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Sample records for casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium

  1. Effects of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate paste on white spot lesions and dental plaque after orthodontic treatment: a 3-month follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerens, M.W.; van der Veen, M.H.; van Beek, H.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate (CPP-ACFP) paste vs. control paste on the remineralization of white spot caries lesions and on plaque composition were tested in a double-blind prospective randomized clinical trial. Fifty-four orthodontic patients, with multi

  2. Preliminary study of a novel in-office bleaching therapy modified with a casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra; Pinheiro, Mônica Heloisa Morais; Feitosa, Diala Aretha De Sousa; Correia, Tereza Cristina; Braz, Rodivan; Montes, Marcos Antônio Japiassú Resende; Pinheiro, Isauremi Vieira De Assunção

    2012-11-01

    Although in-office bleaching has been proven successful for bleaching teeth, controversy exists from morphological alterations in enamel morphology due to mineral loss and tooth sensitivity. This preliminary study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a novel in-office tooth bleaching technique modified with a casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste (MI paste-MI) and its effect on the enamel morphology and tooth sensitivity. Three patients received a 35% hydrogen peroxide (Whiteness HP-HP) dental bleaching system. HP was prepared and applied on the teeth on one of the hemiarches, whilst teeth on the other hemiarch were bleached with a mixture of HP and MI. Tooth color, epoxy resin replicas, and sensitivity levels were evaluated in the upper incisors. The results were analyzed descriptively. Right and left incisors showed similar color change after bleaching. Incisors bleached with the mixture of HP and MI presented unaltered enamel surfaces and lower sensitivity levels. The currently tested tooth bleaching technique did not reduce the gel effectiveness while decreasing hypersensitivity levels and protecting the enamel against surface alterations caused by the high-concentration bleaching peroxide tested. The concomitant use of MI Paste and high-concentration hydrogen peroxide might be a successful method for decreasing tooth sensitivity and limiting changes in the enamel morphology during in-office bleaching.

  3. Role of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate in remineralization of white spot lesions and inhibition of Streptococcus mutans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisht, Ruchi; Indira, Rajamani; Ramachandran, S; Kumar, Anil; Srinivasan, Manali Ramakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To promote the remineralization by ionic exchange mechanism instead of invasive techniques many remineralizing agents can be used. Objective: To evaluate the remineralization effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on white spot lesions (WSLs) and its inhibitory effect on Streptococcus mutans colonization. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 60 subjects exhibiting at least 1-WSL. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: A test group using CPP-ACP cream (GC-Tooth Mousse, Leuven, Belgium) and a control group using only fluoride containing toothpaste for a period of 3-month. Baseline WSLs were scored using DIAGNOdent device (KaVo Germany) and the saliva samples were collected to measure S. mutans counts. After the 3-month period the WSLs were again recorded and the saliva collection was repeated. Result: DIAGNOdent measurements were increased by time (P = 0.002) in the control group and no statistically significant difference (P = 0.217) was found in the test group by the 3-month period. In both groups, the mutans counts were decreased in the 3-month experimental period. Conclusion: These clinical and laboratory results suggested that CPP-ACP containing cream had a slight remineralization effect on the WSL in the 3-month evaluation period however, longer observation is recommended to confirm whether the greater change in WSLs is maintained. PMID:23956538

  4. Role of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate in remineralization of white spot lesions and inhibition of Streptococcus mutans?

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    Ruchi Vashisht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To promote the remineralization by ionic exchange mechanism instead of invasive techniques many remineralizing agents can be used. Objective: To evaluate the remineralization effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP on white spot lesions (WSLs and its inhibitory effect on Streptococcus mutans colonization. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 60 subjects exhibiting at least 1-WSL. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: A test group using CPP-ACP cream (GC-Tooth Mousse, Leuven, Belgium and a control group using only fluoride containing toothpaste for a period of 3-month. Baseline WSLs were scored using DIAGNOdent device (KaVo Germany and the saliva samples were collected to measure S. mutans counts. After the 3-month period the WSLs were again recorded and the saliva collection was repeated. Result: DIAGNOdent measurements were increased by time (P = 0.002 in the control group and no statistically significant difference (P = 0.217 was found in the test group by the 3-month period. In both groups, the mutans counts were decreased in the 3-month experimental period. Conclusion: These clinical and laboratory results suggested that CPP-ACP containing cream had a slight remineralization effect on the WSL in the 3-month evaluation period however, longer observation is recommended to confirm whether the greater change in WSLs is maintained.

  5. Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Reduces Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Development on Glass Ionomer Cement and Disrupts Established Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sze-Wei; Myroforidis, Helen; Zalizniak, Ilya; Palamara, Joseph E. A.; Huq, N. Laila; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are dental restorative materials that are suitable for modification to help prevent dental plaque (biofilm) formation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incorporating casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) into a GIC on the colonisation and establishment of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and the effects of aqueous CPP-ACP on established S mutans biofilms. S. mutans biofilms were either established in flow cells before a single ten min exposure to 1% w/v CPP-ACP treatment or cultured in static wells or flow cells with either GIC or GIC containing 3% w/w CPP-ACP as the substratum. The biofilms were then visualised using confocal laser scanning microscopy after BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining. A significant decrease in biovolume and average thickness of S. mutans biofilms was observed in both static and flow cell assays when 3% CPP-ACP was incorporated into the GIC substratum. A single ten min treatment with aqueous 1% CPP-ACP resulted in a 58% decrease in biofilm biomass and thickness of established S. mutans biofilms grown in a flow cell. The treatment also significantly altered the structure of these biofilms compared with controls. The incorporation of 3% CPP-ACP into GIC significantly reduced S. mutans biofilm development indicating another potential anticariogenic mechanism of this material. Additionally aqueous CPP-ACP disrupted established S. mutans biofilms. The use of CPP-ACP containing GIC combined with regular CPP-ACP treatment may lower S. mutans challenge. PMID:27589264

  6. Clinical evaluation of remineralization potential of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplexes for enamel decalcification in orthodontics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-xiang; YAN Yan; WANG Xiu-jing

    2012-01-01

    Background Enamel decalcification in orthodontics is a concern for dentists and methods to remineralize these lesions are the focus of intense research.The aim of this study was to evaluate the remineralizing effect of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate(CPP-ACP)nanocomplexes on enamel decalcification in orthodontics.Methods Twenty orthodontic patients with decalcified enamel lesions during fixed orthodontic therapy were recruited to this study as test group and twenty orthodontic patients with the similar condition as control group.GC Tooth Mousse,the main component of which is CPP-ACP,was used by each patient of test group every night after tooth-brushing for six months.For control group,each patient was asked to brush teeth with toothpaste containing 1100 parts per million(ppm)of fluoride twice a day.Standardized intraoral images were taken for all patients and the extent of enamel decalcification was evaluated before and after treatment over this study period.Measurements were statistically compared by t test.Results After using CPP-ACP for six months,the enamel decalcification index(EDI)of all patients had decreased;the mean EDI before using CPP-ACP was 0.191±0.025 and that after using CPP-ACP was 0.183±0.023,the difference was significant(t=5.169,P<0.01).For control group,the mean EDI before treatment was 0.188±0.037 and that after treatment was 0.187±0.046,the difference was not significant(t=1.711,P>0.05).Conclusion CPP-ACP can effectively improve the demineralized enamel lesions during orthodontic treatment,so it has some remineralization potential for enamel decalcification in orthodontics.

  7. Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Reduces Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Development on Glass Ionomer Cement and Disrupts Established Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashper, Stuart G; Catmull, Deanne V; Liu, Sze-Wei; Myroforidis, Helen; Zalizniak, Ilya; Palamara, Joseph E A; Huq, N Laila; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are dental restorative materials that are suitable for modification to help prevent dental plaque (biofilm) formation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incorporating casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) into a GIC on the colonisation and establishment of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and the effects of aqueous CPP-ACP on established S mutans biofilms. S. mutans biofilms were either established in flow cells before a single ten min exposure to 1% w/v CPP-ACP treatment or cultured in static wells or flow cells with either GIC or GIC containing 3% w/w CPP-ACP as the substratum. The biofilms were then visualised using confocal laser scanning microscopy after BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining. A significant decrease in biovolume and average thickness of S. mutans biofilms was observed in both static and flow cell assays when 3% CPP-ACP was incorporated into the GIC substratum. A single ten min treatment with aqueous 1% CPP-ACP resulted in a 58% decrease in biofilm biomass and thickness of established S. mutans biofilms grown in a flow cell. The treatment also significantly altered the structure of these biofilms compared with controls. The incorporation of 3% CPP-ACP into GIC significantly reduced S. mutans biofilm development indicating another potential anticariogenic mechanism of this material. Additionally aqueous CPP-ACP disrupted established S. mutans biofilms. The use of CPP-ACP containing GIC combined with regular CPP-ACP treatment may lower S. mutans challenge.

  8. Effects of the addition of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on mechanical properties of luting and lining glass ionomer cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heravi, Farzin; Bagheri, Hossein; Rangrazi, Abdolrasoul; Mojtaba Zebarjad, Seyed

    2016-07-01

    Recently, the addition of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) into glass ionomer cements (GICs) has attracted interest due to its remineralization of teeth and its antibacterial effects. However, it should be investigated to ensure that the incorporation of CPP-ACP does not have significant adverse effects on its mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of CPP-ACP on the mechanical properties of luting and lining GIC. The first step was to synthesize the CPP-ACP. Then the CPP-ACP at concentrations of 1%, 1.56% and 2% of CPP-ACP was added into a luting and lining GIC. GIC without CPP-ACP was used as a control group. The results revealed that the incorporation of CPP-ACP up to 1.56%(w/w) increased the flexural strength (29%), diametral tensile strength (36%) and microhardness (18%), followed by a reduction in these mechanical properties at 2%(w/w) CPP-ACP. The wear rate was significantly decreased (23%) in 1.56%(w/w) concentration of CPP-ACP and it was increased in 2%(w/w). Accordingly, the addition of 1.56%(w/w) CPP-ACP into luting and lining GIC had no adverse effect on the mechanical properties of luting and lining GIC and could be used in clinical practice.

  9. Effect of the application of a casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste and adhesive systems on bond durability of a fissure sealant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra; Catelan, Anderson; Sasaki, Robson Tetsuo; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Reis, André Figueiredo; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the previous application of a casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste (MI Paste, MI) and adhesive systems on the bond durability of a fissure sealant. Ninety-eight enamel blocks were obtained from proximal surfaces of erupted third molars. Specimens were divided into 14 groups (n = 7) according to the previous application of MI (with and without) and the adhesive systems used (no adhesive system; hydrophobic resin of a three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system; etch-and-rinse single-bottle adhesive system; all-in-one adhesive system; two-step self-etching adhesive system; additional phosphoric acid conditioning and all-in-one adhesive system; additional phosphoric acid conditioning and two-step self-etching adhesive system). A fissure sealant (Fluroshield) was applied and photoactivated for 20 s. Beams (~0.7 mm(2)) were prepared for the microtensile bond strength test, which was executed after 24 h or 6 months of water storage. Fractured specimens were analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA with repeated measures/Tukey's test (P adhesive systems presented higher means than those groups where MI was not applied. Higher frequency of cohesive failures was observed for groups with MI. Applying a CPP-ACP containing paste on enamel before adhesive systems was an effective method to increase bond durability of the sealant tested.

  10. The effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste and sodium fluoride mouthwash on the prevention of dentine erosion: An in vitro study

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    Maryam Moezizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose was to compare the effect of 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste on prevention of dentin erosion. Materials and Methods: Buccal surfaces of 36 sound premolar teeth were ground flat and polished with abrasive discs. Half the polished surfaces were covered with tape to maintain a reference surface. Samples were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A was pretreated with tooth mousse (TM 4 times a day for 5 days. Group B was pretreated with 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash 4 times a day for 5 days. Group C was considered as the control group with no pretreatment. In the next step, the samples were exposed to Coca-Cola 4 times a day for 3 days. After each erosive cycle, the samples were rinsed with deionized water and stored in artificial saliva. The surface loss was determined using profilometry. Results: The erosion in both Groups A and B was less than the control group. The surface loss in mouthwash group was significantly lower than in the control group. Erosion in TM group was more than the mouthwash group and less than the control group. Conclusion: Sodium fluoride mouthwash is more effective for prevention of dentin erosion.

  11. An Innovative Approach to Treat Incisors Hypomineralization (MIH: A Combined Use of Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Hydrogen Peroxide—A Case Report

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    Stefano Mastroberardino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH is characterized by a developmentally derived deficiency in mineral enamel. Affected teeth present demarcated enamel opacities, ranging from white to brown; also hypoplasia can be associated. Patient frequently claims aesthetic discomfort if anterior teeth are involved. This problem leads patients to request a bleaching treatment to improve aestheticconditions.Nevertheless, hydrogen peroxide can produce serious side-effects, resulting from further mineral loss. Microabrasion and/or a composite restoration are the treatments of choice in teeth with mild/moderate MIH, but they also need enamel loss. Recently, a new remineralizing agent based on Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP has been proposed to be effective in hypomineralized enamel, improving also aesthetic conditions. The present paper presents a case report of a young man with white opacities on incisors treated with a combined use of CPP-ACP mousse and hydrogen peroxide gel to correct the aesthetic defect. The patient was instructed to use CPP-ACP for two hours per day for three months in order to obtain enamel remineralization followed by a combined use of CPP-ACP and bleaching agent for further two months. At the end of this five-month treatment, a noticeable aesthetic improvement of the opacities was observed.

  12. An Innovative Approach to Treat Incisors Hypomineralization (MIH): A Combined Use of Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Hydrogen Peroxide-A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroberardino, Stefano; Campus, Guglielmo; Strohmenger, Laura; Villa, Alessandro; Cagetti, Maria Grazia

    2012-01-01

    Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is characterized by a developmentally derived deficiency in mineral enamel. Affected teeth present demarcated enamel opacities, ranging from white to brown; also hypoplasia can be associated. Patient frequently claims aesthetic discomfort if anterior teeth are involved. This problem leads patients to request a bleaching treatment to improve aestheticconditions.Nevertheless, hydrogen peroxide can produce serious side-effects, resulting from further mineral loss. Microabrasion and/or a composite restoration are the treatments of choice in teeth with mild/moderate MIH, but they also need enamel loss. Recently, a new remineralizing agent based on Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) has been proposed to be effective in hypomineralized enamel, improving also aesthetic conditions. The present paper presents a case report of a young man with white opacities on incisors treated with a combined use of CPP-ACP mousse and hydrogen peroxide gel to correct the aesthetic defect. The patient was instructed to use CPP-ACP for two hours per day for three months in order to obtain enamel remineralization followed by a combined use of CPP-ACP and bleaching agent for further two months. At the end of this five-month treatment, a noticeable aesthetic improvement of the opacities was observed.

  13. Effects of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate paste on white spot lesions and dental plaque after orthodontic treatment: a 3-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerens, M W; van der Veen, M H; van Beek, H; ten Cate, J M

    2010-12-01

    The effects of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate (CPP-ACFP) paste vs. control paste on the remineralization of white spot caries lesions and on plaque composition were tested in a double-blind prospective randomized clinical trial. Fifty-four orthodontic patients, with multiple white spot lesions observed upon the removal of fixed appliances, were followed up for 3 months. Subjects were included and randomly assigned to either CPP-ACFP paste or control paste, for use supplementary to their normal oral hygiene. Caries regression was assessed on quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) images captured directly after debonding and 6 and 12 wk thereafter. The total counts and proportions of aciduric bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, and Lactobacillus spp. were measured in plaque samples obtained just before debonding, and 6 and 12 wk afterwards. A significant decrease in fluorescence loss was found with respect to baseline for both groups and no difference was found between groups. The size of the lesion area did not change significantly over time or between the groups. The percentages of aciduric bacteria and of S. mutans decreased from 47.4 to 38.1% and from 9.6 to 6.6%, respectively. No differences were found between groups. We observed no clinical advantage for use of the CPP-ACFP paste supplementary to normal oral hygiene over the time span of 12 wk.

  14. Remineralization effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on enamel white spot lesions. A quantitative energy dispersive X ray elemental analysis: An in vitro study

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    Fabrizio Guerra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate, by means of elemental analysis the mineral density, calcium, and phosphorus weight percent of sound enamel, demineralized and CPP-ACP treated enamel. Elemental analysis allows elemental and isotopic composition of a biologic sample. It can be qualitative (determining what elements are present, and quantitative (determining how much of each are present. INCA Energy 250, Oxford Analytical Instruments Ltd. (UK, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy system for elemental analysis was performed on random assigned samples. Methods: 12 sound premolars were extracted for orthodontic reason. Each tooth was sectioned by using a double-faced diamond microtome under water cooling into three section for a total of 36 samples and randomly assigned to three groups: Group 1 (control, Group 2 (WS: white spot , Group 3 (WST white spot treated of 12 samples each. Samples (Group 2 and Group 3 underwent equally to 24 h and 48 h of acid bath duration. Then all the treated samples (Group 3 were coated with CPP-ACP for 5 min before immersion into water twice a day. Group 2 served as control for enamel damage evaluation. Inca Point & ID, an analytic platform software for SEM was used for elemental analysis on samples from Group 1 (C, 2 (WS and Group 3 (WST in order to determine the weight % and atomic % presence of Ca and P. Results: The results of the samples analysis from the three Groups show different weight % and atomic% of Ca and P, and clearly reflect the different mineralization rates. Conclusions: 10% Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP complex, promotes remineralization in vitro. The results of this in vitro study completely agree with this statement. Clinical studies to investigate the intraoral effectiveness of topical applications of CPP-ACP on white spot lesions are required to confirm these results.

