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Sample records for casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium

  1. Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Shear Bond Strength of Adhesives to Primary Teeth Enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Farokh Gisovar, Elham; Hedayati, Nassim; Shadman, Niloofar; Shafiee, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: CPP-ACP (Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate) has an important role in caries prevention in pediatric patients. This study was done, because of the great use of CPP-ACP and the need for restoration for teeth treated with CPP-ACP as well as the importance of shear bond strength of adhesives in the success of restorations. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on shear bond strength of dental adhesiv...

  2. Casein Phosphopeptide- Amorphous Calcium Phosphate in Dentistry: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    KESKİN, Arş. Gör. Dt. Gül; GÜLER, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Çiğdem

    2013-01-01

    Casein is a phosphoprotein in bovine milk and accounts for almost 80 percent of its total protein. Casein fosfopeptit (CPP) is produced as a result of decomposition of casein with trypsin enzyme using a selective deposition method. CPP can remarkably stabilize calcium phosphate in a state-forming CPPamorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) complex. CPPACP is located in topical gels, sugar-free chewing gum and mint dragees at the present day. In this paper, the effectiveness of CPP-ACP and usage in d...

  3. Remineralization of early enamel lesions using casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium Phosphate: An ex-vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Ruchi Vashisht; Anil Kumar; Indira, R; Srinivasan, M R; Ramachandran, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at qualitatively evaluating the remineralization potential of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate on artificial early enamel lesions in an ex-vivo scenario by observing the treated tooth surface using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: This randomized study was conducted on 10 subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment with premolar extraction as part of their treatment. Artificial white lesions were created with the applicati...

  4. Protective potential of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate containing paste on enamel surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Padmini Somasundaram; Vimala, N; Lalita Gauri Mandke

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dental caries remains the most common dental disease facing mankind. Prevention of initiation and interruption in progression of early lesions are the desirable modes of caries management. There is a scope for agents, which may be used to enhance anti - caries activity. This need has redirected research to develop novel preventive agents that can act as an adjunct to fluoride or independent of it. Casein Phosphopeptide - Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) is one such agent that...

  5. Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Nanocomplexes: A Structural Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Keith J; Huq, N Laila; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    Tryptic digestion of the calcium-sensitive caseins yields casein phosphopeptides (CPP) that contain clusters of phosphorylated seryl residues. The CPP stabilize calcium and phosphate ions through the formation of complexes. The calcium phosphate in these complexes is biologically available for intestinal absorption and remineralization of subsurface lesions in tooth enamel. We have studied the structure of the complexes formed by the CPP with calcium phosphate using a variety of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Translational diffusion measurements indicated that the β-CN(1-25)-ACP nanocomplex has a hydrodynamic radius of 1.526 ± 0.044 nm at pH 6.0, which increases to 1.923 ± 0.082 nm at pH 9.0. (1)H NMR spectra were well resolved, and (3)JH(N)-H(α) measurements ranged from a low of 5.5 Hz to a high of 8.1 Hz. Total correlation spectroscopy and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy spectra were acquired and sequentially assigned. Experiments described in this paper have allowed the development of a structural model of the β-CN(1-25)-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplex. PMID:27434168

  6. Remineralization of early enamel lesions using casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium Phosphate: An ex-vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Vashisht

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at qualitatively evaluating the remineralization potential of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate on artificial early enamel lesions in an ex-vivo scenario by observing the treated tooth surface using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Materials and Methods: This randomized study was conducted on 10 subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment with premolar extraction as part of their treatment. Artificial white lesions were created with the application of 37% phosphoric acid for 20 mins. Teeth were then divided into two groups: one experimental and the other control. Customised orthodontic band with a window was luted with intermediate restorative material in the experimental group whereas in the control group, band without a window was luted. The casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (GC TOOTH MOUSSE paste was then applied on the window region of the experimental group for 3 mins thrice daily after meals for 14 days, whereas no paste was applied in the control group. After 14 days, teeth were extracted and viewed under an SEM. Results: The study groups showed remineralization of the lesions as compared with the control group in most of the samples. Conclusion: Casein phophopeptide could significantly remineralize the artificial enamel lesions in vivo.

  7. A Review of Casein Phosphopeptide- Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) and Enamel Remineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neetu; Mohan Marya, Charu; Nagpal, Ruchi; Singh Oberoi, Sukhvinder; Dhingra, Chandan

    2016-01-01

    White-spot lesions are the earliest macroscopic evidence of enamel caries. In such a situation, the enamel surface layer stays intact during subsurface demineralization, but without treatment the subsurface loss will continue, and eventually the surface layer will collapse and lead to a cavity formation. By introducing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) at this stage the lesion can be reversed. CPP-ACP is a unique, naturally derived protein-based remineralizing technology that is now used globally in chewing gums and topical creams. The aim of this review is to expound on the potential for reversal of demineralization through the use of products such as CPP-ACP, and to provide guidance to clinicians considering remineralization as a viable treatment option. PMID:26863219

  8. The role of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate products in remineralization of incipient enamel lesions and its substantivity

    OpenAIRE

    Abhay Taranath; Deepika Pai; Kalyan Chakravarthy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Milk derived calcium, phosphate and casein were known to be anti-cariogenic but in the modern era of early interception of caries the agents like casien phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) derived from milk are known to also repair early lesions. This in vitro study was designed to evaluate the remineralizing potential of CPP-ACP and CPP-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (ACPF) on smooth surface carious lesions of the enamel and its substantivity following demin...

  9. Role of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate in remineralization of white spot lesions and inhibition of Streptococcus mutans?

    OpenAIRE

    Ruchi Vashisht; Rajamani Indira; Ramachandran, S.; Anil Kumar; Manali Ramakrishnan Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To promote the remineralization by ionic exchange mechanism instead of invasive techniques many remineralizing agents can be used. Objective: To evaluate the remineralization effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on white spot lesions (WSLs) and its inhibitory effect on Streptococcus mutans colonization. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 60 subjects exhibiting at least 1-WSL. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups:...

  10. Evaluation of remineralization capacity of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on the carbamide peroxide treated enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Penumatsa, Narendra Varma; Kaminedi, Raja Rajeswari; Baroudi, Kusai; Barakath, Ola

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) in remineralizing the bleached enamel surface using micro-hardness. Materials and Methods: Thirty human enamel slabs were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10). Groups A and B were exposed to 20% carbamide peroxide and 35% carbamide peroxide gel, respectively. After the exposure to the bleaching agent, the slabs were kept in artificial saliva for 1-week. Group C ...

  11. Effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and acidulated phosphate fluoride gel on erosive enamel wear

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam HajeNorouz Ali Tehrani; Maryam Ghafournia; Pouran Samimi; Omid Savabi; Iman Parisay; Navid Askari; Seyed-Hossein Abtahi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Some studies have shown that casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel can protect teeth against erosion. The aim of this study was to assess whether CPP-ACP and fluoride could reduce enamel wear rates under erosive conditions simulating abrasion and acidic diet regimen. Materials and Methods: Enamel specimens consisted of 3 experimental groups (receiving CPP-ACP, APF or both) and a control group. Specimens were sub...

  12. Effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and acidulated phosphate fluoride gel on erosive enamel wear

    OpenAIRE

    Tehrani, Maryam HajeNorouz Ali; Ghafournia, Maryam; Samimi, Pouran; Savabi, Omid; Parisay, Iman; Askari, Navid; Abtahi, Seyed-Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Background: Some studies have shown that casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel can protect teeth against erosion. The aim of this study was to assess whether CPP-ACP and fluoride could reduce enamel wear rates under erosive conditions simulating abrasion and acidic diet regimen. Materials and Methods: Enamel specimens consisted of 3 experimental groups (receiving CPP-ACP, APF or both) and a control group. Specimens were subject...

  13. Efficacy of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate to prevent stain absorption on freshly bleached enamel: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Raghuwar D Singh; Ram, Sabita M; Shetty, Omkar; Chand, Pooran; Yadav, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    Background: Teeth when subjected to bleaching bring about the desiccation of the enamel, making it more susceptible to stain absorption. While subjecting the freshly bleached enamel surface to various surface treatments of Fluoride and Casein Phosphopeptide - Amorphous Calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) brought about the reduction in stain absorption, which is assessed in this study. Aims: The study aims to evaluate the tea stain absorption on freshly bleached enamel surface of extracted human teeth...

  14. The effect of two types chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and xylitol on salivary Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Shila Emamieh; Yosra Khaterizadeh; Hossein Goudarzi; Amir Ghasemi; Alireza Akbarzadeh Baghban; Hasan Torabzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effect of sugar-free chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and xylitol on salivary Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 dental students of 20-25 years old, who volunteered after checking their health condition and signing an informed consent, were randomly allocated to receive one of the following interventions: (A) Chewing gum containing CPP-ACP; (B) containing xylitol. Subjects within the ...

  15. Protective effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on enamel erosion: Atomic force microscopy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Matteo; Mirando, Maria; Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco; Poggio, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effect of a casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste (GC Tooth Mousse- TM, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) on preventing enamel erosion, by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). 30 human incisors, were equally assigned to 6 groups: intact enamel, enamel + soft drink, enamel + TM, enamel + TM + soft drink, enamel + soft drink + TM, enamel + soft drink + TM + soft drink. Specimens were observed through atomic force microscopy (AFM). The most common topographical parameters were determined, such as the surface roughness (Rrms ). The use of soft drink on intact enamel has roughened the surface of the sample. The application of the CPP-ACP paste on non-treated enamel made the surface smoother. A significant decrease in roughness was seen after remineralization with CPP-ACP paste. Significant differences were recorded when comparing softened enamel with softened enamel remineralized with CPP-ACP paste. Comparing eroded enamel with demineralized/remineralized specimens, the application of a CPP-ACP paste leads to a significant reduction in roughness values. AFM images of enamel surface treated with CPP-ACP resulted in less morphological changes of the tooth substrate when compared with the only eroded enamel surface morphology; thus, indicating that CPP-ACP paste promoted remineralization. Specimens' surface roughness remained similar regardless that the protective agent is used before or after exposure to coke or between two demineralizing cycles. The results confirmed the effectiveness of the CPP-ACP paste on preventing enamel erosion produced by soft drinks. PMID:25917931

  16. Protective potential of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate containing paste on enamel surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmini Somasundaram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries remains the most common dental disease facing mankind. Prevention of initiation and interruption in progression of early lesions are the desirable modes of caries management. There is a scope for agents, which may be used to enhance anti - caries activity. This need has redirected research to develop novel preventive agents that can act as an adjunct to fluoride or independent of it. Casein Phosphopeptide - Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP is one such agent that has been proposed to have anti cariogenic properties. Aim: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of paste containing CPP-ACP, MI Paste, on enamel remineralization. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 30 samples embedded in orthodontic resin with either the buccal or lingual surface exposed. The samples were assigned to either a CPP-ACP containing paste; Fluoridated toothpaste; or a control group. The groups were then subjected to cycling in a demineralizing solution and a remineralizing solution. Groups II and III received prior application of MI paste and Fluoridated toothpaste respectively followed by cycling in a demineralizing solution and a remineralizing solution. Following 14 days of cycling, the samples were sectioned and examined using confocal microscopy. The lesion depth, were evaluated. Statistical Analysis: Image Proplus software was used to analyze the images. The values were statistically evaluated using one - way ANOVA and Scheffe′s Test. Results and Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study it was concluded that enamel surfaces treated with the CPP-ACP paste exhibited the least lesion depths followed by the enamel surfaces treated with the fluoridated tooth paste and control group respectively.

  17. Single application of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste-based paste prevents in vitro erosive wear

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Silva Barroso de Oliveira; Gabriela Cristina Santin; Heitor Marques Honorio; Daniela Rios; Patricia Hernandes Gaton; Léa Assed Bezerra da Silva; Fabio Lourenco Romano; Raquel Assed Bezerra da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the effect of a single application of a casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste (CPP-ACP) in comparison with a fluoride varnish, in enamel of bovine teeth, after erosive challenge using cola soft drink. Materials and Methods: Forty-five enamel specimens were obtained from bovine teeth, selected according to the surface hardness and randomly divided into three groups: G1 - Fluoride varnish, G2 - CPP-ACP-based paste, and ...

  18. Comparing the Effects of Whey Extract and Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) on Enamel Microhardness

    OpenAIRE

    Rezvani, Mohammad Bagher; Karimi, Mehrdad; Akhavan Rasoolzade, Raheleh; Haghgoo, Roza

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem With the recent focus of researches on the development of non-invasive treatment modalities, the non-invasive treatment of early carious lesions by remineralization would bring a major advance in the clinical management of these dental defects. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is considered to be effective in tooth remineralization. Purpose The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the effects of whey and CPP-ACP in increasing the enamel...

  19. The effect of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate on the in vitro shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sun-Youn; Cha, Jung-Yul; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Hwang, Chung-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on the shear bond strength (SBS) of brackets bonded to non-demineralized teeth with either phosphoric acid etching or self-etching primer. Methods Sixty human premolars were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups (n = 15 each): phosphoric acid etching (group 1); self-etching primer (group 2); CPP-ACP for 2 weeks + phosphoric acid etching (group 3), and CPP-ACP fo...

  20. Effect of casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate containing chewing gum on salivary concentration of calcium and phosphorus: An in-vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    B P Santhosh; P Jethmalani; K K Shashibhushan; Subba Reddy, V. V.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Caries clinical trials of sugar-free chewing gum have shown that the gum is noncariogenic and in fact has anticariogenic effect through the stimulation of saliva. Sugar-free gums, therefore, may be an excellent delivery vehicle for safe and effective additive, capable of promoting enamel remineralization. Casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) nanocomplexes incorporated into sugar-free chewing gum have shown to remineralize enamel subsurface lesions in situ. So thi...

  1. Surface remineralization potential of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on enamel eroded by cola-drinks: An in-situ model study

    OpenAIRE

    Navneet Grewal; Vinod Kudupudi; Sukrit Grewal

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the remineralization potential of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on enamel eroded by cola drinks. Subjects and Methods: A total of 30 healthy subjects were selected from a random sample of 1200 children and divided into two groups of 15 each wherein calcium and phosphorus analyses and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis was carried out to investigate the remineralization of enamel surface. A total of 30 non-car...

  2. Cytotoxicity assessment of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Kalil Bussadori; Elaine Marcilio Santos; Carolina Cardoso Guedes; Lara Jansiski Motta; Kristianne Porta Santos Fernandes; Raquel Agnelli Mesquita-Ferrari; Laura Hermida Bruno; Diana Ram

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Casein phosphopeptides (CPP) have been shown to be good carriers of calcium, phosphate, and hydroxide ions to promote enamel remineralization with applications in oral care products, professional dental products, and food products. Objectives: Evaluate the cytotoxicity of a casein phosphopeptideamorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste in rat fibroblasts. Materials and methods: Cytotoxicity was measured by the Trypan blue dye exclusion assay and the MTT assay. Results: Long te...

  3. Quantitative microradiographic analysis of remineralization of enamel lesions promoted by casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate and fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the remineralization effect of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and fluoride complex on artificial enamel subsurface white spot lesions in vitro in order to provide a new method to treat the postorthodontic enamel demineralization. Methods: Extracted premolar teeth for orthodontic reason were immersed into lactic acid gel to prepare artificial white spot lesions. Then the specimens were randomly assigned to seven groups: 5.0% CPP-ACFP group, 1.0% CPP-ACP group, 0.1% CPP-ACPgroup, calcium phosphate saturated solution group, calcium phosphate saturated solution plus fluorid group, deionized water group. Lesion depths and mineral loss were quantitatively determined by microradiography in various groups. Results: The lesion depths and mineral loss after remineralization in each group were significantly reduced (P0.05), but the lesion depths and mineral loss in these three groups were significantly lower than those in deionized water group (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion: CPP-ACP has the ability of promoting remineralization of enamel artificial white spot lesions which can be enhanced by fluorid. The remineralization ability depends on the concentration of calcium phosphate stabilized by CPP-ACP. (authors)

  4. An in vitro evaluation of the demineralization inhibitory effect of F− varnish and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on enamel in young permanent teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Duraisamy, Vinola; Xavier, Ananda; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Reddy, Venugopal; Rao, Arun Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To determine the demineralization inhibitory potential of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and to compare and evaluate the additive effect of fluoride varnish + CPP-ACP. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy premolar teeth that were extracted for orthodontic purposes were collected, and each tooth was longitudinally sectioned buccolingually and mesiodistally into four sections. The teeth were then assigned to four different tre...

  5. The effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste and sodium fluoride mouthwash on the prevention of dentine erosion: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Moezizadeh; Azar Alimi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The purpose was to compare the effect of 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste on prevention of dentin erosion. Materials and Methods: Buccal surfaces of 36 sound premolar teeth were ground flat and polished with abrasive discs. Half the polished surfaces were covered with tape to maintain a reference surface. Samples were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A was pretreated with tooth mousse (TM) 4 times a day for 5 days. ...

  6. Sodium fluoride and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate cream plus sodium fluoride efficacy in preventing enamel erosion in a simulated oral environment study model

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Mariote Amaral; Maria Elisa da Silva NG Miranda; Danielly S Correa; Eduardo M. Silva

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of dentifrices containing high concentrations of sodium fluoride (NaF) and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate cream plus fluoride (CPP-ACPF) in prevention of the erosion in a simulated oral environment study model. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen flat human enamel specimens were polished and half of the surfaces were protected with adhesive tape. Initial Knoop microhardness (KHN) and surface roughness (SR) were meas...

  7. Effect of erbium, chromium: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet laser and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on surface micro-hardness of primary tooth enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Subramaniam, Priya; Pandey, Annu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of Er, Cr: YSGG laser and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on surface micro-hardness of primary tooth enamel. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 freshly extracted caries free primary anterior teeth were cleaned and stored in 1% thymol. Teeth were embedded in acrylic resin such that only their buccal surfaces were exposed and were divided into four groups. Group I: Five intact teeth (negative control). The remaining 25 ...

  8. In vitro evaluation of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate effect on the shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Shadman, Niloofar; Ebrahimi, Shahram Farzin; Shoul, Maryam Azizi; Sattari, Hasti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is applied for remineralization of early caries lesions or tooth sensitivity conditions and may affect subsequent resin bonding. This in vitro study investigated the effect of CPP-ACP on the shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human molar teeth were selected and randomly divided into three groups and six subgroups. Buccal or lingual surfaces of teeth were prepared to c...

  9. Efficacy of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate to prevent stain absorption on freshly bleached enamel: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Raghuwar; Ram Sabita; Shetty Omkar; Chand Pooran; Yadav Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    Background: Teeth when subjected to bleaching bring about the desiccation of the enamel, making it more susceptible to stain absorption. While subjecting the freshly bleached enamel surface to various surface treatments of Fluoride and Casein Phosphopeptide - Amorphous Calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) brought about the reduction in stain absorption, which is assessed in this study. Aims: The study aims to evaluate the tea stain absorption on freshly bleached enamel surface of extracted human teet...

  10. In vitro evaluation of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate effect on the shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Niloofar Shadman; Shahram Farzin Ebrahimi; Maryam Azizi Shoul; Hasti Sattari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is applied for remineralization of early caries lesions or tooth sensitivity conditions and may affect subsequent resin bonding. This in vitro study investigated the effect of CPP-ACP on the shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human molar teeth were selected and randomly divided into three groups and six subgroups. Buccal or lingual surfaces of teeth were prepared ...

  11. The role of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate products in remineralization of incipient enamel lesions and its substantivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Taranath

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Milk derived calcium, phosphate and casein were known to be anti-cariogenic but in the modern era of early interception of caries the agents like casien phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP derived from milk are known to also repair early lesions. This in vitro study was designed to evaluate the remineralizing potential of CPP-ACP and CPP-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (ACPF on smooth surface carious lesions of the enamel and its substantivity following demineralization. Methods: Sixty caries free molar and premolars included in the study were sectioned and assigned to two experimental groups in which samples were remineralized with CPP-ACP or CPP-ACPF. The remineralization caused by CPP-ACP was evaluated using laser fluorescence device. Samples were then demineralized to evaluate the substantivity of remineralization. Results: CPP-ACPF and CPP-ACP showed significantly higher remineralization than baseline levels. On the other hand, CPP-ACPF showed significantly less demineralization than CPP-ACP. Conclusion: The remineralization produced by CPP-ACPF is more stable to further demineralization probably attributed to presence of fluoride. Addition of fluoride was shown to be protective from subsequent demineralization challenges. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(1.000: 67-70

  12. Efficacy of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate to prevent stain absorption on freshly bleached enamel: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Raghuwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teeth when subjected to bleaching bring about the desiccation of the enamel, making it more susceptible to stain absorption. While subjecting the freshly bleached enamel surface to various surface treatments of Fluoride and Casein Phosphopeptide - Amorphous Calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP brought about the reduction in stain absorption, which is assessed in this study. Aims: The study aims to evaluate the tea stain absorption on freshly bleached enamel surface of extracted human teeth with varied surface treatment. The stain absorption was evaluated at the end of one hour and 24 hours post bleaching. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human permanent maxillary central incisors were subjected to bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide for eight days. They were divided into four groups of 10 each. Group I was control group. Group II was immersed in tea solution without surface treatment, while Group III and IV were immersed in tea solution with surface treatment of topical Fluoride and CPP-ACP respectively. Spectrophotometer was used for color analysis. Results: Surface treatment with CPP-ACP and topical fluoride on freshly beached enamel surface, significantly reduced the stain absorption. Conclusion: Remineralizing agents reduce stain absorption after tooth bleaching.

  13. Combining casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride: synergistic remineralization potential of artificially demineralized enamel or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayad, Iman; Sakr, Amal; Badr, Yahia

    2009-07-01

    Recaldent is a product of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP). The remineralizing potential of CPP-ACP per se, or when combined with 0.22% Fl gel on artificially demineralized enamel using laser florescence, is investigated. Mesial surfaces of 15 sound human molars are tested using a He-Cd laser beam at 441.5 nm with 18-mW power as an excitation source on a suitable setup based on a Spex 750-M monochromator provided with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) for detection of collected autofluorescence from sound enamel. Mesial surfaces are subjected to demineralization for ten days. The spectra from demineralized enamel are measured. Teeth are divided into three groups according to the remineralizing regimen: group 1 Recaldent per se, group 2 Recaldent combined with fluoride gel and ACP, and group 3 artificial saliva as a positive control. After following these protocols for three weeks, the spectra from the remineralized enamel are measured. The spectra of enamel autofluorescence are recorded and normalized to peak intensity at about 540 nm to compare spectra from sound, demineralized, and remineralized enamel surfaces. A slight red shift occurred in spectra from demineralized enamel, while a blue shift may occur in remineralized enamel. Group 2 shows the highest remineralizing potential. Combining fluoride and ACP with CPP-ACP can give a synergistic effect on enamel remineralization.

  14. Role of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate in remineralization of white spot lesions and inhibition of Streptococcus mutans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Vashisht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To promote the remineralization by ionic exchange mechanism instead of invasive techniques many remineralizing agents can be used. Objective: To evaluate the remineralization effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP on white spot lesions (WSLs and its inhibitory effect on Streptococcus mutans colonization. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 60 subjects exhibiting at least 1-WSL. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: A test group using CPP-ACP cream (GC-Tooth Mousse, Leuven, Belgium and a control group using only fluoride containing toothpaste for a period of 3-month. Baseline WSLs were scored using DIAGNOdent device (KaVo Germany and the saliva samples were collected to measure S. mutans counts. After the 3-month period the WSLs were again recorded and the saliva collection was repeated. Result: DIAGNOdent measurements were increased by time (P = 0.002 in the control group and no statistically significant difference (P = 0.217 was found in the test group by the 3-month period. In both groups, the mutans counts were decreased in the 3-month experimental period. Conclusion: These clinical and laboratory results suggested that CPP-ACP containing cream had a slight remineralization effect on the WSL in the 3-month evaluation period however, longer observation is recommended to confirm whether the greater change in WSLs is maintained.

  15. Cytotoxicity assessment of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kalil Bussadori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Casein phosphopeptides (CPP have been shown to be good carriers of calcium, phosphate, and hydroxide ions to promote enamel remineralization with applications in oral care products, professional dental products, and food products. Objectives: Evaluate the cytotoxicity of a casein phosphopeptideamorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP paste in rat fibroblasts. Materials and methods: Cytotoxicity was measured by the Trypan blue dye exclusion assay and the MTT assay. Results: Long term (1, 3, 5, and 7 days and short term tests (0, 4, 8, and 12 hours were performed with the Trypan blue dye exclusion assay. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and Kruskall Wallis tests. After one day, the cell viability of the CPP-ACP study group was between 80 and 100%. In the short term experiments, a reduction of cell viability in the study group was observed compared with the control group; yet viable cells were present over the evaluation period. With the MTT assay, a viability of 76.43% was observed in the study group, a significant difference from the control group (P = 0.003. Conclusion: CPP-ACP paste demonstrates low cytotoxicity in rat fibroblast culture.

  16. Remineralization potential of bioactive glass and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on initial carious lesion: An in-vitro pH-cycling study

    OpenAIRE

    Adit Bharat Mehta; Veena Kumari; Rani Jose; Vajiheh Izadikhah

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the remineralization potential of bioactive-Glass (BAG) (Novamin; /Calcium-sodium-phosphosilicate) and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) containing dentifrice. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 sound human premolars were decoronated, coated with nail varnish except for a 4 mm Χ 4 mm window on the buccal surface of crown and were randomly divided in two groups (n = 15). Group A - BAG dentifrice and Group B...

  17. In-Vitro Effect of Casein Phosphopeptide Amorphous Calcium Phosphate on Enamel Susceptibility to Staining by Tea during Bleaching Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaghemand, Homayoom; Hashemi Kamangar, Sedighe Sadat; Zarenegad, Nafiseh; Tabari, Negin; Khafri, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Bleached enamel is more susceptible to staining, and application of remineralizing agents may decrease enamel susceptibility to staining. This study sought to assess the effect of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on enamel susceptibility to staining during bleaching treatment. Materials and Methods: Forty central and lateral incisors and first premolar teeth were evaluated in four groups of 10. Group one specimens were subjected to in-office bleaching. Group two underwent in-office bleaching followed by surface treatment with CPP-ACP. Group three specimens received home bleaching and group four underwent home bleaching followed by CPP-ACP surface treatment. After each course of daily bleaching, specimens were immersed in tea solution. Home bleaching (15% carbamide peroxide) was performed for 14 days and in-office bleaching (40% hydrogen peroxide) was carried out in two sessions with an eight-day interval. The color of specimens was analyzed at baseline and post-intervention using Easy Shade Shade-Selection Device. Two-way ANOVA was used to evaluate the effects of bleaching type and surface treatment on color change. Then, the means were compared by Tukey’s HSD test (P=0.05). Results: The interaction effect of surface treatment and type of bleaching was not significant on any color parameter (P>0.05). Surface treatment had significant effects on ΔL (P=0.004). Type of bleaching had a significant effect on “b” parameter (P=0.00). The effect of bleaching type on ΔE was significant (P=0.00) but the effect of surface treatment was not (P=0.34). Conclusion: CPP-ACP had no significant effect on preventing enamel staining by tea during bleaching treatment.

  18. Single application of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste-based paste prevents in vitro erosive wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Silva Barroso de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the effect of a single application of a casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste (CPP-ACP in comparison with a fluoride varnish, in enamel of bovine teeth, after erosive challenge using cola soft drink. Materials and Methods: Forty-five enamel specimens were obtained from bovine teeth, selected according to the surface hardness and randomly divided into three groups: G1 - Fluoride varnish, G2 - CPP-ACP-based paste, and G3 - Control, without any treatment. The enamel specimens were treated using each group material and subjected to three daily erosive challenges by immersion of the specimens in cola soft drink for 5 min, during 5 days. Between the erosive cycles, the enamel specimens were immersed in artificial saliva. The initial profilometry (prechallenge and the final profilometry (postchallenge were used to evaluate the enamel loss. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey′s Test (P < 0.05. Results: The single application of CPP-ACP (G2: 4.17 ± 0.77 μm resulted in less enamel loss compared to control (G3: 4.74 ± 0.52 μm and higher enamel loss compared to fluoride varnish application (G1: 3.01 ± 0.45 μm (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The CPP-ACP paste was effective in reducing enamel wear after erosive cycles, however, the best potential for erosion prevention was observed when using the fluoride varnish.

  19. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate incorporated into sugar confections inhibits the progression of enamel subsurface lesions in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, G D; Cai, F; Shen, P; Adams, G G; Reynolds, C; Reynolds, E C

    2010-01-01

    Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) has been demonstrated to exhibit anticariogenic activity in randomized, controlled clinical trials of sugar-free gum and a tooth cream. Two randomized, double-blind, crossover studies were conducted to investigate the potential of CPP-ACP added to hard candy confections to slow the progression of enamel subsurface lesions in an in situ model. The confections studied were: (1) control sugar (65% sucrose + 33% glucose syrup); (2) control sugar-free; (3) sugar + 0.5% (w/w) CPP-ACP; (4) sugar + 1.0% (w/w) CPP-ACP; (5) sugar-free + 0.5% (w/w) CPP-ACP. Participants (10 and 14 in study 1 and 2) wore a removable palatal appliance containing enamel half-slabs with subsurface lesions, except for meals and oral hygiene procedures, and consumed 1 confection 6 times a day for 10 days. The enamel half-slabs were inset to allow the development of plaque on the enamel surface. Participants rested for 1 week before crossing over to another confection. The appliances were stored in a humid container at 37 degrees C when not in the mouth. After each treatment period, the enamel half-slabs were removed, paired with their demineralized control half-slabs, embedded, sectioned and then analysed using transverse microradiography. In both studies consumption of the control sugar confection resulted in significant demineralization (progression) of the enamel subsurface lesions. However, consumption of the sugar confections containing CPP-ACP did not result in lesion progression, but in fact in significant remineralization (regression) of the lesions. Remineralization by consumption of the sugar + 1.0% CPP-ACP confection was significantly greater than that obtained with the sugar-free confection. PMID:20090326

  20. The role of fluoride and casein phosphopeptide/amorphous calcium phosphate in the prevention of erosive/abrasive wear in an in vitro model using hydrochloric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Wegehaupt, F J; Attin, T.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of various fluoride compounds and casein phosphopeptide/amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on the reduction of erosive/abrasive tooth wear. METHODS: Forty enamel samples were prepared from bovine lower incisors, stratified and allocated to 4 groups (1-4). Samples in group 1 remained untreated and served as negative controls. The test samples were treated for 2 min/day as follows: group 2 amine/sodium fluoride gel (pH 4.8; 12,500 ppm), group 3 sodium flu...

  1. Effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (cpp-acp) on caries-like lesions in terms of time and nano-hardness: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Shanthan Mettu; Namineni Srinivas; C H Reddy Sampath; Nallanchakrava Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Context: Time bound increase in the nanohardness of the enamel after remineralization with casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) in a regular interval of 1 h has not been explored in the literature to a greater extent. Aims: To determine and compare the maximum hardness of the remineralized caries-like lesions, in terms of nanohardness and the rate of achieving maximum hardness at 1-h interval, after treatment with artificial saliva and CPP-ACP, over 12 h. Materials and ...

  2. Effect of casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate containing chewing gum on salivary concentration of calcium and phosphorus: An in-vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B P Santhosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Caries clinical trials of sugar-free chewing gum have shown that the gum is noncariogenic and in fact has anticariogenic effect through the stimulation of saliva. Sugar-free gums, therefore, may be an excellent delivery vehicle for safe and effective additive, capable of promoting enamel remineralization. Casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP nanocomplexes incorporated into sugar-free chewing gum have shown to remineralize enamel subsurface lesions in situ. So this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP containing sugar-free chewing gum on salivary concentration of calcium and phosphorous. Materials and Methods : Unstimulated saliva from each 24 selected subjects was collected. Then each subject was given two pellets of chewing gum containing CPP-ACP and asked to chew for a period of 20 min, after which saliva samples were collected from each individual. Once all the samples were collected they were assessed for calcium and phosphorous concentration using affiliated reagent kits and photometer. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained were analyzed using student′s paired t test. Results: Significant difference was found in the calcium and phosphorus concentration of saliva before and after chewing CPP-ACP containing chewing gum. Conclusions: Chewing of CPP-ACP containing chewing gum showed a significant increase in the salivary concentration of calcium for a prolonged period of time hence it may help in the remineralization of tooth surfaces.

  3. Atomic force microscopic comparison of remineralization with casein-phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate paste, acidulated phosphate fluoride gel and iron supplement in primary and permanent teeth: An in-vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Nikita Agrawal; N D Shashikiran; Shilpy Singla; Ravi, K.S.; Vinaya Kumar Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Context: Demineralization of tooth by erosion is caused by frequent contact between the tooth surface and acids present in soft drinks. Aim: The present study objective was to evaluate the remineralization potential of casein-phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste, 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel and iron supplement on dental erosion by soft drinks in human primary and permanent enamel using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Materials and Methods: Specimens were...

  4. An in vitro evaluation of the demineralization inhibitory effect of F− varnish and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on enamel in young permanent teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraisamy, Vinola; Xavier, Ananda; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Reddy, Venugopal; Rao, Arun Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To determine the demineralization inhibitory potential of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and to compare and evaluate the additive effect of fluoride varnish + CPP-ACP. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy premolar teeth that were extracted for orthodontic purposes were collected, and each tooth was longitudinally sectioned buccolingually and mesiodistally into four sections. The teeth were then assigned to four different treatment groups namely fluoride varnish, CPP-ACP, F− varnish followed by CPP-ACP and control. The prepared enamel samples were suspended in an artificial caries challenge for 10 days. The demineralizing inhibitory effects of the groups were recorded using polarized light microscopy. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was carried out using analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range tests. Results: The mean lesion depths of all the groups were Group 1 (fluoride varnish): 104.71, Group 2 (CPP-ACP): 127.09, Group 3: (F− varnish + CPP-ACP): 82.34, Group 4 (control): 146.93. Conclusion: Demineralization inhibitory potential on the additive use of F− varnish and casein phosphopeptide was superior to fluoride varnish or CPP-ACP applied alone on the enamel of young permanent teeth. PMID:26538909

  5. Effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (cpp-acp on caries-like lesions in terms of time and nano-hardness: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthan Mettu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Time bound increase in the nanohardness of the enamel after remineralization with casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP in a regular interval of 1 h has not been explored in the literature to a greater extent. Aims: To determine and compare the maximum hardness of the remineralized caries-like lesions, in terms of nanohardness and the rate of achieving maximum hardness at 1-h interval, after treatment with artificial saliva and CPP-ACP, over 12 h. Materials and Methods: Fifty longitudinal sections of extracted sound permanent maxillary central, lateral incisors were immersed in demineralizing solution for 4 days. The samples were then randomly divided into three groups, consisting of 12 sections each for soaking them in three different media-isotonic saline, artificial saliva, and CPP-ACP for 12 h. The nanohardness was measured on the labial surface, at baseline, after erosion, and after remineralization at 1-h interval. Statistical Analysis Used: The data was analyzed with paired t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and post-hoc analysis. Results: CPP-ACP increased the enamel hardness significantly (P < 0.001, at an increased rate, than artificial saliva. Conclusions: This study has provided an insight into the frequency of use of CPP-ACP, once per day, as the nanohardness of enamel samples increased within 1 h of application and remained within the normal limits after 12 h.

  6. The effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste and sodium fluoride mouthwash on the prevention of dentine erosion: An in vitro study

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    Maryam Moezizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose was to compare the effect of 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste on prevention of dentin erosion. Materials and Methods: Buccal surfaces of 36 sound premolar teeth were ground flat and polished with abrasive discs. Half the polished surfaces were covered with tape to maintain a reference surface. Samples were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A was pretreated with tooth mousse (TM 4 times a day for 5 days. Group B was pretreated with 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash 4 times a day for 5 days. Group C was considered as the control group with no pretreatment. In the next step, the samples were exposed to Coca-Cola 4 times a day for 3 days. After each erosive cycle, the samples were rinsed with deionized water and stored in artificial saliva. The surface loss was determined using profilometry. Results: The erosion in both Groups A and B was less than the control group. The surface loss in mouthwash group was significantly lower than in the control group. Erosion in TM group was more than the mouthwash group and less than the control group. Conclusion: Sodium fluoride mouthwash is more effective for prevention of dentin erosion.

  7. Surface remineralization potential of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on enamel eroded by cola-drinks: An in-situ model study

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    Navneet Grewal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the remineralization potential of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP on enamel eroded by cola drinks. Subjects and Methods: A total of 30 healthy subjects were selected from a random sample of 1200 children and divided into two groups of 15 each wherein calcium and phosphorus analyses and scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis was carried out to investigate the remineralization of enamel surface. A total of 30 non-carious premolar teeth were selected from the human tooth bank (HTB to prepare the in-situ appliance. Three enamel slabs were prepared from the same. One enamel slab was used to obtain baseline values and the other two were embedded into the upper palatal appliances prepared on the subjects′ maxillary working model. The subjects wore the appliance after which 30 ml cola drink exposure was given. After 15 days, the slabs were removed and subjected to respective analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: Means of all the readings of soluble calcium and phosphorous levels at baseline,post cola-drink exposure and post cpp-acp application were subjected to statistical analysis SPSS11.5 version.Comparison within groups and between groups was carried out using ANOVA and F-values at 1% level of significance. Results: Decrease in calcium solubility of enamel in the CPP-ACP application group as compared to post-cola drink exposure group (P < 0.05 was seen. Distinctive change in surface topography of enamel in the post-CPP-ACP application group as compared to post-cola drink exposure group was observed. Conclusion: CPP-ACP significantly promoted remineralization of enamel eroded by cola drinks as revealed by significant morphological changes seen in SEM magnification and spectrophotometric analyses.

  8. Remineralization effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on enamel white spot lesions. A quantitative energy dispersive X ray elemental analysis: An in vitro study

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    Fabrizio Guerra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate, by means of elemental analysis the mineral density, calcium, and phosphorus weight percent of sound enamel, demineralized and CPP-ACP treated enamel. Elemental analysis allows elemental and isotopic composition of a biologic sample. It can be qualitative (determining what elements are present, and quantitative (determining how much of each are present. INCA Energy 250, Oxford Analytical Instruments Ltd. (UK, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy system for elemental analysis was performed on random assigned samples. Methods: 12 sound premolars were extracted for orthodontic reason. Each tooth was sectioned by using a double-faced diamond microtome under water cooling into three section for a total of 36 samples and randomly assigned to three groups: Group 1 (control, Group 2 (WS: white spot , Group 3 (WST white spot treated of 12 samples each. Samples (Group 2 and Group 3 underwent equally to 24 h and 48 h of acid bath duration. Then all the treated samples (Group 3 were coated with CPP-ACP for 5 min before immersion into water twice a day. Group 2 served as control for enamel damage evaluation. Inca Point & ID, an analytic platform software for SEM was used for elemental analysis on samples from Group 1 (C, 2 (WS and Group 3 (WST in order to determine the weight % and atomic % presence of Ca and P. Results: The results of the samples analysis from the three Groups show different weight % and atomic% of Ca and P, and clearly reflect the different mineralization rates. Conclusions: 10% Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP complex, promotes remineralization in vitro. The results of this in vitro study completely agree with this statement. Clinical studies to investigate the intraoral effectiveness of topical applications of CPP-ACP on white spot lesions are required to confirm these results.

  9. Combined effects of Er: YAG laser and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on the inhibition of enamel demineralization: An in vitro study

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    Sogra Yassaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of white spot lesions on enamel is a significant and common problem during the fixed orthodontic treatment. Various preventive methods have been suggested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preventive potential of MI Paste Plus, Er: YAG Laser and combined under similar in vitro conditions against demineralization. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 60 extracted premolars were randomly allocated to four groups (n = 15 of control, MI Paste Plus, Laser and MI + Laser (MIL. Enamel surface of each group was treated with one of above materials before and during the pH cycling for 12 days through a daily procedure of demineralization and remineralization for 3 h and 20 h, respectively. Teeth were sectioned and evaluated quantitatively by cross-sectional microhardness testing at 20 μm intervals from the outer enamel surface toward dentinoenamel junction up to 160 μm and data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: MIL group had the least amount of demineralization (P < 0.001. Control group (C group had the greatest relative mineral loss and the laser group (L group had 45% less mineral loss than the C group and there was no significant difference between the MI Paste Plus and L group (P = 0.154 Conclusion: Based on these results, Er: YAG laser was able to decrease demineralization and was a potential alternative to preventive dentistry and was more effective when combined with casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate products.

  10. In vitro evaluation of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate effect on the shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel

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    Niloofar Shadman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP is applied for remineralization of early caries lesions or tooth sensitivity conditions and may affect subsequent resin bonding. This in vitro study investigated the effect of CPP-ACP on the shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human molar teeth were selected and randomly divided into three groups and six subgroups. Buccal or lingual surfaces of teeth were prepared to create a flat enamel surface. Adhesives used were Tetric N-Bond, AdheSE and AdheSE One F. In three subgroups, before applying adhesives, enamel surfaces were treated with Tooth Mousse CPP-ACP for one hour, rinsed and stored in 37°C temperature with 100% humidity. This procedure was repeated for 5 days and then adhesives were applied and Tetric N-Ceram composite was adhered to the enamel. This procedure was also fulfilled for the other three subgroups without CPP-ACP treatment. After 24 hour water storage, samples were tested for shear bond strength test in a universal testing machine. Failure modes were determined by stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by t-test and one-way analysis of variance with P 0.05. In non-applied CPP-ACP subgroups, there were statistically significant differences among all subgroups. Tetric N-Bond had the highest and AdheSE One F had the lowest shear bond strength. Conclusion: CPP-ACP application reduces the shear bond strength of AdheSE and AdheSE One F to enamel but not Tetric N-Bond.

  11. Effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on the flexural strength of enamel-dentin complex following extracoronal bleaching

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    Diatri Nari Ratih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bleaching can affect the mechanical properties of enamel-dentin complex, such as flexural strength. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphus calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP is often used following bleaching treatment to reduce hypersensitivity and to increase demineralization of tooth. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of CPP-ACP on the flexural strength of enamel-dentin complex following extracoronal bleaching. Methods: Forty-eight enamel-dentin plates (size 8 x 2 x 3 mm were randomly assigned into 6 groups, each consisted of 8 samples. Group 1, no bleaching and immersed in artificial saliva. Group 2, no bleaching, CPP-ACP application only. Group 3, bleaching using 15% carbamide peroxide. Group 4, similar to group 3, except application of CPP-ACP for the times between bleaching. Group 5, bleaching with 40% hydrogen peroxide. Group 6, similar to group 5, except application of CPP-ACP for the times between bleaching. Flexural strength of each enamel-dentin plate was tested by threepoint bending test using universal testing machine. Results: The results showed that 15% carbamide peroxide and 40% hydrogen peroxide significantly reduced flexural strength of enamel-dentin (216.25±26.44 MPa and 206.67±32.07 MPa respectively. Conversely, application of CPP-ACP following both bleachings increased flexural strength (266.75± 28.27MPa and 254.58±36.59 MPa respectively. A two-way Anova revealed that extracoronal bleaching agents significantly reduced flexural strength (p<0.05. Conclusion: Extracoronal bleaching agents reduce flexural strength, whereas application of CPP-ACP following bleaching either with 15% carbamide peroxide or 40% hydrogen peroxide can increase the flexural strength of enamel-dentin complex.

  12. Remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions with casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate: A quantitative energy dispersive X-ray analysis using scanning electron microscopy: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Mithra N. Hegde; Anu Moany

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the remineralization potential of casein phosphopeptide-amor-phous calcium phosphate paste on enamel subsurface lesions using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). Materials and Methods: Ninety enamel specimens were prepared from extracted human molars. All specimens were evaluated for mineral content (% weight) using SEM-EDX. The specimens were placed in demineralizing solution for fou...

  13. Atomic force microscopic comparison of remineralization with casein-phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate paste, acidulated phosphate fluoride gel and iron supplement in primary and permanent teeth: An in-vitro study

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    Nikita Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Demineralization of tooth by erosion is caused by frequent contact between the tooth surface and acids present in soft drinks. Aim: The present study objective was to evaluate the remineralization potential of casein-phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP paste, 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF gel and iron supplement on dental erosion by soft drinks in human primary and permanent enamel using atomic force microscopy (AFM. Materials and Methods: Specimens were made from extracted 15 primary and 15 permanent teeth which were randomly divided into three treatment groups: CPP-ACP paste, APF gel and iron supplement. AFM was used for baseline readings followed by demineralization and remineralization cycle. Results and Statistics: Almost all group of samples showed remineralization that is a reduction in surface roughness which was higher with CPP-ACP paste. Statistical analysis was performed using by one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U-test with P < 0.05. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the application of CPP-ACP paste is effective on preventing dental erosion from soft drinks.

  14. Effect of Casein Phosphopeptide-amorphous Calcium Phosphate Treatment on Microtensile Bond Strength to Carious Affected Dentin Using Two Adhesive Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Bahari; Siavash Savadi Oskoee; Soodabeh Kimyai; Firoz Pouralibaba; Farrokh Farhadi; Marouf Norouzi

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim was to evaluate the effect of casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on microtensile bond strength (μTBS) to carious affected dentin (CAD) using etch-and-rinse and self-etch ad-hesive systems. Materials and methods. The occlusal surface of 32 human molars with moderate occlusal caries was removed. Infected dentin was removed until reaching CAD and the teeth were randomly divided into two groups based on the Single Bond (SB) and Clearfil SE ...

  15. CPP-ACP对发酵乳杆菌生长、黏附影响的实验研究%EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE CASEIN PHOSPHOPEPTIDE-AMORPHIC CALCIUM PHOSPHATE ON THE GROWTH AND AD HERENCE OF LACTOBACILLUS FERMENTUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴容; 李艳萍; 徐皑

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the effects of casein phosphopeptide- amorphic calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on the growth and adherence of Lactobacillus fennentum and the possible anti-caries mechanism of CPP-ACP. [Methods] LactobaciUus fennentum was inoculated in BHI with different concentrations of CPP-ACP and grew in anaerobic condition at 37℃ for 48 hours. MTT method was used to measure the effects of CPP-ACP on the growth of Lactobacillus fermentum. The hy-droxyapatites (HA) deads were coated by saliva to form saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (S-HA), an in vitro adhesion model of experimental pellicle. Lactobacillus fermentum was radiolabeled with 3H-thymidine and different concentrations (0.5%-5.0% (W/V) of CPP-ACP pretreated S-HA. The numbers of 3H-thymidine labeled bacteria attached to S-HA were counted by scintillation counting. [Results] It was found that CPP-ACP could inhibit the growth and adherence of Lactobacillus fennentum. With the concentration of CPP-ACP increasing, the values of A (550nm) and cpm decreased (P<0.01), and all of the inhibition rate of adherence arrived at 100%. [Conclusion] CPP-ACP had inhibitory effect on the growth and adherence of Lactobacillus fermentum, and the inhibitory effect enhanced with the increasing of CPP-ACP concentration.%[目的]研究酪蛋白磷酸肽钙磷复合体(Casein phosphopeptide-Amorphic Calcium Phosphate,CPP-ACP)对发酵乳杆菌生长、黏附的影响,进一步探讨CPP-ACP的防龋机制.[方法]将发酵乳杆菌接种到BHI培养基,实验组中加入不同浓度(0.5%~5.0%(W/v))的CPP-ACP溶液,厌氧培养48h后,采用噻唑蓝(MTT)比色分析法测定细菌浓度的吸光度A值(λ=550nm).采用唾液包被的羟磷灰石(Saliva-coated hydroxyapatite,S-HA)形成实验性膜,用不同浓度(0.5~5.0%(W/v))CPP-ACP处理S-HA,定量观察发酵乳杆菌在S-HA上的黏附情况.[结果]随CPP-ACP浓度的升高,发酵乳杆菌甲臜产物的二甲亚砜溶液的吸光度值降低,即发酵

  16. Remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions with casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate: A quantitative energy dispersive X-ray analysis using scanning electron microscopy: An in vitro study

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    Mithra N Hegde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the remineralization potential of casein phosphopeptide-amor-phous calcium phosphate paste on enamel subsurface lesions using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX. Materials and Methods: Ninety enamel specimens were prepared from extracted human molars. All specimens were evaluated for mineral content (% weight using SEM-EDX. The specimens were placed in demineralizing solution for four days to produce artificial carious lesions. The mineral content (calcium/phosphorus ratios, Ca/P ratios was remeasured using SEM-EDX. The specimens were then randomly assigned to five study groups and one control group of 15 specimens per group. Except for the control group, all group specimens were incubated in remineralizing paste (CPP-ACP paste for 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days twice daily for three minutes. The control group received no treatment with remineralizing paste. All the 90 specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37°C. After remineralization, the mineral content (% weight of the samples was measured using SEM-EDX. Results: All the study groups showed very highly significant differences between Ca/P ratios of the demineralized and remineralized samples. There was no significant difference seen in the control group. Conclusion: CPP-ACP paste could significantly remineralize the artificial enamel subsurface lesions in vitro: the remineralizing rates increasing with the time for which the samples were kept in the remineralizing paste. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis is an efficient way to quantitatively assess the changes in mineral content during demineralization and in vitro remineralization processes.

  17. Effect of Casein Phosphopeptide-amorphous Calcium Phosphate Treatment on Microtensile Bond Strength to Carious Affected Dentin Using Two Adhesive Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim was to evaluate the effect of casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP on microtensile bond strength (μTBS to carious affected dentin (CAD using etch-and-rinse and self-etch ad-hesive systems. Materials and methods. The occlusal surface of 32 human molars with moderate occlusal caries was removed. Infected dentin was removed until reaching CAD and the teeth were randomly divided into two groups based on the Single Bond (SB and Clearfil SE Bond (CSE adhesive systems. Before composite resin bonding, each group was subdivided into three subgroups of ND, CAD and CPP-ACP-treated CAD (CAD-CPP based on the dentin substrate. After dissecting samples to l-mm-thick cross-sections (each subgroup: n = 13, μTBS was measured at a strain rate of 0.5 mm/min. Data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA, independent samples t-test and post-hoc Tukey tests (α=0.05. Results. Bond strength of both adhesive systems to ND was significantly higher than that to CAD (P 0.05. μTBS of CSE to CAD-CPP was higher than that to CAD; however, the difference was not significant (P > 0.05. Significant differences were found between SB and CSE systems only with CAD substrate (P < 0.001. Conclusion. Regardless of the adhesive system used, surface treatment of CAD with CPP-ACP did not have a significant effect on bond strength. However, bond strength to CAD was higher with SB rather than with CSE.

  18. Remineralization effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on enamel white spot lesions. A quantitative energy dispersive X ray elemental analysis: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Guerra; Marta Mazur; Gianna Maria Nardi; Cristina Chelariu; Maurizio Bossù; Umberto Romeo; Livia Ottolenghi

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate, by means of elemental analysis the mineral density, calcium, and phosphorus weight percent of sound enamel, demineralized and CPP-ACP treated enamel. Elemental analysis allows elemental and isotopic composition of a biologic sample. It can be qualitative (determining what elements are present), and quantitative (determining how much of each are present). INCA Energy 250, Oxford Analytical Instruments Ltd. (UK), energy-dispersive X-ray s...

