicidal activity in earlier assays. However there is an interest of enhancing the action of bioactive substances in order to use it in small concentrations, reducing costs in their utilization. This study were conducted using ethanolic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale, before and after exposure to gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co, checking their secondary metabolites, their biological activity against Biomphalaria glabrata and environmental toxicity. The extracts of A. occidentale were obtained by cold maceration in 70% ethanol, filtered, dried and divided into two experimental groups: control (0 kGy) and irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy. The quantification of metabolites was performed in six replicates for the determination of total phenols by Folin-Ciocalteau method and tannins, the precipitation of casein. Tests for biological control of embryos and adults of B. glabrata snails and assessment of environmental toxicity (using Artemia salina larvae) were performed in triplicate, following a period of 24 hours of exposure to extracts at a concentration of 100 mg/L and its respective controls. Data were expressed as percentages of means and standard deviations. The results showed that the gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co resulted in leaf extracts, increased levels of total phenols and tannins, which enhanced the lethality for embryos and adults of B. glabrata. There was a reduction of the toxicity of leaf extracts after irradiation in the Artemia salina. Since in extracts of bark, gamma radiation did not alter the levels of total phenols and tannins, however, it was noted potentiation of lethality of adult snails of B. glabrata. The

  8. Isolation and Characterization of the Chemical Constituents of Anacardium occidentale Cracked Bark

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    O. E. Fadeyi *

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The cracked bark of Anacardium occidentale were dried under ambient conditions, chopped into bits and the ethanolic extract of the cracked bark was obtained by cold extraction. Phytochemical screening was conducted to identify the types of secondary metabolites present using standard procedures. The profiles of the chemical constituents present were established using Thin Layer and Column Chromatography methods. Thus, pure chemical constituents were isolated from the cracked bark of Anacardium occidentale. The isolated compounds were characterized using FT-IR and their structures determined using data obtained from GC-MS spectrum.

  9. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante dos compostos fenólicos naturalmente presentes em subprodutos do pseudofruto de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds Naturally Contained in By-products of the Cashew Apple (Anacardium occidentale L.

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    Priscila Regina Bolelli Broinizi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como proposta avaliar a capacidade antioxidante do bagaço e do extrato bruto concentrado (EBC do pedúnculo de caju, tendo em vista o seu aproveitamento. O potencial antioxidante dos extratos aquoso (EAq e alcoólico (EAlc e das frações de ácidos fenólicos livres (AFL e esterificadas (solúvel AFS e insolúvel AFI desses subprodutos do pedúnculo de caju clone CCP-76 foi avaliado em sistema beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico, pelo teste de varredura de radical livre [2,2 difenil-1-pricril-hidrazil (DPPH•] e de Rancimat. Além do mais, o conteúdo de fenólicos totais e o perfil de ácidos fenólicos foram determinados usando-se o reagente de Folin-Ciocateau e por cromatografia gasosa, respectivamente. O EAq e a fração AFL dos subprodutos apresentaram o maior conteúdo de fenólicos. As frações de ácidos fenólicos exibiram expressiva atividade antioxidante, superior aos extratos estudados nos sistemas beta-caroteno e DPPH. Entretanto no teste Rancimat, os extratos apresentaram maior proteção à oxidação em relação às frações e ao BHT. Nas frações foram identificados os ácidos gálico, ferúlico, caféico, protocatecuico, quínico, cinâmico, gentíssico, p-cumárico e salicílico, os quais lhes conferem o potencial antioxidante. Estes resultados caracterizaram in vitro o potencial antioxidante do bagaço e do EBC do pedúnculo de caju clone CCP-76.This study aimed to determine the antioxidant capacity of cashew apple pulp and raw concentrated extract. The antioxidant potential of aqueous (EAq and alcoholic (EAlc extracts and of free phenolic acids (FPA and esterified (soluble - SPA and insoluble - IPA fractions of the by-products of the cashew apple clone CCP-76 were evaluated in a beta-carotene-linoleate system by the free radical [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•] scavenging assay and the Rancimat test. In addition, the total phenolic content and phenolic acid profile were determined using

  10. Estabilidade microbiológica, físico-química e sensorial de pedúnculos de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. processados por métodos combinados Microbiological, physico-chemical and sensorial stability of cashew apples (Anacardium occidentale L. processed by combined methods

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    Patricia Campos Mesquita

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os pedúnculos de caju processados por métodos combinados e armazenados à temperatura ambiente (28ºC foram avaliados quanto à tendência a mudanças físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais. Os resultados confirmam que os tipos de obstáculos usados (redução da Aw, tratamento térmico brando, redução do pH, adição de ácido ascórbico, benzoato de sódio a 1000ppm e SO2 a 600 e 900ppm e sua intensidade foram capazes de assegurar a estabilidade microbiológica do produto durante a armazenagem à temperatura ambiente por 120 dias, bem como uma boa aceitação sensorial.Cashew apples processed by combined methods were stored at room temperature (28ºC in order to evaluate the tendency for chemical, microbiological and sensorial changes during 120 days of storage. Results confirmed that the obstacles used (reduction of water activity, mild heat treatment, pH reduction, ascorbic acid addition, 1000ppm sodium benzoate, 600 and 900ppm of SO2 and their intensities were capable to assure the microbiological stability and sensorial acceptance of the product during storage stability at room temperature for 120 days.

  11. OBTENÇÃO DE BEBIDA A PARTIR DE SUCO DE CAJU (Anacardium occidentale, L. E EXTRATO DE GUARANÁ (Paullinia cupana sorbilis Mart. Ducke OBTENTION OF DRINK FROM CASHEW APPLE JUICE (Anacardium occidentale, L. AND GUARANA EXTRACT (Paullinia cupana sorbilis Mart. Ducke

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    LILIANA COSTA SOARES

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir do extrato de semente de guaraná com 0,96% de cafeína, foram testadas várias formulações para obtenção de uma bebida, utilizando-se de suco de caju clarificado e concentrado, caramelo, aromatizantes artificiais de caju e guaraná e acidulante, tendo também como variável os diversos graus de doçura (ºBrix. As melhores formulações foram selecionadas de acordo com os resultados da avaliação sensorial, onde se utilizou o teste de ordenação. A formulação selecionada foi processada e envasada em embalagens de vidro. Para determinar a aceitabilidade, o produto final foi submetido a análises físico-químicas e sensoriais.From Guaraná seeds extract with 0,96% caffein content several formulations were evaluated in order to obtain a beverage using clarified cashew juice concentrate, caramel and guaraná artificial flavors and acidulant, using several sweetness grade a variable. The best formulations were selected according to sensorial evaluation results, using the ordenation test. The selected product (14 ºBrix formulation was manufactured and filled in glass bottles. In order to determine the acceptability the final product was submited to physical chemical and sensorial analysis.

  12. Influence of gamma radiation on the antioxidant action extracts from leaves of gross Anacardium occidentale Linn; Influencia da radiacao gama na acao antioxidante de extratos brutos de folhas de Anacardium occidentale Linn.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amaral, Ademir de Jesus [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (GERAR/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2014-07-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. is popularly known as cashew plant, found in Northeastern Brazil, is of great scientific interest because it contains high levels of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins, which characterize their applications as natural antioxidants, which can contribute to protect against oxidative processes in the human body. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation in the antioxidant action of the extracts of leaves of A. occidentale. The extracts of A. occidentale were extracted with 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and divided into samples control and irradiation at 10 kGy. Subsequently analyzing the kidnapping of radical DPPH (concentrations of 6.25; 12.5; 25; 50; 100 and 200 ppm) and reducing power (concentrations of 25; 50; 100; 200; 400; 600; 800 and 1000 ppm). The results showed increased antioxidant actions dependent on the concentration and dose of 10 kGy in both assays. However, the kidnapping of DPPH activity showed variations from 50% to 92% for control, and 75% and 100% for irradiated. It is observed that the irradiated samples showed maximum activity (100%) in a 4-fold lower concentration (50 ppm) than the control samples. Featuring EC{sub 50} of standards BHT (235.8%) and vitamin C (63.5%) was very low compared with control extracts (8.1%) and irradiated (0.48). However the results obtained in this study indicate that extracts of leaves of A. occidentale irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy exhibit strong antioxidant activity against DPPH and power reducer, this paves its use as a natural source of antioxidants.

  13. Fenóis totais, atividade antioxidante e constituintes químicos de extratos de Anacardium occidentale L., Anacardiaceae Total phenolics, antioxidant activity and chemical constituents from extracts of Anacardium occidentale L., Anacardiaceae

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    Mariana H. Chaves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo relata o isolamento e identificação do palmitato, oleato e linoleato de sitosterila, sitosterol, estigmasterol, 3-O-β-D-galactopiranosídeo do sitosterol, 3-O-β-Dgalactopiranosídeo do estigmasterol, 3-O-β-D-glicopiranosídeo do sitosterol e uma mistura de ácidos anacárdicos (monoeno e dieno do extrato etanólico de cascas do caule de Anacardium occidentale L., Anacardiaceae, bem como do sitosterol, estigmasterol, lupeol, β-amirina, catequina e epicatequina do extrato etanólico do tegumento da castanha de caju in natura. Os extratos EtOH da casca e do tegumento foram avaliados quanto ao conteúdo de fenóis totais e atividade antioxidante. O extrato etanólico das cascas do caule apresentou maior conteúdo de compostos fenólicos e percentual de atividade antioxidante.This paper describes the isolation and identification of a mixture of sitosteryl ester derivatives of fatty acids (palmitic, oleic and linoleic, sitosterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol-3-O-β-galactopyranoside, stigmasterol-3-O-β-galactopyranoside, sitosterol-3-O-β-glucopyranoside and a mixture of anacardic acids (monoene and diene from stem bark of Anacardium occidentale L., Anacardiaceae, as well as sitosterol, stigmasterol, lupeol, β-amyrin, catechin and epicatechin from in natura cashew nut testa. Ethanol extracts from stem bark and testa were analyzed for antioxidant activity and total phenol content. The ethanol extract from stem bark exhibited the maximum of antioxidant activity and phenol content.

  14. Evaluation of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the acetone extract from Anacardium occidentale L

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    Frederico Argollo Vanderlinde

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The stem bark of Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae, commonly called cashew, is used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of gastric and inflammatory disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate the in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of the acetone extract (AE of the stem bark of A. occidentale. We evaluated the pharmacological activities of this plant material through the analgesic, antiedematogenic and chemotaxic inhibitory effects produced by the AE. The oral administration (p.o. of mice with the AE (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 g/kg or positive control indomethacin (10 mg/kg inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing by 18.9, 35.9, 62.9 and 68.9%, respectively (ID50% = 530 mg/kg. The highest dose of the AE was able to inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema formation by 56.8% (indomethacin at 10 mg/kg, p.o. - 57.6% inhibition. When submitted to the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test, the AE (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 g/kg, p.o. impaired leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity by 24.8, 40.5 and 49.6%, respectively. The positive control, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, s.c., inhibited leukocyte migration by 66.9%. These results indicate the presence of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive principles in the acetone extract of Anacardium occidentale, and reinforce the plant's potential therapeutic use against pain and inflammatory diseases.As cascas do caule do Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae, conhecido como cajueiro, são popularmente utilizadas no Brasil para o tratamento de doenças gástricas e inflamatórias. Este estudo teve como objetivo a avaliação farmacológica in vivo da atividade antiinflamatória do extrato acetônico (AE obtido das cascas do A. occidentale, investigando os efeitos analgésico, antiedematogênico e inibitório sobre a quimiotaxia deste material botânico. A administração oral (p.o. em camundongos com o AE (0,1; 0,3 e 1 g/kg ou o controle positivo indometacina (10 mg/kg inibiu as contor

  15. Atividade antimicrobiana do extrato de Anacardium occidentale Linn. em amostras multiresistentes de Staphylococcus aureus Antimicrobial activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. against multi-drug resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Jackeline G. da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Plantas medicinais com propriedades terapêuticas são de grande relevância em todo o mundo, principalmente em países em desenvolvimento. A planta Anacardium occidentale Linn. é largamente usada na medicina tradicional na nossa região, como antidiarréico, para amigdalite, bronquites, artrites, e antiiflamatório. No presente estudo avaliou-se a ação antimicrobiana do extrato hidroalcóolico da casca do caule do cajueiro frente a amostras de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes e sensíveis à meticilina, obtidas a partir de pacientes internados do Hospital Universitário/Universidade Federal da Paraíba. A atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelo método de difusão em meio sólido para a determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima do extrato, e foi observada no total de 30 amostras, pela presença ou não do halo de inibição. Todas as amostras ensaiadas mostraram-se sensíveis à ação do extrato do cajueiro, com diâmetros dos halos de inibição variando de 10 a 20 mm, demonstrando grande eficácia do cajueiro. Assim, o uso desta planta na nossa região pode inferir uma alternativa terapêutica eficiente e de baixo custo, contra infecções bacterianas causadas por Staphylococcus aureus.Medicinal plants with therapeutical properties are of great significance in the whole world, especially in developing countries. Anacardium occidentale Linn. is a plant widely used in the traditional medicine in our region against diarrhea, tonsillitis, bronchitis, arthritis, and inflammation. In this paper, the antimicrobial activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the cashew tree stem was evaluated against samples of meticillin-resistant and meticillin-sensible Staphylococcus aureus, attained from patients interned at Hospital Universitário/Universidade Federal da Paraíba. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the diffusion method in solid milieu to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the extract, and it was

  16. Sub-chronic hepatotoxicity of Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae inner stem bark extract in rats

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    Okonkwo T. J. N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracts of Anacardium occidentale have been used in the management of different cardiovascular disorders in Nigeria. These have necessitated the assessment of the toxicity of this plant extract in sub-chronic administration. The inner stem bark of Anacardium occidentale was extracted with 80 % methanol and quantitatively analysed for antinutrients and some heavy metals. The phytochemical compositions and acute toxicity of the extract were determined also. Toxicity profiles of the extract on some liver function parameters were evaluated following a sub-chronic oral administration at doses of 1.44 and 2.87 g/kg. The phytochemical screening of extract revealed the presence of high amount of tannins, moderate saponins and trace of free reducing sugars. The antinutrient levels were 5.75 % (tannins, 2.50 % (oxalates, 2.00 % (saponins, 0.25 % (phytate and 0.03 % (cyanide. The quantity of iron detected from dried crude was 8.92 mg/100 g, while lead and cadmium were non-detectable. The extract had LD 50 of 2.154 g/kg p.o. in mice. Sub-chronic administration of the extract significantly increased the serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransaminase, which are indicative of liver damage. The serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and total protein of the treated animals were not significantly increased. The effects of sub-chronically administered extract on hepatocytes were minimal as the serum alkaline phosphatase; total bilirubin and total protein levels in treated animals were not significant (p< 0.05. Thus, sub-chronic administrations of Anacardium occidentale inner stem bark extract did not significantly (p< 0.05 depress the function of hepatocytes in Wistar rats.

  17. Sub-chronic Hepatotoxicity of Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) Inner Stem Bark Extract in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, T J N; Okorie, O; Okonta, J M; Okonkwo, C J

    2010-05-01

    The extracts of Anacardium occidentale have been used in the management of different cardiovascular disorders in Nigeria. These have necessitated the assessment of the toxicity of this plant extract in sub-chronic administration. The inner stem bark of Anacardium occidentale was extracted with 80 % methanol and quantitatively analysed for antinutrients and some heavy metals. The phytochemical compositions and acute toxicity of the extract were determined also. Toxicity profiles of the extract on some liver function parameters were evaluated following a sub-chronic oral administration at doses of 1.44 and 2.87 g/kg. The phytochemical screening of extract revealed the presence of high amount of tannins, moderate saponins and trace of free reducing sugars. The antinutrient levels were 5.75 % (tannins), 2.50 % (oxalates), 2.00 % (saponins), 0.25 % (phytate) and 0.03 % (cyanide). The quantity of iron detected from dried crude was 8.92 mg/100 g, while lead and cadmium were non-detectable. The extract had LD(50)of 2.154g/kg p.o. in mice. Sub-chronic administration of the extract significantly increased the serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransaminase, which are indicative of liver damage. The serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and total protein of the treated animals were not significantly increased. The effects of sub-chronically administered extract on hepatocytes were minimal as the serum alkaline phosphatase; total bilirubin and total protein levels in treated animals were not significant (p< 0.05). Thus, sub-chronic administrations of Anacardium occidentale inner stem bark extract did not significantly (p< 0.05) depress the function of hepatocytes in Wistar rats.

  18. Reductive-degradation of carcinogenic azo dyes using Anacardium occidentale testa derived silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Atchudan, Raji; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, reductive-degradation of azo dyes such as congo red (CR) and methyl orange (MO) was manifested using Anacardium occidentale testa derived silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a catalyst. The formation of highly stable AgNPs were visually confirmed by the appearance of yellow color and further substantiated by the existence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak around 425nm. The effect of A. occidentale concentration, reaction time and pH in the formations of AgNPs was corroborated by UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic results proved that phytoconstituents of A. occidentale testa acts as a capping agent and thereby protects the AgNPs from aggregation. The crystalline nature of the AgNPs was validated from the XRD patterns. The average size of synthesized AgNPs was 25nm, with distorted spherical shape was ascribed from the high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HR-TEM) images. Due to the high stability of the as-synthesized AgNPs, they were utilized for the degradation of carcinogenic azo dyes such as CR and MO using NaBH4 and its catalytic activity was studied via UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results proved that extraordinary catalytic activity of synthesized AgNPs towards the reductive-degradation of both CR and MO.

  19. Reducing losses inflicted by insect pests on cashew, using weaver ants as a biological control agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anato, Florence; Wargui, Rosine; Sinzogan, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linnaeus) is the largest agricultural export product in Benin. However, yields and quality are lost due to inefficient pest control. Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) may control pests in this crop as they eat and deter pests. In Benin, cashew pest damages...

  20. Reducing losses inflicted by insect pests on cashew, using weaver ants as a biological control agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anato, Florence; Wargui, Rosine; Sinzogan, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linnaeus) is the largest agricultural export product in Benin. However, yields and quality are lost due to inefficient pest control. Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) may control pests in this crop as they eat and deter pests. In Benin, cashew pest damages, ...

  1. Diagnose laboratorial dos frutos e folhas de Anacardium occidentale L. (Caju

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    Luzia llza Ferreira Jorge

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Anacardium occidentale L. espécie nativa do continente centro e sul-americano, é planta amplamente utilizada, empregada na alimentação humana e animal, bem como na medicina popular. Neste trabalho objetivamos o reconhecimento das principais características diagnósticas das folhas e dos receptáculos carnosos. Detalhes como o tipo de cutícula, paredes celulares, anexos epidérmicos e inclusões celulares são destacados nas descrições e nas figuras. As folhas encerram flavonóides, saponinas,compostos fenólicos e óleo essencial.

  2. Synthesis characterization and catalytic action of hexagonal gold nanoparticles using essential oils extracted from Anacardium occidentale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheny, D. S.; Mathew, Joseph; Philip, Daizy

    2012-11-01

    A new phytochemical method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is reported. The essential oils extracted from the fresh leaves of Anacardium occidentale are used for the reduction of auric acid to Au nanoparticles (NPs). The formation and morphology of synthesized NPs are investigated with the help of UV-visible, TEM and FTIR spectroscopy. The NPs synthesized at room temperature are mono-dispersed and hexagonal in shape with an average size of 36 nm while those prepared at higher temperature are composed of a mixture of anisotropic particles. The UV-visible absorption spectra of these anisotropic NPs show asymmetry in the longer wavelength side. The quantity of oil is an important criterion modulating the shape of NPs. Possible biochemical mechanism leading to the formation of NPs is studied using FTIR spectroscopy. The potential of synthesized Au NPs as catalyst is explored for the hydrogenation of p-nitro phenol to p-amino phenol at room temperature.

  3. Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem bark extract induces hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchikaya, Francis Olivier; Bantsielé, Guy Bernard; Kouakou-Siransy, Gisèle; Datté, Jacques Yao; Yapo, Paul Angoue; Zirihi, Noel Guedé; Offoumou, Michel Atté

    2011-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) is a plant largely used in Africa for the treatment of different diseases. In Côte d'Ivoire it's commonly used for the treatment of hypertension. The present study was carried out in order to assess the effects of Anacardium occidentale extract (ANOE) on cardiovascular parameters in animal models. A mercury manometer kymograph of Ludwig was used to measure the blood pressure of normotensive rabbits in control conditions (normal physiological solution) and under the influence of ANOE. The contractile activity of an isolated rat heart was also measured in control conditions and under the influence of ANOE in different physiological media using a modified Langendhorff (1895) apparatus. The aqueous Anacardium occidentale (ANOE) bark extract applied intravenously in different doses (12, 40, 90, and 167 mg/kg b.w.), produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure of previously normotensive rabbits (up to 89% vs control). Atropine (1 mg/ml) pre-treatment failed to reverse the hypotensive effects elicited by the extract. ANOE applied to isolated rat heart preparations in different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 µg/ml) induced negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. Atropine pre-treatment of heart preparations (0.1 µg/ml) failed to reverse the negative effects induced by ANOE. The extract's action on heart contractile activity studied in modified culture media further confirmed its cardio-inhibitory effects. ANOE induced strong hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in animal models.

  4. Efecto nutracéutico del Anacardium occidentale en dietas de pollitas ponedoras de reemplazo

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    Yordan Martínez A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto nutracéutico del polvo de hojas y retoños de Anacardium occidentale (AO en dietas de pollitas ponedoras de remplazo. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 240 pollitas White Leghorn (L-33 de un día de edad, que se ubicaron durante 35 días, según diseño completamente aleatorizado, con niveles de adición de 0, 0.5, 1.5 y 2.5% de polvo de hojas y retoños de Anacardium occidentale en las dietas. Se determinaron en las pollitas, los indicadores productivos, peso absoluto y relativo de los órganos inmunes, vísceras, accesorios e intestinos, la hipersensibilidad intestinal y la glucosa sérica. Resultados. El peso vivo final, consumo de alimento, peso del timo, bolsa de Fabricio y colon + recto en las aves con el tracto gastrointestinal vacío y lleno, fue favorable con la adición de 0.5% de polvo AO, con diferencias significativas (p≤0.05. El consumo acumulado, el consumo de polvo AO y taninos se incrementaron en las aves con la adición de 1.5 y 2.5% de polvo AO con respecto al control; no obstante los indicadores productivos para estos animales se deprimieron. La adición del polvo de AO, no deterioró el peso relativo de las vísceras (corazón, hígado y riñón en las aves, además redujo la hipersensibilidad intestinal y la glucosa sérica. Conclusiones. La adición de 0.5% de polvo de hojas y retoños de AO como nutracéutico en las dietas de pollitas ponedoras de remplazo, mejoró los indicadores productivos y el peso de los órganos inmunes; además, la adición del polvo AO en las dietas disminuyó la hipersensibilidad intestinal y la glucosa sérica.

  5. Smallholder Information Sources and Communication Pathways for Cashew Production and Marketing in Tanzania: An Ex-Post Study in Tandahimba and Lindi Rural Districts, Southern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambo, Brigitte; Ligate, Elly

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To identify and review production and marketing information sources and flows for smallholder cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) growers in Tanzania and recommend systems improvements for better technology uptake. Design/methodology/approach: Two-stage purposive samples were drawn. First, two districts in the main cashew producing areas,…

  6. Smallholder Information Sources and Communication Pathways for Cashew Production and Marketing in Tanzania: An Ex-Post Study in Tandahimba and Lindi Rural Districts, Southern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambo, Brigitte; Ligate, Elly

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To identify and review production and marketing information sources and flows for smallholder cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) growers in Tanzania and recommend systems improvements for better technology uptake. Design/methodology/approach: Two-stage purposive samples were drawn. First, two districts in the main cashew producing areas,…

  7. Avaliação da toxicidade subcrônica do extrato bruto seco de Anacardium occidentale Linn em cães = Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of the crude dry extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Arquimedes Fernandes Monteiro de Melo; Miracy Muniz Albuquerque; Maria Almerice Lopes da Silva; Gracielle Carvalho Gomes; Isabely de Souza Vera Cruz; Vanessa Ribeiro Leite; Jane Sheila Higino

    2006-01-01

    A busca de novos medicamentos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novosfármacos que sejam eficientes e destituídos de toxicidade. Uma das fronteiras nessas pesquisas são os medicamentos fitoterápicos. No Brasil, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) regulariza essas pesquisas e padroniza os procedimentos. A Resoluçãoda Diretoria Colegiada (RDC) 48/2004, por exemplo, regulariza o registro de fitoterápicos. O Anacardium occidentale Linn está entre as plantas mais estudadas, devido às...

  8. Radioprotective effect of the extract of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Silva, Edvane B. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Silva, Ronaldo C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica; Lacerda, Laila B.N.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia

    2011-07-01

    Electromagnetic radiations are energies that can be classified as non-ionizing and ionizing. This type of energy is propagated by a material medium and the vacuum. The important characteristic of ionizing radiation is the localized release of large amounts of energy. The biological effects of radiation result principally from damage to DNA, which is the critical target. Given these harmful effects caused by radiation highlights the importance of acquiring knowledge about the radioprotective substance, because they act to protect the living tissue, decreasing the damage he caused by the effects of radiation. In this study we investigated the radioprotective effect of extract hydroalcoholic of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata. The embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata pigmented were divided into 18 groups of 100 specimens. The experimental groups were exposed to the extracts at a concentration of 200 ppm and then irradiated. For irradiation, we used a source of {sup 60}Co (Gammacell of Radionics Labs. Dose rate = 4.359 Gy/h). The viability of the embryos was examined using a stereoscopic microscope and statistical analysis was performed using the test Student-Newman-Keuls and {chi}{sup 2}. Our results showed that the extracts of hydroalcoholic Ziziphus joazeiro showed radioprotective effect and that the aqueous extract of the bark of Anacardium occidentale exhibited a reduction in its embryotoxic effect. (author)

  9. Membrane stability of sickle erythrocytes incubated in extracts of three medicinal plants: Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa

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    Paul Chidoka Chikezie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many reports showed that medicinal plant extracts cause alterations on the shape and physiology of erythrocytes. Objective: The present study seeks to ascertain the osmotic stability of sickle erythrocytes incubated in aqueous extracts of Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa. Materials and Methods: The fraction of erythrocytes lysed when suspended in saline solution of varying concentrations was investigated by spectrophotometric method. The percentage hemolysis of erythrocytes in the control and test samples showed a sigmoidal relationship with increasing concentrations of saline solution. Membrane stability was ascertained as mean corpuscular fragility (MCF index of erythrocytes incubated in 400 and 800 mg/dL aqueous concentrations of the three plant extracts. Results: The two experimental concentrations of P. guajava and T. catappa protected the erythrocytes against osmotic stress, as evidenced by decreases in the values of MCF compared with the control sample (P < 0.05. However, 800 mg/dL of A. occidentale promoted significant (P < 0.05 distabilization of sickle erythrocytes. Conclusion: Whereas the two experimental concentrations of aqueous extracts of P. guajava and T. catappa stabilized erythrocyte membrane, higher concentration (800 mg/dL of A. occidentale exhibited no membrane protective effect.

  10. Avaliação da toxicidade subcrônica do extrato bruto seco de Anacardium occidentale Linn em cães = Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of the crude dry extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arquimedes Fernandes Monteiro de Melo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A busca de novos medicamentos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novosfármacos que sejam eficientes e destituídos de toxicidade. Uma das fronteiras nessas pesquisas são os medicamentos fitoterápicos. No Brasil, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA regulariza essas pesquisas e padroniza os procedimentos. A Resoluçãoda Diretoria Colegiada (RDC 48/2004, por exemplo, regulariza o registro de fitoterápicos. O Anacardium occidentale Linn está entre as plantas mais estudadas, devido às ações antibiótica e antiinflamatória de seus metabólitos secundários, principalmente taninos. Esta planta também possui a capacidade de impedir a formação da placa bacteriana bucal. Diante dessas ações, formas farmacêuticas acabadas (cremes e géis foram desenvolvidas a partir do extrato bruto seco (EBS das cascas do caule do A. occidentale Linn para registro de um novo fitomedicamento. Entretanto, testes pré-clínicos e clínicos devem ser feitos de acordo com a lei vigente. O presente trabalho avaliou a toxicidade subcrônica do EBS em cães sem raçadefinida (SRD. Os testes revelaram apenas hepatotoxicidade transitória demonstrada pela elevação dos níveis da alanina transaminase (ALT e aspartato transaminase (AST. Research on new medicaments has led to the development of efficient and non-toxic drugs. In Brazil, the Agência Nacional de VigilânciaSanitária (National Department of Sanitary Supervision – ANVISA regularizes and standardizes the procedure. Anacardium occidentale is amongst the most researched plants, due to the antibiotics and antinflammatory properties of its secondary metabolites, mainlytannins and flavonoids. Furthermore, it prevents the dental plaque formation. On account of these actions, finished pharmaceutical forms (creams and gels were developed from the crude dry extract (CDE of A. occidentale Linn stem rinds, in order to register a new form.However, pre-clinical and clinical assays can be made in

  11. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do extrato de Anacardium occidentale L. sobre espécies de Streptococcus In vitro antimicrobial activity of an extract of Anacardium occidentale L. against Streptococcus species

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    Arquimedes F. Monteiro de Melo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A atividade antimicrobiana do extrato da casca do caule de Anacardium occidentale L., foi avaliada em três culturas de bactérias isoladas de biofilme dental. A atividade antimicrobiana foi conduzida em placa de Petri pelo método de difusão para determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM e Concentração Inibitória Mínima de Aderência (CIMA. Inibição aureolar (CIM foi observada com concentrações de 12,5 mg/mL em S. mutans e 6,25mg/mL em S. mitis e S. sanguis. Os resultados sugerem que o extrato tem efeito na CIMA em concentrações de 0,31 mg/mL em S. mutans e S. mitis e de 0,15 mg/mL em S. sanguis e pode ser usado terapeuticamente na odontologia como agente antibacteriano.The antimicrobial activity of the extract of the stem bark of Anacardium occidentale L., was evaluated in three cultures of bacteria of the dental plate. The antimicrobial activity was assayed in Petri dishes using the diffusion method for determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal inhibitory concentration of adherence (MICA. Aureolar inhibition (MIC was observed with concentrations of 12.5 mg/mL in S. mutans and 6.25 mg/mL in S. mitis and S. sanguis. The results suggest that the extract has effect in the MICA in concentrations of 0.31 mg/mL in S. mutans and S. mitis and of 0.15 mg/mL in S. sanguis and therapeuticly can be used in the dentistry as an antibacterial agent.

  12. Aktivitas Zymomonas mobilis pada produk etanol dari buah semu jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale dengan variasi sumber nitrogen

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    AKHMAD MUSTOFA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mustofa A, Suranto. 2010. Aktivitas Zymomonas mobilis pada produk etanol daribuah semu jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale dengan variasi sumber nitrogen. Bioteknologi 7: 1-9. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui kemampuan Zymomonas mobilis dalam memproduksi etanol melalui proses fermentasi batch (selama 24, 48 dan 72 jam, menggunakan sumber karbon sari buah jambu mete (varietas merah, hijau dan kuning dan sumber nitrogen berupa urea, ammonium sulfat, ekstrak kecambah kacang hijau dan ekstrak kacang koro (Mucuna pruriens. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa varietas buah jambu mete hijau dengan sumber nitrogen ammonium sulfat dan lama fermentasi 24 jam memberikan hasil etanol yang paling optimal. Pada perlakuan tersebut diperoleh nilai pH 5,87, kadar gula reduksi 7,64 g/100 mL (tingkat konsumsi 48,44%, jumlah bakteri 8,0x107 (µ = 0,154 dan etanol sebesar 33,02 g/L (Ye = 90,19%.

  13. Analysis of toxicity of Anacardium occidentale L. extract submitted to ionizing radiation on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Lima, Claudia S.A.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: hiannaamfs@gmail.com, E-mail: luismuma6@gmail.com, E-mail: claudia.salima@gmail.com, E-mail: amancioff@bol.com.br, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Ribeiro, Luanna R.S.; Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B., E-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com, E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia

    2013-07-01

    The use of gamma radiation as a sterilization method for herbs, herbal medicines and foods, shows positive results regarding the retention of such products, economy and safety of the method. However, it is known that this method of processing plant material can cause chemical changes in these products related to the type of material, its components and the dose received. Evaluated, in the present study, the action of gamma radiation as a modifier of toxicity extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. To evaluate the toxicity of the extract irradiated at doses of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kGy and concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L was used bioassays with Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata. For the test to A. salina, 520 specimens were used divided into groups of 10 larvae. For the bioassay with B. glabrata, 3900 specimens were used divided into groups of, approximately, 100 embryos. Larvae of A. salina and embryos were subjected to extracts irradiated and unirradiated for 24 hours. The bioassay with A. salina, showed a decrease, compared to extract unirradiated and irradiated at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 kGy, of extract irradiated with 10 kGy, where the mortality did not differ from the control group. In tests with embryos was observed an increase in the toxicity of the extract at a dose of 7.5 kGy and a decrease in the dose of 10.0 kGy. The radiation promoted changes in the toxicity of leaves extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn. on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina. (author)

  14. PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA: APLICAÇÃO DA GOMA DO CAJUEIRO (Anacardium occidentale EM NANOTECNOLOGIA

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    celia cunha e silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale, da família Anacardiaceae, é uma planta originária do Norte e Nordeste do Brasil, com arquitetura de copa tortuosa e de diferentes portes, bastante cultivada no Brasil, principalmente no Nordeste. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma prospecção, com busca de precedência e apresentar uma visão geral do estado atual de desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico relacionado à aplicação da goma do cajueiro na nonotecnologia, baseado no número de patentes depositadas e de artigos publicados. A prospecção foi realizada no Banco Europeu de Patentes (Europen Patent Office - EPO, no Banco da Organização Mundial de Propriedade Intelectual (World Intellectual Organization - WIPO, no Banco Americano de Marcas e Patentes (United States Patent and Trademark Office - USPTO e no Banco de dados do Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial do Brasil – INPI, bem como na base de periódicos, Web of Science. O Brasil detém o maior número de artigos científicos envolvendo a Anacardium ocidentale, enquanto o Japão se sobressai na proteção desta pesquisa. Foi observado que das patentes depositadas nas referidas bases, mais da metade foram depositadas no período de 2000 a 2012, demostrando um aumento nas pesquisas relacionadas com o cajueiro nos últimos 12 anos, e que a maior parte das patentes possuem código de classificaçao de patente A61K e A61P que estão relacionadas a necessidades humanas.

  15. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L.: PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA APLICADA À TECNOLOGIA DE COMPOSTOS BIOATIVOS EM PRODUTOS ALIMENTÍCIOS

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    Lília Barretto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O agronegócio mundial do caju movimenta cerca de 2,4 bilhões de dólares por ano. No Brasil, a região Nordeste responde por mais de 95% da produção, com divisas na ordem de 220 milhões de dólares anuais. Apesar da importância desta atividade agroindustrial, observa-se que o seu potencial econômico permanece pouco explorado, principalmente com relação ao aproveitamento do pedúnculo. Além de rico em nutrientes, o caju é uma importante fonte de compostos bioativos, os quais podem ser usados na elaboração de produtos funcionais. Este trabalho apresenta um mapeamento tecnológico sobre as potencialidades do caju referentes às tecnologias de compostos bioativos baseado na evolução das competências tecnológicas traduzidas através dos depósitos de patentes. Para a realização desta pesquisa, utilizou-se a base de dados Derwent Innovations Index. Mesmo sem apresentar geografia nem clima favoráveis para a produção de caju, o Japão liderou os rankings apresentados neste estudo, com 14 pedidos quando realizada a pesquisa pela palavra-chave Anacardium occidentale e 04, quando usado o termo cashew apple. A Universidade Federal do Maranhão é o destaque brasileiro, com dois depósitos relacionados à área farmacêutica. O único protocolo nacional referente a compostos bioativos extraídos a partir do caju foi depositado pela Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais em 2009 e ressalta um método laboratorial para análises de taninos extraídos de bebidas como o suco de caju. Os resultados demonstram uma área promissora para o desenvolvimento de patentes brasileiras relacionadas ao caju e seus compostos bioativos, hoje atualmente explorados por países não produtores desta fruta.

  16. Phenols and tannins contents of Anacardium occidentale Linn and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (GERAR/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Silva, Edvane Borges da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria; Amorim, Elba Lucia Cavalcanti de; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu, E-mail: elba@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2011-07-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn (cajueiro) and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan (angico) are very know as a source of phenolic compounds, mainly tannins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference of phenols and tannins contents of crude extracts were measured after irradiation of barks and leaves of each plant source, using a source of {sup 60}Co. The crude extracts were divided into control group and three groups which were separately after exposition to gamma radiation, in doses of 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy. From each group, the total phenols were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, while the contents of tannins were assessed using precipitation of the casein technique. For all doses, the total phenol and tannin percentages from 'cajueiro' barks presented no significant statistical alteration. However, for the leaves of 'cajueiro', their chemical composite levels significantly changed with the radiation absorbed dose. On the other hand, the gamma irradiation did not cause alterations in total phenols and tannins content of extracts from 'angico'. (author)

  17. Effect of Niclosamide (Bayluscide WP 70 (R, Anacardium occidentale hexane extract and Euphorbia splendens latex on behavior of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, under laboratory conditions

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    Pedro Jurberg

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The repellent effect of the molluscicides Niclosamide (Bayluscide WP 70 (R, Anacardium occidentale and the latex of Euphorbia splendens on Biomphalaria glabrata was observed through the investigation of the occurrence of escape behavior among molluscs that were exposed to dosages lower than the LD 50. The total number of individuals out of water among the surviving snails in the control group provided a "Natural Escape Index". The comparison between this total and the total number of surviving snails in each group exposed to the different dosages of the molluscicides after 24 hr provided the "Molluscicide Escape Index" and the detection of a "Repellency Range" to these snails. The escape indexes for Niclosamide, A. occidentale and E. splendens were 10, 6.22 and 6.44 respectively. Repellency occurred at the following concentration ranges: 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 ppm Bayluscide, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 ppm A. occidentale and 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 ppm E. splendens. The Natural Escape Index obtained in the control group was zero.

  18. Storage stability of cashew apple juice preserved by hot fill and aseptic processes

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Maria Cecília Oliveira; MAIA Geraldo Arraes; Figueiredo,Raimundo Wilane de; Souza Filho,Men de Sá Moreira de; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro

    2003-01-01

    Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) apples from Pacajus, Ceará State, Brazil, were processed into high pulp content juice. The juice was packed either by hot fill or an aseptic process and evaluated for physical, physical-chemical, and sensorial changes during a 12-month storage period at room temperature. The results indicated that pH, soluble solids, total acidity, total sugar content and color did not change significantly during storage nor were affected by the type of filling. The sensoria...

  19. Thermochemical Properties of Hydrophilic Polymers from Cashew and Khaya Exudates and Their Implications on Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olorunsola, Emmanuel O; Bhatia, Partap G; Tytler, Babajide A; Adikwu, Michael U

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of a polymer is essential for determining its suitability for a particular purpose. Thermochemical properties of cashew gum (CSG) extracted from exudates of Anacardium occidentale L. and khaya gum (KYG) extracted from exudates of Khaya senegalensis were determined and compared with those of acacia gum BP (ACG). The polymers were subjected to different thermal and chemical analyses. Exudates of CSG contained higher amount of hydrophilic polymer. The pH of 2% w/v gum dispersions was in the order KYG application of cashew gum for formulation of basic and oxidizable drugs while using khaya gum for acidic drugs.

  20. Multilayer Films Electrodes Consisted of Cashew Gum and Polyaniline Assembled by the Layer-by-Layer Technique: Electrochemical Characterization and Its Use for Dopamine Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Bitencourt Araújo Barros; Cleide Maria da Silva Leite; Ana Cristina Facundo de Brito; José Ribeiro Dos Santos Júnior; Valtencir Zucolotto; Carla Eiras

    2012-01-01

    We take advantage of polyelectrolyte feature exhibited by natural cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) (CG), found in northeast Brazil, to employ it in the formation of electroactive nanocomposites prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. We used polyaniline unmodified (PANI) or modified with phosphonic acid (PA), PANI-PA as cationic polyelectrolyte. On the other hand, the CG or polyvinyl sulfonic (PVS) acids were used as anionic polyelectrolytes. The films were prepared with PANI ...

  1. Avaliação da toxicidade subcrônica do extrato bruto seco de Anacardium occidentale Linn em cães - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1112 Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of the crude dry extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn in dogs - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1112

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabely de Souza Vera Cruz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A busca de novos medicamentos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novos fármacos que sejam eficientes e destituídos de toxicidade. Uma das fronteiras nessas pesquisas são os medicamentos fitoterápicos. No Brasil, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA regulariza essas pesquisas e padroniza os procedimentos. A Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada (RDC 48/2004, por exemplo, regulariza o registro de fitoterápicos. O Anacardium occidentale Linn está entre as plantas mais estudadas, devido às ações antibiótica e antiinflamatória de seus metabólitos secundários, principalmente taninos. Esta planta também possui a capacidade de impedir a formação da placa bacteriana bucal. Diante dessas ações, formas farmacêuticas acabadas (cremes e géis foram desenvolvidas a partir do extrato bruto seco (EBS das cascas do caule do A. occidentale Linn para registro de um novo fitomedicamento. Entretanto, testes pré-clínicos e clínicos devem ser feitos de acordo com a lei vigente. O presente trabalho avaliou a toxicidade subcrônica do EBS em cães sem raça definida (SRD. Os testes revelaram apenas hepatotoxicidade transitória demonstrada pela elevação dos níveis da alanina transaminase (ALT e aspartato transaminase (ASTResearch on new medicaments has led to the development of efficient and non-toxic drugs. In Brazil, the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (National Department of Sanitary Supervision – ANVISA regularizes and standardizes the procedure. Anacardium occidentale is amongst the most researched plants, due to the antibiotics and antinflammatory properties of its secondary metabolites, mainly tannins and flavonoids. Furthermore, it prevents the dental plaque formation. On account of these actions, finished pharmaceutical forms (creams and gels were developed from the crude dry extract (CDE of A. occidentale Linn stem rinds, in order to register a new form. However, pre-clinical and clinical assays can be made in

  2. The search rate of the African weaver ant in cashew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Signe; Axelsen, Jørgen Aagaard; Lemming, Katrine Hansen

    2015-01-01

    Oecophylla longinoda is a species of eusocial colony living ants that prey upon other insects to feed their larva. Many of these insects are considered pests. An ecosystem model of the interactions between an O. longinoda colony and its potential prey is under construction by the team behind...... this article, and it is unknown which functional response equations are useful for eusocial insect colonies. We investigated the search rate of O. longinoda using artificial feeding experiments in a Tanzanian cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) orchard to determine the search efficiency of the ants...

  3. The search rate of the African weaver ant in cashew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Signe; Axelsen, Jørgen Aagaard; Lemming, Katrine Hansen;

    2015-01-01

    this article, and it is unknown which functional response equations are useful for eusocial insect colonies. We investigated the search rate of O. longinoda using artificial feeding experiments in a Tanzanian cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) orchard to determine the search efficiency of the ants...... a seven day period. The equations of Gutierrez-Baumgärtner, Lotka-Volterra, and Nicholson-Bailey were assessed and the Nicholson-Bailey equation was found to be most suitable. The Gutierrez-Baumgärtner equation is useful if the demand for storage can be assessed. A large variation in search rates...

  4. Assessment of Phenolic Compounds and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Phase of Anacardium occidentale L. Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Suênia de Araújo Vilar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The bark of A. occidentale L. is rich in tannins. Studies have described various biological activities of the plant, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic and antiinflammatory actions. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of the ethyl acetate phase (EtOAc of A. occidentale on acute inflammation and to identify and quantify its phenolic compounds by HPLC. The method was validated and shown to be linear, precise and accurate for catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and gallic acid. Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus were treated with saline, Carrageenan (2.5%, Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, Bradykinin (6 nmol and Prostaglandine E2 (5 µg at different concentrations of EtOAc - A. occidentale (12.5; 25; 50; and 100 mg/kg/weight p.o. for the paw edema test. Challenge was performed with carrageenan (500 µg/mL i.p. for the doses 50 and 100 mg/kg of EtOAc. Levels of cytokines IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were also measured. All EtOAc - A. occidentale concentrations reduced the edema. At 50 and 100 mg/kg, an anti-inflammatory response of the EtOAc was observed. Carrageenan stimulus produced a neutrophil count of 28.6% while 50 and 100 mg/kg of the phase reduced this to 14.5% and 9.1%, respectively. The EtOAc extract reduced levels of IL-1 and TNF-α. These results suggest that the EtOAc plays a modulatory role in the inflammatory response. The chromatographic method can be used for the analysis of the phenolic compounds of the EtOAc phase.

  5. Storage stability of cashew apple juice preserved by hot fill and aseptic processes Estabilidade do suco de caju preservado pelo método ''hot fill'' e processo asséptico

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cecília Oliveira Costa; Geraldo Arraes Maia; Raimundo Wilane de Figueiredo; Men de Sá Moreira de Souza Filho; Isabella Montenegro Brasil

    2003-01-01

    Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) apples from Pacajus, Ceará State, Brazil, were processed into high pulp content juice. The juice was packed either by hot fill or an aseptic process and evaluated for physical, physical-chemical, and sensorial changes during a 12-month storage period at room temperature. The results indicated that pH, soluble solids, total acidity, total sugar content and color did not change significantly during storage nor were affected by the type of filling. The sensoria...

  6. Anacardic Acid Isolated From Cashew Nut Shell (Anacardium occidentale Affects Methane and Other Products in the Rumen Fermentation

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    A. Saenab

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofat is a hexane extract containing several bioactive compounds with anacardic acid as the major compound. This study aimed to examine the effect of anacardic acid on rumen fermentation, especially methane and its degradation in the in vitro rumen fermentation. The study was arranged in a completely randomized block design. The treatments were control (substrate or complete feed, biofat (substrate + 0.75 uL/mL biofat, and anacardic acid (substrate + 0.75 uL/mL anacardic acid. Measured variables were total gas production, methane, pH, concentration of ammonia (NH3, dry matter degrability (DMD, organic matter degrability (OMD, and neutral detergent fiber degrability (NDFD in the rumen. The chromatogram GC-MS analysis results indicated that the anacardic acid isolation process of the biofat produced nearly pure isolate (99.44%, and significantly decreased the production of methane by 51.21% and 39.62%, respectively. Anacardic acid degradation pattern in the in vitro rumen test showed a shifting of retention factor (Rf value after anacardic acid being incubated with the degradation of anacardic acid occurred after 24 h of fermentation. In conclusion, anacardic acid isolated from biofat has a dominant role to reduce the in vitro methane production. Anacardic acid is very potential to be used as a methane reducing agent.

  7. Investigação dos efeitos citotóxico, genotóxico e antibacteriano dos taninos isolados de Anacardium Occidentale Linn e Anadenanthera Macrocarpa (Benth.) Brenan em linhagens de Streptococcus associados ao biofilme dental

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Josenildo Segundo Chaves de

    2013-01-01

    As plantas são uma rica fonte de novas moléculas biologicamente ativas com reconhecido potencial no desenvolvimento de medicamentos. O Anacardium occidentale Linn é popularmente conhecida como 'cajueiro', é uma planta da família das Anacardiaceae, originária do Nordeste do Brasil e popularmente conhecida por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias e cicatrizantes. O Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth.) Brenan ou o "angico" é pertencente a família das Mimosaceae, distribuída pelas r...

  8. Weaver ant role in cashew orchards in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Renkang; Lan, La Pham; Christian, Keith

    2014-08-01

    Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is a very important source of income for more than 200,000 farmer households in Vietnam. The present cashew productivity in Vietnam is low and unstable, and pest damage is partly responsible for this. Cashew farmers rely on pesticides to minimize the damage, resulting in adverse impacts on farm environment and farmers' health. Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp) are effective biocontrol agents of a range of cashew insect pests in several cashew-growing countries, and these ants are widely distributed in Vietnam. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of weaver ants in cashew orchards in Vietnam. Field surveys and field experiment were conducted in five cashew orchards from July 2006 to January 2008 in Binh Phuoc, Dong Nai, and Ba Ria Vung Tau provinces, Vietnam. Based on the field surveys, the most important pests that damage flushing foliar and floral shoots and young cashew fruits and nuts were mosquito bugs, brown shoot borers, blue shoot borers, and fruit-nut borers. The damage caused by each of these pests was significantly lower on trees with weaver ants compared with trees without the ants, showing that the ants were able to keep these pest damages under the control threshold. Regular monitoring of the field experiment showed that weaver ants were similar to insecticides for controlling mosquito bugs, blue shoot borers, fruit-nut borers, leaf rollers, and leaf miners. Aphids did not become major pests in plot with weaver ants. To manage insect pest assemblage in cashew orchards, an integrated pest management using weaver ants as a major component is discussed.

  9. Avaliação da toxicidade subcrônica do extrato bruto seco de Anacardium occidentale Linn em cães - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1112 Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of the crude dry extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn in dogs - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1112

    OpenAIRE

    Isabely de Souza Vera Cruz; Gracielle Carvalho Gomes; Maria Almerice Lopes da Silva; Miracy Muniz Albuquerque; Arquimedes Fernandes Monteiro de Melo; Vanessa Ribeiro Leite; Jane Sheila Higino

    2006-01-01

    A busca de novos medicamentos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novos fármacos que sejam eficientes e destituídos de toxicidade. Uma das fronteiras nessas pesquisas são os medicamentos fitoterápicos. No Brasil, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) regulariza essas pesquisas e padroniza os procedimentos. A Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada (RDC) 48/2004, por exemplo, regulariza o registro de fitoterápicos. O Anacardium occidentale Linn está entre as plantas mais estudadas, devido ...

  10. Development and Antibacterial Activity of Cashew Gum-Based Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José dos S. Soares

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the development of a green synthesis of silver nanoparticles reduced and stabilized by exuded gum from Anacardium occidentale L. and evaluates in vitro their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. Characterization of cashew gum-based silver nanoparticles (AgNPs was carried out based on UV–Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis which revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape, measuring about 4 nm in size with a uniform dispersal. AgNPs presented antibacterial activity, especially against Gram-negative bacteria, in concentrations where no significant cytotoxicity was observed.

  11. Atividades antioxidante e hepatoprotetora da polpa de caju (Anacardium occidentale L.) e Ãcidos anacÃrdicos em resposta ao estresse induzido por paracetamol

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Nunes de Almada

    2013-01-01

    Many substances have been tested for their ability to protect against paracetamol toxicity and those that possess antioxidant properties have been the ones of major interest. The cashew tree is a tropical plant known for its biological properties related to its antioxidant potential. This work aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of cashew apple pulp and anacardic acids in response to stress induced by paracetamol. Thus, were determined in the cashew apple pulp the levels of vitamin C...

  12. Use of fibres obtained from the cashew (Anacardium ocidentale, L and guava (Psidium guayava fruits for enrichment of food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima O. Matias

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of using the cashew and guava dried bagasse for enrichment of cookies, a study of drying process was done. The physico- chemical characterization included the determination of pH, soluble solids, total acidity, protein, lipids, fiber, ash, moisture and total and reducing sugars. Total coli forms, yeasts and molds counting were the microbiological analyses conducted. Enriched cookies were prepared by adding 5, 10 and 15% (of total weight of dry residues of cashew and guava. Appearance, color, odor, taste and texture were the sensorial attributes evaluated for the enriched and non-enriched cookies. The granulometric analysis defined that more adequate particle to add were between 65 and 100 mesh. The enriched cookies with cashew and guava fibers in 10% e 5%, respectively, showed a high rate of acceptability in relation to flavor.Foi realizado o estudo de secagem dos bagaços de caju e de goiaba, visando sua utilização no enriquecimento de biscoitos. Determinou-se pH; sólidos solúveis, acidez total titulável, proteína, lipídios, fibras, cinzas, umidade e açúcares redutores e redutores totais. Foram realizadas também as contagens de coliformes totais e fecais e de bolores e leveduras. Adicionou-se aos biscoitos bagaços desidratados de caju e goiaba em percentuais de 5, 10 e 15%. Os atributos avaliados nos biscoitos com e sem adição de bagaços desidratados foram aparência, cor, odor, sabor e textura. Os resultados da caracterização físico-química foram coerentes com os da literatura consultada. As partículas retidas das peneiras entre 65 e 100 mesh foram consideradas as mais adequadas a serem incorporadas ao alimento. As formulações com 10% de bagaço desidratado de caju e 5% de bagaço desidratado de goiaba apresentaram os maiores índices de aceitabilidade com relação ao sabor, 84,9% e 81,8%, respectivamente.

  13. Influence of gamma radiation on the levels of polyphenols and lethality of ethanol extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn., against Biomphalaria glabrata; Influencia da radiacao gama na acao moluscicida de extratos de cajueiro em Biomphalaria glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G.H.F.; Silva, E.B., E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Melo, A.M.M.A.; Lima, C.S.A [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica; Amorim, E.L.C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, T.J.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia

    2013-08-15

    Plant materials rich in phenolic compounds, such as Anacardium occidentale Linn., Have been used as alternatives to synthetic pesticides in Biomphalaria glabrata control programs, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Studies show that ionizing radiation can influence the content of phenolic compounds and thus their biological actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in polyphenol composition of hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale and evaluate the toxicity of these extracts to embryos and adults of B. glabrata. To achieve this goal this, the extracts were irradiated at 10 kGy, the controls being maintained from 0 kGy and positive (CaCO{sub 3}) and negative (H{sub 2}O). We quantified the total phenols by the Folin-Ciocalteau and tannins by precipitation of casein. Extracts were used at a concentration of 100 mg/L. The results showed that the radiation caused the changes to the leaves, the percentage of polyphenols and tannins, and the percentage of lethality in embryos and adults Biomphalaria glabrata, these percentages being: 13 ± 5 (0 kGy) and 27 ± 2.5 (10 kGy), and 36.67 ± 5.77 (0 kGy), and 56.67 ± 5.77 (10 kGy), respectively. Gamma radiation caused significant changes in the levels of polyphenols in the extracts of leaves of Anacardium ocidentale Linn., translated by the increased toxicity of this extract against embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata. This indicates that gamma radiation can be used as an agent potentiating the toxicity of plant extracts on the alternate use of these materials as molluscicides. (author)

  14. Chromatographic techniques for the determination of alkyl-phenols, tocopherols and other minor polar compounds in raw and roasted cold pressed cashew nut oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Verardo, Vito; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2010-11-19

    Anacardium occidentale belongs to the family Anacardiaceae and is principally grown in tropical America (Mexico, Peru, Brazil, etc.) and India. Cashew nuts contain low amounts of hydroxy alkyl phenols that come from an oily liquid present in their shell and that is known as cashew-nut shell liquid. This paper reports the alkyl phenols composition of cold pressed raw and roasted cashew nut oil. First of all, cashew nut shell liquid was used for a basic fractionation of the alkyl phenol classes by preparative TLC and definitively identified by GC-MS and GC-FID. Anacardic acids were the major alkylphenols contained in both oils followed by cardol, cardanol and 2-methylcardol compounds, respectively. Raw and roasted oils did not show different compositions except for cardanols. The oil produced from roasted cashew nut reported a higher concentration of cardanols. Furthermore, tocopherols and other minor polar compounds were determined by HPLC-FLD and HPLC-DAD-MS, respectively. Tocopherol content varied in a range of 171.48-29.56mg/100g from raw to roasted cashew nut oil, being β-tocopherol the one which presented a higher decrease (93.68%). Also minor polar compounds in cashew oil decreased after roasting from 346.52 to 262.83mg/kg.

  15. Anacardic acid: molluscicide in cashew nut shell liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, J T; Richards, C S; Lloyd, H A; Krishna, G

    1982-03-01

    The components of anacardic acid, (a mixture of 6-n-C (15) alkylsalicylic acids whose side chains vary in degrees of unsaturation) have been isolated by high pressure liquid chromatography from a crude extract of cashew nut shell, Anacardium occidentale, and tested for toxicity to fresh water snails, Biomphalaria glabrata. The triene component is the most toxic form (LC (50) 0.35 ppm), the diene and monoene components are less toxic (LC (50) 0.9 and 1.4 ppm), and the saturated component is relatively nontoxic (LC (50) > 5 ppm). Since decarboxylated anacardic acid (cardanol) and salicylic acid do not kill snails at concentrations up to 5 ppm, it appears that both, carboxyl group and unsaturated side chain are absolutely required for molluscicidal activity. The mechanism of toxicity of anacardic acid to snails is unknown.

  16. Tracking cashew economically important diseases in the West African region using metagenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa eMonteiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, agricultural land-uses in West Africa were marked by dramatic shifts in the coverage of individual crops. Nowadays, cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. is one of the most export-oriented horticulture crops, notably in Guinea-Bissau. Relying heavily on agriculture to increase their income, developing countries have been following a strong trend of moving on from traditional farming systems towards commercial production. Emerging infectious diseases, driven either by adaptation to local conditions or inadvertent importation of plant pathogens, are able to cause tremendous cashew production losses, with economic and social impact of which, in developing countries is often underestimated. Presently, plant genomics with metagenomics as an emergent tool, presents an enormous potential to better characterize diseases by providing extensive knowledge on plant pathogens at a large scale. In this perspective, we address metagenomics as a promising genomic tool to identify cashew fungal associated diseases as well as to discriminate the causal pathogens, aiming at obtaining tools to help design effective strategies for disease control and thus promote the sustainable production of cashew in West African region.

  17. Evaluation of antioxidant and mutagenic activities of honey-sweetened cashew apple nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Robson Alves; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues; Nascimento e Santos, Débora; de Abreu, Bianca Regina Ribas; de Lima, Alessandro; de Andrade, Heloisa Helena Rodrigues; Lehmann, Mauricio

    2013-12-01

    In vitro chemical properties and antioxidant potential and in vivo mutagenic activity of honey-sweetened cashew apple nectar (HSCAN), a beverage produced from the cashew pseudo-fruit (Anacardium occidentale L.) and of its constituents were assessed. Analytical procedures were carried out to investigate the honey used in the HSCAN preparation, and the results observed are in accordance with Brazilian legal regulations, except for diastase number. HSCAN and pulp were investigated for ascorbic acid, carotenoid, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and both showed high acid ascorbic concentrations. Antioxidant capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and/or β-carotene/linoleic acid systems were applied and demonstrated a weak antioxidant capacity of honey and HSCAN, but cashew apple pulp demonstrated high antioxidant capacity. A weakly positive mutagenic effect of cashew pulp 20% was observed using the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster only in the high-bioactivation (HB) cross. On the contrary, HSCAN was not mutagenic in both standard and high bioactivation crosses. HSCAN exhibited slight antioxidant activity, which could be associated with the high amount of ascorbic acid found in the samples evaluated. The beverage prepared did not induce DNA damage in somatic cells of D. melanogaster, which means that it is neither mutagenic nor recombinagenic in this test system.

  18. Dwarf cashew growth irrigated with saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  19. Caracterização anatômica e histoquímica de raízes e folhas de plântulas de Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Lopes Ernesto Reis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae é uma espécie típica do Cerrado do Brasil Central e possui valor socioeconômico. Objetivou-se caracterizar anatômica e histoquimicamente as raízes e folhas desta espécie em diferentes estádios iniciais de desenvolvimento. Para a caracterização anatômica, as amostras foram fixadas em FAA50, incluídas em parafina e submetidas aos procedimentos usuais para microscopia de campo claro. Foram realizados testes histoquímicos para detecção de lipídios totais, taninos, lignina, amido e terpenoides com grupo carbonila nas folhas, bem como teste para amido nas raízes em cortes frescos. A raiz apresenta epiderme unisseriada, floema com canais secretores e xilema tetrarco. Aos cinco dias após a germinação, a planta apresenta regiões com crescimento secundário e possui região medular na raiz, com função de armazenamento de grãos de amido. As folhas exibem epiderme unisseriada, com tricomas glandulares, cutícula espessa e estômatos paracíticos, em ambas as faces. O mesofilo é dorsiventral, e a nervura central apresenta feixes vasculares colaterais com canais secretores associados ao floema. A caracterização histoquímica da folha evidenciou lipídios totais e compostos fenólicos, entre eles taninos e lignina, em diferentes tecidos da folha. A plântula apresenta características que demonstram sua adaptação ao ambiente Cerrado, como cutícula espessa, mesofilo dorsiventral, crescimento secundário e presença de tricomas, mesmo sendo cultivada em condições de viveiro.