  15. In vitro evaluation of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate effect on the shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel

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    Shadman, Niloofar; Ebrahimi, Shahram Farzin; Shoul, Maryam Azizi; Sattari, Hasti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is applied for remineralization of early caries lesions or tooth sensitivity conditions and may affect subsequent resin bonding. This in vitro study investigated the effect of CPP-ACP on the shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human molar teeth were selected and randomly divided into three groups and six subgroups. Buccal or lingual surfaces of teeth were prepared to create a flat enamel surface. Adhesives used were Tetric N-Bond, AdheSE and AdheSE One F. In three subgroups, before applying adhesives, enamel surfaces were treated with Tooth Mousse CPP-ACP for one hour, rinsed and stored in 37°C temperature with 100% humidity. This procedure was repeated for 5 days and then adhesives were applied and Tetric N-Ceram composite was adhered to the enamel. This procedure was also fulfilled for the other three subgroups without CPP-ACP treatment. After 24 hour water storage, samples were tested for shear bond strength test in a universal testing machine. Failure modes were determined by stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by t-test and one-way analysis of variance with P 0.05). In non-applied CPP-ACP subgroups, there were statistically significant differences among all subgroups. Tetric N-Bond had the highest and AdheSE One F had the lowest shear bond strength. Conclusion: CPP-ACP application reduces the shear bond strength of AdheSE and AdheSE One F to enamel but not Tetric N-Bond. PMID:25878683

  16. In vitro evaluation of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate effect on the shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel

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    Niloofar Shadman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP is applied for remineralization of early caries lesions or tooth sensitivity conditions and may affect subsequent resin bonding. This in vitro study investigated the effect of CPP-ACP on the shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human molar teeth were selected and randomly divided into three groups and six subgroups. Buccal or lingual surfaces of teeth were prepared to create a flat enamel surface. Adhesives used were Tetric N-Bond, AdheSE and AdheSE One F. In three subgroups, before applying adhesives, enamel surfaces were treated with Tooth Mousse CPP-ACP for one hour, rinsed and stored in 37°C temperature with 100% humidity. This procedure was repeated for 5 days and then adhesives were applied and Tetric N-Ceram composite was adhered to the enamel. This procedure was also fulfilled for the other three subgroups without CPP-ACP treatment. After 24 hour water storage, samples were tested for shear bond strength test in a universal testing machine. Failure modes were determined by stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by t-test and one-way analysis of variance with P 0.05. In non-applied CPP-ACP subgroups, there were statistically significant differences among all subgroups. Tetric N-Bond had the highest and AdheSE One F had the lowest shear bond strength. Conclusion: CPP-ACP application reduces the shear bond strength of AdheSE and AdheSE One F to enamel but not Tetric N-Bond.

  17. Effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP and fluoride on the microhardness of enamel treated with a bleaching agent: ex vivo

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    Mügem Aslı Gürel Ekici

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP and 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF; pH 3.5 on the microhardness of enamel treated with a bleaching agent. Materials and Method: Enamel slices (n=32; 2×4 mm were obtained from 8 mandibular permanent molar teeth. Specimens were embedded into acrylic resin blocks with the enamel surfaces facing upwards. Vickers microhardness (VHN values of the specimens were recorded at baseline. The specimens were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups, and the experimental designation was as follows: Group 1: no treatment (control, Group 2: 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP, Group 3: HP + CPP-ACP, Group 4: HP + APF application. After treatments, VHN values were measured and recorded again. Specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37 °C for 1 week. After 1 week second application was done and VHN of the specimens was registered once more. Data were statistically analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests. Values obtained at baseline, and first and second applications were compared using paired samples t-test (α=0.05. Results: In inter-group comparisons, no statistically significant difference in the enamel microhardness values was found between the baseline, and first and second applications (p>0.05. In intra-group comparisons, again, no statistically significant difference in the enamel microhardness values was found between the baseline, and first and second applications (p>0.05. Conclusion: According to the limitations of this study it can be concluded that neither the HP application nor the CPP-ACP or APF application after HP had any significant effect on the enamel microhardness.

  18. Combined effects of Er: YAG laser and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on the inhibition of enamel demineralization: An in vitro study

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    Sogra Yassaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of white spot lesions on enamel is a significant and common problem during the fixed orthodontic treatment. Various preventive methods have been suggested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preventive potential of MI Paste Plus, Er: YAG Laser and combined under similar in vitro conditions against demineralization. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 60 extracted premolars were randomly allocated to four groups (n = 15 of control, MI Paste Plus, Laser and MI + Laser (MIL. Enamel surface of each group was treated with one of above materials before and during the pH cycling for 12 days through a daily procedure of demineralization and remineralization for 3 h and 20 h, respectively. Teeth were sectioned and evaluated quantitatively by cross-sectional microhardness testing at 20 μm intervals from the outer enamel surface toward dentinoenamel junction up to 160 μm and data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: MIL group had the least amount of demineralization (P < 0.001. Control group (C group had the greatest relative mineral loss and the laser group (L group had 45% less mineral loss than the C group and there was no significant difference between the MI Paste Plus and L group (P = 0.154 Conclusion: Based on these results, Er: YAG laser was able to decrease demineralization and was a potential alternative to preventive dentistry and was more effective when combined with casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate products.

  19. Effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on the flexural strength of enamel-dentin complex following extracoronal bleaching

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    Diatri Nari Ratih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bleaching can affect the mechanical properties of enamel-dentin complex, such as flexural strength. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphus calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP is often used following bleaching treatment to reduce hypersensitivity and to increase demineralization of tooth. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of CPP-ACP on the flexural strength of enamel-dentin complex following extracoronal bleaching. Methods: Forty-eight enamel-dentin plates (size 8 x 2 x 3 mm were randomly assigned into 6 groups, each consisted of 8 samples. Group 1, no bleaching and immersed in artificial saliva. Group 2, no bleaching, CPP-ACP application only. Group 3, bleaching using 15% carbamide peroxide. Group 4, similar to group 3, except application of CPP-ACP for the times between bleaching. Group 5, bleaching with 40% hydrogen peroxide. Group 6, similar to group 5, except application of CPP-ACP for the times between bleaching. Flexural strength of each enamel-dentin plate was tested by threepoint bending test using universal testing machine. Results: The results showed that 15% carbamide peroxide and 40% hydrogen peroxide significantly reduced flexural strength of enamel-dentin (216.25±26.44 MPa and 206.67±32.07 MPa respectively. Conversely, application of CPP-ACP following both bleachings increased flexural strength (266.75± 28.27MPa and 254.58±36.59 MPa respectively. A two-way Anova revealed that extracoronal bleaching agents significantly reduced flexural strength (p<0.05. Conclusion: Extracoronal bleaching agents reduce flexural strength, whereas application of CPP-ACP following bleaching either with 15% carbamide peroxide or 40% hydrogen peroxide can increase the flexural strength of enamel-dentin complex.

  20. Assessment of the effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on postoperative sensitivity associated with in-office vital tooth whitening.

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    Maghaireh, G A; Alzraikat, H; Guidoum, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tooth mousse containing 10% casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) in reducing tooth sensitivity associated with in-office vital tooth whitening. In-office tooth whitening was performed for 51 participants using 35% hydrogen peroxide gel in a single visit. After the procedure, each participant was randomly assigned to one of three groups: gel without desensitizing agent (n=17), gel with 2% sodium fluoride (n=17), gel with 10% CPP-ACP (n=17). A small amount of the desensitizing gel assigned for each participant was applied directly on the labial surfaces of teeth and left undisturbed for three minutes. The participants were asked to apply the gel assigned to them for three minutes twice daily after brushing their teeth, and to continue this for 14 days. The participants were asked to return for follow-up visits after 24 hours and on days 3, 7, and 14, at which time teeth shade changes were assessed by one evaluator using a value-oriented Vita classic shade guide. The incidence, duration, and intensity of tooth sensitivity experienced was self-assessed on a daily basis for the 14-day study period using a visual analog scale (VAS). The effect of the three gels on tooth sensitivity was assessed using one-way analysis of variance and a χ (2) test (α=0.05). The general linear model was used to compare intensity-level differences in the three studied groups and for shade stability over the follow-up period. The results of this study showed that all three gels decreased the intensity of sensitivity associated with tooth whitening. The intensity of sensitivity was lower in the fluoride group than in the other two groups; however, it was not statistically significant (p=0.112 and p=0.532 on day 1 and day 2, respectively). The average shade change was 6.8. None of the tested materials affected the efficacy of tooth whitening, but the shade change among the fluoride group showed more color stability

  1. Atomic force microscopic comparison of remineralization with casein-phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate paste, acidulated phosphate fluoride gel and iron supplement in primary and permanent teeth: An in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Demineralization of tooth by erosion is caused by frequent contact between the tooth surface and acids present in soft drinks. Aim: The present study objective was to evaluate the remineralization potential of casein-phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP paste, 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF gel and iron supplement on dental erosion by soft drinks in human primary and permanent enamel using atomic force microscopy (AFM. Materials and Methods: Specimens were made from extracted 15 primary and 15 permanent teeth which were randomly divided into three treatment groups: CPP-ACP paste, APF gel and iron supplement. AFM was used for baseline readings followed by demineralization and remineralization cycle. Results and Statistics: Almost all group of samples showed remineralization that is a reduction in surface roughness which was higher with CPP-ACP paste. Statistical analysis was performed using by one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U-test with P < 0.05. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the application of CPP-ACP paste is effective on preventing dental erosion from soft drinks.

  2. Effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on microhardness of erosived enamel%酪蛋白磷酸肽-无定形磷酸钙对酸蚀牙釉质显微硬度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻明玲; 林居红; 胡赟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the remineralization potential of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate ( CPP-ACP) on the surface microhardness of human enamel eroded by a carbonated soft drink. Methods Fifteen third molars were collected at clinic and were processed into 30 enamel slabs. The enamel slabs were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 10): deionized water group, CPP-ACP group, and fluoride vanish group. Each specimen was first immersed in a Coca-Cola drink for 2 min, 7 times a day for 7 d. Then the specimens were subjected to 3 different remineralization protocols, deionized water, CPP-ACP and fluoride vanish. Vickers microhardness ( SMH) measurements were obtained at baseline, after the Coca-Cola drink erosion, and after remineralization stage. The enamel specimens were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results Enamel hardness was significantly decreased after immersion in a Coca-Cola drink ( P < 0. 05 ). The SMH of the enamel slab treated with CPP-ACP and fluoride vanish was significantly increased compared with that of the negative control ( P < 0. 05 ) , and there was significant difference between the 2 former groups (P < 0. 05). SEM demonstrated that there were lots of minerals deposited on the surface of enamel of CPP-ACP and fluoride vanish groups. Conclusion CPP-ACP promotes minerals to deposit on the deminera-lized enamel surface to increase the SMH of the eroded human enamel, showing the remineralization potential.%目的 用显微硬度测量法研究酪蛋白磷酸肽-无定形磷酸钙(casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate,CPP-ACP)对碳酸饮料酸蚀后的牙釉质的再矿化作用.方法 收集临床拔除的第三磨牙共15颗,制成牙釉质样本30个,完全随机分为:去离子水组(阴性对照组)、CPP-ACP组(实验组)、氟保护漆组(阳性对照组),每组10个样本.各组样本分别用可口可乐酸蚀,7次/d,每次2 min,8h内完成,共7d,然后分别进行再矿化处理.去离子水

  3. 酪蛋白磷酸肽钙磷复合体预防正畸治疗中釉质脱矿的临床研究%Clinical application of casein phosphopeptide-amorphic calcium phosphate in preventing enamel decalcification in orthodontics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王君香; 阎燕; 王秀婧; 苏奇志

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the preventive effect of Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphic Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP)in reducing enamel decalcification in orthodontics.Methods Sixty orthodontic patients were divided into trial group and control group randomly.Patients in trial group were given oral hygiene education and GC tooth protector (mainly CPP-ACP).Patients in control group were given oral hygiene education only.Pictures were taken and the extents of enamel decalcification between two the groups were compared one year after orthodontic treatment.Results The decalcification index in trial group was 0.019 ± 0.033 and that in control group was 0.067 ± 0.039.The difference was significant (F=9.1,P<0.01).Conclusions Casein PhosphopeptideAmorphic Calcium Phosphate could prevent enamel decalcification in orthodontics.%目的 评价酪蛋白磷酸肽钙磷复合体(Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphic Calcium Phosphate)预防正畸患者牙釉质脱矿的临床效果.方法 选择固定正畸患者60例,随机分为试验组和对照组,所有患者在戴入前拍摄口内照片评价其牙釉质脱矿情况.试验组在戴入固定矫治器后常规口腔卫生宣教,并且每天均用主要成分为酪蛋白磷酸肽钙磷复合体的护牙素,对照组仅常规口腔卫生宣教.一年后拍摄口内照片观察并比较两组间的牙釉质脱矿增加的情况.结果 一年后牙釉质脱矿增加指数试验组为0.019±0.033,对照组为0.067±0.039,试验组明显低于对照组(F=9.1,P<0.01).结论 酪蛋白磷酸肽钙磷复合体对正畸治疗中的釉质脱矿有一定的预防作用.

  4. Effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride on microhardness of erosived enamel%含氟酪蛋白磷酸肽—磷酸钙复合物对酸蚀牙釉质显微硬度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘烨; 陈溯; 张振庭

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究含氟酪蛋白磷酸肽-磷酸钙复合物(CPP-ACP)在体外对酸蚀牛牙釉质显微硬度的影响.方法 选择新鲜拔除的牛下切牙60个,制成60个5mm×5mm正方形釉质开窗区,其余部分由抗酸指甲油涂抹封闭,将釉质块样本完全随机分为4组,每组15个,分别进行4种不同处理(A组为阴性对照组;B组为阳性对照组,使用碳酸饮料酸蚀处理;C组为碳酸饮料酸蚀后使用CPP-ACP进行再矿化;D 组为酸蚀后使用含氟CPP-ACP(氟浓度为900ppm)再矿化.使用显微硬度仪测定样本显微硬度,比较各组显微硬度的差别.结果 D组显微硬度较C组高,C组及D组显微硬度均高于B组但低于A组,各组间的差异具有统计学意义(P< 0.01).结论 含氟酪蛋白磷酸肽-磷酸钙复合物可以提高酸蚀牙釉质的显微硬度.%Objective To evaluate the effect of casein phosphopeptide -amorphous calcium phosphate(CPP-ACP) with fluoride on microhardness of erosive enamel. Methods Sixty fresh bovine lower incisors were selected, then enamel window of 5mm x 5mm was made on each of them, and other area was sealed with nail polisher. The samples were stratified and allocated to 4 groups (A-D). Samples in group A remained untreated and served as negative control; group B treated with coke, group C renimeralized with CPP-ACP after erosion; group D renimeralized by CPP-ACP with fluoride after erosion. Samples' microhardness was measured to compare the difference. Results The microhardness of group D was significantly higher than that of group C and group D, and group C was higher than that of group B but lower than group A There was significant difference among all groups(P <0. 01). Conclusion The microhardness of erosived enamel can be increased by casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride.

  5. Effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride on the erosive tooth wear in an in vitro model%含氟酪蛋白磷酸肽-磷酸钙复合物对牙齿耐磨性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘烨; 陈溯; 张振庭

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate( CPP-ACP) with fluoride on the erosive enamel wear. Methods Forty bovine lower incisors were collected, and 5mm × 5mm enamel window on each crown created. The other areas were sealed with nail polisher. The samples were stratified and allocated into 4 groups (A-D)with 10 samples in each group,which were then treated with different method . Group A remained untreated and served as negative control. Group B and C were treated by phosphoric acid, group C was further renimeralized with CPP-ACP, group D was renimeralized by CPP-ACP with fluoride after the erosion. After the above treatment,the samples received tooth wear, which included 4 circulations, with 3600 strokes in each circulation, 14400 strokes in total The quantity of enamel wear was recorded. Results The quantity of enamel wear in group D was significantly lower than in group C,group D and group C were lower than group A and B. There was significant difference between each group (P < 0. 01) . Conclusion Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride can reduce tooth wear.%目的 研究含氟酪蛋白磷酸肽-磷酸钙复合物(CPP-ACP)在体外对酸蚀牛牙釉质耐磨性的影响.方法 选择新鲜拔除的牛下切牙40个,每个牙冠唇面形成5mm×5mm的釉质窗,其余部分由抗酸指甲油涂抹封闭,将釉质块样本完全随机分为4组,每组10个,A 组为阴性对照组;B 组使用20%磷酸溶液酸蚀;C 组经酸蚀后使用CPP-ACP再矿化处理;D 组则经酸蚀后使用含氟CPP-ACP再矿化.每组分别采取以上不同处理方式后进入磨损循环,每个循环磨损3600次,共4个循环,总计磨损次数14400次.使用三维白光干涉表面形貌仪,测定每个样本磨损深度,比较各组磨损量的差别.结果 D组磨损量小于C组,C组及D组磨损量均低于A组和B组,各组间的差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 含氟酪蛋白磷酸肽-磷酸

  6. 酪蛋白磷酸肽-非结晶型磷酸钙与含氟制剂抑制牙釉质脱矿的比较研究%Comparative studies of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and fluoride products in inhibiting enamel demineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春波; 孙新华; 侯旭; 闫阔

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价酪蛋白磷酸肽-非结晶型磷酸钙(casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate,CPP-ACP)与几种临床常用的含氟制剂抑制牙釉质脱矿的作用,为正畸临床预防牙釉质脱矿提供依据.方法 将70颗离体牙分为7组,每组10颗,即A组:CPP-ACP组;B组:CPP-ACP+含氟漱口水组;C组:含氟漱口水组;D组:含氟玻璃离子牙体保护剂组;E组:含氟树脂粘接剂组;F组:氟保护漆组;G组:空白对照组.将7组样本按三餐进食时间放人人工致龋液中,每次10 min,前6组分别于样本颊面釉质表面涂布CPP-ACP、CPP-ACP和含氟漱口水、含氟漱口水、含氟玻璃离子牙体保护剂、含氟树脂粘接剂、氟保护漆,空白对照组不处理,7组样本其余时间均浸泡于人工唾液中.于实验1、2、3个月用原子力显微镜检测.结果 实验1个月D组釉质表面粗糙度[(114±1) nm]显著低于G组[(172±9) nm] (P <0.05);实验2和3个月各组釉质表面粗糙度与G组差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);B组粗糙度2和3个月为(87±9)和(27±6) nm,显著低于其他各组(P<0.05);C组2和3个月粗糙度分别为(145±8)和(126±7)nm,显著高于D、E、F组(P<0.05).结论 CPP-ACP与含氟制剂在人工致龋环境中均有抑制牙釉质脱矿的作用,CPP-ACP与含氟制剂联合应用效果更佳;含氟固体(D、E、F组)比含氟液体(C组)抑制牙釉质脱矿作用效果更好.%Objective To evaluate casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and several fluoride products in inhibiting enamel demineralization.Methods Seventy healthy premolars extracted before orthodontic treatment were divided into seven groups (A: CPP-ACP; B:CPP-ACP + fluoride mouth rinses; C:fluoride mouth rinses; D:fluoride glass ionomer protection; E:fluoride resin binder; F:fluoride varnish; G:control group).There were ten samples in each group. The teeth were dipped into an artificial caries solution ten minutes at a time

  7. Treatment of post-orthodontic white spot lesions with casein phosphopeptide-stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bröchner, Ann; Christensen, Carsten; Kristensen, Bjarne;

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of topical applications of 10% casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on white spot lesions (WSL) detected after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Sixty healthy adolescents with >/=1 clinically visible WSL at debonding were...... findings were largely reflected by the clinical scores. No side effects were reported. Topical treatment of white spot lesions after debonding of orthodontic appliances with a casein phosphopeptide-stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate agent resulted in significantly reduced fluorescence and a reduced...