  19. 酪蛋白磷酸肽钙磷复合体预防正畸治疗中釉质脱矿的临床研究%Clinical application of casein phosphopeptide-amorphic calcium phosphate in preventing enamel decalcification in orthodontics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王君香; 阎燕; 王秀婧; 苏奇志

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the preventive effect of Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphic Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP)in reducing enamel decalcification in orthodontics.Methods Sixty orthodontic patients were divided into trial group and control group randomly.Patients in trial group were given oral hygiene education and GC tooth protector (mainly CPP-ACP).Patients in control group were given oral hygiene education only.Pictures were taken and the extents of enamel decalcification between two the groups were compared one year after orthodontic treatment.Results The decalcification index in trial group was 0.019 ± 0.033 and that in control group was 0.067 ± 0.039.The difference was significant (F=9.1,P<0.01).Conclusions Casein PhosphopeptideAmorphic Calcium Phosphate could prevent enamel decalcification in orthodontics.%目的 评价酪蛋白磷酸肽钙磷复合体(Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphic Calcium Phosphate)预防正畸患者牙釉质脱矿的临床效果.方法 选择固定正畸患者60例,随机分为试验组和对照组,所有患者在戴入前拍摄口内照片评价其牙釉质脱矿情况.试验组在戴入固定矫治器后常规口腔卫生宣教,并且每天均用主要成分为酪蛋白磷酸肽钙磷复合体的护牙素,对照组仅常规口腔卫生宣教.一年后拍摄口内照片观察并比较两组间的牙釉质脱矿增加的情况.结果 一年后牙釉质脱矿增加指数试验组为0.019±0.033,对照组为0.067±0.039,试验组明显低于对照组(F=9.1,P<0.01).结论 酪蛋白磷酸肽钙磷复合体对正畸治疗中的釉质脱矿有一定的预防作用.

  20. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate products in caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hani, Thikrayat Bani; O'Connell, Anne C; Duane, Brett

    2016-06-01

    Data sourcesMedline, Embase, PreMedline and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials.Study selectionClinical trials, investigating only clinical caries outcomes on participants of any age comparing the use of Tooth Mousse(®) or Tooth Mousse Plus(®) to a routine oral care regimen for the prevention of dental caries with or without comparison to additional preventive products. Studies that used other formulations of CCP-ACP were excluded. Trials using split-mouth design were also excluded. Only English language papers were considered.Data extraction and synthesisPapers were assessed independently by both authors using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials.1 Meta-analysis was not possible due to study heterogeneity.ResultsTwelve studies were available for the final review; three studies on caries prevention were assessed as having low risk of bias. The remaining nine studies, with high risk of bias, reported on treatment or regression of early carious lesions. Two RCTs reported no significant benefits in the use of Tooth Mousse(®) over brushing with a fluoride toothpaste, a third study demonstrated a statistically significant increase in enamel microhardness for the Tooth Mousse(®) group compared to control group but no difference to the group who had fluoride gel treatment. Overall the authors concluded that Tooth Mousse(®) performs no better than fluoride in the prevention of carious lesions.Seven of nine studies evaluated caries lesion severity in orthodontic patients, with four demonstrating statistically significant white spot regression. Two trials in non-orthodontic patients showed statistically significant remineralising potential of Tooth Mousse(®) over fluoride mouthrinse or the regular use of fluoride toothpaste in 14-30 days.ConclusionsThe authors found no evidence to support the use of Tooth Mousse(®) over brushing with a fluoride toothpaste for the prevention of early caries. ToothMousse(®) appeared to benefit regression of white spot lesions associated with orthodontic treatment but the evidence is limited. Effectiveness of Tooth Mousse(®) was not significantly increased by the addition of fluoride in Tooth Mousse Plus(®) and evidence is still lacking to support the use of one over another. High quality randomised clinical trials are needed before these products can be recommended for the prevention and treatment of early carious lesions in the general population.Source of fundingThe publication was funded by Colgate Palmolive, Australia. PMID:27339237

  1. Effect of fluoridated casein phospopeptide-amorphous-calcium phosphate complex, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets: A comparative in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    C A Abdul Shahariyar; Anurag D Mahale; Kishore Kumar; Rohan Rai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium-phosphate (CPP-ACP) complex, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash on shear bond strengths (SBSs) of orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: About sixty extracted healthy human premolar teeth with intact buccal enamel were divided into two equal groups to which brackets were bonded using self-etching primers (SEPs) and conventional means respectively. These were further equally divi...

  2. Perbedaan Pengaruh Pemberian Bahan Remineralisasi Yang Mengandung Flour Dengan Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calsium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) Terhadap Kekerasan Permukaan Enamel Gigi

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, Fitri

    2015-01-01

    Fluor dan Casein Phosphopeptide - Amourphous Calsium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) merupakan agen antikariogenik. Fluor merupakan bahan remineralisasi yang paling sering digunakan sebagai bahan aktif dalam agen remineralisasi. Efek samping yang sering ditimbulkan oleh pemakaian fluor antara lain, terjadi perubahan warna gigi menjadi bercak putih dan terjadi hipoflasi yang menyebabkan bentuk estetis yang kurang baik. Agen remineralisasi lain seperti CPP-ACP memiliki kelebihan yaitu dapat menstabilkan ka...

  3. Comparative evaluation of remineralization potential of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride on artificial enamel white spot lesion: An in vitro light fluorescence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mehta

    2013-01-01

    Results: As compared with artificial saliva both CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP produced significant amount of remineralization of the artificial enamel white spot lesion (P < 0.001, however when the remineralizing effect of CPP-ACP was compared with the remineralizing effect of CPP-ACFP there was no significant difference. Significant amount of remineralization was produced by CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP only after the 7 th day. After the 14 th day, the remineralization produced by both CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP as compared to artificial saliva was non-significant.

  4. Comparative evaluation of remineralization potential of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride on artificial enamel white spot lesion: An in vitro light fluorescence study

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, R; Nandlal, B; S Prashanth

    2013-01-01

    Background: World-wide, the contribution of dental caries to the burden of oral diseases is about 10 times higher than that of periodontal disease, the other common oral condition. Owing to its globally high prevalence, dental caries is a "pandemic" disease characterized by a high percentage of untreated carious cavities causing pain, discomfort and functional limitations. Untreated carious cavities; furthermore, have a significant impact on the general health of children and on the social an...

  5. Effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and acidulated phosphate fluoride gel on erosive enamel wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam HajeNorouz Ali Tehrani

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: We concluded that although either CPP-ACP or APF can protect enamel against wear, their combination provides significant enamel wear reduction. These findings would lead to new strategies for the clinical management of tooth wear.

  6. The effect of two types chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and xylitol on salivary Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Emamieh

    2015-01-01

    Materials and Methods: A total of 60 dental students of 20-25 years old, who volunteered after checking their health condition and signing an informed consent, were randomly allocated to receive one of the following interventions: (A Chewing gum containing CPP-ACP; (B containing xylitol. Subjects within the experimental groups were taken the gums 3 times daily, after each meal for a period of 3 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention unstimulated saliva samples were quantified for S. mutans counts. Results: A statistically significant reduction of salivary S. mutans was displayed in both groups A and B after the intervention when compared with baseline (P < 0.001, and group A shows more statistically significant reduction of salivary S. mutans than group B (P = 0.011. Conclusion: Daily consumption of chewing gum containing CPP-ACP and xylitol significantly reduces the level of salivary S. mutans, but chewing gum containing CPP-ACP can reduce the level of salivary S. mutans in more than xylitol chewing gum.

  7. Treatment of post-orthodontic white spot lesions with casein phosphopeptide-stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bröchner, Ann; Christensen, Carsten; Kristensen, Bjarne;

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of topical applications of 10% casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on white spot lesions (WSL) detected after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Sixty healthy adolescents with >/=1 clinically visible WSL at debonding were...... recruited and randomly allocated to a randomised controlled trial with two parallel groups. The intervention group was instructed to topically apply a CPP-ACP -containing agent (Tooth Mousse, GC Europe) once daily and the subjects of the control group brushed their teeth with standard fluoride toothpaste...... included in the final evaluation. A statistically significant (p <0.05) regression of the WSL was disclosed in both study groups compared to baseline, but there was no difference between the groups. The mean area of the lesions decreased by 58% in the CPP-ACP group and 26% in the fluoride group (p = 0...

  8. Effect of Fluoride, Casein Phosphopeptide–Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Casein Phosphopeptide–Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Fluoride on Enamel Surface Microhardness After Microabrasion: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazaleh Ahmadi Zenouz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of applying casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP paste, casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF paste and sodium fluoride gel on surface microhardness of enamel after microabrasion.Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted human premolars were selected. All samples were subjected to hardness indentations made with the Vickers hardness machine and the average value was recorded as the initial surface microhardness. The specimens were then randomly divided into three groups (n=10 of CPP-ACPF, fluoride and CPP-ACP. The teeth were micro-abraded with Opalustre. Microhardness test was performed to assess the post-abrasion hardness. Three remineralization modalities were performed on samples of each group. The enamel surface microhardness measurements were performed. To compare the difference between groups, the rehardening and softening values were defined. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test at a significance level of 5% were used for statistical analysis.Results: The mean microhardness value (MMV had a significant decrease after microabrasion from baseline. The MMV had a significant increase after remineralization in all groups. The MMV of CPP-ACPF group was significantly more than that of fluoride group (P=0.027. The rehardening value of fluoride group was significantly more than that of other groups (P<0.001.Conclusion: All the remineralizing agents were effective for rehardening the enamel after microabrasion. The CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF pastes are effective, but to a lesser extent than neutral sodium fluoride gel in remineralizing enamel surface. Incorporation of fluoride to CPP-ACP formulation does not provide any additional remineralizing potential.Keywords: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplex; Enamel Microabrasion; Hardness; Sodium Fluoride

  9. The increasing of enamel calcium level after casein phosphopeptideamorphous calcium phosphate covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyasri Prananingrum

    2012-06-01

    . Demineralisasi terjadi oleh asam organik sebagai hasil fermentasi substrat karbohidrat oleh bakteri. Remineralisasi adalah proses perbaikan alami untuk lesi non cavitated. Remineralisasi terjadi jika terdapat ion Ca2+ dan PO43- dalam jumlah cukup. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP adalah bahan berbentuk pasta berisi suatu protein susu (kasein. Pada kasein terkandung mineral kalsium dan fosfat. Kemampuan kasein untuk menstabilkan kalsium fosfat dan meningkatkan kelarutan dan bioavailabilitas sehingga CPP memiliki potensi menghantarkan kalsium dan fosfat. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui kadar kalsium enamel setelah pengulasan CPP-ACP pada permukaan enamel 2 kali sehari selama 3,14 dan 28 hari. Metode: Sampel adalah gigi insisif sapi, usia 3 tahun. Pada penelitian ini sampel (n = 24 dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok yaitu kelompok I sebagai kelompok kontrol, dan kelompok II, III, IV sebagai kelompok perlakuan dengan pengulasan CPP-ACP 2 kali sehari. Semua kelompok direndam dalam saliva buatan. Kelompok II direndam 3 hari, kelompok III direndam 14 hari, kelompok IV direndam 28 hari. Pengulasan CPP-ACP sejumlah 1 tetes diratakan pada seluruh permukaan labial gigi. Pengukuran kadar kalsium dilakukan dengan metode titrasi. Semua data dianalisa dengan uji One-Way ANOVA dengan taraf kemaknaan 5%. Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan kadar kalsium enamel gigi di antara kelompok (p = 0,001. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan kadar kalsium gigi pada kelompok kontrol dan perlakuan antara lama waktu pengulasan 3, 14, dan 28 hari (p = 0,001. Kesimpulan: Pengulasan CPP-ACP selama 3, 14 dan 28 hari mampu meningkatkan kadar kalsium pada enamel.

  10. Effect of fluoridated casein phospopeptide-amorphous-calcium phosphate complex, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets: A comparative in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C A Abdul Shahariyar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium-phosphate (CPP-ACP complex, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash on shear bond strengths (SBSs of orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: About sixty extracted healthy human premolar teeth with intact buccal enamel were divided into two equal groups to which brackets were bonded using self-etching primers (SEPs and conventional means respectively. These were further equally divided into three subgroups - (1 control (2 CPP-ACP (3 chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash. The SBSs were then measured using a universal testing machine. Results: SBS of the conventional group was significantly higher than the self-etching group. The intragroup differences were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: CPP-ACP, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash did not adversely affect SBS of orthodontic brackets irrespective of the method of conditioning. Brackets bonded with conventional technique showed greater bond strengths as compared to those bonded with SEP.

  11. An Innovative Approach to Treat Incisors Hypomineralization (MIH) : A Combined Use of Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Hydrogen Peroxide—A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Mastroberardino; Guglielmo Campus; Laura Strohmenger; Alessandro Villa; Maria Grazia Cagetti

    2012-01-01

    Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is characterized by a developmentally derived deficiency in mineral enamel. Affected teeth present demarcated enamel opacities, ranging from white to brown; also hypoplasia can be associated. Patient frequently claims aesthetic discomfort if anterior teeth are involved. This problem leads patients to request a bleaching treatment to improve aestheticconditions. Nevertheless, hydrogen peroxide can produce serious side-effects, resulting from further miner...

  12. Combined effects of Er: YAG laser and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on the inhibition of enamel demineralization: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Yassaei, Sogra; Shahraki, Neda; Aghili, Hossein; Davari, Abdolrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Development of white spot lesions on enamel is a significant and common problem during the fixed orthodontic treatment. Various preventive methods have been suggested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preventive potential of MI Paste Plus, Er: YAG Laser and combined under similar in vitro conditions against demineralization. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 60 extracted premolars were randomly allocated to four groups (n = 15) of control, MI...

  13. Combined effects of Er: YAG laser and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on the inhibition of enamel demineralization: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Sogra Yassaei; Neda Shahraki; Hossein Aghili; Abdolrahim Davari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Development of white spot lesions on enamel is a significant and common problem during the fixed orthodontic treatment. Various preventive methods have been suggested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preventive potential of MI Paste Plus, Er: YAG Laser and combined under similar in vitro conditions against demineralization. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 60 extracted premolars were randomly allocated to four groups (n = 15) of control...

  14. Remineralization potential of bioactive glass and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on initial carious lesion: An in-vitro pH-cycling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adit Bharat Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed using ANOVA and multiple comparisons within groups was done using Bonferroni method (post-hoc tests to detect significant differences at P < 0.05 levels. Results: Group A showed significantly higher values (P < 0.05 when compared with the hardness values of Group B. Conclusions: Within the limits; the present study concluded that; both BAG and CPP-ACP are effective in remineralizing early enamel caries. Application of BAG more effectively remineralized the carious lesion when compared with CPP-ACP.

  15. Structural changes of casein micelles in a calcium gradient film

    OpenAIRE

    Gebhardt, R.; Burghammer, M.; Riekel, C.; Roth, S. V.; Müller-Buschbaum, P.

    2008-01-01

    Calcium gradients are prepared by sequentially filling a micropipette with casein solutions of varying calcium concentration and spreading them on glass slides. The casein film is formed by a solution casting process, which results in a macroscopically rough surface. Microbeam grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (microGISAXS) is used to investigate the lateral size distribution of three main components in casein films: casein micelles, casein mini-micelles, and micellar calcium pho...

  16. CALCIUM-INDUCED SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURES IN THE CALCIUM CASEINATE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular details deciphering the spontaneous calcium-induced protein aggregation process in the calcium caseinate system remain obscure. Understanding this complex process could lead to potential new applications of this important food ingredient. In this work, we studied calcium-induced supra...

  17. Interactions of casein micelles with calcium phosphate particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercinier, Lucile; Ye, Aiqian; Anema, Skelte G; Singh, Anne; Singh, Harjinder

    2014-06-25

    Insoluble calcium phosphate particles, such as hydroxyapatite (HA), are often used in calcium-fortified milks as they are considered to be chemically unreactive. However, this study showed that there was an interaction between the casein micelles in milk and HA particles. The caseins in milk were shown to bind to the HA particles, with the relative proportions of bound β-casein, αS-casein, and κ-casein different from the proportions of the individual caseins present in milk. Transmission electron microscopy showed no evidence of intact casein micelles on the surface of the HA particles, which suggested that the casein micelles dissociated either before or during binding. The HA particles behaved as ion chelators, with the ability to bind the ions contained in the milk serum phase. Consequently, the depletion of the serum minerals disrupted the milk mineral equilibrium, resulting in dissociation of the casein micelles in milk. PMID:24896851

  18. Laser-Casein phosphopeptide effect on remineralization of early enamel lesions in primary teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Aminabadi, Naser-Asl; Najafpour, Ebrahim; Samiei, Mohammad; Erfanparast, Leila; Anoush, Somayeh; Jamali, Zahra; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh; Oskouei, Sina Ghertasi

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation following casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) application on calcium and phosphate concentration and surface microhardness (SMH) of enamel surface in artificial white spot lesions of primary teeth. Material and Methods Eighty teeth with artificial white spot lesions were randomly divided into four groups: (A) distilled and deionized water, (B) Nd:YAG laser, (C) CPP-ACP crème, & (D) CP...

  19. Comparing the Effects of Whey Extract and Case in Phosphopeptide Amor-phous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) on Enamel Microhardness

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Bagher Rezvani; Mehrdad Karimi; Raheleh Akhavan Rasoolzade; Roza Haghgoo

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: With the recent focus of researches on the development of non-invasive treatment modalities, the non-invasive treatment of early carious lesions by remineralization would bring a major advance in the clinical management of these dental defects. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is considered to be effective in tooth remineralization. Purpose: The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the effects of whey and CPP-ACP in increasing the ...

  20. The Bond Strength of Ceramic Brackets Bonded to Remineralized Teeth with Casein

    OpenAIRE

    Kıyak Havlucu, Sevgi; Çakırer, Banu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of ceramic brackets bonded with different adhesives to remineralized teeth with casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate. Premolar teeth (n=120) were used in the study. Teeth were divided into 6 groups (n=20). For 60 teeth in the first 3 groups demineralization was performed before all teeth in the 6 groups were pretreated with CPP-ACP cream (GC Tooth Mousse, GC Corp., Tokyo, Japan) for 30 days. Brackets were bonded with T...

  1. Mesoscale crystallization of calcium phosphate nanostructures in protein (casein) micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thachepan, Surachai; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    Aqueous micelles of the multi-protein calcium phosphate complex, casein, were treated at 60 °C and pH 7 over several months. Although partial dissociation of the micelles into 12 nm sized amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)/protein nanoparticles occurred within a period of 14 days, crystallization of the ACP nanoclusters into bundles of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanofilaments was not observed until after 12 weeks. The HAP nanofilaments were formed specifically within the partially disrupted protein micelles suggesting a micelle-mediated pathway of mesoscale crystallization. Similar experiments using ACP-containing synthetic micelles prepared from β-casein protein alone indicated that co-aligned bundles of HAP nanofilaments were produced within the protein micelle interior after 24 hours at temperatures as low as 35 °C. The presence of Mg2+ ions in the casein micelles, as well as a possible synergistic effect associated with the multi-protein nature of the native aggregates, could account for the marked inhibition in mesoscale crystallization observed in the casein micelles compared with the single-component β-casein constructs.Aqueous micelles of the multi-protein calcium phosphate complex, casein, were treated at 60 °C and pH 7 over several months. Although partial dissociation of the micelles into 12 nm sized amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)/protein nanoparticles occurred within a period of 14 days, crystallization of the ACP nanoclusters into bundles of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanofilaments was not observed until after 12 weeks. The HAP nanofilaments were formed specifically within the partially disrupted protein micelles suggesting a micelle-mediated pathway of mesoscale crystallization. Similar experiments using ACP-containing synthetic micelles prepared from β-casein protein alone indicated that co-aligned bundles of HAP nanofilaments were produced within the protein micelle interior after 24 hours at temperatures as low as 35 °C. The presence of Mg2+ ions in

  2. Quantitative microradiographic analysis of remineralization of enamel lesions promoted by casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate and fluoride%CPP-ACP与氟促进脱矿釉质再矿化的显微放射定量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春华; 孙新华; 黄洋; 李博

    2008-01-01

    目的:研究不同浓度酪蛋白磷酸多肽-非结晶型磷酸钙(CPP-ACP)及其与氟(F)联合应用对牙釉质表层下脱矿再矿化的影响,为正畸后的釉质脱矿提供一种治疗途径.方法:取正畸拔除的前磨牙70颗,乳酸凝胶法制备人工早期釉质表层下脱矿后,按随机数字表法分为7组:5.0%CPP-ACP、1.0%CPP-ACP、0.1%CPP-ACP、5.0%CPP-ACFP、磷酸钙饱和溶液、饱和溶液+F及去离子水组.对各组进行显微放射照相并测量脱矿深度与脱矿量.结果:除去离子水组外,各组再矿化后较再矿化前脱矿深度和脱矿量均显著降低(P0.05),但均低于去离子水组(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论:CPP-ACP溶液可于体外使脱矿牙釉质发生再矿化,且矿化作用可被氟加强;再矿化作用与CPP稳定的钙磷浓度呈剂量-效应关系.

  3. Effects of calcium chelators on calcium distribution and protein solubility in rennet casein dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Irene; O' Sullivan, Michael; O' Riordan, Dolores

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the effects of calcium chelating salts on calcium-ion activity (ACa(++)), calcium distribution, and protein solubility in model CaCl2 solutions (50 mmol L(-1)) or rennet casein dispersions (15 g/100 g). Disodium phosphate and trisodium citrate at concentrations of 10 and 30 mmol L(-1) and at ratios of 1:0, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 and 0:1 were added to both systems. The CaCl2 system, despite its simplicity, was a good indicator of chelating salt-calcium interactions in rennet casein dispersions. Adding trisodium citrate either alone or as part of a mixed chelating salt system resulted in high levels of dispersed "chelated" calcium; conversely, disodium phosphate addition resulted in lower levels, while the ACa(++) decreased with increasing concentration of both chelating salts. Neither chelating salt produced high levels of soluble protein. Thus calcium chelating salts may play a more subtle role in modulating hydration during manufacture of casein-based matrices than simply solubilising calcium or protein. PMID:26616945

  4. Effect of Calcium Concentration on the Structure of Casein Micelles in Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Müller-Buschbaum, P.; Gebhardt, R.; Roth, S. V.; Metwalli, E.; Doster, W.

    2007-01-01

    The structure of thin casein films prepared with spin-coating is investigated as a function of the calcium concentration. Grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy are used to probe the micelle structure. For comparison, the corresponding casein solutions are investigated with dynamic light-scattering experiments. In the thin films with added calcium three types of casein structures, aggregates, micelles, and mini-micelles, are observed in coexistence with ato...

  5. Effect of Fluoride, Casein Phosphopeptide–Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Casein Phosphopeptide–Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Fluoride on Enamel Surface Microhardness After Microabrasion: An In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazaleh Ahmadi Zenouz; Fariba Ezoji; Seyede Anese Enderami; Soraya Khafri

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of applying casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste, casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF) paste and sodium fluoride gel on surface microhardness of enamel after microabrasion.Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted human premolars were selected. All samples were subjected to hardness indentations made with the Vickers hardness machine and the average value was recorded as the i...

  6. The in vitro investigation of morphological changes of permanent teeth enamel surface under the influence of exogenous means for caries prevention containing different calcium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khomenko L.O.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rationalizing of the choice of the most effective means for exogenous prevention, especially during secondary mineralization, will increase cariesresistance of tooth enamel. Objective - in vitro study of changes of just erupted permanent teeth enamel surface under the influence of exogenous means for caries prevention containing different calcium compounds. Methods. For the study we used 35 enamel samples of permanent teeth that had erupted within the same term (premolars of 11-13 years old children, less than 6 months after eruption. 5 samples were the control group before the experiment. 30 samples were randomly divided equally into three groups (10 samples in each group and stored in boxes with artificial saliva. Enamel samples of the first group were treated with cream “TOOTH MOUSSE” (10% casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate, samples of the second group were treated with gel “R.O.C.S.® Medical minerals” (calcium glycerophosphate, magnesium chloride, xylitol. Samples of the first and second groups were treated at the beginning of the research and 3, 6 and 9 months later during 10 days, twice a day for 30 minutes. Samples of the third group were the control and were not treated. Investigation of the enamel surface was performed at the beginning of the experiment, after 6 and 12 months. The structure of the samples surface was studied at the equator zone with the scanning electron microscope. Results. At the beginning of the experiment signs of insufficient mineralization were observed on the surface of the enamel samples of the control group. After 12 months of treatment with cream with casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate and gel with calcium glycerophosphate, surface of the enamel samples of both groups had the signs of an increased mineralization due to the long-term preservation of a layer of additional chemical compounds. Conclusion. The surface of the permanent teeth enamel immediately

  7. Assessment of Protective Effect of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate-Caseine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anousheh Rashed-Mohassel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the complications of Iron drop recommended for 6-24 months children is the potential reduction in microhardness of primary tooth enamel because of low pH. The objective of this study is to assess the protective effect of amorphous calcium phosphate caseine phosphopeptide (ACP-CPP and silicone oil in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted primary anterior teeth were divided into three equal groups. The initial micro hardness was measured by Vicker’s microhardness tester. The first group without a protective layer and the second and third group after application of ACP-CPP and silicone oil respectively, were immersed in iron drop. Microhardness was remeasured. One tooth in each group along with a tooth not exposed to iron drop were randomly chosen for SEM qualitative analysis. Analysis was performed with Repeated measures ANOVA with SPSS-18. Results: All groups exhibited significant decrease of micro hardness (p=0.001, however, no contrasting pattern was found between various groups. Conclusion: Neither ACP-CPP nor silicone oil could not provide a significant protection against micro hardness reduction after exposure to iron drop

  8. Spectroscopic investigation of the influence of calcium ion on the structures of casein micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng-Jie; Wu, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Hui-Yuan; Liu, Hong-Na; Ren, Fa-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion on the structural properties of casein micelles in the course of heat treatment were synthetically examined by non-structure-invasive spectrometry. The hydrophobicity, reflected by extrinsic fluorescence (ANS fluorescence), was positively correlated with the concentration of the calcium ion, within the range of 0 to 12 mmol x L(-1). Meanwhile, the turbidity and stability of casein micelles also increased with the growth of calcium concentrations. However, opposite results were observed for hydrodynamic diameter and polydispersity index. Compared with the calcium ion, the calcium-chelator (citrate) has an opposite effect on the structural characteristics of casein micelles. Within the calcium concentrations range of 0 to 12 mmol x L(-1), the hydrophobicity, stability and turbidity were negatively correlated with the concentration of the calcium ion, nevertheless, opposite results were observed for hydrodynamic diameter and polydispersity index. All the results indicate that the calcium ion could be used to modify the structures of casein micelles during heat heatment. PMID:24783540

  9. Calcium bioaccessibility and uptake by human intestinal like cells following in vitro digestion of casein phosphopeptide-calcium aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, Silvia; Del Favero, Elena; De Luca, Paola; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Fiorilli, Amelia; Cantu', Laura; Ferraretto, Anita

    2015-06-01

    Casein phosphopeptides (CPPs), derived by casein proteolysis, can bind calcium ions and keep them in solution. In vitro studies have demonstrated CPP-induced cell calcium uptake, depending on the formation of (CPP + calcium) complexes and on the degree of differentiation of the intestinal cells. With the present study, we address the persistence of the complexes and of the CPP-induced calcium uptake in intestinal like cells after the digestion process, thus examining their eligibility to serve as nutraceuticals. A calcium-preloaded CPP preparation of commercial origin (Ca-CPPs) was subjected to in vitro digestion. The evolution of the supramolecular structure of the Ca-CPP complexes was studied using laser-light and X-ray scattering. The bioactivity of the pre- and post-digestion Ca-CPPs was determined in differentiated Caco2 and HT-29 cells by video imaging experiments using Fura-2. We found that Ca-CPP aggregates keep a complex supramolecular organization upon digestion, despite getting smaller in size and increasing internal calcium dispersion. Concomitantly and most interestingly, digested Ca-CPPs clearly enhance the uptake of calcium ions, especially in Caco2 cells. In contrast, digestion depletes the ability of post-loaded decalcified-CPPs (Ca-dekCPPs), with a weaker internal structure, to induce calcium uptake. The enhanced bioactivity reached upon digestion strongly suggests a recognized role of Ca-CPPs, in the form used here, as nutraceuticals. PMID:25927875

  10. Characteristics of the interaction of calcium with casein submicelles as determined by analytical affinity chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of calcium with casein submicelles was investigated in CaCl2 and calcium phosphate buffers and with synthetic milk salt solutions using the technique of analytical affinity chromatography. Micelles that had been prepared by size exclusion chromatography with glycerolpropyl controlled-pore glass from fresh raw skim milk that had never been cooled, were dialyzed at room temperature against calcium-free imidazole buffer, pH 6.7. Resulting submicelles were covalently immobilized on succinamidopropyl controlled-pore glass (300-nm pore size). Using 45Ca to monitor the elution retardation, the affinity of free Ca2+ and calcium salt species was determined at temperatures of 20 to 40 degrees C and pH 6.0 to 7.5. Increasing the pH in this range or increasing the temperature strengthened the binding of calcium to submicelles, similar to previous observations with individual caseins. However, the enthalpy change obtained from the temperature dependence was considerably greater than that reported for alpha s1- and beta-caseins. Furthermore, the elution profiles for 45Ca in milk salt solutions were decidedly different from those in CaCl2 or calcium phosphate buffers and the affinities were also greater. For example, at pH 6.7 and 30 degrees C the average dissociation constant for the submicelle-calcium complex is 0.074 mM for CaCl2 and calcium phosphate buffers, vs 0.016 mM for the milk salt solution. The asymmetric frontal boundaries and higher average affinities observed with milk salts may be due to binding of calcium salts with greater affinity in addition to the binding of free Ca2+ in these solutions

  11. Casein Aggregates Built Step-by-Step on Charged Polyelectrolyte Film Surfaces Are Calcium Phosphate-cemented*

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Krisztina; Pilbat, Ana-Maria; Groma, Géza; Szalontai, Balázs; Cuisinier, Frédéric J.G.

    2010-01-01

    The possible mechanism of casein aggregation and micelle buildup was studied in a new approach by letting α-casein adsorb from low concentration (0.1 mg·ml−1) solutions onto the charged surfaces of polyelectrolyte films. It was found that α-casein could adsorb onto both positively and negatively charged surfaces. However, only when its negative phosphoseryl clusters remained free, i.e. when it adsorbed onto a negative surface, could calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoclusters bind to the casein mole...

  12. Influence of calcium chelators on concentrated micellar casein solutions : from micellar structure to viscosity and heat stability

    OpenAIRE

    Kort, de, YAW Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    In practice it is challenging to prepare a concentrated medical product with high heat stability and low viscosity. Calcium chelators are often added to dairy products to improve heat stability, but this may increase viscosity through interactions with the casein proteins. The aim of this thesis was to obtain a better understanding of the influence of different calcium chelators on the physico-chemical properties of casein micelles and the resulting effect on viscosity and heat stability of c...

  13. INFLUENCE OF BOVINE AND CAPRINE CASEIN PHOSPHOPEPTIDES DIFFERING IN ALPHA S1-CASEIN CONTENT IN DETERMINING THE ABSORPTION OF CALCIUM FROM BOVINE AND CAPRINE CALCIUM-FORTIFIED MILKS IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine and caprine milks have a similar overall gross composition, but vary considerably in the ratios of their casein components. These differences cause significant changes in the casein’s ability to bind and stabilize calcium (Ca). It might be expected that these in vitro variations, which are th...

  14. Formation of sterilized edible-films based on caseinates: Effects of calcium and plasticizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-irradiation was used to produce free-standing sterilized edible films based on caseinate. The effect of calcium ions (Ca2+) and two plasticizers, namely propylene glycol (PG) and triethylene glycol (TEG) were investigated, as well as the effect of the irradiation on both the gel formation and mechanical properties of the resulting films. Gamma-irradiation provoked formation of bityrosine, i.e. crosslinks, accounting for the increase of the puncture strength of films. The presence of PG or TEG enhanced the formation of crosslinks, leading to an improved mechanical strength of films. TEG was found to interact more favorably with the caseinate than PG, being responsible for the improved film extensibility. Addition of CA2+ caused the formation of gels. The breaking strength of gels was directly related to the concentration of Ca2+, while the puncture strength of films was found to be almost independent. Moreover, high irradiation dose seemed to affect the protein structure, accounting for the decrease of the breaking strength of gels and for the depreciation of the mechanical behavior of films

  15. Comparative evaluation of remineralizing potential of three agents on artificially demineralized human enamel: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Namrata Patil; Shantanu Choudhari; Sadanand Kulkarni; Joshi, Saurabh R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Remineralization as a treatment procedure has received much attention from clinicians. The objective of this in vitro study was to find out the efficacy of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF), and tricalcium phosphate fluoride (TCP-F) in remineralizing enamel surface on which artificial caries lesion had been created. The changes were analyzed using DIAGNOdent® (KaVo) and scanning elec...

  16. Efficacy of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF on enamel remineralization - An in vitro study using scanning electron microscope and DIAGNOdent®

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanth Jayarajan; P Janardhanam; P Jayakumar; Deepika

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Remineralization as a treatment procedure has received a lot of attention both from clinicians as well researchers. The objective of this in vitro study was to find out the efficacy of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF) in remineralizing enamel surface on which artificial caries lesion had been created. The changes were analyzed using DIAGNOdent® (KaVo) and scanning electron micros...

  17. Push-out bond strength of CPP-ACP-modified calcium silicate-based cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Alaa E; Manton, David J; Parashos, Peter; Wong, Rebecca H k; Palamara, Joseph E A; Reynolds, Eric C

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the push-out bond strength of 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% (w/w) casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP)-modified calcium silicate-based cements (CSCs). The push-out bond strength of a trial MTA was also compared with two CSCs (Biodentine(™) and Angelus(®) MTA). Three hundred 1 mm thick horizontal root sections were prepared from 60 singlerooted human teeth. The canal space of each section was enlarged and filled with the cements. The sections were stored in a phosphate buffer solution. After incubation for 2 months, the push-out bond strength was measured and the data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The addition of CPP-ACP to the test cements increased the push-out bond strength (p<0.05). The push-out bond strength of Biodentine(™) was higher than the other cements (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between Angelus(®) MTA and the trial MTA with most of CPP-ACP concentrations. PMID:26235714

  18. The Influence of Casein Phospho Peptides-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate on Enamel Demineralization Induced by Fixed Orthodontic%酪蛋白磷酸多肽-无定形磷酸钙对固定正畸所致牙釉质脱矿的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇; 唐璐; 杨四维; 庞兰

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究酪蛋白磷酸多肽-无定形磷酸钙(商品名GC护牙素)对固定正畸所致牙釉质脱矿的影响。方法:选择固定正畸治疗患者40例,经签字同意进入实验。以随机数字表法随机分为对照组、实验组各20例。对照组在口腔卫生宣教的基础上采用单纯口腔卫生措施,实验组在对照组的基础上使用GC护牙素。2组患者从治疗开始,进行连续13个月的牙照片观察。观测指标为牙面是否有新出现的的白垩色斑片或龋洞,统计并计算牙釉质脱矿率及脱矿指数(EDI)。结果:(1)对照组、实验组的牙釉质脱矿率均随着时间的增加而增高;(2)对照组EDI高于实验组。结论:在口腔卫生措施的基础上使用GC护牙素预防固定正畸所致牙釉质脱矿是一种安全有效的措施。%Objective:To study the influence of casein phospho peptides -amorphous calcium phosphate ( Casein phosphopeptide-amorphic calcium phosphate, CPP-ACP, the product name of GC Tooth Mousse) on enamel demineralization as fixed orthodontic.Methods:40 patients with fixed orthodontic treatment were randomly divided into a control group A group and experimental group B,each group of 20.GroupA had a simple oral hygiene measure on the basis of health education, group B had GC Tooth Mousse on the basis ofgroup A.From the start of treatment to 13-month, observed teeth photograph on two groups, observed whether there were emergine piece of chalk stain or cavities on teeth surface.Analysed by statistics and calculated the rate of enamel demineralization and demineralization Index(EDI).Results:(1)The enamel demineralization rate was increases in both group A and group B with time passing;( 2 ) EDI of group A was higher than that in group B, there was a statistically significant.Conclusion:The use of CPP-ACP of containing GC Tooth Mousse on the basis of oral hygiene measures in preventing enamel demineralization are safe and

  19. Synthesis of sodium caseinate-calcium carbonate microspheres and their mineralization to bone-like apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhewu; Liang, Guobin; Jin, Lin; Wang, Zhenling; Xing, Chao; Jiange, Qing; Zhang, Zhiguang

    2014-06-01

    Phosphoproteins can induce and stabilize calcium carbonate (CaCO3) vaterite, which has desirable features for high reactivity. The purpose of this study was to synthesize bioactive CaCO3 microspheres for bone regeneration. Sodium caseinate (NaCas)-containing CaCO3 microspheres, with the crystal phase of vaterite, were synthesized by fast precipitation in an aqueous solution of CaCl2, Na2CO3, and 2 mg/mL of NaCas. The uniform microspheres exhibited rougher surfaces and lower negative charges than CaCO3 particles without NaCas addition. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) of the microspheres showed characteristic peaks or bands corresponding to phosphate and hydroxyl groups. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves exhibited approximately 5% weight loss below 600 °C due to the decomposition of NaCas. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed lath-like hydroxyapatite (HAp) on the surface after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C for 5 and 10 days. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) revealed that the agglomerates were composed of Ca, C, O, P, Na, and Mg elements, and the Ca/P ratios ranged from 1.53 to 1.56. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns exhibited peaks characteristic of hydroxyapatite. The results of this study demonstrated that the addition of NaCas induced the formation of vaterite microspheres which possesses an enhanced apatite formation after soaking in SBF at 37 °C for 5 and 10 days. These NaCas-CaCO3 microspheres may be a potential biomaterial for bone regeneration.

  20. Calcium, vitamin D casein and whey protein intakes and periodontitis among Danish Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim; Boucher, Barbara J; Christensen, Lisa Bøge;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether intakes of Ca, vitamin D, casein and whey are associated with periodontitis and to investigate the possibility of interactions between them. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. An Internet-based, 267-item FFQ was used to assess dietary intake. Intakes of casein (32.0 g...... inversely associated with periodontitis. Consumption of foods rich in Ca, casein and whey (e.g. dairy foods) should be promoted, as they may contribute to the prevention of periodontitis. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm these associations....

  1. Natural variation in casein composition of milk

    OpenAIRE

    van der Bijl, E.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine milk contains 3-4 % protein and almost 80% of the milk protein fraction consist of four caseins; αs1-casein, β-casein, αs2-casein and κ-casein. Most of the caseins in milk are assembled in casein micelles, which consist of several thousands of individual casein molecules and salts. The unique structure of casein micelles allows the delivery of large amounts of calcium and phosphate to the neonate. Considerable natural variation in casein content and composition e...

  2. Comparing the Effects of Whey Extract and Case in Phosphopeptide Amor-phous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP on Enamel Microhardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Rezvani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: With the recent focus of researches on the development of non-invasive treatment modalities, the non-invasive treatment of early carious lesions by remineralization would bring a major advance in the clinical management of these dental defects. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP is considered to be effective in tooth remineralization. Purpose: The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the effects of whey and CPP-ACP in increasing the enamel microhardness. Materials and Method: Microhardness of 30 sound human permanent premolars was measured before and after 8-minute immersion of samples in Coca-Cola. The teeth were then randomly divided into 3 groups and were immersed in artificial saliva, whey, and tooth mousse for 10 minutes. The changes of microhardness within each group and among the groups were recorded and analyzed using paired t-test. Results: The microhardness increased in each group and between the groups; this increase was statistically significant (p= 0.009. Conclusion: The effect of whey on increasing the enamel microhardness was more than that of tooth mousse.

  3. PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTIONS IN CASEIN PRECIPITATED BY PRESSURIZED CARBON DIOXIDE (C02 CASEIN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite much research on the casein micelles, the colloidal calcium-phosphate complexes of skim milk, the molecular interactions involved in the casein micelles remain elusive. We investigate casein precipitated by pressurized carbon dioxide (CO2 casein) to elucidate the mechanism of the formation o...

  4. Efficacy of calcium- and fluoride-containing materials for the remineralization of primary teeth with early enamel lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarpour, Mahtab; Soltanimehr, Elham; Sattarahmady, Naghmeh

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of different products containing fluoride, calcium and phosphate for enamel remineralization in eroded primary teeth. A total of 90 sound primary canine teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups of 18 teeth each: 1) control (polished enamel), 2) 5% DuraShield sodium fluoride varnish, 3) 500 ppm fluoridated toothpaste, 4) casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) cream, and 5) Clinpro White varnish containing functionalized tri-calcium phosphate (fTCP). Enamel microhardness (EMH) was measured in all samples before and after demineralization and after 28 days of remineralization. Also 8 samples in groups 2 to 5 and four samples of sound and demineralized enamel were examined with atomic force microscopy (AFM). All data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA (p<0.05). Mean microhardness of demineralized enamel was significantly lower than in enamel at baseline (p<0.001). Remineralization significantly increased microharness in groups 2 to 5 compared to the control group (p<0.001). Percent EMH after remineralization with CPP-ACP was significantly higher than after fTCP (p=0.029), toothpaste (p< 0.001) or fluoride varnish (p<0.001); however, there was no significant difference between toothpaste and fluoride varnish (p=0.062). Microhardness increased more after fTCP treatment than after treatment with sodium fluoride varnish (p<0.001) or fluoridated toothpaste (p=0.045). AFM images showed that enamel roughness decreased most after treatment with fTCP, followed by CPP-ACP, toothpaste and fluoride varnish. The efficacy of CPP-ACP cream for remineralizing eroded enamel was greater than fluoride toothpaste, fluoride varnish or fTCP varnish. PMID:26179280

  5. Protective effect of calcium nanophosphate and CPP-ACP agents on enamel erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fabiola Galbiatti de; Santos, Rogerio Lacerda dos, E-mail: fabigalbi@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Patos, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas. Div. de Odontologia; Silva Filho, Tiago Joao da; Carlo, Hugo Lemes [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Dept. de Odontologia Restauradora; Lima, Bruno Alessandro Silva Guedes de [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologia Mecanica. Lab. de Solidificacao Rapida

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different remineralizing agents on enamel microhardness (KHN) and surface topography after an erosive challenge. Forty-eight human enamel specimens (4 X 4 mm) were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control (no treatment), fluoride varnish, calcium nanophosphate paste and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste (CPP-ACP). Both pastes were applied for 5 minutes, and fluoride varnish, for 24 h. Four daily erosive cycles of 5 minutes of immersion in a cola drink and 2 h in artificial saliva were conducted for 5 days. KHN readings were performed at baseline and after 5 days. The percentage of enamel hardness change (%KHN) was obtained after erosion. The surface topography was evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The data were tested using ANOVA, Tukey's and paired-T tests (p < 0.05). After an erosive challenge, there was no statistically significant difference between the control (96.8 ± 11.4 KHN / 72.4 ± 3.0 %KHN) and the varnish (91.7 ± 14.1 KHN / 73.4 ± 5.5 %KHN) groups. The nanophosphate group showed lower enamel hardness loss (187.2 ± 27.9 /49.0 ± 7.9 %KHN), compared with the CPP-ACP group (141.8 ± 16.5 /60.6 ± 4.0 %KHN), and both were statistically different from the varnish and the control groups. AFM images showed a rough surface for the control and the varnish groups, a non-homogeneous layer with globular irregularities for CPP-ACP, and a thick homogeneous layer for the nanophosphate group. None of the agents provided protection against the development of erosion; however, nanophosphate paste was able to reduce enamel surface softening after the erosive challenge. (author)

  6. Protective effect of calcium nanophosphate and CPP-ACP agents on enamel erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different remineralizing agents on enamel microhardness (KHN) and surface topography after an erosive challenge. Forty-eight human enamel specimens (4 X 4 mm) were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control (no treatment), fluoride varnish, calcium nanophosphate paste and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste (CPP-ACP). Both pastes were applied for 5 minutes, and fluoride varnish, for 24 h. Four daily erosive cycles of 5 minutes of immersion in a cola drink and 2 h in artificial saliva were conducted for 5 days. KHN readings were performed at baseline and after 5 days. The percentage of enamel hardness change (%KHN) was obtained after erosion. The surface topography was evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The data were tested using ANOVA, Tukey's and paired-T tests (p < 0.05). After an erosive challenge, there was no statistically significant difference between the control (96.8 ± 11.4 KHN / 72.4 ± 3.0 %KHN) and the varnish (91.7 ± 14.1 KHN / 73.4 ± 5.5 %KHN) groups. The nanophosphate group showed lower enamel hardness loss (187.2 ± 27.9 /49.0 ± 7.9 %KHN), compared with the CPP-ACP group (141.8 ± 16.5 /60.6 ± 4.0 %KHN), and both were statistically different from the varnish and the control groups. AFM images showed a rough surface for the control and the varnish groups, a non-homogeneous layer with globular irregularities for CPP-ACP, and a thick homogeneous layer for the nanophosphate group. None of the agents provided protection against the development of erosion; however, nanophosphate paste was able to reduce enamel surface softening after the erosive challenge. (author)

  7. Protective effect of calcium nanophosphate and CPP-ACP agents on enamel erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Galbiatti de Carvalho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different remineralizing agents on enamel microhardness (KHN and surface topography after an erosive challenge. Forty-eight human enamel specimens (4 × 4 mm were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control (no treatment, fluoride varnish, calcium nanophosphate paste and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste (CPP-ACP. Both pastes were applied for 5 minutes, and fluoride varnish, for 24 h. Four daily erosive cycles of 5 minutes of immersion in a cola drink and 2 h in artificial saliva were conducted for 5 days. KHN readings were performed at baseline and after 5 days. The percentage of enamel hardness change (%KHN was obtained after erosion. The surface topography was evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM. The data were tested using ANOVA, Tukey's and paired-T tests (p < 0.05. After an erosive challenge, there was no statistically significant difference between the control (96.8 ± 11.4 KHN / 72.4 ± 3.0 %KHN and the varnish (91.7 ± 14.1 KHN / 73.4 ± 5.5 %KHN groups. The nanophosphate group showed lower enamel hardness loss (187.2 ± 27.9 / 49.0 ± 7.9 %KHN, compared with the CPP-ACP group (141.8 ± 16.5 / 60.6 ± 4.0 %KHN, and both were statistically different from the varnish and the control groups. AFM images showed a rough surface for the control and the varnish groups, a non-homogeneous layer with globular irregularities for CPP-ACP, and a thick homogeneous layer for the nanophosphate group. None of the agents provided protection against the development of erosion; however, nanophosphate paste was able to reduce enamel surface softening after the erosive challenge

  8. Speciation analysis of calcium, iron, and zinc in casein phosphopeptide fractions from toddler milk-based formula by anion exchange and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame atomic-absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miquel, Esther; Alegria, Amparo; Barbera, Reyes; Farre, Rosaura [University of Valencia, Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2005-03-01

    Casein phosphopeptides (CPP) are phosphorylated casein-derived peptides that can be released by in-vitro or in-vivo enzymatic hydrolysis of {alpha}{sub s1}-casein, {alpha}{sub s2}-casein, and {beta}-casein (CN). Many of these peptides contain a highly polar acidic sequence of three phosphoseryl groups followed by two glutamic acid residues. These domains are binding sites for minerals such as calcium, iron, and zinc and play an important role in mineral bioavailability. The aim of this study was speciation analysis of calcium, iron, and zinc in CPP fractions from the soluble fraction of a toddler milk-based formula. Methods for CPP separation by anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (AE-HPLC) were combined with CPP identification by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and determination of the calcium, iron, zinc, and phosphorus content of the fractions obtained by AE-HPLC. Calcium and phosphorus were detected in all the analyzed AE-HPLC fractions. Calcium and zinc could be bound to CPP derived from {alpha}{sub s1}-CN and {alpha}{sub s2}-CN in fraction 3. Iron could be bound to CPP in fraction 4 in which {beta}-CN(15-34)4P was present with the cluster sequence S(P)S(P)S(P)EE. The results obtained prove the different distribution of calcium, iron, and zinc in heterogeneous CPP fractions. (orig.)

  9. 酪蛋白磷酸肽持钙能力的研究%The Calcium Holding Capacity of Casein Phosphopeptide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐曼; 何东平; 卫娜; 童愈元

    2012-01-01

    The blocking calcium phosphate precipitation ability of casein phosphopeptide (CPP) was studied by in vitro simulation. The degree of hydrolysis, adding volume of CPP, the different levels of CPP and other factors of food processing influence to the calcium holding capacity of CPP were analyzed. The research results provided references for evaluation and food application of CPP.%通过体外模拟实验考察酪蛋白磷酸肽( CPP)阻止磷酸钙沉淀的能力,分析了水解度、CPP添加量、CPP的不同等级以及食品加工过程中的其他因素对CPP持钙能力的影响,为CPP功能特性的评价以及在食品中的应用提供了依据.

  10. Solubilization of genistein by caseinate micellar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjani, Gemala; Ohta, Akio; Yasuhara, Kazuma; Asakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the aggregation behavior of caseinate and the solubilization of genistein in aqueous caseinate solution. The critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of caseinate was obtained from the fluorescence intensity of 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS), which was enhanced by ANS-protein interactions and the hydrophobicity of caseinate. The increasing solubility of genistein in caseinate was confirmed by HPLC measurements; above and below the CAC, the genistein/caseinate molar ratio is 1:1 and 10:1, respectively. The latter ratio indicates that more caseinate molecules surround genistein below the CAC. However, the solubility of genistein in caseinate is unaffected by calcium ions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows that casein sub-micelles are similarly structured in the presence and absence of genistein. In AFM phase images, the caseinate sub-micelle is brightened in the presence of genistein, implying that the particle becomes more rigid, probably because genistein attaches to the surface or to the narrow part of the sub-micelle. The diameter of sub-micelle aggregates is two times that of caseinate alone (24 nm versus 12 nm). These results were confirmed by cryo-TEM observations. PMID:24599106

  11. Development of casein microgels from cross-linking of casein micelles by genipin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Naaman F Nogueira; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; de Carvalho, Antônio F; Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2014-09-01

    Casein micelles are porous colloidal particles, constituted of casein molecules, water, and minerals. The vulnerability of the supramolecular structure of casein micelles face to changes in the environmental conditions restrains their applications in other domains besides food. Thus, redesigning casein micelles is a challenge to create new functionalities for these biosourced particles. The objective of this work was to create stable casein microgels from casein micelles using a natural cross-linker, named genipin. Suspensions of purified casein micelles (25 g L(-1)) were mixed with genipin solutions to have final concentrations of 5, 10, and 20 mM genipin. Covalently linked casein microgels were formed via cross-linking of lysyl and arginyl residues of casein molecules. The reacted products exhibited blue color. The cross-linking reaction induced gradual changes on the colloidal properties of the particles. The casein microgels were smaller and more negatively charged and presented smoother surfaces than casein micelles. These results were explained based on the cross-linking of free NH2 present in an external layer of κ-casein. Light scattering and rheological measurements showed that the reaction between genipin and casein molecules was intramicellar, as one single population of particles was observed and the values of viscosity (and, consequently, the volume fraction of the particles) were reduced. Contrary to the casein micelles, the casein microgels were resistant to the presence of dissociating agents, e.g., citrate (calcium chelating) and urea, but swelled as a consequence of internal electrostatic repulsion and the disruption of hydrophobic interactions between protein chains. The casein microgels did not dissociate at the air-solution interface and formed solid-like interfaces rather than a viscoelastic gel. The potential use of casein microgels as adaptable nanocarriers is proposed in the article. PMID:25117401

  12. Oxidative stability of a heme iron-fortified bakery product: Effectiveness of ascorbyl palmitate and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Tres, Alba; Polo, Javier; Codony, Rafael; Guardiola, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Fortification of food products with iron is a common strategy to prevent or overcome iron deficiency. However, any form of iron is a pro-oxidant and its addition will cause off-flavours and reduce a product's shelf life. A highly bioavailable heme iron ingredient was selected to fortify a chocolate cream used to fill sandwich-type cookies. Two different strategies were assessed for avoiding the heme iron catalytic effect on lipid oxidation: ascorbyl palmitate addition and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate. Oxidation development and sensory acceptability were monitored in the cookies over one-year of storage at room temperature in the dark. The addition of ascorbyl palmitate provided protection against oxidation and loss of tocopherols and tocotrienols during the preparation of cookies. In general, ascorbyl palmitate, either alone or in combination with the co-spray-dried heme iron, prevented primary oxidation and hexanal formation during storage. The combination of both strategies resulted in cookies that were acceptable from a sensory point of view after 1year of storage. PMID:26593529

  13. Biphasic calcium phosphate–casein bone graft fortified with Cassia occidentalis for bone tissue engineering and regeneration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Santhosh Kumar; T Hemalatha; R Deepachitra; R Narasimha Raghavan; P Prabu; T P Sastry

    2015-02-01

    Research on traditional herbs is gaining momentum owing to their potent medical properties, among which Cassia occidentalis (CO) is a promising herb, with osteogenic potential. The study investigates the efficacy of CO extract incorporated biphasic calcium phosphate as an osteoinductive material. Prepared bone implants were characterized physico-chemically using FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM and EDX. The implants were analysed further for mechanical and biological properties. The results revealed that CO extract-incorporated bone implants possessed better compression strength and it was able to induce proliferation and enhance alkaline phosphatase activity in SaOS-2 cells. The implant proves to be promising for bone tissue engineering, and hence it demands further in vivo evaluation.