  20. Extraction and Characterization of Highly Gelling Low Methoxy Pectin from Cashew Apple Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beda M. Yapo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation on the pectic substances of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. apple under different acid-extraction conditions (pH 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 showed that more than 10%–25% of A. occidentale pectins (AOP could be extracted, depending on the extractant strength. The extracted AOP contained high amounts of galacturonic acid (GalA: 69.9%–84.5% with some neutral sugars of which rhamnose (Rha: 1.3%–2.5%, arabinose (Ara: 2.6%–5.4%, and galactose (Gal: 4.7%–8.6% were the main constituents. The degree of methoxylation (DM was in the range of 28%–46% and was only slightly affected by the extractant strength, thereby indicating isolation of naturally low methoxy pectins (LMP. In terms of gelling capability, AOP yielded firmer Ca2+-mediated LMP gels than commercial citrus LMP with comparable DM. Cashew apple pomace, therefore, appears to be a potentially viable source for possible production of “non-chemically or enzymatically-tailored” LMP.

  1. Effect of glycerine and essential oils (Anacardium occidentale and Ricinus communis on animal performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics of crossbred bulls finished in a feedlot system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Teresa Barreto Cruz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of corn substitution by glycerine and essential oils on animal performance, apparent digestibility and red and white blood cells of crossbred bulls finished in feedlot was evaluated. Thirty bulls with average weight of 311±28.8 kg and 22±2 month-old were allocated in three diets: CON (without glycerine or essential oils, GLY (with glycerine and GEO (with glycerine and essential oils. The bulls were fed a diet of sorghum silage, cracked corn, soybean meal, urea, limestone and mineral salt. Three grams of cashew and castor oil/animal/day were included in GEO diet. Animals were kept in feedlot for 115 days and slaughtered at average weight of 467±40.6 kg. No differences (P<0.05 among diets regarding final body weight, average daily gain and feed conversion were reported. Ether extract intake was higher (P<0.05 in CON diet compared to the others. Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibility was higher (P<0.05 in GLY diet compared to CON. Acid detergent fibre digestibility was higher (P<0.05 in CON compared to GLY diet. Nonfibrous carbohydrate, fibrous carbohydrate and ether extract digestibility were similar (P>0.05 among diets. No effect of glycerine and essential oil addition on total blood cholesterol, triglycerides, haemogram, leukogram and plasmatic proteins was observed. Corn replacement by glycerine and essential oils addition did not affect (P>0.05 carcass weight, dressing and conformation, carcass length and cushion thickness.

  2. Thermochemical Properties of Hydrophilic Polymers from Cashew and Khaya Exudates and Their Implications on Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O. Olorunsola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of a polymer is essential for determining its suitability for a particular purpose. Thermochemical properties of cashew gum (CSG extracted from exudates of Anacardium occidentale L. and khaya gum (KYG extracted from exudates of Khaya senegalensis were determined and compared with those of acacia gum BP (ACG. The polymers were subjected to different thermal and chemical analyses. Exudates of CSG contained higher amount of hydrophilic polymer. The pH of 2% w/v gum dispersions was in the order KYG < CSG < ACG. Calcium was the predominant ion in CSG while potassium was predominant in KYG. The FTIR spectra of CSG and KYG were similar and slightly different from that of ACG. Acacia and khaya gums exhibited the same thermal behaviour which is different from that of CSG. X-ray diffraction revealed that the three gums are the same type of polymer, the major difference being the concentration of metal ions. This work suggests the application of cashew gum for formulation of basic and oxidizable drugs while using khaya gum for acidic drugs.

  3. Thermochemical Properties of Hydrophilic Polymers from Cashew and Khaya Exudates and Their Implications on Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Partap G.; Tytler, Babajide A.; Adikwu, Michael U.

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of a polymer is essential for determining its suitability for a particular purpose. Thermochemical properties of cashew gum (CSG) extracted from exudates of Anacardium occidentale L. and khaya gum (KYG) extracted from exudates of Khaya senegalensis were determined and compared with those of acacia gum BP (ACG). The polymers were subjected to different thermal and chemical analyses. Exudates of CSG contained higher amount of hydrophilic polymer. The pH of 2% w/v gum dispersions was in the order KYG < CSG < ACG. Calcium was the predominant ion in CSG while potassium was predominant in KYG. The FTIR spectra of CSG and KYG were similar and slightly different from that of ACG. Acacia and khaya gums exhibited the same thermal behaviour which is different from that of CSG. X-ray diffraction revealed that the three gums are the same type of polymer, the major difference being the concentration of metal ions. This work suggests the application of cashew gum for formulation of basic and oxidizable drugs while using khaya gum for acidic drugs. PMID:27990303

  4. Influência do estiolamento e do ácido indolebutírico na formação de raízes do alporque de cajueiro Anão Precoce (Anacardium Occidentale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Célio Guedes Almeida

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available O cajueiro é uma planta geralmente propagada por semente. Sua multiplicação vegetativa ainda não é comercialmente viável. Neste estudo os efeitos do estiolamento e do ácido indolebutírico (AIB na formação de raízes do alporque da planta de caju foram investigados. O estiolamento foi realizado 30 dias antes do início do processo de alporquia. Por ocasião do anelamento do ramo, o AIB foi aplicado. Após 30 dias da realização da alporquia, os ramos já enraizados foram removidos da planta progenitora. Em seguida foram colocados em saco plástico na casa de vegetação sob condições de irrigação intermitente. Os resultados sugeriram um prévio estiolamento do ramo antes do processo de alporquia e uma aplicação de AIB, por ocasião do anelamento para, garantir a sobrevivência do alporque após o desmame.The Cashew tree is usually propagated by seed since vegetative multiplication has not been fully satisfactory. In this work the effects of etiolation and AIB on air layered branches of the cashew tree were studied. Previous to airlayering procedure, the branches were etiolated during 30 days. The AIB was applied when the bark of the stem was cut. After 30 days the layers were removed from the parent plant at which roots stage were observed through the transparent bag. The rooted layers were planted in polyethylene bags and placed in a greenhouse under an intermitent-mist water spray condition. The results show that the previous etiolation and application of AIB to the exposed wound were beneficial to increase rooting and survival of cashew air layers.

  5. OBTENÇÃO DE BEBIDA A PARTIR DE SUCO DE CAJU (Anacardium occidentale, L.) E EXTRATO DE GUARANÁ (Paullinia cupana sorbilis Mart. Ducke) OBTENTION OF DRINK FROM CASHEW APPLE JUICE (Anacardium occidentale, L.) AND GUARANA EXTRACT (Paullinia cupana sorbilis Mart. Ducke)

    OpenAIRE

    LILIANA COSTA SOARES; GERARDO SÉRGIO FRANCELINO DE OLIVEIRA; GERALDO ARRAES MAIA; JOSÉ CARLOS SABINO MONTEIRO; ANTENOR SILVA JUNIOR

    2001-01-01

    A partir do extrato de semente de guaraná com 0,96% de cafeína, foram testadas várias formulações para obtenção de uma bebida, utilizando-se de suco de caju clarificado e concentrado, caramelo, aromatizantes artificiais de caju e guaraná e acidulante, tendo também como variável os diversos graus de doçura (ºBrix). As melhores formulações foram selecionadas de acordo com os resultados da avaliação sensorial, onde se utilizou o teste de ordenação. A formulação selecionada foi processada e envas...

  6. Wettability and morphology of the leaf surface in cashew tree from the Amazon, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Quaresma Ramos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaves surfaces, which represent an interface with plants and the environment, have several structures with specific functions. Some foliar properties, including wettability and mechanical containment, are inferred in terms of cellular adaptation and the presence or absence of cuticular wax. Various morphological parameters, ranging from macro- to nano scales, are analyzed and contribute to the study of taxonomy, pharmacognosy, and ecology of plants. The aim of this paper was to analyze the effect and influence of epicuticular wax granules on the hydrophobicity of Anacardium occidentale L. leaf surfaces. Leaf specimens were directly examined with an environmental scanning electron microscope without metal coating. Images revealed epidermis ornament, stomata type, was, and trichomes. Static contact angle between water and the surface was also measured on both sides. On the adaxial side, an angle of 104.09° ± 0.95° was found, suggesting that adaxial surface is hydrophobic. On the abaxial side, the angle was 62.20° ± 1.60°, which indicates a hydrophilic nature, probably because of the greater amount of epicuticular wax on the adaxial leaf surface. The present investigation provided an important contribution to morphological and ultrastructural characterization of leaves of cashew tree, which is a plant of great medicinal and economic importance.

  7. Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers using anacardic acid monomers derived from cashew nut shell liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Joseph Y N; Buchweishaija, Joseph; Mkayula, Lupituko L; Ye, Lei

    2007-10-31

    The objective of this work was to use monomers from cashew ( Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shells to develop molecularly imprinted polymers. Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is a cheap and renewable agro byproduct consisting of versatile monomers. Solvent-extracted CNSL contains over 80% anacardic acid (AnAc) with more than 90% degree of unsaturation in its C 15 side chain. From AnAc monomer, anacardanyl acrylate (AnAcr) and anacardanyl methacrylate (AnMcr) monomers were synthesized and their chemical structures were characterized by Fourier transform IR and NMR. Different imprinted bulk polymers based on AnAc, AnAcr, and AnMcr functional monomers have been prepared. In the present study, each functional monomer was separately copolymerized in toluene with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and divinylbenzene as cross-linkers, using racemic propranolol as a model template. While the AnAc based polymer revealed a meager rebinding ability, the imprinted polymers made from AnAcr and AnMcr displayed highly specific propranolol binding. At a polymer concentration of 2 mg/mL, AnAcr and AnMcr based imprinted polymers were able to bind over 50% of trace propranolol (initial concentration 1.2 nM). Under the same condition propranolol uptake by the two nonimprinted control polymers was less than 20%. Chiral recognition properties of these polymers were further confirmed using tritium-labeled (S)-propranolol as a tracer in displacement experiments, suggesting that the apparent affinity of the imprinted chiral sites for the correct enantiomer is at least 10 times that of the mismatched (R)-propranolol. Moreover, cross reactivity studies of these polymers showed that the (S)-imprinted sites have higher cross-reactivity toward (R, S)-metoprolol than (R)-propranolol and (R)-timolol.

  8. Storage stability of cashew apple juice preserved by hot fill and aseptic processes Estabilidade do suco de caju preservado pelo método ''hot fill'' e processo asséptico

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    Maria Cecília Oliveira Costa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. apples from Pacajus, Ceará State, Brazil, were processed into high pulp content juice. The juice was packed either by hot fill or an aseptic process and evaluated for physical, physical-chemical, and sensorial changes during a 12-month storage period at room temperature. The results indicated that pH, soluble solids, total acidity, total sugar content and color did not change significantly during storage nor were affected by the type of filling. The sensorial analysis showed that juice acceptance remained high throughout the storage period regardless of the filling system. Differences in juice viscosity persisted between both processes.Pedúnculos de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. de Pacajus, Estado do Ceará, Brasil, foram processados na forma de suco com alto teor de polpa. O suco foi acondicionado através do processo hot fill ou asséptico e verificada as alterações físicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais durante armazenagem por doze meses à temperatura ambiente. Os resultados indicaram que pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez total, conteúdo de açúcar e cor não mudaram de modo significativo durante a armazenagem nem foram afetadas pelo modo de acondicionamento. Análise sensorial mostrou que a aceitação do suco foi mantida alta durante o período de armazenagem a despeito do sistema de enchimento. Diferenças na viscosidade dos sucos persistiram entre ambos processos.

  9. Propolis or cashew and castor oils effects on composition of Longissimus muscle of crossbred bulls finished in feedlot

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    Maribel Velandia Valero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural additive products (propolis or essential oils, in replacing antibiotics, could be used as an alternative for feed strategies to improve animal production. This work was performed to evaluate the effect of natural additives as propolis or essential oils on meat quality of crossbred (Aberdeen Angus vs. Nellore bulls. Thirty bulls were kept in feedlot (individual pen for 55 d and randomly assigned to one of three diets (n = 10: control (CON, propolis (PRO, or essential oils (OIL. CON diet consists of corn silage (45% DM and concentrate (cracked corn, soybean meal, glycerin, limestone, and mineral salt, 55% DM. The PRO group received same CON diet plus 3 g animal-1 d-1 of propolis premix added to the concentrate. The OIL group received same CON diet and 3 g animal-1 d-1 of a premix (cashew Anacardium occidentale L. and castor Ricinus communis L. oils added to the concentrate. Fat thickness (5.0 mm, pH (5.9, Longissimus muscle area 58.0 cm², marbling, texture, color (L* = 36.6, a* = 17.3, and b* = 5.9, lipid oxidation (0.08 malonaldehyde kg-1 meat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (3.3 kg were unaffected by the diet. PRO and OIL diets had no effect neither on moisture (73.7%, ashes (1.1%, protein (23.8%, and lipids (1.7%, fatty acid composition or polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid (PUFA/ SFA, 0.13, and n-6/n-3 ratio (6.9 on Longissimus muscle. Addition of natural additives as propolis extract or cashew and castor oils in the diet of bulls when they are finished in a feedlot did not change meat qualities.

  10. Biology, behaviour and functional response of Cydnocoris gilvus Brum. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae a predator of Tea Mosquito Bug (Helopeltis antonii Sign. on cashew in India

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    K.K. Srikumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Helopeltis spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae are major sucking pests of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. in India. Cydnocoris gilvus Brum. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae is recorded as a potential predator of Helopeltis spp. Biology, mating behaviour and functional response of C. gilvus were studied by rearing in the laboratory (temperature 26-28 0C; relative humidity 89-94 % with wax moth, Galleria mellonella, larvae. Based on laboratory rearing, the fecundity was 56.33 eggs in 8.67 batches per female. The average stadial period was 37.3 days, with a maximum of 11 days for V instar and a minimum of 4.5 days for III instars. C. gilvus took 45.5 days to complete a generation. The innate capacity of natural increase was 0.07 with a gross reproduction of 67.8 females per female. The adult exhibited a pin and jab mode of predation in a sequence of actions. The sequential action of mating comprised arousal (1.32 min, approach (12.30 min, riding over (140.48 min and copulation (85.40 min. The predator responded to increasing prey density by killing more prey than at lower prey densities

  11. Multilayer Films Electrodes Consisted of Cashew Gum and Polyaniline Assembled by the Layer-by-Layer Technique: Electrochemical Characterization and Its Use for Dopamine Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Sergio Bitencourt Araújo; Leite, Cleide Maria da Silva; de Brito, Ana Cristina Facundo; Dos Santos Júnior, José Ribeiro; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Eiras, Carla

    2012-01-01

    We take advantage of polyelectrolyte feature exhibited by natural cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) (CG), found in northeast Brazil, to employ it in the formation of electroactive nanocomposites prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. We used polyaniline unmodified (PANI) or modified with phosphonic acid (PA), PANI-PA as cationic polyelectrolyte. On the other hand, the CG or polyvinyl sulfonic (PVS) acids were used as anionic polyelectrolytes. The films were prepared with PANI or PANI-PA intercalated with CG or with PVS alternately resulting in four films with different sequences: PANI/CG PANI-PA/CG, PANI/PVS and PANI-PA/PVS, respectively. Analysis by cyclic voltammetry (CV) of the films showed that the presence of gum increases the stability of the films in acidic medium. The performance of the modified electrode of PANI-PA/CG was evaluated in electro analytical determination of dopamine (DA). The tests showed great sensitivity of the film for this analyte that was detected at 10(-5) mol L(-1).

  12. Isotermas de adsorção do pedúnculo seco do caju Adsorption isotherms of the dry cashew apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siumara R. Alcântara

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de água constitui um fator importante no processo de fermentação semi-sólida, haja vista sua relação com a quantidade de água disponível ao microrganismo responsável pelo metabolismo do produto, sendo necessário à obtenção de isotermas de sorção para caracterização do substrato. Ante o exposto, objetivou-se a construção das isotermas de adsorção do pedúnculo seco do caju (Anacardium occidentale L. nas temperaturas usuais de fermentação (25, 30, 35 e 40 ºC. Ajustaram-se as isotermas com os modelos de BET, GAB, Oswin, Henderson e Smith. Observou-se que o modelo de GAB apresentou melhor ajuste, de vez que, na faixa de atividade de água que maximiza a biossíntese do microrganismo, para produção de pectinases por Aspergillus niger, a umidade do substrato deve estar acima de 35% b.s.Water activity is a very important factor in a solid state fermentation process due to its relation with the water quantity available to the microorganism that will synthesize the product. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the sorption isotherms for the characterization of the substrate. The objective of this study is to obtain adsorption isotherms of the dry cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L. at normal temperatures of fermentation process (25, 30, 35 e 40 ºC. Five mathematical models were fitted to the experimental data: BET, GAB, Oswin, Henderson e Smith. The GAB model was better fitted to the product. The isotherms allowed the determination of the appropriate moisture content to obtain the water activities that maximize the biosynthesis of the microorganism for the pectin production by solid state fermentation process. The moisture content of the substrate should be above 35% d.b.

  13. Anthelmintic efficacy of cashew (Anarcadium occidentale L.) on in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-24

    Aug 24, 2011 ... I. O. Ademola1,2* and J. N. Eloff1. 1Phytomedicine ... extract was then filtered through Whatman No 1 filter paper using a. Buchner funnel and ... extracted with an equal volume of butanol in a separating funnel to yield the water ... Albendazole was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (0.3% DMSO) and diluted at.

  14. Influência de porta-enxertos na resistência de mudas de cajueiro ao estresse salino Influence of rootstocks on the resistance of cashew plantlets to salt stress

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    Sérgio Luiz Ferreira-Silva

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de porta-enxertos na resistência de mudas de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L. à salinidade. As mudas foram obtidas pela enxertia do clone BRS 226 sobre os porta-enxertos CAPI 4, CCP 09 e BRS 226. Foram expostas a meio hidropônico sem NaCl (controle ou com NaCl 200 mM (tratamento salino, sob condições controladas de temperatura, umidade e luminosidade, durante 12 dias. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x2 (três combinações de enxerto/porta-enxerto e duas concentrações de NaCl, com quatro repetições. Foram determinados a concentração de Na+, Cl-, K+ e solutos orgânicos e os sintomas visuais de toxicidade nas folhas. Os conteúdos de Na+ e Cl-, a relação K+/Na+ e as concentrações de aminoácidos e de prolina livres nas folhas tiveram relação direta com os sintomas visuais de toxicidade. Os porta-enxertos CAPI 4, CCP 09 e BRS 226 foram classificados como sensível, intermediário e resistente à salinidade elevada, respectivamente. Essa variação foi decorrente da influência do porta-enxerto na partição do Na+ e do Cl-.The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. rootstocks on salt resistance in grafted plantlets. The plantlets were obtained by grafting the BRS 226 scion on CAPI 4, CCP 09 and BRS 226 rootstocks, and were exposed to nutrient solution without NaCl (control or with 200 mM NaCl (salt treatment in hydroponics under controlled temperature, humidity, and luminosity conditions during 12 days. The experimental design was a completely randomized in factorial arrangement 3x2 (three scion/rootstock combinations, two NaCl concentrations with four replicates. Na+, Cl-, K+ and organic solute concentrations and toxicity symptoms on leaves were determined. Na+ and Cl- contents, the K+/Na+ ratio and the free amino acid and proline concentrations in leaves were directly related to the visual

  15. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mutans and Staphylococcus aureus recovered from dental caries ... (recovered previously from pus samples of burn patients) were ... were inoculated into sterile Nutrient broth tubes (in .... Fermentation of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.).

  16. Minimal effective dose of phosphine to control the cashew root borer, Marshallius bondari Rosado-Neto (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Dose mínima efetiva de fosfina no controle da broca-da-raiz do cajueiro, Marshallius bondari Rosado-Neto (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervino Bleicher

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine, in field conditions, the minimal of phosphine effective dose for the cashew root borer control. Three experiments were set up at three different periods: August, October and November, 1994, to control the cashew root borer, Marshallius bondari Rosado-Neto (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, in Piaui State, Brazil. One, two, three and six phosphine tablets of three gram each, per plant were tested. In the August essay, phosphine was inefficient to control the borer. In the October essay, control was achieved using as little as 2 tablets per plant and in November with one tablet per plant to control the adult borers in the soil. Higher efficiency was achieved when treatment was applied far away from the last rain, in other words, as soil dries out.Objetivou-se determinar, em condições de campo, a dose mínima de fosfina para o controle da broca da raiz do cajueiro. Foram instalados 3 experimentos em épocas distintas, sendo o primeiro em agosto, o segundo em outubro e o terceiro em novembro de 1994 para o controle de Marshallius bondari Rosado-Neto (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em cajueiro, Anacardium occidentale L. no município de Pio IX, Estado do Piauí. Foram testadas 1; 2; 3 e 6 pastilhas de fosfina na forma de fosfeto de alumínio, de 3 gramas cada, por planta. No ensaio conduzido em agosto nenhum tratamento foi eficiente para o controle de brocas adultas no solo. No ensaio instalado em outubro, a fosfina foi eficiente a partir de duas pastilhas por planta e no ensaio de novembro a partir de uma pastilha por planta para o controle de adultos no solo. A eficiência foi tanto maior quanto maior foi o tempo decorrido após a última chuva, estando, portanto, o solo mais seco.

  17. Cashew cultivation in Guinea-Bissau – risks and challenges of the success of a cash crop

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    Luís Catarino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades a boom in cashew (Anacardium occidentalecultivation has taken place in Guinea-Bissau, leading to the replacement of traditional slash-and-burn agriculture by a cash crop. As a result, the country is currently one of the world’s largest producers of raw cashew nuts and the cashew sector has acquired enormous importance in Guinea-Bissau’s economy. Changes induced by the cashew boom at social and environmental levels are yet to be analyzed and understood. The present study provides an account of the process of cashew expansion in Guinea-Bissau, reviews the current situation and discusses its future prospects. The cashew tree was introduced into the country by the Portuguese in the XIXth century, but only effectively expanded in the mid-1980s. It is largely cultivated by small farmers around villages and also plays a role in land ownership, since land tenure practices are linked to the planting of trees. The effects of this cashew boom on habitat fragmentation, fire regimes and biodiversity are still to be assessed. On the other hand, the spread of pests and diseases is becoming a problem. Strong dependence on a single cash crop also renders the country vulnerable to market fluctuations, entailing risks to local producers and the national economy. In the medium term, losses of export earnings can occur, which may impact the living standards and food security of Bissau-Guineans both in urban and rural areas.

  18. APHRODISIAC ACTIVITY OF SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM NUT

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    Anil Kumar Gupta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spices are considered as sexual invigorators in the Unani System of Medicine. In order to explore the sexual function improving effect of Semecarpus anacardium an experimental study was conducted in normal male mice. The chloroform extract of Semecarpus anacardium was administered (150 mg/kg & 300 mg/kg; p.o. to different groups of male Mice. Mounting behavior & mating performance were determined and compared with the standard drug Penegra (Sildenafil citrate. The extracts of the Semecarpus anacardium were found to stimulate the mounting behavior of male mice, and also to significantly increase their mating performance. The extracts Semecarpus anacardium enhanced the sexual behaviour of male mice.

  19. CHEMICAL AND FERMENTATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ELEPHANT GRASS ENSILED WITH INCREAS-ING LEVELS OF DENIDRATED CASHEW FRUIT BY-PRODUCT CARACTERÍSTICAS QUÍMICAS E FERMENTATIVAS DO CAPIM-ELEFANTE ENSILADO COM NÍVEIS CRESCENTES DE SUBPRODUTO DA AGROINDÚSTRIA DO CAJU

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    Warley Efrem Campos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Nutritive value of silages of Elephant grass (Pen-nisetum   purpureum, Schum. mixed with 0; 3.5%; 7.0%; 10.5% and 14.0 %  of dehydrated by product from juice industry of cashew fruit (Anacardium occidentale, L (DBC was determined. A randomized design was used with four replicates. Silages were opened after 65 days and samples taken for analysis of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicellulose HCEL, cellulose (CEL, lig-nin (LIG, crude energy (CE, ash, neutral detergent inso-luble nitrogen (NDIN and acid detergent insoluble nitro-gen (ADIN. Were also analyzed, pH, ammonia nitrogen and organic acids (lactic, acetic, butyric and propionic. Regarding fermentative parameters, there was an expected decrease in pH and the increasing levels of DBC did not affect the concentrations of N-NH3/NT and organic acids. It is concluded that dehydrated cashew by product can be ensiled along with Elephant grass without altering its fer-mentative characteristics. On the other side, the increased cell walls and ADIN contents of the silage may affect its nutritional value.

    Key-words: Cashew byproducts, nutritive value, tropical grass.

    O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de se avaliar o valor nutritivo das silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. com adição de 0%; 3,5%; 7%; 10,% e 14% do subproduto do pseudofruto do caju (Anacardium occidentale, L. desidratado (subproduto da agroindústria do suco de caju. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após 65 dias, os silos foram abertos e coletadas amostras para determinação dos teores de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, hemicelulose (HCEL, celulose (CEL, lignina (LIG, energia bruta (EB, cinzas, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente neutro (NIDN e nitrog

  20. Produção e fisiologia de plantas de cajueiro anão precoce sob condições de sequeiro e irrigado Production and physiology of dwarf cashew plants under rainfed and irrigated conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiala V Amorim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A exploração do cajueiro sob condições de irrigação tem-se mostrado bastante promissora, especialmente no estado do Ceará, porém a resposta dessa cultura ao regime hídrico depende do genótipo. Objetivouse, com este trabalho, comparar respostas fisiológicas e bioquímicas (teores de solutos orgânicos e inorgânicos e trocas gasosas, tal como a produtividade de plantas de cajueiro anão precoce (Anacardium occidentale L. sob dois regimes hídricos (sequeiro e irrigado. O experimento foi conduzido no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, em Pacajus CE, no período de agosto de 2006 a janeiro de 2007. As plantas foram submetidas a dois tratamentos: um sem irrigação e outro com água de poço com condutividade elétrica (CEa de 0,5 dS m-1. As respostas fisiológicas foram avaliadas mensalmente e os dados de produção foram obtidos no período de novembro a janeiro. Os teores foliares de N-aminossolúveis e prolina foram mais elevados nas plantas cultivadas em condições de sequeiro do que naquelas irrigadas, porém não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para as trocas gasosas, teores de carboidratos solúveis, K+, Na+ e Cl-. Entretanto, com exceção da fotossíntese, todas as variáveis estudadas apresentaram alterações com as épocas de coleta. Apesar das alterações em algumas variáveis ao longo do experimento, a produtividade das plantas não foi afetada pelo estresse hídrico.The exploitation of cashew under irrigated conditions has been very promising, especially in the state of Ceará, however, the response of this crop to the water regime depends on the genotype. This work attempts to compare the physiological and biochemical responses (content of organic and inorganic solutes and gas exchange and yield of precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L plants under two water regimes (irrigated and rainfed. The experiment was conducted at the experimental field of Embrapa Agroind

  1. Semecarpus anacardium Linn.: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semalty, Mona; Semalty, Ajay; Badola, Ashutosh; Joshi, Geeta Pant; Rawat, M S M

    2010-01-01

    Semecarpus anacardium Linn. (Family: Anacardiaceae), commonly known 'Ballataka' or 'Bhilwa', has been used in various traditional system of medicines for various ailments since ancient times. Its nuts contain a variety of biologically active compounds such as biflavonoids, phenolic compounds, bhilawanols, minerals, vitamins and amino acids, which show various medicinal properties. The fruit and nut extract shows various activities like antiatherogenic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-reproductive, CNS stimulant, hypoglycemic, anticarcinogenic and hair growth promoter. The article reviews the various activities of the plant.

  2. Physiological and metabolic effects of irrigation and drought regimen in two clones early dwarf cashew tress.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Os efeitos dos regimes irrigado e de sequeiro foram avaliados em folhas sombreadas e a pleno sol nos clones de cajueiro anÃo precoce (Anacardium occidentale L) CCP 76 e BRS 189. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na EstaÃÃo Experimental da Embrapa AgroindÃstria Tropical, em Paraipaba, CearÃ, entre setembro de 2006 e agosto de 2007. Mensalmente, foram investigados a condutÃncia estomÃtica, a taxa transpiratÃria, a taxa fotossintÃtica, a relaÃÃo entre a concentraÃÃo interna e externa de CO2, o po...

  3. Salt tolerance of precocious-dwarf cashew rootstocks: physiological and growth indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro Paulo Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The cashew crop (Anacardium occiedentale L. is of great economic and social importance for Northeast Brazil, a region usually affected by water and soil salinity. The present study was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the effects of four salinity levels established through electrical conductivity of irrigation water (ECw: 0.7, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8 dS m-1, at 25ºC, on growth and physiological indexes of five rootstocks of dwarf-precocious cashew varieties CCP06, CCP09, CCP1001, EMBRAPA50, and EMBRAPA51. Plant height, leaf area, dry weight of root, shoot and total; water content of leaves, root/shoot ratio, leaf area ratio, absolute and relative growth rates and rate of net assimilation were evaluated. The majority of the evaluated variables were found to be affected by ECw and the effects varied among clones; however, no significant interactive effects were observed for factors. The value of ECw = 1.39 dS m-1 was considered as a threshold tolerance for the precocious cashew rootstocks used in this study. The dwarf-precocious cashew is moderately sensible to soil salinity during the formation phase of rootstock. Clones EMBRAPA51 and EMBRAPA50 presented, respectively, the least and the best development indexes.

  4. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, J. P. M.; Dubois, A. E. J.; van Wijk, R. Gerth; Wichers, H. J.; de Jong, N. W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognitio

  5. APHRODISIAC ACTIVITY OF SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM NUT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anil Kumar Gupta; M.C.Bindal; Santosh Kumar Gupta; Dhirendra Prakash; Vedpal

    2013-01-01

    Spices are considered as sexual invigorators in the Unani System of Medicine. In order to explore the sexual function improving effect of Semecarpus anacardium an experimental study was conducted in normal male mice...

  6. Chemical and bromatological characteristics of elephant grass silages with the addition of dried cashew stalk Características bromatológicas e fermentativas da silagem de capim-elefante com adição do pedúnculo de caju desidratado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Maria Teles Rêgo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. silages with the addition of 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16% dried cashew stalk (Anacardium occidentale L. - DCS, based on the fresh matter. A randomized complete design with four replications was used. Twenty 210 L plastic drums were used as experimental silos. The levels were determined of the dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicellulose, ether extract (EE, total carbohydrates (TC, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen (NDIN,% total N, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN, % total N, pH values, ammonia nitrogen (in percentage of the total nitrogen, N-NH3, % total N, lactic acid, acetic acid, butyric acid and propionic acid. Adding DCS resulted in higher values of DM, CP, EE, NFC, NDIN (% total N, ADIN (% total N, pH, lactic acid and propionic acid. On the other hand, with increasing DCS levels, a linear decline was observed in values of NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, ammonia nitrogen (% total N and butyric acid. DCS did not show effect on the TC and acetic acid in the silages. As a result, up to 16% dehydrated cashew stalk may be added to elephant-grass silages, based on the fresh matter, to increase CP and NFC levels and decrease NDF and ADF and improve the fermentation patterns. It should be taken into account that higher NDIN and ADIN values may interfere in nitrogen availability and therefore in further DM intake.Este trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar o valor nutritivo de silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. com 0, 4, 8, 12 e 16% de pedúnculo de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. desidratado, com base na matéria natural. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. Como silos experimentais, foram utilizados tambores plásticos de 210 L. Determinaram-se a composição nutricional, os valores de pH e os

  7. Redução assimilatória de NO-3 em plantas de cajueiros cultivados em meio salinizado NO-3 assimilatory reduction in cashew plants grown in salinized medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Viégas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se avaliar os efeitos e mecanismos iniciais da ação da salinidade sobre a redução de NO-3 e a acumulação de solutos nitrogenados, plantas de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L., CCP - 1001, com 42 dias de idade foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva contendo 100 mmol L-1 de NaCl, durante 8 dias, em casa de vegetação. A transpiração foi o principal fator de regulação da atividade de redutase de NO-3 (RN que foi fortemente reduzida nas folhas. Contrariamente, a atividade de glutamina sintetase (GS aumentou nas folhas em resposta à salinidade. Esta tendência de aumento da atividade de GS nas folhas foi acompanhada pelas concentrações de aminoácidos solúveis totais, particularmente prolina e proteínas solúveis totais. Por outro lado, o aumento nas concentrações das frações orgânicas de N, nas folhas, foi seguido por decréscimos nas concentrações de clorofilas e por acréscimos nas concentrações de NH+4 . É provável que o aumento da atividade de GS nas folhas de plantas de cajueiro, tenha sido induzido por um adicional suprimento de NH+4 e glutamato, a partir do catabolismo de aminoácidos e de proteínas e por aumentos na atividade fotorrespiratória.To evaluate the effects and initial-action mechanism of salinity on NO-3 reduction and N compounds accumulation, 42-day-old Anacardium occidentale (CCP-1001 plants were hydroponically grown in 100 mmol L-1 NaCl for 8 days (short-term experiment, in greenhouse. The results show that reduction in transpiration rates due to salinity had a relevant role in the regulation of NO-3 reductase (NR activity, which decreased considerably in leaf. On the contrary, glutamine sintetase (GS activity increased in leaf due to salinity. The increase in activity of GS in leaf was followed by the soluble amino acids concentration, in particular proline, and by the total soluble proteins content as well. On the other hand, increase in concentration of organic N fractions in

  8. Isolation and characterization of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds from Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Ajileye

    2015-07-01

    This study concluded that the extracts and isolated compounds had strong antioxidant and moderate antibacterial activities and could be effective in the management of oxidative stress related diseases. These findings also justified the use of this plant’s extracts in folk medicine.

  9. Hypoglycemic Effect of Methanolic Extract of Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    Page 1 ... occidentale in diabetic rats and its prophylactic activity against the diabetogenic action of streptozotocin This study evaluated the ... a low sugar and carbohydrate diet accompanied with ..... Genetically Type 2 Diabetic Mice. Biol.

  10. ANTIFERTILITY ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM FRUIT IN FEMALE ALBINO RATS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Y Sushma; Gajanana Kulkarni; Shilender Singh

    2016-01-01

      Semecarpus anacardium plant derivatives has been used since antiquity, the fruit and nut extract of Semecarpus anacardium shows various activities like antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant...

  11. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children.

  12. Influência do tempo de aclimatação na resposta do cajueiro à salinidade Influence of acclimatization time on response of cashew plant to salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean C. A. Brilhante

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A resposta das plantas à salinidade depende de fatores fisiológicos, bioquímicos e genéticos. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o impacto do tempo de aclimatação à solução nutritiva sobre a resposta do cajueiro à salinidade. Plantas de Anarcadium occidentale L., CCP06, cultivadas em vermiculita durante 28 dias, foram transferidas para solução nutritiva de Hoagland com 1/10 de sua força iônica, onde permaneceram por 1 e 7 dias. Ao final dos dois tempos, a solução nutritiva foi suplementada com 200 mM de NaCl, condições em que as plantas foram cultivadas por 0, 12, 24, 48 e 72 h. As plantas aclimatadas por 7 dias á solução de Hoagland apresentaram sinais fisiológicos mais compatíveis com a tolerância ao NaCl, como menor acumulação de Na+ e, também, menores danos nas membranas, peroxidação dos lipídeos, degradação de proteínas, acumulação de aminoácidos livres e acumulação de prolina. A amônia livre foi o melhor indicador da intensidade do estresse salino. Os danos de membranas aumentaram com a acumulação de Na+ nas folhas. Os resultados evidenciam que o tempo de aclimatação das raízes à solução nutritiva influencia a expressão de fatores capazes de atenuar os efeitos do estresse salino.The plant response to salinity depends on physiological, biochemical and genetic factors and on their interaction with external environment. This work aimed to study the impact of adaptation time in nutrient solution on the cashew response to salinity. Seedlings of Anacardium occidentale L (CCP06 grown in vermiculite, for 28 days, were placed to grow in 1/10 ionic strength Hoagland solution for 1 and 7 days. At the end of each time the solution was supplemented with 200 mM NaCl, and under this condition the plants were monitored for 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. The 7 days Hoagland solution acclimated plants had physiological index more compatible to tolerance to NaCl such as low Na+ accumulation and also low membrane

  13. Radiographic image analysis of Anacardium othonianum Rizz (anacardiaceae achenes subjected to desiccation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Abadia da Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluating the internal morphology and seed quality of native species are essential for successful conservation programs. Our aim was to verify the efficiency of X-ray imagery in evaluating cashew-tree-of-the-cerrado (Anacardium othonianum Rizz. achene viability after desiccation. The achenes were collected at 12% water content (w.b. and dried in silica gel until they reached 10, 8, 6, and 4% (w.b.. The fruit morphology and the quality of the seeds were evaluated by X-ray test together with vigor, electrical conductivity and emergence tests. Achenes with different water contents were exposed to an X-ray machine at 18 kV for 11 s and were thereafter submitted to emergence tests. The images were analyzed, and the achenes were classified based on internal morphology as completely full, malformed, or empty. These results were compared to those from the emergence tests. The statistical design was a complete randomized factorial (5 x 3. Desiccation to 4% (w.b. did not damage or modify the internal structures. X-ray was efficient in evaluating the internal morphology and detecting achene quality, making it possible to remove empty and abnormal fruit and form vigorous seed lots, reducing the cost of storage and bedding plant production for this native species.

  14. ANTIARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF MILK EXTRACT OF SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM NUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirendra Prakash

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nut using inhibition of protein denaturation model and human red blood cell Membrane stabilization model. Diclofenac sodium was used as a standard drug. Results revealed that the milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nut at different concentrations possessed significant anti-arthritic activity as compared to standard drug used as Diclofenac sodium. The results obtained in the present investigation Indicate that milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nut showed anti-arthritic activity.

  15. Inhibitory effect of some natural and semisynthetic phenolic lipids upon acetylcholinesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiuk, Maria; Bartosiewicz, Dominika; Kozubek, Arkadiusz

    2008-06-01

    The effect of phenolic lipids isolated from rye grains and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) from Anacardium occidentale and their semisynthetic derivatives on erythrocyte ghost's acetylcholinesterase activity was studied. It has been shown that all tested compounds decreased the enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase. This effect depends on the type of studied compounds. Three of them completely inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity at the micromolar concentration.

  16. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new salicylate macrolactones from anacardic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logrado, Lucio P.L.; Santos, Maria Lucilia dos [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Isolamento e Transformacao de Moleculas Organicas]. E-mail: mlsantos@unb.br; Silveira, Damaris [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude; Romeiro, Luiz A.S. [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, Taguatinga, DF (Brazil). Nucleo de Quimica Bioorganica e Medicinal; Moraes, Manoel O. de; Cavalcanti, Bruno C.; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V.; Pessoa, Claudia do O [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lab. de Oncologia Experimental

    2005-11-15

    onnection with our ongoing investigation in the search for new bioactive compounds using non-isoprenoid phenolic lipids from Anacardium occidentale as starting material, we describe the synthesis and cytotoxicity screening of some novel salicylate macrolactones prepared from anacardic acids, the major constituents of natural cashew nut-shell liquid (CNSL). (author)

  17. Oecophylla longinoda (Hymenoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anato, F. M.; Sinzogan, A. A. C.; Offenberg, J.

    2017-01-01

    Weaver ants, Oecophylla spp., are known to positively affect cashew, Anacardium occidentale L., raw nut yield, but their effects on the kernels have not been reported. We compared nut size and the proportion of marketable kernels between raw nuts collected from trees with and without ants. Raw nu...

  18. ANTIARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF MILK EXTRACT OF SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM NUT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dhirendra Prakash; M. C. Bindal; Santosh Kumar Gupta; Anil Kumar Gupta; Vedpal

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nut using inhibition of protein denaturation model and human red blood cell Membrane stabilization model...

  19. Extraction of Polyphenols from Cashew Nut Shell

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew Obichukwu EDOGA; Labake FADIPE; Rita Ngozi EDOGA

    2006-01-01

    Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) was extracted from cashew nut shell by indirect leaching process using soxhlet extraction equipment. Normal hexane (n-hexane) was used as solvent. The operating conditions for the extraction were 680C and 1 atmosphere in every 100g of cashew nut shell used for the extraction, 35gCNSL was obtained. The CNSL was further separated into cardol, cardanol and anacardic acid (polyphenol) using an amine extractant (alanine) with the aid of shake-out separation equipment...

  20. Treatment of cashew extracts with Aspergillopepsin reduces IgE binding to cashew allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashew nuts can cause serious and sometimes life threatening reactions in people that suffer from food allergies. These reactions are mediated by immunoglobulin E binding (IgE) to allergenic cashew proteins. Enzymes from Aspergillus fungal species are used in many industrial and pharmaceutical appli...

  1. Effects of reduction and proteolysis on cashew allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergic reaction to cashew ingestion is frequently more severe than reaction to peanut ingestion, and food allergens are commonly resistant to digestive proteases. The purpose of this study was to characterize the sensitivity of cashew proteins to proteolysis. Cashew protein extracts and purified c...

  2. Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nuts--a boon in alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premalatha, B

    2000-12-01

    In alternative medicine, medicinal plant preparations have found widespread use particularly in the case of diseases not amenable to treatment by modern methods. Chemical and phytochemical analyses of Semecarpus anacardium nut reveal the presence of biflavonoids, phenolic compounds, bhilawanols, minerals, vitamins and amino acids. A variety of nut extract preparations from this source are effective against many diseases, viz. arthritis, tumours, infections etc. and non-toxic even at high dose of 2000 mg/kg. However understanding of the mechanism of the pharmacological action of S. anacardium nut can be greatly aided by the isolation of its active principle from the nut and determination of the structure-function relationship. Also, the potent curative effect of S. anacardium nut extract against human ailments need to be verified by controlled clinical studies.

  3. Evaluation of anthelmintic activity of nuts of Semecarpus anacardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Mohapatra, Tapas Kumar; Das, Apurba

    2008-01-01

    The anthelmintic activity of different extracts of nuts of Semecarpus anacardium were evaluated separately on adult Indian earthworm (Pheritima posthuma). It was found that petroleum ether, chloroform extract of S. anacardium (PESA and CESA, respectively) showed better anthelmintic activities than ethanol (EESA) and aqueous (AESA) extract of it. The anthelmintic effects of PESA and CESA at 10 mg/ml and EESA at 20 mg/ml concentration are comparable to that of the effects produced by the reference standards, albendazole (10 mg/ml) and piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml).

  4. Experimental evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of stevia rebaudiana, Anacardium occidentale on wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh K.

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: The present experimental study is preliminary one elaborate study with larger sample size is required to come up with a more significant result. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(6.000: 2463-2467

  5. EKSPLORASI SPASIAL CENDAWAN TANAH PADA SEKITAR RHIZOSFER TANAMAN JAMBU METE (Anacardium occidentale L. DI KARANGASEM DAN BULELENG-BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Meita Pratiwi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Coconut is one of an important plant to fulfil human’s life needed. This study wasconducted to determine the benefits of coconut plant parts. The study was conducted in someareas of Denpasar and Badung from 27 January until 4 February, 2012. The method used in thisstudy is exploratory survey method by using a questionnaire and interviews. The results showedthat the mostly used parts of the plant are fruit part of 53% (35% bungkak water, bungkak meat12.9%, 4.7% shell root 2.3%, 22 % stems, and leaves as many as 23%. The coconut tree is usedas an upakara (31%, drugs (24%, construction (14%, consumer (13%, crafts (2%, fuel (8%,roofs (2%, broom (2%, and household items (4%.Keywords: Cocos nucifera L. etnobotany, exploration survey

  6. Hypolipidemic activity of Semecarpus anacardium in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, Aseervatham; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2010-08-01

    Alterations in lipid metabolism and lipoprotein disturbances have played an important role in increasing the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in diabetes. A drug that has hypoglycemic activity can be used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia also. The present study was carried out to evaluate the hypolipidemic activity of Semecarpus anacardium. Male Wister rats weighing 250-270 g were injected with Streptozotocin at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight and administered with S. anacardium (300 mg/kg body weight) and Metformin (500 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days. Control and drug control groups were also included in the study. After the experimental duration, serum was collected, liver and kidney were excised and used for the analysis of lipid and lipid metabolizing enzymes. The results of the study revealed that S. anacardium administration was able to decrease the levels of LDL, cholesterol, VLDL, TG, phospholipid and free fatty acid and increase the HDL levels and favorably modulate the lipid metabolizing enzymes in the liver and kidney. These results show that S. anacardium exerts hypolipidemic activity in diabetic rats.

  7. Fungistatic activity of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. f nut extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kanika; Shukla, Sunil Dutt; Mehta, Pooja; Bhatnagar, Maheep

    2002-03-01

    Alcoholic extract of dry nuts of S. anacardium showed dose dependent antifungal activity in vitro against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. At 400 mg/ml concentration, growth of both the fungi was inhibited and considerable reduction in size of cells and hyphae was observed. Sporulation also decreased.

  8. SIMULTANEOUS SELECTION FOR GENOTYPIC PRODUCTION, ADAPTABILITY, AND STABILITY IN CASHEW CLONES BY MIXED MODELS SELEÇÃO SIMULTÂNEA PARA PRODUÇÃO, ADAPTABILIDADE E ESTABILIDADE GENOTÍPICAS EM CLONES DE CAJUEIRO, VIA MODELOS MISTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jaime Vasconcelos Cavalcanti

    2009-01-01

    genotypic adaptability and stability. The experiments were set up employing a complete block design, with eleven treatments, three repetitions and five plants per plot. The results showed an alteration in the clone order, in the different environments, as reflected from the genotypic correlation of average magnitude (0.58. The heritability of clones presented moderate to high magnitude for the different traits, indicating excellent possibilities for selection, allowing selective accuracy of 83%. The methods MHVG, PRVG, and MHPRVG can be part of selective criteria in the cashew breeding program.

     

    KEY-WORDS: Anacardium occidentale; genotype x environment interaction; BLUP/REML.

  1. Trocas gasosas em folhas de sol e sombreadas de cajueiro anão em diferentes regimes hídricos Gas exchange in leaves of sun and shade of cashew in different water regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Michella de Albuquerque Lima; Marlos Alves Bezerra; Enéas Gomes Filho; Ciro de Miranda Pinto; Joaquim Enéas Filho

    2010-01-01

    Foram analisadas as variações sazonais nas taxas de trocas gasosas em lâminas foliares, sombreadas e a pleno sol, de cajueiro anão precoce (Anacardium occidentale L.), quando submetidas aos regimes de irrigação e de sequeiro. Os clones CCP 76 e BRS 189 foram mensalmente avaliados quanto ao seu desempenho fisiológico em relação à condutância estomática (g s), às taxas transpiratórias (E) e fotossintéticas (A), à temperatura foliar e à relação entre as concentrações interna e externa de CO2 (Ci...

  2. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Llanchezhian, R; Joseph C, Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

    2012-01-01

    Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940...

  3. A review of cashew (Anacardiumoccidentale L.) apple: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-09-17

    Sep 17, 2015 ... rainfall and is cultivated in 32 countries around the world, .... cashew grown in some area of Ivory Coast on specific soils and ... distribution of the three trace elements was not uniform in ...... nutritional needs of the populations.

  4. UNA NUOVA SPECIE DI TRIODONTELLA DELLA SARDEGNA OCCIDENTALE (COLEOPTERA, MELOLONTHIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Leo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Viene descritta Triodontella mimula n. sp. della Sardegna occidentale (locus typicus.: Oristano, foce fiume Tirso, affine a T. raymondi (Perris, 1869 ma nettamente distinta per la forma dei parameri. Viene definito su base morfologica il gruppo naturale di specie di Triodontella raymondi e si discute l’ecologia e la faunistica di T. mimula n. sp. e T. raymondi, evidenziandone la vicarianza in Sardegna.

  5. CASHEW NUT SHELLS AS SOURCE OF CHEMICALS FOR PREPARATION OF CHALCOGENIDE NANOPARTICLES

    OpenAIRE

    MUBOFU E.B.; MLOWE S.; N. Revaprasadu

    2016-01-01

    Cashew nut shell wastes produced in cashew nut processing factories cause environmental problems. Currently, these wastes are being converted to a variety of bio-based chemicals and functional materials. Cashew nut shells (CNS) produce cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), a dark reddish brown viscous liquid ( ca. 30 35 wt. %) which is extracted from the soft honeycomb of the CNS. CNSL offers multitude interesting possibilities for the synthesis of speciality chemicals, high value products and poly...

  6. Production of Gum from Cashew Tree Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. AZEEZ

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at producing gum from cashew tree latex, which can act as substitute for gum Arabic. The method used include drying and size reduction of the exudates gum, sieving of the gum to remove impurities, dissolution of the gum in distilled water, filtration to remove polysaccharide waste and finally concentration and stability of the gum. Glycerine, starch and Zinc oxide are some of the additives used in stabilizing the gum. The pH and Viscosity on addition of various percentage concentration of stabilizing agent were determined. Gum of the best quality was obtained with viscosity and pH of 4.52 Ns/m2 and 4.2 respectively; this is because the natural pH of gum from Acacia Senegal ranges between 3.9 - 4.9. The gum can be used as an alternative for synthetic adhesive used presently for stamps and envelopes.

  7. Effect of oleic acid on the allergenic properties of peanut and cashew allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleic acid is the major fatty acid in peanuts and cashews. There is limited information about its effect on peanut and cashew allergens during heating. The objective was to determine if heat treatment with oleic acid changes the allergenic properties of these nut proteins. Peanut and cashew protein...

  8. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of cashew nut in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Ferdelie E; Taylor, Steve L

    2011-01-01

    The presence of undeclared cashew can pose a health risk to cashew-allergic consumers. The food industry has the responsibility to declare the presence of cashews on packaged foods even when trace residues are or might be present. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, sensitive, and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of cashew residues. Raw and roasted cashews were defatted and used separately to immunize sheep, goats, and rabbits. The cashew ELISA was developed using sheep and rabbit polyclonal anti-roasted cashew sera as capture and detector reagents, respectively, with visualization through an alkaline phosphatase-mediated substrate reaction. The cashew ELISA was shown to have a limit of quantification of 1 ppm (1 μg cashew/g). The ELISA was highly specific except that substantial cross-reactivity was noted with pistachio and a lesser degree of cross-reactivity was noted with hazelnut. The performance of the ELISA was assessed by manufacturing cookies, ice cream, and milk chocolate with added known amounts (0 to 1000 ppm) of cashew. The mean percent recoveries for ice cream, cookies, and milk chocolate were 118%± 2.9%, 84.3%± 4.0%, and 104%± 3.0%, respectively. In a limited retail survey, 4/5 retail samples with cashew declared on ingredient labels tested positive for cashew compared to 5/36 samples of foods with precautionary labels indicating the possible presence of one or more tree nuts and 0/18 samples without cashew declared on the label in any manner. The cashew ELISA can be used to detect undeclared cashew residue in foods and as a potential tool for the food industry to assess the effectiveness of allergen control strategies and to guarantee compliance with food labeling regulatory requirements.

  9. The Overview and Prospects for Production and Marketing of Cashew Nut in the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shujuan; ZHENG; Jinhui; LUO

    2013-01-01

    In this article,we analyze the cultivation and production of cashew in the world during the period 2005-2010,and make a concrete analysis of the import and export trade of cashew nut in the world in recent years.In particular,we give an overview of the production and trade in major producing countries of cashew such as Vietnam and India.Finally,we analyze the nutritional value,pharmaceutical and industry role of cashew nut,and look into the future of development of the cashew nut industry in the world.

  10. Application of cashew tree gum on the production and stability of spray-dried fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrel, Diego Alvarenga; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Fernandes, Regiane Victória de Barros; Antoniassi, Rosemar; de Faria-Machado, Adelia Ferreira; Feitosa, Judith Pessoa de Andrade; de Paula, Regina Celia Monteiro

    2017-04-15

    Evaluation of cashew gum compared to conventional materials was conducted regarding properties and oxidative stability of spray-dried fish oil. Emulsions produced with cashew gum showed lower viscosity when compared to Arabic gum. The particle size was larger (29.9μm) when cashew gum was used, and the encapsulation efficiency reached 76%, similar to that of modified starch but higher than that for Arabic gum (60%). The oxidation process for the surface oil was conducted and a relative lower formation of oxidation compounds was observed for the cashew gum treatment. GAB model was chosen to describe the moisture adsorption isotherm behaviours. Microparticles produced using Arabic and cashew gums showed greater water adsorption when exposed to higher relative humidities. Microparticles produced using cashew gum were more hygroscopic however encapsulation efficiency were higher and surface oil oxidation were less pronounced. Cashew gum can be further explored as an encapuslant material for spray drying processes.

  11. Hypoglycemic and antiperglycemic effects of Semecarpus anacardium linn in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothai, R; Arul, B; Kumar, K Suresh; Christina, A J M

    2005-01-01

    The effect of ethanolic extract of dried nuts of Semecarpus anacardium on blood glucose level was investigated in both normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 1, 2 and 3 hours after the treatment. The ethanolic extract of S. anacardium (100 mg/kg) reduced the blood glucose of normal rat from 84 +/- 1.4 to 67 +/- 1.7 mg/dl, 3 hours after oral administration of the extract (P < 0.05). It also significantly lowered blood glucose level in alloxan induced diabetic rat from 325 +/- 2.2 to 144 +/- 1.4 mg/dl, 3 hours after oral administration of the extract (P < 0.05). The antihyperglycemic activity of S. anacardium was compared with tolbutamide, an oral hypoglycemic agent.

  12. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arul, B; Kothai, R; Christina, A J M

    2004-12-01

    The effect of ethanolic extract of dried nuts of Semecarpus anacardium on blood glucose was investigated in both normal (hypoglycemic) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic (antihyperglycemic) rats. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 1, 2 and 3 h after the treatment. The ethanolic extract of S. anacardium (100 mg/kg) reduced the blood glucose of normal rats from 85.83 +/- 1.55 to 65.83 +/- 2.20 mg/dl, 3 h after oral administration of the extract (p < 0.05). It also significantly lowered blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats from 335.33 +/- 4.90 to 132.17 +/- 4.49 mg/dl, 3 h after oral administration of the extract (p < 0.05). The antihyperglycemic activity of S. anacardium was compared with tolbutamide, a sulfonyl urea derivative used in diabetes mellitus. 2004 Prous Science

  13. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Eshu Okpashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg. Catalase activity showed significant increase P0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics.

  14. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics.

  15. Clarificación combinada y evaluación sensorial de jugo de marañón (Anacardium occidentale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Osorio M.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Obtener jugo clarificado de marañón, evaluar sensorialmente jugos clarificados optimizados y establecer diferencias químicas entre el jugo integral y el clarificado. Materiales y métodos. Los pseudofrutos se separaron manualmente de la nuez, fueron seleccionados y lavados, luego se realizó escaldado y extracción del jugo. El jugo integral y el de mayor aceptación fueron caracterizados químicamente. Los jugos se evaluaron sensorialmente (aceptación con una escala hedónica de 9 puntos y una prueba de ordenamiento por 30 catadores. Se empleó un diseño factorial de tres niveles combinado con la metodología de superficie de respuesta; las características químicas de los jugos se analizaron por prueba de homogeneidad de varianzas de Levene y la prueba T-Student de comparación de medias para muestras independientes. Resultados. Los jugos evaluados sensorialmente no presentaron diferencias estadísticas significativas entre sí (p≤0.05, p≤0.01; sin embargo el mayor porcentaje de aceptación fue del tratamiento 0.20% p/v Rapidasa® CX y 14.27 horas a 30ºC, se presentaron diferencias estadísticas significativas para las variables pH, °Brix, azúcares reductores y ácido ascórbico (p≤0.05; además, el contenido de ácido ascórbico se redujo notablemente en un 41.01% con respecto al jugo inicial. Conclusiones. El jugo clarificado con alto contenido de vitamina C, obtenido por tratamiento enzimático, constituye una forma de aprovechamiento agroindustrial del pseudofruto, teniendo aceptación para su consumo y sin presentar astringencia, con buen sabor, aroma, mediante tratamiento 0.20% p/v Rapidasa® CX y 14.27 horas a 30ºC.

  16. Yogurt produced with cajuí (Anacardium othonianum Rizz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Martins Fonseca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yogurt added with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of cajuí pulp (Anacardium othonianum Rizz were characterized. Acidity, pH, protein, dry matter, firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and quantification of lactic acid bacteria were conducted at 0, 10, 20 and 30 days. Identification of volatiles compounds and sensory tests of preference, acceptance and consumption intention were performed on the first day of shelf-life. Preferred formulations are those that contain smaller proportions of pulp (5% which coincide with lower acidity. There was no significant effect (P>0.05 of the amount of pulp added and storage time on dry matter, lactic acid bacteria count, firmness, consistency and cohesiveness. Acidity and pH were significantly influenced (P <0.05 by the amount of pulp added and storage time. Protein levels were significantly lower (P <0.05 with the increase in the quantity of pulp added. Volatiles compounds in cajuí yogurt include ethyl butanoate, methyl butanoate, ethanol, hexanal, benzaldehyde and 3-methyl butanoate. There are technological potential in the production of yoghurt with cajuí with addition of 5% in proportion to the total volume of yogurt produced.

  17. Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Properties of Anacardium humile Aqueous Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio A. Urzêda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antihyperglycemic effects of several plant extracts and herbal formulations which are used as antidiabetic formulations have been described and confirmed to date. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous extract of Anacardium humile. Although the treatment of diabetic animals with A. humile did not alter body weight significantly, a reduction of the other evaluated parameters was observed. Animals treated with A. humile did not show variation of insulin levels, possibly triggered by a mechanism of blood glucose reduction. Levels of ALT (alanine aminotransferase decreased in treated animals, suggesting a protective effect on liver. Levels of cholesterol were also reduced, indicating the efficacy of the extract in reestablishing the balance of nutrients. Moreover, a kidney protection may have been achieved due to the partial reestablishment of blood glucose homeostasis, while no nephrotoxicity could be detected for A. humile. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of A. humile extracts in the treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, A. humile aqueous extract, popularly known and used by diabetic patients, induced an improvement in the biochemical parameters evaluated during and following treatment of diabetic rats. Thus, a better characterization of the medicinal potential of this plant will be able to provide a better understanding of its mechanisms of action in these pathological processes.

  18. Amphiphilic antioxidants from "cashew nut shell liquid" (CNSL) waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorati, Riccardo; Attanasi, Orazio A; Favi, Gianfranco; Menichetti, Stefano; Pedulli, Gian Franco; Viglianisi, Caterina

    2011-03-07

    Hydrogenated cardanol and cardols, contained in industrial grade cardanol oil and obtained by distillation of the raw "cashew nut shell liquid" (CNSL), are easily transformed into efficient 4-thiaflavane antioxidants bearing a long alkyl chain on A ring and a catechol group on B ring.

  19. Cashew nut shell liquid for Indian particle boards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhamaney, C.P.

    1980-01-01

    Addition of a mixture of cashew nutshell liquid, HCHO, NaOH, and solvent to wood chips, and pressing the resulting mat for 15 minutes at 150 degrees and 17.6 kg/square cm gave chipboards having physiomechanical properties comparable to those of chipboards using phenolic resins.

  20. synthesis of organoamine-silica hybrids using cashew nut shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    at different ratios using cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) components as templates. ... indeed the organoamine groups were attached onto the silica surface, with a maximum .... observation is attributed to steric effects. .... groups reduces the surface areas and pore volume of the materials (Krishna et al. ... diffusion limitations.

  1. Religione e costituzionalismo occidentale. Osmosi e reciproche influenze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Alicino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazione, destinato alla pubblicazione nell’opera a cura di C. Decaro Bonella, Radici religiose e itinerari costituzionali, vol. I, Islam e Occidente, edito dalla casa editrice Carocci, Roma, 2012.SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione. – 2. I presupposti teologici. – 3. Tendenza teocratica, ma visione profana dei fenomeni normativi. – 4. La doppia faccia della secolarizzazione. – 5. Il costituzionalismo (medievale cristiano. – 6. Le origini del costituzionalismo occidentale. Fra apolitismo radicale … – 7. (segue … e messianismo temporale e rivoluzione scientifica. – 8. Westfalia (1648: la territorializzazione del diritto religioso. – 9. La nuova religione della perfetta ragione. – 10. Dalla fine della sovranità westfaliana, al secondo dopoguerra … – 11. … (segue e alla questione islamica di questo secolo.

  2. Semecarpus anacardium (Bhallataka Alters the Glucose Metabolism and Energy Production in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Aseervatham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose produced by gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis plays an important role in aggravating hyperglycemia in diabetes, and altered mitochondrial function is associated with impaired energy production. The present study focuses on the effect of Semecarpus anacardium on carbohydrate metabolism and energy production in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by the administration of Streptozotocin at a dose of 50 mg/kg.b.wt. Three days after the induction, Semecarpus anacardium at a dose of 300 mg/kg.b.wt was administered for 21 days. After the experimental duration, the activities of the enzymes involved in Glycolysis, TCA cycle, gluconeogenesis, and glycogen were assayed in the liver and kidney of the experimental animals. In addition, to the complexes the protein expression of AKT and PI3K were assayed. The levels of the enzymes involved in Glycolysis and TCA cycle increased, while that of gluconeogensis decreased. The activities of the mitochondrial complexes were also favorably modulated. The expressions of PI3K and AKT also increased in the skeletal muscle. These effects may be attributed to the hypoglycemic and the antioxidative activity of Semecarpus anacardium. The results of the study revealed that Semecarpus anacardium was able to restore the altered activities of the enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production.