  8. Treatment of post-orthodontic white spot lesions with casein phosphopeptide-stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröchner, Ann; Christensen, Carsten; Kristensen, Bjarne; Tranæus, Sofia; Karlsson, Lena; Sonnesen, Liselotte; Twetman, Svante

    2011-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of topical applications of 10% casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on white spot lesions (WSL) detected after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Sixty healthy adolescents with ≥1 clinically visible WSL at debonding were recruited and randomly allocated to a randomised controlled trial with two parallel groups. The intervention group was instructed to topically apply a CPP-ACP -containing agent (Tooth Mousse, GC Europe) once daily and the subjects of the control group brushed their teeth with standard fluoride toothpaste. The intervention period was 4 weeks and the endpoints were quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) on buccal surfaces of the upper incisors, cuspids and first premolars and visual scoring from digital photos. The attrition rate was 15%, mostly due to technical errors, and 327 lesions were included in the final evaluation. A statistically significant (p white spot lesions after debonding of orthodontic appliances with a casein phosphopeptide-stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate agent resulted in significantly reduced fluorescence and a reduced area of the lesions after 4 weeks as assessed by QLF. The improvement was however not superior to the "natural" regression following daily use of fluoride toothpaste.

  9. Effect of Fluoride, Casein Phosphopeptide–Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Casein Phosphopeptide–Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Fluoride on Enamel Surface Microhardness After Microabrasion: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazaleh Ahmadi Zenouz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of applying casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP paste, casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF paste and sodium fluoride gel on surface microhardness of enamel after microabrasion.Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted human premolars were selected. All samples were subjected to hardness indentations made with the Vickers hardness machine and the average value was recorded as the initial surface microhardness. The specimens were then randomly divided into three groups (n=10 of CPP-ACPF, fluoride and CPP-ACP. The teeth were micro-abraded with Opalustre. Microhardness test was performed to assess the post-abrasion hardness. Three remineralization modalities were performed on samples of each group. The enamel surface microhardness measurements were performed. To compare the difference between groups, the rehardening and softening values were defined. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test at a significance level of 5% were used for statistical analysis.Results: The mean microhardness value (MMV had a significant decrease after microabrasion from baseline. The MMV had a significant increase after remineralization in all groups. The MMV of CPP-ACPF group was significantly more than that of fluoride group (P=0.027. The rehardening value of fluoride group was significantly more than that of other groups (P<0.001.Conclusion: All the remineralizing agents were effective for rehardening the enamel after microabrasion. The CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF pastes are effective, but to a lesser extent than neutral sodium fluoride gel in remineralizing enamel surface. Incorporation of fluoride to CPP-ACP formulation does not provide any additional remineralizing potential.Keywords: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplex; Enamel Microabrasion; Hardness; Sodium Fluoride

  10. Remineralization potential of bioactive glass and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on initial carious lesion: An in-vitro pH-cycling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adit Bharat Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed using ANOVA and multiple comparisons within groups was done using Bonferroni method (post-hoc tests to detect significant differences at P < 0.05 levels. Results: Group A showed significantly higher values (P < 0.05 when compared with the hardness values of Group B. Conclusions: Within the limits; the present study concluded that; both BAG and CPP-ACP are effective in remineralizing early enamel caries. Application of BAG more effectively remineralized the carious lesion when compared with CPP-ACP.

  11. The increasing of enamel calcium level after casein phosphopeptideamorphous calcium phosphate covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyasri Prananingrum

    2012-06-01

    . Demineralisasi terjadi oleh asam organik sebagai hasil fermentasi substrat karbohidrat oleh bakteri. Remineralisasi adalah proses perbaikan alami untuk lesi non cavitated. Remineralisasi terjadi jika terdapat ion Ca2+ dan PO43- dalam jumlah cukup. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP adalah bahan berbentuk pasta berisi suatu protein susu (kasein. Pada kasein terkandung mineral kalsium dan fosfat. Kemampuan kasein untuk menstabilkan kalsium fosfat dan meningkatkan kelarutan dan bioavailabilitas sehingga CPP memiliki potensi menghantarkan kalsium dan fosfat. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui kadar kalsium enamel setelah pengulasan CPP-ACP pada permukaan enamel 2 kali sehari selama 3,14 dan 28 hari. Metode: Sampel adalah gigi insisif sapi, usia 3 tahun. Pada penelitian ini sampel (n = 24 dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok yaitu kelompok I sebagai kelompok kontrol, dan kelompok II, III, IV sebagai kelompok perlakuan dengan pengulasan CPP-ACP 2 kali sehari. Semua kelompok direndam dalam saliva buatan. Kelompok II direndam 3 hari, kelompok III direndam 14 hari, kelompok IV direndam 28 hari. Pengulasan CPP-ACP sejumlah 1 tetes diratakan pada seluruh permukaan labial gigi. Pengukuran kadar kalsium dilakukan dengan metode titrasi. Semua data dianalisa dengan uji One-Way ANOVA dengan taraf kemaknaan 5%. Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan kadar kalsium enamel gigi di antara kelompok (p = 0,001. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan kadar kalsium gigi pada kelompok kontrol dan perlakuan antara lama waktu pengulasan 3, 14, dan 28 hari (p = 0,001. Kesimpulan: Pengulasan CPP-ACP selama 3, 14 dan 28 hari mampu meningkatkan kadar kalsium pada enamel.

  12. Effect of fluoridated casein phospopeptide-amorphous-calcium phosphate complex, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets: A comparative in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C A Abdul Shahariyar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium-phosphate (CPP-ACP complex, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash on shear bond strengths (SBSs of orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: About sixty extracted healthy human premolar teeth with intact buccal enamel were divided into two equal groups to which brackets were bonded using self-etching primers (SEPs and conventional means respectively. These were further equally divided into three subgroups - (1 control (2 CPP-ACP (3 chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash. The SBSs were then measured using a universal testing machine. Results: SBS of the conventional group was significantly higher than the self-etching group. The intragroup differences were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: CPP-ACP, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash did not adversely affect SBS of orthodontic brackets irrespective of the method of conditioning. Brackets bonded with conventional technique showed greater bond strengths as compared to those bonded with SEP.

  13. Orthokinetic flocculation of caseinate-stabilized emulsions : influence of calcium concentration, shear rate and protein content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, E.P.; Dalgleish, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Calcium-induced flocculation of caseinate-stabilized soybean oil-in- water emulsions in conditions of Couette flow was studied. A concentrated emulsion (20% oil, 0.5-2.0% sodium caseinate in 20 mM imidazole, pH 7) was diluted 20 times in buffer containing concentrations of CaCl2 between 9 and 17 mM

  14. Effect of calcium chelators on heat coagulation and heat-induced changes of concentrated micellar casein solutions: The role of calcium-ion activity and micellar integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, de E.J.P.; Minor, M.; Snoeren, T.A.L.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Linden, van der E.

    2012-01-01

    There is general consensus that calcium chelators enhance heat stability in milk. However, they increase the heat stability to considerably different extents. For this reason, the effect of various calcium chelators on heat coagulation and heat-induced changes of concentrated micellar casein solutio

  15. 酪蛋白磷酸肽-非结晶型磷酸钙对正畸后釉白斑再矿化的临床评价%Quantification of remineralized effect of casein phosphopeptiode-amorphous calcium phosphate on post-orthodontic white spot lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春华; 孙新华; 朱宪春

    2009-01-01

    目的:量化研究酪蛋白磷酸肽-非结晶型磷酸钙(casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate,CPP-ACP)对正畸治疗所致釉白斑的再矿化作用.方法:选取止畸治疗结束并患有多数釉向斑的患者共10例,均年龄17.7岁.要求患者每天早晚刷牙后,将含有10%CPP-ACP复合体的糊剂均匀涂抹于牙的唇面,每天2次.治疗前和治疗中均拍摄口内彩色照片.通过肉眼观察和应用Image-Pro Plus图像分析软件,对釉白斑进行测量并计算釉白斑面积比,使用SPSS13.0软件包对治疗前及治疗后1个月、2个月的釉白斑面积比进行配对t检验.量化分析1个月后重新进行图像测量与统计学分析,并使用SPSS13.0软件包计算组内相关系数.结果:使用CPP-ACP 1个月后,釉白斑面积平均减少(4.89±2.05)%,2个月平均减少(8.359±3.472)%;与治疗前相比,釉白斑面积均显著减少(P<0.01).2次测量所得数据的组内相关系数为0.968.结论:CPP-ACP能显著减少正畸所致的釉白斑病损,提高牙的美学效果;利用口内照片量化釉白斑面积具有较好的可靠性与可重复性.

  16. Effect of soluble calcium on the renneting properties of casein micelles as measured by rheology and diffusing wave spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra, S; Ho, M; Alexander, M; Corredig, M

    2012-01-01

    Addition of calcium chloride to milk has positive effects on cheese-making because it decreases coagulation time, creates firmer gels, and increases curd yield. Although addition of calcium chloride is a widely used industrial practice, the effect of soluble calcium on the preliminary stages of gelation is not fully understood. In addition, it is not known whether the manner of addition and equilibration of the soluble calcium would affect the rennetability of the casein micelles. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to study the details of the coagulation behavior of casein micelles in the presence of additional calcium, and to elucidate whether the manner in which this cation is added (directly as calcium chloride or by gradual exchange through dialysis) affects the functionality of the micelles. Calcium was added as CaCl(2) (1 mM final added concentration) directly to skim milk or indirectly using dialysis against 50 volumes of milk. Additional soluble calcium did not affect the primary phase of the renneting reaction, as demonstrated by the analysis of the casein macropeptide (CMP) released in solution; however, it shortened the coagulation time of the micelles and increased the firmness of the gel. The turbidity parameter of samples with or without calcium showed that similar amounts of CMP were needed for particle interactions to commence. However, the amount of CMP released at the point of gelation, as indicated by rheology, was lesser for samples with added calcium, which can be attributed to a greater extent of calcium bridging on the surface or between micelles. The results also showed that the manner in which calcium was presented to the micelles did not influence the mechanism of gelation.

  17. Influence of calcium chelators on concentrated micellar casein solutions : from micellar structure to viscosity and heat stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, de E.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    In practice it is challenging to prepare a concentrated medical product with high heat stability
    and low viscosity. Calcium chelators are often added to dairy products to improve heat stability,
    but this may increase viscosity through interactions with the casein proteins. The aim of thi

  18. Fat digestion in veal calves fed milk replacers low or high in calcium and containing either casein or soy protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuangklang, C; Wensing, Th; Van den Broek, L; Jittakhot, S; Beynen, A C

    2004-04-01

    The hypothesis tested was that the inhibitory effect of dietary soy protein versus casein on fat digestion in veal calves would be smaller when diets were fed with high instead of low calcium content. Male calves, 1 wk of age, were fed 1 of 4 experimental milk replacers in a 2 x 2 factorial design. There were 19 animals per dietary group. The milk replacers contained either casein or soy protein isolate as variable protein source and were either low or high in calcium. Body weight gain was not significantly affected by the experimental diets. Soy protein isolate versus casein significantly reduced apparent fat digestibility. High versus low calcium intake also depressed fat digestion. The protein effect was smaller (2.9% units) for the high than the low calcium diets (3.6% units), but the interaction did not reach statistical significance. Soy protein isolate versus casein raised fecal bile acid excretion and so did high versus low calcium intake. The difference in bile acid excretion between the soy and casein containing diets was significantly greater for the high than low calcium diets. The absorption of phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium was higher for the casein diets than for the soy-containing diets. This study shows for the first time that soy protein isolate versus casein depressed fat digestion and raised fecal bile acid excretion in veal calves.

  19. 酪蛋白磷酸多肽-无定形磷酸钙对固定正畸所致牙釉质脱矿的影响%The Influence of Casein Phospho Peptides-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate on Enamel Demineralization Induced by Fixed Orthodontic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇; 唐璐; 杨四维; 庞兰

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the influence of casein phospho peptides -amorphous calcium phosphate ( Casein phosphopeptide-amorphic calcium phosphate, CPP-ACP, the product name of GC Tooth Mousse) on enamel demineralization as fixed orthodontic.Methods:40 patients with fixed orthodontic treatment were randomly divided into a control group A group and experimental group B,each group of 20.GroupA had a simple oral hygiene measure on the basis of health education, group B had GC Tooth Mousse on the basis ofgroup A.From the start of treatment to 13-month, observed teeth photograph on two groups, observed whether there were emergine piece of chalk stain or cavities on teeth surface.Analysed by statistics and calculated the rate of enamel demineralization and demineralization Index(EDI).Results:(1)The enamel demineralization rate was increases in both group A and group B with time passing;( 2 ) EDI of group A was higher than that in group B, there was a statistically significant.Conclusion:The use of CPP-ACP of containing GC Tooth Mousse on the basis of oral hygiene measures in preventing enamel demineralization are safe and effective measure.%目的:研究酪蛋白磷酸多肽-无定形磷酸钙(商品名GC护牙素)对固定正畸所致牙釉质脱矿的影响。方法:选择固定正畸治疗患者40例,经签字同意进入实验。以随机数字表法随机分为对照组、实验组各20例。对照组在口腔卫生宣教的基础上采用单纯口腔卫生措施,实验组在对照组的基础上使用GC护牙素。2组患者从治疗开始,进行连续13个月的牙照片观察。观测指标为牙面是否有新出现的的白垩色斑片或龋洞,统计并计算牙釉质脱矿率及脱矿指数(EDI)。结果:(1)对照组、实验组的牙釉质脱矿率均随着时间的增加而增高;(2)对照组EDI高于实验组。结论:在口腔卫生措施的基础上使用GC护牙素预防固定正畸所致牙釉质脱矿是一种安全有效的措施。

  20. Comparative evaluation of enamel remineralization potential of processed cheese, calcium phosphate-based synthetic agent, and a fluoride-containing toothpaste: An in situ study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Grewal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enamel remineralization potential of variety of products has been established, but there is a lack of evidence of comparison of remineralization potential of natural versus synthetic products. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the enamel remineralization potential of saliva, cheese, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP-based synthetic agent, and fluoride toothpaste. Design: In situ study was carried out on sixty individuals who wore an intraoral appliance containing demineralized enamel slabs for each agent. One out of six slabs was kept as a control so as to record the baseline values (neither subjected to demineralization nor remineralization. Experimental agents were applied on the designated enamel slabs on day 1, 4, 7, and 10 with a crossover wash out period of 7 days. Quantitative values of mineral content of slab were measured using energy dispersive X-ray and qualitative changes in surface topography of slab were seen under scanning electron microscope at ×20K magnification. Results: Highly significant changes from baseline values were seen in calcium and phosphorus content of slabs treated with cheese and CPP-ACP-based agent whereas levels of fluoride were significantly higher in enamel slabs treated with fluoride-containing toothpaste. Conclusion: Cheese is an organic, economical, and user-friendly option over prescribed synthetic agents. A synergistic effect of fluoride-containing toothpaste with intake of cheese could be a good enamel remineralization protocol.

  1. Microstructural, textural, and sensory characteristics of probiotic yogurts fortified with sodium calcium caseinate or whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akalın, A S; Unal, G; Dinkci, N; Hayaloglu, A A

    2012-07-01

    The influence of milk protein-based ingredients on the textural characteristics, sensory properties, and microstructure of probiotic yogurt during a refrigerated storage period of 28 d was studied. Milk was fortified with 2% (wt/vol) skim milk powder as control, 2% (wt/vol) sodium calcium caseinate (SCaCN), 2% (wt/vol) whey protein concentrate (WPC) or a blend of 1% (wt/vol) SCaCN and 1% (wt/vol) WPC. A commercial yogurt starter culture and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 as probiotic bacteria were used for the production. The fortification with SCaCN improved the firmness and adhesiveness. Higher values of viscosity were also obtained in probiotic yogurts with SCaCN during storage. However, WPC enhanced water-holding capacity more than the caseinate. Addition of SCaCN resulted in a coarse, smooth, and more compact protein network; however, WPC gave finer and bunched structures in the scanning electron microscopy micrographs. The use of SCaCN decreased texture scores in probiotic yogurt; probably due to the lower water-holding capacity and higher syneresis values in the caseinate-added yogurt sample. Therefore, the textural characteristics of probiotic yogurts improved depending on the ingredient variety.

  2. Comparing the Effects of Whey Extract and Case in Phosphopeptide Amor-phous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP on Enamel Microhardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Rezvani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: With the recent focus of researches on the development of non-invasive treatment modalities, the non-invasive treatment of early carious lesions by remineralization would bring a major advance in the clinical management of these dental defects. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP is considered to be effective in tooth remineralization. Purpose: The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the effects of whey and CPP-ACP in increasing the enamel microhardness. Materials and Method: Microhardness of 30 sound human permanent premolars was measured before and after 8-minute immersion of samples in Coca-Cola. The teeth were then randomly divided into 3 groups and were immersed in artificial saliva, whey, and tooth mousse for 10 minutes. The changes of microhardness within each group and among the groups were recorded and analyzed using paired t-test. Results: The microhardness increased in each group and between the groups; this increase was statistically significant (p= 0.009. Conclusion: The effect of whey on increasing the enamel microhardness was more than that of tooth mousse.

  3. Calcium, vitamin D, casein and whey protein intakes and periodontitis among Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Boucher, Barbara J; Kongstad, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether intakes of Ca, vitamin D, casein and whey are associated with periodontitis and to investigate the possibility of interactions between them. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. An Internet-based, 267-item FFQ was used to assess dietary intake. Intakes of casein (32.0 g....../d), whey proteins (9.6 g/d) and vitamin D (5.8 μg/d) were classified as within v. above the 50th percentile. Ca intake was classified as within v. below age-specific recommendations. Severe periodontitis was defined as having ≥2 inter-proximal sites with clinical attachment loss ≥6 mm (not on the same...... study of DANHES 2007-2008. RESULTS: Intakes of Ca within recommendations (OR=0.76; 95% CI 0.58, 0.99), whey ≥9.6 g/d (OR=0.75; 95% CI 0.58, 0.97) and casein ≥32 g/d (OR=0.75 95% CI 0.58, 0.97) were associated with lower likelihood of severe periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education...