  14. Effect of different fluoride varnishes on mineralization of artificial enamel carious lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Said, Siti Norhazlin Binti

    2015-01-01

    The chalky white appearance on enamel is known as White Spot Lesion (WSL). This initial caries lesion involves the dynamic process of demineralization and remineralization. Fluoride varnish has been shown to prevent WSL in post-eruptive tooth. The literature review summarized the available evidence on the various agents added to topical fluoride varnish, such as casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), xylito-coated calcium and phosphate, amorphous calcium phosphate (A...

  15. Casein maps: Effect of ethanol, pH, temperature, and CaCl2 on the particle size of reconstituted casein micelles

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Ran; Harte, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Although conditions favoring casein micelle aggregation are well known, factors promoting the dissociation of the casein micelle are not fully understood. It was our objective to investigate the ethanol-induced dissociation of micellar casein as affected by temperature and a wide range of pH, along with the concentrations of calcium and casein. Two different concentrations of casein micelles were dispersed in imidazole buffer with 0 to 80% ethanol (vol/vol) and 2 and 10 mM calcium. Apparent m...

  16. Cryo-transmission electron tomography of native casein micelles from bovine milk

    OpenAIRE

    Trejo, R.; Dokland, T; Jurat-Fuentes, J.; Harte, F.

    2011-01-01

    Caseins are the principal protein components in milk and an important ingredient in the food industry. In liquid milk, caseins are found as micelles of casein proteins and colloidal calcium nanoclusters. Casein micelles were isolated from raw skim milk by size exclusion chromatography and suspended in milk protein-free serum produced by ultrafiltration (molecular weight cut-off of 3 kDa) of raw skim milk. The micelles were imaged by cryo-electron microscopy and subjected to tomographic recons...

  17. Disorder in milk proteins: caseins, intrinsically disordered colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwan, Elrashdy M; Xue, Bin; Almehdar, Hussein A; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    This article opens a series of reviews on the abundance and roles of intrinsic disorder in milk proteins. The focus of this introductory article on caseins is symbolic, since caseins were among the first recognized functional unfolded proteins and since they are definitely the most disordered, the most abundant, and the most studied of all milk proteins. In eutherian milks, the casein family includes at least three and usually four major members (αs1-, αs2-, β-, and κ-caseins) that are unrelated in sequence. However, in some species, two different αS2-casein genes are active, and therefore the total number of caseins can be as high as five. These proteins have found a number of uses in food industry. The functional repertoire of caseins ranges from nutritional function to involvement in the improving and/or maintaining cardiovascular health, to crucial contribution to the milk capacity to transport calcium phosphate, to serve as molecular chaperones, and to protect the mother's mammary gland against amyloidoses and ectopic calcification. An intricate feature of caseins is their ability to assemble to colloidal protein particles, casein micelles, serving to sequester and transport amorphous calcium phosphate. These and many other functions of caseins are obviously dependent on their intrinsically disordered nature and are controlled by various posttranslational modifications. Since various aspects of casein structure and function are rather well studied and since several recent reviews emphasized the functional roles of caseins' intrinsic disorder, the major goal of this article is to show how intrinsic disorder is encoded in the amino acid sequences of these proteins. PMID:25714333

  18. The effect of McInnes solution on enamel and the effect of Tooth mousse on bleached enamel: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Darshan, H E; N D Shashikiran

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the effect of McInnes bleaching agent on the micro hardness of enamel before and after bleaching and to evaluate the effect of G C Tooth Mousse on the bleached enamel surface for its microhardness. Materials and Methods: McInnes bleaching solution, Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate CCP-ACP (G C Tooth mousse) artificial saliva (Dept of Oral Pathology, College of Dental Sciences, Davengere), deionized water, Vickers Micro Hardness tester (Zwick/ZHV, Germany), f...

  19. Le Proprietà remineralizzanti sui tessuti dentari dei derivati della caseina

    OpenAIRE

    Mastroberardino, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The remineralizing properties of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) were evaluated through a systematic review of the literature. Clinical cases were reported regarding treatment of molar-incisor hypohypomineralisation (MIH). Methods: PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases were searched for trials relevant to this review. Searched articles regards remineralization of post-orthodontic white spot lesions, caries prevention, erosion prevention, MIH (molar incisor ...

  20. A clinical efficacy of 30% ethenolic extract of Indian propolis and Recaldent™ in management of dentinal hypersensitivity: A comparative randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Torwane, Nilesh Arjun; Hongal, Sudhir; Goel, Pankaj; B R Chandrashekar; Jain, Manish; Saxena, Eshani

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of 30% ethenolic extract of Indian propolis compared with Recaldent™ (casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate) in reduction of dentinals hypersensitivity, a randomized, double-blind, split mouth, controlled clinical trial was conducted among the patients residing in Central Jail. Materials and Methods: A sample of 73 teeth from 13 patients having at least three teeth with dentinal hypersensitivity (DH) were randomly alloca...

  1. A comparison of surface roughness after micro abrasion of enamel with and without using CPP-ACP: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Mathias, Jones; Kavitha, S.; Mahalaxmi, S

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness of enamel after micro abrasion with and without using remineralization agent, CPP-ACP (Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate). Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted anterior teeth were collected. The samples were randomly assigned to two study and one control group. Group A (n = 10) containing teeth in which only micro abrasion was done, Group B (n = 10) containing teeth in which CPP-ACP (G C Tooth Mousse) ...

  2. Effects of various toothpastes on remineralization of white spot lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Su-Yeon; Chong, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Eon-Hwa; Chang, Na-Young; Chae, Jong-Moon; Cho, Jin-Hyoung; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Kang, Kyung-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of fluoridated, casein phosphopeptide.amorphous calcium phosphate complex (CPP-ACP)-containing, and functionalized β-tricalcium phosphate (fTCP)-containing toothpastes on remineralization of white spot lesions (WSLs) by using Quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF-D) Biluminator™ 2. Methods Forty-eight premolars, extracted for orthodontic reasons from 12 patients, with artificially induced WSLs were randomly and equ...

  3. Comparison of the Effect of Recaldent and Xylitol on the Amounts of Salivary Streptococcus Mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Shila Emamieh; Hossein Goudarzi; Alireza Akbarzadeh Baghban; Yosra Khaterizadeh

    2015-01-01

     Background:Dental caries is associated with oral pathogenes and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans)is one of the primary cariogenic organisms. The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the effect of sugar free chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate(CPP-ACP) and Xylitol on salivary Streptococcus mutan. Materials and Methods: 60 dental students, who volunteered after signing an informed consent, were randomly allocated to receive one of the following interve...

  4. Casein micelles and their internal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Kruif, Cornelis G [ORNL; Huppertz, Thom [NIZO Food Research; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Petukhov, Andrei V [Van ' t Hoff laboratory for Physical and Colloid Chemistry, Utrecht University, The Netherlands

    2012-01-01

    The internal structure of casein micelles was studied by calculating the small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering and static light scattering spectrum (SANS, SAXS, SLS) as a function of the scattering contrast and composition. We predicted experimental SANS, SAXS, SLS spectra self consistently using independently determined parameters for composition size, polydispersity, density and voluminosity. The internal structure of the casein micelles, i.e. how the various components are distributed within the casein micelle, was modeled according to three different models advocated in the literature; i.e. the classical sub-micelle model, the nanocluster model and the dual binding model. In this paper we present the essential features of these models and combine new and old experimental SANS, SAXS, SLS and DLS scattering data with new calculations that predict the spectra. Further evidence on micellar substructure was obtained by internally cross linking the casein micelles using transglutaminase, which led to casein nanogel particles. In contrast to native casein micelles, the nanogel particles were stable in 6 M urea and after sequestering the calcium using trisodium citrate. The changed scattering properties were again predicted self consistently. An important result is that the radius of gyration is independent of contrast, indicating that the mass distribution within a casein micelle is homogeneous. Experimental contrast is predicted quite well leading to a match point at a D{sub 2}O volume fraction of 0.41 ratio in SANS. Using SANS and SAXS model calculations it is concluded that only the nanocluster model is capable of accounting for the experimental scattering contrast variation data. All features and trends are predicted self consistently, among which the 'famous' shoulder at a wave vector value Q = 0.35 nm{sup -1}. In the nanocluster model, the casein micelle is considered as a (homogeneous) matrix of caseins in which the colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP

  5. Radioimmunoassay of casein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heterogeneity of casein and its consequence on the radioimmunoassay are discussed. All protein fractions of human milk are chequed for cross reactivity. Casein K and II are labelled with 125I. The elution curves of these labelled compounds are measured by radioactivity and optical density. The sera of lactating women and of cancerous patients were chromatographed. In human milk a major peak is found in the elution region of casein. The serum of cancerous patients showed a heterogenous elution pattern

  6. Milk Lacking α-Casein Leads to Permanent Reduction in Body Size in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kolb, Andreas F.; Huber, Reinhard C.; Simon G. Lillico; Carlisle, Ailsa; Robinson, Claire J.; Neil, Claire; Petrie, Linda; Sorensen, Dorte B.; Olsson, I. Anna S.; Whitelaw, C. Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    The major physiological function of milk is the transport of amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids and minerals to mammalian offspring. Caseins, the major milk proteins, are secreted in the form of a micelle consisting of protein and calcium-phosphate. We have analysed the role of the milk protein α-casein by inactivating the corresponding gene in mice. Absence of α-casein protein significantly curtails secretion of other milk proteins and calcium-phosphate, suggesting a role for α-casein in the...

  7. The membrane-associated form of as1- casein interacts with cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant microdomains

    OpenAIRE

    Le Parc, Annabelle; Honvo Houeto, Edith; Pigat, Natascha; Chat, Sophie; Léonil, Joelle; Chanat, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Caseins, the main milk proteins, interact with colloidal calcium phosphate to form the casein micelle. The mesostructure of this supramolecular assembly markedly influences its nutritional and technological functionalities. However, its detailed molecular organization and the cellular mechanisms involved in its biogenesis have been only partially established. There is a growing body of evidence to support the concept that αs1-casein takes center stage in casein micelle building and transport ...

  8. Treatment of eggshell with casein phosphopeptide reduces the severity of ovariectomy-induced bone loss

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Min Seuk; Oh, Hong-Geun; Lee, Hak-Yong; Park, Jeong-Woo; Lee, Bong-Gun; Park, Sang-Hoon; Moon, Dae-In; Shin, Eun-Hye; Oh, Eun-Kyeong; Erkhembaatar, Munkhsoyol; Kim, Okjin; Lee, Yong-Rae; Chae, Han-Jung

    2013-01-01

    It has been generally accepted that calcium intake prevents bone loss, and frequent fracture resulted from osteoporosis. However, it is still elusive as to how effective sole calcium intake is in preventing or attenuating the severity of osteoporosis. Here, we demonstrate the effects of eggshell-casein phosphopeptide (ES-CPP), and compared these effects those of calcium supplement, for restoring ovariectomy-mediated bone loss. CPP, synthesized from the hydrolysis of casein (0.5%) using trypsi...

  9. Milk lacking α-casein leads to permanent reduction in body size in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas F Kolb

    Full Text Available The major physiological function of milk is the transport of amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids and minerals to mammalian offspring. Caseins, the major milk proteins, are secreted in the form of a micelle consisting of protein and calcium-phosphate.We have analysed the role of the milk protein α-casein by inactivating the corresponding gene in mice. Absence of α-casein protein significantly curtails secretion of other milk proteins and calcium-phosphate, suggesting a role for α-casein in the establishment of casein micelles. In contrast, secretion of albumin, which is not synthesized in the mammary epithelium, into milk is not reduced. The absence of α-casein also significantly inhibits transcription of the other casein genes. α-Casein deficiency severely delays pup growth during lactation and results in a life-long body size reduction compared to control animals, but has only transient effects on physical and behavioural development of the pups. The data support a critical role for α-casein in casein micelle assembly. The results also confirm lactation as a critical window of metabolic programming and suggest milk protein concentration as a decisive factor in determining adult body weight.

  10. The physical characteristics and emulsification properties of partially dephosphorylated bovine β-casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Noel A; Kelly, Alan L; O'Mahony, James A; Fenelon, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    Bovine β-casein was purified from phosphocasein by rennet coagulation and cold solubilisation from the resultant curd. β-Casein was then dephosphorylated using potato acid phosphatase. Urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of partially dephosphorylated β-casein showed a number of bands, depending on the final level of phosphorylation. Dephosphorylating β-casein increased its pH of minimum solubility from ∼pH 5 to 5.5 and reduced its net negative charge from -30.8 to -27.0 mV. During the acidification of β-casein solutions, partially dephosphorylated β-casein failed to form a gel, unlike the phosphorylated (i.e., control) β-casein. Use of partially dephosphorylated β-casein to stabilise oil-in-water emulsions resulted in larger fat globules compared to control β-casein, but such globules were less susceptible to aggregation in the presence of 15 or 30 mM CaCl(2). Overall, the dephosphorylation of β-casein resulted in a protein similar to human β-casein in terms of physicochemical functionality, with increased stability against calcium-induced aggregation. PMID:23411247

  11. Physico-chemical changes in casein micelles of buffalo and cow milks as a function of alkalinisation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Sarfraz; Piot, Michel; Rousseau, Florence; Grongnet, Jean-François; Gaucheron, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    By modifying the forces (hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding and presence of micellar calcium phosphate) responsible for the structure and the stability of casein micelles, alkalinisation induces a disruption of casein micelles in milk. The objective of this work was to compare the alkalinisation-induced physico-chemical changes of casein micelles of buffalo and cow milks with a special attention to the mineral fraction. The whiteness and viscosity were determined as ...

  12. Effect of Preharvest Calcium Treatments on Sweet Cherry Fruit Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz EROGUL

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of different foliar calcium compounds on fruit cracking and quality of sweet cherry variety ‘0900 Ziraat’ were investigated. Calcium caseinate, calcium chloride, calcium hydroxide and calcium nitrate were used as foliar sprays. Calcium applications reduced the cracking index 38% to 66% compared to cherries that did not receive foliar treatment. The most efficient applications for decreasing cracking were calcium hydroxide and calcium chloride. Calcium chloride and c...

  13. Inhibition of hydroxyapatite growth by casein, a potential salivary phosphoprotein homologue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Maria J R H; Nakashima, Syozi; Nikaido, Toru; Ichinose, Shizuko; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2015-08-01

    Salivary phosphoproteins are essential in tooth mineral regulation but are often overlooked in vitro. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of casein, as a salivary phosphoprotein homologue, on the deposition and growth of hydroxyapatite (HA) on tooth surfaces. Hydroxyapatite growth was quantified using seeded crystal systems. Artificial saliva (AS) containing HA powder and 0, 10, 20, 50, or 100 μg ml(-1) of casein, or 100 μg ml(-1) of dephosphorylated casein (Dcasein), was incubated for 0-8 h at 37°C, pH 7.2. Calcium concentrations were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Surface precipitation of HA on bovine enamel and dentine blocks, incubated in similar conditions for 7 d, was examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Casein adsorption was assessed using modified Lowry assays and zeta-potential measurements. The AAS results revealed a concentration-dependent inhibition of calcium consumption. Hydroxyapatite precipitation occurred when no casein was present, whereas precipitation of HA was apparently completely inhibited in casein-containing groups. Adsorption data demonstrated increasingly negative zeta-potential with increased casein concentration and an affinity constant similar to proline-rich proteins with Langmuir modelling. Casein inhibited the deposition and growth of HA primarily through the binding of esterized phosphate to HA active sites, indicating its potential as a mineral-regulating salivary phosphoprotein homologue in vitro. PMID:26083784

  14. Prevention and Treatment of White Spot Lesions During and After Treatment with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: a Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Lopatiene

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the systematic literature review is to update the evidence for the prevention of white spot lesions, using materials containing fluoride and/or casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate during and after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Material and Methods: Information search for controlled studies on humans published between January 2008 and February 2016 was performed in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, The Cochrane Library. Inclusion criteria were: the English language, study on humans, patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances, randomized or quasi-randomized controlled clinical studies fluoride-containing product or casein derivates used throughout the appliance therapy or straightaway after debonding. Results: 326 articles were reviewed (Embase 141, PubMed 129, ScienceDirect 41, Cochrane 15. Twelve clinical studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Use of fluoridated toothpaste had a remineralizing effect on white spot lesions (WSLs (P < 0.05; fluoride varnish and casein supplements were effective in prevention and early treatment of WSLs (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Early detection of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment would allow implementing preventive measures to control the demineralization process before lesions progress. The systemic review has showed that the usage of fluoride and casein supplements in ameliorating white spot lesions during and after fixed orthodontic treatment is significantly effective. However the use of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate can be more beneficial than fluoride rinse in the reduction of demineralization spots.

  15. Glycation Reactions of Casein Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeckel, Ulrike; Duerasch, Anja; Weiz, Alexander; Ruck, Michael; Henle, Thomas

    2016-04-13

    After suspensions of micellar casein or nonmicellar sodium caseinate had been heated, respectively, in the presence and absence of glucose for 0-4 h at 100 °C, glycation compounds were quantitated. The formation of Amadori products as indicators for the "early" Maillard reaction were in the same range for both micellar and nonmicellar caseins, indicating that reactive amino acid side chains within the micelles are accessible for glucose in a comparable way as in nonmicellar casein. Significant differences, however, were observed concerning the formation of the advanced glycation end products (AGEs), namely, N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (CML), pyrraline, pentosidine, and glyoxal-lysine dimer (GOLD). CML could be observerd in higher amounts in nonmicellar casein, whereas in the micelles the pyrraline formation was increased. Pentosidine and GOLD were formed in comparable amounts. Furthermore, the extent of protein cross-linking was significantly higher in the glycated casein micelles than in the nonmicellar casein samples. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy showed that glycation has no influence on the size of the casein micelles, indicating that cross-linking occurs only in the interior of the micelles, but altered the surface morphology. Studies on glycation and nonenzymatic cross-linking can contribute to the understanding of the structure of casein micelles. PMID:27018258

  16. Investigating cold gelation properties of recombined highly concentrated micellar casein concentrate and cream for use in cheese making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J; Vollmer, A H

    2016-07-01

    Highly concentrated micellar casein concentrate (HC-MCC), a potential ingredient for cheese making, contains ~20% casein with ~70% of serum proteins removed by microfiltration and diafiltration of skim milk, followed by vacuum evaporation. Our objective was to investigate cold gelation properties of recombined concentrated milk (RCM) by mixing thawed frozen HC-MCC and cream under different casein levels, pH, and protein-to-fat ratios, and with addition of sodium citrate or calcium. The HC-MCC was recombined with cream using low shear at 50°C for 30 min, and rheological measurements were conducted. Cold-gelling temperature [the temperature at which storage modulus (G')=loss modulus (G″)] was linearly correlated with casein levels from 8.6 to 11.5% (R(2)=0.71), pH from 6.6 to 7.0 (R(2)=0.96), and addition of sodium citrate from 0 to 0.36mmol/g of casein (R(2)=0.80). At pH 7.0, gelation occurred at 12, 26, and 38°C with 9, 10, and 11% casein, respectively. At pH 6.6, 6.8, and 7.0, RCM with 12% casein gelled at a mean temperature of 12, 26, and 37°C, respectively. Adding calcium chloride at 0.17mmol/g of casein significantly increased cold-gelling temperature from 18 to ≥50°C, whereas no significant change was observed at levels up to 0.12mmol/g of casein. Different protein to fat ratios ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 did not significantly influence gelling temperature. In transmission electron micrographs of RCM with 12% casein, casein micelles were nonspherical and partially dissociated into small protein strands. Upon addition of calcium chloride at 0.21mmol/g of casein, casein micelles were more spherical and retained colloidal structure with the presence of aggregated casein micelles. These gelation processes of RCM with or without addition of trisodium citrate were both reversible. We propose that cold gelation of RCM occurs when protein strands that have been partially released from the casein micelles entangle, restrict their mobility, and form a fine

  17. Hydrolysis of Casein Micelles by AprX Enzym from Pseudomonas fluorescens Induces their Déstabilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Baglinière, François; Mateos, A. (Ana); Jardin, Julien; Rousseau, Florence; Robert, Benoit; Humbert, G.; Dary, A.; Gaillard, J L; Amiel, C

    2012-01-01

    Casein micelle is a colloidal structure containing different casein molecules and calcium phosphate. Different forces are involved in this micellar organisation and contribute to their stability. However micellar destabilisations can be observed after modifications of physico-chemical conditions like acidification, calcium addition, intensive heat treatments, high pressure or proteolysis with as consequence the formation of a gel or a sediment. The objective of this work was to understand th...

  18. REVIEW ON CASEIN PRODUCTION AND CASEIN BASED NANO-FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Neha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable systems have the ability to release the drug for a prolonged period of time and subsequently degrade which can be easily cleared from the body. This property makes use of them for the design of carriers for the controlled delivery of therapeutic agents, since it will release the entrapped drug over an extended period of time. Due to its non toxic, biocompatible and slow digesting nature it is an effective matrix in drug delivery. Milk has many proteins, including the nine essential amino acids. The two basic types of proteins in milk are called casein and whey. The ability of casein to modify drug dissolution from compacts was reported. The high tensile strength of casein film, favours its use as an acceptable film-coating for tablets. Casein floating beads were developed to increase the residence time of drugs in the stomach based on its emulsifying and bubble-forming properties. Casein-based microparticles bioactive molecules were prepared via emulsification-chemical cross linking Casein nanoformulations were also prepared to deliver nutraceuticals and synthetic drugs via enzymatic crosslinking, graft copolymerization, heat-gelation and polyelectrolyte ionic complexation. It can be concluded that casein-based formulations are promising materials for controlled drug delivery.

  19. On studying protein phosphorylation patterns using bottom-up LC-MS/MS: the case of human alpha-casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Frank; Savitski, Mikhail M; Nielsen, Michael L;

    2007-01-01

    occupancy rates of phosphosites in proteins may differ by orders of magnitude, and thus the occupancy rate must be reported for each occupied phosphosite. To highlight potential pitfalls in quantifying the occupancy rates, alpha(s1)-casein from human milk was selected as a model molecule representing...... moderately phosphorylated proteins. For this purpose, human milk from one Caucasian woman in the eighth month of lactation was used. The phosphorylation level of caseins is believed to have major implications for the formation of micelles that are involved in delivering valuable calcium phosphate and other...... minerals to the new-born. Human alpha(s1)-casein has been reported to be much less phosphorylated than ruminant caseins, which may indicate a different function of caseins in humans. Revealing the phosphorylation pattern in human casein can thus shed light on its function. The current study found that the...

  20. A new tetra-primer ARMS-PCR for genotyping bovine kappa-casein polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, P A S; Rosse, I C; Demiranda, M; Machado, M A; Verneque, R S; Peixoto, M G C D; Carvalho, M R S

    2013-01-01

    Kappa-casein (κ-casein) is one of the most abundant milk proteins. Its main function is to avoid the aggregation of casein micelles, keeping them, and therefore calcium phosphate, in pockets in solution. In bovines, a κ-casein functional polymorphism has been associated with fat, calcium, and protein milk contents and faster curd contraction in cheese production. Quicker curd contraction reduces the loss of milk solids, enhancing cheese yield. This polymorphism induces a double amino acid substitution (Thr136Ile and Ala148Asp). The polymorphism is normally detected by PCR-RFLP, which is a laborious method. An interesting methodological alternative is the tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system PCR (tetra-primer ARMS-PCR). A tetra-primer ARMS-PCR for the detection of this κ-casein polymorphism has been described. However, specificity was not achieved, probably due to problems with primer design. We developed a new tetra-primer ARMS-PCR for the detection of the κ-casein polymorphism. This new method was validated in a double-blind test, by comparison with the results obtained for 50 Guzerá bulls formerly genotyped by PCR-RFLP. This new method achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity. We conclude that this method is a useful, cost-efficient alternative for the detection of functional κ-casein polymorphisms. PMID:24390998

  1. Influence of mineral environment on the buffering capacity of casein micelles

    OpenAIRE

    Salaun, Françoise; Mietton, Bernard; Gaucheron, Frederic

    2007-01-01

    The buffering capacity of casein micelle suspensions is a physico-chemical characteristic depending on the mineral and protein composition, on the interactions between these compounds and on the physicochemical environment. In this study, buffering capacity was maximum at pH about 5.2 and was mainly due to the acid-base properties of inorganic phosphate solubilised during acidification and organic phosphate from phosphoserine residues of caseins. Addition of calcium chloride to suspensions of...

  2. The association of low-molecular-weight hydrophobic compounds with native casein micelles in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, M; Mohan, M S; Campagna, S R; Jurat-Fuentes, J L; Harte, F M

    2015-08-01

    The agreed biological function of the casein micelles in milk is to carry minerals (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) from mother to young along with amino acids for growth and development. Recently, native and modified casein micelles were used as encapsulating and delivery agents for various hydrophobic low-molecular-weight probes. The ability of modified casein micelles to bind certain probes may derive from the binding affinity of native casein micelles. Hence, a study with milk from single cows was conducted to further elucidate the association of hydrophobic molecules into native casein micelles and further understand their biological function. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic extraction followed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry analysis were performed over protein fractions obtained from size exclusion fractionation of raw skim milk. Hydrophobic compounds, including phosphatidylcholine, lyso-phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin, showed strong association exclusively to casein micelles as compared with whey proteins, whereas hydrophilic compounds did not display any preference for their association among milk proteins. Further analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected 42 compounds associated solely with the casein-micelles fraction. Mass fragments in tandem mass spectrometry identified 4 of these compounds as phosphatidylcholine with fatty acid composition of 16:0/18:1, 14:0/16:0, 16:0/16:0, and 18:1/18:0. These results support that transporting low-molecular-weight hydrophobic molecules is also a biological function of the casein micelles in milk. PMID:26074238

  3. Formation of free-standing sterilized edible-films from irradiated caseinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    γ-irradiation was used to produce free-standing sterilized edible films based on milk protein, namely sodium-caseinate and calcium-caseinate. The nature of the counter-ion as well as the protein and glycerol concentrations were examined. Irradiation of solution based on calcium-caseinate produced more crosslinks than solution based on sodium-caseinate. As a consequence, films based on calcium-caseinate showed a better mechanical strength. Glycerol was found to play a double role in enhancing the formation of crosslinks within caseinate chains, accounting for the increase of the puncture strength, and acting as a plasticizer, being responsible for the improved film extensibility and viscoelasticity. Moreover, the effect of the irradiation on the mechanical properties were strongly dependent on the glycerol/protein ratio, i.e. the formulation of the films. Films of high quality and a satisfactory mechanical behaviour were generated at glycerol/protein ratios of 0.5 and 0.67

  4. Casein polymorphism heterogeneity influences casein micelle size in milk of individual cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, L; Williams, R P W; Otter, D; Augustin, M A

    2015-06-01

    Milk samples from individual cows producing small (148-155 nm) or large (177-222 nm) casein micelles were selected to investigate the relationship between the individual casein proteins, specifically κ- and β-casein phenotypes, and casein micelle size. Only κ-casein AA and β-casein A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2 phenotypes were found in the large casein micelle group. Among the small micelle group, both κ-casein and β-casein phenotypes were more diverse. κ-Casein AB was the dominant phenotype, and 3 combinations (AA, AB, and BB) were present in the small casein micelle group. A considerable mix of β-casein phenotypes was found, including B and I variants, which were only found in the small casein micelle group. The relative amount of κ-casein to total casein was significantly higher in the small micelle group, and the nonglycosylated and glycosylated κ-casein contents were higher in the milks with small casein micelles (primarily with κ-casein AB and BB variants) compared with the large micelle group. The ratio of glycosylated to nonglycosylated κ-casein was higher in the milks with small casein micelles compared with the milks with large casein micelles. This suggests that although the amount of κ-casein (both glycosylated and nonglycosylated) is associated with micelle size, an increased proportion of glycosylated κ-casein could be a more important and favorable factor for small micelle size. This suggests that the increased spatial requirement due to addition of the glycosyl group with increasing extent of glycosylation of κ-casein is one mechanism that controls casein micelle assembly and growth. In addition, increased electrostatic repulsion due to the sialyl residues on the glycosyl group could be a contributory factor. PMID:25828659

  5. Solving the mystery of the internal structure of casein micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, B; Erlangga, G D; Smialowska, A; Kirby, N M; Wang, C; Matia-Merino, L; Haverkamp, R G; Carr, A J

    2015-04-14

    The interpretation of milk X-ray and neutron scattering data in relation to the internal structure of the casein micelle is an ongoing debate. We performed resonant X-ray scattering measurements on liquid milk and conclusively identified key scattering features, namely those corresponding to the size of and the distance between colloidal calcium phosphate particles. An X-ray scattering feature commonly assigned to the particle size is instead due to protein inhomogeneities. PMID:25711160

  6. Casein micelle structure: a concise review

    OpenAIRE

    Chanokphat Phadungath

    2005-01-01

    Milk is a complex biological fluid with high amount of proteins, lipid and minerals. The function of milk is to supply nutrients such as essential amino acids required for the growth of the newborn. In addition, due to the importance of casein and casein micelles for the functional behavior of dairy products, the nature and structure of casein micelles have been studied extensively. However, the exact structure of casein micelles is still under debate. Various models for casein micelle struct...

  7. Evidence of Effectiveness of Current Therapies to Prevent and Treat Early Childhood Caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Dhar, Vineet

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation) system. RESULTS: There was moderate and limited quality of evidence in support of fluoride toothpaste and fluoride varnish for ECC prevention, while the evidence for fluoride tablets/drops was insufficient. The support for the use of silver diamine fluoride, xylitol, chlorhexidine varnish....../gel, povidone iodine, probiotic bacteria, and remineralizing agents (casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate) was insufficient. There was also insufficient quality of evidence for the use of sealants, temporary restorations, and traditional restorative care to reduce incidence of ECC. CONCLUSION: The...

  8. The Effect of Milk Constituents and Crowding Agents on Amyloid Fibril Formation by κ-Casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jihua; Dehle, Francis C; Liu, Yanqin; Bahraminejad, Elmira; Ecroyd, Heath; Thorn, David C; Carver, John A

    2016-02-17

    When not incorporated into the casein micelle, κ-casein, a major milk protein, rapidly forms amyloid fibrils at physiological pH and temperature. In this study, the effects of milk components (calcium, lactose, lipids, and heparan sulfate) and crowding agents on reduced and carboxymethylated (RCM) κ-casein fibril formation was investigated using far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy, thioflavin T binding assays, and transmission electron microscopy. Longer-chain phosphatidylcholine lipids, which form the lining of milk ducts and milk fat globules, enhanced RCM κ-casein fibril formation irrespective of whether the lipids were in a monomeric or micellar state, whereas shorter-chain phospholipids and triglycerides had little effect. Heparan sulfate, a component of the milk fat globule membrane and catalyst of amyloid deposition in extracellular tissue, had little effect on the kinetics of RCM κ-casein fibril formation. Major nutritional components such as calcium and lactose also had no significant effect. Macromolecular crowding enhances protein-protein interactions, but in contrast to other fibril-forming species, the extent of RCM κ-casein fibril formation was reduced by the presence of a variety of crowding agents. These data are consistent with a mechanism of κ-casein fibril formation in which the rate-determining step is dissociation from the oligomer to give the highly amyloidogenic monomer. We conclude that the interaction of κ-casein with membrane-associated phospholipids along its secretory pathway may contribute to the development of amyloid deposits in mammary tissue. However, the formation of spherical oligomers such as casein micelles is favored over amyloid fibrils in the crowded environment of milk, within which the occurrence of amyloid fibrils is low. PMID:26807595

  9. Calcium-containing phosphopeptides pave the secretory pathway for efficient protein traffic and secretion in fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, Juan F.

    2014-01-01

    Casein phosphopeptides (CPPs) containing chelated calcium drastically increase the secretion of extracellular homologous and heterologous proteins in filamentous fungi. Casein phosphopeptides released by digestion of alpha − and beta-casein are rich in phosphoserine residues (SerP). They stimulate enzyme secretion in the gastrointestinal tract and enhance the immune response in mammals, and are used as food supplements. It is well known that casein phosphopeptides transport Ca2+ across the me...

  10. Transfection of beta-casein chimeric gene and hormonal induction of its expression in primary murine mammary epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimura, M.; Oka, T

    1990-01-01

    To study the regulatory sequence elements responsible for casein gene expression, we constructed a chimeric gene containing 5.3 kilobases (kb) of the 5'-flanking sequence and 1.6 kb of the 3'-flanking sequence of the mouse beta-casein gene fused to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase (CAT) gene. The chimeric gene was transfected by the calcium phosphate-precipitation procedure into primary mouse mammary epithelial cells prepared from pregnant mice. The transfection procedure had ...

  11. The membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein interacts with cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant microdomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Parc, Annabelle; Honvo Houéto, Edith; Pigat, Natascha; Chat, Sophie; Leonil, Joëlle; Chanat, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Caseins, the main milk proteins, interact with colloidal calcium phosphate to form the casein micelle. The mesostructure of this supramolecular assembly markedly influences its nutritional and technological functionalities. However, its detailed molecular organization and the cellular mechanisms involved in its biogenesis have been only partially established. There is a growing body of evidence to support the concept that α(s1)-casein takes center stage in casein micelle building and transport in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. Here we have investigated the membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein in rat mammary epithelial cells. Using metabolic labelling we show that α(s1)-casein becomes associated with membranes at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum, with no subsequent increase at the level of the Golgi apparatus. From morphological and biochemical data, it appears that caseins are in a tight relationship with membranes throughout the secretory pathway. On the other hand, we have observed that the membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein co-purified with detergent-resistant membranes. It was poorly solubilised by Tween 20, partially insoluble in Lubrol WX, and substantially insoluble in Triton X-100. Finally, we found that cholesterol depletion results in the release of the membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein. These experiments reveal that the insolubility of α(s1)-casein reflects its partial association with a cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant microdomain. We propose that the membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein interacts with the lipid microdomain, or lipid raft, that forms within the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, for efficient forward transport and sorting in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. PMID:25549363

  12. The Membrane-Associated Form of αs1-Casein Interacts with Cholesterol-Rich Detergent-Resistant Microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Parc, Annabelle; Honvo Houéto, Edith; Pigat, Natascha; Chat, Sophie; Leonil, Joëlle; Chanat, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Caseins, the main milk proteins, interact with colloidal calcium phosphate to form the casein micelle. The mesostructure of this supramolecular assembly markedly influences its nutritional and technological functionalities. However, its detailed molecular organization and the cellular mechanisms involved in its biogenesis have been only partially established. There is a growing body of evidence to support the concept that αs1-casein takes center stage in casein micelle building and transport in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. Here we have investigated the membrane-associated form of αs1-casein in rat mammary epithelial cells. Using metabolic labelling we show that αs1-casein becomes associated with membranes at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum, with no subsequent increase at the level of the Golgi apparatus. From morphological and biochemical data, it appears that caseins are in a tight relationship with membranes throughout the secretory pathway. On the other hand, we have observed that the membrane-associated form of αs1-casein co-purified with detergent-resistant membranes. It was poorly solubilised by Tween 20, partially insoluble in Lubrol WX, and substantially insoluble in Triton X-100. Finally, we found that cholesterol depletion results in the release of the membrane-associated form of αs1-casein. These experiments reveal that the insolubility of αs1-casein reflects its partial association with a cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant microdomain. We propose that the membrane-associated form of αs1-casein interacts with the lipid microdomain, or lipid raft, that forms within the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, for efficient forward transport and sorting in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. PMID:25549363

  13. Comparative evaluation of remineralizing potential of three agents on artificially demineralized human enamel: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Remineralization as a treatment procedure has received much attention from clinicians. The objective of this in vitro study was to find out the efficacy of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF, and tricalcium phosphate fluoride (TCP-F in remineralizing enamel surface on which artificial caries lesion had been created. The changes were analyzed using DIAGNOdent® (KaVo and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Materials and Methods: A total of 52 premolars and 24 molars were selected and classified into four groups of 13 premolars and 6 molars in each: I (CPP-ACP, II (CPP-ACPF, III (TCP-F, and IV (artificial saliva. All the samples were assessed using DIAGNOdent at the baseline and after demineralization and remineralization. Ten samples were randomly selected from each group baseline after demineralization and after remineralization for surface evaluation using SEM. Results: Statistical analysis showed that all the experimental groups had a significantly higher amount of remineralization except for group IV. Conclusion: All the three experimental groups showed a statistically significant amount of remineralization. However, because of the added benefit of fluoride (NaF 0.2%, CPP-ACPF (Tooth Mousse-Plus® and TCP-F showed marginally more amount of remineralization than did CPP-ACP (Tooth Mousse® . Remineralization efficacy was TCP-F > CPP-ACPF > CPP-ACP.

  14. Efficacy of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF on enamel remineralization - An in vitro study using scanning electron microscope and DIAGNOdent®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanth Jayarajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Remineralization as a treatment procedure has received a lot of attention both from clinicians as well researchers. The objective of this in vitro study was to find out the efficacy of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF in remineralizing enamel surface on which artificial caries lesion had been created. The changes were analyzed using DIAGNOdent® (KaVo and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Materials and Methods: Ninety maxillary premolars were selected and divided into three groups of 30 teeth each: A (artificial saliva, B (CPP-ACP, and C (CPP-ACPF. All the samples were assessed using DIAGNOdent® at the baseline and after demineralization and remineralization. Three samples were randomly selected from each group after remineralization for surface evaluation using SEM. Results: Statistical analysis showed that group B {CPP-ACP (4.1±1.8} and group C {CPP-ACPF (4.8±1.2} had a significantly higher amount of remineralization than group A (1.7±0.7. Conclusion: All the three groups showed a statistically significant amount of remineralization. However, because of the added benefit of fluoride (NaF 0.2%, CPP-ACPF (Tooth Mousse-Plus® showed marginally more amount of remineralization than CPP-ACP (Tooth Mousse®.

  15. Temperature-dependent dynamics of bovine casein micelles in the range 10-40 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dylan Z; Weeks, Michael G; Dunstan, David E; Martin, Gregory J O

    2013-12-15

    Milk is a complex colloidal system that responds to changes in temperature imposed during processing. Whilst much has been learned about the effects of temperature on milk, little is known about the dynamic response of casein micelles to changes in temperature. In this study, a comprehensive physico-chemical study of casein micelles in skim milk was performed between 10 and 40 °C. When fully equilibrated, the amount of soluble casein, soluble calcium and the pH of skim milk all decreased as a function of increasing temperature, whilst the hydration and volume fraction of the casein micelles decreased. The effect of temperature on casein micelle size, as determined by dynamic light scattering and differential centrifugation, was less straightforward. Real-time measurements of turbidity and pH were used to investigate the dynamics of the system during warming and cooling of milk in the range 10-40 °C. Changes in pH are indicative of changes to the mineral system and the turbidity is a measure of alterations to the casein micelles. The pH and turbidity showed that alterations to both the casein micelles and the mineral system occurred very rapidly on warming. However, whilst mineral re-equilibration occurred very rapidly on cooling, changes to the casein micelle structure continued after 40 min of measurement, returning to equilibrium after 16 h equilibration. Casein micelle structure and the mineral system of milk were both dependent on temperature in the range 10-40 °C. The dynamic response of the mineral system to changes in temperature appeared almost instantaneous whereas equilibration of casein was considerably slower, particularly upon cooling. PMID:23993588

  16. Genetic polymorphism of kappa casein and casein micelle size in the Bulgarian Rhodopean cattle breed

    OpenAIRE

    Hristov P.; Neov B.; Sbirkova H.; Teofanova D.; Radoslavov G.; Shivachev B.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the size of casein micelle in cow milk sample in function of kappa casein (CSN3) genetic polymorphism. Sixteen cows from Bulgarian Rhodopean cattle breed were genotyped by PCRRFLP analysis. Milk samples from the three found CSN3 genotypes (AB, AA and BB) were employed for the determination of casein micelles size by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The results showed differences in the size and polydispersity of the casein ...

  17. Electrosorption of pectin onto casein micelles

    OpenAIRE

    Tuinier, R.; Rolin, C.; de Kruif, C.G.

    2002-01-01

    Pectin, a polysaccharide derived from plant cells of fruit, is commonly used as stabilizer in acidified milk drinks. To gain a better understanding of the way that pectin stabilizes these drinks, we studied the adsorption and layer thickness of pectin on casein micelles in skim milk dispersions. Dynamic light scattering was used to measure the layer thickness of adsorbed pectin onto casein micelles in situ during acidification. The results indicate that the adsorption of pectin onto casein mi...

  18. Casein Micelle Dispersions under Osmotic Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchoux, Antoine; Cayemitte, Pierre-Emerson; Jardin, Julien; Gésan-Guiziou, Geneviève; Cabane, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Casein micelles dispersions have been concentrated and equilibrated at different osmotic pressures using equilibrium dialysis. This technique measured an equation of state of the dispersions over a wide range of pressures and concentrations and at different ionic strengths. Three regimes were found. i), A dilute regime in which the osmotic pressure is proportional to the casein concentration. In this regime, the casein micelles are well separated and rarely interact, whereas the osmotic press...

  19. Eggshell powder, a comparable or better source of calcium than purified calcium carbonate: Piglet studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A.; Beelen, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Powdered chicken eggshells might be an interesting and widely available source of calcium. In two studies using piglets we determined the digestibility of calcium from different diets. The first study compared casein-based diets with CaCO3 (CasCC) or eggshell powder (CasES). The second study compare

  20. Comparison of Casein Micelles Micrographs in Raw and Pasteurized Skim Milk in Different pHs by SEM and TEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lamea

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research some properties of the casein micelles in the raw and pasteurized milk were studied by electron microscopy. SEM and TEM were used to evaluate the differences in acidified casein micelles of raw and pasteurized milk at the Iso Electric Point (pH=4.6. Milk samples were taken from research pilot plant of The College of Agriculture. Milk was pasteurized by the L.T.L.T. method in the same pilot plant. The samples of raw and pasteurized milk were divided into two parts. One part of raw and pasteurized milk was acidified to the Iso Electric Point of caseins (pH=4.6 by lactic acid (9% and then sample preparation for electron microscopy was done. According to the previous findings, results indicated that in the native pH, specially in fresh raw milk casein micelles were in spherical and individual form with the smooth surface. Aggregated casein micelles were present of acidified samples of the raw and pasteurized milk. Aggregation was the result of neutralization of electric charges in the isoelectric pH of casein and partial removal of micellar calcium phosphate. Results of both electron microscope confirmed each other and effects of heating on increasing of the casein micelle size during pasteurization were seen.

  1. Casein genetic polymorphisms in goat breeds of Lombardy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pagnacco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the genetic polymorphism of goat caseins has raised a considerable research interest due to relationships with milk quality and technological properties (Martin et al., 2002. The four caseins, αs1-casein (CSN1S1, β-casein (CSN2, αs2-casein (CSN1S2, and k-casein (CSN3, are coded by a cluster of genes (Ferretti et al., 1990; Threadgill and Womack, 1990.

  2. Casein genetic polymorphisms in goat breeds of Lombardy

    OpenAIRE

    G. Pagnacco; A. Caroli; P. Bolla; F. Chiatti; Chessa, S.

    2010-01-01

    In the last years, the genetic polymorphism of goat caseins has raised a considerable research interest due to relationships with milk quality and technological properties (Martin et al., 2002). The four caseins, αs1-casein (CSN1S1), β-casein (CSN2), αs2-casein (CSN1S2), and k-casein (CSN3), are coded by a cluster of genes (Ferretti et al., 1990; Threadgill and Womack, 1990).

  3. Milk composition and lactation of beta-casein-deficient mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, S.; Clarke, A R; Hooper, M L; Horne, D S; Law, A J; Leaver, J; Springbett, A; Stevenson, E.; Simons, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    beta-Casein is a major protein component of milk and, in conjunction with the other caseins, it is assembled into micelles. The casein micelles determine many of the physical characteristics of milk, which are important for stability during storage and for milk-processing properties. There is evidence that suggests that beta-casein may also possess other, nonnutritional functions. To address the function of beta-casein, the mouse beta-casein gene was disrupted by gene targeting in embryonic s...

  4. Coacervates of lysozyme and β-casein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anema, S.G.; de Kruif, C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Complexes are formed when positively charged lysozyme (LYZ) is mixed with negatively charged caseins. Adding b-casein (BCN) to LYZ leads to flocculation even at low addition levels. Titrating LYZ into BCN shows that complexes are formed up to a critical composition (x = [LYZ]/([LYZ] + [BCN]). The fo

  5. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebely Pal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  6. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-09-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed. PMID:26404362

  7. Characterisation of monotreme caseins reveals lineage-specific expansion of an ancestral casein locus in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Christophe M; Sharp, Julie A; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2009-01-01

    Using a milk-cell cDNA sequencing approach we characterised milk-protein sequences from two monotreme species, platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and found a full set of caseins and casein variants. The genomic organisation of the platypus casein locus is compared with other mammalian genomes, including the marsupial opossum and several eutherians. Physical linkage of casein genes has been seen in the casein loci of all mammalian genomes examined and we confirm that this is also observed in platypus. However, we show that a recent duplication of beta-casein occurred in the monotreme lineage, as opposed to more ancient duplications of alpha-casein in the eutherian lineage, while marsupials possess only single copies of alpha- and beta-caseins. Despite this variability, the close proximity of the main alpha- and beta-casein genes in an inverted tail-tail orientation and the relative orientation of the more distant kappa-casein genes are similar in all mammalian genome sequences so far available. Overall, the conservation of the genomic organisation of the caseins indicates the early, pre-monotreme development of the fundamental role of caseins during lactation. In contrast, the lineage-specific gene duplications that have occurred within the casein locus of monotremes and eutherians but not marsupials, which may have lost part of the ancestral casein locus, emphasises the independent selection on milk provision strategies to the young, most likely linked to different developmental strategies. The monotremes therefore provide insight into the ancestral drivers for lactation and how these have adapted in different lineages. PMID:19874726

  8. The pressure-induced, lactose-dependent changes in the composition and size of casein micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengjie; Jin, Shaoming; Guo, Huiyuan; Zhao, Liang; Ren, Fazheng

    2015-04-15

    The effects of lactose on the changes in the composition and size of casein micelles induced by high-pressure treatment and the related mechanism of action were investigated. Dispersions of ultracentrifuged casein micelle pellets with 0-10% (w/v) lactose were subjected to high pressure (400 MPa) at 20 °C for 40 min. The results indicated that the level of non-sedimentable caseins was positively related to the amount of lactose added prior to pressure treatment, and negatively correlated to the size. A mechanism for the pressure-induced, lactose-dependent changes in the casein micelles is proposed. Lactose inhibits the hydrophobic interactions between the micellar fragments during or after pressure release, through the hydrophilic layer formed by their hydrogen bonds around the micellar fragments. In addition, lactose does not favour the association between calcium and the casein aggregates after pressure release. Due to these two functions, lactose inhibited the formation of larger micelles after pressure treatment. PMID:25466047

  9. Structural heterogeneity of milk casein micelles: a SANS contrast variation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoux, Antoine; Ventureira, Jorge; Gésan-Guiziou, Geneviève; Garnier-Lambrouin, Fabienne; Qu, Peng; Pasquier, Coralie; Pézennec, Stéphane; Schweins, Ralf; Cabane, Bernard

    2015-01-14

    We examine the internal structure of milk casein micelles using the contrast variation method in Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). Experiments were performed with casein dispersions of different origins (i.e., milk powder or fresh milk) and extended to very low q-values (∼9 × 10(-4) Å(-1)), thus making it possible to precisely determine the apparent gyration radius Rg at each contrast. From the variation of I(q → 0) with contrast, we determine the distribution of composition of all the particles in the dispersions. As expected, most of these particles are micelles, made of casein and calcium phosphate, with a narrow distribution in compositions. These micelles always coexist with a very small fraction of fat droplets, with sizes in the range of 20-400 nm. For the dispersions prepared from fresh milk, which were purified under particularly stringent conditions, the number ratio of fat droplets to casein micelles is as low as 1 to 10(6). In that case, we are able to subtract from the total intensity the contribution of the fat droplets and in this way obtain the contribution of the micelles only. We then analyze the variation of this contribution with contrast using the approach pioneered by H. B. Stuhrmann. We model the casein micelle as a core-shell spherical object, in which the local scattering length density is determined by the ratio of calcium phosphate nanoclusters to proteins. We find that models in which the shell has a lower concentration of calcium phosphate than the core give a better agreement than models in which the shell has a higher density than the core. PMID:25388767

  10. Casein micelle structure: a concise review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanokphat Phadungath

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk is a complex biological fluid with high amount of proteins, lipid and minerals. The function of milk is to supply nutrients such as essential amino acids required for the growth of the newborn. In addition, due to the importance of casein and casein micelles for the functional behavior of dairy products, the nature and structure of casein micelles have been studied extensively. However, the exact structure of casein micelles is still under debate. Various models for casein micelle structure have been proposed. Most of the proposedmodels fall into three general categories, which are: coat-core, subunit (sub-micelles, and internal structure models. The coat-core models, proposed by Waugh and Nobel in 1965, Payens in 1966, Parry and Carroll in 1969, and Paquin and co-workers in 1987, describe the micelle as an aggregate of caseins with outer layer differing in composition form the interior, and the structure of the inner part is not accurately identified. The sub-micelle models, proposed by Morr in 1967, Slattery and Evard in 1973, Schmidt in 1980, Walstra in1984, and Ono and Obata in 1989, is considered to be composed of roughly spherical uniform subunits. The last models, the internal structure models, which were proposed by Rose in 1969, Garnier and Ribadeau- Dumas in 1970, Holt in 1992, and Horne in 1998, specify the mode of aggregation of the different caseins.

  11. Enhancing proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of HMSCs on casein/chitosan multilayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zheng, Zebin; Cao, Zhinan; Zhuang, Liangting; Xu, Yong; Liu, Xiaozhen; Xu, Yue; Gong, Yihong

    2016-05-01

    Creating a bioactive surface is important in tissue engineering. Inspired by the natural calcium binding property of casein (CA), multilayer films ((CA/CS)n) with chitosan (CS) as polycation were fabricated to enhance biomineralization, cell adhesion and differentiation. LBL self-assembly technique was used and the assembly process was intensively studied based on changes of UV absorbance, zeta potential and water contact angle. The increasing content of chitosan and casein with bilayers was further confirmed with XPS and TOF-SIMS analysis. To improve the biocompatibility, gelatin was surface grafted. In vitro mineralization test demonstrated that multilayer films had more hydroxyapatite crystal deposition. Human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs) were seeded onto these films. According to fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and cell cytoskeleton staining, MTT assay, expression of osteogenic marker genes, ALP activity, and calcium deposition quantification, it was found that these multilayer films significantly promoted HMSCs attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation than TCPS control. PMID:26895501

  12. Enamel Demineralization Prevention during Fixed Orthodontic Treatment and Remineralization Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xin-hua; Wayne J Sampson

    2007-01-01

    Preventing enamel demineralization and remineralization of orthodontic patients is important and it differs from other dental patients.Oral hygiene education and oral examination is essential to prevent enamel demineralization,and dietary education or control of sugar intake should not be ignored during fixed orthodontic treatment.Laser irradiation is a noteworthy method to prevent enamel mineralization.Products containing fluoride and fluoride released not only can be used to prevent demineralization but also have the ability of remineralization during orthodontic treatment.Oral hygiene products containing casein-phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) have been demonstrated to have the ability of remineralization such as sugar-free chewing gum added CPP-ACP,lozenges containing CPP-AGP and milk protein casein tabilized by phosphopeptides.