  3. Semecarpus anacardium (Bhallataka) Alters the Glucose Metabolism and Energy Production in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseervatham, Jaya; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachdanandam

    2011-01-01

    Glucose produced by gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis plays an important role in aggravating hyperglycemia in diabetes, and altered mitochondrial function is associated with impaired energy production. The present study focuses on the effect of Semecarpus anacardium on carbohydrate metabolism and energy production in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by the administration of Streptozotocin at a dose of 50 mg/kg.b.wt. Three days after the induction, Semecarpus anacardium at a dose of 300 mg/kg.b.wt was administered for 21 days. After the experimental duration, the activities of the enzymes involved in Glycolysis, TCA cycle, gluconeogenesis, and glycogen were assayed in the liver and kidney of the experimental animals. In addition, to the complexes the protein expression of AKT and PI3K were assayed. The levels of the enzymes involved in Glycolysis and TCA cycle increased, while that of gluconeogensis decreased. The activities of the mitochondrial complexes were also favorably modulated. The expressions of PI3K and AKT also increased in the skeletal muscle. These effects may be attributed to the hypoglycemic and the antioxidative activity of Semecarpus anacardium. The results of the study revealed that Semecarpus anacardium was able to restore the altered activities of the enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production.

  4. Effect of Semecarpus anacardium fruits on reproductive function of male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arti; Verma, Pramod Kumar; Dixit, V P

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium fruits on spermatogenesis in albino rats. Male albino rats were fed with a 50 % ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium fruit at 100 mg.kg(-1).day(-1), 200 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) and 300 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) for 60 days. Fertility test was performed after 60 days of treatment. Sperm motility and density were observed in the cauda epididymis. Biochemical and histological analyses of the blood and reproductive organs were done. Recovery of fertility was followed to evaluate the reversibility of drug action. S. anacardium fruit extract administration resulted in spermatogenic arrest in albino rats. The sperm motility and density was reduced significantly. The RBC and WBC counts, haemoglobin, haematocrit, blood sugar and urea were found to be within the normal range in the whole blood. The protein, cholesterol and glycogen in the testes and the fructose in the seminal vesicle were significantly decreased after the treatment. The fruit extract feeding caused marked reduction in the number of primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids. The number of mature Leydig cells was also decreased and degenerating cells increased proportionately. S. anacardium fruit extract causes spermatogenic arrest in albino rats.

  5. Modulation of oxidative/nitrosative stress and mitochondrial protective effect of Semecarpus anacardium in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, Aseervatham; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanadham

    2010-04-01

    Oxidative and nitrosative stress play an important role in the complications of diabetes mellitus. Free radicals are produced when there is an electron leak in the mito-chondria and a change in the mitochondrial membrane potential. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of Semecarpus anacardium in protecting the mito-chondria by modulating the production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced using streptozotocin at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight and, starting 3 days after the induction, Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract was administered for 21 days. The same duration of study was used for control, diabetes-induced and drug control groups, together with a group treated with metformin. After the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and the levels of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, nitrate and nitrite were estimated. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular reactive oxygen species and intracellular calcium were also determined. Confocal laser microscopic images were taken for mitochondria isolated from the liver and kidneys. The results of the study revealed that Semecarpus anacardium was able to decrease the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and reverse the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and the influx of calcium into the mitochondria. The mitochondrial protective effect may be mediated by scavenging of free radicals and complexing of metal ions by virtue of the antioxidative effect of Semecarpus anacardium.

  6. Effect of Semecarpus anacardium fruits on reproductive function of male albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ArtiSharma; PramodKumarVerma; V.RDixit

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium fruits on spermatogenesis in albino rats. Methods: Male albino rats were fed with a 50 % ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium fruit at 100 mg·kg-l·day-1, 200 mg·kg-l·day-1 and 300 mg·kg-1·day-1 for 60 days. Fertility test was performed after 60 days of treatment. Sperm motility and density were observed in the cauda epididymis. Biochemical and histological analyses of the blood and reproductive organs were done. Recovery of fertility was followed to evaluate the reversibility of drug action. Results: S. anacardium fruit extract administration resulted in spermatogenic arrest in albino rats. Thes perm motility and density was reduced significantly. The RBC and WBC counts, haemoglobin, haematocrit, blood sugar and urea were found to be within the normal range in the whole blood. The protein, cholesterol and glycogen in the testes and the fructose in the seminal vesicle were significantly decreased after the treatment. The fruit extract feeding caused marked reduction in the number of primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids.The number of mature Leydig cells was also decreased and degenerating cells increased proportionately. Conclusion:S. anacardium fruit extract causes spermatogenic arrest in albino rats. ( Asian J Androl 2003 Jun; 5: 121-124)

  7. MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ENDOCARP AND KERNEL OF CASHEW NUT 'CCP 76' PRIOR AND POST THERMAL TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    De Araujo, MC; Ferraz, ACD

    2008-01-01

    Viscoelastic characteristics of raw cashew nut shell hinder its decortication by compression. In order to facilitate the shell opening and to liberate the kernel, nuts were subjected to hydration and thermal treatment in cashew nut shell liquid (CSL) at 210 degrees C. With the objective of developing more appropriate shelling mechanisms the cashew nut 'CCP 76' was characterized by its main dimensions, mass and volume, as well as mechanical behavior of the endocarp and kernel, prior and after ...

  8. Semi-preparative HPLC preparation and HPTLC quantification of tetrahydroamentoflavone as marker in Semecarpus anacardium and its polyherbal formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, S G; Arimboor, Ranjith; Rangan, Meena; Madhavan, Soumya N; Arumughan, C

    2008-11-04

    Application of modern scientific knowledge coupled with sensitive analytical technique is important for the quality evaluation and standardization of polyherbal formulations. Semecarpus anacardium, an important medicinal plant with wide medicinal properties, is frequently used in a large number of traditional herbal preparations. Tetrahydroamentoflavone (THA), a major bioactive biflavonoid was selected as a chemical marker of S. anacardium and RP-semi-preparative HPLC conditions were optimized for the isolation of tetrahydroamentoflavone. HPTLC analytical method was developed for the fingerprinting of S. anacardium flavonoids and quantification of tetrahydroamentoflavone. The method was validated in terms of their linearity, LOD, LOQ, precision and accuracy and compared with RP-HPLC-DAD method. The methods were demonstrated for the chemical fingerprinting of S. anacardium plant parts and some commercial polyherbal formulations and the amount of tetrahydroamentoflavone was quantified. HPTLC analysis showed that S. anacardium seed contained approximately 10 g kg(-1) of tetrahydroamentoflavone. The methods were able to identify and quantify tetrahydroamentoflavone from complex mixtures of phytochemicals and could be extended to the marker-based standardization of polyherbal formulations, containing S. anacardium.

  9. Cashew consumption reduces total and LDL cholesterol: a randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Eunice; Schulz, Jacqueline A; Kaden, Valerie N; Lawless, Andrea L; Rotor, Jose; Mantilla, Libertie B; Liska, DeAnn J

    2017-05-01

    Background: Cashews are the third most-consumed tree nut in the United States and are abundant with monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Although a qualified Food and Drug Administration health claim exists for nuts and heart health, cashews have been exempt from its use because cashews exceed the disqualifying amount of saturated fatty acids. Approximately one-third of the saturated fat in cashews is stearic acid, which is relatively neutral on blood lipids, thereby suggesting that cashews could have effects that are similar to those of other nuts. However, clinical data on cashews and blood lipids have been limited.Objective: We investigated the effect of reasonable intakes of cashews on serum lipids in adults with or at risk of high LDL cholesterol.Design: In a randomized, crossover, isocaloric, controlled-feeding study, 51 men and women (aged 21-73 y) with a median LDL-cholesterol concentration of 159 mg/dL (95% CI: 146, 165 mg/dL) at screening consumed typical American diets with cashews (28-64 g/d; 50% of kilocalories from carbohydrate, 18% of kilocalories from protein, and 32% of kilocalories from total fat) or potato chips (control; 54% of kilocalories from carbohydrate, 18% of kilocalories from protein, and 29% of kilocalories from total fat) for 28 d with a ≥2-wk washout period.Results: Consumption of the cashew diet resulted in a significantly greater median change from baseline (compared with the control, all P cashews into typical American diets decreases total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Results from this study provide support that the daily consumption of cashews, when substituted for a high-carbohydrate snack, may be a simple dietary strategy to help manage total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02769741. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Identification of irradiated cashew nut by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar; Sajilata, M G; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Singhal, Rekha S; Variyar, Prasad S; Kamat, M Y; Sharma, Arun

    2008-10-01

    Cashew nut samples were irradiated at gamma-radiation doses of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 kGy, the permissible dose range for insect disinfestation of food commodities. A weak and short-lived triplet (g = 2.004 and hfcc = 30 G) along with an anisotropic signal (g perpendicular = 2.0069 and g parallel = 2.000) were produced immediately after irradiation. These signals were assigned to that of cellulose and CO 2 (-) radicals. However, the irradiated samples showed a dose-dependent increase of the central line (g = 2.0045 +/- 0.0002). The nature of the free radicals formed during conventional processing such as thermal treatment was investigated and showed an increase in intensity of the central line (g = 2.0045) similar to that of irradiation. Characteristics of the free radicals were studied by their relaxation and thermal behaviors. The present work explores the possibility to identify irradiated cashew nuts from nonirradiated ones by the thermal behaviors of the radicals beyond the period, when the characteristic electron paramagnetic resonance spectral lines of the cellulose free radicals have essentially disappeared. In addition, this study for the first time reports that relaxation behavior of the radicals could be a useful tool to distinguish between roasted and irradiated cashew nuts.

  11. Potentials of biodegraded cashew pomace for cake baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderiye, B I; Igbedioh, S O; Caurie, S A

    1992-04-01

    The use of biodegraded cashew pomace processed into flour for cake baking was investigated. The physico-chemical changes during the submerged fermentation of the pomace and the organoleptic qualities of the composite cake were also monitored. There was an increase of about 50% in protein content of the pomace after 96 h of fermentation. However, a reduction of about 61% in the total microbial count after 24 h was due to the toxic effect of the organic acids on the microbial cells during fermentation. The cashew flour had high crude fibre (ca. 20-33%) and carbohydrate (ca. 16-47%) values. The composite cake made from a 10:90 combination of 96 h-degraded cashew flour/wheat flour respectively was the most accepted. The cake which had a specific volume of 0.53 ml/g lost 11.1% moisture when 38 g of its batter was exposed to 190 degrees C for 10 minutes. This cake had a calorie value of 293.8/100 g and may be useful in feeding diabetic patients who require low carbohydrate foods.

  12. Heat-induced alterations in cashew allergen solubility and IgE binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Mattison

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cashew nuts are an increasingly common cause of food allergy. We compare the soluble protein profile of cashew nuts following heating. SDS-PAGE indicate that heating can alter the solubility of cashew nut proteins. The 11S legumin, Ana o 2, dominates the soluble protein content in ready to eat and mildly heated cashew nuts. However, we found that in dark-roasted cashew nuts, the soluble protein profile shifts and the 2S albumin Ana o 3 composes up to 40% of the soluble protein. Analysis of trypsin-treated extracts by LC/MS/MS indicate changes in the relative number and intensity of peptides. The relative cumulative intensity of the 5 most commonly observed Ana o 1 and 2 peptides are altered by heating, while those of the 5 most commonly observed Ana o 3 peptides remaine relatively constant. ELISA experiments indicate that there is a decrease in rabbit IgG and human serum IgE binding to soluble cashew proteins following heating. Our findings indicate that heating can alter the solubility of cashew allergens, resulting in altered IgE binding. Our results support the use of both Ana o 2 and Ana o 3 as potential cashew allergen diagnostic targets.

  13. La scrittura musicale come prerogativa della composizione musicale occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hermann Schmid

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nel mondo occidentale, saper scrivere signífica il massimo della competenza. Perfino nella percezione popolare il ruolo che in musica spetta alla scrittura è percepito come una sfida. Nel marzo 2010, in una trasmissione televisiva equivalente a “Scommettiamo che”, un anchorman tedesco ha chiesto ad Anna Netrebko, sua ospite, se nella carriera di una cantante sia necessario saper leggere perfettamente la musica. “No”, è stata la risposta, istantanea, “basta avere bella voce e buona memoria”. Accostatasi poi al pianoforte per intonare un Lied di Rimskij-Korsakov, mentre l’accompagnatrice apriva lo spartito, la Netrebko aggiungeva scherzosamente: il pianista sì che deve saper leggere la musica! Per l’esperto, questa maliziosa risposta a doppio senso richiama l’antica distinzione erudita tra sapere pratico e teorico, rappresentati rispettivamente dalla voce umana, di cui ciascuno dispone in natura, e da uno strumento tecnico tradizionalmente adibito alla teoria, erede del monocordo antico, sulla cui tastiera le divisioni della corda erano indicate con lettere alfabetiche: lettere che sono le primissime testimonianze di una scrittura musicale.

  14. THE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES OF CASHEW INDUSTRY IN KENDARI CITY, SOUTHEAST SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asriani Asriani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of a region should refer to the agroindustry approach. An industry is not well developed due to the constraints of internal and external factors. This research aimed to identify the internal and external factors which could affect the development of cashew industry and determine the most effective alternative strategies applied in developing the cashew industry in Kendari Southeast Sulawesi Province. The data analysis technique used  Strength, Weakness, Opportuny and Threat (SWOT methods. The results showed that the internal factors that most influenced the development of the cashew industry were availability of adequate labor and limited capital investment funds while the external factors that influence the development included the government support and limited access to markets. The alternative strategies of the cashew industry development in Kendari Southeast Sulawesi Province  include improving the marketing, maintaining the product quality and increasing the working capital.Keyword: development, strategy, cashew industry, SWOT

  15. Evaluation, grafting success and field establishment of cashew rootstock as influenced by VAM fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmipathy, R; Balakrishna, A N; Bagyaraj, D J; Sumana, D A; Kumar, D P

    2004-11-01

    Seven isolates of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi were isolated from cashew rhizosphere soil of different cashew growing regions of South India. These seven isolates along with two more VAM fungi namely Acaulospora laevis and Glomus mosseae, which were found to be better symbionts for cashew during our earlier study were used to study their effectiveness on the growth and nutrition of cashew rootstock Ullal-1. Four promising VAM fungi were selected based on this study. Rootstocks inoculated with these four fungi were evaluated for their vigour through grafting success, using Ullal-3 cashew variety as scion. Grafting success was more in rootstocks inoculated with A. laevis and one of local isolates Glomus etunicatum. Grafts with rootstock treated with G. etunicatum and A. laevis survived and performed better when planted in the field compared to the uninoculated and other VAM fungal treatments.

  16. Anti-inflammatory effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. Nut extract in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2004-12-01

    The article relates to investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of Semecarpus anacardium LINN. nut extract (SA), and also an anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin, on carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma tests for their effects on acute and chronic phases of inflammation, respectively. The effect of SA on developing and developed adjuvant arthritis was also evaluated. SA significantly decreased the carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma. Indomethacin also decreased the acute and chronic phases of inflammation. SA decreased the adjuvant induced (arthritis) paw edema after the treatment, in both developing and developed adjuvant arthritis. These results indicate that the potent anti-inflammatory effect and therapeutic efficacy of Semecarpus anacardium LINN. nut extract against all phases of inflammation, is comparable to that of indomethacin.

  17. Cyclooxygenase inhibitory flavonoids from the stem bark of Semecarpus anacardium Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, C; Jachak, Sanjay M; Bhutani, K K

    2004-07-01

    The ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of Semecarpus anacardium showing in vivo anti-in fl ammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw edema assay was investigated in order to identify its active compounds. Chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of S.anacardium afforded 3,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone (butein) and 7,3',4'-trihydroxy fl avone. Evaluation of COX-1 inhibitory activity of 3,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone and 7,3',4'-trihydroxy fl avone provided the IC(50) values of 28.4 and 36.7 micro M respectively. Further investigation of these compounds for COX-2 inhibitory activity revealed moderate potency towards this enzyme.

  18. Cytoprotective effect of Semecarpus anacardium against toxicity induced by Streptozotocin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseervatham, Jaya; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Sachdanandam, Panchanadham

    2010-01-01

    Leakage of cellular enzymes into the plasma is a clear indication of cell damage. When liver plasma membrane is damaged, a variety of enzymes normally located in the cytosol are released into the blood stream and their estimation is a quantitative marker for the extent of damage. The cytoprotective effect of Semecarpus anacardium was evaluated in rats that were rendered diabetic by administration of streptozotocin at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. The activities of the marker enzymes were assayed in the serum, liver and kidney. The indicators of renal damage such as urea, uric acid and creatinine were assayed in addition to the blood profile. The results of the present study reveal that Semecarpus anacardium was able to reverse the levels of the marker enzymes, and protect the kidney by reverting back to the normal levels of urea, uric acid, and creatinine. The abnormal blood parameters were also reverted to near normal levels indicating the drug's cytoprotective effect.

  19. Tetrahydroamentoflavone (THA) from Semecarpus anacardium as a potent inhibitor of xanthine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimboor, Ranjith; Rangan, Meena; Aravind, S G; Arumughan, C

    2011-02-16

    Seed of Semecarpus anacardium L. is widely used in Indian traditional medicine; Ayurveda and Sidha, for treatment of inflammatory disorders and gout. The present study was aimed at isolation of a compound for its potential to inhibit xanthine oxidase (XO), over expression of which lead to inflammation and gout. Activity guided fractionation of S. anacardium seed was conducted using liquid-liquid partition and preparative HPLC. The fractions were evaluated for their XO inhibition and antioxidant activity. The ethyl acetate fraction with the highest XO activity yielded a biflavonoid compound tetrahydroamentoflavone (THA). Lineweaver-Burk (LB) plot for the XO inhibition of THA and allopurinol was constructed from the kinetic data. IC₅₀ values of THA and allopurinol for XO inhibition were 92 and 100 nM respectively and their corresponding values for K(i) were 0.982 and 0.612 μM respectively. THA was a potent XO inhibitor which could be considered as a drug candidate or chemopreventive agent, after establishing its pharmacological and clinical evaluation. The study results appear to support the claim of the traditional medicine with respect to the efficacy of S. anacardium seed against inflammation and gout. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Modulating role of Semecarpus anacardium L. nut milk extract on aflatoxin B(1) biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premalatha, B; Sachdanandam, P

    2000-01-01

    As part of a substantial effort to curtail the adverse health effects posed by aflatoxin B(1), studies have been conducted to elucidate the possible mechanism for the anticarcinogenic action of Semecarpus anacardium nut extract against aflatoxin B(1)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Rats are monitored for levels of urinary, serum and liver biomarkers, namely, unmetabolised aflatoxin B(1), and its metabolites aflatoxin M(1), and aflatoxin Q(1), over the course of 2 weeks with nut extract therapy following a single-exposure to aflatoxin B(1). Due to the administration of nut extract, the excretion of unmetabolised aflatoxin B(1) was increased in day 1 urine when compared with rats without drug treatment. In serum and liver which were collected on day 16 and the rest of periodical urine samples showed aflatoxin B(1) and its metabolites in undetectable levels. The nut extract administration induced cytochrome P(450), glutathione, and glutathione-S-transferase levels in liver homogenates of aflatoxin B(1)-treated rats. These data seem to indicate that anticarcinogenic action by Semecarpus anacardium nut extract is possibly via suppression of aflatoxin B(1)activation and through interaction with microsomal-activating components. Previous evidence from this laboratory about the potency of Semecarpus anacardium nut extract against aflatoxin B(1)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma together with the present results suggest that extremely effective therapeutic protection can be achieved by this drug against aflatoxin B(1)-mediated ill effects. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  1. Isolation and characterization of an anticancer catechol compound from Semecarpus anacardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P K Raveedran; Melnick, Steven J; Wnuk, Stanislaw F; Rapp, Magdalena; Escalon, Enrique; Ramachandran, Cheppail

    2009-04-21

    The fruits and seeds of Semecarpus anacardium are used widely for the treatment of human cancers and other diseases in the Ayurvedic and Sidda systems of medicine in India. The principal aim of this investigation was to isolate and characterize the anticancer compound from the kernel of Semecarpus anacardium nut. The bioactivity-tailored isolation and detailed chemical characterization were used to identify the active compound. Cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest as well as synergism between the identified anticancer compound and doxorubicin in human tumor cell lines were analyzed. GC/MS, IR, proton NMR, carbon NMR and collisionally induced dissociation (CID) spectra analysis showed that the isolated active compound is 3-(8'(Z),11'(Z)-pentadecadienyl) catechol (SA-3C). SA-3C is cytotoxic to tumor cell lines with IC(50) values lower than doxorubicin and even multidrug resistant tumor cell lines were equally sensitive to SA-3C. SA-3C induced apoptosis in human leukemia cell lines in a dose-dependent manner and showed synergistic cytotoxicity with doxorubicin. The cell cycle arrest induced by SA-3C at S- and G(2)/M-phases correlated with inhibition of checkpoint kinases. SA-3C isolated from the kernel of Semecarpus anacardium can be developed as an important anticancer agent for single agent and/or multiagent cancer therapy.

  2. Interaction of Semecarpus anacardium L. with propranolol against isoproterenol induced myocardial damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Manodeep; Asdaq, Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin

    2011-03-01

    With a view to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of ethanolic extract of S. anacardium nut and the possible interaction with propranolol against isoproterenol induced myocardial damage in rats, female Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-treated with propranolol (10 mg/kg for 7 days), low and high doses of S. anacardium (100 and 500 mg/kg for 21 days) and their combination orally and subsequently subjected to isoproterenol administration (150 mg/kg, sc) for two consecutive days. The influence of prophylactic treatment was analysed by quantification of biomarkers and antioxidants, electocardiographic parameters and histopathological observations. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine phosphokinase-MB were reduced in serum and raised in heart tissue with concurrent elevation in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities as well as reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive species levels significantly in all treated groups compared to isoproterenol group. Similarly, electrocardiographic changes were restored to normalcy in all treated groups. To conclude, combination of high dose of S. anacardium with propranolol was found to be most effective in alleviating the abnormal conditions induced by isoproterenol.

  3. Effect of Semecarpus anacardium nut extract on ECM and proteases in mammary carcinoma rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathivadhani, P; Shanthi, P; Sachdanandam, P

    2007-06-01

    The early stages of invasion are characterized by the extracellular proteolysis and the accumulation of specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold, that are responsible for the development of vascular bed, endothelial cell proliferation and invasion of tumour cells. The ground substance of provisional matrix consists of collagen, elastin, glycoaminoglycans and proteoglycans that facilitate the interaction of tumour cells with the host environment. In the present work, we have studied the influence of Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract on localized differentials of ECM component and proteases involved in matrix metabolism of tumour tissue. Mammary carcinoma was induced in Sprague Dawley rats with 7,12, dimethyl benz(a)anthracene and treated with S. anacardium nut milk extract administered orally for 14 days. The altered amount of ECM components in tumour tissues was almost reverted back to normal level in the drug treated animals. The activities of reported proteases and glycohydrolases were also decreased on treatment with S. anacardium nut milk extract indicating decreased turnover of the matrix. Also, the factors associated with the matrix turnover and expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were restored back to near normal values. The stabilization of the ECM with the decreased activity of proteases might inhibit the epithelial-endothelial interaction and tumour cell migration thus, preventing the adjacent invasion and tumour growth and might be regarded as antineoplastic agent which demands further studies.

  4. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among cashew factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, N; Ramachandra, Kamath; Arun G, Maiya; Asha, Kamath

    2012-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) are impairments of the bodily structures, such as muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments, nerves, or the localized blood circulation system, which are caused or aggravated primarily by the performance of work and by the effects of the immediate environment in which work is carried out. Types of work in the cashew factory include cutting, peeling, grading, packing, and boiling. All these activities have risk factors for the musculoskeletal disorders, which include repetition, contact stress, forceful contraction, awkward postures, as well as sustained positions. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to find out the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among cashew factory workers. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 246 cashew factory workers, working in a randomly selected factory of a selected locality in Karkala taluk of Udupi district, Karnataka. Participants' name, age, gender, literacy level, income, type of work, duration of employment, hours of work per day, hand dominance, pain and discomfort status were obtained by structured interview. A total of 246 cashew factory workers participated in the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 14. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize the data. Around 28.5% (n = 70) reported pain, whereas 71.5% (n = 176) of workers did not report pain. The largest number of workers (n = 22; 32.4%) complained of pain in the knee, followed by back (n = 21; 30.9%) and then shoulder (n = 8; 11.8%). Seventy percent of the workers who reported pain were having more than 5 years of work experience. A 68.6% (n = 48) of the workers who reported pain were in the cutting category, followed by the grading (17%; n = 12), boiling (8.6%; n = 6), and peeling (5.7%; n = 4) categories. Prevalence of pain and discomfort among workers was 28.5%, which is a not ignorable and has to be addressed. Self-reported pain and discomfort were more prevalent in knee, followed by

  5. Toxin-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis Caused by Raw Cashew Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stueck, Ashley; Bansal, Meena

    2016-01-01

    A 64-year-old man with no past medical history presented with abnormally elevated liver enzymes 1 year after developing a diffuse rash thought to be related to eating large quantities of raw cashew nuts. Liver biopsy was performed, which revealed features concerning for drug- or toxin-induced autoimmune hepatitis. The patient began treatment with azathioprine and prednisone, and liver enzymes normalized. We describe a unique case of a toxin-induced autoimmune hepatitis precipitated not by a drug or dietary supplement but by a food product.

  6. CASHEW NUT MEAL IN THE FEEDING OF BROWN LAYING HENS

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Braga Cruz; Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas; Regina Patrícia de Souza Xavier; Danilo Rodrigues Fernandes; Germano Augusto Gerônimo Nascimento; Pedro Henrique Watanabe

    2015-01-01

    The use of alternative foods to replace conventional foods is becoming a source of research for many researchers. The cashew nut meal (CNM) has high energy and protein value, may be a partial substitute for corn and soybean meal for poultry feed. In this context, this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of CNM on the utilization of nutrients in the ration for laying hens, as well as the performance and characteristics of the eggs. The study used 180 Dekalb Brown laying ...

  7. Phenolic lipids affect the activity and conformation of acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus electricus (Electric eel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiuk, Maria; Janiszewska, Alicja; Kozubek, Arkadiusz

    2014-04-30

    Phenolic lipids were isolated from rye grains, cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL) from Anacardium occidentale, and fruit bodies of Merrulius tremellosus, and their effects on the electric eel acetylcholinesterase activity and conformation were studied. The observed effect distinctly depended on the chemical structure of the phenolic lipids that were available for interaction with the enzyme. All of the tested compounds reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase. The degree of inhibition varied, showing a correlation with changes in the conformation of the enzyme tested by the intrinsic fluorescence of the Trp residues of the protein.

  8. Phenolic Lipids Affect the Activity and Conformation of Acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus electricus (Electric eel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stasiuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic lipids were isolated from rye grains, cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL from Anacardium occidentale, and fruit bodies of Merrulius tremellosus, and their effects on the electric eel acetylcholinesterase activity and conformation were studied. The observed effect distinctly depended on the chemical structure of the phenolic lipids that were available for interaction with the enzyme. All of the tested compounds reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase. The degree of inhibition varied, showing a correlation with changes in the conformation of the enzyme tested by the intrinsic fluorescence of the Trp residues of the protein.

  9. Phenolic Lipids Affect the Activity and Conformation of Acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus electricus (Electric eel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiuk, Maria; Janiszewska, Alicja; Kozubek, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic lipids were isolated from rye grains, cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL) from Anacardium occidentale, and fruit bodies of Merrulius tremellosus, and their effects on the electric eel acetylcholinesterase activity and conformation were studied. The observed effect distinctly depended on the chemical structure of the phenolic lipids that were available for interaction with the enzyme. All of the tested compounds reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase. The degree of inhibition varied, showing a correlation with changes in the conformation of the enzyme tested by the intrinsic fluorescence of the Trp residues of the protein. PMID:24787269

  10. Stabilization of lysosomal membrane and cell membrane glycoprotein profile by Semecarpus anacardium linn. nut milk extract in experimental hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premalatha, B; Sachdanandam, P

    2000-08-01

    Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day for 14 days exerted an in vivo stabilizing effect on lysosomal membrane and glycoprotein content in rat hepatocellular carcinoma. This was demonstrated in normal rats and in animals whose biomembranes were rendered fragile by induction of hepatocellular carcinoma with aflatoxin B(1) and subsequent treatment with Semecarpus anacardium nut extract. In this condition, the discharge of lysosomal enzymes increased significantly with a subsequent increase in glycoprotein components. The nut extract administration reversed these adverse changes to near normal in treated animals. The possible reason for this reversal is discussed. Such stabilization of biomembranes by Semecarpus anacardium nut extract may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and other cancers involving abnormal fragility of lysosomes and glycoprotein content providing the extract demonstrates safety in a full toxicity study. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Particularities in a Child With Cashew Nut Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Soares MD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy affects many young children and tree nut allergy is accountable for a large number of severe, life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Cross-reactivity can occur not only with foods that are in the same biological family but also between certain fruits or vegetables and latex (latex–fruit syndrome. We present the case of a previous healthy 5-year-old girl referred to Pediatric/Allergology Consultation after an episode of sialorrhea, perioral urticarial rash, tongue swelling, and immediate vomiting after oral contact with cashew nut. Investigation revealed the following: positive skin prick test to walnut and positive specific IgE for cashew nut, walnut, hazelnut, and almond. ImmunoCAP ISAC was positive for storage proteins of walnut and hazelnut (Jug r 1 e Cor a 9 and for a specific allergen of latex (Hev b 3. It is interesting that anaphylaxis was the first manifestation of allergy in a healthy child. Also, we emphasize the importance to latex sensitization with potential future clinical relevance and the sensitization to Hev b 3, which is not documented to be involved in cross-reactivity phenomena/latex–fruit syndrome or present in an otherwise healthy child.

  12. Enzymatic bioremediation of cashew nut shell liquid contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriyan, Soly; Abraham, Emilia T

    2010-04-15

    Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), a by-product of the cashew kernel industry, is a caustic, viscous, dark liquid. The process is done manually, which leaves stains on the hands of the workers. The aim was to find the utility of enzymes, oxidoreductases and proteases for the bioremediation of CNSL, which contains phenolics, mainly cardanol (60-65%). The results show that peroxidase reduced the color of the CNSL solution by polymerization and precipitation, where as laccase, papain and fungal and bacterial protease degraded the phenolic constituents. The degradation was mainly at the double bonds of the C15 hydrocarbon chain of the cardanol. To improve the enzyme stability, laccase and papain was separately immobilized in alginate-starch beads. Immobilized laccase can degrade 28.6% CNSL within 2 h, where as papain takes longer duration, and at 73 h, the adsorbed phenols on the alginate (45.86%) also got degraded. MALDI-TOF MS revealed that, immobilized laccase-papain beads combination; 1:1 (w/w) degraded 60% of the cardanol and some phenolic compounds having molecular mass of 374, 390 and 407. These beads are active and stable in aqueous media, can be used to prepare a mild, nontoxic, ecofriendly, cost effective hand wash solution for the removal of phenolic stains.

  13. Cashew nut meal in the feeding of meat quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Danilo Rodrigues; Freitas, Ednardo Rodrigues; Watanabe, Pedro Henrique; Filgueira, Thales Marcel Bezerra; Cruz, Carlos Eduardo Braga; do Nascimento, Germano Augusto Jerônimo; Aguiar, Geovana Costa; Nascimento, Etho Robério Medeiros

    2016-04-01

    A study was aimed to evaluate the effects of cashew nut meal inclusion (CNM) on nutrient digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics of meat quails. A total of 432 meat quails with 7 days of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and nine replicates of eight birds each. Treatments were obtained with inclusion of CNM at levels of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 g/kg. According to regression analysis, the inclusion of CNM, at levels above 50 g/kg, provided a linear reduction in digestibility of dry matter and metabolizable energy of diets, linear increase in feed intake and an increase in feed conversion ratio, not influencing weight gain and carcass characteristics. Comparing the results obtained with the different inclusion levels compared to those obtained with the diet without CNM (control group), it was noted that diets with 200 g/kg of CNM inclusion, the dry matter digestibility and metabolizable energy of diet were lower and the level of 250 g/kg provided higher feed intake. Considering the results, it can be inferred that cashew nut meal can be used as a feedstuff in meat quail's diets at levels up to 250 g/kg.

  14. Roast Effects on Mechnical and Sensory Texture Attributes of Peantus, Almonds, Hazelnuts and Cashews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two instrumental methods were developed to quantify mechanical properties of peanuts, almonds, hazelnuts and cashews that potentially related to sensory texture attributes after thermal processing. The first method involved individual compression testing of multiple separate oilseeds, whereas the se...

  15. EFFECT OF ADDITION OF PULP CASHEW ON THE SENSORY ACCEPTANCE OF INTEGRAL YOGURT SWEETENED WITH HONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiane Alves de Macedo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The yogurt production in Brazil increased substantially every year. Yogurt is considered a healthy food and the diversity of this product allows great overall acceptance. This work proposed to prepare a full yogurt smoothie with cashew pulp and sweetened with honey to submit good sensory characteristics and to determine the nutritional value of the formulation with better response acceptability. Three preparations with 5, 15 and 25% w/w of cashew pulp and 15% w/w of honey were evaluated with sensory analyses comprising overall acceptability, preference and purchase intent. Information table was used to determine the parameters required for nutrition labeling of the best formulation. These results showed the preparation containing 25%w/w of cashew pulp as the better choice by the sensory panel. The results suggest a feasible option and revels the cashew as a good material source to the dairy market.

  16. effect of interaction between seed size and sowing deph of cashew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akos et al.

    and chin-chin production and fermentation of cashew into wine. Aderiye and Mbadiwe ... reducing mycotoxin and chemical toxin in plant foods (Njapu et al., 1998). ... the dependence on animal proteins because of economic recession which ...

  17. Biology and Behavior of Six Species of Reduviids (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) in a Cashew Ecosystem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Srikumar, KK; Bhat, PS; Raviprasad, TN; Vanitha, K; Saroj, PL; Ambrose, DP

    2014-01-01

    ...) were found feeding on H. antonii in cashew in India. They were Endochus albomaculatus Stal, Epidaus bicolor Distant, Euagoras plagiatus Burmeister, Irantha armipes Stal, Panthous bimaculatus Distant, and Sphedanolestes signatus Distant...

  18. Isolation and Characterization of an Acyclic Isoprenoid from Semecarpus anacardium Linn. and its Antibacterial Potential in vitro - Antimicrobial Activity of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. Seeds -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyakkannu Purushothaman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Semecarpus anacardium Linn. is a plant well-known for its antimicrobial, antidiabetic and anti-arthritic properties in the Ayurvedic and Siddha system of medicine. This has prompted the screening of this plant for antibacterial activity. The main aims of this study were to isolate compounds from the plant’s seeds and to evaluate their antibacterial effects on clinical bacterial test strains. Methods: The n-butanolic concentrate of the seed extract was subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC and repeated silica gel column chromatography followed by elution with various solvents. The compound was identified based on observed spectral (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry data. The well diffusion method was employed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the isolated acyclic isoprenoid compound (final concentration: 5 - 15 μg/mL on four test bacterial strains, namely, Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96, Bacillus cereus

  19. Energy Analysis of Baby Boiler for Steaming of Raw Cashew Nut Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Mohod; Y. P. Khandetod; S. H. Sengar; Shrirame, H. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The steaming of raw cashew seeds prior to shelling is adopted widely in small-scale cashew nut processing mills with the help of baby boiler. The wide variations in energy intensity of these mills reveal the scope for energy conservation. The baby boiler coupled with cooker commonly used for steaming of raw seeds was evaluated. The variation in steam pressure, temperature and operating time with respect to fuel was observed along with thermal efficiency of a boiler. The energy intensity to pr...

  20. Analgesic activity and acute toxicity study of Semecarpus anacardium stem bark extracts using mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingaraju, G M; Hoskeri, H Joy; Krishna, V; Babu, P Suresh

    2011-01-01

    The analgesic activity of petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Semecarpus anacardium was investigated by tail flicking and writhing method using acetyl salicylic acid as the standard reference. The staircase method was adopted for the determination of the acute toxicity. LD(50) of the petroleum ether extract and the chloroform extract was 700 mg/kg; however, the LD(50) for the methanol extract was 500 mg/kg. After 1 h of oral administration of the extracts, 0.6% acetic acid was administered intraperitoneally and the analgesic activity was evaluated. The number of writhing observed in the control group was 73.33 writhes. The methanol extract showed a significant analgesic activity, with 28.33 writhes, than the petroleum ether extract and the chloroform extract. But, all the extracts showed proved to be less potent than the standard drug which showed 2.33 writhes. Animals pretreated with saline did not show a signify cant effect on the latent period of tail-flick response. The analgesic effect of the petroleum ether extract was comparatively less evident. The maximum possible analgesia (MPA) increased up to 9.1% which remained elevated above the basal levels throughout the observation period. The MPA calculated for the chloroform extract increased to 14.03%. However, the analgesic effect of the methanol extract was also observed at 0.5 h following oral administration and the effect remained significant throughout the 3 h observation period, and was increased to 20.43%. Consistent analgesic activity of all the three S. anacardium extracts was observed by both the methods. The methanol extract was more potent than the petroleum ether and chloroform extracts but was less effective than the standard drug. This investigation supported the ethnomedicinal claims of S. anacardium.

  1. A cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitory biflavonoid from the seeds of Semecarpus anacardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, C; Jachak, Sanjay M

    2004-12-01

    Semecarpus anacardium Linn., Anacardiaceae, is being most commonly used in India for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory disorders. Bioactivity guided fractionation of ethyl acetate extract led to the isolation of major active principle, tetrahydroamentoflavone (THA), a biflavonoid. The in vitro cyclooxygenase (COX-1) catalyzed prostaglandin biosynthesis assay of THA gave an IC(50) value of 29.5 microM (COX-1) and 40.5% inhibition at 100 microg/mL (COX-2). The in vivo carrageenan induced paw edema assay resulted in dose dependent anti-inflammatory effect of THA and the activity was comparable to that of ibuprofen, one of the well known NSAIDs.

  2. Cytotoxic effect of root extract of Tiliacora racemosa and oil of Semecarpus anacardium nut in human tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sutapa; Roy, Madhumita; Taraphdar, Amit K; Bhattacharya, R K

    2004-08-01

    Tiliacora racemosa and Semecarpus anacardium, the two plants frequently used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of cancerous diseases, have been selected to examine their action in four human tumour cell lines: acute myeloblastic leukaemia (HL-60), chronic myelogenic leukaemia (K-562), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and cervical epithelial carcinoma (HeLa). In cells grown in appropriate media the ethanol extract of T. racemosa root, the total alkaloids isolated from this organ and S. anacardium nut oil prepared according to the Ayurvedic principle were found to have cytotoxic activity. The alkaloid fraction from T. racemosa had maximum cytotoxicity and was effective against all four cell lines. S. anacardium oil was cytotoxic only in leukaemic cells. These herbal preparations were not cytotoxic towards normal human lymphocytes, suggesting their action is specific for tumour cells. On microscopic examination the cells treated with these agents exhibited characteristic morphological features of apoptosis, such as cell shrinkage, and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Fluorescent staining with propidium iodide revealed distinct chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. The apoptotic index paralleled the cytotoxic parameters, and fragmented DNA extracted free of genomic DNA from treated cells displayed a typical ladder pattern on gel electrophoresis. Apoptosis induced by alkaloids and phenolics, the active principles present in T. racemosa and S. anacardium, respectively, was found to be mediated by the activation of caspases. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Anti cancerous efficacy of Ayurvedic milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nuts on hepatocellular carcinoma in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joice P; Raval, Sunant K; Sadariya, Kamlesh A; Jhala, Mayur; Kumar, Pranay

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the anticancerous efficacy of Ayurvedic preparation made of Semecarpus anacardium (SA) nuts. Five groups of rats were used for the study. Group I served as water control. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was induced in groups II, III and IV animals using N-nitrosodiethylamine as inducing agent followed by phenobarbitone as promoter for 13 weeks. Group-II animals were kept untreated as hepatocellular carcinoma control. Group-III animals were treated with Ayurvedic milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nuts at dose mentioned in Ashtangahridaya, an authentic book of Ayurveda for 49 days and group-IV animals were treated with doxorubicin as reference drug at dose of 1mg/kg twice a week for 7 weeks. Group V animals were kept as drug (SA nut milk extract) control for studying the effect of nut milk extract on normal rats. After 154 days of experiment, all animals were subjected to screening for HCC by estimation of liver enzymes, HCC marker (alpha-2 macroglobulin) and histopathology. Both liver enzymes and HCC marker were increased in hepatocellular carcinoma control along with neoplastic changes in liver and were decreased in Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract treated group. The Ayurvedic drug showed positive correlation with the action of doxorubicin. This study demonstrated the efficacy of Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma either alone or along with chemotherapy.

  4. African Countries’ Agricultural Trade Value Chain Assessment Case study: Tanzania (Cashew nut exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Krepl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa lost its status as a net exporter of agricultural products in the early 1980s when prices for raw commodities fell and local production stagnated. Since then, agricultural imports have grown faster than agricultural exports. In order to get to the bottom of this critical issue, UNIDO in partnership with the AU, IFAD, AfDB, FAO, and UNECA, developed the African Agribusiness and Agro-Industries Development Initiative (3ADI. The major objective of the 3ADI is to increase private sector investment flows going into the agriculture sector in Africa by mobilizing resources for agribusiness and agro-industrial development from the domestic, regional or international financial systems. This formed the basis of research with the objective of assessing the value addition chain for some vital agricultural commodities in the 3ADI focus countries. UNIDO is developing several action plans in a few African countries – one of them is Tanzania. In the case of Tanzania, the findings show the potential in cashew nuts. The paper’s main goal is to propose a plan or set of steps leading to the improvement of added value generation in the area of agricultural trade in Tanzania. The paper is focused on one commodity Cashew-nuts. Tanzania boosts high volumes of local supply of this commodity, which is the key prerequisite for the value addition chain through local processing. The results from the analysis prove significant economic losses related to the current structure of Tanzanian trade in cashew nuts. The main problem of the current cashew nut trade activities is the very low added value of exported cashew nuts. The paper analyses the structure of value added activities related to the cashew nut trade and proposes a plan for increasing the share of processed cashew nuts at a much higher unit price in comparison to raw cashew nuts. The simulated development in the cashew sector in Tanzania to the year 2030 is based on two expectations a 5

  5. Comparative Quality Evaluation of Roasted Cashew Nut Kernel: Effect of Roasting Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Kosoko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of two roasting methods on the chemical, microbial as well as the sensory qualities of cashew nut kernels. Raw cashew nut was processed to obtain the plain cashew kernels and was divided into two portions which were subjected to different roasting treatments using conventional-air oven and halogen oven at a temperature of 200°C for 40 min, respectively. Proximate analysis showed that the conventional-oven roasted cashew kernel had higher moisture content, protein and crude fiber values of 4.68%±0.18, 18.34±0.94 and 2.11±0.08, respectively than the roasted sample using halogen-oven. In halogen-oven roasted kernel, the fat, carbohydrate, fatty acid and metabolizeable energy contents were higher (45.62±0.98, 2.53±0.08, 30.04±0.95, 39.23±0.85 and 2480.04±21.00, respectively. The mineral analysis indicated that the halogen-oven roasted kernels had higher values except in the case of Magnesium (Mg, which was higher in the conventional-oven roasted cashew nuts. The microbial assessment of the cashew kernels showed that halogen-oven cashew roasted kernel had a reduced value in all the microbiological analysis carried out with the exception of staphylococcus count. However, E. coli was not present in any of the cashew kernel samples. Based on the sensory rating, halogen-oven roasted cashew kernel had the highest overall acceptability sensory rating. It was observed that chemical parameters of fat, fatty acid and metabolizable energy show positive correlation at both (p<0.01 and (p<0.05 for the sensory attributes of colour, taste, crispiness, flavor and overall acceptability while the chemical parameters of moisture content protein and crude fibre showed a negative correlation for all the sensory attributes. The results of this study indicated that halogen-oven will be better option for producing nutritious and wholesome roasted cashew nut kernels with acceptable sensory qualities.

  6. Preparation and characterization of a chemically sulfated cashew gum polysaccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura Neto, Erico de; Maciel, Jeanny da S.; Cunha, Pablyana L. R.; Paula, Regina Celia M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A., E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Cashew gum (CG) was sulfated in pyridine:formamide using chlorosulfonic acid as the reagent. Confirmation of sulfation was obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy through the presence of an asymmetrical S=O stretching vibration at 1259 cm{sup -1}. The degrees of substitution were 0.02, 0.24 and 0.88 determined from the sulfur percentage. 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data showed that the sulfation occurred at primary carbons. An increase of at least 4% of the solution viscosity was observed due to sulfation. The thermal gravimetric curves (TGA) indicate that the derivatives are stable up to ca. 200 deg C. The sulfated CG is compared to carboxymethylated CG in order to verify the possibility of the use of the former in the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes; the latter is already being used for this application. (author)

  7. Wound healing promoting activity of stem bark extract of Semecarpus anacardium using rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingaraju, G M; Krishna, V; Joy Hoskeri, H; Pradeepa, K; Venkatesh; Babu, P Suresh

    2012-01-01

    The wound healing promoting property of stem bark methanol extract of Semecarpus anacardium was evaluated at three different dosages by excision, incision and dead space wound models using Wistar albino rats. Framycetin skin ointment was used as standard. LD(50) of methanol extract was determined to be 500 mg kg(-1). In methanol extract (20% ointment) treated group, epithelialisation of the incision wound was faster with a high rate of wound contraction. The tensile strength of the incision wound was significantly increased when compared to other treated groups. The histological examination of the dead space wound model granulation tissue of the methanol extract (100 mg kg(-1)) treated group showed increased cross-linking of collagen fibres and absence of monocytes as compared to control. Methanol extract at 100 mg kg(-1) exhibited significant wound healing activity but was lesser than standard; whereas, in animals treated with 50 and 75 mg kg(-1) showed moderate activity. This investigation supported the ethnomedicinal claims of S. anacardium.

  8. [Larvicidal activity of Anacardium humile Saint Hill oil on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera, Culicidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Karla Rejane de Andrade; Roel, Antonia Railda; Silva, Márcia Marlene da; Coelho, Rosemary Matias; Scheleder, Eloty Justina Dias; Jeller, Alex Haroldo

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Anacardium humile (monkey nuts) against Aedes aegypti larvae. Hexane, ethanol and aqueous extracts and oil from leaves were obtained from plant material collected from the Brazilian savanna. These were tested at concentrations of 1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, 0.125%, 0.05% and 0.0125%, diluted in 1% dimethyl sulfoxide. The dead larvae were counted 24 hours later. The Probit analysis method was used to obtain the LC(50) and the respective confidence intervals. The conclusion was that only the oil extracted from Anacardium humile leaves caused 100% mortality among fourth-instar Aedes aegypti larvae, using concentrations of up to 0.125%. This seems to indicate that the active ingredients are present in the most apolar phase. This indicates that this plant has potential use as a larvicide against Aedes aegypti. However, new tests should be carried out using other plant organs, as well as using other methods and solvents for the extraction.

  9. The separation and synthesis of lipidic 1,2- and 1,3-diols from natural phenolic lipids for the complexation and recovery of boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyman, John H P; Mehet, Satinderjit K

    2003-12-01

    A study has been made of the semi-synthesis of 1,3-diols (anacardic alcohols) from natural phenolic lipid resources from Anacardium occidentale and Anacardium giganteum which have given C15 and C11 derivatives, respectively. An isomeric 1,3-diol (isoanacardic alcohol) has been obtained from cardanol separated from technical cashew nut-shell liquid. Homologous 1,3-diols have been synthesised from a range of synthetic 2-alkyl-, 3-alkyl- and 4-alkylphenols and from 6-alkylsalicylic acids. The natural 1,2-diol, urushiol, from Rhus vernicifera has been purified. All these lipidic compounds have been studied for their complexation and the potential recovery of boron as boric acid.

  10. Effects of Industrial Cashew Nut Processing on Anacardic Acid Content and Allergen Recognition by IgE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashew nuts are consumed worldwide and are in high demand, but they can also cause food allergy in some individuals. The present study aimed to assess the effect(s) of industrial processing on anacardic acids and allergens present in cashew nuts. Sample analyses were performed using liquid chromat...

  11. Cashew nut analysis by magnetic resonance tomography; Analise da castanha do cajueiro por tomografia de ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Joao Rodrigues de; Lima, Antonio Calixto [EMBRAPA, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Agroindustria Tropical]. E-mail: paiva@cnpat.embrapa.br; Biscegli, Clovis Isberto [EMBRAPA, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Agroindustria Tropical]. E-mail: clovis@cnpdia.embrapa.br

    2004-11-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the technique of magnetic resonance tomography for cashew nut analysis, compared to the traditional method of clone selection. Samples of cashew nut from 40 clones harvested in 2002 were analyzed using both methods. Using traditional method most of clones showed high and medium values of the industrial indicators nut and seed mass and industrial yield and low values of seed breakage. By magnetic resonance tomography majority of clones showed cashew nuts with empty spaces between the nut and the endocarp, which can protect the seed during decortication. The results for the two methods were complementary and the tomography, besides being a promising option for the quality evaluation of cashew nut, can give support to other researches related to cashew nut study. (author)

  12. Catechol alkenyls from Semecarpus anacardium: acetylcholinesterase inhibition and binding mode predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhami, H R; Linder, T; Kaehlig, H; Schuster, D; Zehl, M; Krenn, L

    2012-01-06

    The fruits of Semecarpus anacardium L. f. (Anacardiaceae) are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also in Iranian Traditional Medicine for various indications, among those for retarding and treatment of dementia. The severity of Alzheimer's disease obviously correlates with a cholinergic deficit. In a screening for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity, an extract from the fruit resin of Semecarpus anacardium was among the most active ones. Thus, the aim of this study was to isolate the active compounds and to investigate them in detail. Their binding mode to the active site of AChE was investigated by in silico docking experiments. From a dichloromethane extract in an activity-guided fractionation the active compounds were isolated under use of different chromatographic techniques. Their structures were unambiguously identified by one and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry and their cholinesterase inhibitory activities were determined by a microplate assay. In order to compare the 3D active sites of AChE from Torpedo californica (TcAChE) and from Electrophorus electricus (EeAChE), three files from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) were used and for docking experiments, GOLD 3.1 software was employed. The concentrations of active compounds in the extract and the fruits were determined by HPLC analysis. The active compounds were determined as 1',2'-dihydroxy-3'-pentadec-8-enylbenzene (A) and 1',2'-dihydroxy-3'-pentadeca-8,11-dienylbenzene (B). Their IC(50) values in an in vitro assay on AChE inhibition were determined as 12 and 34 μg/mL, respectively, while they were not active in the inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). In silico docking experiments showed a similar bioactivity for compounds A and B. The concentration of compounds A and B in the fruits was 1.85% and 1.88%, respectively. In the search for the active principle of the fruit resin of Semecarpus anacardium, compounds A and B were identified as two selective

  13. Self-assembled cardanol azo derivatives as antifungal agent with chitin-binding ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, Denial; Mandal, Santi M; Bharti, Rashmi; Gupta, Vinay Krishna; Mandal, Mahitosh; Nag, Ahindra; Nando, Golok B

    2014-08-01

    Cardanol is a non-isoprenoic phenolic lipid-mixture of distilled cashew nut shell liquid obtained from Anacardium occidentale. Herein, cardanol is purified from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) and synthesized to new compounds with different azo amphiphiles. These synthesized compounds are allowed to self-assembled in hydrophobic environment and checked antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Self-assembled structure of CABA showed higher antifungal activity (16μg/mL) and chitin-binding ability in comparison to CAP and CANB. Furthermore, the self-assembled azo amphiphiles are immobilized with silver ions to prepare hydrogel which showed eight folds enhanced antifungal activity. Toxicity is reduced by several folds of self-assembled or hydrogel structure in comparison to pure compounds. Thus, the self-assembled structure of amphiphiles and their hydrogels have been found to be new macromolecules of interest with potential use as antifungal drugs.

  14. [Molluscacide activity of a mixture of 6-n-alkyl salicylic acids (anacardic acid) and 2 of its complexes with copper (II) and lead (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, N M; de Oliveira, A B; Guimarães, J E; Pereira, J P; Katz, N

    1990-01-01

    The molluscicide activity of hexanic extract from Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew) nut shell, of copper (II) complex, of lead (II) complex and anacardic acid has been compared in the laboratory in an attempt to obtain better stability than anacardic acid. This was obtained from the hexanic extract of the cashew nut shell by precipitation with lead (II) hydroxide or cupric sulfate plus sodium hydroxide or (II) cupric hydroxide followed by treatment of lead (II) complex with a diluted solution of sulfuric acid. Ten products of the mixture obtained were tested on adults snails of Biomphalaria glabrata at 1 to 10 ppm. The most active products were copper (II) complex, obtained by cupric sulfate plus sodium hydroxide, and anacardic acid (sodium hydroxide) which presented activity at 4 ppm. The anacardic acid's lead content was above the limits accepted by the United States standards.

  15. Characteristics of postharvest quality in regional fruits treate with ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Josenilda M.; Villar, Heldio P. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/CNEN-NE), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: jmnilda@cnen.gov.br; Correia, Lidia C.S.A.; Maciel, Maria Ines S. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: aidil_alencar@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: marines@ufrpe.br

    2009-07-01

    In order to investigate the effects of irradiation on the main characteristics of quality postharvest of three cultivated species of the Northeast Region of Brazil, experiments with cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. var. Nanum), sapodilla (Manilkara sapodilla (L) Van Royen) and mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes) have been performed. Cashew peduncles stored for fourteen days under 6.5 deg C had presented best results in the sensorial analyses for external appearance, flavour and aroma when irradiated with 1 kGy. sapodillas irradiated with doses of 300, 600 and 900 Gy have not displayed harmed sensorial qualities when stored under 20 deg C during twelve days. Doses up to 800 Gy had not harmed the external and internal appearance of mangabas after being stored for a fortnight under 13 deg C. Chemical characteristics of TSS, TTA, pH and solid/acidity ratio have not been affected significantly by the different doses applied to the three studied species. Amount of ascorbic acid was lower in the irradiated fruits, with significant differences for the species Anacardium occidentale L. var. Nanum and Hancornia speciosa Gomes. (author)

  16. Hyposensitization to poison ivy after working in a cashew nut shell oil processing factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginella, R F; Fairfield, J C; Marks, J G

    1989-04-01

    19 adults were patch tested to urushiol, the allergen in poison ivy/oak, to determine their sensitivity to this allergen after working in a cashew nut shell oil (CNSO) processing plant. The cashew nut tree and poison ivy/oak are in the same botanical family. Anacardiaceae, and they share similar chemicals which cause allergic contact dermatitis. 13 of the 19 workers had a preemployment history of poison ivy sensitivity, with 10 developing CNSO dermatitis. After working in this factory for several months, 9 of the 13 noticed a decreased sensitivity or no sensitivity to poison ivy/oak. When tested to urushiol extract, only 3 reacted positively, 2 minimally. These results imply that hyposensitization to poison ivy/oak occurred in these employees after development of hardening to cashew nut shell oil.

  17. THERMOSTABILITY OF ANTIOXIDANT AND DETERIORATIVE ENZYMES FROM SOURSOP AND CASHEW APPLE JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA CRISTINA RABELO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aimed to evaluate the thermostability of antioxidant (superoxide dismutase - SOD, catalase - CAT and ascorbate peroxidase - APX and deteriorative (guaiacol peroxidase - G-POD, polyphenoloxidase - PPO, pectin-methylesterase - PME and polygalacturonase - PG enzymes from soursop and cashew apple juices. Juices were prepared homogenizing ripe fruit pulps and submitting to different thermal treatments (55, 65, 75, 85 and 95°C for different time period (1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min then enzymatic activities were evaluated. The treatments at 55°C for soursop juice and at 75°C for cashew apple juice presented the best results, considering the low residual activities for deteriorative enzymes and the retained activity of SOD. Our results suggest appropriate technological condition to thermal processing from soursop and cashew apple juice whereby ensuring quality beyond their functionality.

  18. Stability of cashew apple juice in powder dehydrated in spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanyelle L. Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the stability of cashew apple juice in powder, dehydrated in spouted bed and stored in two vacuum-sealed packages (laminated and plastic for a period of 60 days. The parameters evaluated in this study were ascorbic acid, carotenoids, moisture, water activity, hygroscopicity, degree of caking, solubility and rehydration. Decreases in the contents of ascorbic acid and carotenoids were observed after 60 days. Moisture content remained practically unchanged during storage, and water activity showed a rising trend in the plastic package. In both packages, the powder showed low hygroscopicity and high caking formation. The solubility in both packages was higher than 90% and the time of rehydration of cashew apple juice in powder in the plastic package increased during storage. Cashew apple juice in powder stored in laminated package preserved better its physical and physico-chemical properties.

  19. Evaluation of Cashew Apple Juice for the Production of Fuel Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Álvaro Daniel Teles; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; Macedo, Gorete R.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    A commercial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used for the production of ethanol by fermentation of cashew apple juice. Growth kinetics and ethanol productivity were calculated for batch fermentation with different initial sugar (glucose + fructose) concentrations. Maximal ethanol, cell, and glycerol concentrations were obtained when 103.1 g L-1 of initial sugar concentration was used. Cell yield (Yx/s) was calculated as 0.24 (g microorganism)/(g glucose + fructose) using cashew apple juice medium with 41.3 g L-1 of initial sugar concentration. Glucose was exhausted first, followed by fructose. Furthermore, the initial concentration of sugars did not influence ethanol selectivity. These results indicate that cashew apple juice is a suitable substrate for yeast growth and ethanol production.

  20. Hypolipidemic effect of Semecarpus anacardium in high cholesterol fed hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayagam, Kaladevi Siddhi; Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Keerthiga, G; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanatham, Sachdanandam

    2012-12-03

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn nut milk extract (SA) in high cholesterol fed hyperlipidemic rat model. METHODS: Rats were divided into four groups which included control animals, hypercholesterolemic animals, hypercholesterolemic animals treated with SA (200 mg/kg body weight dissolved in olive oil), and drug control rats. Lipid levels in serum and liver, and lipid metabolising enzymes were determined after treatment. RESULTS: High cholesterol diet significantly (P<0.05) increased the lipid levels in serum and liver and altered the activities of lipid metabolising enzymes. Significant decrease (P<0.05) in plasma and liver lipid levels were observed whereas the drug ameliorated the activities of lipid metabolising enzymes in drug treated groups. CONCLUSIONS: SA demonstrated remarkable hypolipidemic activity in high cholesterol fed hypercholesterolemic rats. The potential antihyperlipidemic action is plausibly due to its underlying antioxidant role.

  1. Effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract on rat neutrophil functions in adjuvant arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, V R; Shanthi, P; Sachdanandam, P

    2006-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and various inflammatory conditions, by accumulation and liberation of active proteolytic enzymes. The effect of milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nuts (SA) at a dosage of 150 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for 14 days on adjuvant arthritis was studied to gain some insight into this intriguing disease in relation to neutrophil functions. The decreased phagocytic function of neutrophils (phagocytic index and avidity index) found in adjuvant arthritis was significantly increased by the administration of the drug SA. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, H2O2 and myeloperoxidase), lysosomal enzymes (acid phosphatase and cathepsin D) and increased accumulation of neutrophils in the joints observed in adjuvant arthritic animals were reverted back to near normal levels by treatment with SA. The results of this study indicate that SA can be considered to be a good therapeutic agent for inflammation and arthritis.

  2. Optimizing culture conditions for establishment of hairy root culture of Semecarpus anacardium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Bhuban Mohan; Mehta, Urmil J; Hazra, Sulekha

    2017-05-01

    Semecarpus anacardium L. is a tree species which produces secondary metabolites of medicinal importance. Roots of the plant have been traditionally used in folk medicines. Different strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes (A4, ATCC15834 and LBA 9402) were used for induction of hairy roots in in vitro grown tissues of the plant. Hairy root initiation was observed after 25-30 days of infection. Optimum transformation frequency of 61% was achieved on leaf explants with ATCC15834 strain. Infection time of 30 min resulted in greater transformation frequency compared to 10 and 20 min, respectively. The hairy roots cultured in growth regulator-free semi-solid woody plant medium differentiated into callus. Whole shoots infected with ATCC 15834 were found to produce more transformants upon co-cultivation for 4 (65%) and 5 (67%) days. Induction of hairy roots in stem explants infected with ATCC 15834 was lower (52%) compared to leaves (62%) after 4 days of co-cultivation. In A4 and LBA9402 strains transformation efficiency was 49 ± 2.8% and 36 ± 5.7% in shoots after 4 days of co-cultivation. Transformation frequency was higher in ATCC15834 strain, irrespective of explants. The hairy roots of S. anacardium elongated slowly upon transfer to half-strength liquid medium. After 3-4 passages in liquid medium slender hairy roots started differentiating which were separated from the original explants. Visible growth of the roots was observed in hormone-free liquid medium after 2-3 months of culturing. Polymerase chain reaction with gene-specific primers from rol A, B and C genes confirms the positive transformation events.