  4. Optimization of preparation of calcium caseinate using response surface methodology%响应面法优化酪蛋白酸钙生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛静微; 纪银莉; 高维东; 张哲敏; 谢小冬

    2013-01-01

    以食品级干酪素为原料,以制备的酪蛋白酸钙中钙含量为指标,采用单因素实验、中心组合(Box-Benhnken)试验设计与响应曲面分析法,研究了酪蛋白酸钙的生产工艺.在单因素实验的基础上采用3因素3水平的响应曲面分析法,以酪蛋白酸钙中钙含量为指标,考察溶液pH、溶液浓度与Ca (OH)2添加量对酪蛋白酸钙制备的影响,建立了酪蛋白酸钙制备中钙含量与各影响因子的回归方程,确定了最佳工艺条件.结果表明:最佳制备工艺为溶液pH值为7.16、料液浓度为5.97%、Ca(OH)2添加量为1.716%,在此条件下制备的酪蛋白酸钙中钙含量为1.639%,与预测值1.642%相差不显著.该工艺酪蛋白酸钙得率高,所得产品含钙量较高,产品具有较好的品质.%Food grade casein was used as a raw material,manufacturing technique of calcium caseinate was studied by single factor test and Box-Benhnken design combined with response surface methodology.Calcium content in calcium caseinate was the index.Single factor method and response surface methodology with 3 factors and 3 levels were applied to optimize parameters such as pH,concentration and Ca(OH) 2 amount on affecting calcium content in calcium caseinate.The regression equation between the factors and the calcium content in calcium caseinate was established,and the optimum technique was confirmed.Results showed that the optimal preparation technology was:pH 7.16 and 5.97% solution concentration and 1.716% Ca(OH)2 · In the above condition,the calcium content was 1.639%,which was very close to the predicted value of 1.642%.The manufacturing technique of calcium caseinate is an efficient method with high yield of calcium caseinate and high content of calcium,and good quality of calcium caseinate.

  5. Protective effect of calcium nanophosphate and CPP-ACP agents on enamel erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fabiola Galbiatti de; Santos, Rogerio Lacerda dos, E-mail: fabigalbi@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Patos, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas. Div. de Odontologia; Silva Filho, Tiago Joao da; Carlo, Hugo Lemes [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Dept. de Odontologia Restauradora; Lima, Bruno Alessandro Silva Guedes de [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologia Mecanica. Lab. de Solidificacao Rapida

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different remineralizing agents on enamel microhardness (KHN) and surface topography after an erosive challenge. Forty-eight human enamel specimens (4 X 4 mm) were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control (no treatment), fluoride varnish, calcium nanophosphate paste and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste (CPP-ACP). Both pastes were applied for 5 minutes, and fluoride varnish, for 24 h. Four daily erosive cycles of 5 minutes of immersion in a cola drink and 2 h in artificial saliva were conducted for 5 days. KHN readings were performed at baseline and after 5 days. The percentage of enamel hardness change (%KHN) was obtained after erosion. The surface topography was evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The data were tested using ANOVA, Tukey's and paired-T tests (p < 0.05). After an erosive challenge, there was no statistically significant difference between the control (96.8 ± 11.4 KHN / 72.4 ± 3.0 %KHN) and the varnish (91.7 ± 14.1 KHN / 73.4 ± 5.5 %KHN) groups. The nanophosphate group showed lower enamel hardness loss (187.2 ± 27.9 /49.0 ± 7.9 %KHN), compared with the CPP-ACP group (141.8 ± 16.5 /60.6 ± 4.0 %KHN), and both were statistically different from the varnish and the control groups. AFM images showed a rough surface for the control and the varnish groups, a non-homogeneous layer with globular irregularities for CPP-ACP, and a thick homogeneous layer for the nanophosphate group. None of the agents provided protection against the development of erosion; however, nanophosphate paste was able to reduce enamel surface softening after the erosive challenge. (author)

  6. Development of casein microgels from cross-linking of casein micelles by genipin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Naaman F Nogueira; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; de Carvalho, Antônio F; Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2014-09-02

    Casein micelles are porous colloidal particles, constituted of casein molecules, water, and minerals. The vulnerability of the supramolecular structure of casein micelles face to changes in the environmental conditions restrains their applications in other domains besides food. Thus, redesigning casein micelles is a challenge to create new functionalities for these biosourced particles. The objective of this work was to create stable casein microgels from casein micelles using a natural cross-linker, named genipin. Suspensions of purified casein micelles (25 g L(-1)) were mixed with genipin solutions to have final concentrations of 5, 10, and 20 mM genipin. Covalently linked casein microgels were formed via cross-linking of lysyl and arginyl residues of casein molecules. The reacted products exhibited blue color. The cross-linking reaction induced gradual changes on the colloidal properties of the particles. The casein microgels were smaller and more negatively charged and presented smoother surfaces than casein micelles. These results were explained based on the cross-linking of free NH2 present in an external layer of κ-casein. Light scattering and rheological measurements showed that the reaction between genipin and casein molecules was intramicellar, as one single population of particles was observed and the values of viscosity (and, consequently, the volume fraction of the particles) were reduced. Contrary to the casein micelles, the casein microgels were resistant to the presence of dissociating agents, e.g., citrate (calcium chelating) and urea, but swelled as a consequence of internal electrostatic repulsion and the disruption of hydrophobic interactions between protein chains. The casein microgels did not dissociate at the air-solution interface and formed solid-like interfaces rather than a viscoelastic gel. The potential use of casein microgels as adaptable nanocarriers is proposed in the article.

  7. Oxidative stability of a heme iron-fortified bakery product: Effectiveness of ascorbyl palmitate and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Tres, Alba; Polo, Javier; Codony, Rafael; Guardiola, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Fortification of food products with iron is a common strategy to prevent or overcome iron deficiency. However, any form of iron is a pro-oxidant and its addition will cause off-flavours and reduce a product's shelf life. A highly bioavailable heme iron ingredient was selected to fortify a chocolate cream used to fill sandwich-type cookies. Two different strategies were assessed for avoiding the heme iron catalytic effect on lipid oxidation: ascorbyl palmitate addition and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate. Oxidation development and sensory acceptability were monitored in the cookies over one-year of storage at room temperature in the dark. The addition of ascorbyl palmitate provided protection against oxidation and loss of tocopherols and tocotrienols during the preparation of cookies. In general, ascorbyl palmitate, either alone or in combination with the co-spray-dried heme iron, prevented primary oxidation and hexanal formation during storage. The combination of both strategies resulted in cookies that were acceptable from a sensory point of view after 1year of storage.

  8. Effect of different fluoride varnishes on mineralization of artificial enamel carious lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Said, Siti Norhazlin Binti

    2015-01-01

    The chalky white appearance on enamel is known as White Spot Lesion (WSL). This initial caries lesion involves the dynamic process of demineralization and remineralization. Fluoride varnish has been shown to prevent WSL in post-eruptive tooth. The literature review summarized the available evidence on the various agents added to topical fluoride varnish, such as casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), xylito-coated calcium and phosphate, amorphous calcium phosphate (A...

  9. Biphasic calcium phosphate–casein bone graft fortified with Cassia occidentalis for bone tissue engineering and regeneration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Santhosh Kumar; T Hemalatha; R Deepachitra; R Narasimha Raghavan; P Prabu; T P Sastry

    2015-02-01

    Research on traditional herbs is gaining momentum owing to their potent medical properties, among which Cassia occidentalis (CO) is a promising herb, with osteogenic potential. The study investigates the efficacy of CO extract incorporated biphasic calcium phosphate as an osteoinductive material. Prepared bone implants were characterized physico-chemically using FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM and EDX. The implants were analysed further for mechanical and biological properties. The results revealed that CO extract-incorporated bone implants possessed better compression strength and it was able to induce proliferation and enhance alkaline phosphatase activity in SaOS-2 cells. The implant proves to be promising for bone tissue engineering, and hence it demands further in vivo evaluation.

  10. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide – Amorphous calcium phosphate in reducing Streptococcus mutans counts in dental plaque of children: An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Chandak, Shweta; Bhondey, Ashish; Bhardwaj, Amit; Pimpale, Jitesh; Chandwani, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the comparative efficacy of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP–ACP) complex visa viz. Streptococcus mutans in plaque, and thereby the role that these two agents could play in the prevention of dental caries. Materials and Methods: A cluster sample of 120 caries inactive individuals belonging to moderate and high caries risk group were selected from 3–5-year-old age group based on the criteria given by Krassee and were randomized to four ...

  11. Prevention and Treatment of White Spot Lesions During and After Treatment with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: a Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Lopatiene; Marija Borisovaite; Egle Lapenaite

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of the systematic literature review is to update the evidence for the prevention of white spot lesions, using materials containing fluoride and/or casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate during and after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Material and Methods Information search for controlled studies on humans published between January 2008 and February 2016 was performed in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, The Cochrane Library. Inclusion criteria...

  12. Phosphorylation of as1-casein is regulated by different genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, E.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Huppertz, T.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2014-01-01

    Casein phosphorylation is a posttranslational modification catalyzed by kinase enzymes that attach phosphate groups to specific AA in the protein sequence. This modification is one of the key factors responsible for the stabilization of calcium phosphate nanoclusters in casein micelles and for the i

  13. Bovine β-casein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atamer, Zeynep; Post, Antonie E.; Schubert, Thomas; Holder, Aline; Boom, Remko Marcel; Hinrichs, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in pure casein fractions, particularly β-casein due to its physiochemical properties as well as its bio- and techno-functional properties. A range of methods has been developed for the fractionation of casein into its individual proteins. The

  14. 姜黄素-明胶-酪蛋白钙复合膜理化特性研究%Research of Physico-Chemical Properties on Curcumin-Gelatin-Calcium Caseinate Composite Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐; 马玲; 刘安军; 韩悦; 滕安国

    2016-01-01

    本研究将不同浓度的姜黄素添加到明胶-酪蛋白钙中,开发出一系列姜黄素-明胶-酪蛋白钙抗氧化复合膜,并对其力学特性、光学特性、表面形貌、抗氧化活性和保鲜效果进行分析。结果表明:加入姜黄素后,姜黄素中的成分物质与明胶相互作用,导致复合膜的厚度和断裂伸长率逐渐增大,外观颜色变深,抗拉强度、水溶性和水蒸气透过系数逐渐降低,对食物中脂类的氧化有明显抑制作用且逐渐增强,原子力显微镜观测其表面粗糙程度逐渐增大,对冷藏肉的抗氧化效果越来越好。因此,姜黄素-明胶-酪蛋白钙复合膜的开发在食品包装和保鲜等方面表现出潜在的应用价值。%In order to develop gelatin-calcium caseinate composite films with antioxidant activity, different concentration of curcumin was added to it. In addition, the mechanical properties, optical properties, surface topography, antioxidant activity and preservation effect of curcumin-gelatin-calcium caseinate were also inves-tigated and analyzed. The results indicated that the incorporation of curcumin caused interactions between gelatin and ingredients in curcumin, and the films showed increased thickness and elongation. After the addition of curcumin, the films showed darker appearance, and decreased tensile strength, water solubility and water vapor permeability. Meanwhile, the inhibition to food spoilage microorganisms and preservation effect on chilled fresh pork enhanced, and the surfaces became rougher by AFM with the increase of concentration of curcumin. In summary, gelatin-calcium caseinate composite films incorporated with curcumin presented application ca-pacity in food packing and preservation.

  15. PENGEMBANGAN TORTILA BERKALSIUM SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF PANGAN DIET CASEIN FREE-GLUTEN FREE PADA INDUSTRI KECIL DENGAN METODE VALUE ENGINEERING (Development of Fortified Calcium Tortilla Snack as an Alternative Food for Casein-Free Gluten-Free Diet with Value Engineering Method for Small Scale Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Yonathan Sadikin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The number of people with autism increased 56% in 1998 – 2013, and it was a global problem. People with autism need special treatments and CFGF diet (casein free, gluten free was one of those treatments. That’s why, the development The calcium content was expected to substitute the calcium from dairy consumption, which shouldn’t be consumed by people with autism. The method used in this product development was value engineering which separated in three steps: information, creativity, and analysis steps. Respectively, this research was also further completed with chemical The goal of this research was to design some product implemented in small scale industry. Respondends and panelist in this research were consisted of students and teachers. They acted as the market of the product, especially as a  part of general society. This product were designed to provide CFGF snack for people with autism, and those who need CFGF diet. But this product was not limited to that market, it can be consumed by general society not only for people with autism, hence the students and teachers were used. The research showed that the best concept was a product produced with to get 200 grams of dough. This product concept was also designed to be packed in big size gusset packaging materials and the chips was triangle-shaped with size of feasible to be produced in small scale industry. Keywords: value engineering, casein-free gluten-free diet,autism   ABSTRAK Dengan jumlah penyandang autis yang terus meningkat, misalnya peningkatan sebesar 56% pada 1998 – 2013, maka produk tortila berkalsium potensial dikembangkan sebagai alternatif pangan untuk diet CFGF (, dan kandungan kalsiumnya bisa membantu menggantikan kalsium dari susu sapi yang mengandung kasein. Tujuan penelitian adalah merancang sejumlah konsep produk tortila berkalsium dan memilih satu konsep yang paling disukai Metode penelitian adalah yang terdiri dari tiga tahap: informasi, kreativitas dan

  16. Inhibition and Promotion of Heat-Induced Gelation of Whey Proteins in the Presence of Calcium by Addition of Sodium Caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bach T; Balakrishnan, Gireeshkumar; Jacquette, Boris; Nicolai, Taco; Chassenieux, Christophe; Schmitt, Christophe; Bovetto, Lionel

    2016-11-14

    Heat-induced aggregation and gelation of aqueous solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI) in the presence of sodium caseinate (SC) and CaCl2 was studied at pH 6.6. The effect of adding SC (0-100 g/L) on the structure of the aggregates and the gels was investigated by light scattering and confocal laser scanning microscopy at different CaCl2 concentration ([CaCl2] = 0-30 mM). The gelation process was studied by oscillatory shear rheology. At the whey protein concentrations studied here (34 and 60 g/L), no gels were formed in the absence of CaCl2 and SC. However, WPI solutions gelled above a critical CaCl2 concentration that increased with increasing SC concentration. In the absence of CaCl2, WPI gels were formed only above a critical SC concentration. The critical SC concentration needed to induce WPI gelation decreased weakly when CaCl2 was added. In an intermediate range of CaCl2 concentrations, gels were formed both at low and high SC concentrations, but not at intermediate SC concentrations. Finally, at high CaCl2 concentrations gels were formed at all SC concentrations. The gelation rate and the gel structure of the gels formed at low and high casein concentrations were very different. The effect of SC on the thermal gelation of WPI was interpreted by competition for Ca(2+), a chaperon effect, and microphase separation.

  17. Casein micelles and their internal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Kruif, Cornelis G [ORNL; Huppertz, Thom [NIZO Food Research; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Petukhov, Andrei V [Van ' t Hoff laboratory for Physical and Colloid Chemistry, Utrecht University, The Netherlands

    2012-01-01

    The internal structure of casein micelles was studied by calculating the small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering and static light scattering spectrum (SANS, SAXS, SLS) as a function of the scattering contrast and composition. We predicted experimental SANS, SAXS, SLS spectra self consistently using independently determined parameters for composition size, polydispersity, density and voluminosity. The internal structure of the casein micelles, i.e. how the various components are distributed within the casein micelle, was modeled according to three different models advocated in the literature; i.e. the classical sub-micelle model, the nanocluster model and the dual binding model. In this paper we present the essential features of these models and combine new and old experimental SANS, SAXS, SLS and DLS scattering data with new calculations that predict the spectra. Further evidence on micellar substructure was obtained by internally cross linking the casein micelles using transglutaminase, which led to casein nanogel particles. In contrast to native casein micelles, the nanogel particles were stable in 6 M urea and after sequestering the calcium using trisodium citrate. The changed scattering properties were again predicted self consistently. An important result is that the radius of gyration is independent of contrast, indicating that the mass distribution within a casein micelle is homogeneous. Experimental contrast is predicted quite well leading to a match point at a D{sub 2}O volume fraction of 0.41 ratio in SANS. Using SANS and SAXS model calculations it is concluded that only the nanocluster model is capable of accounting for the experimental scattering contrast variation data. All features and trends are predicted self consistently, among which the 'famous' shoulder at a wave vector value Q = 0.35 nm{sup -1}. In the nanocluster model, the casein micelle is considered as a (homogeneous) matrix of caseins in which the colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP

  18. Natural variation in casein composition of milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, E.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine milk contains 3-4 % protein and almost 80% of the milk protein fraction consist of four caseins; αs1-casein, β-casein, αs2-casein and κ-casein. Most of the caseins in milk are assembled in casein micelles, which consist of several thousands of indi

  19. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide – Amorphous calcium phosphate in reducing Streptococcus mutans counts in dental plaque of children: An in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandak, Shweta; Bhondey, Ashish; Bhardwaj, Amit; Pimpale, Jitesh; Chandwani, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the comparative efficacy of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP–ACP) complex visa viz. Streptococcus mutans in plaque, and thereby the role that these two agents could play in the prevention of dental caries. Materials and Methods: A cluster sample of 120 caries inactive individuals belonging to moderate and high caries risk group were selected from 3–5-year-old age group based on the criteria given by Krassee and were randomized to four groups, namely, fluoride varnish – Group I, CPP–ACP complex – Group II, mixture of CPP–ACP complex –Gourp III, and fluoride and routine oral hygiene procedures as control – Group IV. The results thus obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Results: A statistically significant difference in the pre and post-application scores of S. mutans (P fluoride varnish, CPP–ACP, and CPP–ACP plus fluoride protects the tooth structure, preserving the integrity of primary dentition, with the most encouraging results being with CPP–ACP plus fluoride. PMID:27891308

  20. Prevention and Treatment of White Spot Lesions During and After Treatment with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: a Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Lopatiene

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the systematic literature review is to update the evidence for the prevention of white spot lesions, using materials containing fluoride and/or casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate during and after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Material and Methods: Information search for controlled studies on humans published between January 2008 and February 2016 was performed in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, The Cochrane Library. Inclusion criteria were: the English language, study on humans, patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances, randomized or quasi-randomized controlled clinical studies fluoride-containing product or casein derivates used throughout the appliance therapy or straightaway after debonding. Results: 326 articles were reviewed (Embase 141, PubMed 129, ScienceDirect 41, Cochrane 15. Twelve clinical studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Use of fluoridated toothpaste had a remineralizing effect on white spot lesions (WSLs (P < 0.05; fluoride varnish and casein supplements were effective in prevention and early treatment of WSLs (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Early detection of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment would allow implementing preventive measures to control the demineralization process before lesions progress. The systemic review has showed that the usage of fluoride and casein supplements in ameliorating white spot lesions during and after fixed orthodontic treatment is significantly effective. However the use of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate can be more beneficial than fluoride rinse in the reduction of demineralization spots.

  1. The association of lysozyme with casein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de A.L.; Walstra, P.; Geurts, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    The association of hen eggs’ lysozyme with caseins was studied by using three casein substrates: (I) solutions of the various caseins, (II) artificially made casein micelles of various compositions and (III) caseins adsorbed onto soya-oil emulsion droplets. In solution, lysozyme associated most stro

  2. Casein nomenclature, structure and association

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter of the Encyclopedia of Dairy Science deals with the recent developments in the nomenclature, classification, structures, and associations of the major milk proteins: the caseins. Identification of the caseins continues to be based upon their primary structures. Significant findings re...