  13. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    OpenAIRE

    Sebely Pal; Keith Woodford; Sonja Kukuljan; Suleen Ho

    2015-01-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-...

  14. Casein expression in cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Grusby, M J; Mitchell, S C; Nabavi, N; Glimcher, L H

    1990-01-01

    A cDNA that expresses a mRNA restricted to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and mammary tissue has been isolated and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence from this cDNA shows extensive homology with the previously reported amino acid sequence for rat alpha-casein. Indeed, the presence of a six-residue-repeated motif that is specific for rodent alpha-caseins strongly supports the identification of this cDNA as mouse alpha-casein. Northern (RNA) blot analysis of many hematopoietic cell t...

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MILK CASEIN ASSAY METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA CĂPRIłĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Casein, the main milk protein was determined by different assay methods: the gravimetric method, the method based on the neutralization of the NaOH excess used for the casein precipitate solving and the method based on the titration of the acetic acid used for the casein precipitation. The last method is the simplest one, with the fewer steps, and also with the lowest error degree. The results of the experiment revealed that the percentage of casein from the whole milk protein represents between 72.6–81.3% in experiment 1, between 73.6–81.3% in experiment 2 and between 74.3–81% in experiment 3.

  16. RECONSTITUTED MICELLE FORMATION USING REDUCED, CARBOXYMETHYLATED BOVINE K-CASEIN AND HUMAN B-CASEIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    In milk, K-casein, a mixture of disulfide-bonded polymers, stabilizes and regulates the size of the unique colloidal complex of protein, Ca+2 and inorganic phosphate (Pi) termed the casein (CN) micelle. However, reduced, carboxymethylated bovine K-CN (RCM-K) forms fibrils at 37 degrees C and its mi...

  17. Acute intestinal injury induced by acetic acid and casein: prevention by intraluminal misoprostol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute injury was established in anesthetized rabbits by intraluminal administration of acetic acid with and without bovine casein, into loops of distal small intestine. Damage was quantified after 45 minutes by the blood-to-lumen movement of 51Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-tagged bovine serum albumin as well as luminal fluid histamine levels. The amount of titratable acetic acid used to lower the pH of the treatment solutions to pH 4.0 was increased by the addition of calcium gluconate. Luminal acetic acid caused a 19-fold increase in 51Cr-EDTA accumulation over saline controls; casein did not modify this effect. In saline controls, loop fluid histamine levels bordered on the limits of detection (1 ng/g) but were elevated 19-fold by acetic acid exposure and markedly increased (118-fold) by the combination of acid and casein. Intraluminal misoprostol (3 or 30 micrograms/mL), administered 30 minutes before acetic acid, significantly attenuated the increase in epithelial permeability (luminal 51Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin accumulation) and histamine release (P less than 0.05). Diphenhydramine, alone or in combination with cimetidine, and indomethacin (5 mg/kg IV) were not protective. It is concluded that exposure of the epithelium to acetic acid promotes the transepithelial movement of casein leading to enhanced mast cell activation and mucosal injury. Damage to the epithelial barrier can be prevented by misoprostol

  18. Casein fraction of ovine milk from indigenous Greek breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Moatsou, Golfo; Samolada, Maria; Katsabeki, Alexandra; Anifantakis, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Whole casein fractions isoelectrically prepared from bulk milks from four different indigenous Greek ovine breeds were analysed by urea-PAGE and reversed-phase HPLC. Individual caseins prepared by fractionation on a cation-exchange column were used to locate the peaks on the chromatograms. Apart from heterogeneity that was depicted in the peak shape of caseins, there was also quantitative variability regarding the $\\alpha$s- and $\\beta$-casein contents. According to the RP-HPLC results, the r...

  19. hermal decomposition of irradiated casein molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NON-Isothermal studies were carried out using the derivatograph where thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) measurements were used to obtain the activation energies of the first and second reactions for casein (glyco-phospho-protein) decomposition before and after exposure to 1 Gy γ-rays and up to 40 x 104 μg Gy fast neutrons. 25Cf was used as a source of fast neutrons, associated with γ-rays. 137Cs source was used as pure γ-source. The activation energies for the first and second reactions for casein decomposition were found to be smaller at 400 μGy than that at lower and higher fast neutron doses. However, no change in activation energies was observed after γ-irradiation. it is concluded from the present study that destruction of casein molecules by low level fast neutron doses may lead to changes of shelf storage period of milk

  20. Radiotracer study of phosphate exchange between whey and casein micelles in cow's milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotracer method has been applied to study exchange of calcium ions between the whey calcium salts and micellar calcium phosphate (MCP). The present paper deals with a similar study pertaining to phosphate ions. 32P-labelled Na2HPO4 was used as the radiotracer for inorganic phosphates of milk. After addition of the radiotracer to skimmed-milk, samples were taken regularly for 700 hours. In the samples casein micelles were separated from whey by ultracentrifugation and finally the radiotracer quantity i.e. 32P-concentration in the whey samples was measured using a Liquid Scintillation Counter. Compartmental analysis and modelling were used to evaluate the thus obtained time curves for radiotracer quantity in whey. This analysis revealed the presence of three phosphate compartments i.e. exchangeable phosphate entities; one being the whey phosphate. The other two are associated with the exchangeable phosphates of MCP. The mean residence times of phosphate in the latter two compartment differ considerably pointing at two distinctly different embeddings of phosphate groups in the structure of the micellar calcium phosphate of the cow's milk casein. The obtained results are in fair agreement with the mentioned model of MCP

  1. Water interactions with varying molecular states of bovine casein: 2H NMR relaxation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The caseins occur in milk as spherical colloidal complexes of protein and salts with an average diameter of 1200 A, the casein micelles. Removal of Ca2+ is thought to result in their dissociation into smaller protein complexes stabilized by hydrophobic interactions and called submicelles. Whether these submicelles actually occur within the micelles as discrete particles interconnected by calcium phosphate salt bridges has been the subject of much controversy. A variety of physical measurements have shown that casein micelles contain an inordinately high amount of trapped water (2 to 7 g H2O/g protein). With this in mind it was of interest to determine if NMR relaxation measurements could detect the presence of this trapped water within the micelles, and to evaluate whether it is a continuum with picosecond correlation times or is associated in part with discrete submicellar structures with nanosecond motions. For this purpose the variations in 2H NMR longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates of water with protein concentration were determined for bovine casein at various temperatures, under both submicellar and micellar conditions. D2O was used instead of H2O to eliminate cross-relaxation effects. From the protein concentration dependence of the relaxation rates, the second virial coefficient of the protein was obtained by nonlinear regression analysis. Using either an isotropic tumbling or an intermediate asymmetry model, degrees of hydration, v, and correlation times, tau c, were calculated for the caseins; from the latter parameter the Stokes radius, r, was obtained. Next, estimates of molecular weights were obtained from r and the partial specific volume. Values were in the range of those published from other methodologies for the submicelles

  2. Disorder in Milk Proteins: Formation, Structure, Function, Isolation and Applications of Casein Phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Muhammad Ali; Irani, Kimia Anaraki; Katanishooshtari, Maryam; Rousseau, Dérick

    2016-01-01

    This article is a continuation of a series of reviews on the presence and the role of intrinsic disorder in milk proteins in the journal of Current Protein and Peptide Science. The focus of this article is on casein phosphopeptides, which are liberated during digestion of the milk protein casein. Structurally these phosphopeptides have multiphosphorylated regions making them highly charged. The high degree of charge coupled with relatively low instances of hydrophobic amino acids makes them intrinsically disordered. These peptides have anticariogenic, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and cytomodulatory properties. Recent work using in vivo and in vitro models suggests that in addition to transporting calcium, these peptides can also enhance its bioaccessibility. The mechanism of this enhancement has yet to be determined. We review the current state of their structure, function, and isolation of these peptides. PMID:26630980

  3. Effects of hydrolysed casein, intact casein and intact whey protein on energy expenditure and appetite regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Gomes, Sisse;

    2014-01-01

    Casein and whey differ in amino acid composition and in the rate of absorption; however, the absorption rate of casein can be increased to mimic that of whey by exogenous hydrolysis. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of hydrolysed casein (HC), intact casein (IC) and...... intact whey (IW) on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite regulation, and thereby to investigate the influence of amino acid composition and the rate of absorption. In the present randomised cross-over study, twenty-four overweight and moderately obese young men and women consumed three isoenergetic...... dietary treatments that varied in protein source. The study was conducted in a respiration chamber, where EE, substrate oxidation and subjective appetite were measured over 24 h at three independent visits. Moreover, blood and urine samples were collected from the participants. The results showed no...

  4. A sensitive radioimmunoassay for a component of mouse casein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouse casein (m.w. 22,000 daltons) has been purified by employing Sephadex G-100 and DEAE-cellulose column chromatographies. A sensitive radioimmunoassay method has been developed by using [125I]-labelled casein and antiserum elicited in rabbits after injection of glutaraldehyde-treated casein. The assay method is capable of detecting as little as 0.1 ng of casein. The use of the present radioimmunoassay method in detecting casein production in cultured mouse mammary explants has also been demonstrated

  5. Co-acervates of lactoferrin and caseins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anema, S.G.; de Kruif, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    On mixing positively charged lactoferrin (LF) with negatively charged caseins (*CN) it is observed that complexes are formed. The * stands for α, β, κ or Na. The size of the complex co-acervates appears to grow indefinitely and asymptotically near the point of charge equivalency. Away from the charg

  6. Casein kinase-2 structure-function relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Meggio, F; Pinna, L A;

    1992-01-01

    Nine mutants of human casein kinase-2 beta subunit have been created and assayed for their ability to assemble with the catalytic alpha subunit to give, at a 1:1 molar ratio, a fully competent CK-2 holoenzyme as judged by the following criteria: 1) the generation of an active heterotetrameric for...

  7. Casein - whey protein interactions in heated milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasbinder, Astrid Jolanda

    2003-01-01

    Heating of milk is an essential step in the processing of various dairy products, like for example yoghurt. A major consequence of the heat treatment is the denaturation of whey proteins, which either associate with the casein micelle or form soluble whey protein aggregates. By combination of enzyma

  8. Application of humidity-controlled dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA-RH) to moisture-sensitive edible casein films for use in food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein-based and other hydrophilic thin films are promising materials for the manufacture of edible food packaging and other food and non-food applications. Calcium caseinate (CaCas) films are highly hygroscopic and physical characterization under broad environmental conditions is critical to appli...

  9. αS1-casein, which is essential for efficient ER-to-Golgi casein transport, is also present in a tightly membrane-associated form

    OpenAIRE

    Le Parc, Annabelle; LEONIL, Joëlle; Chanat, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Background Caseins, the main milk proteins, aggregate in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells into large supramolecular structures, casein micelles. The role of individual caseins in this process and the mesostructure of the casein micelle are poorly known. Results In this study, we investigate primary steps of casein micelle formation in rough endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles prepared from rat or goat mammary tissues. The majority of both αS1- and β-casein which are cystei...

  10. AlphaS1-casein, which is essential for efficient ER-to-Golgi casein transport, is also present in a tightly membrane-associated form

    OpenAIRE

    Le Parc, Annabelle; Léonil, Joelle; Chanat, Eric

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caseins, the main milk proteins, aggregate in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells into large supramolecular structures, casein micelles. The role of individual caseins in this process and the mesostructure of the casein micelle are poorly known. RESULTS: In this study, we investigate primary steps of casein micelle formation in rough endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles prepared from rat or goat mammary tissues. The majority of both alphaS1- and beta-casein which a...

  11. Exploring the physicochemical basis of cheese texture, rheology and functionality, with emphasis on cation-casein interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Darren Richard

    2014-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of cheese and milk gels are greatly influenced by molecular interactions between the casein proteins involving calcium. Novel experiments were designed to investigate the relationship between insoluble caseinbound cations and rheological properties of Cheddar cheese and rennet-induced milk gels. Cheddar cheese and rennet-induced milk gels were supplemented with Mg2+ or Sr2+ to compare their effects on their rheological properties to those previously reported in ...

  12. Study on Casein Micelles in Raw and Pasteurized Milk in Native State and During the First Stage of the Enzymatic Coagulation by SEM and TEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lamea

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study changes in microstructure of casein micelles in raw and pasteurized milk were investigated by SEM and TEM. Milk was pasteurized by L.T.L.T. method (Temperature: 63 oC_ Time:30 minute.Samples of raw and pasteurized milk were taken from research pilot plant of The College of Agriculture. Each sample was divided into two parts. One part of each sample was directly prepared for SEM and TEM, whereas the second part were renneted at 2 oC and kept at this temperature for 24 h. and then prepared for evaluation by electron microscopes. Results indicated that in native state, particularly in raw milk casein micelles are in spherical shape with smooth surface and in the single form. The samples, which stored in the cold were under the effect of the rennet, encounter of filamentous status that might be due to the changes occurred in kappa-casein following the action of rennet along with partial removal of beta-casein and micellar calcium phosphate. Micrographs of casein micelles in pasteurized milk indicated that thermal condition during pasteurization had influenced on increasing of casein micelles size.

  13. Use of cold microfiltration to produce unique ${\\beta}$-casein enriched milk gels

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hekken, Diane; Holsinger, Virginia

    2000-01-01

    Bovine milk was modified using cold microfiltration to produce $\\beta$-casein enriched fractions with unique gelation properties. Skim milk at $4 ^\\circ$C was microfiltered using membranes with pore diameter of $0.2 \\mu$m, $0.1 \\mu$m, or 100 000 g.mol$^{-1}$ MWCO. Resulting permeates were filtered again using membranes with 10 000 g.mol$^{-1}$ MWCO to create retentates with 9% solids that were used in the gelation study. Ash, calcium, lactose, solids, and protein contents of all fractions wer...

  14. Interaction of lactoferrin and lysozyme with casein micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, Skelte G; de Kruif, C G Kees

    2011-11-14

    On addition of lactoferrin (LF) to skim milk, the turbidity decreases. The basic protein binds to the caseins in the casein micelles, which is then followed by a (partial) disintegration of the casein micelles. The amount of LF initially binding to casein micelles follows a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The kinetics of the binding of LF could be described by first-order kinetics and similarly the disintegration kinetics. The disintegration was, however, about 10 times slower than the initial adsorption, which allowed investigating both phenomena. Kinetic data were also obtained from turbidity measurements, and all data could be described with one equation. The disintegration of the casein micelles was further characterized by an activation energy of 52 kJ/mol. The initial increase in hydrodynamic size of the casein micelles could be accounted for by assuming that it would go as the cube root of the mass using the adsorption and disintegration kinetics as determined from gel electrophoresis. The results show that LF binds to casein micelles and that subsequently the casein micelles partly disintegrate. All micelles behave in a similar manner as average particle size decreases. Lysozyme also bound to the casein micelles, and this binding followed a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. However, lysozyme did not cause the disintegration of the casein micelles. PMID:21932853

  15. Casein - whey protein interactions in heated milk

    OpenAIRE

    Vasbinder, Astrid Jolanda

    2003-01-01

    Heating of milk is an essential step in the processing of various dairy products, like for example yoghurt. A major consequence of the heat treatment is the denaturation of whey proteins, which either associate with the casein micelle or form soluble whey protein aggregates. By combination of enzymatic fractionation and capillary electrophoresis we were able to quantitatively determine the distribution of denatured whey proteins after heat treatment. This thesis describes the relation between...

  16. Thermal decomposition of irradiated casein molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-isothermal studies were carried out using the derivatograph where thermogravimetry (TG), and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) measurements were used to obtain the activation energies of the first and second reactions for casein decomposition before and after exposure to gamma rays and fast neutrons. Cf- 252 was used as a source of fast neutrons associated with gamma rays. TG and DTG patterns were also recorded for casein samples before and after irradiation with 1 Gy gamma-rays of 0.662 MeV from Cs - 137. However, no change in a activation energies were observed after exposure to gamma-irradiation. On the other hand, the activation energies for first and second reactions were found to be smaller at 0.4 m Gy than that at lower and higher neutron doses. However, no change in activation energies was observed after γ irradiation. It is concluded from the present study that destruction of casein molecules by low level fast neutron doses may lead to changes of shelf storage period milk. 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Long range restriction analysis of the bovine casein genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferretti, L; Leone, P.; Sgaramella, V

    1990-01-01

    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to analyse the organization of the bovine alpha s1, alpha s2, beta and kappa casein genes. High molecular weight DNA was prepared from fibroblasts and lymphocytes embedded in agarose and was digested with the restriction endonucleases Clal, Sall, Smal, Xhol. The digestion products were separated by PFGE, transfered to nitrocellulose filters and hybridized to probes corresponding to the cDNAs of the four bovine casein genes. The casein genes wer...

  18. Characterization of casein and Poly-L-arginine Multilayer Films

    OpenAIRE

    Warszynska, Lilianna Szyk; Kilan, Katarzyna; Socha, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Thin films containing casein appear to be a promising material for coatings used in the medical area to promote biomineralization. alfa- and beta-casein and poly-L-arginine multilayer films were formed by the layer-by layer technique and their thickness and mass were analyzed by ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). We investigated the effect of the type of casein used for the film formation and of the polyethyleneimine anchoring layer on the thickn...

  19. Influence of micellar calcium and phosphorus on rennet coagulation properties of cows milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacarne, Massimo; Franceschi, Piero; Formaggioni, Paolo; Sandri, Sandro; Mariani, Primo; Summer, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The main requirement for milk processed in most cheese typologies is its rennet coagulation ability. Despite the increasing number of studies, the causes for abnormal coagulation of milk are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to ascertain relationships between milk characteristics and its rennet coagulation ability, focusing on the influence of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). Ca and P are essential constituents of the micelles. Micellar P can be present as part of colloidal calcium phosphate (inorganic-P) or covalently bound to caseins as phosphate groups (casein-P). Eighty one herd milk samples (SCCcasein-P and colloidal Mg (g/100 g casein), while Non-coagulating milk showed the lowest values. Interestingly, there was no statistical difference regarding the content of colloidal inorganic-P (g/100 g casein) between Optimal and Non-coagulating milks. Overall, high mineralisation of the micelle (expressed as g inorganic-P/100 g casein) positively affect its rennetability. However, excessive mineralisation could lead to a reduction of the phosphate groups (g casein-P/100 g casein) available for curd formation. PMID:24345431

  20. Removal of High Concentration Chromium by a Foam-separating Technique Using Casein Proteins as a Foaming Reagent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Futoshi

    Foam separation of high concentration chromium in leather tanning wastewater was investigated using casein protein as a foaming reagent5mL of5w/v% ammonium acetate buffer was added to the sample chromium water. After adjusting the pH to 9.0,4g/L concentrations of casein and gelatin solution were added to recovery the coagulating flocs of chromium resulting foam separation. The sample water containing chromium flocs was incased in reactor, then mixed with distilled water and 1mL of ethanol to sum 200mL total. The foam separation was performed at time intervals of 3min with an air flow rate of 300mL/min. With casein reagent, the removal rate of chromium was not influenced by the presence of NaCl, however, the rate decreased tendency using with the use of gelatin. The proposed method, utilizing 4g/L of casein solution with water, was not influenced by the presence of calcium (<34mM), magnesium (<1mM), carbonate (<0.5mM), bicarbonate (<1.2mM) nor sulfate (<350mM) ions, and is ideal for foam separation in chromium concentrations of about 100mgCr/L.

  1. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003603.htm Calcium - urine To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium in order ...

  2. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  3. Calcium Oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, Geneviève; Combettes, Laurent; Bird, Gary S.; Putney, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium signaling results from a complex interplay between activation and inactivation of intracellular and extracellular calcium permeable channels. This complexity is obvious from the pattern of calcium signals observed with modest, physiological concentrations of calcium-mobilizing agonists, which typically present as sequential regenerative discharges of stored calcium, a process referred to as calcium oscillations. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the underlyin...

  4. Casein genes of Bos taurus. II. Isolation and characterization of the β-casein gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expression of the casein genes in the cells of the mammary gland is regulated by peptide and steroid hormones. In order to study the controlling mechanisms we have isolated and characterized the β-casein gene. The gene is 8.6 kb long and exceeds by a factor of 7.8 the length of the corresponding mRNA which is encoded by nine exons. The genomic clones incorporate in addition 8.5 kb and 4.5 kb of the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions. We have determined the sequence of the 5- and 3-terminals of the gene and have performed a comparative analysis of the corresponding regions of the rat β-casein gene. Furthermore we have identified the conversed sequences identical or homologous to the potential sections of binding to the nuclear factor CTF/NF-1 by glucocorticoid and progesterone receptors. The regulatory region of the bovine casein gene contains two variants of the TATA signal, flanking the duplication section in the promoter region

  5. Effects of the environmental factors on the casein micelle structure studied by cryo transmission electron microscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering/ultrasmall-angle x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchin, Stéphane; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Pignon, Frédéric; Léonil, Joëlle

    2007-01-01

    Casein micelles are colloidal protein-calcium-transport complexes whose structure has not been unequivocally elucidated. This study used small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and ultrasmall angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) as well as cryo transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) to provide fine structural details on their structure. Cryo-TEM observations of native casein micelles fractionated by differential centrifugation showed that colloidal calcium phosphate appeared as nanoclusters with a diameter of about 2.5nm. They were uniformly distributed in a homogeneous tangled web of caseins and were primarily responsible for the intensity distribution in the SAXS profiles at the highest q vectors corresponding to the internal structure of the casein micelles. A specific demineralization of casein micelles by decreasing the pH from 6.7 to 5.2 resulted in a reduced granular aspect of the micelles observed by cryo-TEM and the existence of a characteristic point of inflection in SAXS profiles. This supports the hypothesis that the smaller substructures detected by SAXS are colloidal calcium phosphate nanoclusters rather than putative submicelles.

  6. Co-acervates of lactoferrin and caseins

    OpenAIRE

    Anema, S.G.; Kruif, C.G. de

    2012-01-01

    On mixing positively charged lactoferrin (LF) with negatively charged caseins (*CN) it is observed that complexes are formed. The * stands for α, β, κ or Na. The size of the complex co-acervates appears to grow indefinitely and asymptotically near the point of charge equivalency. Away from the charge equivalent ratio it seems that build-up of (surface) charges limits complex size. We proposed a simple scaling law so as to predict the size of the complex. By assuming that surface charge densit...

  7. Water holding capacity and swelling of casein hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruif, C; Anema, Skelte G.; Zhu, Changjun; Havea, Palatasa; Coker, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The water holding capacity of casein gels was investigated by measuring the swelling and de-swelling under a variety of conditions of temperature and salt concentration. Transglutaminase cross-linked sodium caseinate (15% w/w) gels will swell in good solvents or shrink in poor solvents until an equi

  8. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520... tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram tablet contains 25 milligrams of iodinated casein. (b) Sponsor. See No. 017762 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. 1/5 to 1 tablet...

  9. Is there a feeding strategy to increase milk casein content?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Formigoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Because more than 60% of milk produced in Italy is transformed into cheese, milk economical value strongly depends on cheese yield. Among the factors that influence cheese yield, milk casein and fat content plays a major role: when milk is converted into Grana Padano and Parmigiano reggiano, three grams of seasoned cheese are produced from one gram of milk casein.....

  10. Influence of succinylation on physicochemical property of yak casein micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Yang, Jitao; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Weibing

    2016-01-01

    Succinylation is a chemical-modification method that affects the physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of proteins. This study assessed the influence of succinylation on the physicochemical properties of yak casein micelles. The results revealed that surface hydrophobicity indices decreased with succinylation. Additionally, denaturation temperature and denaturation enthalpy decreased with increasing succinylation level, except at 82%. The buffering properties of yak casein micelles were affected by succinylation. It was found that chemical modification contributed to a slight shift of the buffering peak towards a lower pH value and a markedly increase of the maximum buffering values of yak casein micelles at pH 4.5-6.0 and pH casein micellar hydration and whiteness values. The findings obtained from this study will provide the basic information on the physicochemical properties of native and succinylated yak casein micelles. PMID:26213046

  11. Influence of succinylation on the conformation of yak casein micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Cui, Na; Fang, Yan; Shi, Ying; Yang, Jitao; Wang, Jiangyu

    2015-07-15

    Succinylation modifies the physicochemical characteristics and improves the functional properties of proteins. This study assessed the effects of succinylation on the conformation of yak casein micelles with seven degree of modification. The results revealed that succinylation contributed to the dissociation of casein micelles. With the increase of succinylated degree, soluble nitrogen and minerals content increased, while casein micelle size and polydispersity index of micelles decreased. Succinylation affected the spatial conformation of yak casein micelles: turn decreased, ß-sheet and α-helix increased, and irregular structure were non-significantly affected. The intrinsic and ANS fluorescence intensity decreased and the maximum emission wavelength shifted red with increasing succinylation. Based on the results, the structure of yak casein micelles was characteristic of the sub-micelle model. PMID:25722161

  12. Casein Films: The Effects of Formulation, Environmental Conditions and the Addition of Citric Pectin on the Structure and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia M. Bonnaillie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin casein films for food packaging applications reportedly possess good strength and low oxygen permeability, but low elasticity and high sensitivity to moisture. Modifying the films to target specific behaviors depending on environmental conditions can enable a variety of commercial applications for casein-based films. The mechanical properties of solvent-cast (15% solids calcium-caseinate/glycerol films (CaCas:Gly ratio of 3:1 were characterized as a function of processing and environmental conditions, including film thickness, solution formulation and ambient humidity (from 22% to 70% relative humidity (RH at ~20 °C. At constant RH, the elongation at break (EAB had a strong positive dependence on the film thickness. When RH increased, the tensile strength (TS and modulus (E decreased approximately linearly, while EAB increased. From 0.05% to 1% (w/w of citric pectin (CP was then incorporated into CaCas/Gly films following seven different formulations (mixing sequences, to alter the protein network and to evaluate the effects of CP on the tensile properties of CaCas/Gly/CP films. At constant film thickness and ~60% RH, the addition of 0.1% or 1.0% CP to the films considerably increased or decreased EAB, TS and E in different directions and to different extents, depending on the formulation, while optical micrographs also showed vastly differing network configurations, suggesting complex formulation- and stoichiometry-dependent casein-pectin interactions within the dried films. Depending on the desired film properties and utilization conditions, pectin may be a useful addition to casein film formulations for food packaging applications.

  13. Lipid oxidation in algae oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by bovine and caprine caseins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseins (alpha S1-, alpha S2-, and beta-casein) are phosphoproteins that are capable of binding transition metals and scavenging free radicals, these properties make them good candidates to be used as natural antioxidants in oil-in-water emulsions. Caprine casein exhibits variability in aS1-casein c...

  14. Respons Tulang Femur Tikus Ovariohisterektomi yang Mengkonsumsi Kasein dan Disuplementasi Calcitriol Selama 30 Minggu (THE RESPONSE OF BONE FEMUR OVARIOHISTERECTOMIZED RATS CONSUMING CASEIN AND CALCITRIOL SUPPLEMENTATION FOR 30 WEEKS)

    OpenAIRE

    Hartiningsih .; Devita Anggraeni; Irkham Widiyono; Hastari Wuryastuty

    2015-01-01

    Calcitriol supplementation in ovariohisterectomized rat was known to decreased calcium retention.The objective of the research was to study the response of femur bone to calcitriol supplementation for 30weeks in ovariohisterectomized rats consuming casein. Twenty female Wistar rats at 8 weeks of age wererandomly divided into four groups (unovariohisterectomy without calcitriol supplementation (N),unovariohisterectomy with calcitriol supplementation (ND), ovariohisterectomy without calcitriols...

  15. Alginate-Casein Microspheres as Bioactive Vehicles for Nutrients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志敏; 张茜青; 齐崴; 黄仁亮; 苏荣欣

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an alginate-casein composite microsphere as a bioactive vehicle for oral administration of nutrients by a simple extrusion dripping method. Riboflavin was selected as a model drug, and the microencapsulation efficiency was raised to 97.94%after optimizing the preparation conditions by response surface methodology. In vitro release studies showed that riboflavin was released completely from alginate-casein microspheres in simulated intestinal fluids. Meanwhile, the morphology, structure and interaction between alginate and casein were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra.

  16. Process standardization for rennet casein based Mozzarella cheese analogue

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Rahul; Jana, Atanu H.; Aparnathi, K. D.; Prajapati, P. S.

    2010-01-01

    A process for manufacture of Mozzarella cheese analogue (MCA) using rennet casein and plastic cream as protein and fat sources respectively was standardized. The formulation comprised of 25% plastic cream (72% fat), 27% rennet casein along with 3% tri-sodium citrate as emulsifying salt, 2% maltodextrin as binder, 0.55% lactic acid as pH regulator, 1% common salt for seasoning, 1% Mozzarella cheese bud as flavouring and 40.4% water. The process involved (a) dissolving the dry mixture of casein...

  17. Nucleolin (C23), a physiological substrate for casein kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, H R; Issinger, O G

    1988-01-01

    Nucleolin (C23), a 110 kDa phosphoprotein, which is mainly found in the nucleolus has been shown to be a physiological substrate for casein kinase II (CKII). Nucleolin was identified and characterized by immunodetection using an anti-nucleolin antibody. Phosphopeptide patterns from nucleolin...... phosphorylated by purified casein kinase II and of phosphorylated nucleolin which had been isolated from tumor cells grown in the presence of [32P]-o-phosphate, were identical. The partial tryptic digest revealed nine phosphopeptides. Nucleolin isolated from Krebs II mouse ascites cells was phosphorylated by...... purified casein kinase II with about two moles phosphate per one mole of nucleolin....

  18. αS1-casein, which is essential for efficient ER-to-Golgi casein transport, is also present in a tightly membrane-associated form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Parc Annabelle

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caseins, the main milk proteins, aggregate in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells into large supramolecular structures, casein micelles. The role of individual caseins in this process and the mesostructure of the casein micelle are poorly known. Results In this study, we investigate primary steps of casein micelle formation in rough endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles prepared from rat or goat mammary tissues. The majority of both αS1- and β-casein which are cysteine-containing casein was dimeric in the endoplasmic reticulum. Saponin permeabilisation of microsomal membranes in physico-chemical conditions believed to conserve casein interactions demonstrated that rat immature β-casein is weakly aggregated in the endoplasmic reticulum. In striking contrast, a large proportion of immature αS1-casein was recovered in permeabilised microsomes when incubated in conservative conditions. Furthermore, a substantial amount of αS1-casein remained associated with microsomal or post-ER membranes after saponin permeabilisation in non-conservative conditions or carbonate extraction at pH11, all in the presence of DTT. Finally, we show that protein dimerisation via disulfide bond is involved in the interaction of αS1-casein with membranes. Conclusions These experiments reveal for the first time the existence of a membrane-associated form of αS1-casein in the endoplasmic reticulum and in more distal compartments of the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. Our data suggest that αS1-casein, which is required for efficient export of the other caseins from the endoplasmic reticulum, plays a key role in early steps of casein micelle biogenesis and casein transport in the secretory pathway.

  19. Phosphorylation of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein gpI by mammalian casein kinase II and casein kinase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein gpI is the predominant viral glycoprotein within the plasma membranes of infected cells. This viral glycoprotein is phosphorylated on its polypeptide backbone during biosynthesis. In this report, the authors investigated the protein kinases which participate in the phosphorylation events. Under in vivo conditions, VZV gpI was phosphorylated on its serine and threonine residues by protein kinases present within lysates of either VZV-infected or uninfected cells. Because this activity was diminished by heparin, a known inhibitor of casein kinase II, isolated gpI was incubated with purified casein kinase II and shown to be phosphorylated in an in vitro assay containing [γ-32P]ATP. The same glycoprotein was phosphorylated when [32P]GTP was substituted for [32P]ATP in the protein kinase assay. They also tested whether VZV gpI was phosphorylated by two other ubiquitous mammalian protein kinases--casein kinase I and cyclic AMP-dependent kinase--and found that only casein kinase I modified gpI. When the predicted 623-amino-acid sequence of gpI was examined, two phosphorylation sites known to be optimal for casein kinase II were observed. In summary, this study showed that VZV gpI was phosphorylated by each of two mammalian protein kinases (casein kinase I and casein kinase II) and that potential serine-threonine phosphorylation sites for each of these two kinases were present in the viral glycoprotein

  20. Immune activation by casein dietary antigens in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severance, E.G.; Dupont, D.; Dickerson, F.B.; Stallings, C.R.; Origoni, A.E.; Krivogorsky, B.; Yang, S.; Haasnoot, W.; Yolken, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Inflammation and other immune processes are increasingly linked to psychiatric diseases. Antigenic triggers specific to bipolar disorder are not yet defined. We tested whether antibodies to bovine milk caseins were associated with bipolar disorder, and whether patients recognized differe

  1. Structural characterization of casein micelles: shape changes during film formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of size-fractionation by centrifugation on the film structure of casein micelles. Fractionated casein micelles in solution were asymmetrically distributed with a small distribution width as measured by dynamic light scattering. Films prepared from the size-fractionated samples showed a smooth surface in optical microscopy images and a homogeneous microstructure in atomic force micrographs. The nano- and microstructure of casein films was probed by micro-beam grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (μGISAXS). Compared to the solution measurements, the sizes determined in the film were larger and broadly distributed. The measured GISAXS patterns clearly deviate from those simulated for a sphere and suggest a deformation of the casein micelles in the film. (paper)

  2. Effects of casein, whey and soy proteins on volumetric bone density and bone strength in immunocompromised piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Bjørnvad, Charlotte; Mølgaard, Christian;

    2007-01-01

    Summary:Background and aims: Bone-promoting effect of different proteins in early life, under immunocompromised conditions, is unknown. We investigated effects of milk- and plantderived proteins on bone development in immunocompromised piglets. Methods: Newborn, colostrum-deprived piglets were...... assigned to a formula based on either casein (n=11), whey (n=11) or soy (n=10) as the protein source (each 55 g/L), and equal amounts of fat, carbohydrates, calcium and phosphorus. Results & Conclusion: Despite efforts to sustain immuno-protection (sow serum and antibiotic injections), some piglets became...

  3. Supplemental barley protein and casein similarly affect serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David J A; Srichaikul, Korbua; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Bashyam, Balachandran; Vidgen, Edward; Lamarche, Benoicirct; Rao, A Venketeshwer; Jones, Peter J H; Josse, Robert G; Jackson, Chung-Ja C; Ng, Vivian; Leong, Tracy; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2010-09-01

    High-protein diets have been advocated for weight loss and the treatment of diabetes. Yet animal protein sources are often high in saturated fat and cholesterol. Vegetable protein sources, by contrast, are low in saturated fat and without associated cholesterol. We have therefore assessed the effect on serum lipids of raising the protein intake by 5% using a cereal protein, barley protein, as part of a standard therapeutic diet. Twenty-three hypercholesterolemic men and postmenopausal women completed a randomized crossover study comparing a bread enriched with either barley protein or calcium caseinate [30 g protein, 8374 kJ (2000 kcal)] taken separately as two 1-mo treatment phases with a minimum 2-wk washout. Body weight and diet history were collected weekly during each treatment. Fasting blood samples were obtained at wk 0, 2, and 4. Palatability, satiety, and compliance were similar for both the barley protein- and casein-enriched breads, with no differences between the treatments in effects on serum LDL cholesterol or C-reactive protein, measures of oxidative stress, or blood pressure. Nevertheless, because no adverse effects were observed on cardiovascular risk factors, barley protein remains an additional option for raising the protein content of the diet. PMID:20668250

  4. Geographic distribution of haplotype diversity at the bovine casein locus

    OpenAIRE

    Jann, Oliver; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline; Özbeyaz, Ceyhan; Zaragoza, Pilar; Williams, John; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Lenstra, Johannes; Moazami-Goudarzi, Katy; Erhardt, Georg

    2004-01-01

    The genetic diversity of the casein locus in cattle was studied on the basis of haplotype analysis. Consideration of recently described genetic variants of the casein genes which to date have not been the subject of diversity studies, allowed the identification of new haplotypes. Genotyping of 30 cattle breeds from four continents revealed a geographically associated distribution of haplotypes, mainly defined by frequencies of alleles at CSN1S1 and CSN3. The genetic diversity within taurine b...

  5. Thermodynamic incompatibility and complex formation in pectin/caseinate mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Rediguieri, Camila F; de Freitas, Osvaldo; Lettinga, Pavlik; Tuinier, Remco

    2007-01-01

    The instability of polysaccharide/protein mixtures occurs because of either thermodynamic incompatibility or complexation. We studied which instability mechanism dominated given the external conditions. Therefore the effect of temperature, pH, and biopolymer concentration on the phase separation of pectin/caseinate mixtures was investigated. At pH > 6, thermodynamic incompatibility with spinodal decomposition was observed in pectin/caseinate mixtures resulting in the formation of water-in-wat...

  6. Examination of rheological properties of aqueous solutions of sodium caseinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Gawałek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of sodium caseinate as a functional additive in manufacturing processes requires production of its concentrated aqueous solutions which, in industrial conditions, presents a number of difficulties. In order to develop an effective and optimal industrial process of mixing – manufacturing a concentrated solution of sodium caseinate, it is essential to know rheological properties in a definite range of concentrations changing in the course of the dissolving process. The material for investigations was typical commercial sodium caseinate in the form of dry powder manufactured in Poland from acid casein using the method of extrusion. The objective of the undertaken empirical studies was the assessment of the impact of the concentration on rheological properties of sodium caseinate concentrates. Investigations were carried out for five concentrates manufactured in a mixer equipped in a mechanical agitator at concentrations ranging X (% Î (2.5¸12.5 and changing mass proportions of sodium caseinate in the aqueous solution as follows: GS/G (kgS·kg-1 = 0.025. On the basis of the obtained research results, classical flow curves were plotted for individual concentrates. The determined values of viscosity and density of the examined solutions were correlated in the form of h = f(GS/G and r = f(GS/G dependencies which were used during the determination of classical characteristics of mixing forces essential for the assessment of energetic expenditures required to manufacture concentrates in a mixer equipped in a mechanical agitator. The density of the examined concentrates increased in a way directly proportional, while the dynamic viscosity coefficient increased exponentially together with the increase of sodium caseinate concentration. Sodium caseinate concentrates exhibited Newtonian character in the examined range of concentrations.

  7. Geographic distribution of haplotype diversity at the bovine casein locus.

    OpenAIRE

    Moazami-Goudarzi Katy; Lenstra Johannes A; Ajmone-Marsan Paolo; Williams John L; Zaragoza Pilar; Özbeyaz Ceyhan; Ibeagha-Awemu Eveline M; Jann Oliver C; Erhardt Georg

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The genetic diversity of the casein locus in cattle was studied on the basis of haplotype analysis. Consideration of recently described genetic variants of the casein genes which to date have not been the subject of diversity studies, allowed the identification of new haplotypes. Genotyping of 30 cattle breeds from four continents revealed a geographically associated distribution of haplotypes, mainly defined by frequencies of alleles at CSN1S1 and CSN3. The genetic diversity within ...

  8. Interactions in micellar solutions of β-casein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, E.; Calmettes, P.

    1997-02-01

    β-casein is a protein which forms micelles in aqueous solvents. The magnitude and the range of the weight-average interactions between the diverse solute particles are infrared from small-angle neutron scattering measurements made on various β-casein solutions. Well above the critical micelle concentration (CMC), these interactions are repulsive. They weaken with decreasing protein concentration, and finally become strongly attractive near the CMC. Although indispensable for micelle formation this fact has never been reported so far.

  9. Casein Micelles: Size Distribution in Milks from Individual Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Kruif, C.G. de; Huppertz, T.

    2012-01-01

    The size distribution and protein composition of casein micelles in the milk of Holstein-Friesian cows was determined as a function of stage and number of lactations. Protein composition did not vary significantly between the milks of different cows or as a function of lactation stage. Differences in the size and polydispersity of the casein micelles were observed between the milks of different cows, but not as a function of stage of milking or stage of lactation and not even over successive ...

  10. Origin of suppressed demixing in casein/xanthan mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    van Gruijthuijsen, K.; Herle, V.; Tuinier, R.; Schurtenberger, P; Stradner, A.

    2012-01-01

    We explore the properties of casein/xanthan mixtures for xanthan concentrations beyond those inducing phase separation. Previous work has successfully described the onset of demixing by depletion theory in the protein limit, where the xanthan polysaccharides , the polymers , are larger than the caseins from skim milk powder, the colloids (S. Bhat et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, 2006, L339). We now extend these studies to xanthan concentrations in a range of c/c* = 13–88, aiming to arrest t...

  11. Caseinophosphopeptides released after tryptic hydrolysis versus simulated gastrointestinal digestion of a casein-derived by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Huerta, E; García-Nebot, M J; Miralles, B; Recio, I; Amigo, L

    2015-02-01

    The production of caseinophosphopeptides from a casein-derived by-product generated during the manufacture of a functional ingredient based on antihypertensive peptides was attempted. The casein by-product was submitted to tryptic hydrolysis for 30, 60 and 120min and further precipitated with calcium chloride and ethanol at pH 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0. Identification and semi quantification of the derived products by tandem mass spectrometry revealed some qualitative and quantitative changes in the released caseinophosphopeptides over time at the different precipitation pHs. The by-product was also subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Comparison of the resulting peptides showed large sequence homology in the phosphopeptides released by tryptic hydrolysis and simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Some regions, specifically αS1-CN 43-59, αS1-CN 60-74, β-CN 1-25 and β-CN 30-50 showed resistance to both tryptic hydrolysis and simulated digestion. The results of the present study suggest that this casein-derived by-product can be used as a source of CPPs. PMID:25172759

  12. Na-caseinate/oil/water systems: emulsion morphology diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui Lin; McGrath, Kathryn M

    2012-09-01

    The concentrated (dispersed phase 50-70 wt%) composition space of Na-caseinate, a family of milk proteins, stabilised emulsions was investigated for three different oils: soybean oil, palm olein and tetradecane with pH 6.8 phosphate buffer continuous phase. The variation of emulsion stability and microstructure were explored using static light scattering, diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance, cryo-scanning electron microscopy, rheology and the time varying macroscopic phase separation of the emulsions. For soybean oil and palm olein a rich diversity of emulsion microstructures and stabilities are realised. Five emulsion domains, each having a different microstructure and macroscopic stability have been identified within the composition space probed. For the lowest concentrations of emulsifier bridging flocculation is evident and emulsions are of low stability. Increasing Na-caseinate concentration leads to an increased stability and the existence of distinct individual oil droplets, visualised using cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Further increases in Na-caseinate concentration reduce emulsion stability due to depletion flocculation. Na-caseinate self-assembly is then initiated. At sufficiently high Na-caseinate and/or oil concentrations the continuous phase of the emulsion is a three-dimensional protein network and emulsion stability is again enhanced. At the limits of the emulsion composition space a gel-like paste is formed. The diversity of emulsion microstructure is reduced when tetradecane is the discrete phase. Na-caseinate self-assembly is limited and there is no evidence for formation of a protein network. PMID:22709624

  13. Cloning and sequencing of the gene for human. beta. -casein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loennerdal, B.; Bergstroem, S.; Andersson, Y.; Hialmarsson, K.; Sundgyist, A.; Hernell, O. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Human {beta}-casein is a major protein in human milk. This protein is part of the casein micelle and has been suggested to have several physiological functions in the newborn. Since there is limited information on {beta}casein and the factors that affect its concentration in human milk, the authors have isolated and sequenced the gene for this protein. A human mammary gland cDNA library (Clontech) in gt 11 was screened by plaque hy-hybridization using a 42-mer synthetic {sup 32}p-labelled oligo-nucleotide. Positive clones were identified and isolated, DNA was prepared and the gene isolated by cleavage with EcoR1. Following subcloning (PUC18), restriction mapping and Southern blotting, DNA for sequencing was prepared. The gene was sequenced by the dideoxy method. Human {beta}-casein has 212 amino acids and the amino acid sequence deducted from the nucleotide sequence is to 91% identical to the published sequence for human {beta}-casein show a high degree of conservation at the leader peptide and the highly phosphorylated sequences, but also deletions and divergence at several positions. These results provide insight into the structure of the human {beta}-casein gene and will facilitate studies on factors affecting its expression.

  14. Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of alfas1-casein, beta-casein and k-casein genes in Charnequeira Portuguese indigenous goat breed

    OpenAIRE

    Bonifácio, C.; Santos, Ingrid; Belo, Carmona; Cravador, A.

    2001-01-01

    The DNA from eighty goats belonging to the indigenous portuguese caprine breed Charnequeira, ecotype from Beira Baixa (Beiroa), was analysed. Single-strand conformation polymorphisms were identified at exon 9 and at exons 10-11 of the as1-casein gene and at exon 4 of the kcasein. The b-casein gene was found monomorphic at exon 7 in this population sample. The establishment of an association of some of these SSCP polymorphisms with milk production and protein and fat content was at...

  15. αS1-casein, which is essential for efficient ER-to-Golgi casein transport, is also present in a tightly membrane-associated form

    OpenAIRE

    Le Parc Annabelle; Leonil Joëlle; Chanat Eric

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Caseins, the main milk proteins, aggregate in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells into large supramolecular structures, casein micelles. The role of individual caseins in this process and the mesostructure of the casein micelle are poorly known. Results In this study, we investigate primary steps of casein micelle formation in rough endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles prepared from rat or goat mammary tissues. The majority of both αS1- and β-casein which a...

  16. Rapid quantification of casein in skim milk using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, enzymatic perturbation, and multiway partial least squares regression: Monitoring chymosin at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, A; Hansen, P W; Nørgaard, L; Sørensen, John; Mikkelsen, J D

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we introduce enzymatic perturbation combined with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a concept for quantifying casein in subcritical heated skim milk using chemometric multiway analysis. Chymosin is a protease that cleaves specifically caseins. As a result of hydrolysis, all casein proteins clot to form a creamy precipitate, and whey proteins remain in the supernatant. We monitored the cheese-clotting reaction in real time using FTIR and analyzed the resulting evolution profiles to establish calibration models using parallel factor analysis and multiway partial least squares regression. Because we observed casein-specific kinetic changes, the retrieved models were independent of the chemical background matrix and were therefore robust against possible covariance effects. We tested the robustness of the models by spiking the milk solutions with whey, calcium, and cream. This method can be used at different stages in the dairy production chain to ensure the quality of the delivered milk. In particular, the cheese-making industry can benefit from such methods to optimize production control. PMID:27265175

  17. Structural investigations of sodium caseinate micelles in complex environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The most frequent destabilization mechanisms in Sodium Caseinate (NaCas) emulsions are creaming and flocculation. Coarse or fine emulsions with low protein con- tent destabilize mainly by creaming. If migration mechanism is suppressed, flocculation may become the main mechanism of destabilization. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) technique was applied to investigate sodium caseinate micelles structure in different environments. As many natural products, Sodium Caseinate samples have large polydisperse size distribution. The experimental data was analyzed using advanced modeling approaches. The Form Factor for the Caseinate micelle subunits was described by an ellipsoidal core shell model and the structure factor was split into two contributions, one corresponding to the particle-particle interactions and another one for the long range correlation of the subunits in the supramolecular structure. For the first term the hard sphere structure factor using the Percus-Yevick approximation for closure relation was used and for the second term a fractal model was applied. Three concentrations of sodium Caseinate (2, 5 and 7.5 %wt.) were measured in pure water, sugar solutions (20 %wt.) and in three different lipid phase emulsions containing 10 %wt. sunflower seed, olive and fish oils. Data analysis provided an average casein subunit radius of 4 nm, an average distance between the subunits of around 20nm and a fractal dimension value of around 3 for all samples. As indicated by the values of the correlation lengths for the set of studied samples, the casein aggregation is strongly affected by simple sugar additions and it is enhanced by emulsion droplets hydrophobic interaction. As will be presented, these nanoscale structural results provided by scattering experiments is consistent with macroscopic results obtained from several techniques, providing a new understanding of NaCas emulsions. (author)

  18. Structural investigations of sodium caseinate micelles in complex environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huck Iriart, C.; Herrera, M.L.; Candal, R. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Oliveira, C.L.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Torriani, I. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The most frequent destabilization mechanisms in Sodium Caseinate (NaCas) emulsions are creaming and flocculation. Coarse or fine emulsions with low protein con- tent destabilize mainly by creaming. If migration mechanism is suppressed, flocculation may become the main mechanism of destabilization. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) technique was applied to investigate sodium caseinate micelles structure in different environments. As many natural products, Sodium Caseinate samples have large polydisperse size distribution. The experimental data was analyzed using advanced modeling approaches. The Form Factor for the Caseinate micelle subunits was described by an ellipsoidal core shell model and the structure factor was split into two contributions, one corresponding to the particle-particle interactions and another one for the long range correlation of the subunits in the supramolecular structure. For the first term the hard sphere structure factor using the Percus-Yevick approximation for closure relation was used and for the second term a fractal model was applied. Three concentrations of sodium Caseinate (2, 5 and 7.5 %wt.) were measured in pure water, sugar solutions (20 %wt.) and in three different lipid phase emulsions containing 10 %wt. sunflower seed, olive and fish oils. Data analysis provided an average casein subunit radius of 4 nm, an average distance between the subunits of around 20nm and a fractal dimension value of around 3 for all samples. As indicated by the values of the correlation lengths for the set of studied samples, the casein aggregation is strongly affected by simple sugar additions and it is enhanced by emulsion droplets hydrophobic interaction. As will be presented, these nanoscale structural results provided by scattering experiments is consistent with macroscopic results obtained from several techniques, providing a new understanding of NaCas emulsions. (author)

  19. The role of casein in supporting the operation of surface bound kinesin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hancock William O

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microtubules and associated motor proteins such as kinesin are envisioned for applications such as bioseparation and molecular sorting to powering hybrid synthetic mechanical devices. One of the challenges in realizing such systems is retaining motor functionality on device surfaces. Kinesin motors adsorbed onto glass surfaces lose their functionality or ability to interact with microtubules if not adsorbed with other supporting proteins. Casein, a milk protein, is commonly used in microtubule motility assays to preserve kinesin functionality. However, the mechanism responsible for this preservation of motor function is unknown. To study casein and kinesin interaction, a series of microtubule motility assays were performed where whole milk casein, or its αs1 and αs2, β or κ subunits, were introduced or omitted at various steps of the motility assay. In addition, a series of epifluorescence and total internal reflection microscopy (TIRF experiments were conducted where fluorescently labeled casein was introduced at various steps of the motility assay to assess casein-casein and casein-glass binding dynamics. From these experiments it is concluded that casein forms a bi-layer which supports the operation of kinesin. The first tightly bound layer of casein mainly performs the function of anchoring the kinesin while the second more loosely bound layer of casein positions the head domain of the kinesin to more optimally interact with microtubules. Studies on individual casein subunits indicate that β casein was most effective in supporting kinesin functionality while κ casein was found to be least effective.

  20. The External Functions of Casein Phospeptides%酪蛋白磷酸肽的体外功能试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑛瑶; 胡俊刚; 杜东平; 王璋; 许时婴; 谢良

    2001-01-01

    对不同级别的酪蛋白磷酸肽(Casein Phosphopeptide,以下简称CPP)促进钙吸收的体外功能性质进行了研究,测定了CPP的结合钙量、CPP阻止磷酸钙沉淀形成的效果及持钙能力.结果表明:CPP对钙的结合量随温度的升高而减少,随pH值的升高而增加;CPP对阻止磷酸钙沉淀的作用随温度升高和溶液钙磷比增加而下降;随氮磷摩尔比降低,CPP阻止磷酸钙沉淀形成的最低有效浓度下降;对于不同的钙磷比,CPP的氮磷摩尔比越小,保持在溶液中的钙量越多,但每摩尔磷保持钙的摩尔数随氮磷摩尔比的降低而降低.%The properties of different grade casein phosphopeptides(CPP) in enhancing the absorption of calcium were studied. The content of the binding calcium of CPP, the effect of CPP on retarding the formation of calcium phosphate and the capacity of CPP keeping calcium soluble in solution were tested. From the results, the following conclusions were obtained. The content of the binding calcium of CPP decreased with the increase in temperature and increased with the increase in pH. The effect of CPP on retarding the formation of calcium phosphate decreased with the increase in temperature and the molar ratio of Ca to P in solution. With the reduction of the molar ratio of N to P in CPP, the minimum effective concentration of CPP decreased. At the different molar ratio of Ca to P, the lower the molar ratio of N to P in CPP, the more calcium soluble was kept in solution. However, the mole of calcium kept by per molar P in solution decreased with the decrease in the molar ratio of N to P.