  3. Modulation of baroreflex sensitivity by walnuts versus cashew nuts in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Aletta E; Van Rooyen, Johannes M; Huisman, Hugo W; Mukuddem-Petersen, Janine; Oosthuizen, Welma; Hanekom, Susanna M; Jerling, Johann C

    2006-06-01

    Impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is associated with cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome. Because lipid abnormalities have been associated with impaired BRS, this study aimed to determine whether diets known to improve the lipid profile, namely a diet high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (walnuts) or monounsaturated fatty acids (cashew nuts), would improve BRS in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). A controlled feeding trial with a randomized, controlled, parallel study design was undertaken, which involved 62 subjects with MS. Subjects were stratified according to gender and age and were randomized into three groups receiving a control diet, or a diet high (20% energy) in walnuts or unsalted cashew nuts for 8 weeks while maintaining body weight. The BRS, C-reactive protein (CRP), and MS components were measured before and after the intervention. After the intervention, BRS in the walnut-fed study group decreased (P = .038) and that in the cashew-fed study group increased (P = .036), but the BRS in the control group did not change (P = .56). The percent change of the walnut versus cashew group differed (P = .019). Body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerol did not change. The fasting glucose concentrations of the cashew group increased (P = .03). The significant improvements in BRS obtained by a diet rich in cashew nuts underline the beneficial cardiovascular effects of nuts. However, the opposite result was obtained with a diet rich in walnuts. These significant changes observed might indicate that BRS is particularly sensitive and influenced by changes in diet without changes in obesity.

  4. Recuperative effect of Semecarpus anacardium linn. nut milk extract on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes in experimental mammary carcinoma-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha, Venugopal; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2002-03-01

    Semecarpus anacardium Linn. of the family Anacardiaceae has many applications in the Ayurvedic and Siddha systems of medicine. We have tested the antitumour activity of Semecarpus anacardium nut extract against experimental mammary carcinoma in animals. As there is a direct relationship between the proliferation of tumour cells and the activities of the glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes, we studied changes in the activities of enzymes involved in this metabolic pathway in the liver and kidney. The enzymes investigated were glycolytic enzymes, namely hexokinase, phosphoglucoisomerase, aldolase and the gluconeogenic enzymes, namely glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-biphosphatase in experimental rats. A significant rise in glycolytic enzyme activities and a simultaneous fall in gluconeogenic enzyme activities were found in mammary carcinoma bearing rats. Drug administration returned these enzyme activities to their respective control activities. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. CASHEW NUT MEAL IN THE FEEDING OF BROWN LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Braga Cruz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative foods to replace conventional foods is becoming a source of research for many researchers. The cashew nut meal (CNM has high energy and protein value, may be a partial substitute for corn and soybean meal for poultry feed. In this context, this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of CNM on the utilization of nutrients in the ration for laying hens, as well as the performance and characteristics of the eggs. The study used 180 Dekalb Brown laying hens 27 weeks of age, distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and five replicates of six birds. Treatments consisted of a control diet without CNM and others with the inclusion of this food at levels of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%. Upon regression analysis, a linear increase in nitrogen metabolism, crude energy and apparently metabolizable energy was seen. The dry matter digestibility and metabolizable energy corrected for rations were not affected by the inclusion of the CNM. Feed intake and egg weight were not affected by the inclusion of the CNM; however, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion, and yolk color worsened linearly with inclusion of CNM. Compared to control diet, the inclusion of CNM worsened the egg mass and feed conversion from 15%, and yolk color from 20%. As a result, it is recommended the inclusion of the CNM in the diet of laying hens at a maximum level of 10%.

  6. Potency of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract against aflatoxin B(1)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis: reflection on microsomal biotransformation enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premalatha, B; Sachdanandam, P

    2000-08-01

    The effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract on host detoxification system in aflatoxin B(1) induced hepatocellular carcinoma, which is a vital mechanism in cancer treatment, was studied in male albino rats. Oral administration of nut extract (200 mg kg(-1)body weight per day for 14 days) is found to be highly effective in inducing phase I and phase II biotransformation enzymes. The obtained results have shown an overall decrease of liver microsomal cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, and aniline hydroxylase with a subsequent decrease of phase II enzymes, glutathione-S-transferase and UDP-glucuronyl transferase in cancer-bearing animals. The Semecarpus anacardium nut extract affords anticancer activity by enhancing both phase I and phase II enzymes to near normal levels. We propose that, much of the anticarcinogenic potency of Semecarpus anacardium nut extract on aflatoxin B(1)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis is mediated through the induction of hepatic biotransformation enzymes. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  7. Effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract on glutathione and its associated enzymes in experimentally induced mammary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathivadhani, P; Shanthi, P; Sachdanandam, P

    2006-01-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) is a ubiquitous thiol-containing tripeptide that plays a key role in the etiology of many diseases and, in particular, cancer. GSH, the foremost internal protective system, participates directly in the destruction of free radical compounds and detoxification of carcinogens. The effect of Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract was studied for gaining insight into the disease relationship to GSH and its metabolizing enzymes. Mammary carcinoma was induced by giving 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) (25 mg/mL of olive oil) perorally by gastric intubation, and nut milk extract of S. anacardium was administered orally (200 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 14 days to mammary carcinoma-bearing rats. The levels of GSH and its metabolizing enzyme activities were determined in liver and kidney homogenates. Significant decreases in GSH, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase, and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and a concomitant increase in oxidized glutathione, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were observed in DMBA-induced mammary carcinoma in rats, while drug treatment reversed the conditions to near normal levels. There was a marked increase in GSH level and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase activity in drug control rats. These findings suggest that S. anacardium can exert its protective effect in maintaining the glutathione redox status by restoring the associated enzymes against oxidative stress in experimental mammary carcinoma.

  8. Toxicidade do extrato aquoso das folhas de Anacardium humile para Bemisia tuberculata Toxicity of aqueous extract of Anacardium humile leaves on Bemisia tuberculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nézio Nery de Andrade Filho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-branca Bemisia tuberculata (Bondar, 1923 (Hem.: Aleyrodidae é uma das principais pragas da cultura da mandioca no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul; no entanto, não há produtos registrados para seu controle. Produtos vegetais podem constituir em alternativa viável de controle de insetos e, por sua fotodegradabilidade, diminuir os riscos ao ambiente e ao homem. Objetivou-se, por meio deste trabalho, avaliar o efeito do extrato aquoso do "cajuzinho-do-cerrado" Anacardium humile St Hill (Anacardeaceae, nas concentrações de 2,0; 0,8; 0,4 e 0,05%, sobre a biologia de B. tuberculata, bem como identificar a classe de metabólitos secundários presentes no referido extrato. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, sob temperatura de 26±4°C. O extrato aquoso de A. humile causou aumento da duração da fase larval e mortalidade significativamente superior à testemunha em todas as concentrações testadas. Concluiu-se que o extrato aquoso de folhas de A. humile provoca mortalidade em ninfas de B. tuberculata e alongamento da fase das ninfas sobreviventes. O extrato aquoso de folhas de A. humile apresenta taninos, açúcares redutores e saponinas, e o seu índice de espuma (Índice Afrosimétrico é de 1250.The whitefly Bemisia tuberculata (Bondar, 1923 (Hem.: Aleyrodidae is the main pest of cassava crops in Mato Grosso do Sul state, however there are no products registered for its control. Plant products may represent a viable alternative for insect pest control and, due to their photo-degradability, they may reduce risks to the environment and to man. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of "cajuzinho-do-cerrado" Anacardium humile St Hill (Anacardeaceae aqueous leaf extract on the biology of B. tuberculata at the concentrations 2.0; 0.8; 0.4; 0.05%, as well as to identify the class of secondary metabolites present in the referred extract. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at a temperature of 26±4°C. The

  9. Geografía, café y prosperidad en los andes occidentales de Colombia

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    Juan Barón

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Compuesta por los departamentos de Antioquia, Caldas, Quindío, Risaralda y Valle del Cauca, los Andes Occidentales ha sido por mucho años una de las regiones más prósperas de Colombia. Esta prosperidad se ha traducido en condiciones de vida e infraestructura superiores a las del resto del país. El éxito y bienestar que presentan hoy en día los Andes Occidentales están estrechamente ligados a la concentración de la producción de café, que se dio allí durante gran parte del siglo XX. El arraigo del café en la región no sólo se dio debido a que la geografía ofrecía las condiciones ideales para el cultivo, sino también a las instituciones cafeteras creadas para organizar la industria del café. A pesar de esta prosperidad, el constante descenso del precio internacional del café después del rompimiento del pacto de cuotas de producción en 1989, sumado al estancamiento de la industria manufacturera en algunos departamentos de la región, han afectado las economías departamentales menos diversificadas. Es así como la región de los Andes Occidentales Colombianos presenta las tasas de desempleo más altas del país, tasas que se han visto afectadas aún más con la crisis financiera internacional a través del menor flujo de remesas que los trabajadores oriundos de la región, y residentes en el exterior envían a sus familias.

  10. An economic comparison of biological and conventional control strategies for insect pests in cashew and mango plantations in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, William Juma; Hella, Joseph; Esbjerg, Lars

    2013-01-01

    budget analysis shows that a change from chemical insecticides treatment to weaver ants returned net benefits greater than zero by Tsh. 692 923 and Tsh.1019665 in cashew and mango plantations respectively. Similarly, positive net benefits was obtained when growers change from control to weaver ants...... treatment by Tsh. 504 989 and Tsh. 891 297 in cashew and mango plantations. The dominance and MRRanalyses shows that if cashew and mango growers change from conventional agricultural practices to weaver ants, they would earn MRR of 1621% which is above minimum acceptable rate of return (MARR) of 100%. The t...

  11. Gender Roles and Challenges of Small Scale Processed Cashew Nut Marketers in Enugu North Senatorial Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Enwelu I. A; Ugwu S. T; Irohibe I.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined gender roles and challenges of small scale processed cashew nut marketers in Enugu North senatorial zone of Enugu State. Interview schedule was used to collect data from 72 respondents. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics. Small scale processed cashew nut marketers were dominated by female youths with mean age of 31 years and making a monthly income of between ₦10,000.00 - ₦14,999.00 from cashew nut marketing. The marketing strategy mostly used by ...

  12. LA DIFFERENCE ENTRE LA CULTURE CHINOISE ET OCCIDENTALE ET LEURS INFLUENCES PROFONDES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞渊善

    2014-01-01

    Cet essai vise à présenter les caractères de la culture Chinoise et Occidentale, ainsi que leur propre appartenance en traitant le contexte de formation et le processus d’évolution. Il est aussi consacré dans un but d’approfondissement d’étude de cette différence entre les deux cultures en mettant en exergue cette profonde signification sur les aspects de civilisation ainsi que sur les impacts sur l’économie, la langue et la situation sociale en général.

  13. LA COMPARAISON DE LA MUSIQUE TURQUE ET OCCIDENTALE EN MATIERE DE GAMME, RYTHME ET TONALITE

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    Kubilay Kolukirik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Après avoir fini mon Doctorat en musique à l’université d’Ankara en Turquie, j’ai travaillé en tant que Maitre de conférences à l’université de Nevşehir. J’ai alors été contacté par le Conservatoire Claude Debussy, situé dans le 17eme arrondissement de Paris, afin d’effectuer une recherche comparative sur le Jazz et la musique folklorique Turque. Dans ce contexte j'ai participé aux cours de jazz de Philippe Poussard avec mon instrument authentique turc nommé "bağlama". Avec ce dernier nous avons joué des chansons folkloriques Turques, et j'ai ressenti que lui et ses étudiants ont été impressionnés par la musique que nous avons jouée ensemble, enimprovisant. Nous avons ensuite discuté de différents sujets à propos des musiques Turque et Occidentale. J'ai alors constaté que les étudiants de ce conservatoire n'ont aucune connaissance sur la musique Turque en générale. J'ai alors décidé d’effectuer une analyse théorique sur les questions fondamentales de la musique Occidentale etde la musique Turque. Je pense qu'il est important de donner des informations sur la théorie de la musique dans les établissements scolaires occidentaux. Ceci est important pour la communication entre les deux cultures musicales. En rédigeant mon article j'ai utilisé la méthode d'analyse de documents. J'ai aussi utilisé mes expériences personnelles acquises au Conservatoire pour faire un travail de comparaison appliquée. J'ai constaté qu'en termes de gamme, rythme et tonalité il y avait beaucoup de différences mais également des similitudes dans la musique Turque et Occidentale. L'objectif de cet article est de comparer les théories musicales Turque et Occidentale c’est à dire étudier leurs aspects similaires et différents en terme de gamme, rythme et de tonalité.

  14. Ameliorating effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract on altered glucose metabolism in high fat diet STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vinayagam, Kaladevi Siddhi; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachdanandam

    2012-12-01

    To explore the protective effect of the drug Semecarpus anacardium (S. anacardium)on altered glucose metabolism in diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was induced by feeding rats with high fat diet followed by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (35 mg/kg b.w.). Seven days after STZ induction, diabetic rats received nut milk extract of S. anacardium Linn. nut milk extract orally at a dosage of 200 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks. The effect of nut milk extract of S. anacardium on blood glucose, plasma insulin, glucose metabolising enzymes and GSK were studied. Treatment with SA extract showed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels and increase in plasma insulin levels and also increase in HOMA - β and decrease in HOMA -IR. The drug significantly increased the activity of glycolytic enzymes and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and increased the glycogen content in liver of diabetic rats while reducing the activities of gluconeogenic enzymes. The drug also effectively ameliorated the alterations in GSK-3 mRNA expression. Overall, the present study demonstrates the possible mechanism of glucose regulation of S. anacardium suggestive of its therapeutic potential for the management of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Therapeutic effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract on carbohydrate metabolizing and mitochondrial TCA cycle and respiratory chain enzymes in mammary carcinoma rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arathi, G; Sachdanandam, P

    2003-09-01

    Semecarpus anacardium Linn. of the family Anacardiaceae has many applications in the Ayurvedic and Siddha systems of medicine. We have evaluated the effect of S. anacardium nut milk extract on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle and respiratory enzymes in liver and kidney mitochondria of dimethyl benzanthracene-induced mammary carcinoma in Sprague-Dawley rats. Mammary carcinoma-bearing rats showed a significant rise in glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, phosphoglucoisomerase and aldolase) and a simultaneous fall in gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose 1,6-diphosphatase). The activities of mitochondrial enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, NADH-dehydrogenase and cytochrome C oxidase were significantly lowered in mammary carcinoma-bearing rats when compared with control rats. S. anacardium nut extract administration to tumour-induced animals significantly lowered the glycolytic enzyme activities (hexokinase, phosphoglucoisomerase and aldolase) and there was a rise in gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose 1,6-diphosphatase), which indicated an antitumour and anticancer effect. Comparison of normal control rats and rats administered S. anacardium only as drug control animals showed no significant variations in enzyme activities. S. anacardium nut extract administration to dimethyl benzanthracene-tumour-induced animals significantly increased the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, thereby suggesting its role in mitochondrial energy production.

  16. Ameliorating effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract on altered glucose metabolism in high fat diet STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaladevi Siddhi Vinayagam; Shanthi Palanivelu; Sachdanandam Panchanadham

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the protective effect of the drug Semecarpus anacardium (S. anacardium) on altered glucose metabolism in diabetic rats. Methods: Type 2 diabetes mellitus was induced by feeding rats with high fat diet followed by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (35 mg/kg b.w.). Seven days after STZ induction, diabetic rats received nut milk extract ofS. anacardium Linn. nut milk extract orally at a dosage of 200 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks. The effect of nut milk extract of S. anacardium on blood glucose, plasma insulin, glucose metabolising enzymes and GSK were studied. Results: Treatment with SA extract showed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels and increase in plasma insulin levels and also increase in HOMA - β and decrease in HOMA -IR. The drug significantly increased the activity of glycolytic enzymes and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and increased the glycogen content in liver of diabetic rats while reducing the activities of gluconeogenic enzymes. The drug also effectively ameliorated the alterations in GSK-3 mRNA expression. Conclusions: Overall, the present study demonstrates the possible mechanism of glucose regulation of S. anacardium suggestive of its therapeutic potential for the management of diabetes mellitus.

  17. Growth and ion accumulation in dwarf cashew plants at different times of salinity exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdineia Soares Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the influence of salt stress exposition on growth and ion accumulation in dwarf cashew plants. For this purpose, cashew nuts (CCP 06 clone were sown in plastic trays containing vermiculite moistened with nutrient solution containing NaCl with electrical conductivities ranging from 0.0 to 18.0 dS m-1. Plants were harvested after 30 and 60 days under salt stress. It was determined the shoot dry masses (SDM and root (RDM, the SDM/RDM ratio, Na+, K+, Cl- and NO3 - contents and the Na+ and Cl- fluxes for whole plant in the period between two times of exposure to salt stress. The cashew growth was affected by salinity and by the exposure time to this stress, and the plants subjected to 60 days of stress were the most affected by NaCl. The Na+ and Cl- contents increased in all plant tissues, while the NO3 - content was reduced and K+ content has not changed by salinity. The Na+ and Cl-fluxes increased with salinity; however Cl- seemed to be more harmful to plants, since this ion has been absorbed in a higher ratio than Na+. The growth reduction in dwarf cashew is intensified when exposure to salt stress is longer and it is more associated with uptake and excessive accumulation of Cl- than Na+.

  18. Decreased immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to cashew allergens following sodium sulfite treatment and heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashew nut and other nut allergies can result in serious and sometimes life threatening reactions. Linear and conformational epitopes within food allergens are important for immunoglobulin E binding. Methods that disrupt allergen structure can reduce immunoglobulin E binding and lessen the likelih...

  19. Induction of glutathione S-Transferase in Helicoverpa zea fed cashew flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. zea and other insects have evolved strategies to counteract the plant protective proteins and defensive compounds they may encounter during feeding. We sought to take advantage of this phenomenon by identifying proteins upregulated in H. zea in response to the inclusion of cashew nut flour in th...

  20. Egg quality and yolk lipid composition of laying hens fed diets containing cashew nut meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fontoura Vidal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the addition of cashew nuts meal (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% to laying hen diets on egg quality and yolk composition. The variables studied were: egg weight, specific gravity, Haugh Units, percentages of shell, albumen, and yolk, moisture, total solids, total lipids, fatty acids profile, and yolk cholesterol. The addition of up to 25% of cashew nuts meal to hen diets did not affect egg quality and freshness, moisture and total solids content. However, an increase in total lipid content and a decrease in yolk pigmentation was observed. Oleic acid level increased in the yolk, whereas palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid levels decreased. The addition of cashew nuts meal increased the monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio in the yolk and reduced the cholesterol content. Therefore, the use of cashew nuts meal in laying hen diets favorably modifies the fatty acid composition of egg yolk and contributes to a better acceptance of this food by consumers since it also reduces yolk cholesterol levels.

  1. Characterization of the effects of proteolysis and reduction on cashew allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance to digestive proteases is a common characteristic of food allergens. Among nut proteins, 2S albumins are refractory to digestion, and are potent food allergens. Allergic reactions to cashew have been described as more frequently severe than peanut reactions. The purpose of this study i...

  2. Treatment with oleic acid reduces IgE binding to peanut and cashew allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleic acid (OA) is known to bind and change the bioactivities of proteins, such as a-lactalbumin and ß-lactoglobulin in vitro. The objective of this study was to determine if OA binds to allergens from a peanut extract or cashew allergen and changes their allergenic properties. Peanut extract or c...

  3. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of South African Cashew Apple Juice as a Biofuel Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanie Devi Deenanath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cashew apple juice (CAJ is one of the feedstocks used for biofuel production and ethanol yield depends on the physical and chemical properties of the extracted juice. As far as can be ascertained, information on physical and chemical properties of South African cashew apple juice is limited in open literature. Therefore, this study provides information on the physical and chemical properties of the South African cashew apple juice. Physicochemical characteristics of the juice, such as specific gravity, pH, sugars, condensed tannins, Vitamin C, minerals, and total protein, were measured from a mixed variety of cashew apples. Analytical results showed the CAJ possesses specific gravity and pH of 1.050 and 4.52, respectively. The highest sugars were glucose (40.56 gL−1 and fructose (57.06 gL−1. Other chemical compositions of the juice were condensed tannin (55.34 mgL−1, Vitamin C (112 mg/100 mL, and total protein (1.78 gL−1. The minerals content was as follows: zinc (1.39 ppm, copper (2.18 ppm, magnesium (4.32 ppm, iron (1.32 ppm, sodium (5.44 ppm, and manganese (1.24 ppm. With these findings, South African CAJ is a suitable biomass feedstock for ethanol production.

  4. Life Cycle Cost of Solar Biomass Hybrid Dryer Systems for Cashew Drying of Nuts in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanushkodi, Saravanan; Wilson, Vincent H.; Sudhakar, Kumarasamy

    2015-12-01

    Cashew nut farming in India is mostly carried out in small and marginal holdings. Energy consumption in the small scale cashew nut processing industry is very high and is mainly due to the high energy consumption of the drying process. The drying operation provides a lot of scope for energy saving and substitutions of other renewable energy sources. Renewable energy-based drying systems with loading capacity of 40 kg were proposed for application in small scale cashew nut processing industries. The main objective of this work is to perform economic feasibility of substituting solar, biomass and hybrid dryer in place of conventional steam drying for cashew drying. Four economic indicators were used to assess the feasibility of three renewable based drying technologies. The payback time was 1.58 yr. for solar, 1.32 for biomass and 1.99 for the hybrid drying system, whereas as the cost-benefit estimates were 5.23 for solar, 4.15 for biomass and 3.32 for the hybrid system. It was found that it is of paramount importance to develop solar biomass hybrid dryer for small scale processing industries.

  5. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of South African Cashew Apple Juice as a Biofuel Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deenanath, Evanie Devi; Daramola, Michael; Falcon, Rosemary; Iyuke, Sunny

    2015-01-01

    Cashew apple juice (CAJ) is one of the feedstocks used for biofuel production and ethanol yield depends on the physical and chemical properties of the extracted juice. As far as can be ascertained, information on physical and chemical properties of South African cashew apple juice is limited in open literature. Therefore, this study provides information on the physical and chemical properties of the South African cashew apple juice. Physicochemical characteristics of the juice, such as specific gravity, pH, sugars, condensed tannins, Vitamin C, minerals, and total protein, were measured from a mixed variety of cashew apples. Analytical results showed the CAJ possesses specific gravity and pH of 1.050 and 4.52, respectively. The highest sugars were glucose (40.56 gL−1) and fructose (57.06 gL−1). Other chemical compositions of the juice were condensed tannin (55.34 mgL−1), Vitamin C (112 mg/100 mL), and total protein (1.78 gL−1). The minerals content was as follows: zinc (1.39 ppm), copper (2.18 ppm), magnesium (4.32 ppm), iron (1.32 ppm), sodium (5.44 ppm), and manganese (1.24 ppm). With these findings, South African CAJ is a suitable biomass feedstock for ethanol production. PMID:26345160

  6. The use of cashew apple residue as source of fiber in low fat hamburgers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Xerez Pinho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to produce hamburgers with partial substitution of the meat with cashew apple residue powder. The powder residue was obtained after the extraction of the pulp and dehydration in stove with air circulation. Three formulations of hamburgers with increasing concentration of the residue as well as a control sample were prepared. The formulated products with cashew apple residue powder presented lower humidity and proteins and 35% lipid reduction. However, there was an increase in carbohydrates and pH with the addition of the powder from the cashew apple residue. Some formulations showed an improvement of the final product yield. The total dietary fiber value was between 0 and 7.66%, with higher content of insoluble dietary fiber. The addition of up to 10.70% of the residue did not cause significant sensory changes in the flavor of the samples. The production of hamburgers with a partial substitution of cow meat with the cashew apple residue could be a feasible option since it resulted in product with high nutritional quality that is rich or have high dietary fiber content and is low in fat.

  7. Effects on performance of growing pigs fed diets containing different levels of dried cashew pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddoye, E O K; Takrama, J F; Anchirina, V; Agyente-Badu, K

    2009-10-01

    The purpose was to investigate the use of dried cashew pulp (DrCP), the sun-dried residue after juice has been extracted from the cashew apple, as a feed ingredient in growing pig diets. The growth rate, feed intake, feed to gain ratio and cost of gain of grower pigs fed diets containing 0 (0DrCP), 100 (100DrCP), 150 (150DrCP) or 200 (200DrCP) g kg(-1) of dried cashew pulp was investigated in a feeding trial set up as a Completely randomized design with 4 treatments replicated 3 times and lasting 112 days. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) among treatments in the parameters measured. It was concluded that dried cashew pulp could be used in growing pig diets up to a level of 200 g kg(-1) without any deleterious effects. Future work will look at higher levels of DrCP inclusion in the diets of growing pigs.

  8. In vitro digestion of soluble cashew proteins and characterization of surviving IgE-reactive peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stability of food allergens to digestion varies; and the ability of food proteins to cause an allergic reaction may be affected by the susceptibility of the allergen to digestion by proteases, including pepsin and trypsin. Recent studies have demonstrated that cashew nut allergens are often a ca...

  9. Drip irrigation with treated wastewater from cashew nut industry under service pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketson Bruno da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural use of wastewater generated in the processing of cashew nuts enables the rationalization of water use, as well as the minimization of pollution and environmental degradation. The study aimed to analyze the effect of service pressures in the distribution uniformity of drip irrigation units applying treated wastewater from cashew nut industry. The experiment was conducted in split-split plots scheme having the service pressures (70, 140, 210 and 280 kPa on parcels, the emitters models (G1, G2 and G3 on subplots and the evaluation periods (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 h of operation of the irrigation units on subsubplots. The treatments were distributed in a completely randomized design with three replications. The coefficient of uniformity of distribution of irrigation units, as well as the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the effluent were determined every 20 hours of operation the irrigation units to totalize 160 h. The combination of dripper G3 and service pressure of 140 kPa provided excellent levels of distribution uniformity of effluent on irrigation units operating with treated wastewater of cashew nut industry. For application of treated wastewater from cashew nut it is not recommended the use of drippers with low flow rate (? 1.6 L h-1 and labyrinth of greater length (? 58 mm.

  10. Production of extruded barley, cassava, corn and quinoa enriched with whey proteins and cashew pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well-formulated snacks can play a positive role in enhancing health by providing essential nutrients, such as increased protein and fiber, that mitigate metabolic syndrome associated with obesity. Adding whey protein concentrate (WPC80) and cashew pulp (CP) to corn meal, a major ingredient in extru...

  11. Life Cycle Cost of Solar Biomass Hybrid Dryer Systems for Cashew Drying of Nuts in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanushkodi Saravanan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cashew nut farming in India is mostly carried out in small and marginal holdings. Energy consumption in the small scale cashew nut processing industry is very high and is mainly due to the high energy consumption of the drying process. The drying operation provides a lot of scope for energy saving and substitutions of other renewable energy sources. Renewable energy-based drying systems with loading capacity of 40 kg were proposed for application in small scale cashew nut processing industries. The main objective of this work is to perform economic feasibility of substituting solar, biomass and hybrid dryer in place of conventional steam drying for cashew drying. Four economic indicators were used to assess the feasibility of three renewable based drying technologies. The payback time was 1.58 yr. for solar, 1.32 for biomass and 1.99 for the hybrid drying system, whereas as the cost-benefit estimates were 5.23 for solar, 4.15 for biomass and 3.32 for the hybrid system. It was found that it is of paramount importance to develop solar biomass hybrid dryer for small scale processing industries.

  12. SMB chromatography applied to the separation/purification of fructose from cashew apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C.S. Azevedo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The simulated moving-bed (SMB technology has been successfully used in separations in petrochemical, food and fine chemical industries. This work is intended to show a potencial economic alternative for the industrial processing of the cashew apple juice. The cashew tree is a native tropical plant abundant in Northeastern Brazil, whose commercial value relies mainly on the processing of its nut. The penduncle of the fruit is called the cashew apple. Despite its high nutrition value, around 90% of the crop spoils on the soil. Simulation and experimental results are presented for SMB separation of fructose from glucose, both present (~40 kg/m³ in the aqueous phase of comercial cashew apple juice. Kinetic and equilibrium data for fructose and glucose on packed columns using cation-exchange resins are reported. Experimental results for SMB operation indicate close to 90% purity in each product (fructose-rich extract and glucose-rich raffinate. Simulated unit performance and internal profiles agree well with experimental values. To increase the added-value and versatility of the products, either a step of isomerization of the raffinate or diverse SMB fluid-solid flowrate ratios may be applied. By this way, a wide range of products may be obtained, from nearly pure fructose to 42%, 55% and 90% solutions, which are the standard high fructose syrup concentrations. If solids content is conveniently raised to the usual HFCS (high fructose corn syrup comercial standards, these products may be used as food additives, thus confirming a potentially attractive use of cashew apple juice.

  13. Chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels of dehydrated cashew bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danillo Glaydson Farias Guerra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels dried cashew bagasse (DCB. Our experiment used a randomized design replicated four times, each replicate consisting of the following five treatments: 100% elephant grass; 95% elephant grass + 5% DCB; 90% elephant grass + 10% DCB; 85% elephant grass + 15% DCB; and 80% elephant grass + 20% DCB. The elephant grass was cut manually to a residual height of 5 cm at 80 days of age, and cashew bagasse was obtained from the processing of cashew stalks used in fruit pulp manufacturing in Mossoró/RN. Plastic buckets were used as experimental silos, and 90 days after ensiling the experimental silos were opened and the contents analyzed. The addition of dried cashew bagasse to silage linearly increased the levels of dried matter and crude protein by 0.59% and 0.13%, respectively, for each 1% addition (P < 0.05. The neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent content of the silages was reduced by 0.22% and 0.09%, respectively, for each 1% addition of the bagasse. The total carbohydrate content was not influenced by the bagasse addition (P > 0.05, and averaged 82.29%. The levels of non-fiber carbohydrate showed linear growth (P < 0.05 as the dehydrated cashew bagasse was added, and pH and ammoniacal nitrogen levels were reduced. The addition of the dehydrated bagasse to elephant grass silage improves its chemical composition, and it can be effectively added up to the level of 20%.

  14. Comparative evaluation of methods for the detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanones as indicators for irradiation treatment of cashew nuts and nutmeg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidbach, Andreas; Ulberth, Franz

    2016-06-15

    Irradiation of food products and ingredients must be indicated by proper labeling. This study evaluated the appropriateness of the European Standard EN 1785:2003 for the detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanones, which are radiolysis products of fatty acids, in cashew nuts and nutmeg and confirmed its suitability to detect irradiation of cashew nut samples at average absorbed doses of 1 kGy and above. An alternative method was developed, which is based on matrix solid phase dispersion and subsequent separation and detection of oxime derivatives of 2-alkylcyclobutanones by high performance-high resolution mass spectrometry. It is more rapid, less resource consuming, and more sensitive than EN 1785:2003. This method allowed detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in cashew nuts irradiated at 100 Gray and in nutmeg irradiated at 400 Gray. None of the 26 cashew nut and 14 nutmeg samples purchased in different EU Member States contained traces of 2-alkylcyclobutanones.

  15. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium (Linn.) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md Ashraf; Wahed, Mir Imam Ibne; Khatune, Naznin Ara; Rahman, Bytul Mokaddesur; Barman, Ranjan Kumar; Islam, Md Rafiqul

    2015-04-29

    Diabetes mellitus is a global health problem and constantly increasing day by day. The number of diabetic people in world is expected to rise to 366 million in 2030. The available drugs for diabetes, insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents have one or more side effects and search for new antidiabetic drugs with minimal or no side effects from medicinal plants is a challenging for us. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Semecarpus anacardium (Linn.) (abbreviated as SF). The antidiabetic activity was determined by using alloxan-induced diabetic rats. After 15 days of treatment, serum biochemical parameters such as TC, TG, LDL, HDL, SGOT and SGPT were estimated. The survival rate, body weight, organ weight, liver glycogen and blood parameters (RBC and Hb) were also measured. The antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic and total flavonoid content were determined by using standard methods. The results showed that the survival rate was 100% in rats of Group SA 400. The effect of extract on blood glucose level in Groups SA 100, SA 200 and SA 400 were dose-dependent throughout the treatment period. No significant changes in organ weight to body weight ratio were observed, liver weights significantly improved in Groups SA 200 and SA 400. The bark extract exhibited significant (p < 0.05) anti-diabetic activity with lowering TC, TG, LDL level dose-dependently and protected liver which may be partially explained by attenuation of SGOT and SGPT levels and increases liver glycogen. The percentage of Hb and RBC counts were negatively correlated with the doses of extracts. In DPPH scavenging assay, IC50 values of SA extract and ascorbic acid were found 72.24 μg/ml and 17.81 μg/ml, respectively. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, and tannins that were contribute to biological activity

  16. Goma de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale: Avaliação das modificações químicas e físicas por extrusão termoplástica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelita C. S. Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Países tropicais, como o Brasil, são depositários de uma grande variedade de fontes de polissacarídeos vegetais conhecidos e outros ainda não explorados que possuem grande potencial em aplicações industriais. Alguns estudos reportam a possibilidade de aplicação industrial da goma exsudada do cajueiro em substituição à goma arábica devido à semelhança estrutural e química. Neste estudo propôs-se caracterizar comparativamente algumas propriedades destas duas gomas, antes e após dois tratamentos de extrusão termoplástica. Nos resultados de composição centesimal as amostras de goma de cajueiro in natura e processadas destacaram-se pelo alto teor de fibra solúvel. Por outro lado, apresentaram menor teor de minerais que a goma arábica. Por meio da análise de viscosidade rápida, foi observado que este parâmetro aumentou nas amostras de goma arábica processadas, enquanto nas amostras processadas de goma de cajueiro houve redução. Nos resultados da análise de difração de raios X predominou-se a conformação amorfa das cadeias poliméricas de ambas as amostras. A partir dos parâmetros avaliados, a goma de cajueiro poderia ser indicada como substituta da goma arábica.

  17. Identification and Characterization of Ana o 3 Modifications on Arginine-111 Residue in Heated Cashew Nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Christopher P; Grimm, Casey C; Li, Yichen; Chial, Heidi J; McCaslin, Darrell R; Chung, Si-Yin; Bren-Mattison, Yvette; Wasserman, Richard L

    2017-01-18

    Raw and roasted cashew nut extracts were evaluated for protein modifications by mass spectrometry. Independent modifications on the Arg-111 residue of Ana o 3 were observed in roasted but not raw cashew nuts. The mass changes of 72.0064 or 53.9529 Da are consistent with the formation of carboxyethyl and hydroimidazolone modifications at the Arg-111 residue. These same modifications were observed in Ana o 3 purified from roasted but not raw cashew nuts, albeit at a relatively low occurrence. Circular dichroism indicated that Ana o 3 purified from raw and roasted cashew nuts had similar secondary structure, and dynamic light scattering analysis indicated there was no observable difference in particle size. The stability of Ana o 3 purified from raw and roasted cashew nuts to trypsin was similar in the absence of or following treatment with a reducing agent. Only minor differences in IgE binding to Ana o 3 were observed by ELISA among a cohort of cashew-allergic patient sera.

  18. Evaluation of Toxic, Cytotoxic, Mutagenic, and Antimutagenic Activities of Natural and Technical Cashew Nut Shell Liquids Using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina Bioassays

    OpenAIRE

    Aracelli de Sousa Leite; Alisson Ferreira Dantas; George Laylson da Silva Oliveira; Gomes Júnior, Antonio L.; Sidney Gonçalo de Lima; Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes Citó; Rivelilson M. de Freitas; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de C.; José Arimateia Dantas Lopes

    2015-01-01

    The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems' root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuS...

  19. Comparison between physico-chemical properties of the technical Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) and those natural extracted from solvent and pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues,Francisco H. A.; Francisco C. F. de França; de Souza, José R. R.; Nágila M. P. S. Ricardo; Feitosa,Judith P. A.

    2011-01-01

    Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is a by-product of the cashew kernel industry, applied mainly to produce polymeric derivatives. The technical CNSL (CNSLT) was obtained industrially, extracted by roasting the cashew nut shells at temperatures between 180 and 200 ºC. Two methods were used to produce natural CNSL. For the extraction of CNSLNP, the cashew nut shells were pressed at room temperature. CNSLNS was extracted in hexane at room temperature and recovered at 50 ºC. A comparison was made of...

  20. Apoptotic effect of Semecarpus anacardium nut extract on T47D breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathivadhani, Panneerselvam; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2007-10-01

    There is an increasing interest in identifying potent cancer-preventive and therapeutic agents against breast cancer. A great number of reports have in recent years dealt with anticancer characteristics of Semecarpus anacardium nut extract (SA). The majority of these studies has been targeted on the protective effect rendered to the living system rather than the preventive effect on cancer cells. SA was tested for its inhibitory effect on human breast cancer cells (T47D). Cytotoxicity analyses suggested that these cells had become apoptotic. SA was discovered to induce rapid Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular stores of T47D cell line, and its cytotoxicity against T47D was well correlated with altered mitochondrial transmembrane potential. At the molecular level, these changes are accompanied by decrease in bcl(2) and increase in bax, cytochrome c, caspases and PARP cleavage, and ultimately by internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Taken together, our results provide unprecedented evidence that SA triggers apoptotic signals in T47D cells.

  1. Potential antidiabetic effect of the Semecarpus anacardium in a type 2 diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vinayagam, Kaladevi Siddhi; Renny, Chris Maria; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachdanandam

    2013-02-01

    Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract (SA) was evaluated for its antidiabetic role in type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats by feeding high-fat diet for 2 weeks followed by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin 35 mg/kg body weight. Diabetic rats were treated with SA orally at a dosage of 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 30 days. Metformin (500 mg/kg body weight, orally) was used as a reference drug. SA significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the blood glucose levels and decreased the levels of HbA1c and the glucose intolerance. SA treatment significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the increase in lipid profile. The levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine were restored to near normal levels when compared with control diabetic rats. The histopathological abnormalities were also found to be normalized after treatment with SA nut milk extract. The potential antihyperglycemic action of SA is plausibly due to its underlying antioxidant role.

  2. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanchezhian, R; Joseph C, Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

    2012-04-01

    Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application.

  3. Immunomodulatory activity of Semecarpus anacardium extract in mononuclear cells of normal individuals and rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Divya; Aggarwal, Amita; Mathias, Amrita; Naik, Sita

    2006-12-06

    Semecarpus anacardium (SA) Linn. (family Anacardiaceae), is a plant well-known for its medicinal value in Ayurveda. The nut extracts of this plant have been traditionally used as antihelminthic, anti-fungal, anti-carcinogenic and in the treatment of nervous debilities and arthritis. In this study we have evaluated crude ethanolic extract of SA nuts for its anti-inflammatory activities in vitro using peripheral blood and synovial fluid mononuclear cells of healthy individuals and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. SA extract inhibited the spontaneous and LPS induced production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-12p40 but had no effect on TNF-alpha and IL-6 production, both at protein and mRNA level. The crude extract also suppressed LPS induced nuclear translocation of transcription factors, NF-kappaB and AP-1; the inhibition of NF-kappaB was through the inhibition of IkappaBalpha phosphorylation. The extract also suppressed LPS activated nitric oxide production in mouse macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. Our results for the first time show that SA extract can inhibit proinflammatory cytokine production and demonstrate its mechanism of action.

  4. Atividade larvicida do óleo de Anacardium humile Saint Hill sobre Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae Larvicidal activity of Anacardium humile Saint Hill oil on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Rejane de Andrade Porto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o potencial do cajuzinho do cerrado (Anacardium humile sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti. Os extratos hexânico, etanólico, aquoso e o óleo das folhas foram obtidos do material vegetal coletado em fragmento de cerrado. Estes foram testados nas concentrações 1%; 0,5%, 0,25%, 0,125%, 0,05% e 0,0125% diluídas em dimetil sulfóxido 1%. A contagem das larvas mortas foi realizada após 24 horas. Utilizou-se o método Probit de análise para obtenção das CL50 e respectivos intervalos de confiança. Conclui-se que apenas o óleo extraído de folhas de Anacardium humile causa 100% de mortalidade em larvas de 4º estádio de Aedes aegypti nas concentrações até 0,125%, o que parece indicar que os ingredientes ativos estão na fase mais apolar. O que indica a potencialidade de uso da planta como larvicida de Aedes aegypti, entretanto, novos testes deverão ser conduzidos utilizando outros órgãos vegetais, assim como outros métodos e solventes utilizados na extração.The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Anacardium humile (monkey nuts against Aedes aegypti larvae. Hexane, ethanol and aqueous extracts and oil from leaves were obtained from plant material collected from the Brazilian savanna. These were tested at concentrations of 1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, 0.125%, 0.05% and 0.0125%, diluted in 1% dimethyl sulfoxide. The dead larvae were counted 24 hours later. The Probit analysis method was used to obtain the LC50 and the respective confidence intervals. The conclusion was that only the oil extracted from Anacardium humile leaves caused 100% mortality among fourth-instar Aedes aegypti larvae, using concentrations of up to 0.125%. This seems to indicate that the active ingredients are present in the most apolar phase. This indicates that this plant has potential use as a larvicide against Aedes aegypti. However, new tests should be carried out using other plant organs, as well as using other methods

  5. Semecarpus anacardium nut extract promotes the antioxidant defence system and inhibits anaerobic metabolism during development of lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nibha; Vinayak, Manjula

    2009-06-01

    Antioxidants are substances that fight against ROS (reactive oxygen species) and protect the cells from their damaging effects. Production of ROS during cellular metabolism is balanced by their removal by antioxidants. Any condition leading to increased levels of ROS results in oxidative stress, which promotes a large number of human diseases, including cancer. Therefore antioxidants may be regarded as potential anticarcinogens, as they may slow down or prevent development of cancer by reducing oxidative stress. Fruits and vegetables are rich source of antioxidants. Moreover, a number of phytochemicals present in medicinal plants are known to possess antioxidant activity. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of nuts of the medicinal plant Semecarpus anacardium in AKR mouse liver during the development of lymphoma. Antioxidant action was monitored by the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase. The effect of S. anacardium was also studied by observing the activity of LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), an enzyme of anaerobic metabolism. LDH activity serves as a tumour marker. The activities of antioxidant enzymes decreased gradually as lymphoma developed in mouse. However, LDH activity increased progressively. Administration of the aqueous extract of S. anacardium to lymphoma-transplanted mouse led to an increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, whereas LDH activity decreased significantly, indicating a decrease in carcinogenesis. The aqueous extract was found to be more effective than doxorubicin, a classical anticarcinogenic drug, with respect to its action on antioxidant enzymes and LDH in the liver of mice with developing lymphomas.

  6. ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF ANACARDIUM HUMILE MART. IN THE GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF LACTUCA SATIVA L. AND RAPHANUS SATIVUS L.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando PERIOTTO; Juliano Gualtieri, Sonia Cristina; Lima,Maria Inês Salgueiro

    2012-01-01

    AbstractIn this research it was evaluated the allelopathic potential of aqueous extracts from Anacardium humile stems and leaves in seed germination and seedling growth of radish and lettuce. In the germination tests the aqueous extracts were used at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16% (w/v) concentration. Four replicates of thirty seeds of lettuce and radish were distributed in Petri dishes covered with filter paper moistened with 5 mL different extracts, kept at 27 oC and light absence. The counting of ger...

  7. La France, l’Europe occidentale et la Palestine, 1799-1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Trimbur

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Organisé par le Centre de recherche français de Jérusalem, le colloque « La France, l’Europe occidentale et la Palestine, 1799-1917 » était la première concrétisation du projet Gallia Palestina. Cette rencontre a prouvé qu’au-delà de points en apparence connus, les champs d’analyses inexplorés restent vastes. Une telle constatation a été rendue possible par les interventions d’un grand nombre de participants, intervenants et public, venus de France, d’Israël ou des territoires palestiniens. U...

  8. Sexualités occidentales, xviiie-xxie siècles

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, Elvire

    2015-01-01

    Jean-Louis Guereña, professeur émérite de civilisation espagnole à l’université François Rabelais de Tours et auteur récemment de l’ouvrage Les Espagnols et le sexe, xixe-xxe siècles (PUR, 2013), a réuni dans ce gros volume collectif, Sexualités occidentales, xviiie-xxie siècles, vingt-deux contributions pluridisciplinaires et pluriculturelles, qui interrogent le thème comme objet d’histoire à partir des discours, des pratiques et des représentations, et comme grille d’analyse des cultures et...

  9. Phenols from cashew nut shell oil as a feedstock for making resins and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbiersky, J. [UCP Chemicals, Vienna (Austria); Polaczek, J. [Ola International Ltd, Warszawa (Poland); Ramamoorty, Rajaraman [UCP Chemicals India Ltd, Chennai (India); Shishlov, O. [Uralchimplast, Nizhniy Tagil (Russian Federation)

    2009-03-15

    Phenols are generally important for the manufacturing of polymers, resins, drugs, cosmetics, herbicides and more. For industrial applications in Western Europe synthetic phenols and phenols from coal are normally used. But also phenols from renewable raw materials like cashew nuts are available in high tonnages (CNSL 400.000 t/a) and in a stable quality: The phenolic Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) has a high potential in chemical reactions resulting in products with interesting properties. Main application of CNSL is the production of polymers and resins but there are also other possibilities for use like pharmaceuticals, biocides, antioxidants and surfactants. The article gives an updated short overview regarding production, classification, chemistry, toxicology and the use of CNSL. (orig.)

  10. Nutritional evaluation of almond cashew nut by-products in diets for slow-growing broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. V. Fernandes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the apparent digestibility and energy value of almond cashew nut by-products for slow-growing broiler chickens. Seventy-six chickens (males and females were allocated in a completely randomized design to four treatments: a control diet and the same diet in which the conventional ingredients were replaced with 30% (kg/kg almond cashew nut film, almond cashew nut meal or almond cashew nut mass. The animals were housed in individual cages adapted for excreta collection. The apparent digestibility coefficients of film, full meal and almond mass were, respectively, 81.3, 87.3 and 86.2% for dry matter; 32.1, 71.2 and 56.7% for crude protein (CP; 82.7, 92.6 and 92.8% for ether extract; 10.9, 29.9 and 34.7% for neutral detergent fiber; 7.7, 17.9 and 19.6% for acid detergent fiber; 41.9, 57.2 and 66.7% for coefficient of gross energy metabolism (CGEM; 1,189, 2,648 and 3,719 kcal/kg for apparent metabolizable energy (AME; 8.1, 19.9 and 12.9% for digestible protein, and 3.9, 15.2 and 6.3% for mineral matter (MM. The CP and MM apparent digestibility coefficients of full meal were higher than those of film and almond cashew nut mass, while the latter exhibited higher apparent digestibility of fiber, CGEM and AME compared to the other by-products. The inclusion of almond cashew nut by-products in diets for slow-growing broiler chickens results in lower nutrient digestibility, except for ether extract, neutral detergent fiber and AME, in diets containing 30% almond cashew nut mass.

  11. Antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and phenolic content in peel from three tropical fruits from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Huchin, Víctor M; Moo-Huchin, Mariela I; Estrada-León, Raciel J; Cuevas-Glory, Luis; Estrada-Mota, Iván A; Ortiz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Betancur-Ancona, David; Sauri-Duch, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and content of individual phenolic compounds of freeze-dried peel from three tropical fruits grown in Yucatan, México: purple star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito L.), yellow cashew and red cashew (Anacardium occidentale). The freeze-dried peels were good source of antioxidant compounds. ABTS and DPPH values in the peel from each fruit were 3050.95-3322.31 μM Trolox/100g dry weight (DW) or 890.19-970.01 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, and 1579.04-1680.90 μM Trolox/100 g DW or 340.18-362.18 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, respectively. Six phenolic compounds were identified in the peel from the tropical fruits studied: ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, gallic, ellagic and myricetin. This study demonstrated that freeze-dried peels from purple star apple, yellow cashew and red cashew, could serve as potential sources of antioxidants for use in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Microencapsulation the natural dye annatto: an analysis of the efficiency of cashew gum as material wall.

    OpenAIRE

    Luana Guabiraba Mendes

    2012-01-01

    In practice, some natural dyes, such as bixin present technological difficulties of use, hindering their application in the food industry. Microencapsulation can improve this situation by increasing their stability and making their incorporation in food systems possible without losing their properties. The objective of this research was to microencapsulate the natural dye annatto, using cashew gum as wall material, applying the freeze-drying and spray drying processes, to characterize the mic...

  13. DESIGN AND THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF THE SOLAR BIOMASS HYBRID DRYER FOR CASHEW DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Dhanuskodi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying of Cashew nut to remove testa is one of the most energy-intensive processes of cashew nut process industry. For this reason a hybrid dryer consisting of a solar flat plate collector, a biomass heater and a drying chamber is designed and fabricated. 40 kg of Cashew nut with initial moisture of 9 % is used in the experiment. The performance test of the dryer is carried out in two modes of operation: hybrid-forced convection and hybrid-natural convection. Drying time and drying efficiency during these two modes of operation are estimated and compared with the sun drying. The system is capable of attaining drying temperature between 50º and 70ºC. In the hybrid forced drying, the required moisture content of 3% is achieved within 7 hours and the average system efficiency is estimated as 5.08%. In the hybrid natural drying, the required moisture content is obtained in 9 hours and the average system efficiency is 3.17%. The fuel consumption during the drying process is 0.5 kg/hr and 0.75 kg/hr for forced mode and natural mode, respectively. The drying process in the hybrid forced mode of operation is twice faster than the sun drying. The dryer can be operated in any climatic conditions: as a solar dryer on normal sunny days, as a biomass dryer at night time and as a hybrid dryer on cloudy days. Based on the experimental study, it is concluded that the developed hybrid dryer is suitable for small scale cashew nut farmers in rural areas of developing countries.

  14. Cashew gum and inulin: New alternative for ginger essential oil microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Regiane Victória de Barros; Botrel, Diego Alvarenga; Silva, Eric Keven; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Oliveira, Cassiano Rodrigues de; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Feitosa, Judith Pessoa de Andrade; de Paula, Regina Célia Monteiro

    2016-11-20

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of partial replacement of cashew gum by inulin used as wall materials, on the characteristics of ginger essential oil microencapsulated by spray drying with ultrasound assisted emulsions. The characterization of particles was evaluated as encapsulation efficiency and particle size. In addition, the properties of the microcapsules were studied through FTIR analysis, adsorption isotherms, thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the solubility of the treatments was affected by the composition of the wall material and reached higher values (89.80%) when higher inulin concentrations were applied. The encapsulation efficiency (15.8%) was lower at the highest inulin concentration. The particles presented amorphous characteristics and treatment with cashew gum as encapsulant exhibited the highest water absorption at high water activity. The cashew gum and inulin matrix (3:1(w/w) ratio) showed the best characteristics regarding the encapsulation efficiency and morphology, showing no cracks in the structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis and utilization of catalytically cracked cashew nut shell liquid in a diesel engine

    KAUST Repository

    Vedharaj, S.

    2015-09-30

    In this study, CNSL (Cashew nut shell liquid), an economically viable feedstock among the other contemporary resources, has been considered as an appropriate source of alternate fuel. Herein, CNSL was extracted from cashew nut outer shell, a waste product, through a unique approach of steam treatment process followed by mechanical crushing technique. In contrast to the past studies that have attempted to use unprocessed CNSL directly as substitute for diesel, this study has resorted to use processed CNSL by cracking it using zeolite catalyst. Thus, both the extraction of CNSL from cashew nut outer shell and processing of it through catalytic cracking process to help synthesize CC-CNSL (catalytically cracked CNSL) are different, which underscores the significance of the current work. In wake of adopting such distinct methodologies with fuel characterization, the properties of CC-CNSL such as viscosity and calorific value were figured out to be improved. Subsequently, CC-CNSL20 (20% CC-CNSL and 80% diesel) was tested at different fuel injection pressure such as 200 bar, 235 bar, 270 bar and 300 bar so as to optimize its use in a single cylinder diesel engine. From the engine experimental study, CC-CNSL20 was found to evince better engine performance than diesel and the composite emissions of CO (carbon monoxide), HC (hydrocarbon), NOX (oxides of nitrogen) and smoke, computed based on ISO 8178 D2 standard test cycle, were found to be better than diesel and incompliance with the legislative norms for genset.

  16. Comparison of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNS Resin with Polyester Resin in Composite Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Ugoamadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resins can compete effectively with the synthetic ones in composite development. In this research, cashew nuts were picked and processed for the extraction of the resin content. The resin (natural resin so obtained was mixed with cobalt amine (accelerator, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (catalyst to develop two sets of composite specimens – specimens without fibres and specimens reinforced with glass fibres. This method of sample specimen development was repeated with polyester (synthetic resin. Compressive and tensile strength tests conducted proved that composites developed with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL resin were comparable to those developed with polyester resin. In the results, CNSL has an ultimate compressive strength of 55MPa compared to that of polyester resin with an ultimate strength of 68MPa. The result of tensile strength proved cashew nut shell liquid resin (with ultimate strength of 44MPa to be better than polyester resin with 39MPa as ultimate tensile strength. This means that natural resins could be a better substitute for the synthetic ones when the required quantities of fibers (reinforcements and fillers are used in the fibre-reinforced plastic composite developments.

  17. The biochemical alterations following administration of Kalpaamruthaa and Semecarpus anacardium in mammary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Krishnamurthy; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2006-05-15

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women of developed and developing countries. Lipids, lipoproteins and lipid-metabolizing enzymes have been associated with the risk of breast cancer. Kalpaamruthaa (KA) is a modified Siddha preparation, which contains Semecarpus anacardium Linn. (SA), Emblica officinalis (EO) and honey. The present study was embarked to study the variations in lipids, lipid-metabolizing enzymes and lipoproteins in cancerous animals and the effect of KA on the lipid metabolism. Breast cancer was induced in rats by administrating 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene orally (25 mg/kg body weight). After 90 days of induction, KA (300 mg/kg body weight) and SA (200 mg/kg body weight) were administered for 14 days, by gastric intubations. The levels of lipids and lipid-metabolizing enzymes were analysed in control and experimental animals. The increased levels of total cholesterol, free cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides and free fatty acids and decreased levels of ester cholesterol in plasma, liver and kidney found in cancer suffering animals were reverted back to near normal levels on treatment with KA and SA. In mammary carcinoma bearing animals, the activities of total lipase, cholesterol ester synthase, and cholesterol ester hydrolase were significantly (p < 0.05) increased whereas lipoprotein lipase and lecithin cholesterol-acyl transferase were decreased. The levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were increased and the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was decreased. These alterations were recouped back upon treatment with KA as well as SA when compared to cancer animals. The effects of KA were found to be more effective than SA. No significant alterations were observed in herbal preparation control animals when compared to control animals.

  18. Work related health problems of female workers engaged in Cashew processing Industries- a cross-sectional study from Kollam district, Kerala, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincy Nelson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: India accounted for one third of the global export market for cashew kernels. Unhealthy sitting posture, working near furnaces and contact with the cashew nut shell liquid may make the workers in the cashew sector vulnerable to many health issues Aims & Objectives: To identify the health related problems among female workers of cashew processing industries in Kollam district, southern Kerala, Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in selected cashew units of Kollam, Kerala. Material & Methods: An interviewer administered and structured questionnaire was used to collect health related issues from 301 female cashew processing workers. Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics using frequencies was done and chi square test was used to detect difference between proportions. Results: Low back pain was the predominant problem (48.8% followed by hand and wrist pain (46.6%, knee pain (37.8% and neck pain (32.5%. Among the workers engaged in roasting, 86.6% had experienced a burn (p < 0.001. Workers engaged in roasting (53.3% and shelling (43.7% had blackish staining of their palms and fingers. Conclusion: Health related issues pertaining to musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, and skin conditions are highly prevalent among women engaged in cashew processing industry. A comprehensive programme to prevent health related issues may be considered to promote health of women engaged in cashew processing industries

  19. An eco-friendly method for short term preservation of skins/hides using Semecarpus anacardium nut extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyappan, Kuttalam; Ponrasu, Thangavel; Sangeethapriya, Vilvanathan; Gayathri, Vinaya Subramani; Suguna, Lonchin

    2013-09-01

    Preservation or curing of hides and skins is performed as the primary step of leather processing. Common salt is employed as the conventional agent for curing purpose. Use of salt enhances the pollution load of tannery effluent which becomes highly contaminated with increased total dissolved solids and chlorides. To overcome this hurdle, researchers are in constant search of alternative preservation techniques which are either totally void of salt or use only a meager amount of salt. In the present study, we had explored the possibility of using Semecarpus anacardium nut extract as an alternative to salt for the curing process by assessing different parameters like hair slip, putrefaction odor, volatile nitrogen content, moisture content, bacterial count, and shrinkage temperature in comparison to the salt curing method. The antibacterial property of the plant extract was also investigated. The results obtained substantiated that the nut extract of S. anacardium effectively could preserve the skins for more than a month, by its antibacterial activity along with the dehydrating property of acetone.

  20. Hypoxia and its downstream targets in DMBA induced mammary carcinoma: protective role of Semecarpus anacardium nut extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathivadhani, Panneerselvam; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2007-04-05

    Tumors are usually exposed to a hypoxic microenvironment due to their irregular growth and abnormal vascular supply. Under hypoxia, gene regulation (selective activation and inactivation of genes) plays an important role in maintenance of tumor. Multiple hypoxic and angiogenic growth factors are expressed for tumor cell survival. In search of novel anticancer drug, Semecarpus anacardium nut extract (SA) was tried against breast cancer. Mammary carcinoma was induced in vivo by 7,12-dimethyl benz(a) anthracene (DMBA) (25mg/kg b.w., p.o.). Tumor development and vascular structures were accelerated by DMBA. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1) was coexpressed with its downstream genes in mammary tissue. Cancer rats were then treated with S. anacardium nut extract (SA) (250mg/kg b.w., p.o.). Delay in the tumor growth was paralleled with a drastic reduction in vascularization by SA treatment. Activities of glycolytic enzymes were normalized with decreased expression of glucose transporter-1 and carbonic anhydrase IX by drug treatment. Inhibition of HIF-1, vascular endothelial growth factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase by SA may in part explain its antiangiogenic action. SA also inhibits endothelial cell proliferation by blocking the overexpressed survival cytokines. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that at least some part of the antitumor activity of SA is due to the suppression of hypoxic and angiogenic factors. The mechanism of this inhibition seems to be through an action of SA on expression of HIF-1 and its downstream targets.

  1. Evaluation of antioxidant effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut extract on the components of immune system in adjuvant arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2005-03-01

    The effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut extract (SA) on the level of Lipid peroxides (LPO) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the lymphocytes and lymphoid organs, namely spleen and thymus of adjuvant induced arthritic rats, were investigated. The results were compared with normal and untreated arthritic rats. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), namely Hydroxy radical, Superoxide radical, and H2O2 were also measured in spleen, thymus, and lymphocytes of control and experimental animals. Biochemical markers of inflammation namely C-reactive protein (CRP) level and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were determined. Anti-arthritic profile was evaluated from the changes in the paw edema and arthritic scores of arthritic and drug-treated rats. A significant increase in the level of LPO, ROS and decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes in arthritic rats were observed. On treatment with the drug, the above changes were reverted back to near normal levels. The increment in CRP level and ESR observed in arthritic animals were found to be significantly restored in SA treated rats. There were no significant changes in sole drug-administered normal rats. Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut extract significantly decreased the paw edema and arthritic score in arthritic rats on administration, whereas in untreated arthritic rats, there was a significant edema in the hind paw.

  2. Contributo di dati di gravità nella valutazione del vulcanismo CAMP in Africa Nord-Occidentale

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbri, Julius

    2015-01-01

    La domanda alla base di questa ricerca è stata se il metodo della gravimetria satellitare possa essere utilizzato per seguire le unità geologiche anche in luoghi difficilmente accessibili. L’obiettivo di questa ricerca è di verificare se le missioni satellitari di nuova generazione permettano di identificare la più grande delle province ignee della Terra (Bertrand et al., 2013), nota come CAMP (Central Atlantic Magmatic Province) in Africa nord-occidentale. Oltre alle motivazioni scientifiche...