  3. Investigating cold gelation properties of recombined highly concentrated micellar casein concentrate and cream for use in cheese making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J; Vollmer, A H

    2016-07-01

    Highly concentrated micellar casein concentrate (HC-MCC), a potential ingredient for cheese making, contains ~20% casein with ~70% of serum proteins removed by microfiltration and diafiltration of skim milk, followed by vacuum evaporation. Our objective was to investigate cold gelation properties of recombined concentrated milk (RCM) by mixing thawed frozen HC-MCC and cream under different casein levels, pH, and protein-to-fat ratios, and with addition of sodium citrate or calcium. The HC-MCC was recombined with cream using low shear at 50°C for 30 min, and rheological measurements were conducted. Cold-gelling temperature [the temperature at which storage modulus (G')=loss modulus (G″)] was linearly correlated with casein levels from 8.6 to 11.5% (R(2)=0.71), pH from 6.6 to 7.0 (R(2)=0.96), and addition of sodium citrate from 0 to 0.36mmol/g of casein (R(2)=0.80). At pH 7.0, gelation occurred at 12, 26, and 38°C with 9, 10, and 11% casein, respectively. At pH 6.6, 6.8, and 7.0, RCM with 12% casein gelled at a mean temperature of 12, 26, and 37°C, respectively. Adding calcium chloride at 0.17mmol/g of casein significantly increased cold-gelling temperature from 18 to ≥50°C, whereas no significant change was observed at levels up to 0.12mmol/g of casein. Different protein to fat ratios ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 did not significantly influence gelling temperature. In transmission electron micrographs of RCM with 12% casein, casein micelles were nonspherical and partially dissociated into small protein strands. Upon addition of calcium chloride at 0.21mmol/g of casein, casein micelles were more spherical and retained colloidal structure with the presence of aggregated casein micelles. These gelation processes of RCM with or without addition of trisodium citrate were both reversible. We propose that cold gelation of RCM occurs when protein strands that have been partially released from the casein micelles entangle, restrict their mobility, and form a fine

  4. The association of low-molecular-weight hydrophobic compounds with native casein micelles in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, M; Mohan, M S; Campagna, S R; Jurat-Fuentes, J L; Harte, F M

    2015-08-01

    The agreed biological function of the casein micelles in milk is to carry minerals (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) from mother to young along with amino acids for growth and development. Recently, native and modified casein micelles were used as encapsulating and delivery agents for various hydrophobic low-molecular-weight probes. The ability of modified casein micelles to bind certain probes may derive from the binding affinity of native casein micelles. Hence, a study with milk from single cows was conducted to further elucidate the association of hydrophobic molecules into native casein micelles and further understand their biological function. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic extraction followed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry analysis were performed over protein fractions obtained from size exclusion fractionation of raw skim milk. Hydrophobic compounds, including phosphatidylcholine, lyso-phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin, showed strong association exclusively to casein micelles as compared with whey proteins, whereas hydrophilic compounds did not display any preference for their association among milk proteins. Further analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected 42 compounds associated solely with the casein-micelles fraction. Mass fragments in tandem mass spectrometry identified 4 of these compounds as phosphatidylcholine with fatty acid composition of 16:0/18:1, 14:0/16:0, 16:0/16:0, and 18:1/18:0. These results support that transporting low-molecular-weight hydrophobic molecules is also a biological function of the casein micelles in milk.

  5. Chymosin-induced hydrolysis of caseins: Influence of degree of phosphorylation of alpha-s1-casein and genetic variants of beta-casein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, E.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Sikkes, S.; Jumelet, S.; Sala, G.; Olieman, K.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Huppertz, T.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of natural variations in aS1-casein and b-casein composition of milk on chymosin-induced hydrolysis of these caseins in milk gels and in sodium caseinate solutions. At 50% casein degradation, 15% more of aS1-casein with eight phosphate groups

  6. Comparative evaluation of remineralizing potential of three agents on artificially demineralized human enamel: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Namrata; Choudhari, Shantanu; Kulkarni, Sadanand; Joshi, Saurabh R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Remineralization as a treatment procedure has received much attention from clinicians. The objective of this in vitro study was to find out the efficacy of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF), and tricalcium phosphate fluoride (TCP-F) in remineralizing enamel surface on which artificial caries lesion had been created. The changes were analyzed using DIAGNOdent® (KaVo) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: A total of 52 premolars and 24 molars were selected and classified into four groups of 13 premolars and 6 molars in each: I (CPP-ACP), II (CPP-ACPF), III (TCP-F), and IV (artificial saliva). All the samples were assessed using DIAGNOdent at the baseline and after demineralization and remineralization. Ten samples were randomly selected from each group baseline after demineralization and after remineralization for surface evaluation using SEM. Results: Statistical analysis showed that all the experimental groups had a significantly higher amount of remineralization except for group IV. Conclusion: All the three experimental groups showed a statistically significant amount of remineralization. However, because of the added benefit of fluoride (NaF 0.2%), CPP-ACPF (Tooth Mousse-Plus®) and TCP-F showed marginally more amount of remineralization than did CPP-ACP (Tooth Mousse®). Remineralization efficacy was TCP-F > CPP-ACPF > CPP-ACP. PMID:23716961

  7. Comparative evaluation of remineralizing potential of three agents on artificially demineralized human enamel: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Remineralization as a treatment procedure has received much attention from clinicians. The objective of this in vitro study was to find out the efficacy of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF, and tricalcium phosphate fluoride (TCP-F in remineralizing enamel surface on which artificial caries lesion had been created. The changes were analyzed using DIAGNOdent® (KaVo and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Materials and Methods: A total of 52 premolars and 24 molars were selected and classified into four groups of 13 premolars and 6 molars in each: I (CPP-ACP, II (CPP-ACPF, III (TCP-F, and IV (artificial saliva. All the samples were assessed using DIAGNOdent at the baseline and after demineralization and remineralization. Ten samples were randomly selected from each group baseline after demineralization and after remineralization for surface evaluation using SEM. Results: Statistical analysis showed that all the experimental groups had a significantly higher amount of remineralization except for group IV. Conclusion: All the three experimental groups showed a statistically significant amount of remineralization. However, because of the added benefit of fluoride (NaF 0.2%, CPP-ACPF (Tooth Mousse-Plus® and TCP-F showed marginally more amount of remineralization than did CPP-ACP (Tooth Mousse® . Remineralization efficacy was TCP-F > CPP-ACPF > CPP-ACP.

  8. Efficacy of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF on enamel remineralization - An in vitro study using scanning electron microscope and DIAGNOdent®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanth Jayarajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Remineralization as a treatment procedure has received a lot of attention both from clinicians as well researchers. The objective of this in vitro study was to find out the efficacy of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF in remineralizing enamel surface on which artificial caries lesion had been created. The changes were analyzed using DIAGNOdent® (KaVo and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Materials and Methods: Ninety maxillary premolars were selected and divided into three groups of 30 teeth each: A (artificial saliva, B (CPP-ACP, and C (CPP-ACPF. All the samples were assessed using DIAGNOdent® at the baseline and after demineralization and remineralization. Three samples were randomly selected from each group after remineralization for surface evaluation using SEM. Results: Statistical analysis showed that group B {CPP-ACP (4.1±1.8} and group C {CPP-ACPF (4.8±1.2} had a significantly higher amount of remineralization than group A (1.7±0.7. Conclusion: All the three groups showed a statistically significant amount of remineralization. However, because of the added benefit of fluoride (NaF 0.2%, CPP-ACPF (Tooth Mousse-Plus® showed marginally more amount of remineralization than CPP-ACP (Tooth Mousse®.

  9. The membrane-associated form of α(s1-casein interacts with cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant microdomains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle Le Parc

    Full Text Available Caseins, the main milk proteins, interact with colloidal calcium phosphate to form the casein micelle. The mesostructure of this supramolecular assembly markedly influences its nutritional and technological functionalities. However, its detailed molecular organization and the cellular mechanisms involved in its biogenesis have been only partially established. There is a growing body of evidence to support the concept that α(s1-casein takes center stage in casein micelle building and transport in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. Here we have investigated the membrane-associated form of α(s1-casein in rat mammary epithelial cells. Using metabolic labelling we show that α(s1-casein becomes associated with membranes at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum, with no subsequent increase at the level of the Golgi apparatus. From morphological and biochemical data, it appears that caseins are in a tight relationship with membranes throughout the secretory pathway. On the other hand, we have observed that the membrane-associated form of α(s1-casein co-purified with detergent-resistant membranes. It was poorly solubilised by Tween 20, partially insoluble in Lubrol WX, and substantially insoluble in Triton X-100. Finally, we found that cholesterol depletion results in the release of the membrane-associated form of α(s1-casein. These experiments reveal that the insolubility of α(s1-casein reflects its partial association with a cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant microdomain. We propose that the membrane-associated form of α(s1-casein interacts with the lipid microdomain, or lipid raft, that forms within the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, for efficient forward transport and sorting in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells.

  10. Casein Micelle Dispersions under Osmotic Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchoux, Antoine; Cayemitte, Pierre-Emerson; Jardin, Julien; Gésan-Guiziou, Geneviève; Cabane, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Casein micelles dispersions have been concentrated and equilibrated at different osmotic pressures using equilibrium dialysis. This technique measured an equation of state of the dispersions over a wide range of pressures and concentrations and at different ionic strengths. Three regimes were found. i), A dilute regime in which the osmotic pressure is proportional to the casein concentration. In this regime, the casein micelles are well separated and rarely interact, whereas the osmotic press...

  11. Rheology and structural arrest of casein suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Dahbi, Louisa; Alexander, M.; Trappe, Véronique; Dhont, J. K. G.; Schurtenberger, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The rheology of milk powder suspensions is investigated up to very high concentrations, where structural arrest occurs. The main component of the milk powder investigated is casein, so that the suspensions can be regarded as casein suspensions. Four concentration regimes are identified. For effective casein volume fractions less than 0.54 the concentration dependence of the zero-shear viscosity is similar to that of hard-sphere suspensions. However, due to the elastic deformation of the casei...

  12. Enamel Demineralization Prevention during Fixed Orthodontic Treatment and Remineralization Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xin-hua; Wayne J Sampson

    2007-01-01

    Preventing enamel demineralization and remineralization of orthodontic patients is important and it differs from other dental patients.Oral hygiene education and oral examination is essential to prevent enamel demineralization,and dietary education or control of sugar intake should not be ignored during fixed orthodontic treatment.Laser irradiation is a noteworthy method to prevent enamel mineralization.Products containing fluoride and fluoride released not only can be used to prevent demineralization but also have the ability of remineralization during orthodontic treatment.Oral hygiene products containing casein-phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) have been demonstrated to have the ability of remineralization such as sugar-free chewing gum added CPP-ACP,lozenges containing CPP-AGP and milk protein casein tabilized by phosphopeptides.

  13. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-08-31

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  14. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebely Pal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  15. Focusing on the goat casein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroli, A; Chiatti, F; Chessa, S; Rignanese, D; Bolla, P; Pagnacco, G

    2006-08-01

    The analysis of casein polymorphisms in goat species is rather difficult, because of a large number of mutations at each locus, and the tight linkage involving the 4 casein genes. Three goat breeds from Northern Italy, Orobica, Verzasca, and Frisa, were analyzed at the casein complex by milk isoelectrofocusing and analyses at the DNA level to identify the majority of all known polymorphisms. The casein gene structure of the 3 local breeds at alpha(S1)-casein (CSN1S1), beta-casein (CSN2), alpha(S2)-casein (CSN1S2), and kappa-casein (CSN3) was compared with that of Camosciata, a more widely distributed breed. A new allele was identified and characterized at CSN2 gene, which seemed to be specific to the Frisa breed. It was named CSN2*E, and was characterized by a transversion TCT --> TAT responsible for the amino acid exchange Ser(166) --> Tyr(166) in the mature protein. The casein haplotype structure is highly different among breeds. A total of 26 haplotypes showed a frequency higher than 0.01 in at least 1 of the 4 breeds considered, with 12, 3, 5, and 19 haplotypes in Frisa, Orobica, Verzasca, and Camosciata breeds, respectively. Only 13 haplotypes occurred at a frequency higher than 0.05 in at least 1 breed. With the molecular knowledge of each locus, the ancestral haplotype coding for CSN1S1*B, CSN2*A, CSN1S2*A, and CSN3*B protein variants can be postulated. A protein evolutionary model considering the whole casein haplotype is proposed.

  16. The pressure-induced, lactose-dependent changes in the composition and size of casein micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengjie; Jin, Shaoming; Guo, Huiyuan; Zhao, Liang; Ren, Fazheng

    2015-04-15

    The effects of lactose on the changes in the composition and size of casein micelles induced by high-pressure treatment and the related mechanism of action were investigated. Dispersions of ultracentrifuged casein micelle pellets with 0-10% (w/v) lactose were subjected to high pressure (400 MPa) at 20 °C for 40 min. The results indicated that the level of non-sedimentable caseins was positively related to the amount of lactose added prior to pressure treatment, and negatively correlated to the size. A mechanism for the pressure-induced, lactose-dependent changes in the casein micelles is proposed. Lactose inhibits the hydrophobic interactions between the micellar fragments during or after pressure release, through the hydrophilic layer formed by their hydrogen bonds around the micellar fragments. In addition, lactose does not favour the association between calcium and the casein aggregates after pressure release. Due to these two functions, lactose inhibited the formation of larger micelles after pressure treatment.

  17. Stability of casein micelles in milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinier, R.; de Kruif, C. G.

    2002-07-01

    Casein micelles in milk are proteinaceous colloidal particles and are essential for the production of flocculated and gelled products such as yogurt, cheese, and ice-cream. The colloidal stability of casein micelles is described here by a calculation of the pair potential, containing the essential contributions of brush repulsion, electrostatic repulsion, and van der Waals attraction. The parameters required are taken from the literature. The results are expressed by the second osmotic virial coefficient and are quite consistent with experimental findings. It appears that the stability is mainly attributable to a steric layer of κ-casein, which can be described as a salted polyelectrolyte brush.

  18. Effects of hydrolysed casein, intact casein and intact whey protein on energy expenditure and appetite regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Gomes, Sisse

    2014-01-01

    Casein and whey differ in amino acid composition and in the rate of absorption; however, the absorption rate of casein can be increased to mimic that of whey by exogenous hydrolysis. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of hydrolysed casein (HC), intact casein (IC......) and intact whey (IW) on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite regulation, and thereby to investigate the influence of amino acid composition and the rate of absorption. In the present randomised cross-over study, twenty-four overweight and moderately obese young men and women consumed three isoenergetic...

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MILK CASEIN ASSAY METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA CĂPRIłĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Casein, the main milk protein was determined by different assay methods: the gravimetric method, the method based on the neutralization of the NaOH excess used for the casein precipitate solving and the method based on the titration of the acetic acid used for the casein precipitation. The last method is the simplest one, with the fewer steps, and also with the lowest error degree. The results of the experiment revealed that the percentage of casein from the whole milk protein represents between 72.6–81.3% in experiment 1, between 73.6–81.3% in experiment 2 and between 74.3–81% in experiment 3.

  20. Characterization of the casein gene complex in West African goats and description of a new alpha(s1)-casein polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroli, A; Chiatti, F; Chessa, S; Rignanese, D; Ibeagha-Awemu, E M; Erhardt, G

    2007-06-01

    The analysis of casein polymorphisms was carried out in West Africa goat populations: Red Sokoto (n = 57), West African Dwarf Nigeria (n = 27), West African Dwarf Cameroon (n = 39), and Borno (n = 37). The 4 casein genes alpha(s1) (CSN1S1), beta (CSN2), alpha(s2) (CSN1S2), and kappa (CSN3) were typed at the DNA level. No null alleles were found in any of the genes analyzed. A PCR single-strand conformation polymorphism method was implemented for the identification of CSN1S1*F allele simultaneously with A/0(1), B/E, N and the new allele. The allele differed from CSN1S1*B by a synonymous transversion TCG-->TCT in the codon corresponding to Ser(66) of the mature protein. The new allele, named CSN1S1*B', occurred at a high frequency in all the populations, ranging from 0.295 (West African Dwarf Cameroon) to 0.405 (Borno). A greater frequency was found for alleles associated with high alpha(s1)-casein quantity, as has already been observed in the goat populations from the Mediterranean area. The intermediate E allele occurred only in the Red Sokoto and at a low frequency. The faint F allele occurred in 3 populations at frequencies lower than 0.03. Linkage disequilibrium occurred in all the populations, with highly significant differences in Borno, Red Sokoto, and West Africa Dwarf Nigeria, and significant differences in West Africa Dwarf Cameroon. Only 10 haplotypes showed frequencies > or =0.05 in at least 1 of the 4 populations considered, and the overall frequency was >0.1 only for 4 haplotypes: BAAB, B'ACA, ACAB, and BACA (in the order CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3). Haplotype BAAB, postulated as an ancestral haplotype in previous studies, was the most common haplotype in all breeds except Borno, where B'ACA was predominant. The results obtained are of considerable significance given that very little information exists on the subject for African goats. The high frequency of strong alleles in the calcium-sensitive caseins as well as the high linkage disequilibrium found

  1. [Separation and identification of beta-casein from Chinese human milk by ion exchange chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Ren, Haowei; Liu, Biao; Liu, Ning; Li, Meng; Wang, Dongmao

    2013-05-01

    The selective precipitation of whole casein from skimmed milk was achieved by the addition of calcium salt under acidic pH. The effects of pH, centrifugal force and final concentration of CaCl2 on the separation of casein were studied by measuring the purity of final products using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The results showed that casein with the highest purity could be obtained with the pH of 4.3, the centrifugal force of 10 400 g and the final concentration of CaCl2 of 60 mmol/L. The casein was processed with DEAE anion exchange chromatography and three peaks were obtained. Then the third peak (peak III) was identified with Western-Blot method and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). The identification of Western-Blot showed that peak III can combine with the specificity of human milk beta-casein antibody, and it is proved to be human milk beta-casein. The fingerprints of peak III were nalyzed by Mascot searching, and the sequence coverage was 50%, further supporting it is human milk beta-casein. In conclusion, an effective method to obtain human milk beta-casein from milk samples through DEAE anion exchange chromatography was established, and it is suitable for the proteomics research requirements of the beta-casein from human milk.