  1. The decontamination of industrial casein and milk powder by irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żegota, H.; Małolepszy, B.

    2008-09-01

    The efficacy of gamma radiation decontamination of industrial casein, a milk protein utilized as a component of many food and non-food products has been studied. Low-fat milk powder was also included with a purpose to study the microflora survival in protein-rich materials. Microbial analysis of the samples prior to irradiation showed that the initial total viable count was higher than 6.0 log cfu g -1 in both casein and milk powders. The contamination of casein with moulds and yeasts was found to be equal to 3.56 log cfu g -1. The counts of coliforms have not exceeded the value of 2.48 log cfu g -1. Radiation processing of casein and milk powder has substantially reduced the microbial population of all samples. The dose of 5 kGy was sufficient to reduce the total microflora and coliforms counts to the level permitted for food products. Survivals of microorganisms were analyzed by the generalized exponential equation, SF =exp[ -D/ Do) α]. Values of an exponent, α, standing for the dispersion parameter, were equal to 0.65 and 0.70 for microorganisms contaminating casein and milk powders, respectively. The numerical value of the dispersion parameter α<1 indicates the concave dependence of a logarithm of surviving fraction versus radiation dose. No difference in microflora survival in irradiated samples tested immediately and in samples stored for 1-month after irradiation has been noticed.

  2. Human alpha s1-casein: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, L K; Due, H A; Petersen, T E

    1995-05-01

    The human counterpart of alpha s1-casein has been purified by a combination of gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography under denaturing conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed the presence of a diffuse ladder with a high molecular mass which upon reduction was replaced by several closely spaced bands of lower molecular masses and a broad diffuse band corresponding to kappa-casein. Amino acid sequence analysis of the closely spaced bands all resulted in the same N-terminal sequence which was found to be homologous with alpha s1-casein from other species. Sequence analysis of a major radiolabelled tryptic peptide from purified 14C-carboxymethylated alpha s1-casein demonstrated that the protein contains at least two cysteine residues. As judged by SDS-PAGE in the presence or absence of a reducing agent, the molecular structure of the polymers constituting the ladder is composed of heteropolymers of alpha s1- and kappa-casein cross-linked by disulfide bonds. PMID:7749638

  3. The decontamination of industrial casein and milk powder by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegota, H. [Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Technical University, Wroblewskiego 15, 93-590 Lodz (Poland)], E-mail: ahzegota@mitr.p.lodz.pl; Malolepszy, B. [Fleur Comp. Ltd., Artyleryjska 6, 91-072 Lodz (Poland)

    2008-09-15

    The efficacy of gamma radiation decontamination of industrial casein, a milk protein utilized as a component of many food and non-food products has been studied. Low-fat milk powder was also included with a purpose to study the microflora survival in protein-rich materials. Microbial analysis of the samples prior to irradiation showed that the initial total viable count was higher than 6.0 log cfu g{sup -1} in both casein and milk powders. The contamination of casein with moulds and yeasts was found to be equal to 3.56 log cfu g{sup -1}. The counts of coliforms have not exceeded the value of 2.48 log cfu g{sup -1}. Radiation processing of casein and milk powder has substantially reduced the microbial population of all samples. The dose of 5 kGy was sufficient to reduce the total microflora and coliforms counts to the level permitted for food products. Survivals of microorganisms were analyzed by the generalized exponential equation, SF=exp[-D/D{sub o}){sup {alpha}}]. Values of an exponent, {alpha}, standing for the dispersion parameter, were equal to 0.65 and 0.70 for microorganisms contaminating casein and milk powders, respectively. The numerical value of the dispersion parameter {alpha}<1 indicates the concave dependence of a logarithm of surviving fraction versus radiation dose. No difference in microflora survival in irradiated samples tested immediately and in samples stored for 1-month after irradiation has been noticed.

  4. Evolution of the casein multigene family: conserved sequences in the 5' flanking and exon regions.

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Lee, L Y; Richter-Mann, L; Couch, C H; Stewart, A F; Mackinlay, A G; Rosen, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The rat alpha- and bovine alpha s1-casein genes have been isolated and their 5' sequences determined. The rat alpha-, beta-, gamma- and bovine alpha s1-casein genes contain similar 5' exon arrangements in which the 5' noncoding, signal peptide and casein kinase phosphorylation sequences are each encoded by separate exons. These findings support the hypothesis that during evolution, the family of casein genes arose by a process involving exon recruitment followed by intragenic and intergenic d...

  5. Kappa Casein Gene Polymorphism in Holstein Chinese Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Hamza1,*, X. L. Wang and Z. P.Yang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Kappa casein gene polymorphism has received a considerable attention because of its correlation with milk quality, composition and technological properties. The polymorphism of kappa casein gene (K-CN was detected in Holstein Chinese cattle. A 218 bp sequence in exon IV of 319 Holstein Chinese cattle blood samples were amplified using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation (PCR-SSCP technique. Sequence analysis revealed one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP T/C SNP in exon 1V at nucleotides (80, moreover; three genotypes TT, TC and CC were also identified with following frequencies: 0.40, 0.34 and 0.26%, respectively. The allele frequency for T and C found to be 0.6 and 0.4 %, respectively. Allele frequencies in the population fitted with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05. Analysis of genetic polymorphism of k-casein at exon 1V exhibited medium polymorphism information content (PIC=0.36.

  6. Hollow Casein-Based Polymeric Nanospheres for Opaque Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Ma, Jianzhong; Xu, Qunna; Zhou, Jianhua; Simion, Demetra; Carmen, Gaidău; Wang, John; Li, Yunqi

    2016-05-11

    Casein-based hollow polymeric sphere were fabricated through emulsifier-free polymerization coupled with alkali swelling approach. Hollow structure and nanoscale size of casein-based polymeric spheres were verified by TEM, AFM, SEM, and UV-vis spectra. The as-obtained hollow spheres were proved exhibiting superior opaque characteristic. Through adjusting the structural parameters, for example, MAA usages and MAA content in seed to core, sphere film showed tunable visible-light transmittance and antiultraviolet property. The formation mechanism of casein-based hollow sphere has been discussed in depth. Worth mentioning, the resultant hollow polymeric sphere can easily form films itself at room temperature, which would open a new possibility of designing opaque coatings in several fields, such as leather, packaging, paper making, biomedical, and special indoor coating applications. PMID:27090208

  7. Rheology and phase behavior of dense casein micelle dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoux, A.; Debbou, B.; Gésan-Guiziou, G.; Famelart, M.-H.; Doublier, J.-L.; Cabane, B.

    2009-10-01

    Casein micelle dispersions have been concentrated through osmotic stress and examined through rheological experiments. In conditions where the casein micelles are separated from each other, i.e., below random-close packing, the dispersions have exactly the flow and dynamic properties of the polydisperse hard-sphere fluid, demonstrating that the micelles interact only through excluded volume effects in this regime. These interactions cause the viscosity and the elastic modulus to increase by three orders of magnitude approaching the concentration of random-close packing estimated at Cmax≈178 g/l. Above Cmax, the dispersions progressively turn into "gels" (i.e., soft solids) as C increases, with elastic moduli G' that are nearly frequency independent. In this second regime, the micelles deform and/or deswell as C increases, and the resistance to deformation results from the formation of bonds between micelles combined with the intrinsic mechanical resistance of the micelles. The variation in G' with C is then very similar to that observed with concentrated emulsions where the resistance to deformation originates from a set of membranes that separate the droplets. As in the case of emulsions, the G' values at high frequency are also nearly identical to the osmotic pressures required to compress the casein dispersions. The rheology of sodium caseinate dispersions in which the caseins are not structured into micelles is also reported. Such dispersions have the behavior of associative polymer solutions at all the concentrations investigated, further confirming the importance of structure in determining the rheological properties of casein micelle systems.

  8. Molecular modeling and conformational IgG epitope mapping on bovine β-casein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Fahui; Gao, Jinyan; Li, Xin; Chen, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing conformational B-cell epitopes is a key step for understanding the immunological basis of allergy contributed by β-casein. There is no resolved conformational structure of β-casein in protein data bank, and most of the previous research on epitope identification of β-casein focused

  9. Electrochemical immunosensor for the determination of β-casein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Molinari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric biosensor for the quantification of food allergens based on an inhibitory immunoassay is presented. As a proof of concept, the experimental conditions were optimized for the detection of β-casein in the 0-10 ppm range. Eight electro­che­mi­cal cells were integrated into a small-sized portable potentiostat controlled by a smart­phone via Bluetooth communication. The determination of β-casein in eight different samples can be measured with the electrochemical biosensor, which has the potential to be modified for the detection of multiple allergens.

  10. Phosphorylation of αS1-casein is regulated by different genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, E; van Valenberg, H J F; Huppertz, T; van Hooijdonk, A C M; Bovenhuis, H

    2014-11-01

    Casein phosphorylation is a posttranslational modification catalyzed by kinase enzymes that attach phosphate groups to specific AA in the protein sequence. This modification is one of the key factors responsible for the stabilization of calcium phosphate nanoclusters in casein micelles and for the internal structure of the casein micelles. α(S1)-Casein (α(s1)-CN) is of special interest because it constitutes up to 40% of the total casein fraction in milk, and it has 2 common phosphorylation states, with 8 (α(S1)-CN-8P) and 9 (α(S1)-CN-9P) phosphorylated serine residues. Factors affecting this variation in the degree of phosphorylation are not currently known. The objective of this research was to determine the genetic background of α(S1)-CN-8P and α(S1)-CN-9P. The genetic and phenotypic correlation between α(S1)-CN-8P and α(S1)-CN-9P was low (0.18 and 0.19, respectively). This low genetic correlation suggests a different genetic background. These differences were further investigated by means of a genome-wide association study, which showed that both α(S1)-CN-8P and α(S1)-CN-9P were affected by a region on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, but only α(S1)-CN-8P was affected by a region on BTA11 that contains the gene that encodes for β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), and only α(S1)-CN-9P was affected by a region on BTA14 that contains the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene. Estimated effects of β-LG protein genotypes showed that only α(S1)-CN-8P was associated with the β-LG A/B polymorphism (g.1772G>A and g.3054C>T); the AA genotype of β-LG was associated with a lower concentration of α(S1)-CN-8P (-0.32% wt/wt) than the BB genotype (+0.41% wt/wt). Estimated effects of DGAT1 K232A genotypes showed that only α(S1)-CN-9P was associated with the DGAT1 gene polymorphism; DGAT1 AA genotype was associated with a higher α(S1)-CN-9P concentration (+0.53% wt/wt) than the DGAT1 KK genotype (-0.44% wt/wt). The results give insight in phosphorylation of α(S1

  11. A new method for the study of the formation and transformation of calcium phosphate precipitates: effects of several chemical agents and Chinese folk medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, S; Abe, K; Liu, S Y

    1991-01-01

    A simple method of assaying the formation of amorphous calcium phosphate and its transformation to hydroxyapatite using a conventional pH meter and recorder is described. Its validity was confirmed by direct assay of calcium consumption with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The method was used to study substances which influence the formation of amorphous calcium phosphate and its transformation to hydroxyapatite, such as albumin, casein, chondroitin sulphate, phospholipid, ATP, Mg2+, Sr2+, pyrophosphate and several Chinese folk medicines. PMID:1849399

  12. Influence of sodium chloride on the colloidal and rennet coagulation properties of concentrated casein micelle suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z; Corredig, M

    2016-08-01

    The research investigated the influence of NaCl on the colloidal and rennet coagulation properties of concentrated milk. Milk was concentrated to 1×, 3×, and 5× using ultrafiltration. Rennet gelation was followed by rheology and diffusing wave spectroscopy. Soluble protein, total and diffusible calcium and phosphate, size, and zeta potential were also measured as a function of concentration history. In the presence of 300mM NaCl, colloidal calcium phosphate solubilized and pH and the negative charge on the surface of casein micelles decreased. Increasing the volume fraction caused the formation of stiffer gels for both samples with or without NaCl. The addition of NaCl caused a significant increase in the bulk viscosity of the milk concentrated 5× and a decrease in turbidity. The concentration had no effect on the gelation time of control samples, nor on the kinetics of caseinomacropeptide release. On the other hand, rennet gelation was retarded by the addition of NaCl, and the gels showed lower elastic moduli compared with those obtained with control milk. PMID:27320668

  13. Calcium phosphates in Ca(2+)-fortified milk: phase identification and quantification by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, Martha; Swedlund, Peter J; Hemar, Yacine; McKinnon, Ian R

    2014-12-17

    Calcium phosphate nanoclusters (CPNs) are important for the structure, function, and nutrient density of many dairy products. Phosphorylated amino acids in caseins stabilize calcium phosphate as nanoclusters which are amorphous to X-ray diffraction and exist within casein micelles, and these CPNs play a key role in micelle stability. Addition of calcium to milk results in further calcium phosphate removal from the serum, and there is uncertainty about the nature of the material formed and its stability. In this work we investigate both the solution and colloidal phases in CaCl2 enriched bovine milk to identify, quantify, and determine the solubility of the calcium phosphate material formed in response to calcium addition to milk. The P-O stretching bands are quite distinct in the Raman spectra of the main synthetic calcium phosphate mineral phases, including the amorphous calcium phosphate phase. In response to adding between 5 and 40 mM CaCl2 to milk, the serum phosphate concentration decreased asymptotically from 7.5 ± 0.2 to 0.54 ± 0.05 mM. Using Raman spectroscopy with a combination of internal and external standards, it was possible to show that the calcium phosphate material formed after Ca(2+) addition to milk was the same as amorphous calcium phosphate nanoclusters present in the absence of added calcium. The use of an internal standard allowed a quantitative analysis of the spectra which demonstrated that the amorphous calcium phosphate formed accounted for all of the calcium and phosphate that was removed from solution in response to calcium addition. PMID:25414967

  14. Effects of casein and fat content on water self-diffusion coefficients in casein systems: a pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance study

    OpenAIRE

    A. Metais; Cambert, M.; Riaublanc, A.; Mariette, F.

    2004-01-01

    The water self-diffusion coefficients in casein matrixes were measured using a pulsed field gradient spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance technique (PFG-SE NMR). The dependence of the water self-diffusion coefficient on the casein concentration and the aqueous phase composition is reported in both a rehydrated native phosphocaseinate dispersion and a concentrated casein retentate. A model has been proposed to explain the different behavior of the water self-diffusion coefficient in the two ca...

  15. Biochemical and functional characterisation of casein and whey protein hydrolysates.

    OpenAIRE

    Ven, van de, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    Whey protein and sodium caseinate were hydrolysed with commercially available enzyme preparations. The resulting hydrolysates were characterised using several analytical characterisation methods and by determination of several functional properties. Subsequently, correlations between the biochemical characteristics themselves and between biochemical and functional properties were studied using multivariate regression analysis.Biochemical characteristics of hydrolysates were determined using u...

  16. Process standardization for rennet casein based Mozzarella cheese analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rahul; Jana, Atanu H; Aparnathi, K D; Prajapati, P S

    2010-10-01

    A process for manufacture of Mozzarella cheese analogue (MCA) using rennet casein and plastic cream as protein and fat sources respectively was standardized. The formulation comprised of 25% plastic cream (72% fat), 27% rennet casein along with 3% tri-sodium citrate as emulsifying salt, 2% maltodextrin as binder, 0.55% lactic acid as pH regulator, 1% common salt for seasoning, 1% Mozzarella cheese bud as flavouring and 40.4% water. The process involved (a) dissolving the dry mixture of casein, maltodextrin, flavouring and common salt in hot emulsifying salt solution, (b) incorporation of half the quantity of acid solution in casein-maltodextrin dough, followed by addition and emulsification of plastic cream, and (c) addition of remaining half of the acid solution and heating the mass to 80 °C until a plastic cheese mass was obtained. The analogue was shaped in ball form, cooled and packaged in polyethylene bag. The MCA conformed to the PFA requirements for pizza cheese and had all the requisite baking characteristics expected of pizza cheese topping. PMID:23572688

  17. CASEIN MICELLE STRUCTURE: THE PAST AND THE PRESENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    At the heart of the milk system are the colloidal casein–calcium–transport complexes termed the casein micelles. The application of physical chemical techniques such as light, neutron, and X-ray scattering, and Electron Microscopy (EM) has yielded a wealth of experimental detail concerning the struc...

  18. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before being swallowed; do not swallow them whole. Drink a full glass of water after taking either the regular or chewable tablets or capsules. Some liquid forms of calcium carbonate must be shaken well before use.Do not ...

  19. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p<0.0001) or...

  20. Calcium Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Latvia - Lebanon - Libya - Lithuania - Luxembourg - Macedonia, Republic of - Malaysia - Malta - Mexico - Moldova - Morocco - Netherlands - New Zealand - Nigeria - ... and Statistics Popular content Calcium content of common foods What is Osteoporosis? The Board Introduction to Bone ...

  1. Order of 17 july 1991 on treatment by ionizing radiation of casein and casein products for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Order authorizes and fixes the conditions for the sale and marketing of casein (one of the chief constituents of milk which forms the basis of cheese), which is treated by ionizing radiation, for human consumption. The absorbed radiation dose must not exceed 6 kGy

  2. PFG-NMR self-diffusion in casein dispersions: Effects of probe size and protein aggregate size

    OpenAIRE

    Salami, S; Rondeau Mouro, C.; Van Duyhoven, J.; Mariette, F.

    2013-01-01

    The self-diffusion coefficients of different molecular weight PEGs (Polyethylene glycol) and casein particles were measured, using a pulsed-gradient nuclear magnetic resonance technique (PFG-NMR), in native phosphocaseinate (NPC) and sodium caseinate (SC) dispersions where caseins are not structured into micelles. The dependence of the PEG self-diffusion coefficient on the PEG size, casein concentration, the size and the mobility of casein obstacle particles are reported. Wide differences in ...

  3. Tertiary and quaternary structural differences between two genetic variants of bovine casein by small-angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessen, H.; Kumosinski, T.F.; Farrell, H.M. Jr.; Brumberger, H. (Dept. of Agriculture, Eastern Regional Research Center, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The casein complexes of bovine milk consist of four major protein fractions, alpha s1, alpha s2, beta, and kappa. Colloidal particles of casein (termed micelles) contain inorganic calcium and phosphate; they are very roughly spherical with an average radius of 650 A. Removal of Ca2+ leads to the formation of smaller protein aggregates with an average radius of 94 A. Two genetic variants, A and B, of the predominant fraction, alpha s1-casein, result in milks with markedly different physical properties, such as solubility and heat stability. To investigate the molecular basis for these differences, small-angle X-ray scattering was performed on the respective colloidal micelles and submicelles. Scattering curves for submicelles of both variants showed multiple Gaussian character; data for the B variant were previously interpreted in terms of two concentric regions of different electron density, i.e., a compact core and a relatively loose shell. For the submicelle of A, there was a third Gaussian, reflecting a negative contribution due to interparticle interference. Molecular parameters for submicelles of both A and B are in agreement with hydrodynamic data in the literature. Data for the micelles, for which scattering yields cross-sectional information, were fitted by a sum of three Gaussians for both variants; for these, the corresponding two lower radii of gyration represent the two concentric regions of the submicelles, while the third reflects the average packing of submicelles within the micellar cross section. Most of the molecular parameters obtained showed small but consistent differences between A and B, but for submicelles within the micelle several differences were particularly notable: A has a greater molecular weight for the compact region of the constituent submicelle (82,000 vs 60,000) and a much greater submicellar packing number.

  4. Tertiary and quaternary structural differences between two genetic variants of bovine casein by small-angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The casein complexes of bovine milk consist of four major protein fractions, alpha s1, alpha s2, beta, and kappa. Colloidal particles of casein (termed micelles) contain inorganic calcium and phosphate; they are very roughly spherical with an average radius of 650 A. Removal of Ca2+ leads to the formation of smaller protein aggregates with an average radius of 94 A. Two genetic variants, A and B, of the predominant fraction, alpha s1-casein, result in milks with markedly different physical properties, such as solubility and heat stability. To investigate the molecular basis for these differences, small-angle X-ray scattering was performed on the respective colloidal micelles and submicelles. Scattering curves for submicelles of both variants showed multiple Gaussian character; data for the B variant were previously interpreted in terms of two concentric regions of different electron density, i.e., a compact core and a relatively loose shell. For the submicelle of A, there was a third Gaussian, reflecting a negative contribution due to interparticle interference. Molecular parameters for submicelles of both A and B are in agreement with hydrodynamic data in the literature. Data for the micelles, for which scattering yields cross-sectional information, were fitted by a sum of three Gaussians for both variants; for these, the corresponding two lower radii of gyration represent the two concentric regions of the submicelles, while the third reflects the average packing of submicelles within the micellar cross section. Most of the molecular parameters obtained showed small but consistent differences between A and B, but for submicelles within the micelle several differences were particularly notable: A has a greater molecular weight for the compact region of the constituent submicelle (82,000 vs 60,000) and a much greater submicellar packing number

  5. Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease; CPPD disease; Acute CPPD arthritis; Pseudogout ... Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis is caused by the collection of salt called calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The buildup ...

  6. The bioactive effects of casein proteins on enteroendocrine cell health, proliferation and incretin hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Anna L; Green, Brian D

    2016-11-15

    Previous studies suggest that casein exerts various anti-diabetic effects. However, it is not known which casein proteins are bioactive, nor their effects on enteroendocrine cells. This study evaluated the effects of intact whole casein, intact individual proteins (alpha, beta and kappa casein) and hydrolysates on an enteroendocrine cell line. High content analysis accurately monitored changes in cell health and intracellular glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) content. Cheese ripening duration and GLP-1 secretory responses were also considered. Beta casein significantly stimulated enteroendocrine cell proliferation and all caseins were potent GLP-1 secretagogues (except kappa casein). Interestingly the GLP-1 secretory activity was almost always lost or significantly reduced upon hydrolysis with proteolytic enzymes. Only pepsin-derived beta casein hydrolysates had significantly increased potency compared with the intact protein, but this was diminished with prolonged hydrolysis. In conclusion casein proteins are not detrimental to enteroendocrine cells, and alpha and beta casein are particularly beneficial stimulating proliferation and GLP-1 secretion. PMID:27283618

  7. Influence of calcium depletion on iron-binding properties of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, V A; Ellis, A; Ye, A; Das, S; Singh, H

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the effects of calcium depletion on the binding of iron in milk. A weakly acidic cation-exchange resin was used to remove 3 different levels (18-22, 50-55, and 68-72%) of calcium from milk. Five levels of iron (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mM) were added to each of these calcium-depleted milks (CDM) and the resultant milks were analyzed for particle size, microstructure, and the distribution of protein and minerals between the colloidal and soluble phases. The depletion of calcium affected the distribution of protein and minerals in normal milk. Iron added to normal milk and low-CDM (~20% calcium depletion) bound mainly to the colloidal phase (material sedimented at 100,000 × g for 1 h at 20 °C), with little effect on the integrity of the casein micelles. Depletion of ~70% of the calcium from milk resulted in almost complete disintegration of the casein micelles, as indicated by all the protein remaining in the soluble phase upon ultracentrifugation. Addition of up to ~20 mM iron to high CDM resulted in the formation of small fibrous structures that remained in the soluble phase of milk. It appeared that the iron bound to soluble (nonsedimentable) caseins in high-CDM. We observed a decrease in the aqueous phosphorus content of all milks upon iron addition, irrespective of their calcium content. We considered the interaction between aqueous phosphorus and added iron to be responsible for the high iron-binding capacity of the proteins in milk. The soluble protein-iron complexes formed in high-CDM (~70% calcium depletion) could be used as an effective iron fortificant for a range of food products because of their good solubility characteristics. PMID:25648803

  8. Influence of race and crossbreeding on casein micelles size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Denise R; Fonseca, Leorges M; Souza, Fernando N; Ladeira, Cristiane V G; Diniz, Soraia A; Haddad, João Paulo A; Ferreira, Diêgo S; Santoro, Marcelo M; Cerqueira, Mônica M O P

    2015-05-01

    Casein (CN) micelles are colloidal aggregates of protein dispersed in milk, the importance of which in the dairy industry is related to functionality and yield in dairy products. The objective of this work was to investigate the correlation of milk CN micelles diameter from Holstein and Zebu crossbreds with milk composition (protein, fat, lactose, total and nonfat solids and milk urea nitrogen), somatic cell count (SCC), age, lactation stage and production. Average casein micelles diameters of milk samples obtained from 200 cows were measured using photon correlation spectroscopy and multiple regression analysis was used to find relationship between variables. CN micelle diameter, SCC and nonfat solids were different between animals with different Holstein crossbreed ratios, which suggests influence of genetic factors, mammary gland health and milk composition. Overall, results indicate the potential use of CN micelle diameter as a tool to select animals to produce milk more suitable to cheese production. PMID:25488503

  9. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  10. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... 2 of 4 sections Take Action! Take Action: Calcium Sources Protect your bones – get plenty of calcium ...

  11. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  12. Characterization of casein hydrolysates derived from enzymatic hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jinshui; Su, Yinjie; Jia, Feng; Jin, Huali

    2013-01-01

    Background Casein is the main proteinaceous component of milk and has made us interest due to its wide applications in the food, drug, and cosmetic industries as well as to its importance as an investigation material for elucidating essential questions regarding the protein chemistry. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an important method commonly used in the modification of protein structure in order to enhance the functional properties of proteins. The relationship between enzymatic hydrolysis and str...

  13. The Size Distribution of Casein Micelles in Camel Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Farah, Z.; Ruegg, M. W.

    1989-01-01

    The size distribution of casein micelles in camel milk has been determined by electron microscopy. Individual and pooled samples were cryo-fixed by rapid freezing and freeze-fractured. Electron micrographs of the freeze-fracture replica revealed a relatively broad size distribution, with an average micelle dimeter around 280 nm in the volume distribution curve. The distribution was significantly broader than that of the particles of cow's or human milk and showed a greater number of large ...

  14. The Size Distribution of Bovine Casein Micelles: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, C.

    1985-01-01

    This review considers the average size and size distribution of bovine casein micelles as measured by electron microscopy, light scattering and controlled pore glass chromatography, and the origin and biological function of the size distribution. Recent work by electron microscopy has given average sizes in reasonable agreement with measurements on the same milk sample by light scattering . It is suggested that natural variations in averaqe micelle size and overestimation of micelle radii ...

  15. Molecular cloning of the human casein kinase II α subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A human cDNA encoding the α subunit of casein kinase II and a partial cDNA encoding the rat homologue were isolated by using a Drosophila casein kinase II cDNA probe. The 2.2-kb human cDNA contains a 1.2-kb open reading frame, 150 nucleotides of 5' leader, and 850 nucleotides of 3' noncoding region. Except for the first 7 deduced amino acids that are missing in the rat cDNA, the 328 amino acids beginning with the amino terminus are identical between human and rat. The Drosophila enzyme sequence is 90% identical with the human casein kinase II sequence, and there is only a single amino acid difference between the published partial bovine sequence and the human sequence. In addition, the C-terminus of the human cDNA has an extra 53 amino acids not present in Drosophila. Northern analysis of rat and human RNA showed predominant bands of 5.5, 3.1, and 1.8 kb. In rat tissues, brain and spleen had the highest levels of casein kinase II α subunit specific RNA, while skeletal muscle showed the lowest. Southern analysis of human cultured cell and tissue genomic DNA using the full-length cDNA probe revealed two bands with restriction enzymes that have no recognition sites within the cDNA and three to six bands with enzymes having single internal sites. These results are consistent with the possibility that two genes encode the α subunits

  16. Geographic distribution of haplotype diversity at the bovine casein locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moazami-Goudarzi Katy

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic diversity of the casein locus in cattle was studied on the basis of haplotype analysis. Consideration of recently described genetic variants of the casein genes which to date have not been the subject of diversity studies, allowed the identification of new haplotypes. Genotyping of 30 cattle breeds from four continents revealed a geographically associated distribution of haplotypes, mainly defined by frequencies of alleles at CSN1S1 and CSN3. The genetic diversity within taurine breeds in Europe was found to decrease significantly from the south to the north and from the east to the west. Such geographic patterns of cattle genetic variation at the casein locus may be a result of the domestication process of modern cattle as well as geographically differentiated natural or artificial selection. The comparison of African Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds allowed the identification of several Bos indicus specific haplotypes (CSN1S1*C-CSN2*A2-CSN3*AI/CSN3*H that are not found in pure taurine breeds. The occurrence of such haplotypes in southern European breeds also suggests that an introgression of indicine genes into taurine breeds could have contributed to the distribution of the genetic variation observed.

  17. Interactions between tea catechins and casein micelles and their impact on renneting functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haratifar, Sanaz; Corredig, Milena

    2014-01-15

    Many studies have shown that tea catechins bind to milk proteins. This research focused on the association of tea polyphenols with casein micelles, and the consequences of the interactions on the renneting behaviour of skim milk. It was hypothesized that epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), the main catechin present in green tea, forms complexes with the casein micelles and that the association modifies the processing functionality of casein micelles. The binding of EGCG to casein micelles was quantified using HPLC. The formation of catechin-casein micelles complexes affected the rennet induced gelation of milk, and the effect was concentration dependent. Both the primary as well as the secondary stage of gelation were affected. These experiments clearly identify the need for a better understanding of the effect of tea polyphenols on the processing functionality of casein micelles, before milk products can be used as an appropriate platform for delivery of bioactive compounds. PMID:24054208

  18. Scaling relations between structure and rheology of ageing casein particle gels

    OpenAIRE

    Mellema, M

    2000-01-01

    Mellema, M. (Michel), Scaling relations between structure and rheology of ageing casein particle gels , PhD Thesis, Wageningen University, 150 + 10 pages, references by chapter, English and Dutch summaries (2000).The relation between (colloidal) interactions, structure and rheology of particle gels is discussed, especially the properties and the spontaneous ageing behavior of rennet-induced casein(ate) or skim milk gels.Methods involved were Brownian dynamics simulations, confocal microscopy,...

  19. Pressure-induced dissociation of casein micelles: size distribution and effect of temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Gebhardt, R.; Doster, W.; U. Kulozik

    2005-01-01

    Pressure-induced dissociation of a turbid solution of casein micelles was studied in situ in static and dynamic light scattering experiments. We show that at high pressure casein micelles decompose into small fragments comparable in size to casein monomers. At intermediate pressure we observe particles measuring 15 to 20 nm in diameter. The stability against pressure dissociation increased with temperature, suggesting enhanced hydrophobic contacts. The pressure transition curves are biphasic,...

  20. Untersuchungen zur Proteolyse von para-k-Casein: vom Modell zum Käse

    OpenAIRE

    Böhm, Anke

    2003-01-01

    Para-k-Casein entsteht durch Hydrolyse des kappa-Caseins nach Zugabe proteolytischer Enzyme zur Milch. Untersuchungen an selbst erstellten Modellen unter Bedingungen, die die Käsereifung simulieren, zeigen, dass die Proteolyse des für die Käsereifung bedeutenden para-k-Caseins stark vom Wassergehalt abhängt. Mit Hilfe geeigneter Methoden (SDS-Elektrophorese, IEF, GPC, RP-HPLC, ESI-MS u.a.) konnte der Abbau des para-k-Caseins durch die industriell relevanten Milchgerinnungsenzyme Chymosin, Fro...

  1. Behaviour of casein micelles at conditions comparable to those in ice cream

    OpenAIRE

    Jonkman, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    The physical properties of ice cream are mainly determined by the processing and the ingredients. Milk (powder) is one of the ingredients and ice cream thus contains casein, the major milk protein. A large proportion of casein in ice cream is present in the plasma phase of ice cream. Since the behaviour of casein in ice cream plasma was not known and could not be predicted and is expected to be important for the properties of ice cream, the behaviour of casein micelles in ice cream plasma and...

  2. Genetic parameters and selection for casein content in Italian Holstein and Brown Swiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bagnato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of more than 2,000,000 records on casein contents were collected in Lombardia (Italy during routine milk recording of Italian Holstein and Brown Swiss dairy cows. Variance components for casein were estimated as well as all the genetic correlations of casein with production and type traits considered in selection. According to the heritabilities estimated (12.4% for Brown and 9.36% for Holstein, breeding values were calculated for bulls and compared to the breeding values for total protein. The results of two different selection scenarios were compared for each breed when including protein or casein as selection criterion. Genetic progress expected for all traits selected were compared after 10 years of selection. The genetic variability of casein allows the use of this trait as selection criterion with the estimation of breeding values and its inclusion in selection indexes. Ranking of breeding values for casein and protein are very similar in both breeds. But some differences in genetic values for casein exist for the same level of breeding value for protein. Nevertheless results in genetic gain differ between breeds depending mainly on genetic correlations with the other traits selected. The positive results in selection response estimated for several traits suggest to the Brown Swiss Association the replacement of protein selection with casein. In contrast the smaller effects estimated for the Italian Holstein suggest to wait for more casein data collected before any change in selection program.

  3. Characterization of casein and alpha lactalbumin of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madende, M; Osthoff, G; Patterton, H-G; Patterton, H E; Martin, P; Opperman, D J

    2015-12-01

    The current research reports partial characterization of the caseins and α-lactalbumin (α-LA) of the African elephant with proposed unique structure-function properties. Extensive research has been carried out to understand the structure of the casein micelles. Crystallographic structure elucidation of caseins and casein micelles is not possible. Consequently, several models have been developed in an effort to describe the casein micelle, specifically of cow milk. Here we report the characterization of African elephant milk caseins. The κ-caseins and β-caseins were investigated, and their relative ratio was found to be approximately 1:8.5, whereas α-caseins were not detected. The gene sequence of β-casein in the NCBI database was revisited, and a different sequence in the N-terminal region is proposed. Amino acid sequence alignment and hydropathy plots showed that the κ-casein of African elephant milk is similar to that of other mammals, whereas the β-casein is similar to the human protein, and displayed a section of unique AA composition and additional hydrophilic regions compared with bovine caseins. Elephant milk is destabilized by 62% alcohol, and it is speculated that the β-casein characteristics may allow maintenance of the colloidal nature of the casein micelle, a role that was previously only associated with κ-casein. The oligosaccharide content of milk was reported to be low in dairy animals but high in some other species such as humans and elephants. In the milk of the African elephant, lactose and oligosaccharides both occur at high levels. These levels are typically related to the content of α-LA in the mammary gland and thus point to a specialized carbohydrate synthesis, where the whey protein α-LA plays a role. We report the characterization of African elephant α-LA. Homology modeling of the α-LA showed that it is structurally similar to crystal structures of other mammalian species, which in turn may be an indication that its functional

  4. Rat beta casein cDNA: sequence analysis and evolutionary comparisons.

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, D E; Hobbs, A A; Rosen, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The complete sequence of a 1072 nucleotide rat beta-casein cDNA insertion in the hybrid plasmid pC beta 23 has been determined. Primer extension was employed to determine the sequence of an additional 82 5'-terminal nucleotides in beta-casein mRNA. Rat beta-casein mRNA consists of a 696 nucleotide coding region, flanked by 52 nucleotide 5' and 406 nucleotide 3' noncoding regions, including a 40 nucleotide poly(A) tail. The derived 216 amino acid sequence of rat beta-casein was compared to the...

  5. SOYBEAN AND CASEIN HYDROLYSATES INDUCE GRAPEVINE IMMUNE RESPONSES AND RESISTANCE AGAINST PLASMOPARA VITICOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihed eLachhab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, is one of the most devastating grape pathogen in Europe and North America. Although phytochemicals are used to control pathogen infections, the appearance of resistant strains and the concern for possible adverse effects on environment and human health are increasing the search for alternative strategies. In the present investigation, we successfully tested two protein hydrolysates from soybean (soy and casein (cas to trigger grapevine resistance against P. viticola. On Vitis vinifera cv. Marselan plants, the application of soy and cas reduced the infected leaf surface by 76 and 63%, as compared to the control, respectively. Since both hydrolysates might trigger the plant immunity, we investigated their ability to elicit grapevine defence responses. On grapevine cell suspensions, a different free cytosolic calcium signature was recorded for each hydrolysate, whereas a similar transient phosphorylation of two MAP kinases of 45 and 49 kDa was observed. These signalling events were followed by transcriptome reprogramming, including the up-regulation of defence genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR proteins and the stilbene synthase enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of resveratrol, the main grapevine phytoalexin. Liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the production of resveratrol and its dimer metabolites, δ- and ε-viniferins. Overall, soy effects were more pronounced as compared to the cas one. Both hydrolysates proved to act as elicitors to enhance grapevine immunity against pathogen attack.

  6. Soybean and casein hydrolysates induce grapevine immune responses and resistance against Plasmopara viticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachhab, Nihed; Sanzani, Simona M; Adrian, Marielle; Chiltz, Annick; Balacey, Suzanne; Boselli, Maurizio; Ippolito, Antonio; Poinssot, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, is one of the most devastating grape pathogen in Europe and North America. Although phytochemicals are used to control pathogen infections, the appearance of resistant strains and the concern for possible adverse effects on environment and human health are increasing the search for alternative strategies. In the present investigation, we successfully tested two protein hydrolysates from soybean (soy) and casein (cas) to trigger grapevine resistance against P. viticola. On Vitis vinifera cv. Marselan plants, the application of soy and cas reduced the infected leaf surface by 76 and 63%, as compared to the control, respectively. Since both hydrolysates might trigger the plant immunity, we investigated their ability to elicit grapevine defense responses. On grapevine cell suspensions, a different free cytosolic calcium signature was recorded for each hydrolysate, whereas a similar transient phosphorylation of two MAP kinases of 45 and 49 kDa was observed. These signaling events were followed by transcriptome reprogramming, including the up-regulation of defense genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and the stilbene synthase enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of resveratrol, the main grapevine phytoalexin. Liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the production of resveratrol and its dimer metabolites, δ- and ε-viniferins. Overall, soy effects were more pronounced as compared to the cas ones. Both hydrolysates proved to act as elicitors to enhance grapevine immunity against pathogen attack. PMID:25566290

  7. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture, exhausti

  8. Effect of caseins structure on the diffusion of solutes in caseins solutions and gels as studied by pulsed field gradient NMR

    OpenAIRE

    Le Feunteun, S.; Mariette, F.

    2006-01-01

    Caseins are milk's major proteins. They are present in milk as a suspension of particles called casein micelles. In the dairy industry, two classical processes which are acid and rennet coagulation or a combination of both are used to convert milk into gels, such as yoghurt or cheese curd. Acids gels are obtained through the acidification of the medium whereas rennet gels are formed after enzymatic hydrolysis. It is widely accepted that casein gels are so-called particle gels (Lucey J.A. J. D...

  9. Protein phosphatases active on acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylated by casein kinase I, casein kinase II and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protein phosphatases in rat liver cytosol, active on rat liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylated by casein kinase I, casein kinase II and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, have been partially purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The major phosphatase activities against all three substrates copurify through fractionation and appear to be identical to protein phosphatases 2A1 and 2A2. No unique protein phosphatase active on 32P-ACC phosphorylated by the casein kinases was identified

  10. Predictors of High Serum Casein Antibody Levels among Malnourished Infants and Young Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inas R. El-Alameey

    2015-03-01

    CONCLUSION: Serum casein antibody levels play a significant role in the pathogenesis of malnutrition. Encouragement of breast feeding and avoidance of early cow's milk consumption could prevent the development of antibody response to bovine casein.

  11. Evaluation to determine the caries remineralization potential of three dentifrices: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Balakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the remineralizing potential of three different remineralizing agents (GC tooth Mousse, Clinpro tooth crθme and SHY-NM on demineralized tooth surfaces using micro CT and microhardness. Materials and Methods: Forty five freshly extracted mandibular premolars were collected and enamel specimens were prepared. The samples were assigned to three groups with fifteen specimens in each group. The specimens were then demineralized using McInne′s demineralizing solution in two cycles. After that, remineralization was carried out in two cycles for 30 days using Casein phosphopeptide - Amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP - ACP, 0.21% sodium fluoride - Tricalcium phosphate (f-TCP and Calcium Sodium Phosphosilicate (CSP containing tooth pastes for groups I, II, III respectively. The specimens were evaluated for Linear attenuation co-efficient using micro CT (Scanco TM and Vicker′s Micro Hardness (Schimadzu TM testing at different time periods. The results were tabulated and statistically analysed. Results: It was observed that all the three remineralizing agents used in the study significantly increased the Linear Attenuation Co-efficient and Vicker′s hardness number values of the enamel specimens following 15 days and 30 days application. Conclusion: CPP - ACP showed the better remineralizing potential than the other two agents and there was no statistical significant difference between f-TCP and CSP groups.

  12. Interproximal enamel reduction: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganelli, Corrado; Zanarini, Matteo; Pazzi, Elisabetta; Marchionni, Silvia; Visconti, Luca; Alessandri Bonetti, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the morphology and composition of the interproximal reduced enamel after exposition to saliva and casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate with sodium fluoride (CPP-ACPF). Fourteen patients undergoing an orthodontic treatment with 4 premolars extractions participated to the study. Interproximal enamel reduction (IER) was performed on mesial surfaces of 3 extractive premolars for each patient while 1 served as untreated control. Premolars were assigned to 4 groups: No-S group, sound enamel as control; S-Ex group, stripped and immediately extracted enamel; S-Sal group, stripped and exposed to saliva enamel; S-CPP group, stripped enamel treated with CPP-ACPF. Teeth were extracted at different times, depending on the group they were assigned to and sliced into mesial and distal halves. Mesial surfaces were subjected to environmental scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (ESEM/EDX) and to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. ESEM/EDX investigations showed no statistically significant differences in the content of calcium and phosphate between the 4 groups. SEM observations showed no difference in the morphological appearance of stripped enamel after 30 days of exposure to saliva and CPP-ACPF. Saliva and CPP-ACPF effects on stripped enamel in vivo showed no difference after 30 days. PMID:25488201

  13. A DIGITAL TOOL FOR CASEIN ISOLECTRIC POINT DETERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M.T. Trindade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Casein is a milk protein that has the same number of positive and negative charges in a pH around 4.7. This characteristic is called the isoelectric point (pI. The pI varies from protein to protein and it depends on the charges of the lateral chain of the constituent aminoacids. At this pH value the protein has its minimum solubility since the net charge is zero and the repulsion between molecules is decreased. Furthermore, the electrostatic interaction occurs between the protein molecules. Thus, they form clumps which tend to precipitate. On the other hand, when they are placed in a solution whose pH is above or below of its pI, the protein molecules have respectively a negative or positive net charge, with strong repulsion between themselves and great interaction with the solvent (water. Objective: This learning object presents a simulation of a laboratory practice for the determination of casein isoelectric point. Materials and Methods: Cartoons were planned in order to show the methodology procedures and biochemical fundamentals. Animations were developed with the aid of the Adobe ® Flash 8 software associated with logic programming. Results: The simulation consists of six steps that reproduce the activities performed in the laboratory. Among them, the user can observe different degrees of turbidity and / or precipitation of casein in solutions with different pH values, he can measure these values with paper indicator strips and then determine the pI of this protein. Conclusions: This learning object was tested by students of Biochemistry I, Pharmacy course since 2012/2. The navigation features, design, interaction, interactivity were considered excellent by 80% of students indicating that this object can be used as an interesting tool to assist the teaching and learning of basic biochemistry.  Available at:www.ufrgs.br/gcoeb/PontoIsoleletricoDaCaseina/PontoIsoleletricoDaCaseina.swf

  14. Enhanced casein kinase II activity in human tumour cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowald, K; Fischer, H; Issinger, O G

    1984-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) activity is enhanced as much as 2-3 fold in established and 4-5-fold in transformed human cell lines when compared to that of fibroblasts and primary human tumour cell cultures where CKII activity never exceeded a basic level. The high activity of CKII in transformed cells...... and in established cell lines was reduced to about the same basic level after treatment with heparin, a highly specific inhibitor of CKII activity. The activity of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase was virtually the same in fibroblasts and various human tumour cell lines investigated....

  15. Potential of casein kinase I in digestive cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Modak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Casein kinase I is a group of ubiquitous Serine/Threonine kinases that have been implicated in both normal cellular functions and several pathological conditions including Alzheimer’ s disease and cancer. Recent findings in colon and pancreatic cancer have brought tremendous attention to these molecules as potential therapeutic targets in treatment of digestive cancers. In this review, we summarize up to date what is known about this family of kinases and their involvement in carcinogenesis and other pathological conditions. Our emphasis is on their implications in digestive cancers and their potential for cancer screening and therapy.

  16. Expression of casein kinase 2 during mouse embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mestres, P; Boldyreff, B; Ebensperger, C; Hameister, H; Issinger, O G

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the expression and distribution of casein kinase 2 (CK-2) subunits in mouse embryos at different developmental stages. Expression was investigated at the mRNA level of CK-2 alpha- and beta-subunits by in situ hybridization and distribution at the protein level by...... immunohistochemistry using CK-2-alpha- and CK-2-beta-specific antibodies, respectively. In general both methods gave similar results. In earlier stages of mouse embryonic development (day 10.5 after coitus) CK-2 was more expressed in neuroepithelia than in all other tissues. From day 11.5 after coitus on, high...

  17. A DIGITAL TOOL FOR CASEIN ISOLECTRIC POINT DETERMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    V.M.T. Trindade; I. B. Santos; G. Zanatta; P. R. Arantes; C. G. Salbego

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Casein is a milk protein that has the same number of positive and negative charges in a pH around 4.7. This characteristic is called the isoelectric point (pI). The pI varies from protein to protein and it depends on the charges of the lateral chain of the constituent aminoacids. At this pH value the protein has its minimum solubility since the net charge is zero and the repulsion between molecules is decreased. Furthermore, the electrostatic interaction occurs between the prote...

  18. Detecting β-Casein Variation in Bovine Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maria Caroli; Salvatore Savino; Omar Bulgari; Eugenio Monti

    2016-01-01

    In bovine species, β-casein (β-CN) is characterized by genetic polymorphism. The two most common protein variants are β-CN A2 (the original one) and A1, differing from A2 for one amino acid substitution (Pro67 to His67). Several bioactive peptides affecting milk nutritional properties can originate from β-CN. Among them, β-casomorphin-7 (BCM7) ranging from amino acid 60 to 66 can be released more easily from β-CN variants carrying His67 (A1 type) instead of Pro67 (A2 type). Nowadays, “A2 milk...

  19. Rapid method for measuring protease activity in milk using radiolabeled casein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid means to detect the presence of protease activity in raw milk could be useful in predicting keeping ability of products made from that milk. A 30-min assay has been developed and compared with three other methods of detecting protease. Casein, [methyl-14C]-methylated-alpha was purchased from a radioisotope supplier. Concentrations of substrate from 2 to 20 nCi gave counts per minute, which increased linearly when counted with the Charm analyzer. There was not a significant difference in counting times of 10, 20, or 30 min. A mixture of sodium acetate and acetic acid precipitated nonhydrolyzed substrate with an efficiency of 97%. Comparison of the [14C] casein assay, a casein fluorescein isothiocyanate assay, trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid procedure, and the Hull procedure using protease from psychrotrophic bacteria revealed that the [14C] casein and casein fluorescein isothiocyanate methods were roughly equivalent and that the radiometric procedure was 10 times more sensitive than the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid assay. The radiometric procedure was approximately 10(4) times more sensitive than the Hull procedure. The [14C] casein and casein fluorescein isothiocyanate methods were similar in time required, about 30 min, while the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid assay and Hull method required about 1 h plus reagent preparation time. The [14C] casein procedure was most expensive per test; the other three were cheaper and similar to each other in cost

  20. Foams and surface rheological properties of β-casein, gliadin and glycinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.A.; Dunnewind, B.; Vliet, T. van

    2003-01-01

    Interfacial rheological properties and their suitability for foam production and stability of two vegetable proteins were studied and compared to β-casein. Proteins used ranged from flexible to rigid/globular in the order of β-casein, gliadin and soy glycinin. Experiments were performed at pH 6.7. N

  1. Foams and surface rheological properties of b-casein, gliadin and glycinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.A.; Dunnewind, B.; Vliet, van T.

    2003-01-01

    Interfacial rheological properties and their suitability for foam production and stability of two vegetable proteins were studied and compared to ß-casein. Proteins used ranged from flexible to rigid/globular in the order of ß-casein, gliadin and soy glycinin. Experiments were performed at pH 6.7. N

  2. Behaviour of casein micelles at conditions comparable to those in ice cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    The physical properties of ice cream are mainly determined by the processing and the ingredients. Milk (powder) is one of the ingredients and ice cream thus contains casein, the major milk protein. A large proportion of casein in ice cream is present in the plasma phase of ice cream. Since the behav

  3. Purification and properties of a ribosomal casein kinase from rabbit reticulocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1977-01-01

    A casein kinase was isolated and purifed from rabbit reticulocytes. About 90% of the enzyme activity co-sedimented with the ribosomal fraction, whereas about 10% of the enzyme activity was found in the ribosome-free supernatant. Both casein kinases (the ribosome-bound enzyme as well as the free...

  4. MACROSTRUCTURE AND VISCOSITY OF AGGREGATING COLLOIDAL CASEIN MICELLES UNDER STRONG SHEARING FORCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casein particle gels are the main constituents in many classes of soft food colloids. In this study, we examined the stability of casein micelles under strong hydrodynamic forces, and investigated the effect of continuous applied shear on the coagulation properties of rennet-induced milk. At the a...

  5. Effects of gamma-irradiation on some properties of bovine casein micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedimentation studies and electron microscopic observations revealed that an association between casein micelles dispersed in water or milk serum was not induced significantly by gamma-irradiation of exposure up to 3 x 106R, whereas a release of nonprotein nitrogen was observed to a certain extent. It was concluded from the results of turbidi-metry and gel filtration using 3 size groups of casein micelles, namely large, medium and small, that an irradiation-induced polymerization or association occurred within individual casein micelles, and strengthend the micelle structure. Thus the irradiated casein micelles resisted, more or less, to the solubilizing effect of NaCl, EDTA, pyrophosphate and urea. Stabilities of casein micelles for ethanol and for acidification to an isoelectric point were decreased and increased, respectively, after irradiation. Gamma irradiation also caused the decrease of glycomacropeptide released from casein micelles by the action of rennin, and this resulted in the delay of rennin-coagulation of casein. There were no essential differences among the 3 size groups of casein micelles concerning the above described tendencies. (auth.)

  6. beta-Casein mRNA sequesters a single-stranded nucleic acid-binding protein which negatively regulates the beta-casein gene promoter.

    OpenAIRE

    Altiok, S; Groner, B

    1994-01-01

    beta-Casein gene expression in mammary epithelial cells is under the control of the lactogenic hormones, glucocorticoids, insulin, and prolactin. The hormonal control affects gene transcription, and several regulatory elements in the beta-casein gene promoter between positions -80 and -221 have previously been identified. A region located in the promoter between positions -170 and -221 contains overlapping sequences for negative and positive regulatory elements. A sequence-specific single-str...

  7. PFG-NMR self-diffusion in casein dispersions: effect of probe size and protein aggregate size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salami, S.; Rondeau, C.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Mariette, F.