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Cashew and Mango Extracts on the Rheological Properties of Water Based Mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotioma M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of the effects of cashew and mango extracts on the rheological properties of water based mud is presented. To control corrosion of drilling materials, corrosion inhibitor is usually used as one of the drilling mud additives. Such inhibitive substance can only be applied when it improves the rheological properties of the drilling mud. In this work, the mud samples were formulated in the absence and presence of various concentrations of cashew and mango extracts. The production method of the mud and the determination of its rheological and allied properties were carried out based on the mud production standards of American Petroleum Institute. From the analysis of the experimental results, cashew and mango leaves extracts are suitable additives for the production of water based mud. Mango leaves extract shows higher improvement of the rheological properties of the drilling mud. Use of plant leaves extracts as drilling mud additives will encourage local content development.

  4. Application of terrestrial photogrammetry for the mass balance calculation on Montasio Occidentale Glacier (Julian Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermattei, Livia; Carturan, Luca; Calligaro, Simone; Blasone, Giacomo; Guarnieri, Alberto; Tarolli, Paolo; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Vettore, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) of glaciated terrain are commonly used to measure changes in geometry and hence infer the mass balance of glaciers. Different tools and methods exist to obtain information about the 3D geometry of terrain. Recent improvements on the quality and performance of digital cameras for close-range photogrammetry, and the development of automatic digital photogrammetric processing makes the 'structure from motion' photogrammetric technique (SfM) competitive for high quality 3D models production, compared to efficient but also expensive and logistically-demanding survey technologies such as airborn and terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The purpose of this work is to test the SfM approach, using a consumer-grade SLR camera and the low-cost computer vision-based software package Agisoft Photoscan (Agisoft LLC), to monitor the mass balance of Montasio Occidentale glacier, a 0.07km2, low-altitude, debris-covered glacier located in the Eastern Italian Alps. The quality of the 3D models produced by the SfM process has been assessed by comparison with digital terrain models obtained through TLS surveys carried out at the same dates. TLS technique has indeed proved to be very effective in determining the volume change of this glacier in the last years. Our results shows that the photogrammetric approach can produce point cloud densities comparable to those derived from TLS measurements. Furthermore, the horizontal and vertical accuracies are also of the same order of magnitude as for TLS (centimetric to decimetric). The effect of different landscape characteristics (e.g. distance from the camera or terrain gradient) and of different substrata (rock, debris, ice, snow and firn) was also evaluated in terms of SfM reconstruction's accuracy vs. TLS. Given the good results obtained on the Montasio Occidentale glacier, it can be concluded that the terrestrial photogrammetry, with the advantageous features of portability, ease of use and above all low costs

  5. An economic comparison of biological and conventional control strategies for insect pests in cashew and mango plantations in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, William Juma; Hella, Joseph; Esbjerg, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare alternative methods of pest control for insect pests in order to determine which methods has the highest efficacy against insect pests and the least detrimental side effects, while maintaining production and profits. The analysis was based on the experimental...... treatment by Tsh. 504 989 and Tsh. 891 297 in cashew and mango plantations. The dominance and MRRanalyses shows that if cashew and mango growers change from conventional agricultural practices to weaver ants, they would earn MRR of 1621% which is above minimum acceptable rate of return (MARR) of 100%. The t...

  6. Oily fraction of Semecarpus anacardium Linn nuts involves protein kinase C activation for its pro-inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Yamini B; Pandey, Nidhi; Tripathi, Deepshikha; Tripathi, Pratibha

    2010-12-01

    The oily fraction (non polar fraction-NPF) of S. anacardium (SA) significantly increased the expression of protein kinase C-delta (PKC-delta) in macrophages in concentration dependent manner, which was similar to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) response. Further, H-7 (1-(5-isoquinolinesulphonyl)-2-methylpiperazine), an inhibitor of PKC significantly inhibited this NPF mediated response in a concentration dependent manner. In the post treatment kinetics, H-7 showed this inhibition only up to 6 min post NPF/PMA addition, but in similar condition, quercetin, a flavone with reported antioxidant property, showed this inhibition only up to 2 min. The results clearly suggest that oily fraction of SA nuts enhances the expression of PKC protein, which may be responsible for its reported pro-inflammatory property.

  7. Semecarpus anacardium L, nuts inhibit lipopolysaccharide induced NO production in rat macrophages along with its hypolipidemic property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Y B; Pandey, R S

    2004-04-01

    Traditionally S. anacardium is used for rejuvenation, rheumatoid arthritis, fever and neurological disorders. In the present study it was observed that a fraction of S. anacacrdium at dose of 1 mg/100 g body wt, significantly reduced serum cholesterol from 378.87 mg/dl in the rats fed with atherogenic diet (AD) to 197.99 mg/dl (45-52%) in the rats fed with AD diet and increased serum HDL-cholesterol (33-37%). The same fraction also inhibited LPS induced NO production in the culture activated rat peritoneal macrophages in the dose dependent manner with IC50 value at 50 ng/ml of the culture medium. The drug in the above doses was completely safe and non-toxic, (no change in the enzymes), to liver and kidney functions.

  8. Ethanol production from cashew apple bagasse: improvement of enzymatic hydrolysis by microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Tigressa Helena Soares; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; de Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Luciana R B

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the potential of microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment in order to improve the rupture of the recalcitrant structures of the cashew able bagasse (CAB), lignocellulosic by-product in Brazil with no commercial value, is obtained from cashew apple process to juice production, was studied. First, biomass composition of CAB was determined, and the percentage of glucan and lignin was 20.54 ± 0.70% and 33.80 ± 1.30%, respectively. CAB content in terms of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, 19.21 ± 0.35%, 12.05 ± 0.37%, and 38.11 ± 0.08%, respectively, was also determined. Results showed that, after enzymatic hydrolysis, alkali concentration exerted influence on glucose formation, after pretreatment with 0.2 and 1.0 mo L(-1) of NaOH (372 ± 12 and 355 ± 37 mg g(glucan)(-1) ) when 2% (w/v) of cashew apple bagasse pretreated by microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment (CAB-M) was used. On the other hand, pretreatment time (15-30 min) and microwave power (600-900 W) exerted no significant effect on hydrolysis. On enzymatic hydrolysis step, improvement on solid percentage (16% w/v) and enzyme load (30 FPU g (CAB-M) (-1) ) increased glucose concentration to 15 g L(-1). The fermentation of the hydrolyzate by Saccharomyces cerevesiae resulted in ethanol concentration and productivity of 5.6 g L(-1) and 1.41 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively.

  9. Performance prediction and validation of equilibrium modeling for gasification of cashew nut shell char

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkata Ramanan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cashew nut shell, a waste product obtained during deshelling of cashew kernels, had in the past been deemed unfit as a fuel for gasification owing to its high occluded oil content. The oil, a source of natural phenol, oozes upon gasification, thereby clogging the gasifier throat, downstream equipment and associated utilities with oil, resulting in ineffective gasification and premature failure of utilities due to its corrosive characteristics. To overcome this drawback, the cashew shells were de-oiled by charring in closed chambers and were subsequently gasified in an autothermal downdraft gasifier. Equilibrium modeling was carried out to predict the producer gas composition under varying performance influencing parameters, viz., equivalence ratio (ER, reaction temperature (RT and moisture content (MC. The results were compared with the experimental output and are presented in this paper. The model is quite satisfactory with the experimental outcome at the ER applicable to gasification systems, i.e., 0.15 to 0.30. The results show that the mole fraction of (i H2, CO and CH4 decreases while (N2 + H2O and CO2 increases with ER, (ii H2 and CO increases while CH4, (N2 + H2O and CO2 decreases with reaction temperature, (iii H2, CH4, CO2 and (N2 + H2O increases while CO decreases with moisture content. However at an equivalence ratio less than 0.15, the model predicts an unrealistic composition and is observed to be non valid below this ER.

  10. Bio-oil from pyrolysis of cashew nut shell - a near fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, P.; Ganesh, A. [Indian Inst. of technology, Mumbai (India). Energy Systems Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Cashew nut shell (CNS) has been studied for the product distribution in a packed bed vacuum pyrolysis unit. The effect of pyrolysis temperatures on the product yields is also studied. The oil-to-liquid ratio in the pyrolysis products was found to remain almost constant in the range between 400{sup o}C and 550{sup o}C. The properties of CNS oil has been found to be amazingly near to that of petroleum fuels with calorific value as high as 40 MJkg{sup -1}, the oil has a low ash content (0.01%) and water content is limited to 3-3.5 wt% of oil. (Author)

  11. Economic appraisal of supercritical fluid extraction of refined cashew nut shell liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajesh N; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu; Ganesh, Anuradda

    2006-08-18

    This manuscript summarises the techno-economic feasibility of refined cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). A simple mass transfer based mathematical model for the yield prediction is presented. The process parameters and extraction time for maximum profit and purity of the product were optimized. The optimum extraction time for maximum profit and purity was found to be 0.9h at 300 bar and 323 K. The influence of the different costs, such as fixed cost, raw material cost, labor cost, utility cost, etc. on profit and cost of production of the extract is also presented.

  12. Cashew nut shell liquid resin used as matrix for compound materials; O LCC (Liquido da castanha do caju) como matriz em materiais compostos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Hamilton Ferreira Gomes de; Nogueira, Ricardo Emilio Ferreira Quevedo [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    1996-12-31

    Cashew nut shell liquid resin a by product of cashew processing industry is a naturally occurring phenol of low cost and are used in Brazil as fuel in the industrial production of cashew nut or as a structural material when associated with coconut fiber or rice shell. A high measured Tg points to noble applications. This paper presents some properties of LCC resin and concludes that it has good perspectives as a composite matrice to work at elevated temperatures. (author) 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Phytocompounds and modulatory effects of Anacardium microcarpum (cajui on antibiotic drugs used in clinical infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa-Filho VM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Valter M Barbosa-Filho,1,2 Emily P Waczuk,2 Nadghia F Leite,3 Irwin RA Menezes,1 José GM da Costa,1 Sírleis R Lacerda,1 Isaac A Adedara,2 Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho,4 Thais Posser,5 Jean P Kamdem2,6 1Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde (CCBS, Universidade Regional do Cariri (URCA, Crato, CE, Brazil; 2Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioquímica Toxicológica, Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil; 3Departamento de Química Biológica, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde (CCBS, 4Laboratory of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Universidade Regional do Cariri (URCA, Crato, CE, Brazil; 5Campus São Gabriel, Universidade Federal do Pampa, São Gabriel, RS, Brazil; 6Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básica da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil Background: The challenge of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of new infections have generated considerable interest in the exploration of natural products from plant origins as combination therapy. In this context, crude ethanolic extract (CEE, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, and methanolic fraction (MF from Anacardium microcarpum were tested alone or in combination with antibiotics (amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: Antibiotic resistance-modifying activity was performed using the microdilution method by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. In addition, phytochemical prospecting analyses of tested samples were carried out. Results: Our results indicated that all the extracts showed low antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant strains (MIC =512 µg/mL. However, addition of CEE, EAF, and MF to the growth medium at the subinhibitory concentration (MIC/8=64 µg/mL significantly modulated

  14. Irreversible competitive inhibitory kinetics of cardol triene on mushroom tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiang-Xing; Hu, Yong-Hua; Yang, Mei-Hua; Liu, Feng-Jiao; Qiu, Ling; Zhou, Xing-Wang; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2010-12-22

    Cardol triene was first purified from cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid and identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. The effects of this compound on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase were studied. The results of the kinetic study showed that cardol triene was a potent irreversible competitive inhibitor and the inactivation was of the complexing type. Two molecules of cardol triene could bind to one molecule of tyrosinase and lead to the complete loss of its catalytic activity. The microscopic rate constants were determined for the reaction of cardol triene with the enzyme. The anti-tyrosinase kinetic research of this study provides a comprehensive understanding of inhibitory mechanisms of resorcinolic lipids and is beneficial for the future design of novel tyrosinase inhibitors.

  15. New potential AChE inhibitor candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, A A N; Martins, J B L; dos Santos, M L; Nascente, L de C; Romeiro, L A S; Areas, T F M A; Vieira, K S T; Gambôa, N F; Castro, N G; Gargano, R

    2009-09-01

    We have theoretically studied new potential candidates of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors designed from cardanol, a non-isoprenoid phenolic lipid of cashew Anacardium occidentale nut-shell liquid. The electronic structure calculations of fifteen molecule derivatives from cardanol were performed using B3LYP level with 6-31G, 6-31G(d), and 6-311+G(2d,p) basis functions. For this study we used the following groups: methyl, acetyl, N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl, N,N-dimethylamine, N,N-diethylamine, piperidine, pyrrolidine, and N,N-methylbenzylamine. Among the proposed compounds we identified that the structures with substitution by N,N-dimethycarbamoyl, N,N-dimethylamine, and pyrrolidine groups were better correlated to rivastigmine, and represent possible AChE inhibitors against Alzheimer disease.

  16. Electronic structure calculations toward new potentially AChE inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, A. A. N.; Martins, J. B. L.; Gargano, R.; dos Santos, M. L.; Romeiro, L. A. S.

    2007-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was the use of natural non-isoprenoid phenolic lipid of cashew nut shell liquid from Anacardium occidentale as lead material for generating new potentially candidates of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Therefore, we studied the electronic structure of 15 molecules derivatives from the cardanol using the following groups: methyl, acetyl, N, N-dimethylcarbamoyl, N, N-dimethylamine, N, N-diethylamine, piperidine, pyrrolidine, and N-benzylamine. The calculations were performed at RHF level using 6-31G, 6-31G(d), 6-31+G(d) and 6-311G(d,p) basis functions. Among the proposed compounds we found that the structures with substitution by acetyl, N, N-dimethylcarbamoyl, N, N-dimethylamine, and pyrrolidine groups were better correlated to rivastigmine indicating possible activity.

  17. Studies on the food and feeding habits of Gaur Bos taurus H. Smith (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Bovidae in two protected areas of Goa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Gad

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits and diet composition of gaur were studied at Bhagvan Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary and Mollem National Park, Goa. Altogether, 32 species of plants belonging to 17 families constitute the gaur diet. The fruits, leaves, young shoots, bark and flowers are consumed, with a preference for leaves (87%. In summer gaur also consumed the bark of cashew (Anacardium occidentale and teak (Tectona grandis trees. Strong association was observed between food preference and season (chi-square=12.94; p=0.001. Peak feeding activity was observed early in the morning (0630 to 0830 hr and in the evening (1730 to 1845 hr. During hot hours of the day (1330 to 1530 hr, animals were found resting in the shade of large trees.

  18. Bio oil from pyrolysis of cashew nut shell-characterisation and related properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Piyali; Sreelatha, T.; Ganesh, Anuradda

    2004-09-01

    Biomass in the form of cashew nut shell represents a renewable and abundant source of energy in India. Cashew nut shell (CNS) was pyrolysed in a fixed bed pyrolysis reactor under vacuum. The CNS on heating upto 175 deg. C produced dark brown oil (oil CO1), which was extracted, and the CNS, after the removal of oil CO1, was pyrolysed under vacuum. The pyrolysis vapours were condensed to get a combustible oil fraction (oil CO2) as well as a noncombustible aqueous fraction. The detailed chemical compositional analysis of both the oils as well as aqueous fractions were carried out by various techniques like liquid column chromatography {sup 1}HNMR, {sup 13}CNMR, FTIR, GC-MS. The CNS oils (CO1 and CO2) were found to be a renewable natural resource of unsaturated phenols with long linear chains and marked absence of anacardic acid. Unlike other bio oils, the CNS oils have been found to be fairly stable. The oils were completely miscible in diesel and were found to have low corrosivity towards Copper and Stainless steel, and thus promise to be a potential fuel.

  19. Bio oil from pyrolysis of cashew nut shell-characterisation and related properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyali Das; Anuradda Ganesh [Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai (India). Energy Systems Engineering; Sreelatha, T. [Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-09-01

    Biomass in the form of cashew nut shell represents a renewable and abundant source of energy in India. Cashew nut shell (CNS) was pyrolysed in a fixed bed pyrolysis reactor under vacuum. The CNS on heating up to 175{sup o}C produced dark brown oil (oil CO1), which was extracted, and the CNS, after the removal of oil CO I, was pyrolysed under vacuum. The pyrolysis vapours were condensed to get a combustible oil fraction (oil CO2) as well as a non-combustible aqueous fraction. The detailed chemical compositional analysis of both the oils as well as aqueous fractions were carried out by various techniques like liquid column chromatography {sup 1}HNMR, {sup 13}CNMR, FTIR, GC-MS. The CNS oils (CO1 and CO2) were found to be a renewable natural resource of unsaturated phenols with long linear chains and marked absence of anacardic acid. Unlike other bio oils, the CNS oils have been found to be fairly stable. The oils were completely miscible in diesel and were found to have low corrosivity towards Copper and Stainless steel, and thus promise to be a potential fuel. (author)

  20. Optimization of the extraction process of polyphenols from cashew apple agro-industrial residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Araújo Milanez de Sena Andrade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the chemical composition of cashew apples agro-industrial residue and optimize the process of polyphenols extraction in this residue. The extraction process conditions were defined using a 24-1 fractional factorial experimental design using acetone and methanol as solvents. The independent variables were: time (30 to 90 min, temperature (30 to 50 °C, solvent concentrations (50% to 90%, agitation speed (100 to 300 rpm; the dependent variables were: total phenolic content and DPPH scavenging capacity. The optimized process was carried out by applying the Central Composite Rotational Design (CCRD considering the results obtained with the 24-1 fractional factorial experimental design. The residue presented bioactive compounds in its composition, with emphasis on the content of total phenolic compounds (1975.64 mg/ 100 g. The extraction process was not affected by methanol; however, acetone affected the amounts of extracted phytochemicals. Extracts with high levels of polyphenols and strong DPPH scavenging capacity (> 80% were obtained using 55% acetone, 30 minutes, 30 °C, and 150 rpm. The results showed that cashew apple residue is a potential natural source of bioactive compounds with strong antioxidant capacity. These compounds could be used partially or totally to replace synthetic antioxidants.

  1. Del arte común de curar a España y a las Indias occidentales

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Restrepo Zea

    2010-01-01

    Desde los primeros viajes colombinos, cronistas, soldados y otros viajeros llevaron hasta Europa noticias sobre las plantas americanas acompañadas de fabulosos relatos. Como en "Las palabras y las cosas", texto que para Foucault nació a partir del libro de Borges, de ese que cita "cierta enciclopedia china", así parecen haber entrado en el discurso de la historia natural, los seres y las cosas de las Indias occidentales desde el primer viaje de Colón. Seres que se volvieron "familiares en el ...

  2. Del arte común de curar a España y a las Indias occidentales

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Restrepo Zea

    1997-01-01

    Desde los primeros viajes colombinos, cronistas, soldados y otros viajeros llevaron hasta Europa noticias sobre las plantas americanas acompañadas de fabulosos relatos. Como en "Las palabras y las cosas", texto que para Foucault nació a partir del libro de Borges, de ese que cita "cierta enciclopedia china", así parecen haber entrado en el discurso de la historia natural, los seres y las cosas de las Indias occidentales desde el primer viaje de Colón. Seres que se volvieron "familiares en el ...

  3. In vitro acaricidal properties of Semecarpus anacardium fruit and Datura stramonium leaf extracts against acaricide susceptible (IVRI-I line) and resistant (IVRI-V line) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Srikant; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Srivastava, Sharad; Kumar, Sachin; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Nagar, Gaurav; Kumar, K G Ajith; Kumar, Rajesh; Rawat, A K S

    2015-08-01

    In an attempt to identify plants having anti-tick properties, the 95% ethanolic and 50% hydro-ethanolic extracts of the fruits of Semecarpus anacardium and leaves of Datura stramonium were evaluated against reference tick lines of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The 95% ethanolic extracts of S. anacardium and D. stramonium caused 50% and 20% mortality, respectively, within 72 h of treatment by adult immersion test. The LC90 value of the ethanolic fruit extract of S. anacardium was determined as 13.5% (CI 12.05-15.12). The extract was also found efficacious (73.3%±3.3%) against the multi-acaricide-resistant IVRI-V line of R.(B.) microplus. The S. anacardium extract significantly affected the reproductive physiology of treated ticks by inhibiting the oviposition and was found safe. The HPTLC fingerprinting profile revealed the presence of pyrocatechol as a marker compound. The acaricidal property of S. anacardium against chemical acaricide-resistant R. (B.) microplus was discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A report on occurrence of aphidophagous predators of Aphis odinae (van der Goot) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in cashew ecosystem from Goa, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasamy Maruthadurai; Narendra Pratap Singh

    2017-01-01

    The aphid, Aphis odinae (Van der Goot) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a polyphagous, occasional insect pest of cashew.  A field survey was conducted from 2014 to 2015 in cashew plantations to record the incidence of aphid and its predators.  Periodical sampling revealed, the occurrence of six species of aphidophagous predators comprising three species of coccinellids, viz., Scymnus castaneus Sicard, Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius) and Pseudaspidimerus flaviceps (Walker) and three species of sy...

  5. HOMO VIATOR – O DIMENSIUNE FUNDAMENTALĂ A SPIRITUALITĂŢII OCCIDENTALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana CIOCOI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Articolul de faţă reflectă modificările fundamentale care s-au produs în mentalitatea occidentală contemporană prin intermediul conceptului de călător (homo viator. Noţiunea de călător este tratată în sens culturologic larg drept  desco­peritor de lumi necunoscute, explorator, navigator sau aventurier al oricărui tip de cunoaştere, care reprezintă trăsătura fundamentală a omului occidental. Prototipul absolut al acestui model cultural îl reprezintă Ulise, eroul din Odiseea lui Homer. Conceptul de „călătorie” oferă, astfel, o viziune transversală asupra evoluţiei literaturii occidentale, al cărei centru iradiant – tensiunea cunoaşterii – a problematizat cele mai variate forme de călătorie şi de călător. Istoria romanului occidental este urmărit dea lungul secolelor şi a epocilor literare pentru a observa cum s-a modificat percepţia călătoriei, iar odată cu ea, şi spiritualitatea occidentală. Viziunea contemporană asupra călătoriei este analizată în baza romanului lui Michel Houellebecq „Harta şi teritoriul” (2010. HOMO VIATOR – A FUNDAMENTAL DIMENSION  OF WESTERN SPIRITUALITYThe article reflects the changes produced in the western contemporary mentality through the concept of the traveler (homo viator. The notion of traveler is approached in wide cultural meaning as a discoverer of unknown worlds, explorer, navigator or adventurer of every type of knowing, that represents the fundamental feature of the occidental man. The absolute prototype of this cultural model is represented by Ulysses, the hero of Homer’s Odyssey. The concept of “travel” offers thus a transverse vision upon the evolution of the occidental literature whose irradiant centre – the tension of knowing – discussed the problems of the most varied forms of travel and traveler. The history of the western novel is followed over centuries and literary epochs in order to observe which way the perception of travel

  6. Tecniche costruttive e forme di potere nella Toscana sud-occidentale (secc. VIII-XIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi, Giovanna

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tells about the analysis of the building techniques of elevations inferred from data obtained in extensive projects of archaeological research executed in western Tuscany's rural field from half '90s of last century to present. The text looks over the changes from wooden building trade related to the first high rise habitants in VIIth-VIIIth century, until the pattern settlements in the second half of VIIIth and XIth centuries, characterized by the first use of masonry and the presence of expert master builders. The more complex organization of the building workshops for castles of the XIth and XIIth centuries in relation with the liege lord's rising politic abusive authority is explained in the following part. The subsequent formation of new suburbs between the XIIIth and the XIV centuries is characterized by a different way of use of building techniques, often founded over pre-existing castles, linked to local council, up to the political and economical influence of Pisa in this territory.Nell’articolo si tratta l’analisi delle tecniche murarie desunta da dati provenienti da ampi progetti di indagine archeologica svolti in ambito rurale nella Toscana occidentale dalla metà degli anni Novanta dello scorso secolo ad oggi. Nel testo si esaminano i cambiamenti dei modi di edificare a partire dall’edilizia in legno dei primi abitati di altura di VII-VIII secolo, sino agli insediamenti più strutturati di seconda metà VIII e IX secolo, caratterizzati da un primo uso della pietra e dalla presenza di maestranze specializzate. In seguito si analizza la più complessa organizzazione del cantiere propria della costruzione dei castelli di XI e XII secolo in rapporto ai poteri politici ed economici delle nascenti signorie territoriali. Un differente uso delle tecniche costruttive caratterizza la successiva formazione di nuovi borghi tra XIII e XIV secolo, spesso impiantati sui preesistenti castelli, legati ai locali organismi comunali

  7. Antioxidant, larvicidal and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of cashew nut shell liquid constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Micheline Soares Costa; Morais, Selene Maia de; Magalhães, Davi Varela; Batista, Williams Pereira; Vieira, Icaro Gusmão Pinto; Craveiro, Afrânio Aragão; de Manezes, Jane Eire Silva Alencar; Carvalho, Ana Fontenelle Urano; de Lima, Glauber Pacelli Gomes

    2011-03-01

    Anacardic acid, cardanol and cardol, the main constituents of natural cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), were obtained by solvent extraction and assayed for antioxidant, larvicidal and antiacetylcholinesterase activity. Their relative percent composition was obtained by HPLC analysis. Antioxidant activity was assessed using the DPPH and ABTS(+) tests, which showed cardanol as the most active, followed by cardol and anacardic acid. The three CNSL components demonstrated good larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti (LC(50)=12.40 for anacardic acid, 10.22 for cardol and 14.45 for cardanol) and exhibited inhibition zones for acetylcholinesterase enzymes in the TLC test similar to carbachol, which was used as standard. Based on the results, these multipotent compounds represent promising agents in the control of Ae. aegypti, the main dengue vector in Brazil.

  8. Novel antioxidants from cashew nut shell liquid applied to gasoline stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.N. Castro Dantas; M.S.G. Dantas; A.A. Dantas Neto; C.V. D' Ornellas; L.R. Queiroz [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Departamentos de Quimica e Engenharia Quimica

    2003-08-01

    This study developed a methodology for converting hydrogenated cardanol, a compound extracted from cashew nut shell liquid into compounds with structural characteristics of antioxidants similar to the ones used in products derived from petroleum. The intended changes were carried out through exhaustive alkylation with tert-butyl chloride. The performance of the products was estimated in terms of oxidative stabilization during storage of cracked naphtha samples collected from the outlet of an industrial unit. The compound 2,4,6-tri-t-butyl-pentadecylphenol (new antioxidant) has presented a better efficiency in the storage assays as compared to the commercial additive used as reference in the refinery at the moment of sampling. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Characterization of a cashew allergen, 11S globulin (Ana o 2), conformational epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, Jason M; Xia, Lixin; Willison, LeAnna N; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2010-05-01

    Both linear and conformational epitopes likely contribute to the allergenicity of tree nut allergens, yet, due largely to technical issues, few conformational epitopes have been characterized. Using the well studied recombinant cashew allergen, Ana o 2, an 11S globulin or legumin, we identified a murine monoclonal antibody which recognizes a conformational epitope and competes with patient IgE Ana o 2-reactive antibodies. This epitope is expressed on the large subunit of Ana o 2, but only when associated with an 11S globulin small subunit. Both Ana o 2 and the homologous soybean Gly m 6 small subunits can foster epitope expression, even when the natural N-terminal to C-terminal subunit order is reversed in chimeric molecules. The epitope, which is also expressed on native Ana o 2, is readily susceptible to destruction by physical and chemical denaturants.

  10. Production of Biosurfactant by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Grown on Cashew Apple Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Maria V. P.; Souza, Maria C. M.; Benedicto, Sofia C. L.; Bezerra, Márcio S.; Macedo, Gorete R.; Saavedra Pinto, Gustavo A.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    In this work, the ability of biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in batch cultivation using cashew apple juice (CAJ) and mineral media was evaluated. P. aeruginosa was cultivated in CAJ, which was supplemented with peptone (5.0 g/L) and nutritive broth. All fermentation assays were performed in Erlenmeyer flasks containing 300 mL, incubated at 30°C and 150 rpm. Cell growth (biomass and cell density), pH, and superficial tension were monitored vs time. Surface tension was reduced by 10.58 and 41% when P. aeruginosa was cultivated in nutrient broth and CAJ supplemented with peptone, respectively. These results indicated that CAJ is an adequate medium for growth and biosurfactant production. Best results of biosurfactant production were obtained when CAJ was supplemented with peptone.

  11. A stimuli-responsive and bioactive film based on blended polyvinyl alcohol and cashew gum polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fábio E F; Batista, Karla A; Di-Medeiros, Maria C B; Silva, Cassio N S; Moreira, Bruna R; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a stimuli-responsive, biodegradable and bioactive film was produced by blending cashew gum polysaccharide (CGP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The film presented malleability and mechanical properties enabling an easy handling. Wetting the film changed the optical property from opacity to levels of transparency higher than 70% and resulted in up to 2-fold increase in its superficial area. Different swelling indexes were obtained varying the pH of solvent, which allows classifying the CGP/PVA film as pH sensitive stimuli-responsive material. The bioactivity was achieved through covalent immobilization of papain, which remained active after storage of CGP/PVA-papain film for 24h in the presence of buffer or in a dry form. These results evidenced that CGP/PVA-papain film is a very promising material for biomedical applications.

  12. Supplementation with Cashew Nut and Cottonseed Meal to Modify Fatty Acid Content in Lamb Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elzania S; Mizubuti, Ivone Y; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Pinto, Andréa P; Ribeiro, Edson L A; Gadelha, Carla R F; Campos, Ana C N; Pereira, Marília F; Carneiro, Maria S S; Arruda, Paulo C; Silva, Luciano P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of cashew nut meal (CNM), whole cottonseed (WCS), and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) on the fatty acid profiles of meat from hair lambs. Thirty-five 60-d-old, male, noncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 13.00 ± 1.80 kg were used in a randomized complete-block design with 7 blocks and 5 treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet (CON) without supplemental lipids and 4 test diets with different lipid supplements that were selected according to the degree of protection from ruminal hydrogenation and their polyunsaturated fatty acid richness. The tests diets included the following modifications: supplementation with WCS, supplementation with CNM, supplementation with both cottonseed and CNM (CSCNM), and supplementation with Ca-LCFA. The C18:1n9c content was highest in the meat of the animals fed the CNM diet (42.00%). The meat from lambs fed the WCS and Ca-LCFA diets had higher C18:0 contents (25.23 and 22.80%, respectively). The C16:1 content was higher in the meat from the animals fed the CNM and CON diets (1.54 and 1.49%, respectively). C18:2c9t11 concentration was higher in the meat from the animals fed the Ca-LCFA and CNM diets. The estimated enzyme activity of Δ9-desaturase C18 was highest in the muscles of the lambs fed the CON, CNM, and CSCNM diets. The use of cashew nuts in the diet resulted in an increase in the C18:2c9t11 content of the lamb meat, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat.

  13. [Determination of aflatoxins in cashew by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ruifeng; Fan, Zhixian; Fu, Meng

    2011-12-01

    A method for the determination of four aflatoxins in cashew using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The sample was extracted with methanol-water (8: 2, v/v) solution, followed by a cleanup procedure with Florisil column. The target compounds were eluted using 5 mL acetone-water-formic acid (96: 3.5:0.5, v/v/v) solution. The eluate was dried under N2, then dissolved in 1 mL methanol. Four aflatoxins were separated in MG C18 column (100 mm x 3.0 mm, 3 microm) adopting a gradient program within 15 min. A triple quadrupole mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization source operated in the positive ion mode was used to detect the aflatoxins. The good correlation coefficients (r2 > 0.997) of the four aflatoxins were obtained within their respective linear ranges. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were between 0.009 microg/kg and 0.04 microg/kg, and the limits of quantification (S/N = 10) were between 0.03 microg/kg and 0.12 microg/kg. The recoveries were in a range of 63.0% -78.5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) varied from 2.8% to 9.1%. The validation results meet the requirements of trace assay. Matrix effects were estimated and the signal suppression/enhancement ranged from 88.8% to 99.4%. The results indicate that the developed method is simple, fast, accurate, and can be applied for the determination of fours aflatoxins in cashew.

  14. Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of Semecarpus anacardium LINN. Nut milk extract in experimental inflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2006-04-01

    Immunomodulatory effects of Semecarpus anacardium LINN. nut milk extract (SA) were investigated in adjuvant induced arthritis by studying the alterations in humoral and cell mediated immune responses and also the anti-inflammatory effects by evaluating the changes in paw edema, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), nitric oxide and myeloperoxidase activities. Pharmacological studies were also conducted with SA and indomethacin on experimental animals for evaluating the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and ulcerogenic activities. The alterations in the humoral and cell mediated immunity were significantly reverted back to near normal levels on treatment with SA. The drug significantly reduced the elevation in the paw edema, TNF-alpha, nitric oxide and myeloperoxidase levels when compared with adjuvant induced arthritic animals, which shows the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug. SA showed strong anti-inflammatory effects in xylene-induced ear edema and formalin-induced inflammation. In analgesic test, the extract elicited a potential activity on both acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as hot plate test showing its central and peripheral mediated action. The drug also elicited antipyretic action in yeast-induced hyperemia in rats. In addition, the extract did not produce any ulceration on gastric mucosa during ulcerogenic test and did not produce any serious adverse effects. All these effects are nearly similar to the activities of indomethacin except the ulceration where indomethacin produced significant ulceration. From this study, the protective immunological and pharmacological role of SA is demonstrated.

  15. Curative effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract against adjuvant arthritis -- with special reference to bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2006-04-15

    Localised bone loss in the form of bone erosions and peri-articular osteopenia constitutes an important criteria for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. In the present study, the effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract (SA) on the metabolism of bone turn over has been studied by analyzing various markers of bone turnover and by histological and radiological analysis of the joints in adjuvant arthritis in rats. Arthritis was induced in rats by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant containing 10mg of heat killed mycobacterium tuberculosis in 1 ml paraffin oil (0.1 ml) into the left hind paw of the rat intradermally. After 14 days of induction, SA (150 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered orally by gastric intubations for 14 days. SA significantly reverted the alterations in the bone turnover observed in arthritic animals by modulating the levels of calcium, phosphorus and the activities of the enzymes names tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. The drug increased the bone weights that were found to be decreased during arthritis. Protective effect of SA was also observed by the decrease in the levels and expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) as well as the histopathological and radiological observations. From all these observations it can be concluded that SA possesses strong anti-arthritic property by regulating bone turnover.

  16. Anticandidal efficacy of denture cleansing tablet, Triphala, Aloe vera, and Cashew leaf on complete dentures of institutionalized elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Pooja J; Hegde, Vijaya; Gomes, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in the number of dependent elderly, there is a need to introduce few natural products for denture cleansing, which are easily and economically available. Hence the aim of this study was to compare the anticandidal efficacy of denture cleansing tablet (sodium bicarbonate and sodium perborate monohydrate), Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica fruits powders in equal proportion), cashew leaf, Aloe vera and water (control) on complete dentures of institutionalized elderly. Study population consisted of 50 institutionalized elderly of Mangalore, Karnataka, with 10 in each group. Swabs were collected from the dentures before and after the use of denture cleansing tablet, Triphala, cashew leaf, Aloe vera, and water (control). Thereafter, the swabs were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and the total candida counts were determined. Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna showed a statistically significant reduction in Candida counts (P Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna were found to be more effective.

  17. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in cashew apple juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, C.; Moreira, C. F. F.; Lavinas, F. C.; Lopes, M. L. M.; Fialho, E.; Valente-Mesquita, V. L.

    2010-12-01

    The cashew apple is native to Brazil, but there is insufficient information regarding the nutritional properties of this fruit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of high pressure processing (HPP) at room temperature (25 °C) on phenolic compound and ascorbic acid contents and antioxidant capacity of cashew apple juice. This study showed that HPP at 250 or 400 MPa for 3, 5 and 7 min did not change pH, acidity, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid or hydrolysable polyphenol contents. However, juice pressurized for 3 and 5 min showed higher soluble polyphenol contents. Antioxidant capacity, measured by the ferric-reducing antioxidant power method, was not altered by HPP, but when treated at 250 MPa for 3 min, it resulted in an increased value when 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl was used. These data demonstrate that HPP can be used in the food industry for the generation of products with higher nutritional quality.

  18. Effects of a high walnut and high cashew nut diet on selected markers of the metabolic syndrome: a controlled feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukuddem-Petersen, Janine; Stonehouse Oosthuizen, Welma; Jerling, Johann C; Hanekom, Susanna M; White, Zelda

    2007-06-01

    We investigated the effects of a high walnut diet and a high unsalted cashew nut diet on selected markers of the metabolic syndrome. In a randomized, parallel, controlled study design, sixty-four subjects having the metabolic syndrome (twenty-nine men, thirty-five women) with a mean age of 45 (sd 10) years and who met the selection criteria were all fed a 3-week run-in control diet. Hereafter, participants were grouped according to gender and age and then randomized into three groups receiving a controlled feeding diet including walnuts, or unsalted cashew nuts or no nuts for 8 weeks. Subjects were required to have lunch at the metabolic ward of the Nutrition Department of the North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus). Both the walnut and the unsalted cashew nut intervention diets had no significant effect on the HDL-cholesterol, TAG, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, serum fructosamine, serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, blood pressure and serum uric acid concentrations when compared to the control diet. Low baseline LDL-cholesterol concentrations in the cashew nut group may have masked a possible nut-related benefit. Plasma glucose concentrations increased significantly (P = 0.04) in the cashew nut group compared to the control group. By contrast, serum fructosamine was unchanged in the cashew nut group while the control group had significantly increased (P = 0.04) concentrations of this short-term marker of glycaemic control. Subjects displayed no improvement in the markers of the metabolic syndrome after following a walnut diet or a cashew nut diet compared to a control diet while maintaining body weight.

  19. Pre-shelling parameters and conditions that influence the whole kernel out-turn of steam-boiled cashew nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde Sunday Ogunsina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the effect of moisture content (MC, nut size distribution and steam exposure time (SET on the whole kernel out turn (WKO of cashew nuts during shelling using a 3 x 5 x 4 factorial experiment. Three nut sizes: small (18–22 mm, medium (23–25 mm and large (26–35 mm; five levels of MC: 8.34%, 11.80%, 12.57%, 15.40%, 16.84% (wet basis and four levels of steam exposure time (SET: 28, 30, 32, and 34 min were considered. Nuts were conditioned with warm water to the desired moisture content of 8.34%,11.80%, 12.57%, 15.40% and 16.84% (wb; and steam-boiled at 700 kPa for 28, 30,32, and 34 min. The pre-treated nuts were shelled using a hand-operated cashew nuts shelling machine. The results showed that the single effect of MC, steam exposure time (SET or nut size distribution is not enough for estimating WKO; it is rather by an interaction of these parameters. The optimum WKO of steam-boiled nuts was 91.74%, 90.94% and 87.98% for large, medium and small sized nuts at MC∗SET combination of 8.34%∗30 min, 11.80%∗32 min and 8.34%∗30 min, respectively. Pre-treatment of cashew nuts by steam boiling was found to improve whole kernel out-turn of the cashew nut. Whole kernel out-turn decreased as MC increased, thereby limiting the need for moisture adjustment when nuts are to be processed by steam boiling.

  20. Quality and in Vivo Assessment of Precooked Weaning Food From Quality Protein Maize, Soy Bean and Cashew Nut Flour Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Ikujenlola, Abiodun Victor

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The problem of infantile mortality caused by imbalance feeding of infant shortly after cessation of breastfeeding is still a serious concern in most developing countries. This study aimed at producing precooked weaning food of high nutrient quality that can alleviate the problem of malnutrition associated with weaning children from quality protein maize, soy bean and cashew nut. METHOD: Three formulations were produced from various mixture of flours produced from QPM, soybean a...

  1. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipidemic effect of Semecarpus anacardium in a high fat diet: STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vinayagam, Kaladevi Siddhi; Moorthy, Balaji T; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanatham, Sachdanandam

    2013-02-01

    Semecarpus anacardium, known as marking nut, has been used in indigenous system of medicine against various ailments. To evaluate the antilipidemic and anti-inflammatory effect of S. anacardium Linn. nut milk extract (SA) in Type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by feeding them with a high fat diet followed by i.p. of 35 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were treated with the drugs, SA (200 mg/kg body weight) and metformin (500 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. Antilipidemic effect of the drug was established by studying the lipoprotein alterations and also the alterations in the lipid profile and lipid metabolizing enzymes in the experimental group of rats. The effect of the drug on the expression of PPAR γ was also studied. To determine the anti-inflammatory effect of the drug, the levels of inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6 and also C-reactive protein were determined. Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract at a dosage of 200 mg/kg orally significantly (p < 0.05) reduced and normalized the alterations in the lipid metabolism in diabetic rats effectively than metformin. SA treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the mRNA expression of PPAR γ, thereby establishing the antilipidemic effect of the drug. The increase in the levels of inflammatory cytokines were significantly (p < 0.05) brought down to near normal levels on treatment with the drug SA. The present study thereby establishes the antilipidemic and anti-inflammatory effect of the drug. Thus, by decreasing the alterations in the lipid metabolism and inflammatory status, the drug can effectively improve the insulin sensitivity in rats and can serve as an excellent drug in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  2. Brachistosternus ninapo una nueva especie (Scorpiones:Bothriuridae de los Andes occidentales en el sur del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Ochoa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe Brachistosternus ninapo, nueva especie de Bothriuridae de los Andes occidentales del sur del Perú (2900 a 4050 m. Esta especie pertenece al subgénero Brachistosternus (Leptosternus Maury. Está relacionada con la especie boliviana Brachistosternus galianoae Ojanguren Affilastro y se diferencia de ella, por la morfología del hemiespermatóforo (forma de la lámina y algunos detalles de la región de lóbulos, el número de setas dorsales laterales del segmento caudal V, la proporción largo/ancho de la pinza del pedipalpo y en el patrón de pigmentación de los tergitos.

  3. Del arte común de curar a España y a las Indias occidentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Restrepo Zea

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Desde los primeros viajes colombinos, cronistas, soldados y otros viajeros llevaron hasta Europa noticias sobre las plantas americanas acompañadas de fabulosos relatos. Como en "Las palabras y las cosas", texto que para Foucault nació a partir del libro de Borges, de ese que cita "cierta enciclopedia china", así parecen haber entrado en el discurso de la historia natural, los seres y las cosas de las Indias occidentales desde el primer viaje de Colón. Seres que se volvieron "familiares en el Viejo Mundo, como a su edad y a su geografía". / incluye fragmento de un antidotario del siglo XVII en Cartagena de Indias. paginas 359-382.

  4. Del arte común de curar a España y a las Indias occidentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Restrepo Zea

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde los primeros viajes colombinos, cronistas, soldados y otros viajeros llevaron hasta Europa noticias sobre las plantas americanas acompañadas de fabulosos relatos. Como en "Las palabras y las cosas", texto que para Foucault nació a partir del libro de Borges, de ese que cita "cierta enciclopedia china", así parecen haber entrado en el discurso de la historia natural, los seres y las cosas de las Indias occidentales desde el primer viaje de Colón. Seres que se volvieron "familiares en el Viejo Mundo, como a su edad y a su geografía". / incluye fragmento de un antidotario del siglo XVII en Cartagena de Indias. paginas 359-382.

  5. Structure and Property of Cashew Nut Shell Flour/PVC Composite%腰果壳粉/PVC复合材料的结构和性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖建平; 岑兰; 陈福林; 周彦豪

    2013-01-01

    通过采用六次甲基四胺对腰果壳粉进行改性,并制备了腰果壳粉/聚氯乙烯(PVC)复合材料.研究改性前后腰果壳粉的用量对复合材料力学性能、耐水性和加工性能的影响,并用扫描电镜(SEM)观察了断面形貌.结果表明:随着不同腰果壳粉用量的增加,复合材料的拉伸强度、冲击强度、弯曲强度呈先上升后下降的趋势,当腰果壳粉用量为5 ~10份时最佳;添加质量分数为5%的六次甲基四胺改性腰果壳粉时,复合材料的物理力学性能、耐水性提高.%The cashew nut shell flour was modified by hexamethylene tetramine( C6H12 N4) , cashew nut shell flour/PVC composite were prepared. The effects of varieties content of cashew nut shell flour on mechanical properties, water proof and proceeding fluidity of cashew nut shell flour/PVC composite were investigated. The morphology structure of cashew nut shell flour/PVC composite was observed by SEM. Results showed that with increasing the amount of cashew nut shell flour or modified cashew nut shell flour,the properties of tensile strength,impact strength,bending strength were increased at first and then decreased,composite with excellent properties was obtained by the content of cashew nut shell flour being 5 ~ 10 phr. When cashew nut shell flour was modified by C6H12N4,whose ratio was 5 % (by mass) , mechanical properties and water proof of composite were increased.

  6. Soil Nutrient Dynamics under Old and Young Cocoa, Coffee and Cashew Plantations at Uhonmora, Edo State, Nigeria

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    Rotimi Rufus Ipinmoroti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess nutrient dynamics of soils under old and young cocoa, coffee and cashew plantations and the leaf nutrient contents of the crops at Uhonmora, Edo State, Nigeria for proper cultural and soil fertility management of the plantations. Soil and crop leaf samples were collected from each plantation using a random sampling technique. The samples were analyzed using standard procedures for sand, silt, clay, pH (H2O, electrical conductivity (EC, total N, available P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, and Effective Cation Exchange Capacity (ECEC. Leaf samples were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na. Data were compared with the corresponding soil and foliar critical nutrient values for each crop. Results indicated that the soils were texturally sandy clay loam and acidic. The soils varied in their nutrient contents, with soil P for the old cocoa, young coffee and cashew plantations far below critical values. The young cashew plot was low in N content but adequate for other plots. However, the soil ECEC increased with the increasing of calcium contents. Leaf N was below critical for all the crops. Leaf K was low for cocoa and coffee plants, leaf Ca was low for the young cashew plants, while leaf Mg was low for the young cocoa and old cashew. The high soil Mg/K ratio of 8.7- 22.3 as against the established value of 2.0 might have resulted in gross nutrient imbalance which must have affected the absorption and utilization of other nutrients. Hence, adequate soil N did not translate the same availability to the crops. The ECEC showed that the soil needs to be improved upon for sustainable productivity. Soil nutrient content variation across the plantations with age of establishment will necessitate the need for consistent routine soil nutrient assessment for proper and balanced soil nutrient supply to the crops, for healthy crop growth and optimum yield. Management practices of soil surface mulching using organic wastes and cover crops under

  7. Cashew nut roasting: Chemical characterization of particulate matter and genotocixity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Galvão, Marcos Felipe de [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil); Melo Cabral, Thiago de; André, Paulo Afonso de [Departamento de Patologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fátima Andrade, Maria de; Miranda, Regina Maura de [Departamento de Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento [Departamento de Patologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Castro Vasconcellos, Pérola de [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina, E-mail: sbatistu@cb.ufrn.br [Departamento de Biologia Celular e Genética, CB – UFRN, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário, Lagoa Nova, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2014-05-01

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) is potentially harmful to health and related to genotoxic events, an increase in the number of hospitalizations and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The present study conducted the first characterization of elemental composition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analysis of PM, as well as the biomonitoring of genotoxic activity associated to artisanal cashew nut roasting, an important economic and social activity worldwide. Methods: The levels of PM{sub 2.5} and black carbon were also measured by gravimetric analysis and light reflectance. The elemental composition was determined using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and PAH analysis was carried out by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Genotoxic activity was measured by the Tradescantia pallida micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN). Other biomarkers of DNA damage, such as nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear fragments, were also quantified. Results: The mean amount of PM{sub 2.5} accumulated in the filters (January 2124.2 µg/m{sup 3}; May 1022.2 µg/m{sup 3}; September 1291.9 µg/m{sup 3}), black carbon (January 363.6 µg/m{sup 3}; May 70 µg/m{sup 3}; September 69.4 µg/m{sup 3}) and concentrations of Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br and Pb were significantly higher than the non-exposed area. Biomass burning tracers K, Cl, and S were the major inorganic compounds found. Benzo[k]fluoranthene, indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, phenanthrene and benzo[b]fluoranthene were the most abundant PAHs. Mean benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent carcinogenic power values showed a significant cancer risk. The Trad-MCN bioassay revealed an increase in micronucleus frequency, 2–7 times higher than the negative control and significantly higher in all the months analyzed, possibly related to the mutagenic PAHs found. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that artisanal cashew nut roasting is a serious occupational problem, with harmful

  8. Estabilidade de pasta de amêndoa de castanha de caju Stability of cashew nut butter

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    Janice Ribeiro Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou avaliar a estabilidade de pasta de castanha de caju obtida pela moagem de amêndoas quebradas com açúcar, sal e lecitina de soja. A influência de diferentes embalagens (potes de vidro e de polipropileno e do uso de antioxidantes (BHA, BHT e tocoferóis na qualidade do produto também foi investigada. Características físico-químicas (atividade de água, índice de acidez, cor e textura instrumentais, microbiológicas (coliformes totais e fecais, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e bolores e leveduras e aceitação sensorial (aparência, aroma, sabor e textura, foram acompanhadas durante 300 dias de armazenamento à temperatura ambiente (28 °C. Foi observado aumento do índice de acidez, redução da maciez e descoloração. No entanto, essas alterações pouco afetaram a aceitação sensorial, que ficou entre "gostei ligeiramente" e "gostei moderadamente", após os 300 dias de armazenamento. As análises microbiológicas demonstraram boa qualidade do produto, estando dentro dos padrões exigidos pela legislação brasileira: contagem de coliformes a 45 °C (fecais menor que 10 NMP.g -1 e ausência de Salmonella spp. em 25 gramas. Os resultados demonstraram que as pastas podem ser armazenadas nas condições e tempo testados, e que não houve influência dos materiais de embalagem utilizados e nem dos antioxidantes na estabilidade do produto.This work involved an evaluation of the stability of cashew nut butter obtained by grinding up broken cashew kernels with sugar, salt and soy lecithin. The influence of different packaging materials (glass and polypropylene containers and antioxidants (BHA, BHT and tocopherols on product quality was also evaluated. Physicochemical (water activity, acidity index, instrumental color and texture and microbiological characteristics (total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., coagulase-positive staphylococci, yeast and mold and

  9. Restoration of energy metabolism in leukemic mice treated by a siddha drug--Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugapriya, Dhanasekaran; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2008-05-09

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal disorder characterized by proliferation of hematopoietic cells that possess the BCR-ABL fusion gene resulting in the production of a 210 kDa chimeric tyrosine kinase protein. CML, when left untreated, progresses to a blast phase during which the disease turns aggressive and shows poor response to known treatment regimens. We have studied a Siddha herbal agent, Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract (SA) for its antileukemic activity and its effect on the changes in energy metabolism in leukemic mice. Leukemia was induced in BALB/c mice by tail vein injection of BCR-ABL(+) 12B1 murine leukemia cell line. This resulted in an aggressive leukemia, similar to CML in blast crisis, myeloid subtype, confirmed by histopathological study and RT-PCR for the p210 mRNA in the peripheral blood, spleen and liver. Leukemia-bearing mice showed a significant increase in lipid peroxides, glycolytic enzymes, a decrease in gluconeogenic enzymes and significant decrease in the activities of TCA cycle and respiratory chain enzymes as compared to control animals. SA treatment was compared with standard drug imatinib mesylate. SA administration to leukemic animals resulted in clearance of the leukemic cells from the bone marrow and internal organs on histopathological examination and this was confirmed by RT-PCR for the p210 mRNA. Treatment with SA significantly reversed the changes seen in the levels of the lipid peroxides, the glycolytic enzymes, the gluconeogenic enzymes and the mitochondrial enzymes. These effects are probably due to the flavonoids, polyphenols and other compounds present in SA which result in total regression of leukemia and correction of the alterations in energy metabolism. Study of animals treated with SA alone did not reveal any adverse effects. On the basis of the observed results, SA can be considered as a readily accessible, promising and novel antileukemic chemotherapeutic agent.

  10. In-vitro activity of saponins of bauhinia purpurea, madhuca longifolia, celastrus paniculatus and semecarpus anacardium on selected oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, K S; Seshagiri, M

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases. Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 μg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 μg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 μg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 μg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 μg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively. The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  11. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea Madhuca Longifolia Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

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    K. S. Jyothi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases.Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method.Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 µg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 µg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 µg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 µg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 µg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  12. Effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut extract on mammary and hepatic expression of xenobiotic enzymes in DMBA-induced mammary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathivadhani, P; Shanthi, P; Sachdanandam, P

    2007-05-01

    Breast cancer is the major cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Environmental risk factors particularly genotoxic chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are likely to account for a much higher mortality. Xenobiotic metabolising enzymes in breast tissue are potentially important determinants in both the susceptibility to the mutagenic effects of chemical carcinogens and in the response of breast tumors to chemotherapy. The well known carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthrazene of PAH family was given (25mg/ml) orally by gastric intubation to induce mammary carcinoma in Sprague-Dawley rats. Increased level of cytochromes (P(450), B(5)), EROD, PROD activities, Phase I biotransformation enzymes (NADPH-cytochrome (P(450)) reductase, NADPH-cytochrome (b(5)) reductase, epoxide hydrolase) and expression of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 in liver and breast tissue microsome were documented in DMBA treated group. Phase II enzyme activities (glutathione-S-transferase, gluthatione peroxidase, gluatathione reductase, UDP-glucuronyl transferease) were decreased markedly in cancerous rats. The nut extract of Semecarpus anacardium was administered orally (200mg/kg body wt/day) to the mammary carcinoma rats for 14 days. Drug treatment restored back the altered Phase I and II biotransformation enzymes thus achieving complete detoxification of the carcinogen. These findings suggest that S. anacardium can effectively modulate the catabolism of xenobiotics in rats. Copyright © 2007. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract in a high-fat diet STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vinayagam, Kaladevi Siddhi; Sekar, Ashwini; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachdanandam

    2012-03-01

    Semecarpus anacardium commonly known as marking nut has been used in the Siddha system of medicine against various ailments. The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of the drug was evaluated in Type 2 diabetic rats induced by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 weeks followed by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) 35 mg/kg body weight. Three days after STZ induction, the hyperglycemic rats were treated with Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract (SA) orally at a dosage of 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 30 days. Metformin (500 mg/kg body weight, orally) was used as a reference drug. The fasting blood glucose, insulin, Hb, HbA1c levels, and HOMA-IR and HOMA-β were measured, and also the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were observed. SA significantly (p < .05) reduced and normalized blood glucose levels and also decreased the levels of HbA1c as compared with that of HFD STZ control group. SA treatment also significantly (p < .05) increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes while decreasing the levels of lipid peroxidation. The potential antihyperglycemic action and antioxidant role might be due to the presence of flavonoids in the drug.

  14. Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin Fluorescence as a Biomarker to Monitor the Anticancer Effect of Semecarpus Anacardium in DMBA Induced Mammary Carcinoma Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vani, S; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachdanandam

    2015-07-01

    Endogenous fluorescence has been proposed as a means of aiding the diagnosis of various malignancies. It has been suggested that erythrocytes may be the carriers of fluorophors that accumulate in cancer tissue and may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of malignancies. Hence, the present study was designed to explore the spectrofluorimetric analysis of blood components as a marker for the analysis of mammary carcinoma treatment and also to bring about the protective effect of the drug Semecarpus anacardium on oxidative stress mediated damage of erythrocytes. Fluorescence spectra of the blood components were studied and also the level of lipid per oxides and antioxidant enzymes status in erythrocytes were determined in DMBA induced mammary carcinoma rats treated with Semecarpus anacardium Linn nut milk extract. Fluorescence emission spectroscopy of blood components are altered under cancer conditions and the drug effectively ameliorated these alterations in mammary carcinoma induced rats. The drug also effectively reduced the oxidative stress induced erythrocyte damage thereby restoring the erythrocytes antioxidant status. These results suggest that erythrocytes may be the carriers of fluorophors that accumulate in cancer tissue and hence acts as new biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment.

  15. La consommation de propylène en Europe occidentale Propylene Consumption in Western Europe

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    Barraqué M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les besoins de l'Europe occidentale en propylène utilisé en pétrochimie sont actuellement de 7,4. 10 puissance 6 t/an. Au cours des prochaines années, le taux de progression moyen de la consommation devrait être de l'ordre de 1,8%/an; ainsi en 1995, la pétrochimie européenne utiliserait environ 8,7. 10 puissance 6 t de propylène. L'essentiel de la progression de cette consommation sera dû au fort accroissement de la production de polypropylène et à un degré moindre de l'oxyde de propylène, de l'isopropanol et de l'éthyl-2 hexanol. Par contre les débouchés représentés par l'acrylonitrile et le cumène resteront pratiquement stables. La consommation de propylène dans les productions de butanols devrait diminuer. La part des besoins en propylène satisfaite par les vapocraqueurs européens qui est en 1986 de 82 %, devrait être inférieure à 75 % en 1995. Il sera de plus en plus nécessaire de se tourner vers d'autres sources d'approvisionnement. En 1986 les raffineries européennes ont produit 1,05. 10 puissance 6 t de propylène utilisé en pétrochimie et les importations ont atteint 0,3. 10 puissance 6 t. En 1995 la différence entre la consommation et la production des vapocraqueurs pourrait dépasser 2,0. 10 puissance 6 t. Il semble peu probable que les unités de craquage catalytique puissent combler le déficit sauf si les rendements en propylène augmentent très notablement. On peut s'attendre à la construction de splitters propylène/propane et à une augmentation des importations. D'autre part, en raison de la tension qui risque d'apparaître sur les prix du propylène, l'intérêt de certaines voies de synthèse actuellement considérées comme non rentables pourrait augmenter; ces nouvelles voies sont : - la déshydrogénation du propane déjà considérée dans d'autres régions (Mexique, Indonésie, Malaisie; - la métathèse entre l'éthylène et les butènes-2, pouvant eux-mêmes être produits à partir d

  16. Insecticidal action of sodium anacardate from Brazilian cashew nut shell liquid against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Davi F; Cavalheiro, Mariana G; Viana, Sayonara M; De Lima, Glauber P G; da Rocha-Bezerra, Lady Clarissa B; Ricardo, Nágila M P S; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2009-09-01

    Aedes aegypti is the major vector of 1 of the most concerning arboviruses of the world, the dengue fever. The only effective way of reducing the incidence of dengue fever is to control the vector mosquito, mainly by application of insecticides to its breeding places. This study was aimed at assessing the insecticidal activity of sodium anacardate, isolated from Brazilian cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), against the eggs, 3rd instars or pupae of Ae. aegypti. In addition, the acute toxicity of sodium anacardate to mice was also investigated. Sodium anacardate showed toxicity against Ae. aegypti eggs (median effective concentration [EC50] = 162.93 +/- 29.93 microg/ml), larvae (median lethal concentration [LC50] = 55.47 +/- 3.0 microg/ml) and pupae (LC50 = 369.78 - 52.30 microg/ml). On the other hand, even at high dose (0.3 g/kg body weight), this compound did not cause any adverse effects on mice, suggesting that this compound is safe to mammals. Therefore, sodium anacardate may be a viable low-cost alternative to help combat Ae. aegypti.

  17. Isolation of anacardic acid from natural cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) using supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Joseph Y N; Da Cruz Francisco, José; Dey, Estera S; Buchweishaija, Joseph; Mkayula, Lupituko L; Ye, Lei

    2008-10-22

    Solvent extracted cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), conventionally known as natural CNSL, is a mixture of several alkenyl phenols. One of these alkenyl phenols is anacardic acid, which is present at the highest concentration. In view of anticipated industrial applications of anacardic acid, the objective of this work was to isolate anacardic acid from natural CNSL by supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2). In this study, the solubility data for natural CNSL in scCO 2 under a range of operating conditions of pressure (100, 200, and 300 bar), temperature (40 and 50 degrees C), and CO 2 flow rate (5, 10, and 15 g min (-1)) were established. The best scCO 2 working conditions were found to be 50 degrees C and 300 bar at a flow rate of 5 g min (-1) CO 2. Using 3 g of sample (CNSL/solid adsorbent = 1/2) under these scCO 2 conditions, it was possible to quantitatively isolate high purity anacardic acid from crude natural CNSL (82% of total anacardic acid) within 150 min. The anacardic acid isolated by scCO 2 was analyzed by different spectroscopic techniques (UV-vis, FT-IR, and (1)H NMR) and HPLC analysis, indicating that the anacardic acid isolated by scCO 2 has better quality than that obtained through a conventional method involving several chemical conversion steps.

  18. Development of Refined Natural Resin based Cashew Nut Shell Oil Liquid (CNSL) for Brake Pads Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Ramelan, A. H.; Rahmawati, P.; Tamtama, B. P. N.; Sari, P. P.; Sari, P. L.; Ichsan, S.; Kristiawan, Y. R.; Aini, F. N.

    2017-02-01

    Brake is one of the most important components in the vehicle. One type of brake that widely used is brake-based composites. One of the manufacture of composite material is resin. Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) is a natural material which has chemical structure similar to synthetic phenol so it can be an alternative as a resin. Brake pads manufacture using CNSL as resin composites made to obtain the brake which is strong, wear-resistant, and environmentally friendly. The composite made using powder metallurgy techniques by mixing ingredients such as rubber, fibre glass, carbon, mineral sands and phenolic resin. Two formulas were composed by varying the resin and iron mineral sands in 5 grams. Composites were tested using Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The tensile strength result of those formulas are 600 N and 900 N and the elongations are 1.98 mm and 2.59 mm respectively. Formula 2 has a better tensile strength due to the addition of more resin is 15%. Since the better properties, formula 2 was derivated to 4 extended formulas and showed excellent pressure strength reached 20.000 N. It indicates that the addition of the resin can improve the mechanical properties of a composite.