  2. Towards tooth friendly soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2009-10-01

    Most soft drinks contain high concentration of simple carbohydrates and have a pH of 3 or even lower. Therefore, they are harmful for tooth structure. A tooth friendly soft drink (T.F.S.D) should have the following characteristics and elements; fluoride (approximately 1 ppm), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (2%), xylitol (4-6g/serving), tea polyphenols (2-4 mg/ml), cranberry extract (250 mg/ml of the flavonoids quercetin and myricetin), sugar free, pH close to 5.5 and super oxygenation (240,000 ppm) vs. carbonation. T.F.S.D can be packaged in a container which gaseous oxygen is dissolved in a liquid in the form of bubbles. However, looking at opportunities for so-called sophisticated soft drinks, T.F.S.D will be an example for a functional and health oriented soft drink.

  3. Calcium intake and cows' milk free diets.

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, J; Stanton, R H; David, T J

    1989-01-01

    In children with atopic eczema on elimination diets, the calcium intake was below the estimated requirement in 15 out of 20 who avoided cows' milk and received no milk substitute, and in three out of 26 who avoided cows' milk but were provided with a soya or casein hydrolysate formula.

  4. Rapid quantification of casein in skim milk using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, enzymatic perturbation, and multiway partial least squares: Monitoring chymosin at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Hansen, P. W.; Nørgaard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    least squares regression. Because we observed casein-specific kinetic changes, the retrieved models were independent of the chemical background matrix and were therefore robust against possible covariance effects. We tested the robustness of the models by spiking the milk solutions with whey, calcium......In this study, we introduce enzymatic perturbation combined with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a concept for quantifying casein in subcritical heated skim milk using chemometric multiway analysis. Chymosin is a protease that cleaves specifically caseins. As a result...... of hydrolysis, all casein proteins clot to form a creamy precipitate, and whey proteins remain in the supernatant. We monitored the cheese-clotting reaction in real time using FTIR and analyzed the resulting evolution profiles to establish calibration models using parallel factor analysis and multiway partial...

  5. Structure-rheology relations in sodium caseinate containing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, H.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The general aim of the work described in this thesis was to investigate structure-rheologyrelations for dairy related products, focusing on model systems containing sodium caseinate. The acid inducedgelationof sodium caseinate, of sodium caseinate

  6. Study on the heat stability of caprine casein%羊奶酪蛋白热稳定性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富新; 魏怡

    2011-01-01

    Using Saanen & Guanzhong goat milk as material,caprine casein was obtained from the milk. The effects of pH,temperature,ionic calcium,citrate,phosphate and casein on the heat stability of caprine casein were studied by hot coagulation time (HCT). The results showed that the heat stability of casein was better at the pH of 6.8, high temperature can lower the heat stability,ionic calcium can speed up the HCT of casein. A certain amount of citrate or phosphate can effectively raise the hot stability of caprine casein. The addition of casein was not obvious to the heat stability of caprine casein.%以莎能和关中羊奶为原料,通过从羊奶中提取酪蛋白,分别在不同的pH、温度以及添加不同浓度的Ca^2+、柠檬酸钠、三聚磷酸钠、干酪素的条件下测定酪蛋白的热凝固时间(HCT),研究其对羊奶酪蛋白热稳定性的影响。结果表明,pH在6.8时酪蛋白的热稳定性最好,高温会降低酪蛋白的热稳定性,钙离子可以降低羊奶酪蛋白的热稳定性,适量的柠檬酸钠或三聚磷酸钠可以有效提高羊奶酪蛋白的热稳定性,干酪素对酪蛋白稳定性影响不明显。

  7. Factors influencing casein micelle size in milk of individual cows: Genetic variants and glycosylation of k-casein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, E.; Vries, de R.F.M.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Huppertz, T.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The average casein micelle size varies widely between milk samples of individual cows. The factors that cause this variation in size are not known but could provide more insight into casein micelle structure and into the physiology of casein micelle formation. The objective of this research was ther

  8. Casein - whey protein interactions in heated milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasbinder, Astrid Jolanda

    2003-01-01

    Heating of milk is an essential step in the processing of various dairy products, like for example yoghurt. A major consequence of the heat treatment is the denaturation of whey proteins, which either associate with the casein micelle or form soluble whey protein aggregates. By combination of enzyma

  9. Short communication: separation and quantification of caseins and casein macropeptide using ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, B; Rahimi Yazdi, S; Ion Titapiccolo, G; Corredig, M

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this work was to improve an existing method to separate and quantify the 4 major caseins from milk samples (i.e., containing whey proteins) using ion-exchange chromatography. The separation process was carried out using a mini-preparative cation exchange column (1 or 5mL of column volume), using urea acetate as elution buffer at pH 3.5 with a NaCl gradient. All 4 major caseins were separated, and the purity of each peak was assessed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. Purified casein fractions were also added to raw milk to confirm their elution volumes. The quantification was carried out using purified caseins in buffer as well as added directly to fresh skim milk. This method can also be employed to determine the decrease in kappa-casein and the release of the casein-macropeptide during enzymatic hydrolysis using rennet. In this case, the main advantage of using this method is the lack of organic solvents compared with the conventional method for separation of macropeptide (using reversed phase HPLC).

  10. [Comparison of the function and conformation of human β-casein and bovine β-casein by spectroscopic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Meng; Ren, Hao-wei; Liu, Ning

    2014-12-01

    β-Casein was the main component of human milk casein, but the content of β-casein in the bovine milk was less. The difference in β-casein content of the two samples was one of the reasons why human milk is more digestible than bovine milk. Studying the differences of structure and function in human and bovine milk β-casein can help us develop a new human milk simulated infant formula which will be more suitable for the infant gut. The UV spectrophotometer was used to study the solubility, sulfhydryl and emulsification of human milk β-casein and bovine milk β-casein, Fluorescence spectroscopy and the infrared spectroscopy were used to study the structural characteristics of human milk β-casein and bovine milk β-casein. The two samples shared a similar isoelectric point (pH 4.0~5.0), the solubility of human milk β-casein (10.83%) was lower than which in bovine milk β-casein (11.83%) near the pI, while it was higher when it deviated the pI. The emulsion ability (110~140 m2 · g(-1)) of human milk β-casein was higher than that in bovine milk β-casein (70~130 m2 · g(-1)) and surface sulfhydryl group (SH) of two kinds of milk protein were similar [(18.47±0.08) μmol · g(-1) and (18.67±0.17) μmol · g(-1)]. The total sulfhydryl group [(47.46±0.23) μmol · g(-1)] in bovine milk β-casein was more than that in human milk β-casein [(26.17±0.12) μmol · g(-1)]. Functional groups in two samples were similar and they both contained beta sheet, human milk β-casein had less H-bond and internal hydrophobic than bovine milk β-casein. The results showed that the two samples had similar functional groups, while human milk β-casein had much less secondary structure such as α-helix and β-sheet, a looser tertiary structure and a better interfacial activity.

  11. Casein mediated green synthesis and decoration of reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddinedi, Sireesh Babu; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Vankayala, Raviraj; Kalluru, Poliraju; Tammina, Sai Kumar; Kiran Kumar, H A

    2014-05-21

    This research is mainly focusing on one-step biosynthesis of graphene from graphene oxide and its stabilization using naturally occurring milk protein, casein. The synthesis of casein reduced graphene oxide (CRGO) was completed within 7h under reflux at 90°C with the formation of few layered fine graphene nanosheets. UV-Vis, XRD, XPS analysis data revealed the reduction process of the graphene oxide. Results of FT-IR, HPLC and TEM analysis have shown that the ensuing material consists of graphene decorated with casein molecules. Aspartic acid and glutamic acid residue present in casein molecules are responsible for the reduction of graphene oxide.

  12. Casein mediated green synthesis and decoration of reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddinedi, Sireesh Babu; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Vankayala, Raviraj; Kalluru, Poliraju; Tammina, Sai Kumar; Kiran Kumar, H. A.

    This research is mainly focusing on one-step biosynthesis of graphene from graphene oxide and its stabilization using naturally occurring milk protein, casein. The synthesis of casein reduced graphene oxide (CRGO) was completed within 7 h under reflux at 90 °C with the formation of few layered fine graphene nanosheets. UV-Vis, XRD, XPS analysis data revealed the reduction process of the graphene oxide. Results of FT-IR, HPLC and TEM analysis have shown that the ensuing material consists of graphene decorated with casein molecules. Aspartic acid and glutamic acid residue present in casein molecules are responsible for the reduction of graphene oxide.

  13. Influence of shear during enzymatic gelation of caseinate-water and caseinate-water-fat systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manski, J.M.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Solidification, emulsification and application of shear were combined to induce diversity and heterogeneity in the micro- and macrostructure of concentrated caseinate-based food matrices containing a dispersed fat phase. The products were evaluated with selected parameters from small-scale and large

  14. Origin of suppressed demixing in casein/xanthan mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gruijthuijsen, K.; Herle, V.; Tuinier, R.; Schurtenberger, P.; Stradner, A.

    2012-01-01

    We explore the properties of casein/xanthan mixtures for xanthan concentrations beyond those inducing phase separation. Previous work has successfully described the onset of demixing by depletion theory in the protein limit, where the xanthan polysaccharides, the polymers, are larger than the casein

  15. Is there a feeding strategy to increase milk casein content?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Formigoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Because more than 60% of milk produced in Italy is transformed into cheese, milk economical value strongly depends on cheese yield. Among the factors that influence cheese yield, milk casein and fat content plays a major role: when milk is converted into Grana Padano and Parmigiano reggiano, three grams of seasoned cheese are produced from one gram of milk casein.....

  16. Quantification of Melanoidin Concentration in Sugar-Casein Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, C.M.J.; Wedzicha, B.L.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Melanoidins are the final, brown, high molecular weight products of the Maillard reaction. The aim of the present study was to determine the average molar extinction coefficients of melanoidins formed in heated glucose-casein and fructose-casein systems. The value of the extinction coefficient can b

  17. Lactoferrin binding to transglutaminase cross-linked casein micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anema, S.G.; de Kruif, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Casein micelles in skim milk were either untreated (untreated milk) or were cross-linked using transglutaminase (TGA-milk). Added lactoferrin (LF) bound to the casein micelles and followed Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The adsorption level was the same in both milks and decreased the micellar zeta

  18. Physical stability of caseinate stabilized emulsions during heating.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijsen, J.M.M.

    1996-01-01

    The physical stability of caseinate stabilized emulsions was studied during heating (80- 120°C). Coagulation, coalescence and phase separation of the caseinate emulsions was studied using objective heat stability tests. The physical changes were characterized by light microscopy, particle size measu

  19. Water holding capacity and swelling of casein hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruif, C; Anema, Skelte G.; Zhu, Changjun; Havea, Palatasa; Coker, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The water holding capacity of casein gels was investigated by measuring the swelling and de-swelling under a variety of conditions of temperature and salt concentration. Transglutaminase cross-linked sodium caseinate (15% w/w) gels will swell in good solvents or shrink in poor solvents until an equi

  20. Casein Films: The Effects of Formulation, Environmental Conditions and the Addition of Citric Pectin on the Structure and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia M. Bonnaillie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin casein films for food packaging applications reportedly possess good strength and low oxygen permeability, but low elasticity and high sensitivity to moisture. Modifying the films to target specific behaviors depending on environmental conditions can enable a variety of commercial applications for casein-based films. The mechanical properties of solvent-cast (15% solids calcium-caseinate/glycerol films (CaCas:Gly ratio of 3:1 were characterized as a function of processing and environmental conditions, including film thickness, solution formulation and ambient humidity (from 22% to 70% relative humidity (RH at ~20 °C. At constant RH, the elongation at break (EAB had a strong positive dependence on the film thickness. When RH increased, the tensile strength (TS and modulus (E decreased approximately linearly, while EAB increased. From 0.05% to 1% (w/w of citric pectin (CP was then incorporated into CaCas/Gly films following seven different formulations (mixing sequences, to alter the protein network and to evaluate the effects of CP on the tensile properties of CaCas/Gly/CP films. At constant film thickness and ~60% RH, the addition of 0.1% or 1.0% CP to the films considerably increased or decreased EAB, TS and E in different directions and to different extents, depending on the formulation, while optical micrographs also showed vastly differing network configurations, suggesting complex formulation- and stoichiometry-dependent casein-pectin interactions within the dried films. Depending on the desired film properties and utilization conditions, pectin may be a useful addition to casein film formulations for food packaging applications.

  1. Effects of casein, whey and soy proteins on volumetric bone density and bone strength in immunocompromised piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Bjørnvad, Charlotte; Mølgaard, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Summary:Background and aims: Bone-promoting effect of different proteins in early life, under immunocompromised conditions, is unknown. We investigated effects of milk- and plantderived proteins on bone development in immunocompromised piglets. Methods: Newborn, colostrum-deprived piglets were...... assigned to a formula based on either casein (n=11), whey (n=11) or soy (n=10) as the protein source (each 55 g/L), and equal amounts of fat, carbohydrates, calcium and phosphorus. Results & Conclusion: Despite efforts to sustain immuno-protection (sow serum and antibiotic injections), some piglets became...... sick and were early euthanised. After 6 days, bone density (peripheral quantitative computed tomography), bone mechanical strength (three-point bending test) and serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) (immunoassay) were measured in the surviving piglets (casein n=5, whey n=9, soy n=5)....

  2. Nucleolin (C23), a physiological substrate for casein kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, H R; Issinger, O G

    1988-01-01

    Nucleolin (C23), a 110 kDa phosphoprotein, which is mainly found in the nucleolus has been shown to be a physiological substrate for casein kinase II (CKII). Nucleolin was identified and characterized by immunodetection using an anti-nucleolin antibody. Phosphopeptide patterns from nucleolin...... phosphorylated by purified casein kinase II and of phosphorylated nucleolin which had been isolated from tumor cells grown in the presence of [32P]-o-phosphate, were identical. The partial tryptic digest revealed nine phosphopeptides. Nucleolin isolated from Krebs II mouse ascites cells was phosphorylated...... by purified casein kinase II with about two moles phosphate per one mole of nucleolin....

  3. Alginate-Casein Microspheres as Bioactive Vehicles for Nutrients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志敏; 张茜青; 齐崴; 黄仁亮; 苏荣欣

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an alginate-casein composite microsphere as a bioactive vehicle for oral administration of nutrients by a simple extrusion dripping method. Riboflavin was selected as a model drug, and the microencapsulation efficiency was raised to 97.94%after optimizing the preparation conditions by response surface methodology. In vitro release studies showed that riboflavin was released completely from alginate-casein microspheres in simulated intestinal fluids. Meanwhile, the morphology, structure and interaction between alginate and casein were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra.

  4. Influence of colloidal calcium phosphate level on the microstructure and rheological properties of rennet-induced skim milk gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutina, Glykeria; Knudsen, Jes Christian; Andersen, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    lactose, to obtain varying levels of micellar calcium and phosphorus but constant value of pH, serum and free calcium, and serum phosphorus. Bovine chymosin was added to the skim milk samples after dialysis and microstructural and rheological properties during gel formation were recorded at 30°C. Samples......Colloidal calcium phosphate is an essential part of casein micelles and being responsible for their stability. Different mineralization of casein micelles was obtained by acidification of skim milk to pH 6.5, 6.0 or 5.5, followed by a dialysis method, using simulated milk ultrafiltrate without...

  5. Immune activation by casein dietary antigens in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severance, E.G.; Dupont, D.; Dickerson, F.B.; Stallings, C.R.; Origoni, A.E.; Krivogorsky, B.; Yang, S.; Haasnoot, W.; Yolken, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Inflammation and other immune processes are increasingly linked to psychiatric diseases. Antigenic triggers specific to bipolar disorder are not yet defined. We tested whether antibodies to bovine milk caseins were associated with bipolar disorder, and whether patients recognized differe

  6. Examination of rheological properties of aqueous solutions of sodium caseinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Gawałek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of sodium caseinate as a functional additive in manufacturing processes requires production of its concentrated aqueous solutions which, in industrial conditions, presents a number of difficulties. In order to develop an effective and optimal industrial process of mixing – manufacturing a concentrated solution of sodium caseinate, it is essential to know rheological properties in a definite range of concentrations changing in the course of the dissolving process. The material for investigations was typical commercial sodium caseinate in the form of dry powder manufactured in Poland from acid casein using the method of extrusion. The objective of the undertaken empirical studies was the assessment of the impact of the concentration on rheological properties of sodium caseinate concentrates. Investigations were carried out for five concentrates manufactured in a mixer equipped in a mechanical agitator at concentrations ranging X (% Î (2.5¸12.5 and changing mass proportions of sodium caseinate in the aqueous solution as follows: GS/G (kgS·kg-1 = 0.025. On the basis of the obtained research results, classical flow curves were plotted for individual concentrates. The determined values of viscosity and density of the examined solutions were correlated in the form of h = f(GS/G and r = f(GS/G dependencies which were used during the determination of classical characteristics of mixing forces essential for the assessment of energetic expenditures required to manufacture concentrates in a mixer equipped in a mechanical agitator. The density of the examined concentrates increased in a way directly proportional, while the dynamic viscosity coefficient increased exponentially together with the increase of sodium caseinate concentration. Sodium caseinate concentrates exhibited Newtonian character in the examined range of concentrations.

  7. Na-caseinate/oil/water systems: emulsion morphology diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui Lin; McGrath, Kathryn M

    2012-09-01

    The concentrated (dispersed phase 50-70 wt%) composition space of Na-caseinate, a family of milk proteins, stabilised emulsions was investigated for three different oils: soybean oil, palm olein and tetradecane with pH 6.8 phosphate buffer continuous phase. The variation of emulsion stability and microstructure were explored using static light scattering, diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance, cryo-scanning electron microscopy, rheology and the time varying macroscopic phase separation of the emulsions. For soybean oil and palm olein a rich diversity of emulsion microstructures and stabilities are realised. Five emulsion domains, each having a different microstructure and macroscopic stability have been identified within the composition space probed. For the lowest concentrations of emulsifier bridging flocculation is evident and emulsions are of low stability. Increasing Na-caseinate concentration leads to an increased stability and the existence of distinct individual oil droplets, visualised using cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Further increases in Na-caseinate concentration reduce emulsion stability due to depletion flocculation. Na-caseinate self-assembly is then initiated. At sufficiently high Na-caseinate and/or oil concentrations the continuous phase of the emulsion is a three-dimensional protein network and emulsion stability is again enhanced. At the limits of the emulsion composition space a gel-like paste is formed. The diversity of emulsion microstructure is reduced when tetradecane is the discrete phase. Na-caseinate self-assembly is limited and there is no evidence for formation of a protein network.