    2013-01-01

    The self-diffusion coefficients of different molecular weight PEGs (Polyethylene glycol) and casein particles were measured, using a pulsed-gradient nuclear magnetic resonance technique (PFG-NMR), in native phosphocaseinate (NPC) and sodium caseinate (SC) dispersions where caseins are not structured

  8. Chemical synthesis and structure elucidation of bovine κ-casein (1-44)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The caseins (αs1, αs2, β, and κ) are phosphoproteins present in bovine milk that have been studied for over a century and whose structures remain obscure. Here we describe the chemical synthesis and structure elucidation of the N-terminal segment (1-44) of bovine κ-casein, the protein which maintains the micellar structure of the caseins. κ-Casein (1-44) was synthesised by highly optimised Boc solid-phase peptide chemistry and characterised by mass spectrometry. Structure elucidation was carried out by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. CD analysis demonstrated that the segment was ill defined in aqueous medium but in 30% trifluoroethanol it exhibited considerable helical structure. Further, NMR analysis showed the presence of a helical segment containing 26 residues which extends from Pro8 to Arg34. This is First report which demonstrates extensive secondary structure within the casein class of proteins

  9. Hydrolyzed casein reduces diet-induced obesity in male C57BL/6J mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillefosse, Haldis Haukås; Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Du, Zhen-Yu;

    2013-01-01

    The digestion rate of dietary protein is a regulating factor for postprandial metabolism both in humans and animal models. However, few data exist about the habitual consumption of proteins with different digestion rates with regard to the development of body mass and diet-induced obesity. Here, we...... used a factorial ANOVA design to investigate the effects of protein form (intact vs. hydrolyzed casein) and protein level (16 vs. 32 energy percent protein) on body mass gain and adiposity in obesity-prone male C57BL/6J mice fed Western diets with 35 energy percent fat. Mice fed the hydrolyzed casein...... diets had higher spontaneous locomotor activity than mice fed intact casein. During the light phase, mice fed hydrolyzed casein tended (P = 0.08) to have a lower respiratory exchange ratio, indicating lower utilization of carbohydrates as energy substrate relative to those fed intact casein. In further...

  10. Dissolution and enzymatic hydrolysis of casein micelles studied by dynamic light scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Rui; QI Wei; SU Rongxin; ZHANG Yubin; JIN Fengmin; HE Zhimin

    2007-01-01

    The effects of temperature,ionic strength,and enzymatic hydrolysis on the average hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of casein micelles in phosphate buffer were studied by using dynamic light scattering.The results showed that the average Rh value of casein mieelles decreased irreversibly during the heating,decreased with the increase of ionic strength in lower ionic strength solution (less than 0.05 tool/L),but opposite in higher ionic strength solution (above 0.1 tool/L).The Rh value of casein increased rapidly during the process of enzymatic hydrolysis,and the structural model of casein micelles in the enzymatic hydrolysis process was also proposed,i.e.the casein micelle changed from compact sphere into unfolded and regularly flocky peptides.

  11. Calcium and bones (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  12. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  13. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  14. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  15. Calcium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - calcium ... Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the human body. It helps form and maintain healthy teeth and bones. A proper level of calcium in the body over a lifetime can help ...

  16. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  17. Rheology of Sodium Caseinate Stabilized Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson; Golding

    1997-07-01

    We report on shear rheological measurements at 30°C of fine oil-in-water emulsions (volume-surface average diameter tetradecane as the dispersed phase (10, 35, or 45 vol%). Strong sensitivity of rheological behavior to total protein concentration was indicated by both steady-state viscometry and small-deformation oscillatory experiments. The behavior can be classified into three types, depending on the protein/oil ratio. (1) Emulsions containing insufficient protein for (near-) saturation protein surface coverage develop a time-dependent increase in low-stress apparent viscosity and associated shear-thinning behavior; this can be attributed to bridging flocculation. (2) Emulsions having full protein surface coverage but relatively little excess unadsorbed protein in the continuous phase are stable Newtonian liquids. (3) Emulsions containing a substantial excess of unadsorbed sodium caseinate exhibit considerable pseudoplasticity which can be attributed to depletion flocculation. Taken as a whole, the time-dependent rheological properties for this set of emulsions as a function of protein content and oil volume fraction are largely consistent with our previous results on the creaming stability and the particle gel microstructure for these same emulsion systems. In particular, the reversible flocculation of emulsion samples of high protein content is readily explicable in terms of depletion flocculation of droplets by unadsorbed protein existing in the form of approximately spherical caseinate submicelles. PMID:9241217

  18. Antioxidant activity and bioaccessibility of phenols-enriched edible casein/caseinate coatings during in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Ahmed; Desobry, Stephane; Banon, Sylvie; Shamsia, Sherif M

    2015-02-01

    Active films were developed for food coating applications. Entrapped phenol susceptibility to digestion was studied. Sodium caseinate (Na-CN) coatings were formulated with 0, 10, 20% Casein (CN) incorporating selected phenols as model antioxidants. This study investigated phenol/CN/Na-CN interactions, in vitro bioaccessibility of phenols and CN role in phenols retention during in vitro gastric and pancreatic digestion. The antioxidant activity of catechin (CAT), rutin (RUT), chlorogenic acid (CHL), gallic acid (GAL), and tannic acid (TA) in coatings varied with the phenolic compound type and CN concentration and was related to phenol hydrophobic binding to CN. ABTS method gave activities ranged from 412 down to 213, and DPPH method gave values from 291·7 to 190·9. An inverse relationship was found with CN content due to CN/phenol interaction. During digestion, a part of phenols was degraded by alkaline pH of pancreatic fluid. Simultaneously, CN proteolysis led to release of phenols and the bioaccessibility index remained above 80% for all phenols. The results suggested the possibility of protecting phenols against oxidation and digestive alteration by entrapment in CN and Na-CN coating films. These positive results showed the ability to produce antioxidant-enriched edible coatings to increase food protection and phenol nutritional intake. PMID:25327452

  19. Solution and film properties of sodium caseinate/glycerol and sodium caseinate/polyethylene glycol edible coating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, D C; Heilmann, C; Easteal, A J; Cooney, R P

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of plasticizer hydrogen bonding capability and chain length on the molecular structure of sodium caseinate (NaCAS), in NaCAS/glycerol and NaCAS/polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG) systems. Both solution and film phases were investigated. Glycerol and PEG reduced the viscosity of aqueous NaCAS, with the latter having a greater effect. This was explained in terms of protein/plasticizer aggregate size and changes to the conformation of the caseinate chain. In the film phase, glycerol caused more pronounced changes to the film tensile strength compared with PEG. However, the effect of glycerol on film water vapor permeability was smaller. These observations are attributed to the differences in plasticizer size and hydrogen bonding strength that controls the protein-plasticizer and protein-protein interactions in the films. Glass transition calculations from the tensile strength data indicate that the distribution of bonding interactions is more homogeneous in NaCAS/PEG films than in NaCAS/glycerol films. PMID:10552668

  20. Spectrofluoremetric and molecular docking study on the interaction of bisdemethoxycurcumin with bovine β-casein nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), as one of the main active component of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), with bovine β-casein nanoparticle, as an efficient drug carrier system, was investigated using steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking calculations. Results of fluorescence quenching experiments, Forster energy transfer measurements and molecular docking calculations suggested that BDMC bind to the hydrophobic core of β-casein via formation of 3 hydrogen bonds and several vander Waals contacts that represented the encapsulation of BDMC in β-casein micelle nanoparticles. The binding parameters including number of substantive binding sites and the binding constants were evaluated by fluorescence quenching method. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of free BDMC and BDMC-β-casein complex in human breast cancer cell line MCF7 was evaluated in vitro. The study revealed the higher cytotoxic effects of encapsulated BDMC on MCF7 cells compared to equal dose of free BDMC. -- Highlights: • BDMC binds to the hydrophobic core of β-casein. • The effective encapsulation of BDMC in β-casein micelle nanoparticles was shown. • Enhanced cytotoxicity was observed for encapsulated BDMC in β-casein nanoparticles

  1. Nutritional evaluation of caseins and whey proteins and their hydrolysates from Protamex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SINDAYIKENGERA Séverin; XIA Wen-shui

    2006-01-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC 80) and sodium caseinate were hydrolyzed by Protamex to 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% degree of hydrolysis (DH). WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were then analyzed, compared and evaluated for their nutritional qualities. Their chemical composition, protein solubility, amino acid composition, essential amino acid index (EAA index), biological value (BV), nutritional index (NI), chemical score, enzymic protein efficiency ratio (E-PER) and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) were determined. The results indicated that the enzymatic hydrolysis of WPC 80 and sodium caseinate by Protamex improved the solubility and IVPD of their hydrolysates. WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were high-quality proteins and had a surplus of essential amino acids compared with the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) reference standard.The nutritive value of WPC 80 and its hydrolysates was superior to that of sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates as indicated by some nutritional parameters such as the amino acid composition, chemical score, EAA index and predicted BV. However, the E-PER was lower for the WPC hydrolysates as compared to unhydrolyzed WPC 80 but sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates did not differ significantly. The nutritional qualities of WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were good and make them appropriate for food formulations or as nutritional supplements.

  2. Spectrofluoremetric and molecular docking study on the interaction of bisdemethoxycurcumin with bovine β-casein nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehranfar, Fahimeh [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bordbar, Abdol-Khalegh, E-mail: bordbar@chem.ui.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Keyhanfar, Mehrnaz; Behbahani, Mandana [Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, Department of Biotechnology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    The interaction of bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), as one of the main active component of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), with bovine β-casein nanoparticle, as an efficient drug carrier system, was investigated using steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking calculations. Results of fluorescence quenching experiments, Forster energy transfer measurements and molecular docking calculations suggested that BDMC bind to the hydrophobic core of β-casein via formation of 3 hydrogen bonds and several vander Waals contacts that represented the encapsulation of BDMC in β-casein micelle nanoparticles. The binding parameters including number of substantive binding sites and the binding constants were evaluated by fluorescence quenching method. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of free BDMC and BDMC-β-casein complex in human breast cancer cell line MCF7 was evaluated in vitro. The study revealed the higher cytotoxic effects of encapsulated BDMC on MCF7 cells compared to equal dose of free BDMC. -- Highlights: • BDMC binds to the hydrophobic core of β-casein. • The effective encapsulation of BDMC in β-casein micelle nanoparticles was shown. • Enhanced cytotoxicity was observed for encapsulated BDMC in β-casein nanoparticles.

  3. Antiproliferative activity of tea catechins associated with casein micelles, using HT29 colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haratifar, S; Meckling, K A; Corredig, M

    2014-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown that green tea polyphenols display anticancer activities in many organ sites by using different experimental models in rodents and in cultured cell lines in vitro. The present study tested the ability of casein micelles to deliver biologically active concentrations of polyphenols to HT-29 colon cancer cells. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major catechin found in green tea, was used as the model molecule, as it has been shown to have antiproliferative activity on colon cancer cells. In the present work, we hypothesized that due to the binding of caseins with EGCG, casein micelles may be an ideal platform for the delivery of this bioactive molecule and that the binding would not affect the bioaccessibility of EGCG. The cytotoxicity and proliferation behavior of HT-29 colon cancer cells when exposed to free EGCG was compared with that of nanoencapsulated EGCG in casein micelles of skim milk. Epigallocatechin gallate-casein complexes were able to decrease the proliferation of HT-29 cancer cells, demonstrating that bioavailability may not be reduced by the nanoencapsulation. As casein micelles may act as protective carriers for EGCG in foods, it was concluded that nanoencapsulation of tea catechins in casein micelles may not diminish their antiproliferative activity on colon cancer cells compared with free tea catechins. PMID:24359816

  4. A novel method for separation of caseins from milk by phosphates precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chon-Ho; Lin, Yin-Shen; Tu, Ching-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Milk protein of farm animals is difficult to isolate because of the presence of casein micelles, which are hard to separate from whey by using centrifugation or filtration. Insoluble casein micelles also create an obstacle for purification instruments to operate efficiently. The conventional method, to precipitate caseins by lowering pH to 4.6 and then recover the whey fraction for further purification using chromatography techniques, is not applicable to proteins having an isoelectric point similar to caseins. In addition, the acid condition used for casein removal usually leads to significantly poor yields and reduced biological activities. In this study, a novel method of precipitating caseins under neutral or weak acidic conditions is presented. The method employs a phosphate salt and a freeze-thaw procedure to obtain a casein-free whey protein fraction. This fraction contains more than 90% yield with little loss of bioactivity of the target protein, and is readily available for further chromatographic purification. This method was successfully applied to purify recombinant human factor IX and recombinant hirudin from the milk of transgenic pigs in the presented study. It is an efficient pretreatment approach prior to chromatographic purification of milk protein from farm animals and particularly of great value to collect those recombinants secreted from transgenic livestock. PMID:24372141

  5. Reassociation of dissociated caseins upon acidification of heated pH-adjusted skim milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, Skelte G; Li, Yuming

    2015-05-01

    Milk was heated at different pH (pH 6.5-7.1) and temperatures (20-120 °C/10 min). This resulted in different levels of casein and denatured whey proteins to be distributed between the colloidal and serum phases. The milks were subsequently acidified and the distribution of protein between colloidal and serum was monitored at different pH. On acidification to pH 5.4, the serum phase caseins and denatured whey proteins partially reassociated with the caseins, although a complex behaviour was observed at ∼ pH 5.4 where additional casein dissociation occurred in some samples. At pH below 5.4 the caseins and denatured whey proteins rapidly aggregated. No separate aggregation of κ-casein/denatured whey protein complexes or κ-casein depleted micelles was observed. The earlier gelation of milks heated at higher pH was likely to be due to the destabilisation of the entire milk protein system rather than a preferential aggregation of the serum phase proteins. PMID:25529690

  6. Temperature-dependent dynamics of dry and hydrated β-casein studied by quasielastic neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Gurpreet K; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Chu, Xiang-qiang

    2014-09-18

    β-Casein is a component of casein micelle with amphillic nature and is recognized as a "natively disordered" protein that lacks secondary structures. In this study, the temperature and hydration effects on the dynamics of β-casein are explored by quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). An upturn in the mean square displacement (MSD) of hydrated β-casein indicates an increase of protein flexibility at a temperature of ~225 K. Another increase in MSD at ~100 K, observed in both dry and hydrated β-casein, is ascribed to the methyl group rotations, which are not sensitive to hydration. QENS analysis in the energy domain reveals that the fraction of hydrogen atoms participating in motion in a sphere of diffusion is highly hydration dependent and increases with temperature. In the time domain analysis, a logarithmic-like decay is observed in the range of picosecond to nanosecond (β-relaxation time) in the dynamics of hydrated β-casein. This dynamical behavior has been observed in hydrated globular and oligomeric proteins. Our temperature-dependent QENS experiments provide evidence that lack of a secondary structure in β-casein results in higher flexibility in its dynamics and easier reversible thermal unfolding compared to other rigid biomolecules. PMID:25144497

  7. Partial calcium depletion during membrane filtration affects gelation of reconstituted milk protein concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshpari, H; Jimenez-Flores, R; Tong, P S; Corredig, M

    2015-12-01

    Milk protein concentrate powders (MPC) with improved rehydration properties are often manufactured using processing steps, such as acidification and high-pressure processing, and with addition of other ingredients, such as sodium chloride, during their production. These steps are known to increase the amount of serum caseins or modify the mineral equilibrium, hence improving solubility of the retentates. The processing functionality of the micelles may be affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of partial acidification by adding glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) to skim milk during membrane filtration on the structural changes of the casein micelles by observing their chymosin-induced coagulation behavior, as such coagulation is affected by both the supramolecular structure of the caseins and calcium equilibrium. Milk protein concentrates were prepared by preacidification with GDL to pH 6 using ultrafiltration (UF) and diafiltration (DF) followed by spray-drying. Reconstituted UF and DF samples (3.2% protein) treated with GDL showed significantly increased amounts of soluble calcium and nonsedimentable caseins compared with their respective controls, as measured by ion chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE electrophoresis, respectively. The primary phase of chymosin-induced gelation was not significantly different between treatments as measured by the amount of caseino-macropeptide released. The rheological properties of the reconstituted MPC powders were determined immediately after addition of chymosin, both before and after dialysis against skim milk, to ensure similar serum composition for all samples. Reconstituted samples before dialysis showed no gelation (defined as tan δ=1), and after re-equilibration only control UF and DF samples showed gelation. The gelation properties of reconstituted MPC powders were negatively affected by the presence of soluble casein, and positively affected by the amount of both soluble and insoluble

  8. Localization of the casein gene family to a single mouse chromosome

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    A series of mouse-hamster somatic cell hybrids containing a variable number of mouse chromosomes and a constant set of hamster chromosomes have been used to determine the chromosomal location of a family of hormone-inducible genes, the murine caseins. Recombinant mouse cDNA clones encoding the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-caseins were constructed and used in DNA restriction mapping experiments. All three casein cDNAs hybridized to the same set of somatic cell hybrid DNAs isolated from cells conta...

  9. Molecular mechanisms involved in casein gene expression and secretion in mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouse mammary epithelial cells (MMEC) secrete a group of milk-specific proteins including various caseins and whey proteins. Dissociated mammary epithelial cells maintain expression of most of their differentiated functions only if cells are plated on a suitable substratum. Casein production and section, cell morphology, and production of α-lactalbumin have been used as markers to assess the degree of differentiation of mammary cells in culture. The general consensus is that cells express their differentiated properties at high levels and for longer periods of time on such substrata. In this paper, the authors demonstrate that modulation of the expression of caseins by floating collagen gels is manifested at several regulatory points

  10. Search for phosphopeptides in the feces of axenic rats fed radioactive ovine casein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive ovine casein was obtained by injecting 100 μCi of 14C-Ser into the jugular vein of an ewe. The milk collected 17 and 24 h after this injection contained 12% of the radioactivity injected in protein form. The seryl residues were specificially labelled. This casein was used as the only protein source fed to axenic rats; 0.30% of the tracer ingested was found in the feces of those rats. Since phosphoserine represented 25% of the total casein seryl residues, the phosphopeptides may not be selectively unabsorbable

  11. Proteolysis of ovine and caprine Caseins in solution by enzymatic extracts from flowers of Cynara cardunculuso

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, M. José; Malcata, F. Xavier

    1998-01-01

    Primary proteolysis of ovine and caprine Na-caseinate at 30°C in phosphate buffer at pH 6.5 or 5.5 in the absence of NaCl and at pH 5.2 with 5% (w/v) NaCl by cardosins in aqueous extracts of Cynara cardunculus flowers was investigated using urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Caprine caseinate underwent more extensive degradation than ovine caseinate under the same conditions (pH 6.5 and pH 5.5); proteolysis of b- and ...

  12. Pressure-induced dissociation of casein micelles: size distribution and effect of temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebhardt R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure-induced dissociation of a turbid solution of casein micelles was studied in situ in static and dynamic light scattering experiments. We show that at high pressure casein micelles decompose into small fragments comparable in size to casein monomers. At intermediate pressure we observe particles measuring 15 to 20 nm in diameter. The stability against pressure dissociation increased with temperature, suggesting enhanced hydrophobic contacts. The pressure transition curves are biphasic, compatible with a temperature (but not pressure-dependent conformational equilibrium of two micelle species. Our thermodynamic model predicts an increase in structural entropy with temperature.

  13. NMR study of the polyethyleneglycols diffusion in casein suspensions and gels

    OpenAIRE

    Colsenet, R.; Mariette, F.; Söderman, O.

    2006-01-01

    PFG-NMR spectroscopy was used to study the diffusion of molecular probes (polyethyleneglycols) in casein suspensions and gels in terms of the effects of probe molecular size (molecular mass between 1080 and 634000 g/mol), casein concentrations (from 3.24 to 16.22 g/100 g) and effects of rennet coagulation. A strong dependency of diffusion on probe size was observed, both in casein suspensions and in gels: as the PEG size increased, the diffusion was reduced. This effect was more pronoun...

  14. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Patients › Treatment › Calcium/Vitamin D Calcium/Vitamin D Getting enough calcium and vitamin D is essential ... counter medications and calcium supplements. What is Vitamin D and What Does it Do? Vitamin D plays ...

  15. β-casein as a functional food component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria

    Milk is a complex mixture of various components which include proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and minerals. Milk proteins can be divided into two classes: whey proteins (20%) and caseins (80% of total milk protein). As thermal treatment is a traditional method of food preservation, interactions...... which can improve stability and safety of food. Traditional methods of food preservation and sterilization require high temperature, which may result in undesirable changes such as change of color or texture. Development of novel food processing methods, which allow to create new milk-based products...... with novel textures, is highly valuable to the dairy industry. Understanding interactions that undergo during food processing is necessary for proper design of process. For example control of aggregation is required to achieve desired texture of the final product....

  16. Detecting β-Casein Variation in Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Caroli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In bovine species, β-casein (β-CN is characterized by genetic polymorphism. The two most common protein variants are β-CN A2 (the original one and A1, differing from A2 for one amino acid substitution (Pro67 to His67. Several bioactive peptides affecting milk nutritional properties can originate from β-CN. Among them, β-casomorphin-7 (BCM7 ranging from amino acid 60 to 66 can be released more easily from β-CN variants carrying His67 (A1 type instead of Pro67 (A2 type. Nowadays, “A2 milk” is produced in different countries claiming its potential benefits in human health. The aim of this study was to further develop and apply an isoelectric focusing electrophoresis (IEF method to bulk and individual milk samples in order to improve its use for β-CN studies. We succeeded in identifying A2 milk samples correctly and quantifying the percentage of A2, A1, and B variants in bulk samples not derived from A2 milk as well as in individual milk samples. The method allows us to quantify the relative proportion of β-CN variants in whole milk without eliminating whey protein by acid or enzymatic precipitation of caseins. The aim of this study was also to study the different behavior of β-CN and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG in the presence of trichloroacetic acid (TCA. The higher sensitivity of β-CN to TCA allows quantifying β-CN variants after TCA fixation because β-LG is not visible. Monitoring β-CN variation in cattle breeds is important in order to maintain a certain balance between Pro67 and His67 in dairy products. Overall, the debate between A1 and A2 milk needs further investigation.

  17. Importance of Calcium

    OpenAIRE

    TANDOĞAN, Berivan; ULUSU, N. Nuray

    2005-01-01

    Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. Calcium regulates many cellular processes and has important structural roles in living organisms. Skeletal muscle structure and function, polymerisation of fibrin and the conduction of impulses in the nervous system are regulated by calcium. Calcium is an important intracellular messenger in protozoa, plants, and animals. Calcium-transporting systems which are located in the plasma membrane and in the organelles, regulate the ionic concentrati...

  18. A comparison of surface roughness after micro abrasion of enamel with and without using CPP-ACP: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Jones

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness of enamel after micro abrasion with and without using remineralization agent, CPP-ACP (Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate. Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted anterior teeth were collected. The samples were randomly assigned to two study and one control group. Group A (n = 10 containing teeth in which only micro abrasion was done, Group B (n = 10 containing teeth in which CPP-ACP (G C Tooth Mousse was applied after micro abrasion for a period of 30 days, once daily for three minutes and Group C (n = 10 in which no preparation was done and which acted as the control group. The samples were stored in artificial saliva and evaluated after 30 days, using surface profilometer. The results were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: According to the results of this study, a combination of the micro abrasion procedure and CPP-ACP application reduced the enamel surface roughness significantly, when compared to micro abrasion done alone. Conclusion: Application of CPP-ACP after micro abrasion procedure significantly reduces the enamel surface roughness thereby decreasing the risk of caries.

  19. Efficacy of desensitizing agents on postoperative sensitivity following an in-office vital tooth bleaching: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjundasetty, Jyothi Kashi; Ashrafulla, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess and compare the incidence and intensity of experienced after an in-office vital tooth bleaching in case of dental fluorosis using two different types of desensitizing agents, at different time periods. Materials and Methods: Sixty-nine subjects with mild-to-moderate fluorosis were randomly divided into three groups of 23 each. Group I — control group (placebo), group II—potassium nitrate 5% and sodium monofluorophosphate 0.7% (Sensodent KF), and group III—Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) (Tooth Mousse). In-office vital tooth bleaching was done using 35% hydrogen peroxide liquid (Pola office) in two sessions. Desensitizing agent was applied for 10 min after each session. Postoperative sensitivity was recorded after 24 h and 7 days. The statistical analysis was done using chi-square test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and post hoc Tukey's test. Results: The experimental groups showed significantly less incidence and intensity of sensitivity compared to control group, whereas there was no difference between them. Conclusion: The desensitizing agents used in the study show effective reduction after an in-office vital tooth bleaching. PMID:27217631

  20. Comparison of the Effect of Recaldent and Xylitol on the Amounts of Salivary Streptococcus Mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Emamieh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available  Background:Dental caries is associated with oral pathogenes and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutansis one of the primary cariogenic organisms. The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the effect of sugar free chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate(CPP-ACP and Xylitol on salivary Streptococcus mutan. Materials and Methods: 60 dental students, who volunteered after signing an informed consent, were randomly allocated to receive one of the following interventions: (A Chewing gum containing CPP-ACP, (B Chewing gum containing Xylitol. Subjects within the experimental groups chewed gum for 20 minutes, three times a day after meals for 3 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention unstimulated saliva samples were quantified for Streptococcus mutans count. Results: A statistically significant reduction (p<0.05 of salivary S. mutans was displayed in both groups A and B after the intervention. When results compared with baseline, and group A shows more statistically significant reduction of salivary S. mutans than group B.Conclusion: In conclusion, daily chewing gum containing CPP-ACP and xylitol reduce the level of salivary S. mutans in a significant way, but chewing gum containing CPP-ACP can reduce the level of salivary S. mutans in a significant way than Xylitol chewing gum.

  1. Efficacy of desensitizing agents on postoperative sensitivity following an in-office vital tooth bleaching: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Kashi Nanjundasetty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess and compare the incidence and intensity of experienced after an in-office vital tooth bleaching in case of dental fluorosis using two different types of desensitizing agents, at different time periods. Materials and Methods: Sixty-nine subjects with mild-to-moderate fluorosis were randomly divided into three groups of 23 each. Group I - control group (placebo, group II-potassium nitrate 5% and sodium monofluorophosphate 0.7% (Sensodent KF, and group III-Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP (Tooth Mousse. In-office vital tooth bleaching was done using 35% hydrogen peroxide liquid (Pola office in two sessions. Desensitizing agent was applied for 10 min after each session. Postoperative sensitivity was recorded after 24 h and 7 days. The statistical analysis was done using chi-square test, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey′s test. Results: The experimental groups showed significantly less incidence and intensity of sensitivity compared to control group, whereas there was no difference between them. Conclusion: The desensitizing agents used in the study show effective reduction after an in-office vital tooth bleaching.

  2. Antioxidant activity of camel milk casein before and after in vitro simulated enzymatic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeineb Jrad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a successive in vitro hydrolysis by pepsin and pancreatin on the free radical scavenging activity of camel milk casein was investigated in order to assess the effect of gastro-intestinal digestion. Hydrolysis of camel casein was controlled by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Anti-oxidant activity was measured by the 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbensothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (ABTS method. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC values of camel casein and its hydrolysate were 1.6±0.12 μmol TE/mg protein and 0.25 μmol TE/μmol eq. NH2, respectively. After digestion, the scavenging activity of the casein peptides was more efficient than those reported in the literature regarding digestive hydrolysates of camel milk, colostrum and whey proteins.

  3. Ultrasound effects on the assembly of casein micelles in reconstituted skim milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Juliano, Pablo; Williams, Roderick P W; Niere, Julie; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2014-05-01

    Reconstituted skim milks (10 % w/w total solids, pH 6·7-8·0) were ultrasonicated (20, 400 or 1600 kHz at a specific energy input of 286 kJ/kg) at a bulk milk temperature of casein micelle in milk, with greater effects at higher pH and lower frequency. Low frequency ultrasound caused greater disruption of casein micelles causing release of protein from the micellar to the serum phase than high frequency. The released protein re-associated to form aggregates of smaller size but with surface charge similar to the casein micelles in the original milk. Ultrasound may be used as a physical intervention to alter the size of the micelles and the partitioning of caseins between the micellar and serum phases in milk. The altered protein equilibria induced by ultrasound treatment may have potential for the development of milk with novel functionality. PMID:24351847

  4. Enzymatically controlled material design with casein--from defined films to localized deposition of particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strube, Oliver I; Rüdiger, Arne A; Bremser, Wolfgang

    2015-05-10

    A new concept for deposition and material design of coatings from biological compounds is presented. An enzymatic reaction triggers the specific coagulation of particles on a support surface. The first examined model system is casein and is based on the natural rennet reaction as applied in the process of cheese-making. The aspartic protease chymosin is immobilized on a support surface and cleaves the hydrophilic parts of the casein micelles, inducing deposition. The concept allows for a high level of control over film characteristics and enables the formation of site-specific film structures. The variability rages from formation of casein films with several micrometers film thickness to the targeted deposition of casein micelles. PMID:25456052

  5. Stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by whey and caseinate ingestion after resistance exercise in elderly individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, K J; Reitelseder, S; Petersen, S G;

    2011-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a well-known phenomenon in elderly individuals and resistance exercise together with sufficient amino acid (AA) availability has proved to be a counteractive implement. However, the source of AA and supplement timing require further investigation. The objective was to compare muscle...... protein synthesis (MPS) to intakes of whey and caseinate after heavy resistance exercise in healthy elderly individuals, and, furthermore, to compare the timing effect of caseinate intake. Twenty-four elderly men and women (mean ± SEM; 68 ± 1 years) were randomized to one of four groups: caseinate intake...... before exercise (CasPre), caseinate intake immediately after exercise (CasPost), whey intake immediately after exercise (Whey), or intake of a non-caloric control drink (Control). Muscle myofibrillar and collagen fractional synthesis rates (FSR) were measured by a primed continuous infusion of L-[1...

  6. Application of Humidity-Controlled Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA-RH to Moisture-Sensitive Edible Casein Films for Use in Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia M. Bonnaillie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein-based and other hydrophilic thin films are promising materials for the manufacture of edible food packaging and other food and non-food applications. Calcium caseinate (CaCas films are highly hygroscopic and physical characterization under broad environmental conditions is critical to application development and film optimization. A new technology, humidity-controlled dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA-RH was explored to characterize CaCas/glycerol films (3:1 ratio during isohume temperature (T ramps and steps, and isothermal RH ramps and steps, to determine their mechanical and moisture-sorption properties during extensive T and RH variations. When RH and/or T increased, CaCas/Gly films became strongly plasticized and underwent several primary and secondary humidity-dependent transition temperatures (or transition humidities; the CaCas/Gly network hypothetically rearranged itself to adapt to the increased water-content and heat-induced molecular mobility. Between 5–40 °C and 20%–61% RH, moisture-sorption was rapid and proportional to humidity between transition points and accelerated greatly during transitions. CaCas/Gly films seemed unsuitable for storage or utilization in warm/humid conditions as they lost their mechanical integrity around Tm ~ 40 °C at 50% RH and Tm decreased greatly with increased RH. However, below Tm, both moisture- and heat-induced structural changes in the films were fully reversible and casein films may withstand a variety of moderate abuse conditions.

  7. Irradiation effect on {alpha}- and {beta}-caseins of milk and Queso Blanco cheese determined by capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J.S.; Jeong, S.G.; Lee, S.G.; Han, G.S.; Chae, H.S.; Yoo, Y.M.; Kim, D.H. [Animal Food Processing Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.K. [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, C. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr

    2009-02-15

    Milk and Queso Blanco cheese were exposed to irradiation with doses of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 kGy to investigate the irradiation effect on {alpha}- and {beta}-casein using a capillary electrophoresis. {alpha}{sub S1}-Casein to total protein ratio in raw milk was decreased from 19.63% to 8.64% by 10 kGy of gamma irradiation. The ratio of {alpha}{sub S1}- to {alpha}{sub S0}-casein was also decreased from 1.38 to 0.53, which showed {alpha}{sub S1}-casein is more susceptible to gamma irradiation than {alpha}{sub S0}-casein. Similarly, {alpha}{sub S1}-casein to total protein ratio in Queso Blanco cheese was decreased from 17.48% to 7.82% and the ratio of {alpha}{sub S1}- to {alpha}{sub S0}-casein was decreased from 1.16 to 0.43 by 10 kGy of gamma irradiation. Dose-dependent reduction of {beta}{sub A1}-casein was also found. {beta}{sub A1}-Casein to total protein ratios in raw milk and Queso Blanco cheese were decreased from 22.00% to 14.16% and from 21.96% to 13.89% after 10 kGy, respectively. The ratios of {beta}{sub A1}- to {beta}{sub A2}-casein were from 1.10 to 0.64 and 0.93 to 0.57 in milk and Queso Blanco cheese, respectively. However, {alpha}{sub S0}-, {beta}{sub B}-, and {beta}{sub A3}-casein increased by irradiation at 10 kGy. The results suggest that {alpha}{sub S1}-casein and {beta}{sub A1}-casein were more susceptible to gamma irradiation, and may be related to the reduction of milk allergenicity caused by gamma irradiation.

  8. Irradiation effect on α- and β-caseins of milk and Queso Blanco cheese determined by capillary electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milk and Queso Blanco cheese were exposed to irradiation with doses of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 kGy to investigate the irradiation effect on α- and β-casein using a capillary electrophoresis. αS1-Casein to total protein ratio in raw milk was decreased from 19.63% to 8.64% by 10 kGy of gamma irradiation. The ratio of αS1- to αS0-casein was also decreased from 1.38 to 0.53, which showed αS1-casein is more susceptible to gamma irradiation than αS0-casein. Similarly, αS1-casein to total protein ratio in Queso Blanco cheese was decreased from 17.48% to 7.82% and the ratio of αS1- to αS0-casein was decreased from 1.16 to 0.43 by 10 kGy of gamma irradiation. Dose-dependent reduction of βA1-casein was also found. βA1-Casein to total protein ratios in raw milk and Queso Blanco cheese were decreased from 22.00% to 14.16% and from 21.96% to 13.89% after 10 kGy, respectively. The ratios of βA1- to βA2-casein were from 1.10 to 0.64 and 0.93 to 0.57 in milk and Queso Blanco cheese, respectively. However, αS0-, βB-, and βA3-casein increased by irradiation at 10 kGy. The results suggest that αS1-casein and βA1-casein were more susceptible to gamma irradiation, and may be related to the reduction of milk allergenicity caused by gamma irradiation

  9. Porphyromonas gingivalis Cysteine Proteinase Inhibition by κ-Casein Peptides ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Toh, Elena C. Y.; Dashper, Stuart G.; Huq, N. Laila; Attard, Troy J.; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M.; Chen, Yu-Yen; Cross, Keith J.; Stanton, David P.; Paolini, Rita A.; Eric C. Reynolds

    2010-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen associated with chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth. The Arg-specific (RgpA/B) and Lys-specific (Kgp) cysteine proteinases of P. gingivalis are major virulence factors for the bacterium. In this study κ-casein(109-137) was identified in a chymosin digest of casein as an inhibiting peptide of the P. gingivalis proteinases. The peptide was synthesized and shown to inhibit proteolytic activity associat...

  10. Lactogenic Hormonal Induction of Long Distance Interactions between β-Casein Gene Regulatory Elements*

    OpenAIRE

    Kabotyanski, Elena B.; Rijnkels, Monique; Freeman-Zadrowski, Courtneay; Buser, Adam C.; Edwards, Dean P.; Rosen, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    Lactogenic hormone regulation of β-casein gene expression in mammary epithelial cells provides an excellent model in which to study the mechanisms by which steroid and peptide hormone signaling control gene expression. Prolactin- and glucocorticoid-mediated induction of β-casein gene expression involves two principal regulatory regions, a proximal promoter and a distal enhancer located in the mouse approximately −6 kb upstream of the transcription start site. Using a chromosome conformation c...

  11. Colonic protein fermentation and promotion of colon carcinogenesis by thermolyzed casein.

    OpenAIRE

    Corpet, Denis; Yin, Y; X. M. Zhang; Rémésy, C.; Stamp, D; Medline, A; Thompson, L.U.; Bruce, W R; Archer, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Thermolyzed casein is known to promote the growth of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colon cancer when it is fed to rats that have been initiated with azoxymethane. We speculated that the promotion was a consequence of increased colonic protein fermentation (i.e., that the thermolysis of the casein decreases its digestibility, increases the amount of protein reaching the colon, and increases colonic protein fermentation and that the potentially toxic products of this fermentation promote colon ...

  12. Colonic Protein Fermentation and Promotion of Colon Carcinogenesis by Thermolyzed Casein

    OpenAIRE

    Corpet, Denis E; Rémésy, Christian; Medline, Alan; Thompson, Lilian; Bruce, W. Robert; Archer, Michael C.

    1995-01-01

    Thermolyzed casein is known to promote the growth of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colon cancer when it is fed to rats that have been initiated with azoxymethane. We speculated that the promotion was a consequence of increased colonic protein fermentation (i.e., that the thermolysis of the casein decreases its digestibility, increases the amount of protein reaching the colon, and increases colonic protein fermentation and that the potentially toxic products of this fermentation promote colon ...

  13. Factors affecting antioxidant activity of soybean meal and caseine protein hydrolysates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysates was dependent on the raw material, condition of hydrolysis and lipid substrate used in model systems. Soybean meal hydrolysate was more active in lard and in linoleic acid emulsion than caseine hydrolysate, whereas caseine was more active in vegetable oils. Antioxidant activity of evaluated protein hydrolysates in all lipid systems, with or without oxidation catalysts, suggests them as natural food additives for lipid stabilization, thus for improvement of its nutritional value and sensory properties

  14. Antioxidant activity of camel milk casein before and after in vitro simulated enzymatic digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Zeineb Jrad; Jean-Michel Girardet; Isabelle Adt; Nadia Oulahal; Pascal Degraeve; Touhami Khorchani

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a successive in vitro hydrolysis by pepsin and pancreatin on the free radical scavenging activity of camel milk casein was investigated in order to assess the effect of gastro-intestinal digestion. Hydrolysis of camel casein was controlled by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Anti-oxidant activity was measured by the 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbensothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid) (ABTS) method. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values of camel casei...

  15. NMR Water Relaxation and Self-Diffusion in Highly Concentrated Casein Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schorr, D.; Cambert, M.; Bouchoux, A.; Gésan-Guiziou, G.; Mariette, F.

    2010-01-01

    In a variety of dairy processing operations (drying, membrane filtration...), milk is concentrated, leading to dense and ultimately solid dispersions of caseins. In this work, we explore how water mobility is affected in such conditions and if there is any relation between the properties of water as seen by NMR and the macroscopic phase behavior of the dispersions. We also investigate the effect of structure by comparing the NMR results obtained with dispersions of casein micelles (NPC, nativ...

  16. 54Mn absorption and excretion in rats fed soy protein and casein diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats were fed diets containing either soy protein or casein and different levels of manganese, methionine, phytic acid, or arginine for 7 days and then fed test meals labeled with 2 microCi of 54Mn after an overnight fast. Retention of 54Mn in each rat was measured every other day for 21 days using a whole-body counter. Liver manganese was higher (P less than 0.0001) in soy protein-fed rats (8.8 micrograms/g) than in casein-fed rats (5.2 micrograms/g); manganese superoxide dismutase activity also was higher in soy protein-fed rats than in casein-fed rats (P less than 0.01). There was a significant interaction between manganese and protein which affected manganese absorption and biologic half-life of 54Mn. In a second experiment, rats fed soy protein-test meals retained more 54Mn (P less than 0.001) than casein-fed rats. Liver manganese (8.3 micrograms/g) in the soy protein group was also higher than that (5.7 micrograms/g) in the casein group (P less than 0.0001), but manganese superoxide dismutase activity was unaffected by protein. Supplementation with methionine increased 54Mn retention from both soy and casein diets (P less than 0.06); activity of manganese superoxide dismutase increased (P less than 0.05) but liver manganese did not change. The addition of arginine to casein diets had little effect on manganese bioavailability. Phytic acid affected neither manganese absorption nor biologic half-life in two experiments, but it depressed liver manganese in one experiment. These results suggest that neither arginine nor phytic acid was the component in soy protein which made manganese more available from soy protein diets than casein diets

  17. Effects of 'casoparan', a peptide isolated from casein hydrolysates with mastoparan-like properties

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Maria C. C. de Sousa e; Juliano, Maria A; Luiz Juliano; Valéria Cavallaro; Ivo Lebrun

    1992-01-01

    Casein, a protein found in milk of several species, is divided into different chains from 19 to 25 kDa. Casein is also considered as a source of amino acids and generating peptides with biological activities such as opiate, immunostimulating, antibacterial, peptidase inhibitors, among others. In this work, Sephadex G-10 chromatography followed by high-performance liquid chromatography isolation purified NZCase TT, an industrial culture media for tetanus toxin production. In the first step, fo...

  18. Translational efficiency of casein transcripts in the mammary tissue of lactating ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Bevilacqua, Claudia; Helbling, Jean-Christophe; Miranda, Guy

    2006-01-01

    Caseins are essentially concentrated in the colloidal fraction of ruminant milks as highly hydrated and mineralized spherical particles, termed casein micelles. They form a group of four peptide chains ($\\alpha_{\\rm s1}$, $\\beta$, $\\alpha_{\\rm s2}$ and $\\kappa$), encoded by four structural genes (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2 and CSN3, respectively) of which the expression is regulated by lactogenic hormones. These phosphoproteins are synthesized, essentially during lactation, in the mammary epithelia...

  19. Tubulin phosphorylation by casein kinase II is similar to that found in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    Purified brain tubulin subjected to an exhaustive phosphatase treatment can be rephosphorylated by casein kinase II. This phosphorylation takes place mainly on a serine residue, which has been located at the carboxy- terminal domain of the beta-subunit. Interestingly, tubulin phosphorylated by casein kinase II retains its ability to polymerize in accordance with descriptions by other authors of in vivo phosphorylated tubulin. Moreover, the V8 phosphopeptide patterns of both tubulin phosphoryl...

  20. Cloning and sequencing of the gene for human β-casein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human β-casein is a major protein in human milk. This protein is part of the casein micelle and has been suggested to have several physiological functions in the newborn. Since there is limited information on βcasein and the factors that affect its concentration in human milk, the authors have isolated and sequenced the gene for this protein. A human mammary gland cDNA library (Clontech) in gt 11 was screened by plaque hy-hybridization using a 42-mer synthetic 32p-labelled oligo-nucleotide. Positive clones were identified and isolated, DNA was prepared and the gene isolated by cleavage with EcoR1. Following subcloning (PUC18), restriction mapping and Southern blotting, DNA for sequencing was prepared. The gene was sequenced by the dideoxy method. Human β-casein has 212 amino acids and the amino acid sequence deducted from the nucleotide sequence is to 91% identical to the published sequence for human β-casein show a high degree of conservation at the leader peptide and the highly phosphorylated sequences, but also deletions and divergence at several positions. These results provide insight into the structure of the human β-casein gene and will facilitate studies on factors affecting its expression

  1. Effect of calcium chloride addition on ice cream structure and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, F F; Resende, J V; Abreu, L R; Goff, H D

    2008-06-01

    The influence of calcium fortification by the addition of calcium chloride on quality parameters of ice cream based on physical properties was investigated, as was the effect of kappa-carrageenan at modifying the effects of this calcium fortification. Four ice cream mixes of conventional composition, with added kappa-carrageenan (0 or 0.025%) and added calcium chloride (0 or 4.4 g L(-1) = 40 mM of added Ca(2+)), were prepared. Modulated temperature-differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the effect of calcium chloride on the nucleation temperature, enthalpy of melting, and freezing point depression. The protein composition of 15.4% (wt/wt) reconstituted skim milk powder solutions with or without 4.4 g L(-1) added CaCl(2) and in the supernatant after ultracentrifugation was determined. Fat particle size distributions in ice cream were characterized by light scattering. Ice crystal sizes before and after temperature cycling were determined by cold-stage light microscopy. The results demonstrated that the addition of calcium chloride led to a substantial increase in ice crystal sizes and in fat partial coalescence, which were exacerbated by the addition of kappa-carrageenan. These results can be explained by the interaction between Ca(2+) ions and casein micelles, rather than any effects on freezing point depression. The calcium ions led to a more compact micelle, less serum beta-casein, and high fat destabilization, all of which would be expected to reduce macromolecular structure and volume occupancy in the unfrozen phase, which led to increased rates of ice recrystallization. PMID:18487638

  2. Formation and properties of the whey protein/$\\kappa$-casein complexes in heated skim milk - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Donato, Laurence; Guyomarc'H, Fanny

    2009-01-01

    Abstract – The formation of complexes between whey proteins and κ-casein during heat treatment of milk dramatically affects the protein organisation in both the colloidal casein and the serum phases of milk and consequently, its technological applications. This paper reviews the composition and building interactions of these complexes and their localisation between the casein micelle and lactoserum. The currently proposed mechanisms that lead to their formation are also presented. The physico...

  3. TGF beta suppresses casein synthesis in mouse mammary explants and may play a role in controlling milk levels during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Mammary explants from 14-15-d-pregnant mice synthesize and secrete milk proteins in culture in response to insulin, hydrocortisone, and prolactin. Here we demonstrate that transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) treatment suppresses, in a dose dependent and reversible manner, the ability of explants to synthesize and secrete milk caseins. TGF beta does not affect the level of casein mRNA within explants but inhibits casein synthesis posttranscriptionally. We also show increased expression ...

  4. Calcium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best source. Milk and dairy products such as yogurt, cheeses, and buttermilk contain a form of calcium ... the amount of calcium in a dairy product. Yogurt, most cheeses, and buttermilk are excellent sources of ...

  5. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. It is a prescription pain medicine used to relieve symptoms of arthritis . Fenoprofen calcium overdose occurs when someone takes more than the ...

  6. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  7. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  8. Calcium and magnesium disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Jesse P

    2014-07-01

    Hypocalcemia is a clinical disorder that can be life threatening to the cow (milk fever) and predisposes the animal to various other metabolic and infectious disorders. Calcium homeostasis is mediated primarily by parathyroid hormone, which stimulates bone calcium resorption and renal calcium reabsorption. Parathyroid hormone stimulates the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to enhance diet calcium absorption. High dietary cation-anion difference interferes with tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone. Hypomagnesemia reduces tissue response to parathyroid hormone. PMID:24980727

  9. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  10. Casein/pectin nanocomplexes as potential oral delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yangchao; Pan, Kang; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-01-01

    Delivery systems prepared with natural biopolymers are of particular interests for applications in food, pharmaceutics and biomedicine. In this study, nanocomplex particles of sodium caseinate (NaCas) and pectin were fabricated and investigated as potential oral delivery vehicles. Nanocomplexes were prepared with three mass ratios of NaCas/pectin by acidification using glucono-δ-lactone and thermal treatment. NaCas/pectin at 1:1 mass ratio resulted in dispersions with the lowest turbidity and the smallest and most uniform nanocomplexes. Thermal treatment at 85 °C for 30 min facilitated the formation of stable, compact, and spherical nanocomplexes. Heating not only greatly increased the yield of nanocomplexes but also significantly improved the encapsulation capability of rutin studied as a model compound. Pectin in nanocomplexes delayed the hydrolysis of NaCas by pepsin at gastric conditions and enabled the controlled release of most rutin in simulated intestinal conditions. The nanocomplexes based on food-sourced biopolymers have promising features for oral delivery of nutrients and medicines. PMID:25800678

  11. Use of γ-irradiation to produce films from whey, casein and soya proteins: structure and functionals characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    γ-irradiation and thermal treatments have been used to produce sterilized cross-linked films. Formulations containing variable concentrations of calcium caseinate and whey proteins (whey protein isolate (WPI) and commercial whey protein concentrate) or mixture of soya protein isolate (SPI) with WPI was investigated on the physico-chemical properties of these films. Results showed that the mechanical properties of cross-linked films improved significantly the puncture strength for all types of films. Size-exclusion chromatography showed for no cross-linked proteins, a molecular mass of around 40 kDa. The soluble fractions of the cross-linked proteins molecular distributions were between 600 and 3800 kDa. γ-irradiation seems to modify to a certain extent the conformation of proteins which will adopt structures more ordered and more stable, as suggested by X-ray diffraction analysis. Microstructure observations showed that the mechanical characteristics of these films are closely related to their microscopic structure. Water vapor permeability of films based on SPI was also significantly decreased when irradiated. Microbial resistance was also evaluated for cross-linked films. Results showed that the level of biodegradation of cross-linked films was 36% after 60 d of fermentation in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  12. Use of /γ-irradiation to produce films from whey, casein and soya proteins: structure and functionals characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M.; Le, T. C.; Ouattara, B.; Yu, H.; Letendre, M.; Sabato, S. F.; Mateescu, M. A.; Patterson, G.

    2002-03-01

    γ-irradiation and thermal treatments have been used to produce sterilized cross-linked films. Formulations containing variable concentrations of calcium caseinate and whey proteins (whey protein isolate (WPI) and commercial whey protein concentrate) or mixture of soya protein isolate (SPI) with WPI was investigated on the physico-chemical properties of these films. Results showed that the mechanical properties of cross-linked films improved significantly the puncture strength for all types of films. Size-exclusion chromatography showed for no cross-linked proteins, a molecular mass of around 40 kDa. The soluble fractions of the cross-linked proteins molecular distributions were between 600 and 3800 kDa. γ-irradiation seems to modify to a certain extent the conformation of proteins which will adopt structures more ordered and more stable, as suggested by X-ray diffraction analysis. Microstructure observations showed that the mechanical characteristics of these films are closely related to their microscopic structure. Water vapor permeability of films based on SPI was also significantly decreased when irradiated. Microbial resistance was also evaluated for cross-linked films. Results showed that the level of biodegradation of cross-linked films was 36% after 60 d of fermentation in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  13. Calcium en cardioplegie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Meijler, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary perfusion with a calcium-free solution, followed by reperfusion with a calcium containing solution, may result in acute myocardial cell death and in irreversible loss of the e1ectrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This phenomenon is known as the calcium paradox. A number of cardiop

  14. Kappa-casein gene study with molecular markers in female buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Roberto Otaviano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Caseins comprise make up about 80% of the total protein content of milk and present polymorphism with changes in the amino acid sequence. Within this abundance of proteins, kappa-casein is noteworthy, since it has been associated with differences in milk yield, composition and processing. The objective of this study was to observe the existence of polymorphism in the kappa-casein gene in female buffaloes. For this purpose, blood samples from 115 female buffaloes, collected with vacutainer by needle punctionure of the jugular vein, were used. for genomic DNA extraction was done from blood samples. The PCR-RFLP and SSCP techniques demonstrated that the studied animals were monomorphic for the kappa-casein gene. Only allele B was observed in these animals, which was present in homozygosis. Therefore, it was not possible to quantify the gene action on milk yield and its constituents. The monomorphism observed in the population studied would allow the development of a method to identify mixtures of cow and buffalo milk in mozzarella cheese production, especially because, in cattle, the kappa-casein gene is polymorphic.

  15. Analysis of Casein Biopolymers Adsorption to Lignocellulosic Biomass as a Potential Cellulase Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Dehkhoda Eckard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although lignocellulosic materials have a good potential to substitute current feedstocks used for ethanol production, conversion of these materials to fermentable sugars is still not economical through enzymatic hydrolysis. High cost of cellulase has prompted research to explore techniques that can prevent from enzyme deactivation. Colloidal proteins of casein can form monolayers on hydrophobic surfaces that alleviate the de-activation of protein of interest. Scanning electron microscope (SEM, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, capillary electrophoresis (CE, and Kjeldahl and BSA protein assays were used to investigate the unknown mechanism of action of induced cellulase activity during hydrolysis of casein-treated biomass. Adsorption of casein to biomass was observed with all of the analytical techniques used and varied depending on the pretreatment techniques of biomass. FT-IR analysis of amides I and II suggested that the substructure of protein from casein or skim milk were deformed at the time of contact with biomass. With no additive, the majority of one of the cellulase mono-component, 97.1 ± 1.1, was adsorbed to CS within 24 h, this adsorption was irreversible and increased by 2% after 72 h. However, biomass treatment with skim-milk and casein reduced the adsorption to 32.9% ± 6.0 and 82.8% ± 6.0, respectively.