  19. Effect of cashew nut shell liquid on metabolic hydrogen flow on bovine rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumori, Makoto; Enishi, Osamu; Shinkai, Takumi; Higuchi, Koji; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Takenaka, Akio; Nagashima, Kyo; Mochizuki, Masami; Kobayashi, Yasuo

    2014-03-01

    Effect of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), a methane inhibitor, on bovine rumen fermentation was investigated through analysis of the metabolic hydrogen flow estimated from concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and methane. Three cows were fed a concentrate and hay diet without or with a CNSL-containing pellet. Two trials were conducted using CNSL pellets blended with only silica (trial 1) or with several other ingredients (trial 2). Methane production was measured in a respiration chamber system, and energy balance and nutrient digestibility were monitored. The estimated flow of metabolic hydrogen demonstrated that a part of metabolic hydrogen was used for hydrogen gas production, and a large amount of it flowed into production of methane and SCFA in both trial 1 and 2, when CNSL was administered to the bovine rumen. The results obtained by regression analyses showed that the effect of CNSL supply on methane reduction was coupled with a significant (P < 0.01) decrease of acetate and a significant (P < 0.01) increase of propionate and hydrogen gas. These findings reveal that CNSL is able to reduce methane and acetate production, and to increase hydrogen gas and propionate production in vivo.

  20. Physical and chemical characteristics of cashew nut flour stored and packaged with different packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Carolina GADANI

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical changes in cashew nut flour under different packaging and storage conditions. The flour samples were characterized according to their chemical composition, packaged in polystyrene trays associated with covering chloride polyvinyl (PVC, plastic pot of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, plastic packaging polyethylene (POL and without coating polystyrene trays (CON. All packages were stored for 225 days, evaluating every 45 days the moisture content of the flour as well as extracting their oil by the cold method for characterization on the following indexes: acidity, saponification, iodine, peroxide and refraction. There was slight and gradual increase in the moisture content from the 45th to the 225th day, especially for products packaged in PVC and without coating polystyrene trays (CON. The oil saponification indexes showed gradual decrease during storage, especially in flour without packaging (CON. There was a gradual increase in the iodine index until the 135th day, followed by decay. The acidity and peroxide indexes increased along with the storage time. However packages with lower oxygen and moisture permeability, such as PET and POL, minimized such changes, being therefore the most suitable for long-term storage.

  1. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/cashew gum beads loaded with Lippia sidoides essential oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Haroldo C.B., E-mail: hpaula@ufc.br [Department of Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Federal University of Ceara, UFC, Fortaleza-CE (Brazil); Sombra, Fernanda Matoso; Cavalcante, Rafaela de Freitas; Abreu, Flavia O.M.S. [Department of Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Federal University of Ceara, UFC, Fortaleza-CE (Brazil); Paula, Regina C.M. de [Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Federal University of Ceara, UFC, Fortaleza-CE (Brazil)

    2011-03-12

    Beads based on chitosan (CH) and cashew gum (CG), were prepared and loaded with an essential oil with larvicide activity (Lippia sidoides - Ls). CH and CH-CG beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared and UV-VIS spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), as well as, regarding their larvicide loading, swelling, in vitro and in vivo release kinetics. The oil encapsulation was evidenced by FTIR analysis and LS loading ranges from 2.4% to 4.4%. CH beads duly showed swelling degree (Q) values from 4.0 to 6.7, reaching equilibrium after 30 min, whereas crosslinked CH-CG beads showed lower swelling values, from 0.4 to 3.8, exhibiting a longer equilibrium time. Liquid transport parameters have revealed diffusion coefficient for CH-CG beads, as low as 2 x 10{sup -15} m{sup 2}/s. TGA and DSC revealed that CH:CG crosslinked beads are more thermally stable than CH beads. In vitro release follows a non-Fickian diffusion profile for both bead types, however, and a prolonged release being achieved only after beads crosslinking. In vivo release showed that both CH and CH-CG presented a prolonged larvicide effect. These aforesaid results, indicate that CH-CG beads loaded with LS are efficient for A. aegypti larval control.

  2. EMPIRICAL MODELS FOR PERFORMANCE OF DRIPPERS APPLYING CASHEW NUT PROCESSING WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KETSON BRUNO DA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop empirical models for hydraulic performance of drippers operating with cashew nut processing wastewater depending on operating time, operating pressure and effluent quality. The experiment consisted of two factors, types of drippers (D1=1.65 L h-1, D2=2.00 L h-1 and D3=4.00 L h-1, and operating pressures (70, 140, 210 and 280 kPa, with three replications. The flow variation coefficient (FVC, distribution uniformity coefficient (DUC and the physicochemical and biological characteristics of the effluent were evaluated every 20 hours until complete 160 hours of operation. Data were interpreted through simple and multiple linear stepwise regression models. The regression models that fitted to the FVC and DUC as a function of operating time were square root, linear and quadratic, with 17%, 17% and 8%, and 17%, 17% and 0%, respectively. The regression models that fitted to the FVC and DUC as a function of operating pressures were square root, linear and quadratic, with 11%, 22% and 0% and the 0%, 22% and 11%, respectively. Multiple linear regressions showed that the dissolved solids content is the main wastewater characteristic that interfere in the FVC and DUC values of the drip units D1 (1.65 L h-1 and D3 (4.00 L h-1, operating at work pressure of 70 kPa (P1.

  3. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, E; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; Maguire, A R; O'Brien, N M

    2006-01-01

    Nuts contain bioactive constituents that elicit cardio-protective effects including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. The objective of the present study was to determine the total oil content, peroxide value, fatty acid composition and levels of tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols in oil extracted from freshly ground brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 40.4 to 60.8% (w/w) while the peroxide values ranged from 0.14 to 0.22 mEq O2/kg oil. The most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1), while linoleic acid (C18:2) was the most prevalent polyunsaturated fatty acid. The levels of total tocopherols ranged from 60.8 to 291.0 mg/g. Squalene ranged from 39.5 mg/g oil in the pine nut to 1377.8 mg/g oil in the brazil nut. beta-Sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 1325.4 to 4685.9 mg/g oil. In conclusion, the present data indicate that nuts are a good dietary source of unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols.

  4. Sustainable energy for cashew production chain using innovative clean technology project developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannir Selvam, P.V.; Nandenha, Julio; Santiago, Brunno Henrique de Souza; Silva, Rosalia Tatiane da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (GPEC/DEQ/UFRN), Lagoa Nova, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Pesquisa em Engenharia de Custos e Processos], e-mail: pannirbr@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    The main objective is to develop a new process synthesis based on the residual biomass waste for the energy production applied to the fruit processing plant with co-production of hot, cold thermal energy using biogas from the wood biomass and animal wastes. After carried out the bibliographical research about the current state of art technology, an engineering project had been developed with the use of the software Super Pro Designer V 4.9. Some simulations of processes of the fast pyrolysis, gasification, bio digestion, generation of energy have been realized including the system integration of energy production as innovation of the present work. Three cases study have been developed: first, the current process of conventional energy using combustion, another one using combined pyrolysis and gasification, and the last one with bio digestion for combined power, heat and chilling. The results about the project investment and the cost analysis, economic viability and cash balance were obtained using software Orc 2004. Several techno-economic parameters of the selected cases study involving process innovation were obtained and compared, where a better energy and materials utilization were observed in relation to conventional process. This project which is still in development phase, involves small scale energy integrated system design. The energy and the process integration cashew fruit production chain, based on the clean technology process design, has enable significant improvement in terms of economic and environmental using optimal system configurations with viability and sustainability. (author)

  5. Cashew Apple Damage of 60 Cashew Clones Caused by Powdery Mildew Disease in Mozambique%莫桑比克60个腰果品系果梨抗白粉病调查初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁李宏; 王金辉; 张中润; Americo Uaciquete; 黄海杰; 黄伟坚

    2012-01-01

    在莫桑比克楠普拉省调查了白粉病对60个腰果品系果梨的为害情况.结果显示,在相同的栽培条件下,不同腰果品系的果梨受白粉病为害程度差异很大.品系AZA17/79受白粉病的为害程度最低,为害率和为害指数分别仅为3.7%和0.91%,其次为H1、M96-2.3VM、AC34、4.2VM和Local 3,为害率在9.4% ~20.4%,为害指数在4.87%~10.28%.其余品系的果梨为害率和为害指数相对较高.根据本文的腰果品系对白粉病抗性的评价标准(果梨),对60个腰果品系的果梨抗白粉病进行了评价,结果表明:高抗品系有5个,分别为AZA17/79、H1、M96-2.3VM、AC34和4.2VM;抗性品系5个,分别为Local 3、B4、2.4PA、1.20VM和11.9PA;中抗品系3个,分别为CCM9-61、AC10/14和5.12PA;感病品系6个,为AC6、9.1NAS、7.1PA、1.12PA、12.8PA和12.9PA;其余41个品系均属于高感品系.说明莫桑比克推广种植的腰果品系的果梨对白粉病抗性普遍较差,容易遭受白粉病为害.%In Nampula Province of Mozambique, the cashew apple damage of 60 cashew clones caused by powdery mildew disease was investigated. The result indicated that, under the same condition, the cashew apple damage degree of different cashew clones was different. The cashew apple damage degree of AZA17/79 was the lowest. Its damage rate and damage index was 3.7% and 0.91 % respectively. The next were HI, M96-2.3VM, AC34, 4.2VM and Local 3. Their damage rates were between 9.4% and 20.4%, and their damage indexes were between 4.87% and 10.28%. The damage rates and damage indexes of other clones were higher relatively. According to the resistance evaluation criteria of cashew to powdery mildew disease in this paper, there were 5 high resistant clones, 5 resistant clones, 3 moderate resistant clones, 6 susceptible clones and 41 high susceptible clones in the 60 investigated cashew clones. The high resistant clones were AZA17/79, HI, M96 ?2.3VM, AC34 and 4.2VM. The resistant clones

  6. Pyrenean pastoralists’observations of environmental change: An exploratory study in los Valles Occidentales of Aragón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Giménez, María E.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Observations of environmental change by local resource users may be an important source of information about past and current environmental conditions to complement scientific studies and monitoring. In this exploratory, qualitative study, we documented observations of environmental change made by 27 stockmen in the two westernmost valleys of the Central Western Pyrenees of Spain. Pastoralists reported changes in weather, corresponding declines in the flow of mountain springs, and an increase in shrub and tree cover in the mountains. Explanations for the increase in woody plant cover differed in the two valleys; however, the majority of stockmen from both villages believed that the lack of human presence in the mountains contributes to shrub encroachment. Stockmen’s observations of environmental change suggest additional research needs regarding climate and vegetation change in the Pyrenees, and highlight the potential contributions of Pyrenean pastoralists’ local knowledge to environmental monitoring, research and management.Las observaciones sobre el cambio medioambiental realizadas por usuarios locales pueden ser una importante fuente de información sobre las características medioambientales del pasado y del presente para complementar los estudios científicos y el monitoreo. En este estudio cualitativo documentamos observaciones sobre el cambio medioambiental realizadas por 27 ganaderos en los dos valles más occidentales de los Pirineos centro occidentales españoles. Resumen cambios climáticos relativos a la disminución del caudal de las fuentes de montaña y al aumento de la cubierta vegetal de matorrales y arbolado en las montañas. Las explicaciones sobre el aumento de arbolado difieren en los dos valles; sin embargo la mayoría de los ganaderos de ambos pueblos pensaban que la falta de presencia humana en las montañas contribuye a la invasión del matorral. Las observaciones de los ganaderos sobre los cambios medioambientales

  7. Clustering of haemostatic variables and the effect of high cashew and walnut diets on these variables in metabolic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Marlien; Oosthuizen, Welma; Jerling, Johann C; Loots, Du Toit; Mukuddem-Petersen, Janine; Hanekom, Susanna M

    2005-09-01

    We investigated the effect of a high walnut and cashew diet on haemostatic variables in people with the metabolic syndrome. Factor analysis was used to determine how the haemostatic variables cluster with other components of the metabolic syndrome and multiple regression to determine possible predictors. This randomized, control, parallel, controlled-feeding trial included 68 subjects who complied with the Third National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol criteria. After a 3-week run-in following the control diet, subjects were divided into three groups receiving either walnuts or cashews (20 energy%) or a control diet for 8 weeks. The nut intervention had no significant effect on von Willebrand factor antigen, fibrinogen, factor VII coagulant activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 activity, tissue plasminogen activator activity or thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor. Statistically, fibrinogen clustered with the body-mass-correlates and acute phase response factors, and factor VII coagulant activity clustered with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Tissue plasminogen activator activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 activity and von Willebrand factor antigen clustered into a separate endothelial function factor. HDL-C and markers of obesity were the strongest predictors of the haemostatic variables. We conclude that high walnut and cashew diets did not influence haemostatic factors in this group of metabolic syndrome subjects. The HDL-C increase and weight loss may be the main focus of dietary intervention for the metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, diet composition may have only limited effects if weight loss is not achieved.

  8. Perlas y piel de azabache. El negro en las pesquerías de las Indias Occidentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tardieu, Jean Pierre

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Not very long after the Discovery, the pearls from the West Indies competed with those from the Orient for the full regalia of the ladies of the gentry, or that of the most revered virgins, while raising the curiosity of the best known chroniclers and creating an excruciating tax system. Considering the legislation passed for the benefit of Indians, those were to a large extent replaced in the “pearl fisheries” by black slaves submitted by the covetousness of their masters and the interests of the Crown to horrendous living and working conditions which most of the time relentlessly led them to death.

    Poco después del Descubrimiento, las perlas de las Indias occidentales rivalizaron con las de Oriente para el adorno de las damas de la alta sociedad o de las Vírgenes más veneradas, suscitando la curiosidad científica de los cronistas más conocidos y una exigente legislación fiscal. Debido a las leyes emitidas a favor de los indios, éstos se sustituyeron en gran parte, en las pesquerías de perlas, por esclavos negros sometidos —por la codicia de los amos y el interés de la Corona— a despiadadas condiciones de vida y de trabajo que desembocaban las más veces en una muerte inexorable.

  9. Leggere i Classici in Oriente. Il mito della letteratura occidentale in Dai Sijie, Murakami Haruki, Azar Nafisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niccolò Scaffai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio prende in considerazione tre opere letterarie recenti (appartenenti tanto alla fiction quanto al genere del non-fiction novel, scritte da altrettanti autori di origini asiatiche: il franco-cinese Dai Sijie, l’iraniana Azar Nafisi e il giapponese Murakami Haruki. In ciascun titolo dei loro rispettivi bestseller internazionali (Balzac e la piccola sarta cinese, Leggere Lolita a Teheran, Kafka sulla spiaggia troviamo un ossimoro dello stesso tipo: il  nome di un autore occidentale canonico viene impiegato in un contesto insolito, legato alla geografia del vicino o dell’estremo Oriente. Ne consegue un effetto di straniamento che finisce per ridare forza alla percezione dell’opera letteraria, forse con maggiore decisione di quanto non sia possibile fare oggi in Occidente. Attraverso l’uso (e il rovesciamento del concetto di ‘orientalismo’ di Edward Said e, per Kafka sulla spiaggia, attraverso l’applicazione di principi della teoria di Lacan, lo studio analizza le dinamiche del trasferimento di miti letterari europei nelle culture orientali.

  10. Les cartes ethno-démographiques de l’Afrique occidentale: enjeux d’une construction 1952-1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Albane de Suremain

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1952 et 1963, l’Institut français d’Afrique noire publie cinq cartes ethno-démographiques représentant l’Afrique occidentale de manière très synthétique au 1/1 000 000. Signe d’une démarche scientifique encore très positiviste et descriptive, elles représentent la distribution démographique et la répartition ethnique de la population. Les difficultés sont multiples: comment figurer des populations en déplacement, dont les identités se laissent mal enfermer dans des taxonomies ethniques et sans unité de mesure commune? Cet ensemble est significatif des évolutions de la cartographie coloniale, qui prolonge en Afrique des ambitions encyclopédiques révolues en métropole et s’intéresse à la catégorisation ethnique de la population, ce qui renvoie à des enjeux politiques. Mais les ethnologues, sociologues et géographes inventent aussi de nouvelles manières d’aborder territoires et populations en Afrique.

  11. Salmonella spp. e antibiotico-resistenza in Mammiferi e Uccelli selvatici in Italia nord-occidentale dal 2002 al 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velca Botti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La Salmonella è un importante agente patogeno responsabile di zoonosi di notevole rilevanza economica. In Europa la salmonellosi è la seconda infezione trasmessa per via alimentare, in Italia il microrganismo continua ad essere la causa più frequente di infezione alimentare. In Europa sono in atto molti piani di sorveglianza di Salmonella in animali da allevamento, tuttavia il monitoraggio del microrganismo in animali selvatici è effettuato solo occasionalmente. Lo studio ha avuto l'obiettivo di indagare la presenza di Salmonella in animali selvatici e i ceppi antibiotico-resistenti. Nel periodo 2002-2010, 2.713 animali selvatici (Canidi, Mustelidi, Uccelli, Roditori e Ungulati, provenienti da aree dell'Italia nord-occidentale, sono stati testati per Salmonella mediante metodo microbiologico colturale seguito da tipizzazione sierologica e biochimica. Di questi, 117 (63 Canidi, 25 Mustelidi, 24 Uccelli, 5 Ungulati sono risultati positivi per Salmonella (4,3%. Sono stati isolati 130 ceppi appartenenti a diversi sierotipi e Salmonella Typhimurium è risultato quello più rappresentato. La sensibilità agli antibiotici è stata testata su 88 ceppi con test di disco-diffusione. La maggior parte dei ceppi analizzati (97,7% si sono mostrati intermedi (I o resistenti (R ad almeno una classe di antibiotici. I più alti valori sono stati osservati per la classe delle tetracicline. La presenza di sierotipi di Salmonella antibiotico-resistenti e responsabili di zoonosi è stata riscontrata in diverse specie di animali selvatici.

  12. Determination of Heavy Metals in Leaves of Mangifera Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER PC

    Anacardium Occidentale L. in Trikania Industrial Area, Kaduna-Nigeria. ... metals from soil, water or air and retain them ... Administration (OSHA), European Union .... Heavy Metals from Wastewater using ... Biotechnology 5 (12): 1167-1176. 2.

  13. Evaluation of Toxic, Cytotoxic, Mutagenic, and Antimutagenic Activities of Natural and Technical Cashew Nut Shell Liquids Using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracelli de Sousa Leite

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL. There are both natural (iCNSL and technical (tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O on the meristems’ root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-, during (co-, and after (post- treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used.

  14. Evaluation of toxic, cytotoxic, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of natural and technical cashew nut shell liquids using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Aracelli de Sousa; Dantas, Alisson Ferreira; Oliveira, George Laylson da Silva; Gomes Júnior, Antonio L; de Lima, Sidney Gonçalo; Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes; de Freitas, Rivelilson M; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de C; Dantas Lopes, José Arimateia

    2015-01-01

    The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems' root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-), during (co-), and after (post-) treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used.

  15. OPTIMASI PROSES POLIMERISASI MINYAK KULIT JAMBU METE (CNSL, CASHEW NUT SHELL LIQUID DENGAN FORMALDEHID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqman Buchori

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Jambu mete represents the crop which is a lot of its benefit. From various benefit of jambu mete, there is onepart of which not yet been exploited in an optimal that is husk. Whereas in its husk is contain oil so-calledCashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL about 32-36%. This oil can be used as natural source phenol and alternativelysubstitution phenol from petroleum. This phenol is reacted by formaldehyde will form the phenol formaldehyderesin. Besides containing natural phenol, CNSL also contain the other bunch like karboksilat bunch, alkylbunch and alkenes bunch. This bunch will influence process of forming of phenol formaldehyde resin as aconsequence have an effect on characteristic and quality of resin so that require to be searched the optimumcondition in making of phenol formaldehyde resin. Objective of this research is to look for the optimumcondition in making of phenol formaldehyde resin of novolac type and also know the influence of comparison ofreactant and operating temperature for to resin yielded. Dependent variables in this research are reactorvolume (500 ml with the volume bases 250 ml, catalyst acid HCl, mixing speed (200 rpm, operating time (90minute, pH (2 and operating pressure (1 atm. Independent variables are CNSL/formaldehyde ratio andoperating temperature. Perceived parameter is free rate formaldehyde. Method is used to design and processdata is RSM (Response Surface Methodology method constructively the Static program. Result of this researchindicates that the most effect on variable is ratio CNSL/formaldehyde. Optimum condition are obtained at F/Cratio of 0.65-0.85 and temperature of 75-850C with the conversion of 0.55. The biggest rate resin obtained atF/C ratio 0.75/1 and temperature 80oC. This resin is very jell and have best sticky and also drug after runningdry. This novolac resin is applicated as furniture coating. Coating yielded have well sticky with the auburncolor.

  16. Effects of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL on the performance of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.A. López

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL on growth performance, carcass yield, relative weight of internal organs and microbiology of digestive tract of broiler chickens were investigated. Five hundred and forty male broiler chicks at one day of age were arranged in a completely randomized design with six treatments and six repetitions with 15 broiler chicks each. The treatments were: control (T1 - without growth promoter virginiamycin and CNSL; inclusion levels of 0.10mL (T2, 0.20mL (T3, 0.30mL (T4 and 0.40mL (T5 of CNSL/kg of feed; and commercial promoter virginiamycin (T6. At 21 and 40 days of age, body weight, feed intake, feed conversion and viability of birds were similar in all treatments. Carcass yield was higher in the treatment with the growth promoter when compared to the control treatment. There was a linear increase in carcass yield when the level of CNSL was increased in the diet. The relative weight of the intestine was lower in the treatment containing virginiamycin when compared to the treatment without the inclusion of additives. The relative weight of the intestines decreased when the levels of inclusion of CNSL were increased. There was a gradual reduction of Escherichia coli concentration reaching the lowest number on the CNSL level of 0.30mL/kg. It was concluded that CNSL showed similar performance and slaughter yield as the growth promoter and reduced the concentration of Escherichia coli in the intestinal contents.

  17. Mitigation of methane production from cattle by feeding cashew nut shell liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkai, T; Enishi, O; Mitsumori, M; Higuchi, K; Kobayashi, Y; Takenaka, A; Nagashima, K; Mochizuki, M; Kobayashi, Y

    2012-09-01

    The effects of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) feeding on methane production and rumen fermentation were investigated by repeatedly using 3 Holstein nonlactating cows with rumen fistulas. The cows were fed a concentrate and hay diet (6:4 ratio) for 4 wk (control period) followed by the same diet with a CNSL-containing pellet for the next 3 wk (CNSL period). Two trials were conducted using CNSL pellets blended with only silica (trial 1) or with several other ingredients (trial 2). Each pellet type was fed to cows to allow CNSL intake at 4 g/100 kg of body weight per day. Methane production was measured in a respiration chamber system, and energy balance, nutrient digestibility, and rumen microbial changes were monitored. Methane production per unit of dry matter intake decreased by 38.3 and 19.3% in CNSL feeding trials 1 and 2, respectively. Energy loss as methane emission decreased from 9.7 to 6.1% (trial 1) and from 8.4 to 7.0% (trial 2) with CNSL feeding, whereas the loss to feces (trial 1) and heat production (trial 2) increased. Retained energy did not differ between the control and CNSL periods. Digestibility of dry matter and gross energy decreased with CNSL feeding in trial 1, but did not differ in trial 2. Feeding CNSL caused a decrease in acetate and total short-chain fatty acid levels and an increase in propionate proportion in both trials. Relative copy number of methyl coenzyme-M reductase subunit A gene and its expression decreased with CNSL feeding. The relative abundance of fibrolytic or formate-producing species such as Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, and Treponema bryantii decreased, but species related to propionate production, including Prevotella ruminicolla, Selenomonas ruminantium, Anaerovibrio lipolytica, and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, increased. If used in a suitable formulation, CNSL acts as a potent methane-inhibiting and propionate-enhancing agent through the alteration of rumen microbiota without adversely

  18. Glycaemic effects of traditional European plant treatments for diabetes. Studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanston-Flatt, S K; Day, C; Flatt, P R; Gould, B J; Bailey, C J

    1989-02-01

    Twelve plants used for the traditional treatment of diabetes mellitus in northern Europe were studied using normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice to evaluate effects on glucose homeostasis. The plants were administered in the diet (6.25% by weight) and/or as decoctions or infusions in place of drinking water, to coincide with the traditional method of preparation. Treatment for 28 days with preparations of burdock (Arctium lappa), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), elder (Sambucus nigra), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), guayusa (Ilex guayusa), hop (Humulus lupulus), nettle (Urtica dioica), cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), sage (Salvia officinale), and wild carrot (Daucus carrota) did not affect the parameters of glucose homeostasis examined in normal mice (basal plasma glucose and insulin, glucose tolerance, insulin-induced hypoglycaemia and glycated haemoglobin). After administration of streptozotocin (200 mg/kg) burdock and nettle aggravated the diabetic condition, while cashew, dandelion, elder, fenugreek, hop, periwinkle, sage and wild carrot did not significantly affect the parameters of glucose homeostasis studied (basal glucose and insulin, insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, glycated haemoglobin and pancreatic insulin concentration). Guayusa and mushroom retarded the development of hyperglycaemia in streptozotocin diabetes and reduced the hyperphagia, polydipsia, body weight loss, and glycated haemoglobin. Mushroom also countered the initial reduction in plasma insulin and the reduction in pancreatic insulin concentration, and improved the hypoglycaemic effect of exogenous insulin. These studies suggest the presence of potentially useful antidiabetic agents in guayusa and mushroom.

  19. Estudo das propriedades do pseudofruto do cajueiro na adsorção de Cr (VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago C. Medeiros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Study of the cashew properties for Cr (VI adsorptionIn this study, the Cr(VI adsorption properties by cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. were studied in a batch system. The effects of pH (5.0 and 7.0, drying process – S (oven-dried and lyophilized, particle size – P (0.10 – 0.25 and 0.25 – 0.84 mm, mass of adsorbent – m (1.0 and 1.5 g initial chromium concentration – C (500 and 1000 mg L-1 contact time – t (1 and 3 h and stirring rate – v (0 and 150 rpm, on the adsorption process were studied using a fractional factorial design (27-4. Under ideal conditions the efficiency of adsorption of 87.24% for total chromium and 100.00% for Cr (VI were achieved. The maximum adsorption capacity achieved was 11.43 mg/g. The adsorbent was characterized by infrared and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Test reactions performed with Cr(VI in conjunction with the aqueous extract of the adsorbent and pH monitoring during adsorption were carried out to better understand the mechanisms of adsorption. The proposed mechanism consists of two steps: reduction of Cr(VI in solution or at the surface of the adsorbent, and subsequent adsorption of Cr(III by ion exchange or complexation.

  20. Matrix Effect on the Spray Drying Nanoencapsulation of Lippia sidoides Essential Oil in Chitosan-Native Gum Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Haroldo C B; Oliveira, Erick F; Carneiro, Maria J M; de Paula, Regina C M

    2016-05-25

    Essential oils have many applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical, and food fields, however, their use is limited to the fact that they are very labile, requiring their a priori encapsulation, aiming to preserve their properties.This work reports on the preparation of chitosan-gum nanoparticles loaded with thymol containing Lippia sidoides essential oil, using exudates of Anacardium Occidentale (cashew gum), Sterculia striata (chichá gum), and Anadenanthera macrocarpa trees (angico gum). Nanoparticles were produced by spray drying an emulsion of L. sidoides essential oil and aqueous solution of gums with different chitosan : gum ratios. Samples were characterized by FTIR and UV/VIS spectroscopy, particle size, volume distribution, and zeta potential. The FTIR spectrum showed the main signals of chitosan and the gums. Data obtained revealed that the samples had sizes in the nano range, varying from 17 nm to 800 nm. The zeta potential varied from + 30 mV to - 40 mV. Nanoparticle loading values varied from 6.7 % to 15.6 %, with an average encapsulating efficiency of 62 %, where the samples with high ratios of cashew gum and chichá gum presented high oil loading values. The data revealed that both the chitosan : gum ratio and polysaccharide characteristics play major roles in nanoencapsulation processes.

  1. Application of Cross-Flow Filtration Technique in Purification and Concentration of Juice from Vietnamese Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huynh Cang Mai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is to offer a 1st insight in the use of membrane process for the purification and concentration of Vietnamese fruit juices: cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale Line., dragon fruit (Cactus hémiépiphytes, pineapple (Ananas comosus, pomelo (Citrus grandis L., and gac aril oil (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.. On a laboratory scale, the effect of different operating parameters such as trans-membrane pressures (TMP, temperature and membrane pore sizes on permeate flux was determined in order to optimize process conditions that would ensure acceptable flux with adequate juice quality. The quality of the samples coming from the ultrafiltration (UF process was evaluated in terms of: total soluble solids (TSS, suspended solids (SS, and vitamin C. For example, the purification process of cashew apple juice by cross-flow filtration was optimized at 0.5 μm membrane pore size, 2.5 bars TMP, and 60 min filtration time. Besides, this technique was applied to enhance carotenoids concentration from gac oil. Optimum conditions for a high permeate flux and a good carotenoids retention are 5 nm, 2 bars, and 40 °C of membrane pore size, TMP, and temperature, respectively. Carotenoids were concentrated higher than that in feeding oil.

  2. Recent advances in cardanol chemistry in a nutshell: from a nut to nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Vijai Shankar; Jadhav, Swapnil Rohidas; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; John, George

    2013-01-21

    This tutorial review could serve as an introduction of cardanol into the world of soft nanomaterials; it is a biobased lipid-mixture obtained from the plant Anacardium occidentale L. Cardanol is a renewable raw material derived from a byproduct of cashew nut processing industry: Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL). Cardanol is a rich mixture of non-isoprenoic phenolic compounds that is a valuable raw material for generating a variety of soft nanomaterials such as nanotubes, nanofibers, gels and surfactants. These nanostructures may then serve as templates for the synthesis of additional nanomaterials. The wealth and diversity of cardanol-derived functional nanomaterials has urged us to present an article that will give readers a taste of a new class of cardanol-derived functional amphiphiles, along with their ability to generate hierarchical functional nanomaterials through non-covalent soft-chemical routes. In this concise review, we discuss selected examples of novel biobased surfactants, glycolipids, and polymers derived from cardanol, and their subsequent self-assembly into functional soft materials.

  3. Anacardic acids from cashew nuts ameliorate lung damage induced by exposure to diesel exhaust particles in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Laura Nicoletti; Annoni, Raquel; Torres, Larissa Helena Lobo; Durão, Ana Carolina Cardoso Santos; Shimada, Ana Lucia Borges; Almeida, Francine Maria; Hebeda, Cristina Bichels; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenorio Quirino Santos; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Martins, Milton Arruda; Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Owen, Robert W; Marcourakis, Tania; Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Mauad, Thais

    2013-01-01

    Anacardic acids from cashew nut shell liquid, a Brazilian natural substance, have antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and modulate immune responses and angiogenesis. As inflammatory lung diseases have been correlated to environmental pollutants exposure and no reports addressing the effects of dietary supplementation with anacardic acids on lung inflammation in vivo have been evidenced, we investigated the effects of supplementation with anacardic acids in a model of diesel exhaust particle- (DEP-) induced lung inflammation. BALB/c mice received an intranasal instillation of 50  μ g of DEP for 20 days. Ten days prior to DEP instillation, animals were pretreated orally with 50, 150, or 250 mg/kg of anacardic acids or vehicle (100  μ L of cashew nut oil) for 30 days. The biomarkers of inflammatory and antioxidant responses in the alveolar parenchyma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and pulmonary vessels were investigated. All doses of anacardic acids ameliorated antioxidant enzyme activities and decreased vascular adhesion molecule in vessels. Animals that received 50 mg/kg of anacardic acids showed decreased levels of neutrophils and tumor necrosis factor in the lungs and BALF, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that AAs supplementation has a potential protective role on oxidative and inflammatory mechanisms in the lungs.

  4. Anacardic Acids from Cashew Nuts Ameliorate Lung Damage Induced by Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Nicoletti Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anacardic acids from cashew nut shell liquid, a Brazilian natural substance, have antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and modulate immune responses and angiogenesis. As inflammatory lung diseases have been correlated to environmental pollutants exposure and no reports addressing the effects of dietary supplementation with anacardic acids on lung inflammation in vivo have been evidenced, we investigated the effects of supplementation with anacardic acids in a model of diesel exhaust particle- (DEP- induced lung inflammation. BALB/c mice received an intranasal instillation of 50 μg of DEP for 20 days. Ten days prior to DEP instillation, animals were pretreated orally with 50, 150, or 250 mg/kg of anacardic acids or vehicle (100 μL of cashew nut oil for 30 days. The biomarkers of inflammatory and antioxidant responses in the alveolar parenchyma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, and pulmonary vessels were investigated. All doses of anacardic acids ameliorated antioxidant enzyme activities and decreased vascular adhesion molecule in vessels. Animals that received 50 mg/kg of anacardic acids showed decreased levels of neutrophils and tumor necrosis factor in the lungs and BALF, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that AAs supplementation has a potential protective role on oxidative and inflammatory mechanisms in the lungs.

  5. Synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using cashew nut shell liquid and its antibacterial activity against fish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Iydroose, Mahudunan; Lee, Sang-Myung; Cho, Min; Park, Jung-Hee; Balachandar, Vellingiri; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-06-01

    This study reveals a green process for the production of multi-morphological silver (Ag NPs) and gold (Au NPs) nanoparticles, synthesized using an agro-industrial residue cashew nut shell liquid. Aqueous solutions of Ag(+) ions for silver and chloroaurate ions for gold were treated with cashew nut shell extract for the formation of Ag and Au NPs. The nano metallic dispersions were characterized by measuring the surface plasmon absorbance at 440 and 546 nm for Ag and Au NPs. Transmission electron microscopy showed the formation of nanoparticles in the range of 5-20 nm for silver and gold with assorted morphologies such as round, triangular, spherical and irregular. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses of the freeze-dried powder confirmed the formation of metallic Ag and Au NPs in crystalline form. Further analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provided evidence for the presence of various biomolecules, which might be responsible for the reduction of silver and gold ions. The obtained Ag and Au NPs had significant antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration on bacteria associated with fish diseases.

  6. Anacardic Acids from Cashew Nuts Ameliorate Lung Damage Induced by Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Laura Nicoletti; Annoni, Raquel; Torres, Larissa Helena Lobo; Durão, Ana Carolina Cardoso Santos; Shimada, Ana Lucia Borges; Almeida, Francine Maria; Hebeda, Cristina Bichels; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenorio Quirino Santos; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Martins, Milton Arruda; Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Owen, Robert W.; Marcourakis, Tania; Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Mauad, Thais

    2013-01-01

    Anacardic acids from cashew nut shell liquid, a Brazilian natural substance, have antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and modulate immune responses and angiogenesis. As inflammatory lung diseases have been correlated to environmental pollutants exposure and no reports addressing the effects of dietary supplementation with anacardic acids on lung inflammation in vivo have been evidenced, we investigated the effects of supplementation with anacardic acids in a model of diesel exhaust particle- (DEP-) induced lung inflammation. BALB/c mice received an intranasal instillation of 50 μg of DEP for 20 days. Ten days prior to DEP instillation, animals were pretreated orally with 50, 150, or 250 mg/kg of anacardic acids or vehicle (100 μL of cashew nut oil) for 30 days. The biomarkers of inflammatory and antioxidant responses in the alveolar parenchyma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and pulmonary vessels were investigated. All doses of anacardic acids ameliorated antioxidant enzyme activities and decreased vascular adhesion molecule in vessels. Animals that received 50 mg/kg of anacardic acids showed decreased levels of neutrophils and tumor necrosis factor in the lungs and BALF, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that AAs supplementation has a potential protective role on oxidative and inflammatory mechanisms in the lungs. PMID:23533495

  7. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa MSIC02 in cashew apple juice using a 24 full factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Maria Valderez Ponte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the production of biosurfactants from cashew apple juice by P. aeruginosa MSIC02 was investigate by carrying out a 24 full factorial experimental design, using temperature, glucose concentration from cashew apple juice, phosphorous concentration and cultivation time as variables. The response variable was the percentage of reduction in surface tension in the cell-free culture medium, since it indicates the surface-active agent production. Maximum biosurfactant production, equivalent to a 58% reduction in surface tension, was obtained at 37°C, with glucose concentration of 5.0 g/L and no phosphorous supplementation. Surface tension reduction was significant, since low values were observed in the cell-free medium (27.50 dyne/cm, indicating that biosurfactant was produced. The biosurfactant emulsified different hydrophobic sources and showed stability in the face of salinity, exposure to high temperatures and extreme pH conditions. These physiochemical properties demonstrate the potential for using biosurfactants produced by P. aeruginosa MSIC02 in various applications.

  8. Innovations et métallurgies en Méditerranée occidentale (XIIIe–XVe siècles

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    Verna, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After a definition of technical innovation in the Middle Ages and it’s relationship to industry, this paper explores it’s characteristics in the fi eld of iron and silver (silver-bearing lead and copper metallurgy from the 13th to the 15th centuries in the western Mediterranean area. The exploration opens with a synthesis of the circulation of iron and steel products, with special care taken over the definition of their respective qualities, in particular the distinction between iron and steel; the exploration continues with an introduction to specific technical territories related to industrial “districts”, which allows the author to present the study of the circulation of technical knowledge. The paper concludes with a study of notables (Catalan in particular as rural entrepreneurs who invested in the technical innovation of their time.[fr] Après avoir défi ni l’innovation technique au Moyen Âge et ses rapports à l’industrie, cet article en étudie les caractéristiques dans les domaines de la métallurgie du fer et de l’argent (plomb et cuivre argentifères du XIIIe au XVe siècle, en Méditerranée occidentale. Cet examen s’ouvre par un tableau de la circulation des produits sidérurgiques, attentif à la définition de leurs qualités respectives, en particulier à la distinction fer-acier; il se poursuit par la présentation des territoires techniques spécifiques associés à des districts industriels, ce qui permet à l’auteur d’aborder l’étude des circulations des savoirs techniques. L’article se conclut par une étude des notables (en particulier catalans, entrepreneurs ruraux, qui ont investi dans l’innovation technique.

  9. Harut et Marut, ou la présence de deux anges musulmans dans nombre de productions écrites occidentales

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Chimkovitch

    2011-01-01

    À partir de la fin du XIIe siècle, le récit de Harut et Marut, anges musulmans coupables de fornication, apparaît dans certaines productions écrites occidentales. Cet article montre comment les premiers traducteurs du Coran, des théologiens, un pape, un empereur byzantin, des cosmographes, des historiens, des orientalistes, des encyclopédistes, des botanistes et finalement des écrivains français et anglais se sont servis de cet épisode, et l’ont véhiculé jusqu’au milieu du XIXe siècle.The sto...

  10. Encapsulated nitrate and cashew nut shell liquid on blood and rumen constituents, methane emission, and growth performance of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zaiat, H M; Araujo, R C; Soltan, Y A; Morsy, A S; Louvandini, H; Pires, A V; Patino, H O; Correa, P S; Abdalla, A L

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate can be a source of NPN for microbial growth at the same time that it reduces ruminal methane production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 encapsulated nitrate products used as urea replacers on blood and rumen constituents, methane emission, and growth performance of lambs. Eighteen Santa Inês male lambs (27 ± 4.9 kg) were individually allotted to indoor pens and assigned to a randomized complete block design with 6 blocks and 3 dietary treatments: control (CTL) = 1.5% urea, ENP = 4.51% encapsulated nitrate product (60.83% NO3(-) in the product DM), and ENP+CNSL = 4.51% ENP containing cashew nut shell liquid (60.83% NO3(-) and 2.96% cashew nut shell liquid [CNSL] in the product DM). Diets were isonitrogenous with 60:40 concentrate:forage (Tifton 85 hay) ratio. The experiment lasted for 92 d and consisted of 28 d for adaptation (a weekly 33% stepwise replacement of CTL concentrate by nitrate-containing concentrates) and 64 d for data collection. The ENP and ENP+CNSL showed greater (P 0.05) among treatments, with mean values within normal range and remaining below 1.1% of total hemoglobin. There was an increase (P 0.05) were observed on acetate to propionate ratio. Methane production (L/kg DMI) was reduced (P 0.05) in further reduction of methane production when compared with ENP. Final BW, DMI, ADG, and feed efficiency were similar (P > 0.05) among treatments. Values for DMI were 1.11, 1.03, and 1.04 kg/d and for ADG were 174, 154, and 158 g for CTL, ENP, and ENP+CNSL, respectively. In conclusion, encapsulated nitrate products showed no risks of toxicity based on MetHb formation. The products persistently reduced methane production without affecting performance. Inclusion of cashew nut shell liquid in the product formulation had no additional benefits on methane mitigation.

  11. Efficientcy of corrosion protection properties of epoxy resin/cashew nut shell liquid alloy reinforced with titanium dioxide

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    Wilaivan Loonpooht

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cure behavior of epoxy resin containing cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL and corrosion protective performance of epoxy alloy reinforced with titanium dioxide (TiO2 have been investigated. According to FTIR spectra obtained from epoxy alloys, the CNSL can be employed as a curing agent. The curing process occurred when amount of CNSL was as low as 20%wt. It was found experimentally that the CNSL used for epoxy curing should not be higher than 40%wt.in order to minimize amount CNSL left after reaction. The corrosion protective performance of epoxy alloy on aluminum sheets was carried out. The results revealed that the ability of corrosion resistance increased with the amount of TiO2 introduced into the Epoxy/CNSL film investigated. In this work, the highest corrosion resistance value was found when the TiO2 concentration of 1.5 %wt was reached.

  12. Selective conversion of polyenes to monoenes by RuCl(3) -catalyzed transfer hydrogenation: the case of cashew nutshell liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdriau, Sébastien; Harder, Sjoerd; Heeres, Hero J; de Vries, Johannes G

    2012-12-01

    Cardanol, a constituent of cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL), was subjected to transfer hydrogenation catalyzed by RuCl(3) using isopropanol as a reductant. The side chain of cardanol, which is a mixture of a triene, a diene, and a monoene, was selectively reduced to the monoene. Surprisingly, it is the C8-C9 double bond that is retained with high selectivity. A similar transfer hydrogenation of linoleic acid derivatives succeeded only if the substrate contained an aromatic ring, such as a benzyl ester. TEM and a negative mercury test showed that the catalyst was homogeneous. By using ESI-MS, ruthenium complexes were identified that contained one, two, or even three molecules of substrate, most likely as allyl complexes. The interaction between ruthenium and the aromatic ring determines selectivity in the hydrogenation reaction.

  13. Evaluation of Nutritional Quality of Dried Cashew Nut Testa Using Laboratory Rat as a Model for Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong Donkoh; Victoria Attoh-Kotoku; Reginald Osei Kwame; Richard Gascar

    2012-01-01

    Dried cashew nut testa (DCNT) was characterized with respect to proximate, mineral, and energy profile. The crude protein, crude fibre, and fat and ash contents were, in g kg−1 DM, 190.0, 103.0, 20.1, and 20.2, respectively, with metabolizable energy of 7.12 MJ kg−1 DM. In a feeding trial, isoproteic diets containing DCNT (O, 50, 100, and 150 g kg−1) were fed ad libitum to 4 groups of Sprague-Dawley male rats (110 g body weight, = 2 0 ) for a period of 4 weeks. The rats, used as model for p...

  14. Prevalence of Salmonella in Cashews, Hazelnuts, Macadamia Nuts, Pecans, Pine Nuts, and Walnuts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Hu, Lijun; Melka, David; Wang, Hua; Laasri, Anna; Brown, Eric W; Strain, Errol; Allard, Marc; Bunning, Vincent K; Musser, Steven M; Johnson, Rhoma; Santillana Farakos, Sofia; Scott, Virginia N; Pouillot, Régis; Doren, Jane M Van; Hammack, Thomas S

    2017-03-01

    Nuts have been identified as a vector for salmonellosis. The objective of this project was to estimate the prevalence and contamination level of Salmonella in raw tree nuts (cashews, pecans, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts) at retail markets in the United States. A total of 3,656 samples of six types of tree nuts were collected from different types of retail stores and markets nationwide between October 2014 and October 2015. These samples were analyzed using a modified version of the Salmonella culture method from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Of the 3,656 samples collected and tested, 32 were culturally confirmed as containing Salmonella. These isolates represented 25 serotypes. Salmonella was not detected in pecans and in-shell hazelnuts. Salmonella prevalence estimates (and 95% confidence intervals) in cashews, shelled hazelnuts, pine nuts, walnuts, and macadamia nuts were 0.55% [0.15, 1.40], 0.35% [0.04, 1.20], 0.48% [0.10, 1.40], 1.20% [0.53, 2.40], and 4.20% [2.40, 6.90], respectively. The rates of Salmonella isolation from major or big chain supermarkets, small chain supermarkets, discount, variety, or drug stores, and online were 0.64% [0.38, 1.00], 1.60% [0.80, 2.90], 0.00% [0.00, 2.40], and 13.64% [2.90, 35.00], respectively (Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test: P = 0.02). The rates of Salmonella isolation for conventional and organic nuts were not significantly different. Of the samples containing Salmonella, 60.7% had levels less than 0.003 most probable number (MPN)/g. The highest contamination level observed was 0.092 MPN/g. The prevalence and levels of Salmonella in these tree nut samples were comparable to those previously reported for similar foods.

  15. Immobilization of cationic antimicrobial peptides and natural cashew gum in nanosheet systems for the investigation of anti-leishmanial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Bittencourt, Clicia; Oliveira Farias, Emanuel Airton de; Costa Bezerra, Karla; Costa Véras, Leiz Maria [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Ministro Reis Velloso, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piauí, UFPI, Parnaíba, PI 64202020 (Brazil); Costa Silva, Vladimir [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Ministro Reis Velloso, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piauí, UFPI, Parnaíba, PI 64202020 (Brazil); Laboratório de Pesquisas em Leishmanioses, Instituto de Doenças Tropicais Natan Portela–IDTNP, Teresina 64001450 (Brazil); Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery [Laboratório de Pesquisas em Leishmanioses, Instituto de Doenças Tropicais Natan Portela–IDTNP, Teresina 64001450 (Brazil); Bemquerer, Marcelo P. [EMBRAPA Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, 70770-917 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Laboratório de Espectrometria de Massa, LEM, Sala de Nanotecnologia, EMBRAPA, Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, Brasília, DF 70770-917 (Brazil); Silva, Luciano Paulino [EMBRAPA Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, 70770-917 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Souza de Almeida Leite, José Roberto de [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Ministro Reis Velloso, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piauí, UFPI, Parnaíba, PI 64202020 (Brazil); and others

    2016-02-01

    This report details the development of thin films containing an antimicrobial peptide, specifically, dermaseptin 01 (GLWSTIKQKGKEAAIAAA-KAAGQAALGAL-NH{sub 2}, [DRS 01]), and a natural polysaccharide, for a novel application in detecting the presence of Leishmania cells and maintaining anti-leishmanial activity. The peptide DRS 01 was immobilized in conjunction with natural cashew gum (CG) onto an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate using the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition technique. The LbL film ITO/CG/DRS 01, containing DRS 01 as the outer layer, was capable of detecting the presence of Leishmania cells and acting as an anti-leishmanial system. Detection was performed using cyclic voltammetry (CV) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.2) in the presence of promastigote cells (0–10{sup 7} cells/mL). The results showed a linear and inversely proportional relation between the concentration of Leishmania infantum protozoan cells and the measured current values obtained for the films, which was attributed to the effect of peptide-induced lysis of the cell membrane, and resulted in freed residues that were adsorbed on the electrode surface. With this, the paper shows a method using thin films with this new material to demonstrate the anti-leishmanial activity in vitro models of carpet-like mechanisms. - Highlights: • Layer-by-Layer films based on a natural polysaccharide (cashew gum) and an antimicrobial peptide (DRS 01) were prepared and characterized. • The films produced were capable of detecting the presence of Leishmania cells, acting as an antileishmanial system.

  16. Nutritional evaluation of elephant-grass silages with different levels of by-products from the cashew juice industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Holanda Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the intake, apparent digestibility (AD, and degradability in situ of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum silages containing 0, 35.0, 70.0, 105.0, and 140.0 g kg-1 by-product from dried cashew apple (DCBP (as fed basis. A completely randomized design with four replicates was adopted. For the study of degradability in situ, one adult male cattle was used in a completely randomized design with split plots. Intake and AD of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicellulose, and cellulose were evaluated, and the digestible energy (DE and nitrogen balance (NB of the silages were determined. The degradability in situ of DM, CP, and NDF was also determined. Addition of DCBP provided an increase in the intakes of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF. No effects of the levels of addition of DCBP were observed on the coefficients of AD of the silages. Regarding NB, positive values were only detected in the treatment with 105.0 g kg-1 DCBP. In the analysis of the degradability in situ, the incubation periods increased the rates of disappearance of DM, CP, and NDF. However, no effect of the levels of DCBP were observed on the effective degradability of DM. The by-product from dried cashew apple can be included at up to 140.0 g kg-1 in silages of elephant grass, but the high contents of acid detergent insoluble nitrogen may compromise the use and availability of nitrogen to the animals.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of non-toxic and thermo-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-grafted cashew gum nanoparticles as a potential epirubicin delivery matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Clara M W S; Paula, Haroldo C B; Seabra, Vitor; Feitosa, Judith P A; Sarmento, Bruno; de Paula, Regina C M

    2016-12-10

    Cashew gum (CG) was grafted with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) by radical polymerization to originate a stimuli-sensitive copolymer for drug delivery purposes. NMR and IR spectroscopy confirmed the insertion of NIPA onto the cashew gum chains. The graft copolymer (CG:NIPA) demonstrated thermal responsiveness. The critical aggregation concentration of the copolymers at 25°C was higher than at 50°C. At temperatures lower than the LCST, the nanoparticle size ranged from 12 to 21nm, depending on the CG:NIPA ratio, but above the LCST the particles aggregated, increasing the particle size. Regarding the potential for future oral application, the nanoparticles showed no cytotoxic activity against the Caco-2 and HT29-MTX intestine cell lines. Epirubicin was encapsulated into nanoparticles of CG-NIPA (1:1), resulting in a 64% association efficiency and 22% loading capacity. Thus, the CG:NIPA graft copolymer demonstrates good potential for used in controlled drug delivery systems.

  18. Salt-induced delay in cotyledonary globulin mobilization is abolished by induction of proteases and leaf growth sink strength at late seedling establishment in cashew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Luiz Ferreira Aguiar; Silva, André Luis Coelho da; Carvalho, Fabrício Eulálio Leite; Maia, Josemir Moura; Voigt, Eduardo Luiz; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio Gomes

    2014-09-15

    Seedling establishment in saline conditions is crucial for plant survival and productivity. This study was performed to elucidate the biochemical and physiological mechanisms involved with the recovery and establishment of cashew seedlings subjected to salinity. The changes in the Na+ levels and K/Na ratios, associated with relative water content, indicated that osmotic effects were more important than salt toxicity in the inhibition of seedling growth and cotyledonary protein mobilization. Salinity (50mM NaCl) induced a strong delay in protein breakdown and amino acid accumulation in cotyledons, and this effect was closely related to azocaseinolytic and protease activities. In parallel, proline and free amino acids accumulated in the leaves whereas the protein content decreased. Assays with specific inhibitors indicated that the most important proteases in cotyledons were of serine, cysteine and aspartic types. Proteomic analysis revealed that most of the cashew reserve proteins are 11S globulin-type and that these proteins were similarly degraded under salinity. In the late establishment phase, the salt-treated seedlings displayed an unexpected recovery in terms of leaf growth and N mobilization from cotyledon to leaves. This recovery coordinately involved a great leaf expansion, decreased amino acid content and increased protein synthesis in leaves. This response occurred in parallel with a prominent induction in the cotyledon proteolytic activity. Altogether, these data suggest that a source-sink mechanism involving leaf growth and protein synthesis may have acted as an important sink for reserve mobilization contributing to the seedling establishment under salinity. The amino acids that accumulated in the leaves may have exerted negative feedback to act as a signal for the induction of protease activity in the cotyledon. Overall, these mechanisms employed by cashew seedlings may be part of an adaptive process for the efficient rescue of cotyledonary proteins

  19. A report on occurrence of aphidophagous predators of Aphis odinae (van der Goot (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cashew ecosystem from Goa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy Maruthadurai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aphid, Aphis odinae (Van der Goot (Hemiptera: Aphididae is a polyphagous, occasional insect pest of cashew.  A field survey was conducted from 2014 to 2015 in cashew plantations to record the incidence of aphid and its predators.  Periodical sampling revealed, the occurrence of six species of aphidophagous predators comprising three species of coccinellids, viz., Scymnus castaneus Sicard, Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius and Pseudaspidimerus flaviceps (Walker and three species of syrphids, viz., Paragus serratus (Fabricius, Dideopsis aegrota (Fabricius and Ischidon scutellaris (Fabricius were found predating on A. odinae.  All the immature stages of predators were found predating on first, second, third and fourth instars of the aphid.  Among the coccinellids, the dominant species were S. castaneus (4.26 grubs/nut followed by C. sexmaculata (0.42 grubs/leaf and P. flaviceps (0.14 grubs/nut.  Of the syrphids, P. serratus 2.39 larvae/nut was the major predator. The species D. aegrota (1.2 larvae/leaf and I. scutellaris (0.5 larvae/nut were recorded as minor predators.  Seasonal abundance of predators was synchronized with the aphid with a maximum occurrence during February 2015.  The aphid population gradually reduced from April onwards due to the voracious feeding activity of the predators.  The study concluded that the aphidophagous predators, viz., coccinellids and syrphids play a  major role in managing the aphid A. odinae in cashew and could be encouraged for augmentation and conservation of these predators in a cashew based ecosystem.

  20. The Physicochemical Optimization and Acceptability of a Cashew Nut-Based Beverage Varying in Mango Juice and Sugar: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Marina C. Rebouças; Maria do C. P. Rodrigues; Silvia M. de Freitas; Bruno B. A. Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The development of a lactose-free beverage comes as a new feeding alternative to a product with excellent nutritional and functional characteristics to individuals with food restrictions related to milk. Thus, this study aimed to develop a cashew nut beverage with added mango juice and prebiotic substances by means of evaluating its sensory characteristics and physicochemical optimization. A 22 central composite rotatable design with five repetitions at the central point was applied to evalua...

  1. Seasonal Abundance of Mango Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Ecological Implications for Their Management in Mango and Cashew Orchards in Benin (Centre & North).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayssières, J-F; De Meyer, M; Ouagoussounon, I; Sinzogan, A; Adandonon, A; Korie, S; Wargui, R; Anato, F; Houngbo, H; Didier, C; De Bon, H; Goergen, G

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of a large-scale (six orchards) and long-term (5-yr) study on seasonal population fluctuations of fruit flies (Diptera Tephritidae) in mango (2005-2009) and cashew (2007-2009) orchards in the Borgou Department, Benin.During the five consecutive years of mango fruit fly monitoring, 25 tephritid species were captured including three species of Bactrocera, 11 of Ceratitis, and 11 of Dacus, which is represented by 2,138,150 specimens in mango orchards. We observed significant differences in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) counts between "high" and "low" mango production years from 2005 to 2008 but not in Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) counts. The native species, C. cosyra, the most abundant species during the dry season, peaked beginning of May, while the exotic species, B. dorsalis, the most abundant species during the rainy season, peaked in June. Preliminary results underlined the role of nine species of wild hosts and seven species of cultivated ones around mango orchards that played an important role in maintaining B. dorsalis in this Sudan zone all year round. The presence of C. cosyra stretched over 9 mo.During the first 14 wk of tephritid monitoring on cashew orchards situated near mango orchards, most flies (62%) were captured in traps positioned in cashew orchards, showing the strong interest of an early fly control on cashew before the mango season. According to these results, in the Sudan zone, effective and compatible control methods as proposed by the IPM package validated by the West African Fruit Fly Initiative project against mango fruit flies are proposed for a large regional tephritid control program in same zones of West Africa.

  2. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

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    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.

  3. Crescimento e conteúdo de nutrientes do cajueiro anão irrigado com águas salinas

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    Arlington Ricardo de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  4. 莫桑比克腰果病虫害种类及其防治%Diseases and Insect Pests of Cashew in Mozambique and Their Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁李宏; 张中润; Americo Uaciquete; 黄海杰

    2011-01-01

    The category and damage of diseases and insect pests of cashew in Nampula, Inhambane, Gaza and Maputo provinces in Mozambique were studied, 8 species of diseases and 39 species of insect pests were identified. The major diseases were powdery mildew and anthracnose, and the major insect pests were tea mosquito bug (Helopeltis schoutedeni Reuter and Helopeltis anacardii Miller), coconut bug (Pseudothe rap tits wayi Brown), cashew weevil (Mecocorynus loripes Chevrolat) and red-banded thrip (Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Ciard)). Control measures for major diseases and insect pests of cashew in Mozambique were also given in this paper.%在莫桑比克楠普拉省、伊尼扬巴内省、加扎省和马普托省对腰果病虫害进行了系统的调查,发现为害腰果的病害8种,害虫39种.其中主要病害有白粉病和炭疽病,主要害虫有棉角盲蝽、安氏角盲蝽、椰缘蝽、腰果鹰嘴象甲和红带蓟马.并对莫桑比克主要腰果病虫害提出了相应的防治措施.

  5. Avaliação da cinética de secagem de caju mediante um planejamento experimental Evaluation of kinetics of cashew drying by an experimental planning

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    Josivanda P. G. de Gouveia

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar a cinética de secagem de caju em um secador de leito fixo, utilizando-se um planejamento experimental. A temperatura, variando de 35 a 65 ºC e a velocidade do ar de 0,9 a 1,9 m s-1, formaram as variáveis do processo. Os pseudofrutos foram fatiados em pedaços circulares de aproximadamente 0,5 cm de espessura. Mediante análise de regressão, verificou-se efeito significativo da temperatura sobre a redução da razão de umidade do caju e, ainda, que o modelo quadrático foi o que melhor representou os dados experimentais, sendo a temperatura o fator controlador do processo.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the kinetics of cashew drying in a fixed bed dryer, using a planned experiment. The temperature varied from 35 to 65 ºC and air speed from 0.9 to 1.9 m s-1, forming the variables of the process. The cashew fruits were sliced in circular pieces of approximately 0.5 cm of thickness. By regression analysis, significant effect of the temperature was verified on the reduction of the moisture ratio of cashew and that the quadratic model was the one that best represented the experimental data, temperature being the controlling factor of the process.

  6. Nitrogen availability, leaf life span and nitrogen conservation mechanisms in leaves of tropical trees Disponibilidade de nitrogênio, longevidade foliar e mecanismos de conservação de nitrogênio em folhas de espécies arbóreas tropicais

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    Guilherme Nascimento Corte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Evergreen species of temperate regions are dominant in low-nutrient soils. This feature is attributed to more efficient mechanisms of nutrient economy. Nevertheless, the cashew (Anacardium occidentale- Anacardiaceae, a deciduous species, is native to regions in Brazil with sandy soil, whilst the annatto (Bixa orellana- Bixaceae, classified as an evergreen species native to tropical America, grows spontaneously in regions with more humid soils. Evergreens contain robust leaves that can resist adverse conditions for longer. The physical aspects of the leaves and mechanisms of nutrient economy between the two species were compared, in order to verify whether the deciduous species had more efficient mechanisms that might explain its occurrence in regions of low soil fertility. The mechanisms of nitrogen economy were also compared for the two species at available concentrations of this nutrient. The following were analysed: (i leaf life span, (ii physical leaf characteristics (leaf mass per area, and rupture strain, (iii nitrogenous compounds (nitrogen, chlorophyll, and protein, (iv nitrogen conservation mechanisms (nitrogen resorption efficiency, resorption proficiency, and use efficiency, and (v nitrogen conservation mechanisms under different availability of this mineral. The higher values of leaf mass per area and leaf rupture strain found in A. occidentale were related to its longer leaf life span. A. occidentale showed lower concentrations of nitrogen and protein in the leaves than B. orellana. Under lower nitrogen availability, A. occidentale had higher nitrogen resorption proficiency, nitrogen use efficiency and leaf life span than B. orellana. These characteristics may contribute to the adaptation of this species to sandy soils with low nitrogen content.Perenifólias de clima temperado são dominantes em solos pouco férteis. Essa característica é atribuída a mecanismos mais eficientes de economia de nutrientes. O cajueiro (Anacardium

  7. Antifungal activity of plant-based tinctures on Candida

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    Andreia Medeiros Rodrigues Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate through determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC the antifungal activity of Salvia officinalis (sage, Anacardium occidentale (cashew and Malva sylvestris (mallow tinctures on Candida albicans (ATCC 40227, C. tropicalis (ATCC 13803 and C. krusei (ATCC 40147. Material and methods: In 96-well microplates, 100 μl of Sabouraud-Dextrose broth doubly concentrated, 100 μl of the tested tinctures and 10 μl of fungal inoculums (1.5 x 106 organisms/ml were inserted. The products were diluted from initial concentration of 100 mg/ml until 0.78 mg/ml. MIC corresponded to the lowest dilution at which there was no visible fungal growth. Nystatin (100,000 UI/ml was used as control. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (p < 0.05. Results: S. officinalis tincture did not inhibit the growth of C. albicans and C. tropicalis; MIC was 100 mg/ml for C. krusei. For A. occidentale, MIC was 100 mg/ml for C. albicans and C. krusei, and for C. tropicalis, there was no fungal inhibition. M. sylvestris tincture presented MIC at 25 mg/ml for C. krusei and 100 mg/ml for C. albicans and C. tropicalis. The best antifungal activity was showed by M. sylvestris tincture (p < 0.05. Conclusion: M. sylvestris tincture exhibited antifungal activity against all the tested strains at lower concentrations. S. officinalis tincture inhibited the action of C. krusei and A. occidentale tincture showed activity against C. albicans and C. tropicalis.