  8. Casein kinase-2 structure-function relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Meggio, F; Pinna, L A

    1992-01-01

    Nine mutants of human casein kinase-2 beta subunit have been created and assayed for their ability to assemble with the catalytic alpha subunit to give, at a 1:1 molar ratio, a fully competent CK-2 holoenzyme as judged by the following criteria: 1) the generation of an active heterotetrameric form......, consequently, stimulation of activity. This indicates that residue(s) located in the 171-209 sequence is essential for reconstitution. Also a four residue's N-terminal deletion (removing the autophosphorylation site) and single to quintuple substitutions of alanine for the acidic residues clustered in the 55......-70 sequence give rise to mutants that still assemble with the alpha subunit to give a tetrameric holoenzyme. However, in the case of the mutants A57,59, A63,64, A59-61,63,64 in vitro assembly with the CK-2 alpha subunit was not complete. There were also intermediate complexes, free alpha-subunit and beta...

  9. Structural investigations of sodium caseinate micelles in complex environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huck Iriart, C.; Herrera, M.L.; Candal, R. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Oliveira, C.L.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Torriani, I. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The most frequent destabilization mechanisms in Sodium Caseinate (NaCas) emulsions are creaming and flocculation. Coarse or fine emulsions with low protein con- tent destabilize mainly by creaming. If migration mechanism is suppressed, flocculation may become the main mechanism of destabilization. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) technique was applied to investigate sodium caseinate micelles structure in different environments. As many natural products, Sodium Caseinate samples have large polydisperse size distribution. The experimental data was analyzed using advanced modeling approaches. The Form Factor for the Caseinate micelle subunits was described by an ellipsoidal core shell model and the structure factor was split into two contributions, one corresponding to the particle-particle interactions and another one for the long range correlation of the subunits in the supramolecular structure. For the first term the hard sphere structure factor using the Percus-Yevick approximation for closure relation was used and for the second term a fractal model was applied. Three concentrations of sodium Caseinate (2, 5 and 7.5 %wt.) were measured in pure water, sugar solutions (20 %wt.) and in three different lipid phase emulsions containing 10 %wt. sunflower seed, olive and fish oils. Data analysis provided an average casein subunit radius of 4 nm, an average distance between the subunits of around 20nm and a fractal dimension value of around 3 for all samples. As indicated by the values of the correlation lengths for the set of studied samples, the casein aggregation is strongly affected by simple sugar additions and it is enhanced by emulsion droplets hydrophobic interaction. As will be presented, these nanoscale structural results provided by scattering experiments is consistent with macroscopic results obtained from several techniques, providing a new understanding of NaCas emulsions. (author)

  10. The role of casein in supporting the operation of surface bound kinesin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hancock William O

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microtubules and associated motor proteins such as kinesin are envisioned for applications such as bioseparation and molecular sorting to powering hybrid synthetic mechanical devices. One of the challenges in realizing such systems is retaining motor functionality on device surfaces. Kinesin motors adsorbed onto glass surfaces lose their functionality or ability to interact with microtubules if not adsorbed with other supporting proteins. Casein, a milk protein, is commonly used in microtubule motility assays to preserve kinesin functionality. However, the mechanism responsible for this preservation of motor function is unknown. To study casein and kinesin interaction, a series of microtubule motility assays were performed where whole milk casein, or its αs1 and αs2, β or κ subunits, were introduced or omitted at various steps of the motility assay. In addition, a series of epifluorescence and total internal reflection microscopy (TIRF experiments were conducted where fluorescently labeled casein was introduced at various steps of the motility assay to assess casein-casein and casein-glass binding dynamics. From these experiments it is concluded that casein forms a bi-layer which supports the operation of kinesin. The first tightly bound layer of casein mainly performs the function of anchoring the kinesin while the second more loosely bound layer of casein positions the head domain of the kinesin to more optimally interact with microtubules. Studies on individual casein subunits indicate that β casein was most effective in supporting kinesin functionality while κ casein was found to be least effective.

  11. Modulation of mice fecal microbiota by administration of casein glycomacropeptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsen Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Casein glycomacropeptide (GMP is known to promote the in vitro growth of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. In this paper, we used conven- tional culture techniques and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH techniques to investigate the effect of casein GMP on mice fecal microbiota. The population structure of the intestinal microbiota, including Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, Enterococcus, coliforms and Enterobacteriaceae, was tested and compared. After consecutive administration of casein GMP for 15 days, numbers of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria increased significantly (P<0.01, numbers of Enterobacteriaceae and Coliforms decreased significantly (P<0.05 while no significant changes were observed for Enterococcus. The detection limits of FISH technique were significantly lower (P<0.01 than the traditional culture method. These results suggested that consumption of casein GMP had a prebiotic effect on male BALB/c mice. Casein GMP helped establish a healthier intestinal microbiota. Additionally, FISH was proved to be a rapid and relatively low-cost detection method that can be used to further our understanding of human intestinal microbiota.

  12. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do not help. Always tell your provider and pharmacist if you are taking extra calcium. Calcium supplements ... 2012:chap 251. The National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF). Clinician's Guide to prevention and treatment of osteoporosis . National ...

  13. Casein micelles: size distribution in milks from individual cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kruif, C G Kees; Huppertz, Thom

    2012-05-09

    The size distribution and protein composition of casein micelles in the milk of Holstein-Friesian cows was determined as a function of stage and number of lactations. Protein composition did not vary significantly between the milks of different cows or as a function of lactation stage. Differences in the size and polydispersity of the casein micelles were observed between the milks of different cows, but not as a function of stage of milking or stage of lactation and not even over successive lactations periods. Modal radii varied from 55 to 70 nm, whereas hydrodynamic radii at a scattering angle of 73° (Q² = 350 μm⁻²) varied from 77 to 115 nm and polydispersity varied from 0.27 to 0.41, in a log-normal distribution. Casein micelle size in the milks of individual cows was not correlated with age, milk production, or lactation stage of the cows or fat or protein content of the milk.

  14. Rheology and phase behavior of dense casein micelle dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoux, A.; Debbou, B.; Gésan-Guiziou, G.; Famelart, M.-H.; Doublier, J.-L.; Cabane, B.

    2009-10-01

    Casein micelle dispersions have been concentrated through osmotic stress and examined through rheological experiments. In conditions where the casein micelles are separated from each other, i.e., below random-close packing, the dispersions have exactly the flow and dynamic properties of the polydisperse hard-sphere fluid, demonstrating that the micelles interact only through excluded volume effects in this regime. These interactions cause the viscosity and the elastic modulus to increase by three orders of magnitude approaching the concentration of random-close packing estimated at Cmax≈178 g/l. Above Cmax, the dispersions progressively turn into "gels" (i.e., soft solids) as C increases, with elastic moduli G' that are nearly frequency independent. In this second regime, the micelles deform and/or deswell as C increases, and the resistance to deformation results from the formation of bonds between micelles combined with the intrinsic mechanical resistance of the micelles. The variation in G' with C is then very similar to that observed with concentrated emulsions where the resistance to deformation originates from a set of membranes that separate the droplets. As in the case of emulsions, the G' values at high frequency are also nearly identical to the osmotic pressures required to compress the casein dispersions. The rheology of sodium caseinate dispersions in which the caseins are not structured into micelles is also reported. Such dispersions have the behavior of associative polymer solutions at all the concentrations investigated, further confirming the importance of structure in determining the rheological properties of casein micelle systems.

  15. Electrochemical immunosensor for the determination of β-casein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Molinari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric biosensor for the quantification of food allergens based on an inhibitory immunoassay is presented. As a proof of concept, the experimental conditions were optimized for the detection of β-casein in the 0-10 ppm range. Eight electro­che­mi­cal cells were integrated into a small-sized portable potentiostat controlled by a smart­phone via Bluetooth communication. The determination of β-casein in eight different samples can be measured with the electrochemical biosensor, which has the potential to be modified for the detection of multiple allergens.

  16. Expression of casein kinase 2 during mouse embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mestres, P; Boldyreff, B; Ebensperger, C;

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the expression and distribution of casein kinase 2 (CK-2) subunits in mouse embryos at different developmental stages. Expression was investigated at the mRNA level of CK-2 alpha- and beta-subunits by in situ hybridization and distribution at the protein level by immunohisto......This paper deals with the expression and distribution of casein kinase 2 (CK-2) subunits in mouse embryos at different developmental stages. Expression was investigated at the mRNA level of CK-2 alpha- and beta-subunits by in situ hybridization and distribution at the protein level...

  17. Horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed cross-linking of feruloylated arabinoxylans with β-casein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeriu, C.G.; Oudgenoeg, G.; Spekking, W.T.J.; Berendsen, L.B.J.M.; Vancon, L.; Boumans, H.; Gruppen, H.; Berkel, W.J.H. van; Laane, C.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Heterologous conjugates of wheat arabinoxylan and β-casein were prepared via enzymatic cross-linking, using sequential addition of the arabinoxylan to a mixture of β-casein, peroxidase, and hydrogen peroxide. The maximal formation of adducts between the β-casein and the feruloylated arabinoxylan was

  18. Purification and properties of a ribosomal casein kinase from rabbit reticulocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1977-01-01

    suggested that the casein kinase is a dimer composed of subunits of identical molecular weight. The enzyme utilizes GTP as well as ATP as a phosphoryl donor. It preferentially phosphorylates acidic proteins, in particular the model substrates casein and phosvitin. Casein kinase is cyclic AMP...

  19. Indirect and direct determination of the casein content of milk by Kjeldahl nitrogen analysis: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J M; Barbano, D M; Fleming, J R

    1998-01-01

    The classic method for determination of milk casein is based on precipitation of casein at pH 4.6. Precipitated milk casein is removed by filtration and the nitrogen content of either the precipitate (direct casein method) or filtrate (noncasein nitrogen; NCN) is determined by Kjeldahl analysis. For the indirect casein method, milk total nitrogen (TN; Method 991.20) is also determined and casein is calculated as TN minus NCN. Ten laboratories tested 9 pairs of blind duplicate raw milk materials with a casein range of 2.42-3.05% by both the direct and indirect casein methods. Statistical performance expressed in protein equivalents (nitrogen x 6.38) with invalid and outlier data removed was as follows: NCN method (wt%), mean = 0.762, sr = 0.010, sR = 0.016, repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) = 1.287%, reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDr) = 2.146%; indirect casein method (wt%), mean = 2.585, repeatability = 0.015, reproducibility = 0.022, RSDr = 0.560%, RSDR = 0.841; direct casein method (wt%), mean = 2.575, sr = 0.015, sR = 0.025, RSDr = 0.597%, RSDR = 0.988%. Method performance was acceptable and comparable to similar Kjeldahl methods for determining nitrogen content of milk (Methods 991.20, 991.21, 991.22, 991.23). The direct casein, indirect casein, and noncasein nitrogen methods have been adopted by AOAC INTERNATIONAL.

  20. Calcium-containing phosphopeptides pave the secretory pathway for efficient protein traffic and secretion in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    Casein phosphopeptides (CPPs) containing chelated calcium drastically increase the secretion of extracellular homologous and heterologous proteins in filamentous fungi. Casein phosphopeptides released by digestion of alpha - and beta-casein are rich in phosphoserine residues (SerP). They stimulate enzyme secretion in the gastrointestinal tract and enhance the immune response in mammals, and are used as food supplements. It is well known that casein phosphopeptides transport Ca2+ across the membranes and play an important role in Ca2+ homeostasis in the cells. Addition of CPPs drastically increases the production of heterologous proteins in Aspergillus as host for industrial enzyme production. Recent proteomics studies showed that CPPs alter drastically the vesicle-mediated secretory pathway in filamentous fungi, apparently because they change the calcium concentration in organelles that act as calcium reservoirs. In the organelles calcium homeostasis a major role is played by the pmr1 gene, that encodes a Ca2+/Mn2+ transport ATPase, localized in the Golgi complex; this transporter controls the balance between intra-Golgi and cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations. A Golgi-located casein kinase (CkiA) governs the ER to Golgi directionality of the movement of secretory proteins by interacting with the COPII coat of secretory vesicles when they reach the Golgi. Mutants defective in the casein-2 kinase CkiA show abnormal targeting of some secretory proteins, including cytoplasmic membrane amino acid transporters that in ckiA mutants are miss-targeted to vacuolar membranes. Interestingly, addition of CPPs increases a glyceraldehyde-3-phpshate dehydrogenase protein that is known to associate with microtubules and act as a vesicle/membrane fusogenic agent. In summary, CPPs alter the protein secretory pathway in fungi adapting it to a deregulated protein traffic through the organelles and vesicles what results in a drastic increase in secretion of heterologous and also of

  1. Phosphorylation of αS1-casein is regulated by different genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, E; van Valenberg, H J F; Huppertz, T; van Hooijdonk, A C M; Bovenhuis, H

    2014-11-01

    Casein phosphorylation is a posttranslational modification catalyzed by kinase enzymes that attach phosphate groups to specific AA in the protein sequence. This modification is one of the key factors responsible for the stabilization of calcium phosphate nanoclusters in casein micelles and for the internal structure of the casein micelles. α(S1)-Casein (α(s1)-CN) is of special interest because it constitutes up to 40% of the total casein fraction in milk, and it has 2 common phosphorylation states, with 8 (α(S1)-CN-8P) and 9 (α(S1)-CN-9P) phosphorylated serine residues. Factors affecting this variation in the degree of phosphorylation are not currently known. The objective of this research was to determine the genetic background of α(S1)-CN-8P and α(S1)-CN-9P. The genetic and phenotypic correlation between α(S1)-CN-8P and α(S1)-CN-9P was low (0.18 and 0.19, respectively). This low genetic correlation suggests a different genetic background. These differences were further investigated by means of a genome-wide association study, which showed that both α(S1)-CN-8P and α(S1)-CN-9P were affected by a region on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, but only α(S1)-CN-8P was affected by a region on BTA11 that contains the gene that encodes for β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), and only α(S1)-CN-9P was affected by a region on BTA14 that contains the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene. Estimated effects of β-LG protein genotypes showed that only α(S1)-CN-8P was associated with the β-LG A/B polymorphism (g.1772G>A and g.3054C>T); the AA genotype of β-LG was associated with a lower concentration of α(S1)-CN-8P (-0.32% wt/wt) than the BB genotype (+0.41% wt/wt). Estimated effects of DGAT1 K232A genotypes showed that only α(S1)-CN-9P was associated with the DGAT1 gene polymorphism; DGAT1 AA genotype was associated with a higher α(S1)-CN-9P concentration (+0.53% wt/wt) than the DGAT1 KK genotype (-0.44% wt/wt). The results give insight in phosphorylation of α(S1

  2. Casein Micelles: Size Distribution in Milks from Individual Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruif, C.G.; Huppertz, T.

    2012-01-01

    The size distribution and protein composition of casein micelles in the milk of Holstein-Friesian cows was determined as a function of stage and number of lactations. Protein composition did not vary significantly between the milks of different cows or as a function of lactation stage. Differences i

  3. Enhanced casein kinase II activity in human tumour cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowald, K; Fischer, H; Issinger, O G

    1984-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) activity is enhanced as much as 2-3 fold in established and 4-5-fold in transformed human cell lines when compared to that of fibroblasts and primary human tumour cell cultures where CKII activity never exceeded a basic level. The high activity of CKII in transformed cells...

  4. Modification of Casein%酪素的改性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秦欢

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the structure, characteristics, modification methods and application of casein are summarized. It is hoped that this can be helpful to related researchers.%  综述了酪素的结构、特性、改性方法和用途,希望能作为相关科技工作者的参考。

  5. Pressure-Aided Proteolysis of ß-Casein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, M.E.; Creusot, N.P.; Gruppen, H.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    ß-Casein, which is present in the form of micelles at atmospheric pressure, has been hydrolyzed during pressure treatment to improve the accessibility of the protein. Two proteolytic enzymes with different specificities were used. Trypsin was aimed at mainly hydrolyzing hydrophilic segments of ß-cas

  6. Modification of Casein by the Lipid Oxidation Product Malondialdehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.; Kimpe, de N.; Boekel, van T.

    2008-01-01

    The reaction of malondialdehyde with casein was studied in aqueous solution to evaluate the impact of this lipid oxidation product on food protein modification. By using multiresponse modeling, a kinetic model was developed for this reaction. The influence of temperature and pH on protein browning a

  7. Short communication: casein haplotype variability in sicilian dairy goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigli, I; Maizon, D O; Riggio, V; Sardina, M T; Portolano, B

    2008-09-01

    In the Mediterranean region, goat milk production is an important economic activity. In the present study, 4 casein genes were genotyped in 5 Sicilian goat breeds to 1) identify casein haplotypes present in the Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, Messinese, Derivata di Siria, and Maltese goat breeds; and 2) describe the structure of the Sicilian goat breeds based on casein haplotypes and allele frequencies. In a sample of 540 dairy goats, 67 different haplotypes with frequency >or=0.01 and 27 with frequency >or=0.03 were observed. The most common CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3 haplotype for Derivata di Siria and Maltese was FCFB (0.17 and 0.22, respectively), whereas for Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana and Messinese was ACAB (0.06, 0.23, and 0.10, respectively). According to the haplotype reconstruction, Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, and Messinese breeds presented the most favorable haplotype for cheese production, because the casein concentration in milk of these breeds might be greater than that in Derivata di Siria and Maltese breeds. Based on a cluster analysis, the breeds formed 2 main groups: Derivata di Siria, and Maltese in one group, and Argentata dell'Etna and Messinese in the other; the Girgentana breed was between these groups but closer to the latter.

  8. On studying protein phosphorylation patterns using bottom-up LC-MS/MS: the case of human alpha-casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Frank; Savitski, Mikhail M; Nielsen, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    minerals to the new-born. Human alpha(s1)-casein has been reported to be much less phosphorylated than ruminant caseins, which may indicate a different function of caseins in humans. Revealing the phosphorylation pattern in human casein can thus shed light on its function. The current study found...

  9. Quantitative determination of casein genetic variants in goat milk: Application in Girgentana dairy goat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbano, Maria; Segreto, Roberta; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Mastrangelo, Salvatore; Sardina, Maria Teresa

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to develop a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method to quantify casein genetic variants (αs2-, β-, and κ-casein) in milk of homozygous individuals of Girgentana goat breed. For calibration experiments, pure genetic variants were extracted from individual milk samples of animals with known genotypes. The described HPLC approach was precise, accurate and highly suitable for quantification of goat casein genetic variants of homozygous individuals. The amount of each casein per allele was: αs2-casein A = 2.9 ± 0.8 g/L and F = 1.8 ± 0.4 g/L; β-casein C = 3.0 ± 0.8 g/L and C1 = 2.0 ± 0.7 g/L and κ-casein A = 1.6 ± 0.3 g/L and B = 1.1 ± 0.2 g/L. A good correlation was found between the quantities of αs2-casein genetic variants A and F, and β-casein C and C1 with other previously described method. The main important result was obtained for κ-casein because, till now, no data were available on quantification of single genetic variants for this protein.