  16. Aggregation and structural changes of α(S1)-, β- and κ-caseins induced by homocysteinylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroylova, Yulia Y; Zimny, Jaroslaw; Yousefi, Reza; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Jakubowski, Hieronim; Muronetz, Vladimir I; Haertlé, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Elevated homocysteine levels are resulting in N-homocysteinylation of lysyl residues in proteins and they correlate with a number of human pathologies. However, the role of homocysteinylation of lysyl residues is still poorly known. In order to study the features of homocysteinylation of intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUP) bovine caseins were used as a model. α(S1)-, β- and κ-caseins, showing different aggregations and micelle formation, were modified with homocysteine-thiolactone and their physico-chemical properties were studied. Efficiency of homocysteine incorporation was estimated to be about 1.5, 2.1 and 1.3 homocysteyl residues per one β-, α(S1)-, and κ-casein molecule, respectively. Use of intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescent markers such as Trp, thioflavin T and ANS, reveal structural changes of casein structures after homocysteinylation reflected by an increase in beta-sheet content, which in some cases may be characteristic of amyloid-like transformations. CD spectra also show an increase in beta-sheet content of homocysteinylated caseins. Casein homocysteinylation leads in all cases to aggregation. The sizes of aggregates and aggregation rates were dependent on homocysteine thiolactone concentration and temperature. DLS and microscopic studies have revealed the formation of large aggregates of about 1-3μm. Homocysteinylation of α(S1)- and β-caseins results in formation of regular spheres. Homocysteinylated κ-casein forms thin unbranched fibrils about 400-800nm long. In case of κ-casein amyloidogenic effect of homocysteinylation was confirmed by Congo red spectra. Taken together, data indicate that N-homocysteinylation provokes significant changes in properties of native caseins. A comparison of amyloidogenic transformation of 3 different casein types, belonging to the IUP protein family, shows that the efficiency of amyloidogenic transformation upon homocysteinylation depends on micellization capacity, additional disulphide bonds and

  17. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  18. EXERCISE ENHANCING CALCIUM ABSORPTION MECHANISM

    OpenAIRE

    Muliani

    2013-01-01

    Calcium has important role in many biological processes therefore calcium homeostasis should be maintained. Imbalance in calcium homeostasis would affects the bone metabolism, neuromuscular function, blood coagulation, cell proliferation and signal transduction. Homeostasis of calcium is maintained by three major organs: gastrointestinal tract, bone and kidney. Intestinal calcium absorption is the sole mechanism to supply calcium to the body. Calcium absorption controlled by calcitropic hormo...

  19. A novel transcriptional enhancer is involved in the prolactin- and extracellular matrix-dependent regulation of beta-casein gene expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidhauser, C; Casperson, G F; Myers, C A; Sanzo, K T; Bolten, S; Bissell, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Lactogenic hormones and extracellular matrix (ECM) act synergistically to regulate beta-casein expression in culture. We have developed a functional subpopulation of the mouse mammary epithelial cell strain COMMA-1D (designated CID 9), which expresses high level of beta-casein, forms alveolar-like structures when plated onto the EHS tumor-derived matrix, and secretes beta-casein unidirectionally into a lumen. We have further shown that ECM- and prolactin-dependent regulations of beta-casein o...

  20. Bovine Chymosin: A Computational Study of Recognition and Binding of Bovine κ-Casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, David S.; Christensen, Anders Uhrenholt; Sørensen, Jesper; Celik, Leyla; Qvist, Karsten Bruun; Schiøtt, Hanne Birgit

    2010-01-01

    Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformational...... search algorithms, and molecular dynamics simulations. In agreement with limited experimental evidence, the model suggests that the substrate binds in an extended conformation with charged residues on either side of the scissile bond playing an important role in stabilizing the binding pose. Lys111 and...... Lys112 are observed to bind to the N-terminal domain of chymosin displacing a conserved water molecule. A cluster of histidine and proline residues (His98-Pro99-His100-Pro101-His102) in κ-casein binds to the C-terminal domain of the protein, where a neighboring conserved arginine residue (Arg97) is...

  1. Phase behavior of casein micelles/exocellular polysaccharide mixtures: Experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinier, R.; de Kruif, C. G.

    1999-05-01

    Dispersions of casein micelles and an exocellular polysaccharide (EPS), obtained from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NIZO B40 EPS, show a phase separation. The phase separation is of the colloidal gas-liquid type. We have determined a phase diagram that describes the separation of skim milk with EPS into a casein-micelle rich phase and an EPS rich phase. We compare the phase diagram with those calculated from theories developed by Vrij, and by Lekkerkerker and co-workers, showing that the experimental phase boundary can be predicted quite well. From dynamic light scattering measurements of the self-diffusion of the casein micelles in the presence of EPS the spinodal could be located and it corresponds with the experimental phase boundary.

  2. Chaperone-Like Activity of ß-Casein and Its Effect on Residual in Vitro Activity of Food Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria

    , tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus and equine cytochrome c. Only for the first target β-casein was acting as a molecular chaperone i.e. its presence resulted in higher residual activity (higher degree of the function preservation). β-Casein did not have any influence on the residual activity of tyrosinase...

  3. Analysis of beta-casein gene (CSN2 polymorphism in different breeds of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Miluchová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The goal of work was identification of b - casein gene polymorphism in different breeds of cow. The beta - casein constitutes up to 45 % of the casein of bovine milk. The most common forms of beta-casein in dairy cattle breeds are A1 and A2, while B is less common. The b-casein A1 variant was associated with the incidence of diabetes mellitus 1st type, coronary heart disease and autism. The A2 variant reduces serum cholesterol. The material involved 287 cows (Simmental breed – 111 cows, Pinzgau breed – 89 cows, Holstein breed – 87 cows. Bovine genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood by using commercial kit and used in order to estimate b - casein genotypes by means of PCR-RFLP method. In the populations included in the study were detected all three genotypes – homozygote genotype A1A1, heterozygote genotype A1A2 and homozygote genotype A2A2 with frequencies 0.1261, 0.3333 and 0.5405 in Simmental breed; 0.1379, 0.4598 and 0.4023 in Holstein breed, 0.3034, 0.5168 and 0.1798 in Pinzgau breed. In population of Simmental breed and Holstein breed was higher frequency of allele A2 (0.7072 and 0.6322. In opposite, in population of Pinzgau breed was present higher frequency of the allele A1 (0.5618.

  4. REVIEW OF THE CHEMISTRY OF ALPHA S-2 CASEIN AND THE GENERATION OF A HOMOLOGOUS MOLECULAR MODEL TO EXPLAIN ITS PROPERTIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha-s2-Casein comprises up to 10% of the casein fraction in bovine milk. The role of this protein in casein micelles has not been studied in detail in part due to a lack of structural information on the molecule. Interest in the role of this molecule in dairy products and nutrition has been renew...

  5. Casein SNP in Norwegian goats: additive and dominance effects on milk composition and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Lien Sigbjørn; Thaller Georg; Dagnachew Binyam S; Ådnøy Tormod

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The four casein proteins in goat milk are encoded by four closely linked casein loci (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2 and CSN3) within 250 kb on caprine chromosome 6. A deletion in exon 12 of CSN1S1, so far reported only in Norwegian goats, has been found at high frequency (0.73). Such a high frequency is difficult to explain because the national breeding goal selects against the variant's effect. Methods In this study, 575 goats were genotyped for 38 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms ...

  6. Genetic Structure of Alpha S1 Casein in Slovak Pinzgau Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Trakovická; Michal Gábor

    2011-01-01

    The work was oriented to identification of -s1 casein gene polymorphism and analysis of genotype structure in population of Slovak Pinzgau cattle. The material involved 39 cattle. Bovine genomic DNA was isolated by commercial kit NucleoSpin Blood (Macherey-Nagel) and ethanol precipitation and used in order to estimate -s1 casein genotypes by means of PCR-RFLP method. The PCR products were digested with MaeIII restriction enzyme. In the population included in the study, homozygote genotype B...

  7. ANALYSIS OF POLYMORPHISM OF ALPHA S1 CASEIN OF SLOVAK PINZGAU CATTLE BY PCR-RFLP

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINA MILUCHOVÁ; ANNA TRAKOVICKÁ; M. GÁBOR

    2013-01-01

    The work was oriented to identification of -s1 casein gene polymorphism and analysis of genotype structure in population of Slovak Pinzgau cattle. The material involved 93 cattle. Bovine genomic DNA was isolated by fenol-chlorophorm deprotenization and ethanol precipitation and used in order to estimate -s1 casein genotypes by means of PCR-RFLP method. The PCR products were digested with MaeIII restriction enzyme. In the population included in the study there were homozygote genotype BB (81...

  8. Study of chemically unfolded β-casein by means of small-angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    β-casein is a flexible amphiphilic milk protein which forms an unfolded conformation in presence of very high denaturant concentrations. The structure of β-casein formed at the bulk was studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The value of the second virial coefficient of the protein solutions indicates that the interactions between the polypeptide chain and solvent are repulsive. The protein conformation is similar to an excluded volume chain. The corresponding values of the contour length, L, the statistical length, b and the apparent radius of the chain cross-section, Rc are given

  9. Small-molecule inhibition of Wnt signaling through activation of casein kinase 1α

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, Curtis A.; Hanson, Alison J.; Schneider, Judsen; Tahinci, Emilios; Orton, Darren; Cselenyi, Christopher S; Jernigan, Kristin K.; Meyers, Kelly C; Hang, Brian I.; Waterson, Alex G.; Kim, Kwangho; Melancon, Bruce; Ghidu, Victor P.; Sulikowski, Gary A.; LaFleur, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critically involved in metazoan development, stem cell maintenance and human disease. Using Xenopus laevis egg extract to screen for compounds that both stabilize Axin and promote β-catenin turnover, we identified an FDA-approved drug, pyrvinium, as a potent inhibitor of Wnt signaling (EC50 of ~10 nM). We show pyrvinium binds all casein kinase 1 (CK1) family members in vitro at low nanomolar concentrations and pyrvinium selectively potentiates casein kinase 1α (CK1α...

  10. Emulsifying properties of maillard conjugates produced from sodium caseinate and locust bean gum

    OpenAIRE

    F. A. Perrechil; Santana, R.C.; D. B. Lima; M. Z. Polastro; Cunha, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Emulsifying properties of sodium caseinate -locust bean gum Maillard conjugates produced at different temperatures (54 - 96 ºC), protein/polysaccharide ratios (0.3 - 1.0) and reaction times (1 - 24 hours) were evaluated. Conjugate formation was confirmed by formation of color and high molecular weight fractions and the decrease of the αs- and β-casein bands. The emulsions stabilized by Maillard conjugates showed good stability. The mean droplet diameter (d32) tended to decrease with the incre...

  11. Tissue-specific expression of the rat beta-casein gene in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, K. F.; DeMayo, F J; Atiee, S H; Rosen, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The rat beta-casein gene is a member of a small gene family, encoding the principal milk proteins. In order to understand the mechanisms by which its stage- and tissue-specific expression are regulated, initially, a 14 kb genomic clone containing the entire 7.5 kb rat beta-casein gene with 3.5 kb of 5' and 3.0 kb of 3' flanking DNA was microinjected into the germline of mice. Eight F0 transgenic mice were generated with copy numbers ranging from 1-10; five transmitted the transgene to their o...

  12. Differential regulation of rat beta-casein-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase fusion gene expression in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, K. F.; Atiee, S H; Rosen, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated the mammary-specific expression of the entire rat beta-casein gene with 3.5 kilobases (kb) of 5' and 3.0 kb of 3' DNA in transgenic mice (Lee et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 16:1027-1041, 1988). In an attempt to localize sequences that dictate this specificity, lines of transgenic mice carrying two different rat beta-casein promoter-bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) fusion genes have been established. Twenty and eight lines of tr...

  13. Study of chemically unfolded {beta}-casein by means of small-angle neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschi, Adel [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Molle, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 1060, Tunis (Tunisia)]. E-mail: aschi13@yahoo.fr; Gharbi, Abdelhafidh [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Molle, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 1060, Tunis (Tunisia); Daoud, Mohamed [Service de Physique de l' Etat Condense. CEA Saclay. 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Douillard, Roger [Equipe de Biochimie des Macromolecules Vegetales, Centre de Recherche Agronomique, 2Esplanade R. Garros, BP 224, 51686 Reims cedex 2 (France); Calmettes, Patrick [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2007-01-01

    {beta}-casein is a flexible amphiphilic milk protein which forms an unfolded conformation in presence of very high denaturant concentrations. The structure of {beta}-casein formed at the bulk was studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The value of the second virial coefficient of the protein solutions indicates that the interactions between the polypeptide chain and solvent are repulsive. The protein conformation is similar to an excluded volume chain. The corresponding values of the contour length, L, the statistical length, b and the apparent radius of the chain cross-section, R{sub c} are given.

  14. Genomic organization of the bovine alpha-S1 casein gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Koczan, D; Hobom, G.; Seyfert, H.M.

    1991-01-01

    We report the sequence of the complete bovine alpha-s1 casein gene eludicating for the first time the genomic organization of an alpha-s type casein gene. Extending over 17508 bp the gene is split into 19 exons, ranging in size from 24 bp to 385 bp. Except for the translational stop codon not a single coding triplet of the alpha-s1 reading frame is disrupted by any of the splice junctions, which all confirm to known splice consensus sequences. Nine out of 16 coding exons begin with a 'GAX' co...

  15. The effect of calcium salts, ascorbic acid and peptic pH on calcium, zinc and iron bioavailabilities from fortified human milk using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, Paz; Wallingford, John Charles; Miller, Dennis Dean; Glahn, Raymond Philip

    2005-05-01

    The calcium, zinc, and iron bioavailabilities of human milk with commercial and noncommercial human milk fortifiers (HMFs) were evaluated under a variety of conditions: peptic digestion at pH 2 and pH 4, supplementation of ascorbic acid, and addition of three calcium salts. The noncommercial HMFs consisted of casein phosphopeptides (CPPs), alpha-lactalbumin, colostrum, and hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate (WPC). They were mixed with human milk (HM) and calcium, zinc, and iron were added. Ascorbic acid (AA) was added in certain studies. The commercial HMFs were Nestlé FM-85, Similac HMF (SHMF), and Enfamil HMF (EHMF). All HMFs were compared to S-26/SMA HMF. Results showed that the peptic pH (2 vs. 4) had no effect on mineral bioavailability. Addition of different calcium salts had no effect on calcium cell uptake and cell ferritin levels (an indicator of iron uptake), however, the addition of calcium glycerophosphate/gluconate increased zinc uptake by Caco-2 cells. Addition of AA significantly increased ferritin levels, with no effect on calcium or zinc uptake. Among the commercial HMFs, FM-85 was significantly lower in zinc uptake than S-26/SMA, and HM+EHMF was significantly higher than HM+S-26/SMA. Cell ferritin levels were significantly higher for HM+S-26/SMA than for all other commercial fortifiers. None of the commercial HMFs were different from HM+S-26/SMA in calcium uptake. PMID:16028632

  16. Dengue and Calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan C; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is potentially fatal unless managed appropriately. No specific treatment is available and the mainstay of treatment is fluid management with careful monitoring, organ support, and correction of metabolic derangement. Evidence with regards to the role of calcium homeostasis in dengue is limited. Low blood calcium levels have been demonstrated in dengue infection and hypocalcemia maybe more pronounced in more severe forms. The cause of hypocalcemia is likely to be multifactorial. Calcium...

  17. Measurements of intracellular calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) has been measured in cultured cells by using Fura-2 load cells and a computer-controlled Perkin Elmer LS-5B spectrofluorometer. Increased [Ca2+]i in cells exposed to extracellular bilirubin was observed both with and without extracellular calcium. However, the increase was considerable larger with extracellular calcium. The enhancement of [Ca2+]i became smaller with decreasing bilirubin/BSA (bovine serum albumine) ratio. 5 refs., 5 figs

  18. Casein infusion rate influences feed intake differently depending on metabolizable protein balance in dairy cows: A multilevel meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, R; Ouellet, D R; Kebreab, E; Lapierre, H

    2016-04-01

    The effects of casein infusion have been investigated extensively in ruminant species. Its effect on responses in dry matter intake (DMI) has been reviewed and indicated no significant effect. The literature reviewed in the current meta-analysis is more extensive and limited to dairy cows fed ad libitum. A total of 51 studies were included in the meta-analysis and data were fitted to a multilevel model adjusting for the correlated nature of some studies. The effect size was the mean difference calculated by subtracting the means for the control from the casein-infused group. Overall, casein infusion [average of 333g of dry matter (DM)/d; range: 91 to 1,092g of DM/d] tended to increase responses in DMI by 0.18kg/d (n=48 studies; 3 outliers). However, an interaction was observed between the casein infusion rate (IR) and the initial metabolizable protein (MP) balance [i.e., supply minus requirements (NRC, 2001)]. When control cows were in negative MP balance (n=27 studies), responses in DMI averaged 0.28kg/d at mean MP balance (-264g/d) and casein IR (336g/d), and a 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean increased further responses by 0.14kg/d (MP balance being constant), compared with cows not infused with casein. In contrast, when control cows were in positive MP balance (n=22 studies; 2 outliers), responses in DMI averaged -0.20kg/d at mean casein IR (339g/d), and a 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean further decreased responses by 0.33kg/d, compared with cows not infused with casein. Responses in milk true protein yield at mean casein IR were greater (109 vs. 65g/d) for cows in negative vs. positive MP balance, respectively, and the influence of the casein IR on responses was significant only for cows in negative MP balance. A 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean increased further responses in milk true protein yield by 25g/d, compared with cows not infused with casein. Responses in blood urea concentration increased in casein

  19. Casein kinase II protein kinase is bound to lamina-matrix and phosphorylates lamin-like protein in isolated pea nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    A casein kinase II (CK II)-like protein kinase was identified and partially isolated from a purified envelope-matrix fraction of pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei. When [gamma-32P]ATP was directly added to the envelope-matrix preparation, the three most heavily labeled protein bands had molecular masses near 71, 48, and 46 kDa. Protein kinases were removed from the preparation by sequential extraction with Triton X-100, EGTA, 0.3 M NaCl, and a pH 10.5 buffer, but an active kinase still remained bound to the remaining lamina-matrix fraction after these treatments. This kinase had properties resembling CK II kinases previously characterized from animal and plant sources: it preferred casein as an artificial substrate, could use GTP as efficiently as ATP as the phosphoryl donor, was stimulated by spermine, was calcium independent, and had a catalytic subunit of 36 kDa. Some animal and plant CK II kinases have regulatory subunits near 29 kDa, and a lamina-matrix-bound protein of this molecular mass was recognized on immunoblot by anti-Drosophila CK II polyclonal antibodies. Also found associated with the envelope-matrix fraction of pea nuclei were p34cdc2-like and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases, but their properties could not account for the protein kinase activity bound to the lamina. The 71-kDa substrate of the CK II-like kinase was lamin A-like, both in its molecular mass and in its cross-reactivity with anti-intermediate filament antibodies. Lamin phosphorylation is considered a crucial early step in the entry of cells into mitosis, so lamina-bound CK II kinases may be important control points for cellular proliferation.

  20. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Molar conductivity of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium d-saccharate, used as a stabilizer of beverages fortified with calcium d-gluconate, increases strongly upon dilution, indicating complex formation between calcium and d-saccharate ions, for which, at 25 °C, Kassoc = 1032 ± 80, ΔHassoc......° = -34 ± 6 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = -55 ± 9 J mol-1 K-1, were determined electrochemically. Calcium d-saccharate is sparingly soluble, with a solubility product, Ksp, of (6.17 ± 0.32) × 10-7 at 25 °C, only moderately increasing with the temperature: ΔHsol° = 48 ± 2 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = 42 ± 7 J mol-1...... K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d...

  1. Whey and casein labeled with L-[1-13C]leucine and muscle protein synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitelseder, Søren; Agergaard, Jakob; Doessing, Simon;

    2011-01-01

    mass), or a noncaloric control drink was ingested immediately after exercise. l-[1-(13)C]leucine-labeled whey and casein were used while muscle protein synthesis (MPS) was assessed. Blood and muscle tissue samples were collected to measure systemic hormone and amino acid concentrations, tracer...

  2. Development of biodegradable foamlike materials based on casein and sodium montmorillonite clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodegradable foamlike materials based on a naturally occurring polymer (casein protein) and sodium montmorillonite clay (Na+-MMT) were produced through a simple freeze-drying process. By utilizing DL-glyceraldehyde (GC) as a chemical cross-linking agent, the structural integrity of these new aeroge...

  3. Molecular cloning and expression of bovine kappa-casein in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cDNA library was constructed using poly(A)+RNA from bovine mammary gland. This cDNA library of 6000 clones was screened employing colony hybridization using 32P-labelled oligonucleotide probes and restriction endonuclease mapping. The cDNA from the selected plasmid, pKR76, was sequenced using the dideoxy-chain termination method. The cDNA insert of pKR76 carries the full-length sequence, which codes for mature kappa-casein protein. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA sequence fits the published amino acid sequence with three exceptions; the reported pyroglutamic acid at position 1, tyrosine at position 35, and aspartic acid at position 81 are, respectively, a glutamine, a histidine, and an asparagine in the clone containing pKR76. The MspI-, NlaIV-cleaved fragment (630 base pair) from the kappa-casein cDNA insert has been subcloned into expression vectors pUC18 and pKK233-2, which contain a lac promoter and a trc promoter, respectively. Escherichia coli cells carrying the recombinant expression plasmids were shown to produce kappa-casein protein having the expected mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and being recognized by specific antibodies raised against natural bovine kappa-casein

  4. Trichostatin A inhibits beta-casein expression in mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many aspects of cellular behavior are affected by information derived from association of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and with cell membrane receptors. When cultured in the presence of laminin-containing ECM and prolactin (Prl), normal mammary epithelial cells express the milk protein beta-casein. Previously, we defined the minimal ECM- and Prl-responsive enhancer element BCE-1 from the upstream region of the beta-casein gene. We also found that BCE-1 was only active when stably integrated into chromatin, and that trichostatin A (TSA), a reagent that leads to alterations in chromatin structure, was able to activate the integrated enhancer element. We now show that endogenous b-casein gene, which is controlled by a genetic assembly that is highly similar to that of BCE-1 and which is also activated by incubation in ECM and Prl, is instead inhibited by TSA. We provide evidence that the differing response of b-casein and BCE-1 to TSA is neither due to an unusual effect of TSA on mammary epithelial cells, nor to secondary consequences from the expression of a separate gene, nor to a particular property of the BCE-1 construct. As a component of this investigation, we also showed that ECM could mediate rapid histone deacetylation in mammary epithelial cells. These results are discussed in combination with previous work showing that TSA mediates the differentiation of many types of cancer cells but inhibits differentiation of some nonmalignant cell types

  5. Phosphorylation of acidic ribosomal proteins from rabbit reticulocytes by a ribosome-associated casein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1977-01-01

    Two acidic proteins from 80-S ribosomes were isolated and purified to homogeneity. The purified acidic proteins could be phosphorylated by casein kinase using [gamma-32P]ATP and [gamma-32P]GTP as a phosphoryl donor. The proteins became phosphorylated in situ, too. Sodium dodecyl sulfate...

  6. Hierarchical Networks of Casein Proteins: An Elasticity Study Based on Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uricanu, V.I.; Duits, M.H.G.; Mellema, J.

    2004-01-01

    2D- and 3D-atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments were performed on single casein micelles (CM) in native state, submerged in liquid, using a home-built AFM instrument. The micelles were immobilized via carbodiimide chemistry to a self-assembled monolayer supported on gold-coated slides. Off-line

  7. Selective Inhibition of Casein Kinase 1 epsilon Minimally Alters Circadian Clock Period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Walton, K. M.; Fisher, K.; Rubitski, D.; Marconi, M.; Meng, Q.-J.; Sládek, Martin; Adams, J.; Bass, M.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Butler, T.; Griffor, M.; Rajamohan, F.; Serpa, M.; Chen, Y.; Claffey, M.; Hastings, M.; Loudon, A.; Maywood, E.; Ohren, J.; Doran, A.; Wager, T. T.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 330, č. 2 (2009), s. 430-439. ISSN 0022-3565 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : circadian clock * casein kinase 1 epsilon * inhibitor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.093, year: 2009

  8. Reconstitution of normal and hyperactivated forms of casein kinase-2 by variably mutated beta-subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Meggio, F; Pinna, L A;

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-one mutants of the noncatalytic beta-subunit of human casein kinase-2 have been created, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to homogeneity. They are either modified at the autophosphorylation site (mutants beta delta 1-4 and beta A 5,6) or bear variable deletions in their C...

  9. Caseins from bovine colostrum and milk strongly bind piscidin-1, an antimicrobial peptide from fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kütt, Mary-Liis; Stagsted, Jan

    2014-09-01

    A model system of bovine colostrum and piscidin, a fish-derived antimicrobial peptide, was developed to study potential interactions of antimicrobial peptides in colostrum. We did not detect any antimicrobial activity of colostrum using the radial plate diffusion assay; in fact colostrum completely abrogated activity of added piscidin. This could not be explained by degradation of piscidin by colostrum, which was less than ten percent. We found that colostrum even protected piscidin against degradation by added proteases. We further observed that colostrum and milk rapidly quenched the fluorescence of fluorescein-piscidin but not that of fluorescein. This effect was not seen with BSA and the specific quenching of fluorescein-piscidin by colostrum was saturably inhibited with unlabeled piscidin. Size exclusion chromatography indicated that fluorescein-piscidin bound to casein micelles with no apparent binding to IgG or whey proteins. Further, addition of pure caseins was able to quench fluorescence of fluorescein-piscidin and to inhibit the antimicrobial activity of piscidin. The interaction between caseins and piscidin could be dissociated by guanidine hydrochloride and recovered piscidin had antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Based on our results we propose that caseins could be carriers for antimicrobial peptides in colostrum and milk. PMID:25036607

  10. The effects of ginsenosides to amyloid fibril formation by RCMκ-casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jihua; Chen, Fanbo; Yin, Jianyuan; Bu, Fengquan; Zheng, Baohua; Yang, Miao; Wang, Yunhua; Sun, Dandan; Meng, Qin

    2015-08-01

    When not incorporated into the casein micelle, isolated κ-casein spontaneously forms amyloid fibrils under physiological conditions, and is a convenient model for researching generic aspects of fibril formation. Ginsenosides have recently attracted much research interest because of the effects on aging diseases, which are always associated with amyloid fibril formation, for example, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. In addition, the mechanism remains unclear that ginsenosides exert the effects against aging diseases. To address these aspects, we have investigated the ability of ginsenoside Rb1, Rc, Rg1, and Re influencing fibril formation by RCMκ-casein (reduced and carboxymethylated κ-casein), with the methods of Thioflavin T fluorescence assay, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy. The results showed that ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 inhibited obviously RCMκ-CN fibrillation in both the initial rate and final level of ThT fluorescence. On the contrary, ginsenoside Re had a few effect on promoting RCMκ-CN fibril formation, proved by thick and larger fibrils observed frequently in TEM. While Rc did not influence RCMκ-CN fibrillation. It is demonstrated that Rg1 prevent RCMκ-CN fibril formation by stabilising RCMκ-CN in its native like state. Additional chemical structure difference of ginsenosides and the effects on fibril formation are also implicated. PMID:25934110

  11. EFFECT OF PRESSURIZED CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) ON THE STRUCTURE OF CASEIN MICELLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    At the heart of the skim milk system are the colloidal casein–calcium–transport complexes termed the casein micelles. The application of physical chemical techniques such as light, neutron, and X-ray scattering and electron microscopy, has yielded a wealth of experimental data concerning the structu...

  12. The Gluten-Free, Casein-Free Diet and Autism: Limited Return on Family Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The gluten-free, casein-free (GFCF) diet is widely used by families of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Despite its popularity, there is limited evidence in support of the diet. The purpose of this article was to identify and evaluate well-controlled studies of the GFCF diet that have been implemented with children with ASD. A review…

  13. Trichostatin A inhibits beta-casein expression in mammary epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujuguet, Philippe; Radisky, Derek; Levy, Dinah; Lacza, Charlemagne; Bissell, Mina J.

    2002-02-22

    Many aspects of cellular behavior are affected by information derived from association of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and with cell membrane receptors. When cultured in the presence of laminin-containing ECM and prolactin (Prl), normal mammary epithelial cells express the milk protein beta-casein. Previously, we defined the minimal ECM- and Prl-responsive enhancer element BCE-1 from the upstream region of the beta-casein gene. We also found that BCE-1 was only active when stably integrated into chromatin, and that trichostatin A (TSA), a reagent that leads to alterations in chromatin structure, was able to activate the integrated enhancer element. We now show that endogenous b-casein gene, which is controlled by a genetic assembly that is highly similar to that of BCE-1 and which is also activated by incubation in ECM and Prl, is instead inhibited by TSA. We provide evidence that the differing response of b-casein and BCE-1 to TSA is neither due to an unusual effect of TSA on mammary epithelial cells, nor to secondary consequences from the expression of a separate gene, nor to a particular property of the BCE-1 construct. As a component of this investigation, we also showed that ECM could mediate rapid histone deacetylation in mammary epithelial cells. These results are discussed in combination with previous work showing that TSA mediates the differentiation of many types of cancer cells but inhibits differentiation of some nonmalignant cell types.

  14. Cloning and sequencing of the casein kinase 2 alpha subunit from Zea mays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrowolska, G; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1991-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA coding for the alpha subunit of casein kinase 2 of Zea mays has been determined. The cDNA clone contains an open reading frame of 996 nucleotides encoding a polypeptide comprising 332 amino acids. The primary amino acid sequence exhibits 75% identity to the alpha...

  15. Xenopus paraxial protocadherin inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signalling via casein kinase 2β

    OpenAIRE

    Kietzmann, Anja; Wang, Yingqun; Weber, Dominik; Steinbeisser, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Paraxial protocadherin (PAPC) is a known cell adhesion molecule that also activates the Wnt/PCP pathway. Steinbeisser and colleagues show here that PAPC not only activates the non-canonical Wnt/PCP pathway but, at the same time, also inhibits the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway through interaction with casein kinase 2.

  16. Serum Calcium Level in Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Hazari, Mohammed Abdul Hannan; Arifuddin, Mehnaaz Sameera; Muzzakar, Syed; Reddy, Vontela Devender

    2012-01-01

    Background: The alterations in extracellular calcium level may influence intracellular calcium level and possibly play a role in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. Aim: The purpose was to find out the association between serum calcium levels and hypertension; and to compare the serum calcium levels between normotensive controls, hypertensive subjects on calcium channel blockers, and hypertensive subjects on antihypertensive medication other than calcium channel blockers. Materials an...

  17. Impact of Casein and Gluten Free Dietary Intervention on Selected Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerappan Nishadevi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Autism is a life long developmental disorder that emerges in early childhood and results in significant lifelong disability. The goal of treatment is to promote the childs social and language development and minimize behaviors that interfere with the childs functioning and learning. This study evaluated the impact of casein and gluten free diet among selected autistic children. Methods: Three private special schools in Salem District, Tamilnadu, India were selected. A total number of 50 autistic children 10 from SIMEC, 10 from MMIC and 30 from CSI comprised the study sample. Background information, clinical history and nutritional status, dietary pattern were collected from the 50 selected autistic children. Out of 50 autistic children 30 autistic children were selected for the dietary intervention. Diet counseling regarding casein free diet was imparted to Group I (n=10, gluten free diet to Group II (n=10 and both casein and gluten free diet for Group III (n=10. The diet was followed for a period of 2 months. The efficacy of the dietary exclusion of casein and gluten was evaluated using a food and behavior diary on a day to day basis, using observation method. Findings: Results about Group I autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of casein free diet showed that the mean scores before and after casein free dietary intervention depiticted these improvements as, 1 to 1.2 for attention, 2.8 to 2.9 for sleep, 1.1 to 1.3 for hyperactivity, 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety/compulsion. For Group II autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of gluten free diet showed the improvements as 1.1 to 1.4 for attention 2.5 to 3 for sleep, 1.7 to 1.9 for hyperactivity, 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety/compulsion. About Group III autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of both casein and gluten free diet showed the improvements as 1.1 to 1.3 for attention, 2.5 to 2.7 for sleep, 1.3 to 1.7 for hyperactivity, and 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety

  18. Influence of a reconstituted basement membrane and its components on casein gene expression and secretion in mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When primary mouse mammary epithelial cells are cultured on plastic, they rapidly lose their ability to synthesize and secrete most milk proteins even in the presence of lactogenic hormones, whereas cells cultured on release type I collagen gels show greatly enhanced mRNA levels and secretion rates of β-casein and of some other milk proteins. The authors show here that culture on a reconstituted basement membrane from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor (EHS) allows > 90% of cells to produce high levels of β-casein. By comparison, 30-40% of cells on released type 1 gels and only 2-10% of cells on plastic express β-casein after 6 days in culture. Because only 40% of cells from late pregnant gland produced β-casein before culture, the EHS matrix can both induce and maintain an increased level of casein gene expression. Individual basal lamina components were also evaluated. Type IV collagen and fibronectin had little effect on morphology and β-casein mRNA levels. In contrast, both laminin and heparan sulfate proteoglycan increased β-casein mRNA levels. Profound morphological differences were evident between cells cultured on plastic and on EHS matrix, the latter cells forming ducts, ductules, and lumina and resembling secretory alveoli. These results emphasize the vital role of the extracellular matrix in receiving and integrating structural and functional signals that can direct specific gene expression in differentiated tissues

  19. Incorporation of 32P-Na2HPO4 into caseins and lipoprotein complexes of milk from a lactating buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P-phosphate was given intravenously to a lactating buffalo to study the utilization of blood inorganic-phosphate by the mammary gland. The distribution of radioactivity in the mammary-cell-plasma membrane (MCPM), milk-fat-globule membrane (MFGM), low density lipoproteins (LDLP) and caseins was studied. Maximum radioactivity was incorporated into casein. Among the caseins, α-casein complex had minimum radioactivity. Radioactivity from γ-casein complex appeared to be incorporated into β-casein. On intravenous injection the peak specific activity of 32P appeared at the same time in the MCPM and MFGM, but on prolonged infusion it appeared first in the MCPM and then in MFGM, indicating MFGM and MCPM to be of common origin. The peak specific activity of lipids from casein micelles appeared later than that in MCPM and MFGM. Autoradiography of MCPM and MFGM lipids showed that 32P-phosphate was first incorporated into phosphatidyl choline (PC) and then into other phospholipids (PL). In LDLP, 32P-phosphate was incorporated into PC alone even after 25 hr of injection. The role of PC in PL biosynthesis in mammary gland has been discussed. (author)

  20. Identification of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B and casein as substrates for 124-v-Mos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stabel Silvia

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mos proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic serine/threonine-specific protein kinase with crucial function during meiotic cell division in vertebrates. Based on oncogenic amino acid substitutions the viral derivative, 124-v-Mos, displays constitutive protein kinase activity and functions independent of unknown upstream effectors of mos protein kinase. We have utilized this property of 124-v-Mos and screened for novel mos substrates in immunocomplex kinase assays in vitro. Results We generated recombinant 124-v-Mos using the baculovirus expression system in Spodoptera frugiperda cells and demonstrated constitutive kinase activity by the ability of 124-v-Mos to auto-phosphorylate and to phosphorylate vimentin, a known substrate of c-Mos. Using this approach we analyzed a panel of acidic and basic substrates in immunocomplex protein kinase assays and identified novel in vitro substrates for 124-v-Mos, the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B, alpha-casein and beta-casein. We controlled mos-specific phosphorylation of PTP1B and casein in comparative assays using a synthetic kinase-inactive 124-v-Mos mutant and further, tryptic digests of mos-phosphorylated beta-casein identified a phosphopeptide specifically targeted by wild-type 124-v-Mos. Two-dimensional phosphoamino acid analyses showed that 124-v-mos targets serine and threonine residues for phosphorylation in casein at a 1:1 ratio but auto-phosphorylation occurs predominantly on serine residues. Conclusion The mos substrates identified in this study represent a basis to approach the identification of the mos-consensus phosphorylation motif, important for the development of specific inhibitors of the Mos protein kinase.

  1. Purification and characterization of a casein kinase 2-type protein kinase from pea nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Almost all the polyamine-stimulated protein kinase activity associated with the chromatin fraction of nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.35 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified over 2000-fold by salt fractionation and anion-exchange and casein-agarose column chromatography, after which it is more than 90% pure. The purified kinase has a specific activity of about 650 nanomoles per minute per milligram protein in the absence of polyamines, with either ATP or GTP as phosphoryl donor. Spermidine can stimulate its activity fourfold, with half-maximal activation at about 2 millimolar. Spermine and putrescine also stimulate activity, although somewhat less effectively. This kinase has a tetrameric alpha 2 beta 2 structure with a native molecular weight of 130,000, and subunit molecular weights of 36,000 for the catalytic subunit (alpha) and 29,000 for the regulatory subunit (beta). In western blot analyses, only the alpha subunit reacts strongly with polyclonal antibodies to a Drosophila casein kinase II. The pea kinase can use casein and phosvitin as artificial substrates, phosphorylating both the serine and threonine residues of casein. It has a pH optimum near 8.0, a Vmax of 1.5 micromoles per minute per milligram protein, and a Km for ATP of approximately 75 micromolar. Its activity can be almost completely inhibited by heparin at 5 micrograms per milliliter, but is relatively insensitive to concentrations of staurosporine, K252a, and chlorpromazine that strongly antagonize Ca(2+) -regulated protein kinases. These results are discussed in relation to recent findings that casein kinase 2-type kinases may phosphorylate trans-acting factors that bind to light-regulated promoters in plants.

  2. HYPERTHERMIA, INTRACELLULAR FREE CALCIUM AND CALCIUM IONOPHORES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGE, GJJ; WIERENGA, PK; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free calciu

  3. Effect of Casein Concentration in Suspensions and Gels on Poly(ethylene glycol)s NMR Self-Diffusion Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Colsenet, R.; Söderman, O.; Mariette, F.

    2005-01-01

    PFG-NMR spectroscopy was used to study the diffusion of molecular probes (poly(ethyleneglycol)s) in casein suspensions and gels in terms of the effects of probe molecular size (molecular mass between 1080 and 634 000 g/mol), casein concentrations (from 3.24 to 16.22 g/100 g), and effects of rennet coagulation. A strong dependency of diffusion on probe size was observed, both in casein suspensions and in gels: as the PEG size increased, the diffusion was reduced. This effect was more pronou...

  4. The extracellular PI-type proteinase of Lactococcus lactis hydrolyzes beta-casein into more than one hundred different oligopeptides.

    OpenAIRE

    Juillard, V; van der Laan, H.; Kunji, E R; Jeronimus-Stratingh, C M; Bruins, A P; Konings, W. N.

    1995-01-01

    The peptides released from beta-casein by the action of PI-type proteinase (PrtP) from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2 have been identified by on-line coupling of liquid chromatography to mass spectrometry. After 24 h of incubation of beta-casein with purified PrtP, a stable mixture of peptides was obtained. The trifluoroacetic acid-soluble peptides of this beta-casein hydrolysate were fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography and introduced into the liquid chromatography-...

  5. Molecular cloning of casein kinase II alpha subunit from Dictyostelium discoideum and its expression in the life cycle.

    OpenAIRE

    Kikkawa, U; Mann, S K; Firtel, R A; Hunter, T

    1992-01-01

    A Dictyostelium discoideum cDNA encoding an alpha-type subunit of casein kinase II was isolated, and its cDNA was used to study developmental expression of casein kinase II during the Dictyostelium life cycle. The 1.3-kb cDNA insert contained an open reading frame of 337 amino acids (M(r) 39,900). The deduced amino acid sequence has high homology with those of casein kinase II alpha subunits from other species. Genomic Southern blot analysis suggested that there is a single gene encoding case...

  6. Genetic polymorphisms of αS1-, αS2- and k-casein in Maltese goat breed

    OpenAIRE

    A. Caroli; G. Erhardt; C. Dario; G. Ceriotti; Chessa, S.

    2011-01-01

    The casein genes are organized as a tight cluster including αS1- (CSN1S1), β- (CSN2), αS2- (CSN1S2) and k-casein (CSN3). Investigation at casein haplotype level is therefore necessary to detect effects which could be used for the genetic improvement of goat breeds aiming to preserve biodiversity, safeguard typical products, and valorise nutritional properties of goat milk. Mutations responsible for the reduced or null expression of CSN1S1........

  7. Genetic polymorphisms of αS1-, αS2- and k-casein in Maltese goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caroli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The casein genes are organized as a tight cluster including αS1- (CSN1S1, β- (CSN2, αS2- (CSN1S2 and k-casein (CSN3. Investigation at casein haplotype level is therefore necessary to detect effects which could be used for the genetic improvement of goat breeds aiming to preserve biodiversity, safeguard typical products, and valorise nutritional properties of goat milk. Mutations responsible for the reduced or null expression of CSN1S1........

  8. Casein kinase I-like protein kinases encoded by YCK1 and YCK2 are required for yeast morphogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, L. C.; Menold, M. M.; Garrett, S.; Culbertson, M R

    1993-01-01

    Casein kinase I is an acidotropic protein kinase class that is widely distributed among eukaryotic cell types. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the casein kinase I isoform encoded by the gene pair YCK1 and YCK2 is a 60- to 62-kDa membrane-associated form. The Yck proteins perform functions essential for growth and division; either alone supports growth, but loss of function of both is lethal. We report here that casein kinase I-like activity is associated with a soluble Yck2-beta-galact...

  9. A comparative evaluation of remineralizing ability of bioactive glass and amorphous calcium phosphate casein phosphopeptide on early enamel lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya Kumar Palaniswamy

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Both the remineralizing agents tested in this study can be considered effective in repair and prevention of demineralization. BAG showed better results initially, but eventually both have similar remineralizing potential.

  10. Remineralization potential of fluoride and amorphous calcium phosphate-casein phospho peptide on enamel lesions: An in vitro comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lata S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This in vitro study was conducted on enamel blocks of human premolars with the aim of evaluating the remineralization potential of fluoride and ACP-CPP and the combination of ACP-CPP and fluoride on early enamel lesions. Materials and Methods: Fifteen intact carious free human premolars were selected. The coronal part of each tooth was sectioned into four parts to make 4 enamel blocks. The baseline SMH (surface microhardness was measured for all the enamel specimens using Vickers microhardness (VHN testing machine. Artificial enamel carious lesions were created by inserting the specimens in demineralization solution for 3 consecutive days. The SMH of the demineralised specimens was evaluated. Then the four enamel sections of each tooth were subjected to various surface treatments , i.e. Group 1- Fluoride varnish, Group 2- ACP-CPP cream, Group 3- Fluoride + ACP-CPP & Group 4- Control (No surface treatment. A caries progression test (pH cycling was carried out, which consisted of alternative demineralization (3hours and remineralization with artificial saliva (21 hours for five consecutive days. After pH cycling again SMH of each specimen was assessed to evaluate the remineralization potential of each surface treatment agent. Then, to asses the remineralization potential of various surface treatments at the subsurface level, each enamel specimen was longitudinally sectioned through the centre to expose the subsurface enamel area. Cross-sectional microhardness (CSMH was evaluated to assess any subsurface remineralization Results: Statistical analysis using one-way ANOVA followed by multiple comparisons test was applied to detect significant differences at P ≤ 0.05 levels between various surface treatments at different phases. Conclusions: With in the limits, the present study concludes that; ACP-CPP cream is effective, but to a lesser extent than fluoride in remineralizing early enamel caries at surface level. Combination of fluoride and ACP-CPP does not provide any additive remineralization potential compared to fluoride alone. Fluoride, ACP-CPP and their combination are not effective in remineralizing the early enamel caries at the subsurface level.

  11. Neuronal calcium sparks and intracellular calcium “noise”

    OpenAIRE

    Melamed-Book, Naomi; Kachalsky, Sylvia G.; Kaiserman, Igor; Rahamimoff, Rami

    1999-01-01

    Intracellular calcium ions are involved in many forms of cellular function. To accommodate so many control functions, a complex spatiotemporal organization of calcium signaling has developed. In both excitable and nonexcitable cells, calcium signaling was found to fluctuate. Sudden localized increases in the intracellular calcium concentration—or calcium sparks—were found in heart, striated and smooth muscle, Xenopus Laevis oocytes, and HeLa and P12 cells. In the nervous system, intracellular...

  12. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk;

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... calcium binds silicon primarily as calcium silicates and less as potassium calcium silicates....

  13. Combining CPP-ACP with fluoride: a synergistic remineralization potential of artificially demineralized enamel or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayad, I. I.; Sakr, A. K.; Badr, Y. A.

    2008-08-01

    Background and objective: Minimal intervention dentistry (MID) calls for early detection and remineralization of initial demineralization. Laser fluorescence is efficient in detecting changes in mineral tooth content. Recaldent is a product of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP- ACP) which delivers calcium and phosphate ions to enamel. A new product which also contains fluoride is launched in United States. The remineralizing potential of CPP- ACP per se, or when combined with 0.22% Fl supplied in an oral care gel on artificially demineralised enamel using laser fluorescence was investigated. Methods: Fifteen sound human molars were selected. Mesial surfaces were tested using He-Cd laser beam at 441.5nm with 18mW power as excitation source on a suitable set-up based on Spex 750 M monochromator provided with PMT for detection of collected auto-fluorescence from sound enamel. Mesial surfaces were subjected to demineralization for ten days. The spectra from demineralized enamel were measured. Teeth were then divided according to the remineralizing regimen into three groups: group I recaldent per se, group II recaldent combined with fluoride gel and group III artificial saliva as a positive control. After following these protocols for three weeks, the spectra from remineralized enamel from the three groups were measured. The spectra of enamel auto-fluorescence were recorded and normalized to peak intensity at about 540 nm to compare between spectra from sound, demineralized and remineralized enamel surfaces. Results: A slight red shift was noticed in spectra from demineralized enamel, while a blue shift may occur in remineralized enamel. Group II showed the highest remineralizing potential. Conclusions: Combining fluoride with CPP-ACP had a synergistic effect on enamel remineralization. In addition, laser auto-fluorescence is an accurate technique for assessment of changes in tooth enamel minerals.

  14. Casein addition to a whey-based formula has limited effects on gut function in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thymann, T.; Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Bering, S. B.;

    2012-01-01

    studied in gut contents. Severity of NEC lesions was similar between diet groups but galactose absorption was markedly higher in CASEIN than in WHEY (P <0.01) although only 6 h after the start of the enteral feeding period. There were no differences in ex vivo 14C-D-glucose uptake, digestive enzymes...... followed by 30 h of enteral feeding with whey [protein fraction of milk formula based on whey (WHEY); n = 11] or casein and/or whey [protein fraction of milk formula based on a combination of casein and whey (CASEIN); n = 9]-based formulas. Sugar absorptive function was investigated at 6 and 30 h after...... initiation of enteral feeding using bolus feedings with galactose and mannitol. Pigs were killed after the last in vivo sugar absorption test and evaluated for NEC and the mid intestine was used for ex vivo measurements of hexose absorption. Microbiota profile and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels were...

  15. Caseinolytic activity of fruit extract from Opuntia ficus-indica on bovine, caprine, and ovine Sodium Caseinates

    OpenAIRE

    Pintado, Ana I.; Macedo, Angela C.; Teixeira, Grimaneza; Pais, Salomé; Clemente, Alda; Malcata, F. Xavier

    2001-01-01

    The rates and extents of hydrolysis of RS- and â-caseins from bovine, caprine, and ovine sodium caseinates produced by an enzymatic extract of the fruit of Opuntia ficusindica, (L.) Miller were evaluated and compared with those produced by a commercial animal rennet. A mechanistic model based on a pseudo-first-order enzymatic reaction, in the presence of first-order deactivation of the enzyme, was postulated and successfully fitted to the experimental data. The animal rennet ex...

  16. Allelic Frequency of Kappa-Casein and Beta-Lactoglobulin in Indian Crossbred (Bos taurus X Bos indicus) Dairy Bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Rajesh K.; Chauhan, Jenabhai B.; Singh, Krishna M.; Kalpesh J. Soni

    2007-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism test was performed on DNA samples extracted from blood samples of 256 Holstein Friesian crossbred and 112 from Jersey crossbred bulls/bull calves to detect allelic frequency of the bovine kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin gene responsible for milk production traits. A 350 bp fragment of kappa-casein and a 247 bp fragment of beta-lactoglobulin were amplified and digested with Hinf I and Hae III restriction enzymes, respec...

  17. Coagulation properties and Nostrano di Primiero cheese yield of milk from Brown grazing cows of different k-casein genotype

    OpenAIRE

    G. Gaiarin; W. Ventura; S. Bovolenta; E. Saccà

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variants of milk proteins affect composition, technological characteristics and, as a consequence, cheesemaking properties of milk (Jakob and Puhan, 1992; Mariani and Summer, 1999). The effects of αS1, β and k-caseins variants, on milk coagulation properties are well known (Grosclaude, 1988). Cheesemaking involving many cheese varieties showed shorter clotting and curd firming times, higher curd firmness and cheese yields with the k-casein BB variant (Van Den Berg et al., 1...

  18. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  19. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate ab

  20. Mesenteric IL-10-producing CD5(+) regulatory B cells suppress cow's milk casein-induced allergic responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A-Ram; Kim, Hyuk Soon; Kim, Do Kyun; Nam, Seung Taek; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Young Hwan; Lee, Dajeong; Lee, Min Bum; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Bokyung; Beaven, Michael A; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kim, Young Mi; Choi, Wahn Soo

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a hypersensitive immune reaction to food proteins. We have previously demonstrated the presence of IL-10-producing CD5(+) B cells and suggested their potential role in regulating cow's milk casein allergy in humans and IgE-mediated anaphylaxis in mice. In this study, we determined whether IL-10-producing CD5(+) regulatory B cells control casein-induced food allergic responses in mice and, if so, the underlying mechanisms. The induction of oral tolerance (OT) by casein suppressed casein-induced allergic responses including the decrease of body temperature, symptom score, diarrhea, recruitment of mast cells and eosinophils into jejunum, and other biological parameters in mice. Notably, the population of IL-10-producing CD5(+) B cells was increased in mesenteric lymph node (MLN), but not in spleen or peritoneal cavity (PeC) in OT mice. The adoptive transfer of CD5(+) B cells from MLN, but not those from spleen and PeC, suppressed the casein-induced allergic responses in an allergen-specific and IL-10-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of IL-10-producing CD5(+) B cells on casein-induced allergic response was dependent on Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. Taken together, mesenteric IL-10-producing regulatory B cells control food allergy via Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and could potentially act as a therapeutic regulator for food allergy. PMID:26785945

  1. Moleculer analysis of genotype kappa casein and composition of goat milk Etawah grade, Saanen and their crossbred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayu Zurriyati

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphism of goat casein gene closely linked to the quality of milk protein. κ-casein is one of the casein fractions that influence the shape and stability of grain milk. This study is aimed to identify the variation of genotype κ-casein and related with milk quality from Etawah grade, Saanen and their crossbreed (PE-SA. The number of dairy goats used in this study was 150 animals consisted of Etawah grade (48 animals, Saanen (51 animals and PE-SA (51 animals. Steps of experiment were: blood and milk sampling collection, DNA amplification by PCR and the product digestion using Pst1 enzyme, κ-casein gene sequencing and analyzing the quality of fresh milk. The results showed that κ-casein gene is monomorphic by PCR-RFLP (Pst1 for all the goat breeds, but DNA sequencing indicated 38 point of mutation. Observation on goat milk quality showed that Etawah grade milk had highest (P < 0.05 density value (1.033 ± 0.002 and solid non fat (9.577 ± 0.704% than those of Saanen and PE-SA fresh milk goat.

  2. Casein improves brachial and central aortic diastolic blood pressure in overweight adolescents: a randomised, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Karina; Larnkjær, Anni; Michaelsen, Kim F.;

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness, blood pressure (BP) and blood lipids may be improved by milk in adults and the effects may be mediated via proteins. However, limited is known about the effects of milk proteins on central aortic BP and no studies have examined the effects in children. Therefore, the present...... stiffness or blood lipid concentrations. A high intake of casein improves DBP in overweight adolescents. Thus, casein may be beneficial for younger overweight subjects in terms of reducing the longterm risk of CVD. In contrast, whey protein seems to increase BP compared with drinking water; however, water...... trial examined the effect of milk and milk proteins on brachial and central aortic BP, blood lipids, inflammation and arterial stiffness in overweight adolescents. A randomised controlled trial was conducted in 193 overweight adolescents aged 12–15 years. They were randomly assigned to drink 1 litre of...