  8. Toxic studies on biochemical parameters carried out in rats with Serankottai nei, a siddha drug-milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, T; Muthulakshmi, V; Sachdanandam, P

    2000-01-01

    A toxicological study was carried out in rats with a Siddha preparation, milk extracts of Semecarpus anacardium nuts. The effect of acute (72 h) and subacute (30 days) treatment of the drug with different dosage on liver and kidney functions and hematological parameters were studied. The acute toxicity studies with this drug did not produce mortality at any dose level given (75-2000 mg/kg body weight). No marked adverse alterations were observed in hematological and biochemical parameters during the subacute toxicity studies (50, 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight). In the subacute treatment, the highest dose (500 mg/kg body weight) alone showed a moderate increase in the level of blood glucose, plasma urea, uric acid, and creatinine. In addition, alteration in lipid profiles were observed which may be attributed to the ghee preparation of the drug. Decrease in urinary urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were also observed. Histopathological examination of vital organs showed normal architecture suggesting no morphological disturbances.

  9. Therapeutic effects of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract on the changes associated with collagen and glycosaminoglycan metabolism in adjuvant arthritic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2006-07-25

    The effect of milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract (SA) was studied to gain some insight into this intriguing disease with reference to collagen metabolism. Arthritis was induced in rats by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant containing 10mg of heat killed mycobacterium tuberculosis in 1 ml paraffin oil (0.1 ml) into the left hind paw of the rat intradermally. After 14 days of induction, SA (150 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered orally by gastric intubations for 14 days. Decreased levels of collagen and glycosaminoglycans (GAGS) components (chondroitin sulphate, heparan sulphate, hyaluronic acid) and increase in the levels of connective tissue degrading lysosomal glycohydrolases such as acid phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase, beta-N-acetyl glucosaminidase and cathepsin-D observed in arthritic animals were reverted back to near normal levels upon treatment with SA. The drug effectively regulated the uriniray markers of collagen metabolism namely hexosamine, hexuronic acid, hydroxyproline and total GAGS. Electron microscopic studies also revealed the protective effect of SA. Hence, it can be suggested that SA very effectively regulate the collagen metabolism that derange during arthritic condition.

  10. Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract, an indigenous drug preparation, modulates reactive oxygen/nitrogen species levels and antioxidative system in adjuvant arthritic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2005-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are highly reactive transient chemical species, which play an important role in the etiology of tissue injury in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The effects of milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut (SA) was studied on adjuvant arthritis in rats. Arthritis was induced by injecting 0.1 ml of heat killed mycobacterium tuberculosis (10 mg/ml of paraffin oil) intradermally into the left hind paw. A significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxides (LPO), ROS (superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, H(2)O(2) and myeloperoxidase) and RNS (nitrate+nitrite) observed in adjuvant arthritic animals were found to be significantly decreased on administration of the drug at 150 mg/kg body weight/day. The antioxidant defense system studied in arthritic animals were altered significantly as evidenced by the decrease in antioxidants. Treatment with SA recouped the altered antioxidant defense components to near normal levels. These evidences suggest that the free radical mediated damage during arthritis could have been controlled by SA by its free radical quenching and antioxidative potential. (Mol Cell Biochem 276: 97-104, 2005).

  11. Stress induced neuron degeneration and protective effects of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. and Withania somnifera Dunn. in hippocampus of albino rats: an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S D; Jain, S; Sharma, K; Bhatnagar, M

    2000-10-01

    Effects of herbal formulations were studied on hippocampal neuron cell bodies. Study was carried out in adult Swiss albino rats. Experimental rats (E) were divided into three groups. Group E1 rats were given immobilization stress for 14 hr/day for 30 days. Rats in E2 and E3 group were given daily single dose (40 mg/kg/body wt.) of alcoholic extract of S. anacardium and W. somnifera. After 1 hr giving the plant extract, the rats were subjected to stress. Treatment continued for 14 hr for 30 days. Control rats were kept in complete nonstress condition. Ultrastructural characteristics of neuron cell bodies in hippocampal sublayer (CA1-CA4 and Dg) was studied in rats of E1, E2 and E3 groups and compared with control. Results of the present study demonstrated, that both CA2 and Dg, 85% of neuron cell bodies exhibited degenerating characteristics, (which includes karyorrhexis, membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, chromatin fragmentation and intracellular spacing). Interestingly, after the treatment with S. ancardium cells demonstrating degenerating characteristics was significantly reduced (80%) as compared to treatment with W. somnifera. Study suggests that probably both the herbal drugs have cytoprotective properties.

  12. Protective effect of 3-O-methyl quercetin and kaempferol from Semecarpus anacardium against H2O2 induced cytotoxicity in lung and liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A D Naveen; Bevara, Ganesh Babu; Kaja, Laxmi Koteswaramma; Badana, Anil Kumar; Malla, Rama Rao

    2016-09-29

    Hydrogen peroxide is continuously generated in living cells through metabolic pathways and serves as a source of reactive oxygen species. Beyond the threshold level, it damages cells and causes several human disorders, including cancer. Effect of isolated 3-O-methyl quercetin and kaempferol on H2O2 induced cytotoxicity, ROS formation, plasma membrane damage, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage was evaluated in normal liver and lung cells. The RT-PCR analysis used to determine Nrf 2 gene expression. Calorimetric ELISA was used to determine Nrf2 and p-38 levels. Expression of SOD and catalase was analyzed by Western blot analysis. The present study isolated 3-O-methyl quercetin and kaempferol from the stem bark. They protected normal lung and liver cells from H2O2 induced cytotoxicity, ROS formation, membrane damage and DNA damage. Pre-treatment with 3-O-methyl quercetin and kaempferol caused translocation of Nrf2 from cytosol to nucleus. It also increased expression of p-p38, Nrf2, SOD and catalase in H2O2 treated lung and liver cells. The flavonoids isolated from S. anacardium significantly reduced H2O2 induced stress and increased expression of Nrf2, catalase and superoxide dismutase-2 indicating cytoprotective nature of 3-O-methylquercetin and kaempferol.

  13. Análise da castanha do cajueiro por tomografia de ressonância magnética Cashew nut analysis by magnetic resonance tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Rodrigues de Paiva

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a técnica de tomografia de ressonância magnética na análise de castanhas de cajueiro, em relação ao método tradicional, visando sua aplicação na seleção de clones. Amostras de castanhas de 40 clones de cajueiro comum, colhidas na safra de 2002, foram analisadas por ambos os métodos. Pelo método tradicional, a maioria dos clones apresentou altos e médios valores dos indicadores industriais massa de castanha, massa de amêndoa e rendimento industrial e baixos índices de quebra das amêndoas. Pela tomografia, a maioria dos clones apresentou castanhas com espaços vazios entre a amêndoa e o endocarpo, que podem proteger a amêndoa durante a decorticação. Os resultados dos dois métodos foram complementares, e a tomografia, além de alternativa promissora na avaliação da qualidade de castanha, pode subsidiar outras áreas de pesquisa relacionadas ao estudo da castanha.The objective of this work was to evaluate the technique of magnetic resonance tomography for cashew nut analysis, compared to the traditional method of clone selection. Samples of cashew nut from 40 clones harvested in 2002 were analyzed using both methods. Using traditional method most of clones showed high and medium values of the industrial indicators nut and seed mass and industrial yield and low values of seed breakage. By magnetic resonance tomography majority of clones showed cashew nuts with empty spaces between the nut and the endocarp, which can protect the seed during decortication. The results for the two methods were complementary and the tomography, besides being a promising option for the quality evaluation of cashew nut, can give support to other researches related to cashew nut study.

  14. Cashew Chain Value in Guiné-Bissau: Challenges and Contributions for Food Security: A Case Study for Guiné-Bissau

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    Bernardo Reynolds Pacheco de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Guiné-Bissau is a recent example of political stabilization after a recent period of instability, where the international community can play an important role in cooperation and development, but with innovation and new effective policies. Food security is certainly one of the big issues to be addressed and cashew production and respective chain value one of the main opportunities to improve the quality of life for many families. Guinea-Bissau can be considered one of the most fragile countries in Sub-Sahara Africa, but at the same time with significant economic potential. Poverty alleviation is very much dependent from agricultural activities and agribusiness will be always at the core of the most possible solutions. Within those possible solutions the contribution of the cashew sector is crucial, which has been playing already a key role in the economy and in the family survival equation. More than 80% of the families depend from agricultural activities and most of them are linked to the production of cashew. This crop represents more than 90% of exports, and at the same time is responsible for income alleviation resources at local family base. However Cashew expansion is a very recent phenomena, with about 20 years of success, beyond all political “turmoil.” Today the country is the second biggest in Africa, after Ivory Coast, and the fourth worldwide (also after India and Vietnam. Exports were around 20 thousand tons in 1990 and close to 200 thousand tons in the last year’s production. But the most important factors to be considered in a cash crop business is also a very “unique” structure of production, mostly family based and where the average dimension of production per family is dominantly between 1 to 2 hectares. Very much related to those structural characteristics, which vary by region, is the role of this crop in the food security dimension of the families, which is calculated to represent in average 4,8 months of income

  15. Transpiration and stomatal resistance variations of perennial tropical crops under soil water availability conditions and water deficit

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    José Ozinaldo Alves de Sena

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available During the dry and rainy seasons, determinations of stomatal resistance and transpiration of five tropical crops were carried out: guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, coffee (Coffea arabica L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., guava (Psidium guajava L. and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. - Arg. trees. Experimental design was done at randomized complete blocks with five replications. During the dry season there was a decrease in values of stomatal resistance in the following order: guarana > coffee> cashew> guava > rubber, with values from 2.5 to 30.0 s.cm-1. During the rainy season the stomatal resistance values varied from 1.5 to 3.0 s.cm-1. The guarana and coffee crops showed higher resistance to water transpiration when compared to other crops. During the rainy season, the rubber tree continued to present lower stomatal resistance and, consequently, higher transpiration.O experimento foi realizado no Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brasil, utilizando-se as culturas de guaranazeiro (Paullinia cupana Kunth, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L., goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. e seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. - Arg.. No período de seca (setembro/94 e de chuvas (novembro/94, realizaram-se determinações de resistência estomática (RE (s cm-1 e transpiração (T (µg cm-1 s-1 nas diferentes espécies. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com cinco repetições. A partir das análises dos dados pode-se concluir: 1. diferenças significativas entre espécies, em termos das variáveis avaliadas no período de deficiência hídrica, com valores decrescentes de resistência estomática e crescente de transpiração na seguinte ordem: guaranazeiro > cafeeiro > cajueiro > goiabeira > seringueira; 2. Nas águas as diferenças entre espécies, para ambas as variáveis, foram menos evidentes, continuando a

  16. M. Segard, Les Alpes occidentales romaines. Développement urbain et exploitation des ressources des régions de montagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Ferdière

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Comme l’indique le texte de présentation (en p. 4 de couverture – comme d’ailleurs la préface de Philippe Leveau (p. 9-10 –, le propos de la Thèse de Doctorat de Maxence Segard (Université de Provence, ss la dir. de Ph. Leveau, 2005, ici heureusement publiée, est de réviser en profondeur la vision classique des Alpes – pour la partie occidentale de l’arc –, telle que vue à travers le prisme du topos romain, grâce aux données certes aussi textuelles et épigraphiques, mais surtout archéologi...

  17. Effect of technical cashew nut shell liquid on rumen methane emission and lactation performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, A F; Giallongo, F; Frederick, T; Weeks, H; Oh, J; Hristov, A N

    2015-06-01

    Technical-grade cashew nut shell liquid (TCNSL) is a by-product of the cashew nut industry in tropical countries, and is known to exhibit a wide range of biological activities, including inhibitory effect against gram-positive bacteria. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of TCNSL (73.3% cardanol, 16.4% cardol, and 3.0% methylcardol) on rumen methane emission, nutrient digestibility, dry matter intake, and milk yield and composition in dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design trial with two 21-d experimental periods. The diet was based on corn silage and alfalfa haylage and was formulated to meet or exceed the energy and metabolizable protein requirements of the cows. Treatments were control (no TCNSL supplementation) or 30 g/cow per day of TCNSL. Rumen carbon dioxide emission was not affected by TCNSL. Treatment had no effect on methane emission (542 vs. 511±35.3 g/cow per day, respectively) and methane emission intensity (15.0 vs. 13.9±0.58 g/kg of energy-corrected milk, respectively) and tended to decrease methane emission per kilogram of dry matter intake (20.2 vs. 18.6±1.04 g/kg, respectively). Dry matter intake (average 26.9±1.00 kg/d), milk yield (40.0±1.73 kg/d), and milk composition were not different between treatments. The TCNSL had no effect on N losses in urine and feces and total-tract apparent digestibility of nutrients, except digestibility of neutral detergent fiber tended to be increased compared with the control. Plasma urea and glucose concentrations were not affected by TCNSL. Concentration of milk C18:0 tended to be decreased (17%) by TCNSL compared with the control. In this study, TCNSL did not alter absolute methane emission in the rumen, but tended to decrease it by 8% per kilogram of dry matter intake. The TCNSL had no effect on milk yield and composition in dairy cows.

  18. Agro-Forestry system in West Africa: integrating a green solution to cope with soil depletion towards agricultural sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Filipa; Vidigal, Patricia; Romeiras, Maria Manuel; Ribeiro, Ana; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Viegas, Wanda; Catarino, Luís

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades, agriculture in West Africa has been marked by dramatic shifts with the coverage of single crops, increasing pressure over the available arable land. Yet, West African countries are still striving to achieve sustainable production at an increased scale for global market needs. Market-driven rapid intensification is often a major cause for cropland area expansion at the expense of deforestation and soil degradation, especially to export commodities in times of high prices. Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is nowadays an important export-oriented crop, being produced under intensive cultivation regimes in several tropical regions. Particularly, among the main cashew production areas, West Africa is the most recent and dynamic in the world, accounting for 45% of the world cashew nuts production in 2015. Considering its global market values, several developing countries rely on cashew nuts as national economy revenues, namely in Guinea-Bissau. Considering the intensive regime of cashew production in Guinea-Bissau, and as widely recognized, intensive agriculture linked with extensification can negatively impact ecosystems, affecting natural resources availability, soil erosion and arability compromised by excessive salinity. Ultimately this will result in the disruption of carbon - nitrogen cycle, important to the agricultural ecosystem sustainability. As such, tree intercropped with legumes as cover crops, offers a sustainable management of the land area, thus creating substantial benefits both economically and environmentally, as it enhances diversification of products outputs and proving to be more sustainable than forestry and/or agricultural monocultures. Soil fertility improvement is a key entry point for achieving food security, and also increment agriculture commodities of the agro-system. Without using inorganic fertilizers, the green solution for improving soil management is to incorporate adapted multi-purpose legumes as cover crops

  19. Remoção de metais de solução aquosa usando bagaço de caju Metal removal from aqueous solution using cashew bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Moreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal ions removal on cashew bagasse, a low-cost material, has been studied by batch adsorption. The parameters chemical treatment, particle size, biosorbent concentration, and initial pH were studied. In this study the maximum ions removal was obtained on the cashew bagasse treated with 0.1 mol/L NaOH/3 h, at optimum particle size (20-59 mesh, biosorbent concentration (50 g/L and initial solution pH 5. The kinetic study indicated that the adsorption metal follows pseudo-second order model for a multielementary system and equilibrium time was achieved in 60 min for all metal ions.

  20. Removal of lead(II ions from aqueous solutions using cashew nut shell liquid-templated thiol-silica materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. G. Mdoe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A range of thiol-silica composites were prepared using cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL or one of its phenolic constituents, cardanol, as templates. The procedure involved formation of a CNSL or cardanol emulsion in a water-ethanol system into which (3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane and tetraethyl orthosilicate were simultaneously added at various ratios. The reaction mixture was aged at room temperature for 18 h followed by a Soxhlet extraction of the template and drying. The materials were characterized by diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared, nitrogen physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and acid titration. Results indicated that indeed the thiol-silica composites were successfully prepared, with thiol group loadings ranging from 1.6-2.5 mmol/g. The materials were tested for lead(II adsorption, and results showed that they had maximum adsorption capacities up to 66.7 mg/g, depending on the thiol group loading and type of template used in preparing the adsorbent. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v28i3.5

  1. Novel adsorbent from agricultural waste (cashew NUT shell for methylene blue dye removal: Optimization by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Subramaniam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon, prepared from an agricultural waste, cashew nut shell (CNS was utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB dye from aqueous solution. Batch adsorption study was carried out with variables like pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration and time. The response surface methodology (RSM was applied to design the experiments, model the process and optimize the variable. A 24 full factorial central composite design was successfully employed for experimental design and analysis of the results. The parameters pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, and time considered for this investigation play an important role in the adsorption studies of methylene blue dye removal. The experimental values were in good agreement with the model predicted values. The optimum values of pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration and time are found to be 10, 2.1846 g/L, 50 mg/L and 63 min for complete removal of MB dye respectively.

  2. Intake, digestibility of nutrients, milk production and composition in dairy cows fed on diets containing cashew nut shell liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Antignani Coutinho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of supplementing cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL in the diet of lactating dairy cows on the intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield and composition, and fatty acids composition of milk fat. Four Holsteincows (600±43 kg were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21 days experimental periods. Experimental treatments consisted of CNSL inclusion in a total mixed ration (dry matter basis, as follows: 1 CNSL 0% (control, CON, 2 CNSL 0.012% (0.012, 3 CNSL 0.024% (0.024 and 4 CNSL 0.036% (0.036. Dry matter and nutrients intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients, fat corrected milk yield and milk composition were not affected (p > 0.05 by the inclusion of CNSL in the ration. CNSL linearly decreased the C6:0 concentration (p < 0.02, produced a quadratic response on C13:1n-5 concentration (p < 0.03 and a linear increase on C16:1n-7 concentration (p < 0.04. Results show that an intake of up to 7 gcow-1day-1 (0.036% of CNSL may alter the milk fatty acid composition but does not influence intake, nutrient digestibility and milk yield.

  3. The impact of technical cashew nut shell liquid on thermally-induced trans isomers in edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin; Wang, Feng; He, Fan; Ha, Yi-Ming; Li, Qing-Peng; Jin, Jing; Deng, Zhao-Xuan

    2016-03-01

    The effects of technical cashew nut shell liquid (TCNSL) on the trans isomerization of edible oils during heating are investigated. Edible oils were subjected to thermal treatment at various heating times and temperatures. Our results show that the addition of TCNSL to edible oils at the appropriate concentration during heating suppresses trans fatty acid formation and induces formation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers. A concentration of 0.2 % TCNSL demonstrates the best ability to inhibit formation of trans-oleic acid, trans-linoleic acid, and trans-linolenic acid isomers as well as increase the formation of 9 t,11 t-CLA and 10 t,12 t-CLA isomers. Our analysis indicates that the presence of 0.2 % TCNSL in corn oil does not significantly reduce the acid value, but may significantly lower the peroxide value. TCNSL is also observed to have better function compared to Vitamin E (VE) and tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), indicating that it may be considered an effective additive in edible oils.

  4. Use of Selected Essential Oils to Control Aflatoxin Contaminated Stored Cashew and Detection of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Aziz, Abeer R. M.; Mahmoud, Mohamed A.; Al-Othman, Monira R.; Al-Gahtani, Munirah F.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus spp. associated with cashew from the regions of Riyadh, Dammam, and Abha were isolated and three different culture media were used to qualitatively measure aflatoxin production by Aspergillus via UV light (365 nm), which was expressed as positive or negative. The obtained data showed that six isolates of A. flavus and four isolates of A. parasiticus were positive for aflatoxin production, while all isolates of A. niger were negative. Five commercially essential oils (thyme, garlic, cinnamon, mint, and rosemary) were tested to determine their influence on growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus by performing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the tested essential oils caused highly significant inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus. The extent of the inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production was dependent on the type and concentration of essential oils applied. The results indicate that cinnamon and thyme oils show strong antimicrobial potential. PCR was used with four sets of primer pairs for nor-1, omt-1, ver-1, and aflR genes, enclosed in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. The interpretation of the results revealed that PCR is a rapid and sensitive method. PMID:25705718

  5. Pastas de castanha-de-caju com incorporação de sabores Flavored cashew nut butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Ribeiro Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliaram-se as características de pastas de castanha-de-caju com incorporação de chocolate e canela. As formulações foram elaboradas pela moagem dos ingredientes até obtenção de uma pasta homogênea. Analisaram-se: umidade, pH, cinzas, proteína, gordura, índice de acidez, atividade de água, textura e aceitação sensorial. Os produtos obtidos caracterizaram-se por baixos valores de atividade de água (Characteristics of cashew nut butter with added chocolate and cinnamon were evaluated. Formulations were obtained by grinding ingredients onto a homogeneous paste, which was analyzed for moisture, pH, ash, protein, fat, acid value, water activity, texture and sensory acceptance. Products obtained showed low water activity (<0.32 as well as moisture content (<1.4%. Fat (45.3 to 49.1% and protein (15.4 to 16.3% content were high. Nut butter formulations showed good sensory acceptance (82.9 to 100.0% and purchase intent (60.0 to 80.0% by the tasters.

  6. Use of Selected Essential Oils to Control Aflatoxin Contaminated Stored Cashew and Detection of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer R. M. Abd El-Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus spp. associated with cashew from the regions of Riyadh, Dammam, and Abha were isolated and three different culture media were used to qualitatively measure aflatoxin production by Aspergillus via UV light (365 nm, which was expressed as positive or negative. The obtained data showed that six isolates of A. flavus and four isolates of A. parasiticus were positive for aflatoxin production, while all isolates of A. niger were negative. Five commercially essential oils (thyme, garlic, cinnamon, mint, and rosemary were tested to determine their influence on growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus by performing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The results showed that the tested essential oils caused highly significant inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus. The extent of the inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production was dependent on the type and concentration of essential oils applied. The results indicate that cinnamon and thyme oils show strong antimicrobial potential. PCR was used with four sets of primer pairs for nor-1, omt-1, ver-1, and aflR genes, enclosed in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. The interpretation of the results revealed that PCR is a rapid and sensitive method.

  7. Use of selected essential oils to control aflatoxin contaminated stored cashew and detection of aflatoxin biosynthesis gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Aziz, Abeer R M; Mahmoud, Mohamed A; Al-Othman, Monira R; Al-Gahtani, Munirah F

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus spp. associated with cashew from the regions of Riyadh, Dammam, and Abha were isolated and three different culture media were used to qualitatively measure aflatoxin production by Aspergillus via UV light (365 nm), which was expressed as positive or negative. The obtained data showed that six isolates of A. flavus and four isolates of A. parasiticus were positive for aflatoxin production, while all isolates of A. niger were negative. Five commercially essential oils (thyme, garlic, cinnamon, mint, and rosemary) were tested to determine their influence on growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus by performing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the tested essential oils caused highly significant inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus. The extent of the inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production was dependent on the type and concentration of essential oils applied. The results indicate that cinnamon and thyme oils show strong antimicrobial potential. PCR was used with four sets of primer pairs for nor-1, omt-1, ver-1, and aflR genes, enclosed in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. The interpretation of the results revealed that PCR is a rapid and sensitive method.

  8. Interplay of Gender Inequities, Poverty and Caste: Implications for Health of Women in the Cashew Industry of Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thresia C.U.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kerala has achieved remarkable improvements in the social sectors despite having a low economy. Yet, beyond the face value of averages, this article argues that, improvements in quality of life of people are not distributed uniformly across gender, social class and caste. Often cultural perceptions and meanings of health and development discourses vary across different sections of the society. Exploration of the life of cashew processing women workers unravel myriad tribulations including higher levels of illiteracy, poverty, morbidity, fertility, gender based violence, caste based inequities, and lack of access to health care and political support. Unequal gender power relations get formatted in the larger matrix of structural inequities, hampering the health of women. Therefore in order to improve the health conditions of women conventional biomedical discourses are inadequate. Social and structural factors determining the health of women have to be addressed, beyond the health sector. Strengthening the public provision of health and social services with active involvement of various participants, particularly woman, is a necessary precondition for improving the quality of health care and life. Yet, the neoliberal initiatives underway in the health sector which strengthens privatisation will further endanger the already weakened public health scenario in the state

  9. Circulation et modélisation de la Méditerranée Occidentale et du Golfe du Lion - Synthèse des connaisssances et des travaux existants

    OpenAIRE

    Obaton, Dominique

    1998-01-01

    Ce travail est un état des connaissances de la circulation et de la modélisation numérique de la Méditerranée occidentale. Il s'attache à décrire les études existantes en Méditerranée occidentale dans son ensemble, soit la zone comprise entre les détroits de Gibraltar et de Sicile, et celles du golfe du Lion qui ont fait l'objet d'une littérature spécifique. Autant que possible, les résultats obtenus par la modélisation sont comparés aux mêmes observations et mesures in situ ainsi que les uns...

  10. Detection of cashew allergen in food with PCR%食品中腰果过敏原成分PCR检测方法建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁飞; 陈颖; 暴书婵; 杨海荣; 赵勇胜; 吴亚君; 王斌; 邓婷婷; 黄文胜; 赵贵明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a PCR method for detection of cashew allergen in food. Methods Nut DNA was extracted with alkyl trimethyl ammonium bromide( CTAB ) and magnetic microspheres. Nine pairs of primers were designed according to cashew allergenic protein gene sequences from NCBI GenBank and a pair of specific primers was screened out by amplifying results. Thirteen nut samples were determined using double PCR with the cashew-specific primer pair AnaO3 F3R3 and plant universal primer pair Plant159. The sensitivity of the PCR method was detected by DNA gradient dilution experiment and the detection of cashew allergen in food was simulated by stimulated sample experiment. Results A260/A280 of DNA extracted by CTAB method was lower than 1. 8, which meant there was protein contamination. While A260/A280 of DNA extracted by magnetic bead method was higher than 1.8, which meant the protein was cleaned. The specificity of primer pair AnaO3 F3R3 was best among the 9 primer pairs and the best anneal temperature was 55.4 ℃. Double PCR method was established to detect cashew and the other 12 kinds of nuts with primer plant 159 and AnaO3 F3R3. Only for cashew the 312bp specific band was amplified. The sensitivity of the method was 0. lpg/μl. And 0. 001% cashew allergen in food could be detected. Conclusion A PCR method for detection of cashew allergen was developed and the method can be used to detect cashew allergen effectively, rapidly, differentially, and sensitively.%目的 建立食品中腰果过敏原成分的PCR检测方法.方法 采用溴化十六烷三甲基胺(CTAB)法和磁珠法提取的坚果DNA,根据GenBank中腰果3种主要致敏蛋白AnaO1、AnaO2、AnaO3的基因序列,设计9对引物;通过扩增效果和特异性,筛选腰果最佳扩增引物对;采用腰果特异性引物对AnaO3 F3R3和植物通用引物对Plant 159,对腰果、杏仁、开心果等13种坚果成分进行双重PCR扩增,确定方法特异性;通过腰果DNA梯度稀释确定该

  11. Shelf-life of Roasted Cashew Nuts as Affected by Relative Humidity, Thickness of Polythene Packaging Material and Duration of Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Irtwange

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of relative humidity, thickness of polythene packaging material and duration of storageon the shelf life of roasted cashew was determined to provide inform ation for packaged roasted cashew nutsmarketers. For this study, split plot in Randomized Complete Block Design was used with a total number of180 observations (3 relative humidity x 4 polythene thicknesses x 5 duration levels of storage x 3 replicationseach for moisture content, microbial count and quality index, which w ere measured using standard procedures.The initial mean moisture content, total fungal counts and percentage quality index of the nuts were found tobe 1.17%db, 30CFU/g and 100% respectively, which were all deemed appropriate in comparison with the setacceptable storage moisture content of 5.8%db, tolerable fungal levels of 103 and 104/g and acceptablepercentage quality index of 45% for roasted cashew nuts which did not exceed its shelf-life and still deemedfit for human consumption. The results of the study indicates that relative humidity, polythene thickness andduration of storage have a highly significant effect (P≤0.01 on moisture content and quality index while forthe microbial count, polythene thickness and duration of storage has significant effect (P≤0.05 with relativehumidity showing non-significance. For all levels of relative humidity and polythene thickness, moisturecontent and microbial count increased with increase in duration of storage w hile quality index decreased withincrease in duration of storage. As the polythene thickness increased at constant storage duration, the moisturecontent decreased. The moisture content of all the samples increased with increase in duration of storage atconstant polythene thickness level. As the thickness of the polythene packaging material increased, the amountof moisture absorbed over time (in days decreases; the total fugal growth decreases, and the percentage qualityindex increases. It is recommended that

  12. Diversity in Secondary Metabolites Including Mycotoxins from Strains of Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolated from Raw Cashew Nuts from Benin, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamboni, Leo Yendouban; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Linnemann, Anita R.

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, raw cashew kernels were assayed for the fungal contamination focusing on strains belonging to the genus Aspergillus and on aflatoxins producers. These samples showed high contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri species and absence of aflatoxins. To investigate...

  13. Evaluation of nutritional quality of dried cashew nut testa using laboratory rat as a model for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkoh, Armstrong; Attoh-Kotoku, Victoria; Osei Kwame, Reginald; Gascar, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Dried cashew nut testa (DCNT) was characterized with respect to proximate, mineral, and energy profile. The crude protein, crude fibre, and fat and ash contents were, in g kg(-1)DM, 190.0, 103.0, 20.1, and 20.2, respectively, with metabolizable energy of 7.12 MJ kg(-1) DM. In a feeding trial, isoproteic diets containing DCNT (O, 50, 100, and 150 g kg(-1)) were fed ad libitum to 4 groups of Sprague-Dawley male rats (110 g body weight, n = 20) for a period of 4 weeks. The rats, used as model for pigs, had free access to water. As the dietary DCNT content was increased from 0 to 150 g kg(-1), there was a significant (P feed intake (r = -0.99), water intake (r = -0.87), and a reduction in body weight gain (r = -0.93) and efficiency of feed utilization (r = 0.78). However, no deaths or health-related problems were recorded during the study. Dietary treatments had no impact on liver, heart, lungs, kidneys, and intestinal weights. Cost per gram feed and feed cost per gram live weight gain were reduced when DCNT was used. The experimental diet containing 50 g DCNT kg(-1) supported the best growth performance with the lowest feed cost per gram live weight gain of GH¢0.18. Seasonal increases in the prices of conventional feedstuffs like maize and fishmeal would make the use of agroindustrial by-products such as DCNT in pig diets even more attractive.

  14. Serum biochemical profile, enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation in organs of laying hens fed diets containing cashew nut shell liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, N M; Freitas, E R; Trevisan, M T S; do Nascimento, G A J; Salles, R P R; Cruz, C E B; Farias, N N P; da Silva, I N G; Watanabe, P H

    2017-03-16

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding laying hens diets containing cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) as a source of anacardic acid on the blood biochemical parameters as well as the enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation of liver and tissues of the reproductive system (ovary, magnum, and uterus). A total of 216 Hisex White commercial laying hens were distributed randomly into six treatments, with six replicates of six birds. Treatments consisted of a diet without growth promoter (GP); a diet with GP; and diets without GP, with addition of increasing levels of CNSL (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0%). Addition of CNSL to the diet did not affect the blood biochemical parameters (uric acid, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins and triglycerides), the enzymatic activity (superoxide dismutase and nonprotein sulphydryl groups) in the organs (liver, ovary, magnum and uterus) or the peroxidation of lipids from the blood serum, liver, magnum and uterus (p > 0.05). However, the addition of 0.75% and 1.00% CNSL provided a lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content in the birds' ovary (p < 0.001) compared to birds of other treatments, whereas the treatment without the GP provided a higher value. Addition of up to 1% of the CNSL as a source of anacardic acid in the laying hens' diets does not influence blood biochemical parameters or the endogenous enzymatic activity in the liver, ovary, magnum and uterus, but affects the lipid peroxidation in the ovary, although the problem is reduced from the inclusion of 0.75% CNSL. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Evaluation of Nutritional Quality of Dried Cashew Nut Testa Using Laboratory Rat as a Model for Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong Donkoh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried cashew nut testa (DCNT was characterized with respect to proximate, mineral, and energy profile. The crude protein, crude fibre, and fat and ash contents were, in g kg−1 DM, 190.0, 103.0, 20.1, and 20.2, respectively, with metabolizable energy of 7.12 MJ kg−1 DM. In a feeding trial, isoproteic diets containing DCNT (O, 50, 100, and 150 g kg−1 were fed ad libitum to 4 groups of Sprague-Dawley male rats (110 g body weight, =20 for a period of 4 weeks. The rats, used as model for pigs, had free access to water. As the dietary DCNT content was increased from 0 to 150 g kg−1, there was a significant (<0.01 decrease in feed intake (=−0.99, water intake (=−0.87, and a reduction in body weight gain (=−0.93 and efficiency of feed utilization (=0.78. However, no deaths or health-related problems were recorded during the study. Dietary treatments had no impact on liver, heart, lungs, kidneys, and intestinal weights. Cost per gram feed and feed cost per gram live weight gain were reduced when DCNT was used. The experimental diet containing 50 g DCNT kg−1 supported the best growth performance with the lowest feed cost per gram live weight gain of GHȼ0.18. Seasonal increases in the prices of conventional feedstuffs like maize and fishmeal would make the use of agroindustrial by-products such as DCNT in pig diets even more attractive.

  16. Analysis of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in cashew nut, nutmeg, apricot kernel, and pine nut samples: re-evaluating the uniqueness of 2-alkylcyclobutanones for irradiated food identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Elvis M K; Tang, Phyllis N Y; Ye, Yuran; Chan, Wan

    2013-10-16

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) have long been considered as unique radiolytic products that can be used as indicators for irradiated food identification. A recent report on the natural existence of 2-ACB in non-irradiated nutmeg and cashew nut samples aroused worldwide concern because it contradicts the general belief that 2-ACBs are specific to irradiated food. The goal of this study is to test the natural existence of 2-ACBs in nut samples using our newly developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method with enhanced analytical sensitivity and selectivity ( Ye , Y. ; Liu , H. ; Horvatovich , P. ; Chan , W. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in irradiated chicken by precolumn derivatization with hydroxylamine . J. Agric. Food Chem. 2013 , 61 , 5758 - 5763 ). The validated method was applied to identify 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-TCB) in nutmeg, cashew nut, pine nut, and apricot kernel samples (n = 22) of different origins. Our study reveals that 2-DCB and 2-TCB either do not exist naturally or exist at concentrations below the detection limit of the existing method. Thus, 2-DCB and 2-TCB are still valid to be used as biomarkers for identifying irradiated food.

  17. Partition of proteins in aqueous two-phase systems based on Cashew-nut tree gum and poly(ethylene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Asfora Sarubbo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning of two proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA and trypsin was studied in an aqueous poly(ethylene glycol(PEG- Cashew-nut tree gum system. The phase diagram was provided for Cashew-nut tree gum and PEG molecular weight of 1500 at two different temperatures. The influence of several parameters including concentrations of polymers, pH, salt addition and temperature on the partitioning of these proteins were investigated.. The results of this research demonstrated the importance of the protein characteristics for partitioning in aqueous biphasic system.A partição de duas proteínas, albumina de soro bovino (BSA e tripsina foi estudada no sistema bifásico aquoso Polietileno glicol(PEG - Goma do cajueiro. O diagrama de fases foi estabelecido para a Goma do Cajueiro e para PEG de peso molecular 1500 em duas diferentes temperaturas. A influência de vários parâmetros na partição destas proteínas, incluindo concentração dos polímeros, pH, adição de sal e temperatura foi investigada. Os resultados desta pesquisa demonstraram a importância das características da proteína na partição em sistemas bifásicos aquosos.

  18. Mapping of a conformational epitope on the cashew allergen Ana o 2: a discontinuous large subunit epitope dependent upon homologous or heterologous small subunit association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lixin; Willison, LeAnna N; Porter, Lauren; Robotham, Jason M; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2010-05-01

    The 11S globulins are members of the cupin protein superfamily and represent an important class of tree nut allergens for which a number of linear epitopes have been mapped. However, specific conformational epitopes for these allergens have yet to be described. We have recently reported a cashew Ana o 2 conformational epitope defined by murine mAb 2B5 and competitively inhibited by a subset of patient IgE antibodies. The 2B5 epitope appears to reside on the large (acidic) subunit, is dependent upon small (basic) subunit association for expression, and is highly susceptible to denaturation. Here we fine map the epitope using a combination of recombinant chimeric cashew Ana o 2-soybean Gly m 6 chimeras, deletion and point mutations, molecular modeling, and electron microscopy of 2B5-Ana o 2 immune complexes. Key residues appear confined to a 24 amino acid segment near the N-terminus of the large subunit peptide, a portion of which makes direct contact with the small subunit. These data provide an explanation for both the small subunit dependence and the structurally labile nature of the epitope.

  19. Mathematical modeling of the ethanol fermentation of cashew apple juice by a flocculent yeast: the effect of initial substrate concentration and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Álvaro Daniel Teles; da Silva Pereira, Andréa; Barros, Emanuel Meneses; Antonini, Sandra Regina Ceccato; Cartaxo, Samuel Jorge Marques; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha B

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the effect of initial sugar concentration and temperature on the production of ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCA008, a flocculent yeast, using cashew apple juice in a 1L-bioreactor was studied. The experimental results were used to develop a kinetic model relating biomass, ethanol production and total reducing sugar consumption. Monod, Andrews, Levenspiel and Ghose and Tyagi models were investigated to represent the specific growth rate without inhibition, with inhibition by substrate and with inhibition by product, respectively. Model validation was performed using a new set of experimental data obtained at 34 °C and using 100 g L(-1) of initial substrate concentration. The model proposed by Ghose and Tyagi was able to accurately describe the dynamics of ethanol production by S. cerevisiae CCA008 growing on cashew apple juice, containing an initial reducing sugar concentration ranging from 70 to 170 g L(-1) and temperature, from 26 to 42 °C. The model optimization was also accomplished based on the following parameters: percentage volume of ethanol per volume of solution (%V ethanol/V solution), efficiency and reaction productivity. The optimal operational conditions were determined using response surface graphs constructed with simulated data, reaching an efficiency and a productivity of 93.5% and 5.45 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively.

  20. Géochimie des gaz naturels et origine des gisements de gaz en Europe occidentale Geochemistry of Natural Gas and Origins of Gas Fields in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissot B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available De nombreux gisements de gaz sont connus en Europe, dans des conditions géologiques très diverses et dans des terrains d'âge Paléozoïque à Pleistocène. Le problème de leur origine peut être élucidé par l'étude de la composition chimique et isotopique des gaz associée à la connaissance de l'histoire géologique. On rappellera d'abord le schéma général de formation de l'huile et du gaz dans les bassins sédimentaires, puis on discutera les conditions particulières de formation des divers types de gaz. Enfin, on passera en revue, à titre d'exemple, un certain nombre de gisements de gaz d'Europe occidentale. A great many gas fields are known in Europe, having a wide variety of geological conditions and in formations ranging in age from the Paleozoic to the Pleistocene. The problem of their origin can be explained by analyzing the chemical and isotopic composition of the gases combined with knowing the geological history. This article first reviews the general pattern of oil and gas formation in sedimentary basins and then goes on to discuss the specific conditions for the formation of different types of gas. It concludes with a review of various gas fields in Western Europe.

  1. Deformación cuaternaria asociada al frente de levantamiento oriental de las sierras de Velasco y Ambato, Sierras Pampeanas occidentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía L. Casa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sobre el frente oriental de la sierra de Velasco y extremo sur de la sierra de Ambato, Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales, se han hallado nuevas evidencias de actividad tectónica cuaternaria en cercanías de la ciudad de La Rioja. Los rasgos reconocidos corresponden a distintos tramos reactivados de las fallas que delimitan los frentes serranos y a estructuras que afectan los depósitos cuaternarios sobre el piedemonte. la sierra de Velasco Oriental se encuentra marginada por fallas de rumbo NNE e inclinación al ONO, mientras que la sierra de Ambato austral presenta estructuras de rumbo NE que inclinan al NO. En el bloque Carrizal estas direcciones se interfieren originando un sector de mayor complejidad estructural. La deformación observada evidencia la persistencia de un régimen compresivo durante el Cuaternario al que se asocian fallas inversas de vergencia oriental a sudoriental. Estas fallas continúan elevando los cordones serranos y constituyen potenciales fuentes sismogénicas.

  2. Rediscovery of Bouteloua vaneedenii (Gramineae: Chloridoideae: endemic species from the West Indies Redescubrimiento de Bouteloua vaneedenii (Gramineae: Chloridoideae: especie endémica de las Indias Occidentales

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    María Elena Siqueiros-Delgado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bouteloua vaneedenii is an endemic and extremely rare grass of the West Indies. Very few collections are known, and the most recent collection is from 1922. With the aim of finding the species, a team of Mexican and Cuban agrostologists conducted a field trip and found B. vaneedenii in the same locality where it was collected in 1922 on dry limestone rocks. Although it was stated that B. vaneedenii probably was extinct from Cuba, vigorous populations remain in at least 2 localities in Pastelillo. Further exploration may lead to the discovery of additional populations and the reevaluation of its current conservation status.Bouteloua vaneedenii es un pasto extremadamente raro, nativo de Las Indias Occidentales y del que muy pocas recolectas se conocen hasta ahora, la última se realizó en 1922. Con el objetivo de encontrar la especie, un equipo de agrostólogos mexicanos y cubanos condujeron un viaje de campo en busca de B. vaneedenii , la cual fue hallada en la misma localidad donde se recolectó sobre rocas calizas en 1922, a pesar de que se había señalado como probable extinta para Cuba. Se ubicaron 2 poblaciones en buenas condiciones; no obstante, es necesaria una exploración más intensa confirmar su estado actual de conservación.

  3. Protective effects of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid against cardol-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species generation in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Wakae; Tanaka, Toshio; Kubo, Isao; Fujita, Ken-ichi

    2013-06-01

    Cardol (C₁₅:₃), isolated from cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid, has been shown to exhibit bactericidal activity against various strains of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains. The maximum level of reactive oxygen species generation was detected at around the minimum bactericidal concentration of cardol, while reactive oxygen species production drastically decreased at doses above the minimum bactericidal concentration. The primary response for bactericidal activity around the bactericidal concentration was noted to primarily originate from oxidative stress such as intracellular reactive oxygen species generation. High doses of cardol (C₁₅:₃) were shown to induce leakage of K⁺ from S. aureus cells, which may be related to the decrease in reactive oxygen species. Antioxidants such as α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid restricted reactive oxygen species generation and restored cellular damage induced by the lipid. Cardol (C₁₅:₃) overdose probably disrupts the native membrane-associated function as it acts as a surfactant. The maximum antibacterial activity of cardols against S. aureus depends on their log P values (partition coefficient in octanol/water) and is related to their similarity to those of anacardic acids isolated from the same source.

  4. ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS DE RESTINGAS COMO POTENCIAIS INSTRUMENTOS PARA GESTÃO COSTEIRA E TECNOLOGIA SOCIAL EM CARAVELAS, BAHIA (BRASIL

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    Henrique Machado Dias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Caravelas, located in southern Bahia state, the main vegetation formations are the mangrove forests and ‘restingas’ (sandbanks presenting, the latter, a high degree of degradation. The aim of this paper is to describe the main forest species of these ‘restingas’ and their direct uses associated with the recovery and management of degraded areas and creation of jobs and income, making thus an important tool for integrated coastal zone. For this, elaborate floral listings and field visits were necessary for recognizing the environment. In the selection of species, a literature about the use, management and value of each species were used, and from there, four species with potential for generating jobs and income along of this proposal were recognized: Mangaba ( Hancornia speciosa , Pitanga ( Eugenia uniflora , Mangaba ( Anacardium occidentale and Aroeira ( Schinus terebinthifolius . The first three are associated with the use of its fruit food, serving these ‘aroeiras’ as pepper trees, with a high value on the world market, and cashew, because of its fertile structure. The identification of products provided sustainable use of species and environment and the Non-Timber Forest Products can be strategic in coastal management, making it an instrument to subsidize social inclusion through the creation of jobs and income, under the movement of Social Technology, contributing to reduce the social vulnerability of traditional coastal communities.

  5. Host Plant and Leaf-Age Preference of Luprops tristis (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Lagriinae: Lupropini: A Home Invading Nuisance Pest in Rubber Plantation Belts

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    Sabu K. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive seasonal invasion by the litter-dwelling beetle Luprops tristis, into residential buildings prior to monsoon rains, and their prolonged state of dormancy render them a very serious nuisance pest in rubber plantations in the Western Ghats in southern India. Feeding preferences of L. tristis towards leaf litter of seven trees co-occurring in rubber plantations, cashew (Anacardium occidentale, mango (Mangifera indica, jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus, wild jack (Artocarpus hirsutus, cocoa (Theobroma cacao, cassia (Cassia fistula, sapota (Manilkara zapota and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis were analyzed with no-choice and multiple-choice leaf disc tests. Results showed that L. tristis is a generalist feeder with a defined pattern of preference, with the leaf litter of rubber being the most preferred followed by those of jackfruit and cocoa. Tender leaves were preferred over mature leaves except for cocoa and sapota. Equal preference towards tender and mature cocoa leaves, presence of patches of cocoa plantations and the scarce distribution of other host plants in rubber plantation belts leads to the proposal that in the absence of tender and mature rubber leaves, cocoa becomes the major host plant of L. tristis.

  6. The association between chromaticity, phenolics, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity of frozen fruit pulp in Brazil: an application of chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Ávila, Suelen; Ito, Vivian; Nogueira, Alessandro; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro

    2014-04-01

    A total of 19 Brazilian frozen pulps from the following fruits: açai (Euterpe oleracea), blackberry (Rubus sp.), cajá (Spondias mombin), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), coconut (Cocos nucifera), grape (Vitis sp.), graviola (Annona muricata), guava (Psidium guajava), papaya (Carica papaya), peach (Prunus persica), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pineapple and mint (A. comosus and Mentha spicata), red fruits (Rubus sp. and Fragaria sp.), seriguela (Spondias purpurea), strawberry (Fragaria sp.), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), umbu (Spondias tuberosa), and yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) were analyzed in terms of chromaticity, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and FRAP assays, which showed significant (P < 0.01) correlation with total phenolic compounds (r = 0.88 and 0.70, respectively), total flavonoids (r = 0.63 and 0.81, respectively), and total monomeric anthocyanins (r = 0.59 and 0.73, respectively). PCA explained 74.82% of total variance of data, and the separation into 3 groups in a scatter plot was verified. Three clusters also suggested by HCA, corroborated with PCA, in which cluster 3 was formed by strawberry, red fruits, blackberry, açaí, and grape pulps. This cluster showed the highest contents of total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity.

  7. Acute Renal Failure Induced by Chinese Herbal Medication in Nigeria

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    Effiong Ekong Akpan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional herbal medicine is a global phenomenon especially in the resource poor economy where only the very rich can access orthodox care. These herbal products are associated with complications such as acute renal failure and liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Acute renal failure from the use of herbal remedies is said to account for about 30–35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Most of the herbal medications are not usually identified, but some common preparation often used in Nigeria includes “holy water” green water leaves, bark of Mangifera indica (mango, shoot of Anacardium occidentale (cashew, Carica papaya (paw-paw leaves, lime water, Solanum erianthum (Potato tree, and Azadirachta indica (Neem trees. We report a rare case of a young man who developed acute renal failure two days after ingestion of Chinese herb for “body cleansing” and general wellbeing. He had 4 sessions of haemodialysis and recovered kidney function fully after 18 days of admission.

  8. [Contact allergy to Anacardiaceae. A review and case reports of poison ivy allergy in central Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippen, H

    1983-01-01

    In Europe, as opposed to North America, poison-ivy rash is hardly known. For this reason a detailed review of the allergenic members of the Anacardiaceae family is given, and the misleading nomenclature of "poison ivy", "poison oak", and some other species of this family are discussed. An up-to-date representation of the chemical structure of the allergenic substance group (denoted as "Urushiol") from this family is provided as well as botanical information regarding the plants themselves. Prevention of this dangerous sensitization and the therapy of this allergic reaction are discussed. The four cases presented are as follows: a young German woman who became sensitized to poison ivy or poison oak while in the USA and showed a cross reaction to other Rhus species (R. copallina, R. javanica (semialata), R. trichocarpa) as well as to Choerospondias axillaris var. japonica and to mangoes; a landscape gardener with an occupationally acquired allergy to Anacardium occidentale; and two control persons giving positive results to skin tests with Urushiol and Rhus trichocarpa respectively, to which the source of sensitization could not be clarified. Tests with three kinds of pistachio and two native-European Anacardiaceae (Rhus typhina and Cotinus coggygria) yielded negative results in each case. Prophylaxis to sensitization requires familiarity with the numerous Anacardiaceae and derivative products to which one could come in contact. These substances, summarized in a table, include mango, cashew and "sweet pepper".

  9. EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD ON THE SPOILAGE FUNGI OF SOME SELECTED EDIBLE FRUITS IN SOUTHWESTERN, NIGERIA

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    Bamidele J. Akinyele

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of electromagnetic field wave on the survival of spoilage fungi associated with some edible fruits consumed in southwestern, Nigeria was studied using cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., pineapple (Ananas comosus, carrot (Daucus carota, cucumber (Cucumis sativus, apple (Malus domestica and African star apple (Chrysophyllum africanum. The spoilage fungi used include the genera of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Articulospora, Mucor, Staphylotrichum, Bisbyopeltis, Fusarium, Rhizopus and a yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. There was a general decrease in fungal growth as shown in the number of spores produced with increase in exposure time of isolates to electromagnetic field except in Articulospora inflata, Penicillium italicum and Mucor mucedo where there was stimulatory effect as there was increase in the fungal spores compared to the control. A decrease was also observed in growth of the fungal isolates with increase in the intensity of the electromagnetic field at voltage of 7 V to 10 V and from 10 V to 13 V. The highest percentage reduction was recorded by Bisbyopeltis phoebesii at intensity of voltage 13V after 60 minutes of exposure. Exposure of the fruits to electromagnetic field wave did not alter the nutrient components of the fruits as observed in the proximate and mineral contents of the treated and untreated fruits. The result of the study revealed that electromagnetic field wave has great potential for use in the control of fruits spoilage and food preservation.

  10. In vitro cultivation of Anacardium othonianum Rizz.: effects of salt concentration and culture medium volume=Cultivo in vitro de Anacardium othonianum Rizz.: efeito da variação das concentrações dos sais e volumes do meio de cultura

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    José Waldemar Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anacardium othonianum Rizz. is a medicinal plant species that is native to the Brazilian savannah. Adult plants are different from other genus members in this ecosystem due to their size, and efforts to locate the plants may lead to their extraction from the savannah and, frequently, plant death. Micropropagation has played a significant role in the propagation and preservation of specimens of several plant species; therefore, this study evaluated the effect of various salt concentrations and culture medium volumes on the in vitro cultivation of A. othonianum Rizz. Trial (I evaluated two culture media (MS and WPM and three salt concentrations (100, 50 and 25% in a completely randomized design. Trial (II evaluated two culture media and salt concentrations, MS (50% and WPM (100%, and five medium volumes (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mL per test tube as a 2 x 5 factorial in a completely randomized design. After 30 and 60 days of growth, the percentage of plantlet survival, average plantlet and leaf lengths and the average number of leaves and buds per explant were evaluated. The MS (50 and 25% media and WPM (100 and 50% media were the most effective for plantlet regeneration. The best responses were observed in 15- and 25-mL volumes of the MS (50% medium. Therefore, the use of a 15-mL volume is suggested for greater medium economy.O Anacardium othonianum Rizz. é uma espécie frutífera e medicinal nativa do Cerrado brasileiro. As plantas adultas distinguem-se das demais espécies do gênero existente nesse bioma em função do seu porte arbóreo. Sua exploração ocorre de forma extrativista e muitas vezes em caráter predatório. Sob esse contexto, a micropropagação tem dado significativas contribuições na propagação e preservação de caracteres de interesse em diversas espécies de plantas e, desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de sais e volumes do meio de cultura no cultivo in vitro de A

  11. Study on the Resistance of 60 Cashew Clones to Powdery Mildew Disease in Mozambique%莫桑比克60个腰果品系对腰果白粉病的抗性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金辉; 张中润; 梁李宏; Americo Uaciquete; 黄伟坚; 黄海杰

    2013-01-01

    为研究莫桑比克腰果品系对白粉病的抗性,筛选出对白粉病具有抗性的腰果品系.在莫桑比克楠普拉省,调查了白粉病在60个腰果品系果实上的为害状况.结果显示,同一条件下,各腰果品系坚果上的白粉病为害程度差异很大.其中,品系AC34和4.2VM受白粉病的为害程度最低,其次为AZA 17/79、B4、H1和M96-2.3VM,其余品系的坚果为害率和为害指数相对较高.根据笔者调查中腰果对白粉病抗性的评价标准,60个腰果品系中,分别有高抗品系6个、抗性品系1个、中抗品系9个、感病品系21个、高感品系23个.感病品系和高感品系共占调查总数的73.3%,说明莫桑比克推广种植的腰果品系对白粉病抗性普遍较差.%In order to study the resistance of cashew to powdery mildew disease in Mozambique, and find the cashew clones that are resistant to powdery mildew disease. In Nampula Province of Mozambique, the damage of cashew fruit of 60 cashew clones caused by powdery mildew disease was investigated. The result indicated that, under the same condition, the cashew nut damage degree of different cashew clones were different. The damage degree of AC34 and 4.2VM were the lowest. The next were AZA17/79, B4, H1 and M96-2.3VM. The damage rates and damage indexes of other clones were higher relatively. According to the resistance evaluation criteria of cashew to powdery mildew disease in this paper, there were 6 high resistant clones, 1 resistant clone, 9 medium resistant clones, 21 susceptible clones and 23 high susceptible clones in the 60 investigated cashew clones. The susceptible and high susceptible clones account for 73.3% of the total samples. The most cashew clones in Mozambique were low resistant to powdery mildew disease.

  12. Colletotrichum isolates related to Anthracnose of cashew trees in Brazil: morphological and molecular description using LSU rDNA sequences

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    Ana Maria Queijeiro Lopez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six isolates of fungi obtained from anthracnose lesions of cashew and associated host plants in Brazil, were compared by their cultural, morphological and partial sequences of the 28S ribosomal DNA characters. They showed a high degree of cultural variability. The average mycelial growth rate on all tested media ranged from 10.2-13.3 mm/day between the isolates. Most of them produced perithecia (sterile and fertile and some produced setae (sterile and fertile. All the isolates produced acervuli with predominantly cylindrical conidia (12.4-17.7 µmX 4.8-6.0 µm in width with round ends, which became septate on germination, and produced unlobed or slightlylobed appressoria. Comparison of the D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU rDNA sequences with those of other defined species of Colletotrichum and Glomerella grouped 35 of the isolates with known strains of C. gloeosporioides from different hosts (> 98.9% homology. The one exception (LARS 921 was identical to G. cingulata (LARS 238 from Vigna unguiculata.Trinta e seis isolados de fungos obtidos de lesões de antracnose em cajueiros e outras plantas consorciadas no Brasil, foram comparados quanto a seus aspectos culturais, morfológicos e seqüências parciais do rDNA 28S. Os isolados apresentaram elevado grau de variabilidade cultural, com taxa de crescimento médio, em todos os meios testados, entre 10,2 e 13,3 mm/dia. A maioria deles produziu peritécios (estéreis e férteis, e alguns produziram setas (estéreis e férteis nos diferentes meios. Todos apresentaram acérvulos com predominância de conídios cilíndricos (12,4-17,7 µm X 4,8-6,0 µm, de extremidades arredondadas, formando septos durante a germinação e produzindo apressórios ligeiramente lobados ou lisos. Comparando as seqüências do domínio D2 da larga subunidade (LSU do rDNA dos isolados com aquelas já identificadas de espécies de Colletotrichum/ Glomerella, verificou-se que 35 deles correspondem a C

  13. In vitro evaluation of cashew nut shell liquid as a methane-inhibiting and propionate-enhancing agent for ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Y; Suzuki, R; Koike, S; Nagashima, K; Mochizuki, M; Forster, R J; Kobayashi, Y

    2010-11-01

    Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) containing antibacterial phenolic compounds was evaluated for its potency as a feed additive for ruminants. In experiment 1, ruminal responses to CNSL supplementation were assessed using a batch culture system. Rumen fluid from cattle was diluted with artificial saliva and incubated for 18h in a batch culture with a mixed diet containing a 30:70 hay:concentrate diet to which raw or heated CNSL was added at a final concentration of 500 μg/mL. In experiment 2, a Rusitec, using rumen fluid from the same cattle, was operated over a period of 7 d during which only raw CNSL was tested at concentrations of 0, 50, 100, or 200 μg/mL, and variations in fermentation and bacterial population were assessed. In experiment 3, a pure culture study was conducted using selected bacteria to determine their susceptibility to CNSL. In experiment 1, methane production was inhibited by raw CNSL (56.9% inhibition) but not by heated CNSL. Total volatile fatty acid concentration was not affected, whereas increased concentrations of propionate and decreased concentrations of acetate and butyrate were observed using either raw or heated CNSL. These changes were more obvious when raw CNSL was tested. In experiment 2, raw CNSL inhibited methanogenesis and increased propionate production in a dose-dependent manner, showing maximum methane inhibition (70.1%) and propionate enhancement (44.4%) at 200 μg/mL supplementation. Raw CNSL increased total volatile fatty acid concentration and dry matter digestibility. Raw CNSL also appeared to induce a dramatic shift in the population of rumen microbiota, based on decreased protozoa numbers and changes in quantitative PCR assay values for representative bacterial species. In experiment 3, using pure cultures, raw CNSL prevented the growth of hydrogen-, formate-, and butyrate-producing rumen bacteria, but not the growth of bacteria involved in propionate production. Based on these data, raw CNSL, rich in the antibacterial

  14. Interação enxerto e porta-enxerto na incidência da resinose do cajueiro Effect of cashew clone used as rootstocks and scions on gummosis incidence in cashew plants

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    José Emilson Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A expansão do cajueiro-anão-precoce no Brasil vem promovendo baixa diversidade genética dos genótipos usados como enxerto e porta-enxerto, ensejando vulnerabilidade da cultura às vicissitudes bióticas como a resinose (Lasiodiplodia theobromae, principal doença do cajueiro no semiárido nordestino. Estima-se que cerca de meio milhão de mudas de cajueiro-anão-precoce sejam produzidas anualmente, sendo a grande maioria delas produzida de propágulos enxertados sobre plântulas oriundas de sementes do clone CCP 06. A principal estratégia de manejo da resinose é o plantio de clones resistentes. Entretanto, entre os aspectos que contribuem para sucessivas epidemias da resinose, destaca-se a falta de estudos de interações genotípicas entre enxerto e porta-enxerto. Este estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito de combinações de clones de cajueiro-anão-precoce usados como enxerto e porta-enxerto na incidência da resinose. Sementes de plantas de polinização aberta de seis clones selecionados foram usadas para produção de porta-enxerto. Os clones comerciais CCP 76 (suscetível e BRS 226 (resistente foram usados como enxertos. O experimento foi realizado obedecendo ao delineamento de blocos ao acaso, no esquema fatorial 2 x 6, com quatro repetições e nove plantas por parcela do tipo quadrada, sob condições de elevada pressão da doença, em Pio IX-PI. Três anos após o plantio definitivo, a incidência (I e a severidade (S (escala de 0 a 4 da resinose foram superiores no clone CCP 76 (I = 97% e S=2,10 em relação ao BRS 226 (I = 33% e S=0,36, independentemente do porta-enxerto. O clone CP 06 como porta-enxerto foi o único que reduziu a incidência e a severidade da resinose, independentemente do genótipo do enxerto. Este clone foi capaz de reduzir a severidade da resinose do clone CCP 76 (S=2,10 como enxerto em quase 30%.The expansion of early dwarf cashew (EDC crop in Brazil has promoted a reduced genetic diversity of cashew

  15. The efficacy of Mentha arvensis L. and M. piperita L. essential oils in reducing pathogenic bacteria and maintaining quality characteristics in cashew, guava, mango, and pineapple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Guedes, Jossana Pereira; da Costa Medeiros, José Alberto; de Souza E Silva, Richard Sidney; de Sousa, Janaína Maria Batista; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-12-05

    This study evaluated the ability of the essential oil from Mentha arvensis L. (MAEO) and M. piperita L. (MPEO) to induce ≥5-log reductions in counts (CFU/mL) of E. coli, L. monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in Brain-Heart Infusion broth (BHIB) and cashew, guava, mango, and pineapple juices during refrigerated storage (4±0.5°C). The effects of the incorporation of these essential oils on some physicochemical and sensory parameters of juices were also evaluated. The incorporation of 5, 2.5, 1.25, or 0.625μL/mL of MAEO in BHIB caused a ≥5-log reduction in counts of E. coli and Salmonella Enteritidis after 24h of storage; but only 5μL/mL was able to cause the same reduction in counts of L.monocytogenes. The incorporation of 10μL/mL of MPEO in BHIB caused a ≥5-log reduction in counts of E. coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes after 24h of storage; smaller reductions were observed in BHIB containing 5, 2.5, and 1.25μL/mL of MPEO. Similar reductions were observed when the MAEO or MPEO was incorporated at the same concentrations in mango juice. The incorporation of MAEO or MPEO at all tested concentrations in cashew, guava, and pineapple juices resulted in a ≥5-log reduction in pathogen counts within 1h. The incorporation of MAEO and MPEO (0.625 and 1.25μL/mL, respectively) in fruit juices did not induce alterations in °Brix, pH, and acidity, but negatively affected the taste, aftertaste, and overall acceptance. The use of MAEO or MPEO at low concentrations could constitute an interesting tool to achieve the required 5-log reduction of pathogenic bacteria in cashew, guava, mango, and pineapple fruit juices. However, new methods combining the use of MAEO or MPEO with other technologies are necessary to reduce their negative impacts on specific sensory properties of these juices.