  3. ANALYSIS OF POLYMORPHISM OF ALPHA S1 CASEIN OF SLOVAK PINZGAU CATTLE BY PCR-RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTINA MILUCHOVÁ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The work was oriented to identification of -s1 casein gene polymorphism and analysis of genotype structure in population of Slovak Pinzgau cattle. The material involved 93 cattle. Bovine genomic DNA was isolated by fenol-chlorophorm deprotenization and ethanol precipitation and used in order to estimate -s1 casein genotypes by means of PCR-RFLP method. The PCR products were digested with MaeIII restriction enzyme. In the population included in the study there were homozygote genotype BB (81 animals and heterozygote genotype BC (12 animals. Homozygote genotype CC has not been observed. In the total population of cattle homozygotes BB – 0.871 were the most frequent, while BC – 0.129 were the least frequent ones. This suggests a superiority of allele B – 0.9355.

  4. Genetic Structure of Alpha S1 Casein in Slovak Pinzgau Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trakovická

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The work was oriented to identification of -s1 casein gene polymorphism and analysis of genotype structure in population of Slovak Pinzgau cattle. The material involved 39 cattle. Bovine genomic DNA was isolated by commercial kit NucleoSpin Blood (Macherey-Nagel and ethanol precipitation and used in order to estimate -s1 casein genotypes by means of PCR-RFLP method. The PCR products were digested with MaeIII restriction enzyme. In the population included in the study, homozygote genotype BB (39 animals and heterozygote genotype BC (3 animals. Homozygote genotype CC has not been observed. In the total population of cattle homozygotes BB – 0.9231 were the most frequent, while BC – 0.0769 were the least frequent ones. This suggests a superiority of allele B – 0.9615.

  5. Water ingress into a casein film quantified using time-resolved neutron imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwalli, E; Hermes, H E; Calzada, E; Kulozik, U; Egelhaaf, S U; Müller-Buschbaum, P

    2016-03-01

    The migration of water into a casein film was probed with neutron radiography. From the neutron transmission images, the evolution of the water saturation profiles was extracted. The results indicate that the water influx is dominated by imbibition but also contains a diffusional component. The time dependence of the water ingress was quantified using a diffusion-like equation previously also applied to imbibition. A water transport coefficient D = 0.9 × 10(-9) m(2) s(-1) was found. This value and direct observation of the images indicate that the time taken for a typical adhesive casein-based layer to become saturated with water is of the order of hours. PMID:26862596

  6. α-Casein Inhibits Insulin Amyloid Formation by Preventing the Onset of Secondary Nucleation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librizzi, Fabio; Carrotta, Rita; Spigolon, Dario; Bulone, Donatella; San Biagio, Pier Luigi

    2014-09-01

    α-Casein is known to inhibit the aggregation of several proteins, including the amyloid β-peptide, by mechanisms that are not yet completely clear. We studied its effects on insulin, a system extensively used to investigate the properties of amyloids, many of which are common to all proteins and peptides. In particular, as for other proteins, insulin aggregation is affected by secondary nucleation pathways. We found that α-casein strongly delays insulin amyloid formation, even at extremely low doses, when the aggregation process is characterized by secondary nucleation. At difference, it has a vanishing inhibitory effect on the initial oligomer formation, which is observed at high concentration and does not involve any secondary nucleation pathway. These results indicate that an efficient inhibition of amyloid formation can be achieved by chaperone-like systems, by sequestering the early aggregates, before they can trigger the exponential proliferation brought about by secondary nucleation mechanisms. PMID:26278257

  7. Phosphorylation in vitro of human fibrinogen with casein kinase TS and characterization of phosphorylated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human fibrinogen was phosphorylated by casein kinase TS. The [32P]phosphate incorporated varied between 0.5 and 1 mol of phosphate per mole of fibrinogen. The phosphate was localized to Ser523 and Ser590 and serine and threonine residues between amino acids 259 and 268 in the A alpha-chain. In addition, Thr416 and Ser420 were phosphorylated in the gamma'-chain, which is a variant of the gamma-chain, constituting 7-10% of the gamma-chain population. The functional significance of casein kinase TS-induced phosphorylation of fibrinogen remains unknown; however, a slight but consistent increase of the turbidity in a gelation assay was observed for phosphorylated compared to unphosphorylated fibrinogen

  8. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  9. Activation of mammalian DNA ligase I through phosphorylation by casein kinase II.

    OpenAIRE

    Prigent, C.; Lasko, D D; Kodama, K.; Woodgett, J R; Lindahl, T

    1992-01-01

    Mammalian DNA ligase I has been shown to be a phosphoprotein. Dephosphorylation of purified DNA ligase I causes inactivation, an effect dependent on the presence of the N-terminal region of the protein. Expression of full-length human DNA ligase I in Escherichia coli yielded soluble but catalytically inactive enzyme whereas an N-terminally truncated form expressed activity. Incubation of the full-length preparation from E. coli with purified casein kinase II (CKII) resulted in phosphorylation...

  10. Hematein, a casein kinase II inhibitor, inhibits lung cancer tumor growth in a murine xenograft model

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Ming-Szu; Xu, Zhidong; Chen, Yu; Smith, Emmanuel; Mao, Jian-Hua; Hsieh, David; Lin, Yu-Ching; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Jablons, David M.; You, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CK2) inhibitors suppress cancer cell growth. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of a novel CK2 inhibitor, hematein, on tumor growth in a murine xenograft model. We found that in lung cancer cells, hematein inhibited cancer cell growth, Akt/PKB Ser129 phosphorylation, the Wnt/TCF pathway and increased apoptosis. In a murine xenograft model of lung cancer, hematein inhibited tumor growth without significant toxicity to the mice tested. Molecular docking showed t...

  11. The adsorption of lysozyme and chymosin onto emulsion droplets and their association with caseins

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, de, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The proteolytic action of proteases present in cheese plays a major role in the ripening of cheese. These proteases originate from the rennet, the starter cultures and from the milk itself. The proteolysis in cheese results in the degradation of the casein proteins into smaller peptides and free amino acids, which act as flavour precursors. The ripening of cheese under conditioned storage is time consuming and costly. Addition of specific enzymes to the cheese milk is one of several options t...

  12. Casein kinase I phosphorylates and destabilizes the β-catenin degradation complex

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zhong-Hua; Seeling, Joni M.; Hill, Virginia; Yochum, April; Virshup, David M.

    2002-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays a key role in cell proliferation and development. Recently, casein kinase I (CKI) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) have emerged as positive and negative regulators of the Wnt pathway, respectively. However, it is not clear how these two enzymes with opposing functions regulate Wnt signaling. Here we show that both CKIδ and CKIɛ interacted directly with Dvl-1, and that CKI phosphorylated multiple components of the Wnt-regulated β-catenin degradation complex in vitro, inclu...

  13. A Milk Protein, Casein, as a Proliferation Promoting Factor in Prostate Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung-Woo; Kim, Joo-Young; Kim, You-sun; Lee, Sang Jin; Lee, Sang Don; CHUNG, MOON KEE

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Despite most epidemiologic studies reporting that an increase in milk intake affects the growth of prostate cancer, the results of experimental studies are not consistent. In this study, we investigated the proliferation of prostate cancer cells treated with casein, the main protein in milk. Materials and Methods Prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and PC3), lung cancer cells (A459), stomach cancer cells (SNU484), breast cancer cells (MCF7), immortalized human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293)...

  14. How to Squeeze a Sponge: Casein Micelles under Osmotic Stress, a SAXS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchoux, Antoine; Gésan-Guiziou, Geneviève; Pérez, Javier; Cabane, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    By combining the osmotic stress technique with small-angle x-ray scattering measurements, we followed the structural response of the casein micelle to an overall increase in concentration. When the aqueous phase that separates the micelles is extracted, they behave as polydisperse repelling spheres and their internal structure is not affected. When they are compressed, the micelles lose water and shrink to a smaller volume. Our results indicate that this compression is nonaffine, i.e., some p...

  15. Genetic polymorphism of the K-casein (CSN3) gene in goats reared in Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Pilla; Antonella Angiolillo; Armand Sanchez; Josè Maria Folch; Mohamed Habib Yahyaoui; Silvia Reale

    2010-01-01

    K-casein (K-CN) represents one of the most important proteins determining the manufacturing properties of milk,because of its essential role in micelle formation and stabilisation.Several genetic variants of K-CN have been described in goats. To investigate the occurrence of seven alleles and theirdistribution among breeds, a total of 170 animals, from six different breeds reared in Italy (Cilentana Nera, Derivata diSiria, Maltese, Jonica, Garganica and Cashmere), have been analysed in this p...

  16. Does ultrafiltration have a lasting effect on the physico-chemical properties of the casein micelles?

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, Mary Ann; Alexander, Marcela; Corredig, Milena

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine if concentration of milk using ultrafiltration (in the absence of diafiltration) affects the physico-chemical properties of the casein micelles. The milk, once concentrated, was brought back to its original concentration and the physico-chemical properties as well as its susceptibility to rennet induced gelation were assessed. Although much is understood on the renneting behavior of concentrated milk, no information is available on how (or if) ultra...

  17. Casein nanoparticles as carriers for the oral delivery of folic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Peñalva, R. (Rebeca); Esparza, I; Agüeros, M.; Gonzalez-Navarro, C. (Carlos); Gonzalez-Ferrero, C. (Carolina); J.M. Irache

    2014-01-01

    Alimentary proteins can be viewed as an adequate material for the preparation of nanoparticles and microparticles. They offer several advantages such as their digestibility, price and a good capability to interact with a wide variety of compounds and nutrients. The aim of this work was to prepare and characterize casein nanoparticles for the oral delivery of folic acid. These nanoparticles were prepared by a coacervation process, stabilized with either lysine or arginine and, f...

  18. Gluten- and casein-free dietary intervention for autism spectrum conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eWhiteley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intervention as a tool for maintaining and improving physical health and wellbeing is a widely researched and discussed topic. Speculation that diet may similarly affect mental health and wellbeing particularly in cases of psychiatric and behavioural symptomatology opens up various avenues for potentially improving quality of life. We examine evidence suggestive that a gluten-free, casein-free or combined gluten- and casein-free diet can ameliorate core and peripheral symptoms and improve developmental outcome in some cases of autism spectrum conditions. Although not wholly affirmative, the majority of published studies indicate statistically significant positive changes to symptom presentation following dietary intervention. In particular, changes to areas of communication, attention and hyperactivity are detailed, despite the presence of various methodological shortcomings. Specific characteristics of best- and non-responders to intervention have not been fully elucidated; neither has the precise mode of action for any universal effect outside of known individual cases of food-related co-morbidity. With the publication of controlled medium- and long-term group studies of a gluten- and casein-free diet alongside more consolidated biological findings potentially linked to intervention, the appearance of a possible diet-related autism phenotype seems to be emerging supportive of a positive dietary effect in some cases. Further debate on whether such dietary intervention should form part of best practice guidelines for autism spectrum conditions and onward representative of an autism dietary-sensitive enteropathy is warranted.

  19. Antioxidative effect of yak milk caseinates hydrolyzed with three different proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Yak milk is a type of milk that people are less familiar with due to its remote geographical location which may havesignificant effects on composition, microbiota and hydrolytic outcome. Present work was designed with the aim to evaluatethe antioxidative effect of peptides derived from yak milk caseinate on hydrolysis with three different proteases.Materials and Methods: In this investigation Yak milk casein was hydrolyzed by three commercially available proteases(Trypsin, Pepsin and chymotrypsin. These hydrolysates collected at different hydrolysis times (30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120min, 150 min, 180 min, 210 min, 240 min, 270 min, 300 min, 330 min and 360 min were assayed for their antioxidant activitywith respect to the effect of incubation period.Results: Among all the enzyme hydrolysates, the tryptic hydrolysates showed highest antioxidant activity followed bychymotryptic hydrolysates. Further, the peptide samples showing highest activity were subjected to RP-HPLC for their partialcharacterization. Tryptic and peptic hydrolysates produced peaks mainly in the region of hydrophillic solvent indicating thepresence of hydrophillic peptides/peptides.Conclusion: The results indicated that yak milk casein could be a resource to generate antioxidative peptides and be used asmultifunctional active ingredients for many value-added functional foods as well as a traditional food protein.

  20. Genetic parameters for casein and urea content in the Italian Brown Swiss dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pedron

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 137,753 test day records of 20,745 Italian Brown Swiss dairy cows from 26 provinces of Italy were used to estimate heritability for casein and urea content in milk and their genetic correlations with other production traits and milk somatic cell score. Milk component values were obtained by Fourier Transformed Infrared (IR Spectroscopy from milk samples collected during national routine recording and were analysed using test day repeatability animal models. Fixed effects included 1,001 levels of herd-test date, 15 classes of days in milk, and 13 classes of age at calving within parity. The variation among cows was large for most of the traits. The heritability value for casein content was 0.31, as for protein content, and genetic and phenotypic correlations between these two traits were large (0.99 and 0.97 respectively. Milk urea content had a heritability of 0.17 and a positive genetic relationship with fat (0.12, null with protein (0.03 and casein (0.002 content and a negative genetic correlation with milk yield (-0.17 suggesting that the genetic improvement for milk urea content would be possible, but genetic gain would be affected by other traits included as selection criteria in the economic index and by their relative economic emphasis.

  1. Extracellular thermostable proteolytic activity of the milk spoilage bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PS19 on bovine caseins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuknytė, M; Decimo, M; Colzani, M; Silvetti, T; Brasca, M; Cattaneo, S; Aldini, G; De Noni, I

    2016-06-01

    We studied the thermostable proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens PS19 isolated from raw bovine milk. The heat-treated cell-free supernatant (HT-CFS) contained a thermostable protease of approximately 45 kDa, as revealed by casein zymography. We assigned this enzyme to P. fluorescens AprX metalloprotease (UniProtKB Acc. No. C9WKP6). After concentration by ultrafiltration at 10 kDa, the HT-CFS showed 2 other thermostable proteolytic bands on zymogram, with molecular masses of approximately 15 and 25 kDa. The former resulted a fragment of the AprX protease, whereas the 25-kDa protease was not homologous to any known protein of Pseudomonas spp. Subsequently, we assessed the proteolytic activity of the HT-CFS on bovine αS-, β-, and κ-casein during in vitro incubation at 7 or 22°C. By means of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry we identified the released peptides (n=591). Some of them resisted proteolysis during the whole incubation period at both incubation temperatures and, therefore, they could be assumed as indicators of the proteolytic action of P. fluorescens PS19 on bovine caseins. PMID:26995139

  2. Incorporation of radiolabeled whey proteins into casein micelles by heat processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skim milk was heated at .70, 95, and 140 degree C to simulate the processes of pasteurization, forewarming, and UHT sterilization, and the specific interactions between α-lactalbumin or β-lactoglobulin and the caseins studied using tracer amounts of added 14C-labeled whey protein. Radioactivities of the whey and of the washed casein pellets from renneted skim milk were measured and the extent of the interaction estimated. Upon heating skim milk at 70 degree C for 45 s, less than 2% β-lactoglobulin and less than .3% α-lactalbumin were incorporated into the curd. Heating at 95 degree C for .5 to 20 min resulted in 58 to 85% of the β-lactoglobulin and 8 to 55% of the α-lactalbumin becoming associated with the curd. Heating at 140 degree C for 2 and 4 s caused 43 and 54% of the β-lactoglobulin and 9 and 12% of the α-lactalbumin, respectively, to be bound to the curd fraction. The radiolabeling technique is very sensitive and useful for tracing low levels of interaction between whey proteins and casein in heated milk systems

  3. Structure and rheological behavior of casein micelle suspensions during ultrafiltration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignon, F.; Belina, G.; Narayanan, T.; Paubel, X.; Magnin, A.; Gésan-Guiziou, G.

    2004-10-01

    The stability and mechanism underlying the formation of deposits of casein micelles during ultrafiltration process were investigated by small-angle and ultra small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS and USAXS). The casein micelle dispersions consisted of phospho-caseinate model powders and the measurements probed length scales ranging from 1 to 2000 nm. Rheometric and frontal filtration measurements were combined with SAXS to establish the relationship between the rheological behavior of deposits (shear and/or compression) and the corresponding microstructure. The results revealed two characteristic length scales for the equilibrium structure with radius of gyrations Rg, about 100 and 5.6 nm pertaining to the globular micelles and their non-globular internal structure, respectively. The SAXS measurements further indicated that the increase of temperature from 20 to 70 °C or the decrease of pH from 6.6 to 6 lead to agglomeration of the globular micelles. In situ scattering measurements showed that the decrease of permeation flows is directly related to the deformation and compression of the micelles in the immediate vicinity of the membrane.

  4. Simulation of the shape and size of casein micelles in a film state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Ronald; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2014-04-01

    Size fractionated casein micelles (CMs) form homogeneous films in which they are densely packed. The lateral size of CMs in films can be well resolved by surface-sensitive methods, but the estimation of their heights is still a challenge. We show that height information can be obtained from scattering patterns of GISAXS experiments on highly ordered casein films. We use an elastic scattering approach within the distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) to simulate for the first time the two-dimensional intensity distribution of a GISAXS experiment of the CM near their critical angle. The model which fits the GISAXS data best considers an ellipsoidal form factor for the CM and an arrangement on a hexagonal lattice. Our results indicate that during film formation the spherical solution structure of CMs becomes compressed in the direction perpendicular to the film surface. In the film state, the micelles assume an oblate ellipsoidal shape with an aspect ratio of 1.9. Hence, their surface and contact area to the surrounding increases. As a result, the density of κ-casein on the micellar surface decreases, which could influence the functional properties of coatings and films. PMID:24569528

  5. Trichostatin A Inhibits β-Casein Expression in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujuguet, Philippe; Radisky, Derek; Levy, Dinah; Lacza, Charlemagne; Bissell, Mina J.

    2010-01-01

    Many aspects of cellular behavior are defined by the content of information provided by association of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and with cell membrane receptors. When cultured in the presence of laminin-containing ECM and prolactin (Prl), normal mammary epithelial cells express the milk protein β-casein. We have previously found that the minimal ECM- and Prl-responsive enhancer element BCE-1 was only active when stably integrated into chromatin, and that trichostatin A (TSA), a reagent that leads to alterations in chromatin structure, was able to activate the integrated enhancer element. We now show that endogenous β-casein gene, which is controlled by a genetic assembly that is highly similar to that of BCE-1 and which is also activated by incubation in ECM and Prl, is instead inhibited by TSA. We provide evidence that the differing response of β-casein and BCE-1 to TSA is neither due to an unusual effect of TSA on mammary epithelial cells, nor to secondary consequences from the expression of a separate gene, nor to a particular property of the BCE-1 construct. As a component of this investigation, we also showed that ECM mediated rapid histone deacetylation in mammary epithelial cells. These results are discussed in combination with previous work showing that TSA mediates the differentiation of many types of cancer cells but inhibits differentiation of some nonmalignant cell types. PMID:11746508

  6. Casein Kinase 1 Epsilon Expression Predicts Poorer Prognosis in Low T-Stage Oral Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hui Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Casein kinase 1 is a group of ubiquitous serine/threonine kinases that are involved in normal cellular functions and several pathological conditions, such as DNA repair, cell cycle progression, cytokinesis, differentiation, and apoptosis. Recent studies have indicated that casein kinase 1-epsilon (CK1ε and casein kinase 1-delta (CK1δ expression has a role in human cancers. We investigated the associations between CK1ε and CK1δ expression and the clinical parameters of oral cancer using immunohistochemical study methods on oral squamous cell carcinoma specimens. The results of our immunohistochemical analysis showed that the loss of CK1ε expression was greatly associated with a poor four-year survival rate in oral cancer patients (p = 0.002. A Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients who had a loss of CK1ε expression had a considerably poorer overall survival rate than patients who had positive CK1ε expressions (p = 0.022. A univariate analysis revealed that patients who had a loss of CK1ε expression had considerably poorer overall survival (OS than patients who had positive expression (p = 0.024, hazard ratio (HR = 1.7. In conclusion, our data indicated that the loss of cytoplasmic CK1ε expression is greatly associated with poor survival and might be an adverse survival factor.

  7. Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

  8. The Role of B-Lactoglobulin in the Development of the Core-and-Lining Structure of Casein Particles in Acid-Heat-Induced Milk Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Harwalkar, V. R.; Kalab, Miloslav

    1988-01-01

    Acid-heat-induced gels were obtained by coagulating casein micelle dispersions at 90 C using glucono-and-lactone. The casein micelles used were isolated from raw skim milk by centrifugation, washed free of whey proteins and soluble salts, and dispersed in water or a milk dialyzate. The pH values of the gels varied from 4.7 to 6.3. A core-and-lining ultrastructure developed in casein particles coagulated at pH 5.2 to 5.5 from casein micelle dispersions in the milk dialyzate provided that B-lac...

  9. Interactions of milk α- and β-casein with malvidin-3-O-glucoside and their effects on the stability of grape skin anthocyanin extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyong; Xu, Mingzhu; Zeng, Maomao; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2016-05-15

    The interactions of α- and β-casein with malvidin-3-O-glucoside (MG), the major anthocyanin in grape skin anthocyanin extracts (GSAE), were examined at pH 6.3 by fluorescence, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The binding constant (KS), binding force and effects of the interactions on the caseins conformation and GSAE stability were investigated. The results showed that α- and β-casein bound with MG via hydrophilic (van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonding) and hydrophobic interactions, respectively. α-Casein had a slightly stronger binding affinity toward MG than β-casein, with respective KS values of 0.51×10(3)M(-1) and 0.46×10(3)M(-1) at 297K. The secondary structures of α- and β-casein were changed by MG binding, with a decrease in α-helix and an increase in turn for α-casein and no change in α-helix and a decrease in turn for β-casein. The casein-anthocyanin interaction appeared to have a positive effect on the thermal, oxidation and photo stability of GSAE. PMID:26775977

  10. CALCIUM SOAP LUBRICANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Alaz, Izer; Tugce, Nefise; Devrim, Balköse

    2014-01-01

    The article studies the properties of calcium stearate (CaSt2) and lubricants produced on its basis. These lubricants were prepared using sodium stearate and calcium chloride by subsidence from aqueous solutions. The CaSt2 and the light fraction of crude oil were mixed together to obtain lubricating substances. The article shows that CaSt2 had the melting temperature of 142.8 C that is higher than the melting temperature of crude oil (128 C). The compositions of obtained lubricants were stu...

  11. Studies on the photophysical properties of 1,8-naphthalimide derivative and aggregation induced emission recognition for casein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yang, E-mail: 66160692@qq.com [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an University of Arts and Science, No. 168, Taibai South Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710065 (China); Liang, Xuhua; Fan, Jun [School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, No. 229, Taibai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Han, Quan, E-mail: xahanq@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an University of Arts and Science, No. 168, Taibai South Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710065 (China)

    2013-09-15

    A novel water-soluble 1,8-naphthalimide derivative 1, bearing two acetic carboxylic groups, exhibited fluorescent turn-on recognition for casein micelle based on the aggregation induced emission (AIE) character. The photophysical properties of 1 consisting of donor and acceptor units were investigated by the solvation effect. Changing from polar to non-polar solvent increased the solvent interaction; both the excitation and emission spectra were shifted to shorter wavelength and intensity decreased through taking advantage of twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) and self-association fluorescence emission. Moreover, the red-shift and quenching in protic solvent were caused by the excited-state hydrogen bond strengthening effect. The density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) were used to obtain the most stable structure, electronic excitation energy, dipole moments and charge distribution. The AIE mechanism of 1 with casein micelle was due to 1 docked in the hydrophobic cavity between sub-micelles and bound with amino acid residues, resulting in the aggregation of 1 on the casein micelle surface and emission enhancement, based on which, a novel casein assay method was developed. The proposed method exhibited a good linear range from 0.1 to 10.5 μg mL{sup −1}, with the detection limit of 3.0 ng mL{sup −1}. Satisfactory reproducibility, reversibility and a short response time were realized. This method was applied for the determination of casein in milk powder samples, avoiding the interferences from other components and illegal additives in milk. -- Highlights: • A water-soluble 1,8-naphthalimide-based fluorescent probe 1 was synthesized. • Photophysical characterization of 1 was studied. • Aggregation induced emission enhancement of 1 with casein was investigated. • A novel casein quantification method was developed.

  12. Skeletal effect of casein and whey protein intake during catch-up growth in young male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarwi, Majdi; Gabet, Yankel; Dolkart, Oleg; Brosh, Tamar; Shamir, Raanan; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the type of protein ingested influences the efficiency of catch-up (CU) growth and bone quality in fast-growing male rats. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were either fed ad libitum (controls) or subjected to 36 d of 40 % food restriction followed by 24 or 40 d of re-feeding with either standard rat chow or iso-energetic, iso-protein diets containing milk proteins - casein or whey. In terms of body weight, CU growth was incomplete in all study groups. Despite their similar food consumption, casein-re-fed rats had a significantly higher body weight and longer humerus than whey-re-fed rats in the long term. The height of the epiphyseal growth plate (EGP) in both casein and whey groups was greater than that of rats re-fed normal chow. Microcomputed tomography yielded significant differences in bone microstructure between the casein and whey groups, with the casein-re-fed animals having greater cortical thickness in both the short and long term in addition to a higher trabecular bone fraction in the short term, although this difference disappeared in the long term. Mechanical testing confirmed the greater bone strength in rats re-fed casein. Bone quality during CU growth significantly depends on the type of protein ingested. The higher EGP in the casein- and whey-re-fed rats suggests a better growth potential with milk-based diets. These results suggest that whey may lead to slower bone growth with reduced weight gain and, as such, may serve to circumvent long-term complications of CU growth. PMID:27189324

  13. Studies on the photophysical properties of 1,8-naphthalimide derivative and aggregation induced emission recognition for casein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel water-soluble 1,8-naphthalimide derivative 1, bearing two acetic carboxylic groups, exhibited fluorescent turn-on recognition for casein micelle based on the aggregation induced emission (AIE) character. The photophysical properties of 1 consisting of donor and acceptor units were investigated by the solvation effect. Changing from polar to non-polar solvent increased the solvent interaction; both the excitation and emission spectra were shifted to shorter wavelength and intensity decreased through taking advantage of twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) and self-association fluorescence emission. Moreover, the red-shift and quenching in protic solvent were caused by the excited-state hydrogen bond strengthening effect. The density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) were used to obtain the most stable structure, electronic excitation energy, dipole moments and charge distribution. The AIE mechanism of 1 with casein micelle was due to 1 docked in the hydrophobic cavity between sub-micelles and bound with amino acid residues, resulting in the aggregation of 1 on the casein micelle surface and emission enhancement, based on which, a novel casein assay method was developed. The proposed method exhibited a good linear range from 0.1 to 10.5 μg mL−1, with the detection limit of 3.0 ng mL−1. Satisfactory reproducibility, reversibility and a short response time were realized. This method was applied for the determination of casein in milk powder samples, avoiding the interferences from other components and illegal additives in milk. -- Highlights: • A water-soluble 1,8-naphthalimide-based fluorescent probe 1 was synthesized. • Photophysical characterization of 1 was studied. • Aggregation induced emission enhancement of 1 with casein was investigated. • A novel casein quantification method was developed

  14. Identification of casein kinase 1, casein kinase 2, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase-like activities in Trypanosoma evansi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Galán-Caridad

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma evansi contains protein kinases capable of phosphorylating endogenous substrates with apparent molecular masses in the range between 20 and 205 kDa. The major phosphopolypeptide band, pp55, was predominantly localized in the particulate fraction. Anti-alpha and anti-beta tubulin monoclonal antibodies recognized pp55 by Western blot analyses, suggesting that this band corresponds to phosphorylated tubulin. Inhibition experiments in the presence of emodin, heparin, and 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate indicated that the parasite tubulin kinase was a casein kinase 2 (CK2-like activity. GTP, which can be utilized instead of ATP by CK2, stimulated rather than inactivated the phosphorylation of tubulin in the parasite homogenate and particulate fraction. However, GTP inhibited the cytosolic CK2 responsible for phosphorylating soluble tubulin and other soluble substrates. Casein and two selective peptide substrates, P1 (RRKDLHDDEEDEAMSITA for casein kinase (CK1 and P2 (RRRADDSDDDDD for CK2, were recognized as substrates in T. evansi. While the enzymes present in the soluble fraction predominantly phosphorylated P1, P2 was preferentially labeled in the particulate fractions. These results demonstrated the existence of CK1-like and CK2-like activities primarily located in the parasite cytosolic and membranous fractions, respectively. Histone II-A and kemptide (LRRASVA also behaved as suitable substrates, implying the existence of other Ser/Thr kinases in T. evansi. Cyclic AMP only increased the phosphorylation of histone II-A and kemptide in the cytosol, demonstrating the existence of soluble cAMP-dependent protein kinase-like activities in T. evansi. However, no endogenous substrates for this enzyme were identified in this fraction. Further evidences were obtained by using PKI (6-22, a reported inhibitor of the catalytic subunit of mammalian cAMP-dependent protein kinases, which specifically hindered the cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of histone II

  15. A sensor for calcium uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Sean; Meyer, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria — the cell’s power plants — increase their energy production in response to calcium signals in the cytoplasm. A regulator of the elusive mitochondrial calcium channel has now been identified.

  16. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials Resources and Publications Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  17. Calcium ion channel and epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yudan Lü; Weihong Lin; Dihui Ma

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between calcium ion channel and epilepsy for well investigating the pathogenesis of epilepsy and probing into the new therapeutic pathway of epilepsy.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online research Calcium ion channel and epilepsy related articles published between January 1994 and December 2006 in the CKNI and Wanfang database with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy, calcium-channel blocker". The language was limited to Chinese. At the same time,related articles published between January 1993 and December 2006 in Pubmed were searched for on online with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy" in English.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were selected firstly. Inclusive criteria: ① Studies related to calcium ion channel and the pat1hogenesis of epilepsy. ② Studies on the application of calcium ion channel blocker in the treatment of epilepsy. Exclusive criteria: repetitive or irrelated studies.DATA EXTRACTION: According to the criteria, 123 articles were retrieved and 93 were excluded due to repetitive or irrelated studies. Altogether 30 articles met the inclusive criteria, 11 of them were about the structure and characters of calcium ion channel, 10 about calcium ion channel and the pathogenesis of epilepsy and 9 about calcium blocker and the treatment of epilepsy.DATA SYNTHESIS: Calcium ion channels mainly consist of voltage dependent calcium channel and receptor operated calcium channel. Depolarization caused by voltage gating channel-induced influxion is the pathological basis of epileptic attack, and it is found in many studies that many anti-epileptic drugs have potential and direct effect to rivalizing voltage-dependent calcium ion channel.CONCLUSION: Calcium influxion plays an important role in the seizure of epilepsy. Some calcium antagonists seen commonly are being tried in the clinical therapy of epilepsy that is being explored, not applied in clinical practice. If there are enough evidences to

  18. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about...

  19. Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.

    1991-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

  20. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine;

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and...... renal tubule and then discuss why not all gene defects that cause renal tubular acidosis are associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis....

  1. Ser2 is the autophosphorylation site in the beta subunit from bicistronically expressed human casein kinase-2 and from native rat liver casein kinase-2 beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; James, P; Staudenmann, W; Issinger, O G

    1993-01-01

    Human casein kinase-2 (CK-2) subunits alpha and beta were bicistronically expressed in bacteria. The recombinant holoenzyme shared all investigated properties with the native CK-2 from mammalian sources (rat liver, Krebs II mouse ascites tumour cells). Contrary to recombinant human CK-2 produced by...... self-assembly in vitro, the bicistronically expressed beta subunit was autophosphorylated during formation of the holoenzyme in bacteria. Electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI) revealed Ser2 (second amino acid, first serine) as the only phosphate acceptor site. Kinetic data obtained with...... either the phosphorylated or the unphosphorylated form of CK-2 did not differ significantly, suggesting that the autophosphorylation had no influence on the kinetic parameters Km and Vmax. In parallel, native rat liver CK-2 beta subunit was shown to incorporate 0.1 mol phosphate/mol holoenzyme, which...

  2. Utilization in rats of 14C-L-lysine-labeled casein browned by amino-carbonyl reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation was carried out in order to elucidate the reason for the reduction in nutritive value of browned protein, by using labeled casein as a model protein. Goat casein preparation in which lysine residues had been labeled with 14C was browned by amino-carbonyl reaction with glucose at 370C. Browned or non-browned casein was ingested by growing rats by spaced feeding. When the rats ingested the browned casein the experimental group, higher radioactivity was found in TCA-soluble fraction in the small intestine as compared with that in the control group, while radioactivity was scarecely found in feces for 22 hr. Along with absorption delay, considerably high radioactivity was found in urine. The recovery of radioactivity in expired air of rats fed the labeled casein (browned and non-browned) was measured. In the experimental group, expired 14CO2 came out slower than the control group. From these results, it is suggested that the main reason for the reduction in nutritive value by browning reaction may be the formation of a lysine derivative in a protein, which remains in the small intestinal lumen as an absorption-delayed material and is finally excreted in urine. (auth.)

  3. The effect of remin pro and MI paste plus on bleached enamel surface roughness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleh Heshmat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for enhanced esthetic appearance has led to great developments in bleaching products. The exposure of hard tissues of the tooth to bleaching agents can affect the roughness of the enamel surface. The freshly bleached enamel surface exposed to various surface treatments such as fluoride and other remineralizing agents have been assessed in this study. The aim of this experimental study was to compare the effect of Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate with Fluoride (MI Paste Plus and Remin Pro on the enamel surface roughness after bleaching.Thirty enamel samples of sound human permanent molars were prepared for this study. After initial roughness measurement with profilometer, the samples were exposed to 37% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent 20 minutes twice, and randomly divided into three groups of ten. In group 1, a CPP-ACPF containing paste (MI Paste Plus and in group 2, Remin Pro were applied to the teeth during a 15 day period for 5 minutes, twice a day. Samples of group 3 (control were immersed in artificial saliva for 15 days. The roughness of all samples were measured at the beginning, after bleaching and after the study intervention and statistically analyzed.The surface roughness significantly increased in all groups following bleaching, and then it showed a decrease after application of both Remin Pro and CPP-ACPF in comparison to using bleaching agent (P0.05.There was no difference between surface roughness of MI Paste Plus and Remin Pro groups. Also the surface roughness was decreased compared to the initial enamel surface roughness.

  4. Effects of Treatment with Various Remineralizing Agents on the Microhardness of Demineralized Enamel Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiana Salehzadeh Esfahani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Remineralization of incipient caries is one of the goals in dental health care. The present study aimed at comparing the effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate complex (CPP-ACP, Remin Pro®, and 5% sodium fluoride varnish on remineralization of enamel lesions. Materials and methods. In this in vitro study, 60 enamel samples were randomly allocated to six groups of 10. After four days of immersion in demineralizing solution, microhardness of all samples was measured. Afterward, groups 1-3 under-went one-time treatment with fluoride varnish, CPP-ACP, and Remin Pro®, respectively. Microhardness of groups 4-6 was measured not only after one-month treatment with the above-mentioned materials (for eight hours a day, but also after re-exposing to the demineralizing solution. The results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, repeated measures ANOVA, and Fisher’s least significant difference (LSD test. Results. None of the regimens could increase microhardness in groups 1-3. However, one-month treatment regimens in groups 4-6 caused a significant increase in microhardness. The greatest microhardness was detected in the group treated with CPP-ACP (P = 0.001. In addition, although microhardness reduced following re-demineralization in all three groups, the mean reduction was minimum in the CPP-ACP-treated group (P < 0.001. Conclusion. While long-term repeated application of all compounds improved microhardness, the remineralization potential of CPP-ACP was significantly higher than that of Remin Pro® and sodium fluoride varnish.

  5. Effect of cpp-acp on the bond strength of silorane and methacrylate based restorative systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de Castro Ferreira Barreto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of the previous application of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP on the bond strength of two restorative systems to dentin. Self-etching adhesive systems Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray and FiltekTM LS System Adhesive (3M ESPE were used in combination with two micro-hybrid composites FiltekTM Z250 (3M ESPE and FiltekTM LS (3M ESPE, respectively. Twenty-eight sound human third molars had the occlusal surface worn until the total exposure of dentin and were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 7: G1 (Clearfil + Z250, G2 (CPP-ACP + Clearfil + Z250, G3 (LS system and G4 (CPP-ACP + LS system. The application of the paste containing CPP-ACP was held in the dentin of G2 and G4 prior to adhesive protocol, which followed the manufacturer's recommendations. Two cylinders of a single increment of resin composite were built on each dentin surface using tygon`s matrix with 1.26 mm of diameter x 1 mm high and light-cured with LED Bluephase 16i (Vivadent apparatus. Microshear bond strength test was conducted in a universal testing machine (EZ Test, Shimadzu with a speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data were subjected to two-way ANOVA test with a significance of 5%. There was no significant difference on bond strength between restorative systems with or without the previous use of a CPP-ACP paste. It was concluded that the application of CPP-ACP in the dentin prior to adhesive protocol did not influence the bond strength of the restorative systems tested.

  6. Effect of an Experimental Paste with Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles and Fluoride on Dental Demineralisation and Remineralisation in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Beatriz M; Comar, Livia P; Vertuan, Mariele; Fernandes Neto, Constantino; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of an experimental paste containing hydroxyapatite in nanoparticles (nano-HA)/fluoride on dental de-remineralisation in situ. Thirteen subjects took part in this crossover/randomised/double-blind study performed in 4 phases (14 days each). Four sound and 4 pre-demineralised specimens were worn intraorally at each phase corresponding to the following treatments: Nanop Plus (10% HA, 0.2% NaF, nano-HA/fluoride), MI Paste Plus (casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate, 0.2% NaF), F (0.2% NaF) and placebo. Two-hundred and forty enamel and 240 dentine specimens were selected by using surface microhardness; half of them were subjected to pre-demineralisation and the other half remained sound. Sound specimens were further exposed to severe cariogenic challenge (20% sucrose in biofilm) in situ, while pre-demineralised specimens were not. All specimens were exposed to fluoride dentifrice slurry 2×1 min/day. Thereafter, the treatments were done for 4 min. The de-remineralisation was quantified by transversal microradiography. The data were statistically analysed by repeated-measures ANOVA/Tukey's tests (p<0.05). Generally, no huge differences were found among the treatments. However, Nanop Plus was the only treatment able to significantly reduce dentine demineralisation (x0394;Z, integrated mineral loss) and to improve enamel remineralisation (x0394;x0394;Z, integrated mineral uptake) compared to placebo. No treatments were able to reduce enamel demineralisation, while for dentine remineralisation all treatments were similarly effective in improving x0394;x0394;Z compared to placebo. Nanop Plus seems to have a positive influence on dental de-remineralisation, which should be further confirmed. PMID:26278685

  7. Effect of CPP-ACP Paste on Enamel Carious Lesion of Primary Upper Anterior Teeth Assessed by Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence: A One-Year Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitthisettapong, Thanya; Doi, Takashi; Nishida, Yuhei; Kambara, Masaki; Phantumvanit, Prathip

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of 1 year of daily application of 10% w/v CPP-ACP (casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate) paste in addition to regular toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste on the remineralization of enamel carious lesions in preschool children using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). A total of 103 Thai children (aged 2(1)/2-3(1)/2 years) with high caries risk who had at least 1 enamel carious lesion (ICDAS 1-3) on the labial surface of the upper anterior teeth were assigned to receive either CPP-ACP paste (n = 53) or placebo control (n = 50) following toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste after lunch at school. QLF measurement was performed at baseline, 6 months and 1 year. At 1 year, a significant reduction in fluorescence loss (ΔF), lesion area and lesion volume (ΔQ; p ≤ 0.001) of the lesions were found over time in both groups. However, no significant difference was observed between the groups (p = 0.79, 0.98 and 0.88, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between the odds of ΔQ transition to a stage of regression or arrest compared with progression from baseline to 1 year between the two groups (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.31-3.39). The daily application of 10% w/v CPP-ACP paste on a school day for 1 year resulted in no improvement of enamel carious lesion remineralization in the primary upper anterior teeth as assessed by QLF. The lesion improvement was not superior to remineralization from regular toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste alone in these children. PMID:26228178

  8. Effects of Treatment with Various Remineralizing Agents on the Microhardness of Demineralized Enamel Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehzadeh Esfahani, Kiana; Mazaheri, Romina; Pishevar, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Remineralization of incipient caries is one of the goals in dental health care. The present study aimed at comparing the effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate complex (CPP-ACP), Remin Pro(®), and 5% sodium fluoride varnish on remineralization of enamel lesions. Materials and methods. In this in vitro study, 60 enamel samples were randomly allocated to six groups of 10. After four days of immersion in demineralizing solution, microhardness of all samples was measured. Afterward, groups 1-3 underwent one-time treatment with fluoride varnish, CPP-ACP, and Remin Pro(®), respectively. Microhardness of groups 4-6 was measured not only after one-month treatment with the above-mentioned materials (for eight hours a day), but also after re-exposing to the demineralizing solution. The results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), repeated measures ANOVA, and Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) test. Results . None of the regimens could increase microhardness in groups 1-3. However, one-month treatment regimens in groups 4-6 caused a significant increase in microhardness. The greatest microhardness was detected in the group treated with CPP-ACP (P = 0.001). In addition, although microhardness reduced following re-demineralization in all three groups, the mean reduction was minimum in the CPP-ACP-treated group (P < 0.001). Conclusion. While long-term repeated application of all compounds improved microhardness, the remineralization potential of CPP-ACP was significantly higher than that of Remin Pro(®) and sodium fluoride varnish. PMID:26889361

  9. Effect of insoluble calcium concentration on endogenous syneresis rate in rennet-coagulated bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J; Horne, D S; Lucey, J A

    2015-09-01

    constant for endogenous syneresis. In the EDTA trial, with an increase in the EDTA concentration no maximum was observed in the rate constants related to proteolysis of κ-casein hairs or crosslinking of these activated sites. The rate constant for endogenous syneresis decreased at higher EDTA levels. The different rheological/modeling behavior in the EDTA trials was likely due to the very significant inhibition of rennet gelation induced by the use of EDTA, which also resulted in extremely long reaction times. Our modified Carlson model fit our experimental pH trial data very well, which indicates that the rennet gel system has the potential to synerese from the start; indeed this ability is an innate property of the casein micelle. Endogenous syneresis was enhanced by the loss of insoluble calcium phosphate crosslinking within casein micelles as this increased bond mobility within rennet gels. PMID:26188568

  10. Casein SNP in Norwegian goats: additive and dominance effects on milk composition and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Sigbjørn

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The four casein proteins in goat milk are encoded by four closely linked casein loci (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2 and CSN3 within 250 kb on caprine chromosome 6. A deletion in exon 12 of CSN1S1, so far reported only in Norwegian goats, has been found at high frequency (0.73. Such a high frequency is difficult to explain because the national breeding goal selects against the variant's effect. Methods In this study, 575 goats were genotyped for 38 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP located within the four casein genes. Milk production records of these goats were obtained from the Norwegian Dairy Goat Control. Test-day mixed models with additive and dominance fixed effects of single SNP were fitted in a model including polygenic effects. Results Significant additive effects of single SNP within CSN1S1 and CSN3 were found for fat % and protein %, milk yield and milk taste. The allele with the deletion showed additive and dominance effects on protein % and fat %, and overdominance effects on milk quantity (kg and lactose %. At its current frequency, the observed dominance (overdominance effects of the deletion allele reduced its substitution effect (and additive genetic variance available for selection in the population substantially. Conclusions The selection pressure of conventional breeding on the allele with the deletion is limited due to the observed dominance (overdominance effects. Inclusion of molecular information in the national breeding scheme will reduce the frequency of this deletion in the population.

  11. Comparative study of glycine, alanine or casein as inert nitrogen sources in endotoxemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambon-Savanovitch, C; Felgines, C; Farges, M C; Raul, F; Cézard, J P; Davot, P; Vasson, M P; Cynober, L A

    1999-10-01

    Pharmacological effects of dietary amino acids (AA) and peptides must be compared to an isonitrogenous control that is as inert as possible. To establish a rationale for the choice of such a control, potential metabolic and nutritional effects of three currently used nitrogenous controls (glycine, alanine, and casein) were evaluated in an endotoxemic rat model that has well-defined alterations in AA and protein metabolism. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (113 +/- 1 g) were randomly assigned to four groups and received at d 0 an intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin (3 mg/kg). After withdrawal of food for 24 h, the rats were enterally refed for 48 h with a liquid diet (Osmolite((R))) supplemented with 0.19 g N. kg(-1). d(-1) in the form of glycine [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-GLY group], alanine (LPS-ALA group) or casein (LPS-CAS group). One group (LPS group) received only Osmolite((R)). Plasma, two skeletal muscles, the liver and the intestine were then removed. Body and tissue weights and tissue protein contents did not differ among the four groups. Intestine histomorphometry showed no significant difference among groups. Jejunal hydrolase activities were significantly affected by the nitrogenous supplementations, but no effect was observed in the ileum. Only limited significant effects were observed on plasma and tissue-free AA concentrations, except for an accumulation of glycine in the plasma and tissues from the LPS-GLY group, compared to other groups. Overall, whereas glycine as a nitrogenous control should be used with care, either alanine or casein may be used as the "placebo," with the choice depending on the study to be performed. PMID:10498760

  12. Celecoxib Encapsulation in β-Casein Micelles: Structure, Interactions, and Conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turovsky, Tanya; Khalfin, Rafail; Kababya, Shifi; Schmidt, Asher; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Danino, Dganit

    2015-07-01

    β-Casein is a 24 kDa natural protein that has an open conformation and almost no folded or secondary structure, and thus is classified as an intrinsically unstructured protein. At neutral pH, β-casein has an amphiphilic character. Therefore, in contrast to most unstructured proteins that remain monomeric in solution, β-casein self-assembles into well-defined core-shell micelles. We recently developed these micelles as potential carriers for oral administration of poorly water-soluble pharmaceuticals, using celecoxib as a model drug. Herein we present deep and precise insight into the physicochemical characteristics of the protein-drug formulation, both in bulk solution and in dry form, emphasizing drug conformation, packing properties and aggregation state. In addition, the formulation is extensively studied in terms of structure and morphology, protein/drug interactions and physical stability. Particularly, NMR measurements indicated strong drug-protein interactions and noncrystalline drug conformation, which is expected to improve drug solubility and bioavailability. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) were combined for nanostructural characterization, proving that drug-protein interactions lead to well-defined spheroidal micelles that become puffier and denser upon drug loading. Dynamice light scattering (DLS), turbidity measurements, and visual observations complemented the analysis for determining formulation structure, interactions, and stability. Additionally, it was shown that the loaded micelles retain their properties through freeze-drying and rehydration, providing long-term physical and chemical stability. Altogether, the formulation seems greatly promising for oral drug delivery. PMID:26068530

  13. Casein Kinase II Phosphorylation of the Yeast Phospholipid Synthesis Transcription Factor Opi1p*

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yu-Fang; Carman, George M.

    2006-01-01

    The transcription factor Opi1p regulates phospholipid synthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by repressing the expression of several UASINO-containing genes (e.g., INO1). Opi1p repressor activity is most active in inositol-supplemented cells. Regulation of Opi1p repressor activity is mediated by multiple phosphorylations catalyzed by protein kinases A and C. In this work, we showed that Opi1p was also phosphorylated by casein kinase II. Using purified maltose binding protein (MBP)-Op...

  14. The p53 tumour suppressor protein is phosphorylated at serine 389 by casein kinase II.

    OpenAIRE

    Meek, D W; Simon , S; Kikkawa, U; Eckhart, W

    1990-01-01

    The entire coding sequence of wild-type mouse p53 was expressed in Escherichia coli under control of the PL promoter of bacteriophage lambda. The bacterial p53 protein had identical mobility to p53 from SV3T3 cells on SDS polyacrylamide gels and was recognized in bacterial lysates by three p53-specific monoclonal antibodies, including PAb246 which is specific for wild-type mouse p53. Immunoprecipitates of the bacterial p53 were phosphorylated by a highly purified preparation of rat casein kin...

  15. Mechanism of Regulation of Casein Kinase I Activity by Group I Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Feng; Virshup, David M.; Nairn, Angus C.; Greengard, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Previously, we reported that (S)-3,5-dihydroxypenylglycine (DHPG), an agonist for group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), stimulates CK1 and Cdk5 kinase activities in neostriatal neurons, leading to enhanced phosphorylation, respectively, of Ser-137 and Thr-75 of DARPP-32 (dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 32 kDa). We have now investigated the signaling pathway that leads from mGluRs to casein kinase 1 (CK1) activation. In mouse neostriatal slices, the effect of DHPG on p...

  16. Casein kinase II phosphorylation increases the rate of serum response factor-binding site exchange.

    OpenAIRE

    Marais, R M; Hsuan, J J; McGuigan, C.; Wynne, J; Treisman, R

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant baculoviruses were used to express wild-type serum response factor (SRF) and a mutant, SRF.CKIIA, which lacks all four serine residues in the major casein kinase II (CKII) site at residues 77-90. Purified recombinant SRF binds DNA with an affinity and specificity indistinguishable from that of HeLa cell SRF, and activates transcription in vitro. Comparative phosphopeptide analysis of the wild-type and mutant proteins demonstrated that the wild-type protein is phosphorylated at the...

  17. Sequential Activation and Inactivation of Dishevelled in the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway by Casein Kinases

    OpenAIRE

    Bernatik, Ondrej; Ganji, Ranjani Sri; Dijksterhuis, Jacomijn P.; Konik, Peter; Cervenka, Igor; Polonio, Tilman; Krejci, Pavel; Schulte, Gunnar; Bryja, Vitezslav

    2011-01-01

    Dishevelled (Dvl) is a key component in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Dvl can multimerize to form dynamic protein aggregates, which are required for the activation of downstream signaling. Upon pathway activation by Wnts, Dvl becomes phosphorylated to yield phosphorylated and shifted (PS) Dvl. Both activation of Dvl in Wnt/β-catenin signaling and Wnt-induced PS-Dvl formation are dependent on casein kinase 1 (CK1) δ/ϵ activity. However, the overexpression of CK1 was shown to dissolve Dv...

  18. REGγ deficiency promotes premature aging via the casein kinase 1 pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lei; Zhao, Dengpan; Wei, Haibin; Yao, Liangfang; Dang, Yongyan; Amjad, Ali; Xu, Jinjin; Liu, Jiang; Guo, Linjie; Li, Dongqing; Li, Zhen; Zuo, Di; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jian; Huang, Shixia

    2013-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest a role for the proteasome activator REG (11S regulatory particles, 28-kDa proteasome activator)γ in the regulation of tumor protein 53 (p53). However, the molecular details and in vivo biological significance of REGγ-p53 interplay remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that REGγ-deficient mice develop premature aging phenotypes that are associated with abnormal accumulation of casein kinase (CK) 1δ and p53. Antibody array analysis led us to identify CK1δ as a direct t...

  19. Inhibition of the Casein-Kinase-1-Epsilon/Delta Prevents Relapse-Like Alcohol Drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Perreau-Lenz, Stéphanie; Vengeliene, Valentina; Noori, Hamid R.; Merlo-Pich, Emilio V.; Corsi, Mauro A; Corti, Corrado; Spanagel, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, it has been shown that circadian clock genes have more than a simple circadian time-keeping role. Clock genes also modulate motivational processes and have been implicated in the development of psychiatric disorders such as drug addiction. Recent studies indicate that casein-kinase 1ɛ/δ (CK1ɛ/δ)—one of the components of the circadian molecular clockwork—might be involved in the etiology of addictive behavior. The present study was initiated to study the specific role o...

  20. Effects of Whey, Caseinate, or Milk Protein Ingestion on Muscle Protein Synthesis after Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi Kanda; Kyosuke Nakayama; Chiaki Sanbongi; Masashi Nagata; Shuji Ikegami; Hiroyuki Itoh

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein (WP) is characterized as a “fast” protein and caseinate (CA) as a “slow” protein according to their digestion and absorption rates. We hypothesized that co-ingestion of milk proteins (WP and CA) may be effective for prolonging the muscle protein synthesis response compared to either protein alone. We therefore compared the effect of ingesting milk protein (MP) to either WP or CA alone on muscle protein synthesis after exercise in rats. We also compared the effects of these milk-d...