  16. Geología y vulcanología de La Palma y El Hierro, Canarias Occidentales

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    Pérez Torrado, F. J.

    2001-12-01

    construction of the El Golfo volcano seems to have taken place after a relatively long period of activity, probably coinciding with the maximum development of the Cumbre Nueva rift on La Palma. The initial subaerial activity at El Golfo was characterised by basaltic lavas that evolved to trachybasalts and trachytes, and finally towards more differentiated eruptive episodes indicative of the terminal state of the volcanic activity of the El Golfo volcano. The excessive growth of this volcano triggered the failure of its north flank, generating the spectacular scarp and present El Golfo depression. Subsequent volcanism, from emission vents arranged in a three-armed rift system (rift volcanism, with ages ranging from 145 ka to 2,500 years, with probably prehistoric eruptions, implies the much more moderate continuation of the earlier predominantly basanitic-tephritic volcanic activity. This period may correspond to that of maximum development of the Cumbre Vieja rift, in the island of La Palma.Las Canarias occidentales, relativamente poco estudiadas hasta hace unos años desde el punto de vista geológico, han aportado sin embargo datos decisivos para la comprensión de muchos de los problemas geológicos más importantes del archipiélago, que posiblemente se hubieran dilucidado más prontamente si su estudio se hubiese comenzado, como en la mayoría de las cadenas de islas volcánicas oceánicas, por su extremo más reciente. Como resumen de sus principales rasgos geológicos evolutivos de ambas islas destacamos las siguientes etapas de desarrollo: Durante el Plioceno se levanta en el extremo occidental del Archipiélago, en la isla de La Palma, un edificio o monte submarino constituido por pillow lavas, pillow brechas e hialoclastitas de composición basáltica, intruido por domos traquíticos, plutones de gabros y una densísima red de diques. Por el efecto de la intensa intrusión magmática y filoniana el edificio submarino sufrió un levantamiento hasta cotas de 1.500 m y

  17. La Coopération Scientifique et Technologique en Europe occidentale. 1ère Partie Scientific and Technological Cooperation in Western Europe. Part One

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    Bertrand V.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'exemple de la puissance américaine pendant et après le dernier conflit mondial a montré aux nations de l'Europe occidentale que leur développement économique dépendait étroitement de leur aptitude à la recherche scientifique et à l'innovation technologique. Devant la nécessité vitale d'élaborer une politique de la science et l'impossibilité de concurrencer individuellement les États-Unis sur l'ensemble du front, elles se sont progressivement engagées vers une collaboration de plus en plus réfléchie dans le domaine scientifique et technologique. Dans le même temps les grands organismes internationaux à vocation politique, économique ou militaire (ONU, OCDE, OTAN... créés après la guerre ont été aussi amenés à se préoccuper des problèmes de la science avant que ceux ci ne fassent l'objet d'une politique délibérée de coopération sous l'égide des Communautés européennes.Nous allons essayer. de faire le point sur toutes ces questions en exposant dans les différents chapitres I. La notion de politique de la science et son évolution dans le monde occidental. II. Les organismes internationaux impliqués dans une coopération scientifique et technologique en Europe occidentale. III et IV. Les résultats (scientifiques puis technologiques de cette coopération en dehors des grands organismes internationaux. V. Les actions menées dans le cadre de ces organismes. VI. La politique de coopération entreprise au sein des Communautés européennes. VII. La coopération européenne en matière d'énergie. The exemple of U.S. power during and after the last World War showed the countries in Western Europe that their economic development was closely linked to their capocity for scientific research and technological innovation. Faced with the vital need to draw up a science policy and the impossibilty of individually rivaling the United States in all areas, they gradually moved toward more and more deliberate coopération in

  18. Le système des intendances dans les Indes Occidentales : son impact sur le Trésor Royal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Domínguez-Orta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pendant la seconde moitié du XVIIIe siècle, l’une des réformes entreprises par la monarchie espagnole dans les Indes Occidentales fut l’établissement d’un système d’intendances. L’objectif de ce travail est d’analyser l’influence des intendances dans les finances royales, en s’intéressant au rôle qu’elles devaient jouer en matière de contrôle financier. Notre recherche porte sur la vice-royauté du Río de la Plata, car c’est là que les intendances furent établies avec succès avant d’être étendues au reste des territoires espagnols de l’Amérique.El presente estudio se contextualiza en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII en las Indias Occidentales. Durante este período una de las reformas que llevó a cabo la Monarquía española en sus posesiones ultramarinas fue el establecimiento del sistema de intendencias. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la influencia de las intendencias en la Hacienda Real a través de aspectos contables. Como caso de estudio se ha tomado el Virreinato del Río de la Plata por haber sido el Virreinato en el que las intendencias se establecieron con éxito y desde donde se extendieron al resto de los territorios americanos.Der Artikel interessiert sich für den Verwaltungsaufbau der Intendanten, der zielt, ab 1700 den Kontrolle des spanischen Reiches zu verbessern, um die königlichen Einnahmen zu erhöhen. Der französische Einfluß hat in dieser Entstehung der Intendanten gelastet. Tatsächlich findet man, daß ihre Einführung auf der Iberischen Halbinsel während erster Hälfte des XVIII. Jahrhunderts von Jean Orry und ihren Mitarbeitern das Verdienst ist. Später sind die Intendanten in spanischem Amerika angesiedelt gewesen, und man rechtfertigte diese Verbreitung seit der Metropole von den Vorteilen, daß “die königlichen Finanzen, in der besten Verwaltung der Einnahmen erhalten hatten”. Bis hierher sind die Intendanten von unterschiedlichen Seiten studiert gewesen

  19. Harut et Marut, ou la présence de deux anges musulmans dans nombre de productions écrites occidentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Chimkovitch

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available À partir de la fin du XIIe siècle, le récit de Harut et Marut, anges musulmans coupables de fornication, apparaît dans certaines productions écrites occidentales. Cet article montre comment les premiers traducteurs du Coran, des théologiens, un pape, un empereur byzantin, des cosmographes, des historiens, des orientalistes, des encyclopédistes, des botanistes et finalement des écrivains français et anglais se sont servis de cet épisode, et l’ont véhiculé jusqu’au milieu du XIXe siècle.The story of Harut and Marut, two Muslim angels guilty of fornication, appeared in the Western written production at the end of the 12th century. This article shows how the episode was exploited by the first translators of the Coran, by theologians, by a pope, by a Byzantine emperor, by cosmographers, by historians, orientalists, encyclopedists, botanists and finally by some French and English writers, and how it was thus transmitted until the middle of the 19th century.Desde finales del siglo XII, la historia de Harut y Marut, ángeles musulmanes culpables de fornicación, aparece en ciertas producciones escritas en Occidente. Este artículo muestra cómo los primeros traductores del Corán, teólogos, un papa, un emperador bizantino, cosmógrafos, historiadores, orientalistas, enciclopedistas, botánicos, así como escritores franceses e ingleses, se sirvieron de este episodio, logrando que se transmitiera hasta mediados del siglo XIX.

  20. La Oscurana (Cajamarca, un bosque relicto más para conservar en las vertientes occidentales andinas del norte del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Juárez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis de la composición florística, formas de vida, importancia y estrategias para la conservación de un bosque relicto de la Vertiente Occidental Andina del norte del Perú, descrito por primera vez y denominado La Oscurana (caserío El Nogal, distrito Bolívar, provincia San Miguel de Pallaques, Cajamarca; 6°90’S y 79°08’O, 2000-2800 m. El análisis preliminar incluye 85 familias, 169 géneros y 258 especies de plantas vasculares, de las cuales 15 familias corresponden a Pteridophyta y 70 a Magnoliophyta. En los ámbitos genérico y específico las Asteraceae son las mejor representadas de las Magnoliopsida y las Orchidaceae de las Liliopsida. Las formas de vida predominantes en cuanto a familia se reúnen en seis categorías: hierbas con 29 familias (34%, arbustos con 14 (16%, árboles con 9 (11%, trepadoras/lianas con 9 (11%, hierbas/arbustos con 7 (8% y hierbas/epífitas con 5 familias (6%. Se encontró que además de albergar una diversidad excepcional y brindar utilidad económica local, muchas de las especies no están registradas en las vertientes occidentales andinas del norte y del sur. Por la importancia que posee y por ser uno de los últimos bosques relictos existentes, la conservación legal de éste frágil ecosistema es urgente. Se propone que debe ser declarada zona de protección o intangible y que su conservación debe ser integral, involucrando a científicos, Estado, gobiernos regionales, gobiernos locales y población.

  1. Performance of laying pullets fed on cereal-free diets based on maize offal, cassava peel and reject cashew nut meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onifade, A A; Tewe, O O; Okunola, O; Fanimo, A O

    1999-03-01

    1. A 70-d experiment was conducted to determine the response of 26-week-old laying pullets to cereal-free diets based on maize offal, cassava peel and full-fat cashew nut meal (CNM) in comparison with a standard 550 g maize/kg reference diet. The 4 test diets all contained 315 g CNM/kg 232.5, 155.0, 77.5 and 0.0 g/kg of maize offal in combination with 77.5, 155.0, 232.5 and 315.0 g/kg of cassava peel, respectively. 2. Pullets fed on the 4 CNM-based diets consumed (Ppeel. Egg weight, shell thickness and albumen height from all eggs were similar. Pullets fed on the CNM-based diets had inferior (Ppeel and maize offal and the resultant diets, which contained no maize, supported satisfactory performance of laying hens.

  2. Chemical composition and in vitro gas production of silage from guinea grass, cassava peel and cashew apple waste at different periods of ensilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dele, P A; Jolaosho, A O; Arigbede, O M; Ojo, V O A; Amole, T A; Okukenu, O A; Akinyemi, B T

    2013-12-01

    A study was carried out to determine the quality of silage produced from guinea grass, cassava peel and cashew apple waste at different ensiling periods. The materials were mixed into nine different proportions and ensiled for 30, 60 and 90 days making twenty-seven (27) treatments with each replicated three times. At the expiration of ensiling duration, the jars were opened, the contents were mixed, oven-dried and the proximate composition and fibre fractions were determined. The results showed that there were significant (p 0.05) different from 100% CAW. The NDF varied (p < 0.05) from 44.21 in 75% CAP+25% CAW silage to 60.31 in 100% GG. The reduction in the CP and NDF of the silage is still within the range required for growth and maintenance in ruminant animals.

  3. Exogenous ornithine is an effective precursor and the δ-ornithine amino transferase pathway contributes to proline accumulation under high N recycling in salt-stressed cashew leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Iza Marineves Almeida; Vitorello, Victor Alexandre; Silva, Jamille Santos; Ferreira-Silva, Sérgio Luiz; Viégas, Ricardo Almeida; Silva, Evandro Nascimento; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio Gomes

    2012-01-01

    The role of the δ-ornithine amino transferase (OAT) pathway in proline synthesis is still controversial and was assessed in leaves of cashew plants subjected to salinity. The activities of enzymes and the concentrations of metabolites involved in proline synthesis were examined in parallel with the capacity of exogenous ornithine and glutamate to induce proline accumulation. Proline accumulation was best correlated with OAT activity, which increased 4-fold and was paralleled by NADH oxidation coupled to the activities of OAT and Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR), demonstrating the potential of proline synthesis via OAT/P5C. Overall, the activities of GS, GOGAT and aminating GDH remained practically unchanged under salinity. The activity of P5CR did not respond to NaCl whereas Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase was sharply repressed by salinity. We suggest that if the export of P5C from the mitochondria to the cytosol is possible, its subsequent conversion to proline by P5CR may be important. In a time-course experiment, proline accumulation was associated with disturbances in amino acid metabolism as indicated by large increases in the concentrations of ammonia, free amino acids, glutamine, arginine and ornithine. Conversely, glutamate concentrations increased moderately and only within the first 24h. Exogenous feeding of ornithine as a precursor was very effective in inducing proline accumulation in intact plants and leaf discs, in which proline concentrations were several times higher than glutamate-fed or salt-treated plants. Our data suggest that proline accumulation might be a consequence of salt-induced increase in N recycling, resulting in increased levels of ornithine and other metabolites involved with proline synthesis and OAT activity. Under these metabolic circumstances the OAT pathway might contribute significantly to proline accumulation in salt-stressed cashew leaves. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of nanocomposites based polyurethanes obtained of the biodiesel from passion fruit with fiber cashew; Estudo de nanocompositos de poliuretanas obtidas do biodiesel do oleo de maracuja com a fibra de caju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, B.R.S.; Breves, R.A.; Santos, M.A.; Lopes, R.V.V.; Macedo, J.L.; Ceschin, A.M.; Sales, M.J.A., E-mail: brendabetas2@gmail.com [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In this work, polyurethanes (PUs) prepared with polyol obtained of the biodiesel from passion fruit oil (BIPFO) and composites with cashew fiber 'in natura' were developed. The synthesis of polyol (PBIPFO) consisted in the epoxidation/hydroxylation of BIOM in one step, using performic acid generated 'in situ'. The instaurations the passion fruit oil (PFO) and the reactions of obtaining the BIOM and PBIOM were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) {sup 1}H and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The PUs were prepared using PBIPFO with 4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) at molar ratio [NCO]/[OH] of 1.5. PUs and composites were analyzed by FTIR, thermogravimetry (TG), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The use of BIPFO as raw material to get PUs and composites with cashew fiber showed viability by success of the reactions throughout the process and properties of the materials obtained. (author)

  5. Óleo da castanha de caju: oportunidades e desafios no contexto do desenvolvimento e sustentabilidade industrial Cashew nut oil: opportunities and challenges in the context of sustainable industrial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Elaine Mazzetto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The new millennium is marked by a growing search for renewable fuels and alternative raw materials from biomass in the petrochemicals industry. However, there are many challenges to overcome regarding technological and human resources aspects. In this scenario, cashew nut oil, which is rich in natural phenols, is considered to be very promising for the development of synthetic and functional products and as a feedstock for production of fine chemicals and a wide variety of new materials.

  6. Intoxicações por plantas em ruminantes e equídeos no Sertão Paraibano Plant poisonings in ruminants and equidae in the Sertão of Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales S. Assis

    2009-11-01

    decumbens were also mentioned. Some farmers mentioned that Ziziphus joazeiro, Passiflora foetida, Caesalpina ferrea and Crescentia cujete cause abortion. The fruits of Crescentia cujete were administered to two pregnant goats causing perinatal mortality and abortion. The peels of the beans Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata, and the leaves of Licania rigida are associated with ruminal impactation in cattle. The fruits of Mangifera indica (mango and Anacardium occidentale (cashew are associated with ethanol poisoning in cattle. Dalechampia sp. and Croton sp. were also mentioned as possible toxic plants in the region.

  7. Farelo de castanha de caju em rações para frangos de corte Cashew nut meal in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de frangos de corte alimentados com ração com farelo de castanha de caju (FCC. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e oito repetições de 15 aves cada. Os tratamentos consistiram em seis rações isonutrientes com inclusão de 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25% de ração com farelo de castanha de caju. O consumo de ração não foi influenciado pelos tratamentos. Entretanto, o aumento do FCC na ração promoveu aumento linear no ganho de peso, em todas as fases, e melhora linear na conversão alimentar, na fase inicial e no período total. Em relação ao controle, observou-se que, na fase inicial, as aves alimentadas com a ração com 25% de FCC apresentaram maior ganho de peso e melhor conversão alimentar. Na fase final e no período total de criação, a conversão melhorou a partir de 10% de inclusão, enquanto o ganho de peso foi maior a partir de 15% de inclusão. O rendimento de carcaça e a gordura abdominal não foram influenciados; os índices econômicos melhoraram com a inclusão do FCC. O FCC pode ser incluído nas rações de frangos de corte em proporções de até 25%.The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of broilers fed diets containing cashew nut meal (CNM. The experiment followed a completely randomized design with six treatments and eight replicates of 15 broilers each. Treatments consisted of six isonutrient diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of CNM. Feed intake was not affected by CNM levels. However, increasing CNM in diets promoted a linear increase in weight gain, in all phases, and a linear improvement in broiler feed conversion for the initial and total period. Compared to control diet, broilers fed diets with 25% of CNM inclusion, in the initial phase, showed the highest weight gain and the best feed conversion. During the final phase and all the feeding period, feed conversion was improved in broilers fed

  8. Politiques de développement régional dans les Hautes Plaines occidentales algériennes : un bilan mitigé

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    Mohamed Hadeid

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available L’Algérie a connu des mutations importantes grâce au programme de développement entrepris par l’Etat et ce, dès l’indépendance. Ce projet avait un double objectif : hisser le pays à un certain degré de développement économique et social et améliorer les conditions de vie des Algériens. Cependant, cette politique a beaucoup évolué au cours de l’histoire. En effet, l’intervention de l’Etat à travers sa politique d’industrialisation et de découpages administratifs n’a pas pu faire disparaître les disparités régionales héritées de la période coloniale. Les Hautes Plaines occidentales demeurent toujours en marge du développement. La politique d’aménagement du territoire du pays n’a fait qu’accentuer les déséquilibres déclenchés durant la période coloniale et ce, malgré les efforts consentis en matière d’équipement et de désenclavement. Le problème de dégradation de la steppe et la crise de l’activité pastorale en témoignent.Algeria has experienced important changes thanks to the development programme undertaken by the state from the independence. This project had dual purpose: Raising the country to economic and social level and improving living conditions of Algerian. However, this policy has undergone some slight changes throughout time as well as in level space. In fact, the interference of the state through industrialization policy and administrative apportionments were unable to bring to end regional disparities inherited from colonial period. Western high plains, for example, are still not benefiting from development. Regional and country planning policy has accentuated the imbalances which begun during colonial period and yet, the approved efforts as far as equipment and Opening up. The crisis presented by the degradation of the steppes and other pastoral activities is certainly the best evidence.

  9. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.Influência de diferentes frutos tropicais em aspectos biológicos e comportamentais da mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Estudos em Ceratitis capitata, uma praga agrícola, pode auxiliar

  10. [Effect of several extracts derived from plants on the survival of larvae of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, R A; Mendes, N M; Pereira, J P; Santos, B de S; Lamounier, M A

    1988-01-01

    The larvicidal properties of 34 plant extracts were tested against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, at 100, 10 and 1 ppm concentrations; 26.6% of the extracts enhanced larval mortality (alpha = 0.05) at 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina scrobiculata and Vernonia salzmanni). Anacardic acid (A. occidentale) was effective at 10 ppm and A. sativum (crude extract) at 1 ppm.

  11. Néctar de caju adoçado com mel de abelha: desenvolvimento e estabilidade Honey-sweetened cashew apple juice: development and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Alves Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Os alimentos e bebidas desenvolvidos atualmente buscam cada vez mais associar sabor agradável com alegações funcionais, oferecendo aos consumidores produtos mais saudáveis. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um néctar de caju adoçado com mel de abelha em substituição à sacarose, estudando também sua estabilidade química, físico-química, sensorial e microbiológica durante 180 dias de armazenamento à temperatura de 28 ± 2 °C. No desenvolvimento do produto avaliaram-se, através de testes afetivos de sabor e aceitação global, quatro formulações (A, B, C e D com diferentes quantidades de suco de caju (15 e 20% associadas a diferentes quantidades de mel em sólidos solúveis (10 e 11 °Brix. A formulação mais aceita foi processada e avaliada após o processamento e a cada 45 dias até o final do período de armazenamento. Dentre as formulações testadas, a preferida pelos provadores foi a formulação D com 20% de suco de caju e 11 °Brix. No estudo de estabilidade o produto manteve boa aceitação sensorial até o final do armazenamento em relação aos atributos: cor, sabor, avaliação global e intenção de compra. O produto manteve padrões microbiológicos satisfatórios de acordo com a legislação durante o armazenamento. As alterações químicas e físico-químicas ocorridas não caracterizaram instabilidade do produto, com exceção da vitamina C que ao final da armazenagem teve um decréscimo acentuado. Trata-se, portanto, de uma alternativa viável ao mercado de bebidas.Food and beverages developed today search the association of pleasant flavor with functional claims, offering consumers healthier products. In this sense, the objective of this work was to develop a ready-to-drink cashew apple juice sweetened with honey in substitution to sucrose and to evaluate its chemical, physicochemical, sensory and microbiological stability during 180 days storage at a temperature of 28 ± 2 °C. In the

  12. 脱羧腰果壳液在涂料中的应用%APPLICATION OF CASHEW NUT SHELL LIQUID IN COATING MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 王得宁

    2001-01-01

    Urethane adduct was synthesized from decarboxylated cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL),hexamethylenediisocynate(HDI) and polyethylglycol(PEG),which was then reacted with melamineformaldehyde resin to form aqueous coating material.The optimized formulation was obtained and the performance of the coating is: hardness 0.56;impact strength 50kg * cm;adhesion strength level 2;flexibility 2mm,resistant to boiling water. This study provides a new way to comprehensive utilization of CNSL.%采用天然植物油(脱羧腰果壳液)、己二异氰酸酯和聚乙二醇在较温和的条件下反应,制得了水溶性的氨基甲酸酯加成物,以此和低醚化度甲醚化三聚氰氨甲醚甲醛树脂制备了水性涂料。研究了配方和性能的关系,确定了最佳配方,产品性能为:硬度0.56;冲击强度50kg * cm;附着力2级;柔韧性0.5mm;耐100℃沸水合格。该工艺为腰果壳液的综合利用开辟了一条新的途径。

  13. The reduction of formaldehyde and VOCs emission from wood-based flooring by green adhesive using cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sumin

    2010-10-15

    To discuss the reduction of formaldehyde and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from engineered flooring, cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL)-formaldehyde (CF) resin and CF/PVAc resin were applied for the maple face of the veneer bonding on plywood. The CF resin was used to replace urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin in the formaldehyde-based resin system in order to reduce formaldehyde and VOC emissions from the adhesives used between the plywoods and fancy veneers. For the CF/PVAc resins, 5, 10, 20 or 30% of PVAc was added to the CF resin. The CF/PVAc resins showed better bonding than the commercial natural tannin adhesive with a higher level of wood penetration. The standard formaldehyde emission test and a VOC analyzer were used to determine the formaldehyde and VOC emissions, respectively, from the engineered floorings. The CF resin and CF/PVAc resin systems with UV coating satisfied the E(1) and E(0) grades of the Korean Standard. TVOC emission was slightly increased by the PVAc addition.

  14. Evaluation of the Resistance of Gmelina arborea Wood Treated With Creosote Oil and Liquid Cashew Nut Shell to Subterranean Termites' Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Mayowa OWOYEMI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the resistance of Creosote oil (CREO and Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL on theprotection of Gmelina arborea wood against subterranean termites’ attack. Gmelina wooden stakes weretreated with undiluted CREO and with diluted CREO/ kerosene mixtures ratio 1:1 and 1:3; undiluted CNSLand diluted CNSL/kerosene mixtures ratio 1:1 and 1:3, using cold dipping method. Termites’ field exposuretest was carried out at the timber grave yard for 36 months (3 years to test the resistance of CREO andCNSL preservatives to subterranean termites. Weekly visual observations according to American Standardsfor Testing Materials (ASTM were taken to find out the effect of prolonged exposure of treated woodsamples to termites’ attack. CREO treated samples had 54.2, 65.0 and 76.0% weight loss compared to thecontrol (untreated sample having 86.7% respectively for the same period. CNSL treated samples had 80.0,80.8 and 85.0% weight loss respectively compared with the control with 86.7%. These results indicated thatCREO treated samples provided a better protection against subterranean termites compared with CNSLtreated samples for the 36-month period.

  15. The Physicochemical Optimization and Acceptability of a Cashew Nut-Based Beverage Varying in Mango Juice and Sugar: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina C. Rebouças

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of a lactose-free beverage comes as a new feeding alternative to a product with excellent nutritional and functional characteristics to individuals with food restrictions related to milk. Thus, this study aimed to develop a cashew nut beverage with added mango juice and prebiotic substances by means of evaluating its sensory characteristics and physicochemical optimization. A 22 central composite rotatable design with five repetitions at the central point was applied to evaluate the effect of sugar and juice contents on the analyzed parameters. Data were evaluated by means of the response surface methodology, analysis of variance, and the means comparison test. Formulations with greater combined concentrations of juice and sugar obtained satisfactory acceptance. The means comparison test showed that the formulation that allows for the beverage’s greatest acceptance must contain 40% mango juice and 8% sugar. Soluble solids content was influenced only by the addition of sugar, where the formulations that presented greater solids concentration were the ones which obtained greater sensory acceptance. The beverage’s acidity was influenced only by the juice content, which, besides making formulations significantly more acid, did not affect their acceptance.

  16. The Associate Program on Ethnobiology, Socio-Economic Value Assessment and Community Based Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    petandra (Silk cotton), Dracaena deisteliana (Peace plant) or from uprooting cultural plants - Raphia vinifera (Raffia palm), Elaeis guineensis ( oil palm...Agave sisalana Leaves, Stems Ageratum conyzoides Whole plant Allanblackia Seeds Aloe Vera Leaves Alstonia congensis Barks, latex Anacardium occidentale...medicinal plants for treatment. Common spices and herbs, however, are obtained from herb sellers. These: Aframomum sp, Capsicum sp, Piper sp, castor oil

  17. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 10, No 32 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity and relationships among cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) ... Seed germination and in vitro regeneration of the African medicinal and ... Passive- and active-cigarette smoking: Effects on the levels of antioxidant vitamins ... extracts of three medicinal plants (Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava ...

  18. Determinação simultânea dos ácidos orgânicos tartárico, málico, ascórbico e cítrico em polpas de acerola, açaí e caju e avaliação da estabilidade em sucos de caju Simulataneous determination of tartaric, malic, ascorbic and citric acids in acerola, açai and cashew pulps, and stability evaluation in cashew juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Scherer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was determining the main organic acids in pulp and juices, as well as evaluating their stability, after opening the package, by liquid chromatography in a C18 column with isocratic elution and UV detection. In açaí pulp tartaric, malic and citric acids were found. Cashew samples presented all of the organic acids evaluated, besides high concentrations of ascorbic and malic acids. Acerola pulp had the highest ascorbic acid concentration. A small decrease in organic acid content during storage was observed. Malic and citric acids seem to be more stable than tartaric and ascorbic acids.

  19. Effect of Semecaprus anacardium on diabetes-induced alterations in the activities of marker enzymes and antioxidant enzymes in type 2 diabetes induced cardiac vascular damage model in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Suganthi; Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Gomathy, G; Palanvelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachidanandam Tiruvaiyaru

    2014-12-01

    Semecarpus anacardium is a commonly used drug in the Siddha system of medicine for curing various metabolic disorders. The cardio protective effect of the drug in Type 2 diabetes-induced cardiovascular complications was studied in rats by feeding them with a high fat diet for 2 weeks followed by intra peritoneal injection of streptozotocin at a moderate dosage of 2*35 mg/kg/ b.wt 24 hr apart and leaving them for 8 weeks to develop cardiovascular complications. The effect of the drug was studied by analyzing levels of blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c, marker enzymes, the antioxidative enzymes and the levels of lipid peroxides in Type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were treated with SA at a dosage of 300 mg/kg/b.wt. for 8 weeks and the results were compared with diabetic rats treated with the combination therapy drugs metformin at a dosage of 100 mg/kg/b.wt and atorvastatin at a dosage of 10 mg/kg/b.wt for 8 weeks. The drug SA significantly decreased the blood glucose levels and also HbA1c levels while improving glucose tolerance at the same time. The levels of marker enzymes and lipid peroxides were significantly increased in diabetic rats when compared with control rats. On the other hand significant decreases in the levels of antioxidative enzymes were observed in diabetic rats. Upon treatment with the drug SA, all of these abnormalities were restored to near normalcy. The present study thereby establishes the protective effect of the drug against diabetes-induced cardiac damage.

  20. Utilização de diferentes métodos para análise do teor de clorofila em folhas de Cajuí (Anacardium sp. L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. S. Gama

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A adaptação das plantas aos diferentes ambientes está relacionada, entre outros fatores, ao teor de clorofila, que é essencial à fotossíntese e interfere na produção vegetal. Durante o desenvolvimento, a planta apresenta índices variáveis de clorofila, dependendo do estádio fisiológico. Diferentes métodos são utilizados para quantificar esses pigmentos foliares, podendo-se citar os métodos não destrutivos e destrutivos. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar diferentes métodos de determinação do teor de clorofila em folhas jovens e completamente expandidas de cajuí (Anacardium sp.. Para tanto, utilizou-se o clorofilômetro portátil SPAD e os reagentes acetona 80% e dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO 99,5% para extração de clorofila (a e b das folhas, determinadas por espectrofotometria.  Após análise dos dados, percebeu-se que não houve diferença estatística dos teores de clorofila entre os dois estádios foliares,  empregando-se o clorofilômetro e acetona. Entretanto, ao utilizar DMSO, verificou-se que folhas jovens apresentaram 2,7; 4,9 e 2,0 x mais clorofila a, b e total, respectivamente, comparadas às folhas completamente expandidas. Essa variação entre os métodos pode ser devido à diferente demanda metabólica e à polaridade dos solventes. Assim, conclui-se que a determinação de clorofila pelo método do DMSO é capaz de detectar diferenças na composição foliar de cajuí.

  1. Progress in Separation of Natural Cashew Nut Shell Liquid%天然生物质腰果壳液的分离研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 李珺; 李翠勤; 施伟光

    2015-01-01

    天然生物质腰果壳液中的主要组分腰果酚可替代石油酚,广泛应用于油田、涂料等领域;腰果酸和强心酚具有较高的反应活性,通过化学改性,可广泛应用于医药和材料领域,且各组分均具有很好的生物降解性。然而,各组分的精确分离成为腰果壳液广泛应用的关键。本文通过对国内外腰果壳液的分离方法的系统总结,综述了腰果酚、腰果酸、强心酚的精细分离方法以及其优缺点,并对各组分的应用前景进行了简单的介绍和展望,为这类来源广泛的生物质的应用提供理论支持。%Cardanol anacrdic acid and cardol are the major components of natural cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) and possess good biological degradability. As substitute for petroleum phenol, cardanol has been widely employed in the oil field, coating field, and so on. Anacrdic acid and cardol exhibit high chemical activities, so they can be extensively used in the pharmaceutical and polymer industries through chemical modification. However, their separation and purification from CNSL is the key for their applications. In this paper, some present separation methods for CNSL are summarized, and their applications are prospected.

  2. 以脱羧腰果壳液制表面活性剂%SYNTHESIS OF SURFACTANT FROM CASHEW NUT SHELL LIQUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 王得宁

    2001-01-01

    采用天然植物油(脱羧腰果壳液CNSL)作为疏水基的原料,经由己二异氰酸酯与亲水基聚乙二醇在较为温和的条件下反应,制得了两亲性表面活性剂,表征了其表面性能。该类表面活性剂的三个样品的临界胶束浓度为0.35~0.5g/L,亲油亲水平衡点为15.5~16.0,浊点为70~80℃,临界胶束浓度下的表面张力(25℃)为28~35mN/m。该技术为腰果壳液的综合利用开辟了一条新的途径。%A new kind of surfactant based on cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL)as lipophile group, HDI (hexame-thylenediisocyanate) and polyethylglycol (as hydrophile group) was synthesized, and its surface properties was tested. Surface properties of three samples of this surfactant are: CMC 0.35~0.5g/L; HLB 15.5~16.0; cloud point 70~80℃,surface tension (25℃, at CMC) 28~35mN/m.

  3. Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Meat Quality of Bali Cattle Fed a Ration Supplemented with Soybean Oil Calcium Soap and Cashew Fruit Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bain

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study to evaluate growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites profile and meat fatty acid of Bali cattle treated with 3 different types of rations were conducted using a completely randomized block design with 4 replications. Ration treatments were R1: 40% native grass (NG + 60% concentrate, R2: 40% NG + 60% concentrate supplemented with 5% soybean oil calcium soap (SOCS, and R3: (40% NG + 60% concentrate supplemented with 5% SOCS + 10% cashew fruit flour (CFF. Variables measured were growth performance, nutrients digestibility, blood metabolites, and meat fatty acid profile. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and the differences between treatment means were examined by Duncan Multiple Range Test. Results of the study showed that the 3 different feed treatments did not have any significant effect on dry matter intake and organic matter intake, daily body weight gain, feed efficiency, crude fiber, ADF and NDF digestibilities, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL, total fatty acid contents and content of unsaturated and saturated meat fatty  acids of Bali cattle meat. Different treatment rations also did not affect dry matter digestibility, however the treatments significantly affect the organic matter, crude protein, and fat digestibility (P<0.05. Bali cattle fed 5% SOCS (R2 and 5% SOCS + 10% CFF (R3 had higher organic matter and ether extract digestibilities and linoleic acid content of meat (P<0.05 compared with the control (R1. The Bali cattle fed with R1 and R2 had higher crude protein digestibility (P<0.05 compared with that of R3. It is concluded that the supplementation of 5% SOCS and 10% CFF in the ration improved the digestibility of organic matter, ether extract and linoleic fatty acids content in Bali cattle meat.

  4. Caracterização sensorial de amêndoas de castanha-de-caju fritas e salgadas Sensory characterization of cashew nut kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice R. LIMA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Amêndoas de castanha-de-caju fritas e salgadas foram acondicionadas em três embalagens flexíveis (PP/PE=polipropileno/polietileno; PETmet/PE= polietileno tereftalato metalizado/polietileno; PET/Al/PEBD= polietileno tereftalato/alumínio/polietileno de baixa densidade com diferentes propriedades de barreira ao vapor de água e ao oxigênio. As amêndoas foram armazenadas durante 1 ano, a 30° C e 80% de umidade relativa. No final do período de 1 ano de armazenamento, realizou-se análise sensorial descritiva quantitativa (ADQ. Os termos descritivos levantados para caracterização sensorial das amêndoas foram, para aparência: cor torrada, uniformidade de cor e rugosidade; para aroma: castanha torrada, doce, ranço e velho; para sabor: castanha torrada, doce, ranço, velho, sal e amargo; para textura: crocância. Observou-se que os fatores mais diretamente responsáveis pela perda de qualidade sensorial das amêndoas de castanha-de-caju foram desenvolvimento de aroma e sabor de velho e de ranço, perda de sabor e aroma de castanha torrada e perda de crocância. Após o período de armazenamento, estes fatores foram observados com maior intensidade nas amêndoas embaladas em PP/PE.Shelled, roasted and salted cashew nut kernels were packaged in three different flexible materials (PP/PE= polypropylene / polyethylene; PETmet/PE= metallized polyethylene terephthalate / polyethylene; PET/Al/LDPE= polyethylene terephthalate / aluminum foil / low density polyethylene , with different barrier properties. Kernels were stored for one year at 30° C and 80% relative humidity. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis (QDA were performed at the end of storage time. Descriptive terms obtained for kernels characterization were brown color, color uniformity and rugosity for appearance; toasted kernel, sweet, old and rancidity for odor; toasted kernel, sweet, old rancidity, salt and bitter for taste, crispness for texture. QDA showed that factors responsible

  5. Effects on enteric methane production and bacterial and archaeal communities by the addition of cashew nut shell extract or glycerol-an in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Rebecca; Werner-Omazic, Anna; Ramin, Mohammad; Schnürer, Anna; Griinari, Mikko; Dicksved, Johan; Bertilsson, Jan

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of cashew nut shell extract (CNSE) and glycerol (purity >99%) on enteric methane (CH4) production and microbial communities in an automated gas in vitro system. Microbial communities from the in vitro system were compared with samples from the donor cows, in vivo. Inoculated rumen fluid was mixed with a diet with a 60:40 forage:concentrate ratio and, in total, 5 different treatments were set up: 5mg of CNSE (CNSE-L), 10mg of CNSE (CNSE-H), 15mmol of glycerol/L (glycerol-L), and 30mmol of glycerol/L (glycerol-H), and a control without feed additive. Gas samples were taken at 2, 4, 8, 24, 32, and 48h of incubation, and the CH4 concentration was measured. Samples of rumen fluid were taken for volatile fatty acid analysis and for microbial sequence analyses after 8, 24, and 48h of incubation. In vivo rumen samples from the cows were taken 2h after the morning feeding at 3 consecutive days to compare the in vitro system with in vivo conditions. The gas data and data from microbial sequence analysis (454 sequencing) were analyzed using a mixed model and principal components analysis. These analyses illustrated that CH4 production was reduced with the CNSE treatment, by 8 and 18%, respectively, for the L and H concentration. Glycerol instead increased CH4 production by 8 and 12%, respectively, for the L and H concentration. The inhibition with CNSE could be due to the observed shift in bacterial population, possibly resulting in decreased production of hydrogen or formate, the methanogenic substrates. Alternatively the response could be explained by a shift in the methanogenic community. In the glycerol treatments, no main differences in bacterial or archaeal population were detected compared with the in vivo control. Thus, the increase in CH4 production may be explained by the increase in substrate in the in vitro system. The reduced CH4 production in vitro with CNSE suggests that CNSE can be a promising inhibitor of

  6. 一种新型腰果酚基阳离子表面活性剂的合成及表面活性%Synthesis and Surface Activity of A Novel Cashew Phenol-Based Cationic Surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 刘建邦; 吴岩松; 李翠勤

    2013-01-01

    以腰果酚为原料分别与环氧氯丙烷、三甲胺进行反应,得到了一种新型腰果酚基阳离子表面活性剂.采用单因素实验得到优化反应务件为:n(腰果酚)∶n(环氧氯丙烷)∶n(三甲胺)=1:1.6∶1.6、反应温度50℃、反应时间6h,在此条件下产率达到56%.通过红外光谱表征了产物的结构;利用四苯硼钠返滴定法测定了阳离子表面活性剂中季铵盐含量为80%;在(298.15士0.5)K下,采用滴体积法测定了阳离子表面活.性剂的表面张力(γ).结果表明,该阳离子表面活性剂的临界胶束浓度(CMC)为4.83 mmol·L-1.γCMC为28.62 mN·m-1,表现出良好的表面活性.%A novel cashew phenol-based cationic surfactant was synthesized using cashew phenol as raw ma terial with the reaction of epichlorohydrin and trimethylamine, respectively. The single factor experiment was applied to optimizing the reaction conditions,the optimal conditions were as follows:n cashew phenol) :n(epi chlorohydrin) : n(trimethylamine) = 1: 1. 6 : 1. 6,the reaction temperature was 50 ℃,the reaction time was 6 h,the yield was 56% under above conditions. The structure of product was confirmed by infrared spectrosco py. The content of quaternary ammonium salt was 80% measured by tetraphenyl boron sodium back titration method. The surface tension of cationic surfactant was determined by means of drop volume method under (298. 15 ± 0. 5) K. The results showed that the cationic surfactant exhibited good surface activity with the criti cal micelle concentration(CMC) of 4. 83 mmol ? L-1 ,the γcmc of 28. 62 mN ? m-1.

  7. Consumo, produção de leite e estresse térmico em vacas da raça Pardo-Suíça alimentadas com castanha de caju Dry mater intake, milk yield, and heat stress indicators of dairy cows fed diets with cashew nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Pimentel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo de matéria seca, a produção de leite e os indicadores de estresse térmico de vacas Pardo-Suíça alimentadas com castanha de caju no semi-árido do Nordeste do Brasil. Doze animais foram distribuídos em um ensaio de reversão, com quatro tratamentos: 0, 8, 16 e 24% de castanha no concentrado. As vacas receberam cana-de-açúcar à vontade e sete quilos de concentrado por dia. Maior consumo de matéria seca de cana-de-açúcar foi observado no tratamento com concentrado sem castanha (7,70kgMS/dia em relação aos tratamentos com 16% e 24% de castanha (7,35 e 7,05kgMS/dia, respectivamente. O consumo no tratamento com concentrado sem castanha não diferiu do consumo no tratamento com 8% (7,59kgMS/dia. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre a produção de leite e sobre as variáveis indicativas de estresse térmico (P>0,05.A study was carried out to evaluate dry matter intake, milk yield, and heat stress parameters in Brown Swiss cows fed diets with cashew nut. Animals were raised in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian Northeast. Twelve cows were subjected to a switch back experimental design, with four treatments: 0, 8, 16, and 24% of cashew nut in the concentrate. Each cow received 7kg of concentrate per day and had free access to sugar cane. Dry matter (DM intake and milk yield were daily taken as well as measurements of rectal and milk temperature; and cardiac and respiratory rates. The highest intake of forage (sugar cane was obtained when the concentrate had no cashew nut (7.7kgDM/day. This value was not different when the concentrate contained 8% of cashew nut (7.59kgDM/day but greater than dry matter intake of cows receiving diets with 16% of cashew nut (7.35kgDM/day; P0.05. Such low variability in daily milk yield could be associated with the higher energy density of diets containing more cashew nut. Finally, indicators of heat stress were not influenced by changes in the diets, given the air temperatures and

  8. Bebida mista com propriedade estimulante à base de água de coco e suco de caju clarificado Mixed drink with stimulating properties consisting of coconut water and clarified cashew apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelia Marques de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Na indústria de bebidas, uma alternativa para acrescentar valor nutricional ou simplesmente desenvolver novos sabores é a mistura de diferentes sucos de frutas na formulação de bebidas mistas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de uma bebida à base de água de coco e suco de caju clarificado (cajuína, com adição de cafeína, conferindo-lhe propriedades estimulantes. Foram avaliadas cinco formulações, com diferentes proporções de cajuína, tendo sido padronizados previamente o pH, teor de sólidos solúveis e cafeína. As formulações foram submetidas à caracterização físico-química (pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez, açúcares redutores, não redutores e totais e vitamina C, análises microbiológicas e avaliação sensorial de aceitação (atributos de cor, sabor, avaliação global e intenção de compra. Todas as formulações em estudo apresentaram boa aceitação sensorial, não havendo diferença entre as médias dos atributos avaliados. Na intenção de compra, a formulação mais aceita foi ACC 20 (20% de cajuína e 80% de água de coco. A incorporação de vitamina C na bebida através da adição da cajuína foi mais evidente até a formulação ACC 20. Os resultados indicaram que a formulação ACC 20 foi a mais viável para elaboração da bebida mista. Todas as formulações apresentaram padrões microbiológicos satisfatórios.In the beverage industry, an alternative to add nutritional quality or simply to develop new tastes is the blending of different kinds of fruit juices. The objective of this work was the development of blends consisting of coconut water and clarified cashew apple juice with the addition of caffeine so as to provide stimulating properties to the beverage. Five formulations with different concentration of clarified cashew apple juice and previously standardized for pH, total soluble solids and caffeine concentration were evaluated. The formulations were submitted to

  9. Caracterização físico-química e sensorial de hambúrguer vegetal elaborado à base de caju Physical chemical and sensory characterization of vegetal hamburger elaborated from cashew apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Ribeiro Lima

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A elaboração de produtos derivados do caju é uma alternativa para seu aproveitamento e para o consumo fora o período de safra. Objetivou-se neste trabalho caracterizar hambúrgueres elaborados à base de caju e comparar suas características com as de produtos comerciais. Foram adquiridos quatro tipos de hambúrgueres comerciais, um deles à base de carne e os demais à base de proteína vegetal. Os hambúrgueres foram analisados quanto às características físico-químicas (proteína, gordura, umidade, cinzas, carboidratos, atividade de água e pH e aceitação sensorial (aparência, aroma, sabor, textura e impressão global. Foram observadas grandes variações nas características dos hambúrgueres: proteínas variaram de 5,75 a 12,95%, gordura de 5,79 a 16,44%, umidade de 45,83 a 63,71%, cinzas de 2,89 a 4,75%, carboidratos de 16,35 a 33,99%, atividade de água de 0,958 a 0,983 e pH de 4,75 a 6,78. Os hambúrgueres de caju apresentaram menor pH e menores teores de proteína e gordura do que a maioria dos produtos comerciais. A aceitação sensorial também apresentou grandes variações, com notas para aparência de 6,2 a 7,8, aroma de 6,1 a 7,9, sabor de 5,7 a 8,0, textura de 5,9 a 7,9 e impressão global de 5,9 a 7,9. Para o hambúrguer de caju, a aceitação sensorial foi, em média, próxima da avaliação gostei ligeiramente (nota 6,0, para todos os atributos avaliados.Products elaborated from cashew are good alternatives for their utilization and for consumption after harvest period. This work aimed to characterize hamburgers made from cashew apple and to compare their characteristics with the ones from commercial products. Four kinds of commercial products were bought, one made of meat and the others made of vegetal protein. Hamburgers were analyzed for their physical chemical characteristics (protein, fat, moisture, ash, carbohydrates, water activity and pH and sensory acceptance (appearance, flavor, taste, texture and overall

  10. Análise isotópica (δ13C e legalidade em suco e polpa de caju Isotope analysiS (δ13C and legality in cashew juice and pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Figueira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram utilizar o método de análise isotópica para quantificar o carbono do ciclo fotossintético C3 em suco reconstituído e polpa de caju comerciais e mensurar o limite de legalidade, baseado na legislação brasileira, para identificar as bebidas que não estão em conformidade com as normas do Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA. Os sucos foram produzidos em laboratório, conforme a legislação brasileira. Também foram produzidos sucos adulterados com quantidade de açúcar de cana acima do limite mínimo permitido pelo MAPA. Na análise isotópica, foi mensurado o enriquecimento isotópico relativo dos sucos e das polpas de caju e também das suas frações - sólidos insolúveis e açúcar purificado. Com esses resultados, foi estimada a quantidade de fonte C3 por meio da equação da diluição isotópica. Para determinar a existência de adulteração foi calculado o limite de legalidade de acordo com a legislação brasileira. Sete produtos comerciais de caju (suco e polpa foram analisados. Quatro deles não estavam em acordo com as normas do MAPA. A metodologia de análise isotópica do carbono (13C/12C, baseada nos metabolismos fotossintéticos C3 e C4, mensurou com eficiência a quantidade de fonte C3 dos sucos e polpas de caju comerciais. O limite de legalidade possibilitou identificar as bebidas que estavam em desacordo com a legislação brasileira.The aims of this work were to use the isotope analysis method to quantify the carbon of the C3 photosynthetic cycle in commercial cashew pulp and its reconstituted juice, and measure the legal limit based on Brazilian legislation in order to identify beverages that do not conform to the norms of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA. The juices were produced in a laboratory according to Brazilian law. Adulterated juices were also produced with a quantity of cane sugar above the limit permitted by MAPA. The

  11. 腰果壳油生物基多元醇的合成及硬泡领域的应用%Synthesis and Application of Bio-based Polyols Prepared from Cashew Nut Shell Liquid in Rigid Polyurethane Foam Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈旺华; 沈小勇

    2016-01-01

    The cashew nut shell liquid-based polyol was synthesized through the Mannich reaction of cashew nut shell liquid , formaldehyde and diethanol amine .At the same time , the high-temperature resistant rigid PU foam was prepared using the cashew nut shell liquid-based polyol as raw material .The synthetic experiments showed that the best molar ratio of cashew nut shell liquid-formaldehyde-diethanol amine was 1:1.2:1 , the best reaction temperature was 80 ℃and the reaction time was 1.5 h.The foam tests showed that the rigid PU foam had very good water resistant properties.When the added parts reached 40 ~45 pbws, the foam had the best water resistant property , the water adsorption rate reached 1.3%.The cashew nut shell liquid -based polyol has good prospects in the field of low-water adsorption rigid polyurethane foam .%采用腰果壳油、甲醛及二乙醇胺发生曼尼希反应( Mannich )合成了腰果壳油生物基多元醇,并以此多元醇制备了低吸水率硬质聚氨酯泡沫。合成实验结果表明:腰果壳油/甲醛/二乙醇胺的最佳投料摩尔比1:1.2:1,最佳反应温度为80℃,反应时间为1.5 h。发泡结果表明:腰果壳油生物基多元醇制备的硬质聚氨酯泡沫具有良好的低吸水率性能,且在使用份数为40~45份时吸水率最低达到1.3%。腰果壳油生物基多元醇在低吸水率硬质聚氨酯泡沫领域具有一定的应用前景。

  12. Comparative seismic and petrographic crustal study between the Western and Eastern Sierras Pampeanas region (31°S Estudio sísmico y petrográfico cortical comparativo entre las Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales y Orientales (31°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alvarado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The ancient Sierras Pampeanas in the central west part of Argentina are a seismically active region in the back-arc of the Andes. Their crystalline basement cored uplifts extend up to 800 km east of the oceanic trench over the flat subduction segment of the Nazca plate. Approximately 40 felt crustal earthquakes, are reported per year for this region. Historic and modern seismicity indicates that the Western Sierras Pampeanas (WSP have more crustal earthquakes of greater-size than the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas (ESP. Remarkable changes in composition and structure also characterize the WSP and ESP basements. We have quantitatively compared both regions using seismological constrains. A recent regional study of moderate earthquakes shows reverse and thrust focal mechanisms occurring at depths down to 25 km in the WSP. In contrast, the ESP have reverse and strike-slip focal mechanisms of shallower depths (Los antiguos bloques montañosos de las Sierras Pampeanas del centro-oeste argentino constituyen una región sísmicamente activa en la zona andina de trasarco. Estos bloques de basamento cristalino afloran hasta 800 km al este de la trinchera oceánica sobre el segmento de subducción horizontal. Más de 40 sismos «sentidos», son reportados por año para esta región. La distribución de la sismicidad moderna e histórica, muestra que las Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales experimentan más sismos de mayor magnitud que las Sierras Pampeanas Orientales. Geológicamente, existen marcados contrastes en la composición litológica y estructura del basamento en ambas regiones. Un estudio sismológico reciente indica que las Sierras Pampeanas occidentales son más activas sísmicamente que las orientales, con mecanismos focales inversos que alcanzan profundidades de hasta 25 km. Las Sierras Pampeanas orientales presentan mecanismos focales inversos y de desplazamiento de rumbo con profundidades focales < 10 km. Diferentes estructuras corticales de

  13. Variaciones texturales y movilidad geoquímica asociadas a milonitización: la zona de cizalla del granitoide El Tigre, Sierra de Pie de Palo, Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales, San Juan

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    Brígida Castro De Machuca

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Una faja de cizalla dúctil con foliación milonítica de dirección NEE y buzamiento al sudeste, afecta a un granitoide mesoproterozoico (Granitoide El Tigre: 31º31'30''S-68º15'12''O que forma parte del basamento cristalino de la Sierra de Pie de Palo, Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales. El análisis cinemático de la faja indica una componente principal de desplazamiento de rumbo con sentido de movimiento dextral. En el granitoide no deformado (protolito se preservan asociaciones minerales y texturas relícticas, ígneas y metamórficas, que son obliteradas por la deformación. La milonitización operó en un sistema abierto provocando la movilización (ganancia o pérdida de casi todos los elementos mayores y traza, incluyendo las tierras raras e isótopos de Rb/Sr y Sm/Nd. Los cambios químicos fueron controlados mayormente por transporte sintectónico de fluidos y por transformaciones mineralógicas producidas durante la milonitización (disminución del contenido de granate, biotita y minerales accesorios y neoformación de mica blanca en la matriz de las milonitas. Las variaciones isotópicas entre el protolito y las milonitas también serían resultado de la intervención de fluidos durante la deformación, con interacción variable entre fluido y rocas de caja. Los cambios texturales, mineralógicos y químicos experimentados por el granitoide durante la milonitización, permiten reconstruir su evolución tectono-metamórfica y las condiciones metamórficas imperantes. Las asociaciones minerales y microestructuras de deformación de las milonitas sugieren para la faja de cizalla del granitoide El Tigre condiciones propias de la facies de esquistos verdes, con temperaturas inferiores a los 400 °C. Este evento deformante tuvo lugar a los 473 ± 10 Ma durante la orogenia Famatiniana.

  14. Essai de synthèse stratigraphique et palynologique du système dévonien en Lybie occidentale Stratigraphic and Palynological Synthesis Attempt of the Denovian System in Western Libya

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    Massa D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available De nombreux sondages profonds ont été réalisés lors des recherches pétrolières en Libye occidentale (bassin de Rhadamès. Simultanément, les zones d'affleurement ont été étudiées avec soin. Dans le présent travail, les auteurs présentent des conclusions stratigraphiques et palynologiques nouvelles. Les cycles sédimentaires qui constituent le Dévonien ont une épaisseur qui n'excède pas le millier de mètres. Ils sont subdivisés en sept formations qui couvrent l'intervalle stratigraphique allant du Praguien au Strunien. Ainsi, le Couvinien, le Givétien, le Frasnien et le Famennien ont été différenciés. Le Dévonien basal (Lochkovien est absent. Les corrélations latérales pour l'ensemble du bassin considéré sont satisfaisantes. Une trentaine de sondages ont été étudiés en palynologie. Ils ont montré une extraordinaire richesse en spores dans tout le Dévonien. II a été possible de différencier onze Palynozones, à partir des Spores et Chitinozoaires présents. En comparant les faunes et les microflores dévoniennes présentes en Libye, à celles connues en Europe, en Afrique du Nord et en d'autres régions, on obtient une biostratigraphie homogène et cohérente. Numerous deep boreholes have been drilled during oil prospection in western Libya (Rhadames Basin. At the same time, outcrop areas have been carefully examined. This article gives new stratigraphic and palynological conclusions. The sedimentary cycles making up the Devonian are no more than 1,000 meters thick. They are subdivided into seven formations, covering the stratigraphic interval from the Praguian ta the Strunian. In this way, the Couvinian, Givetian, Frasnian and Famennian are differentiated. The lowermost part of the Devonian (Lochkovian is missing. The lateral corrélations for the entire basin being considered are satisfactory. The palynology has been numerous in the Devonian. Eleven polynozones are differentiated on the basis of spores and

  15. Le Carbonifère de Lybie occidentale biostratigraphie et micropaléontologie position dans le domaine Téthysien d'Afrique du Nord The Carboniferous in Western Libya : Biostratigraphy and Micropaleontology

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    Massa D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Analyse des sondages et coupes de terrain effectués en Libye occidentale entre 1956 et 1966. Comparaison avec les formations d'lllizi en Algérie. Principaux résultats a Stratigraphiques : Treize biozones sont définies du Tournaisien supérieur au Moscovien inférieur. Tous les étages sont présents, en particulier le Bachkirien dont l'existence était mal établie. b Paléogéographiques : Identité des bassins de Rhadamès et d'lllizi, et sans doute de la plus grande partie du bassin de Djado-Mourzouk. Définition d'un golfe Libyque. Individualité de la baie de Serdelès, dont la limite nord peut être survie avec précision. c Paléoécologiques : Confinement biologique et pauvreté des microfaunes sauf en quelques niveaux. Importance des domaines supratidaux et intertidaux. Parti-cularités des formations stromatolithiques (à e Collenia » et oolithiques. Climat tropical sec, aride, dominant. d Systématiques : Données sur les Foraminifères, Algues, Aouigaliides et Calcifoliides. Deux créations, intéressantes du point de vue phylogénétique : Velebitella simplicissima VACHARD n. sp. (Algue Dasycladale , Conilolia africana VACHARD n. gen. n. sp. (Aouigaliide Ptychocladiidé. The Carboniferous from several boreholes and outcrops in western Libyan Basins is analyzed. Comparison is made with the Illizi Basin in Algeria. This study bas yielded new data on microfacies, microfossils, biostratig rophy and sedimentology, which con be used to attempt ta drow a rough outline of the paleogeographic development of these basins. The main results are: a Stratigrophy: From the uppermost Tournaisian into the Moscovien, thirteen biozones are defined. All stages are present, and the Bashkirian bas been identified with absolute certainty for the first time. b Paleogeography : Important paleogeographic facts become evident from the study of microfacies : - The Illizi and Rhadames Basins, and probably the major part of the Djado-Murzuk Basin, have the

  16. Deformación cuaternaria asociada al frente de levantamiento oriental de las sierras de Velasco y Ambato, Sierras Pampeanas occidentales Quaternary deformation associated with the eastern uplift front of the Sierras de Velasco and Ambato, western Sierras Pampeanas

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    Analía L. Casa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sobre el frente oriental de la sierra de Velasco y extremo sur de la sierra de Ambato, Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales, se han hallado nuevas evidencias de actividad tectónica cuaternaria en cercanías de la ciudad de La Rioja. Los rasgos reconocidos corresponden a distintos tramos reactivados de las fallas que delimitan los frentes serranos y a estructuras que afectan los depósitos cuaternarios sobre el piedemonte. la sierra de Velasco Oriental se encuentra marginada por fallas de rumbo NNE e inclinación al ONO, mientras que la sierra de Ambato austral presenta estructuras de rumbo NE que inclinan al NO. En el bloque Carrizal estas direcciones se interfieren originando un sector de mayor complejidad estructural. La deformación observada evidencia la persistencia de un régimen compresivo durante el Cuaternario al que se asocian fallas inversas de vergencia oriental a sudoriental. Estas fallas continúan elevando los cordones serranos y constituyen potenciales fuentes sismogénicas.Along the eastern front of the Sierra de Velasco and at the southern end of the Sierra de Ambato, western Sierras Pampeanas, have been found new evidences of Quaternary tectonic activity near La Rioja city. Observed evidences correspond to different reactivated sections of the faults that bound the mountain fronts, as well as to structures affecting the Quaternary deposits on the piedmont. The bounding faults of the Sierra de Velasco Oriental-front exhibit a NNE trend and WNW dip, while structures at the southernmost Ambato range are characterized by NE trend and NW dip. The neotectonic faults of the El Carrizal block are the result of the interference of both structural trends, resulting in a sector with higher structural complexity. The here described deformation show the persistence of a compressive regime during the Quaternary, with eastern to southeastern verging reverse faults. It is considering that these faults are driving the current uplift of the mountain

  17. Barreiras às novas formas de coordenação no agrossistema do caju na região nordeste, Brasil Barriers to new coordination forms in the cashew nut agricultural system in northeast of Brazil

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    Hildo Meirelles de Souza Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora a produção brasileira de amêndoa de castanha-de-caju tenha crescido nos anos 2000, sua participação no mercado internacional reduziu-se, revelando perda de competitividade desse agrossistema. A produtividade na produção rural é baixa e subsiste uma antiquada estrutura de governança das relações entre produtores, intermediários e processadores de castanha em casca. Novas formas de coordenação estão sendo testadas, mas ainda não foram capazes de substituir a antiga. O objetivo desse artigo é identificar o conjunto de barreiras à transformação dessa estrutura. O referencial teórico adotado encontra-se fundamentalmente na Economia de Custos de Transação. Para investigação empírica, adotou-se o método de pesquisa rápida (rapid appraisal, compreendendo entrevistas junto a uma amostra não probabilística de agentes da cadeia nos estados do Ceará, Piauí e Rio Grande do Norte. Os resultados mostram que há resiliência da estrutura de governança antiga, a qual está assentada na funcionalidade e capacidade de reação dos intermediários. Assim, a estratégia de mudança cautelosa das empresas processadoras é, por um lado, racional diante de grandes incertezas, e, por outro, lent