  10. Digestibility of transglutaminase cross-linked caseinate versus native caseinate in an in vitro multicompartmental model simulating young child and adult gastrointestinal conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenaar, R.; Jong, A. de; Koenen, M.E.; Bilsen, J. van; Janssen, A.M.; Labij, E.; Westerbeek, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the digestion of transglutaminase cross-linked caseinate (XLC) versus native caseinate (NC) in solution and in cheese spread under digestive conditions for adults and children mimicked in a gastrointestinal model. Samples were collected for gel electrophoresis an

  11. Evaluation to determine the caries remineralization potential of three dentifrices: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Balakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the remineralizing potential of three different remineralizing agents (GC tooth Mousse, Clinpro tooth crθme and SHY-NM on demineralized tooth surfaces using micro CT and microhardness. Materials and Methods: Forty five freshly extracted mandibular premolars were collected and enamel specimens were prepared. The samples were assigned to three groups with fifteen specimens in each group. The specimens were then demineralized using McInne′s demineralizing solution in two cycles. After that, remineralization was carried out in two cycles for 30 days using Casein phosphopeptide - Amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP - ACP, 0.21% sodium fluoride - Tricalcium phosphate (f-TCP and Calcium Sodium Phosphosilicate (CSP containing tooth pastes for groups I, II, III respectively. The specimens were evaluated for Linear attenuation co-efficient using micro CT (Scanco TM and Vicker′s Micro Hardness (Schimadzu TM testing at different time periods. The results were tabulated and statistically analysed. Results: It was observed that all the three remineralizing agents used in the study significantly increased the Linear Attenuation Co-efficient and Vicker′s hardness number values of the enamel specimens following 15 days and 30 days application. Conclusion: CPP - ACP showed the better remineralizing potential than the other two agents and there was no statistical significant difference between f-TCP and CSP groups.

  12. Characterization of the Casein/Keratin Self-Assembly Nanomicelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Xiao-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex nanomicelles were made from casein and keratin through electrostatic self-assembly and transglutaminase fixation that was proved to be harmless and green. The complex nanomicelles were characterized by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and steady-state florescence. The results show that the complex nanomcelles acquired at the neutral pH in the mass ratio of casein to keratin 4 : 1 exhibit an anomalous sphere shape with uniform size which the diameter is about 40–70 nm. The complex nanomicelles in solution possess excellent dilution and storage stability due to the fixation and their high ζ-potential (22.8 mV. The complex nanomicelles are relatively hydrophilic and have a good potential for industrial application.

  13. Calcium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D is needed to help your body use calcium. Milk is fortified with vitamin D for this reason. ... of calcium dietary supplements include calcium citrate and calcium carbonate. Calcium citrate is the more expensive form of ...

  14. Geographic distribution of haplotype diversity at the bovine casein locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moazami-Goudarzi Katy

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic diversity of the casein locus in cattle was studied on the basis of haplotype analysis. Consideration of recently described genetic variants of the casein genes which to date have not been the subject of diversity studies, allowed the identification of new haplotypes. Genotyping of 30 cattle breeds from four continents revealed a geographically associated distribution of haplotypes, mainly defined by frequencies of alleles at CSN1S1 and CSN3. The genetic diversity within taurine breeds in Europe was found to decrease significantly from the south to the north and from the east to the west. Such geographic patterns of cattle genetic variation at the casein locus may be a result of the domestication process of modern cattle as well as geographically differentiated natural or artificial selection. The comparison of African Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds allowed the identification of several Bos indicus specific haplotypes (CSN1S1*C-CSN2*A2-CSN3*AI/CSN3*H that are not found in pure taurine breeds. The occurrence of such haplotypes in southern European breeds also suggests that an introgression of indicine genes into taurine breeds could have contributed to the distribution of the genetic variation observed.

  15. Improving clarity and stability of skim milk powder dispersions by dissociation of casein micelles at pH 11.0 and acidification with citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Kang; Zhong, Qixin

    2013-09-25

    Casein micelles in milk cause turbidity and have poor stability at acidic conditions. In this study, skim milk powder dispersions were alkalized to pH 10.0 or 11.0, corresponding to reduced particle mass. In the following acidification with hydrochloric or citric acid, the re-formation of casein particles was observed. The combination of treatment at pH 11.0 and acidification with citric acid resulted in dispersions with the lowest turbidity and smallest particles, which enabled translucent dispersions at pH 5.5-7.0, corresponding to discrete nanoparticles. The concentration of ionic calcium was lower when acidified with citric acid than hydrochloric acid, corresponding to smaller particles with less negative zeta potential. The pH 11.0 treatment followed by acidification with citric acid also resulted in smaller particles than the simple chelating effects (directly implementing sodium citrate). The produced casein nanoparticles with reduced dimensions can be used for beverage and other novel applications.

  16. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  17. Gluten- and casein-free diets for autistic spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Claire; Ferriter, Michael; Calver, Sarah J; Connell-Jones, Graham G

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that peptides from gluten and casein may have a role in the origins of autism and that the physiology and psychology of autism might be explained by excessive opioid activity linked to these peptides. Research has reported abnormal levels of peptides in the urine and cerebrospinal fluid of people with autism. Objectives To determine the efficacy of gluten and/or casein free diets as an intervention to improve behaviour, cognitive and social functioning in individuals with autism. Search methods The following electronic databases were searched: CENTRAL(The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2007), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2007), PsycINFO (1971 to April 2007), EMBASE (1974 to April 2007), CINAHL (1982 to April 2007), ERIC (1965 to 2007), LILACS (1982 to April 2007), and the National Research register 2007 (Issue1). Review bibliographies were also examined to identify potential trials. Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials (RCT) involving programmes which eliminated gluten, casein or both gluten and casein from the diets of individuals diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder. Data collection and analysis Abstracts of studies identified in searches of electronic databases were assessed to determine inclusion by two independent authors The included trials did not share common outcome measures and therefore no meta-analysis was possible. Data are presented in narrative form. Main results Two small RCTs were identified (n = 35). No meta-analysis was possible. There were only three significant treatment effects in favour of the diet intervention: overall autistic traits, mean difference (MD) = −5.60 (95% CI −9.02 to −2.18), z = 3.21, p=0.001 (Knivsberg 2002) ; social isolation, MD = −3.20 (95% CI −5.20 to 1.20), z = 3.14, p = 0.002) and overall ability to communicate and interact, MD = 1.70 (95% CI 0.50 to 2.90), z = 2.77, p = 0.006) (Knivsberg 2003). In addition three outcomes showed no significant difference between the

  18. Characterization of casein and alpha lactalbumin of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madende, M; Osthoff, G; Patterton, H-G; Patterton, H E; Martin, P; Opperman, D J

    2015-12-01

    The current research reports partial characterization of the caseins and α-lactalbumin (α-LA) of the African elephant with proposed unique structure-function properties. Extensive research has been carried out to understand the structure of the casein micelles. Crystallographic structure elucidation of caseins and casein micelles is not possible. Consequently, several models have been developed in an effort to describe the casein micelle, specifically of cow milk. Here we report the characterization of African elephant milk caseins. The κ-caseins and β-caseins were investigated, and their relative ratio was found to be approximately 1:8.5, whereas α-caseins were not detected. The gene sequence of β-casein in the NCBI database was revisited, and a different sequence in the N-terminal region is proposed. Amino acid sequence alignment and hydropathy plots showed that the κ-casein of African elephant milk is similar to that of other mammals, whereas the β-casein is similar to the human protein, and displayed a section of unique AA composition and additional hydrophilic regions compared with bovine caseins. Elephant milk is destabilized by 62% alcohol, and it is speculated that the β-casein characteristics may allow maintenance of the colloidal nature of the casein micelle, a role that was previously only associated with κ-casein. The oligosaccharide content of milk was reported to be low in dairy animals but high in some other species such as humans and elephants. In the milk of the African elephant, lactose and oligosaccharides both occur at high levels. These levels are typically related to the content of α-LA in the mammary gland and thus point to a specialized carbohydrate synthesis, where the whey protein α-LA plays a role. We report the characterization of African elephant α-LA. Homology modeling of the α-LA showed that it is structurally similar to crystal structures of other mammalian species, which in turn may be an indication that its functional

  19. SOYBEAN AND CASEIN HYDROLYSATES INDUCE GRAPEVINE IMMUNE RESPONSES AND RESISTANCE AGAINST PLASMOPARA VITICOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihed eLachhab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, is one of the most devastating grape pathogen in Europe and North America. Although phytochemicals are used to control pathogen infections, the appearance of resistant strains and the concern for possible adverse effects on environment and human health are increasing the search for alternative strategies. In the present investigation, we successfully tested two protein hydrolysates from soybean (soy and casein (cas to trigger grapevine resistance against P. viticola. On Vitis vinifera cv. Marselan plants, the application of soy and cas reduced the infected leaf surface by 76 and 63%, as compared to the control, respectively. Since both hydrolysates might trigger the plant immunity, we investigated their ability to elicit grapevine defence responses. On grapevine cell suspensions, a different free cytosolic calcium signature was recorded for each hydrolysate, whereas a similar transient phosphorylation of two MAP kinases of 45 and 49 kDa was observed. These signalling events were followed by transcriptome reprogramming, including the up-regulation of defence genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR proteins and the stilbene synthase enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of resveratrol, the main grapevine phytoalexin. Liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the production of resveratrol and its dimer metabolites, δ- and ε-viniferins. Overall, soy effects were more pronounced as compared to the cas one. Both hydrolysates proved to act as elicitors to enhance grapevine immunity against pathogen attack.

  20. Casein and soybean protein-based thermoplastics and composites as alternative biodegradable polymers for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, C M; Fossen, M; van Tuil, R F; de Graaf, L A; Reis, R L; Cunha, A M

    2003-04-01

    This work reports on the development and characterization of novel meltable polymers and composites based on casein and soybean proteins. The effects of inert (Al(2)O(3)) and bioactive (tricalcium phosphate) ceramic reinforcements over the mechanical performance, water absorption, and bioactivity behavior of the injection-molded thermoplastics were examined. It was possible to obtain materials and composites with a range of mechanical properties, which might allow for their application in the biomedical field. The incorporation of tricalcium phosphate into the soybean thermoplastic decreased its mechanical properties but lead to the nucleation of a bioactive calcium-phosphate film on their surface when immersed in a simulated body fluid solution. When compounded with 1% of a zirconate coupling agent, the nucleation and growth of the bioactive films on the surface of the referred to composites was accelerated. The materials degradation was studied for ageing periods up to 60 days in an isotonic saline solution. Both water uptake and weight loss were monitored as a function of the immersion time. After 1 month of immersion, the materials showed signal of chemical degradation, presenting weight losses up to 30%. However, further improvement on the mechanical performance and the enhancement of the hydrolytic stability of those materials will be highly necessary for applications in the biomedical field.

  1. Goat casein genotypes are associated with milk production traits in the Sarda breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, G M; Dettori, M L; Piras, G; Manca, F; Paschino, P; Pazzola, M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the current work was to analyze, in the Sarda breed goat, genetic polymorphism within the casein genes and to assess their influence on milk traits. Genetic variants at the CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2 and CSN3 gene loci were investigated using PCR-based methods, cloning and sequencing. Strong alleles prevailed at the CSN1S1 gene locus and defective alleles also were revealed. Null alleles were evidenced at each calcium-sensitive gene locus. At the CSN3 gene locus, we observed a prevalence of the CSN3 A and B alleles; the occurrence of rare alleles such as CSN3 B'', C, C', D, E and M; and the CSN3 S allele (GenBank KF644565) described here for the first time in Capra hircus. Statistical analysis showed that all genes, except CSN3, significantly influenced milk traits. The CSN1S1 BB and AB genotypes were associated with the highest percentages of protein (4.41 and 4.40 respectively) and fat (5.26 and 5.34 respectively) (P milk protein content and yield. The polymorphism of the CSN2 gene affected milk protein percentage with the highest values recorded in the CSN2 AA goats (4.35, at P goats provided the highest fat (51.02 g/day) and protein (41.42 g/day) (P goat.

  2. Polymorphism of caprine milk alphas1-casein in relation to performance of four Polish goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barłowska, J; Litwińczuk, Z; Kedzierska-Matysek, M; Litwińczuk, A

    2007-01-01

    Polymorphism of goat milk alphas1-casein was determined and potential relations between genetic variants of this protein fraction and goat performance were evaluated. The investigations were performed on 598 goats assigned to of 4 breed groups (White improved 254 units, Coloured improved--124, White non-improved--146 and Coloured non-improved--74). For each goat, alphas1-casein polymorphism was determined in polyacrylamide gel by the PAGE-SDS method and percentage of milk alphas1-casein and gene frequency established. There was evaluated goat performance at successive lactations. In the goat population investigated, AA, AB, BB, AE, BE and EE alphas1-casein genotypes were identified. In all four breeds, alphas1-casein genotype EE clearly predominated (27.2-39.2%), recognized as "medium" and its share was higher in the groups of non-improved goats. It was conditioned by high frequency of gene E alphas1-casein (0.419-0.622). Generally, EE genotype percentage was higher in the non-improved goat groups. The improved goats, though, obtained higher productivity in each of the lactation studied. Analysis of relationships between alphas1-casein genetic variants and goats performance confirmed a significant influence on milk, protein and fat yields only in the Coloured improved goat group. There was revealed a more general tendency indicating a significant impact of "strong" alphas1-casein genotypes on a concentration of basic milk components, i.e. fat and protein, especially casein. In a group of goats producing milk of the highest casein content (over 2.4%) and protein (over 3.0%), the animals showing "strong" alphas1-casein variants dominated (85 and 70 %).

  3. A DIGITAL TOOL FOR CASEIN ISOLECTRIC POINT DETERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M.T. Trindade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Casein is a milk protein that has the same number of positive and negative charges in a pH around 4.7. This characteristic is called the isoelectric point (pI. The pI varies from protein to protein and it depends on the charges of the lateral chain of the constituent aminoacids. At this pH value the protein has its minimum solubility since the net charge is zero and the repulsion between molecules is decreased. Furthermore, the electrostatic interaction occurs between the protein molecules. Thus, they form clumps which tend to precipitate. On the other hand, when they are placed in a solution whose pH is above or below of its pI, the protein molecules have respectively a negative or positive net charge, with strong repulsion between themselves and great interaction with the solvent (water. Objective: This learning object presents a simulation of a laboratory practice for the determination of casein isoelectric point. Materials and Methods: Cartoons were planned in order to show the methodology procedures and biochemical fundamentals. Animations were developed with the aid of the Adobe ® Flash 8 software associated with logic programming. Results: The simulation consists of six steps that reproduce the activities performed in the laboratory. Among them, the user can observe different degrees of turbidity and / or precipitation of casein in solutions with different pH values, he can measure these values with paper indicator strips and then determine the pI of this protein. Conclusions: This learning object was tested by students of Biochemistry I, Pharmacy course since 2012/2. The navigation features, design, interaction, interactivity were considered excellent by 80% of students indicating that this object can be used as an interesting tool to assist the teaching and learning of basic biochemistry.  Available at:www.ufrgs.br/gcoeb/PontoIsoleletricoDaCaseina/PontoIsoleletricoDaCaseina.swf

  4. A DIGITAL TOOL FOR CASEIN ISOLECTRIC POINT DETERMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    V.M.T. Trindade; Santos, I. B.; Zanatta,G.; P. R. Arantes; Salbego, C. G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Casein is a milk protein that has the same number of positive and negative charges in a pH around 4.7. This characteristic is called the isoelectric point (pI). The pI varies from protein to protein and it depends on the charges of the lateral chain of the constituent aminoacids. At this pH value the protein has its minimum solubility since the net charge is zero and the repulsion between molecules is decreased. Furthermore, the electrostatic interaction occurs between the prote...

  5. Monitoring the aggregation of single casein micelles using fluorescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholt, Julie; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Harboe, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    The aggregation of casein micelles (CMs) induced by milk-clotting enzymes is a process of fundamental importance in the dairy industry for cheese production; however, it is not well characterized on the nanoscale. Here we enabled the monitoring of the kinetics of aggregation between single CMs (30......, suggesting significant differences in their composition or structure. Detailed size histograms of CMs during aggregation also revealed the presence of two distinct subpopulations with different growth amplitudes and kinetics. The dependence of these distinct nanoscale processes/parameters on aggregation...

  6. DNA polymorphism at the casein loci in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gregorio, P; Rando, A; Pieragostini, E; Masina, P

    1991-01-01

    By using seven endonucleases and four bovine cDNA probes specific for alpha S1-, alpha S2-, beta-, and kappa-casein genes, nine restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) have been found in the sheep orthologous DNA regions. In contrast to the low level of variation observed at the protein level, these DNA polymorphisms determine a high level of heterozygosity and, therefore, represent useful tools for genetic analyses since they can also be obtained without the need for gene expression. In fact, informative matings suggest that in sheep, as in cattle, the four loci are linked.

  7. Subunit and whole molecule specificity of the anti-bovine casein immune response in recent onset psychosis and schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severance, E.G.; Dickerson, F.B.; Halling, M.; Krivogorsky, B.; Haile, L.; Yang, S.; Stallings, C.R.; Origoni, A.E.; Bossis, I.; Xiao, J.; Dupont, D.; Haasnoot, W.; Yolken, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies show increased antibody levels to bovine casein in some individuals with schizophrenia. The immunogenicity of specific domains of bovine casein varies among people with milk sensitivities and thus could vary among different neuropsychiatric disorders. Using ELISAs and immunoblotting

  8. Lipoprotein(a) and dietary proteins: casein lowers lipoprotein(a) concentrations as compared with soy protein1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilausen, Karin Johanne; Meinertz, H.

    1999-01-01

    Lipoprotein(a), plasma lipoproteins, dietary proteins, soy protein, casein, liquid-formula, coronary artery disease, men, Denmark......Lipoprotein(a), plasma lipoproteins, dietary proteins, soy protein, casein, liquid-formula, coronary artery disease, men, Denmark...

  9. Effect of casein-based semi-synthetic food on renal acid excretion and acid-base state of blood in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlstra, W G; Langbroek, A J; Kraan, J; Rispens, P; Nijmeijer, A

    1995-01-01

    Urinary acid excretion and blood acid-base state were determined in dogs fed a casein-based semi-synthetic food (SSF), to which different amounts of salts had been added, in comparison with feeding normal dog food. Net acid excretion (NAE) and inorganic acid excretion (IAE) increased during SSF feeding. IAE was higher than the acid load calculated from the sulphur and phosphorus content of the casein. This higher IAE appeared to be due to the presence of calcium and magnesium phosphate in the diet, because calcium and magnesium may be in part precipitated as carbonate, leaving phosphate to be absorbed as phosphoric acid. Acid excretion decreased by addition of CaO. When no neutral Na+ and K+ salts were added, the increase in NAE was accompanied by a metabolic acidosis. K+ was more effective in attenuating the acidosis than Na+. On the basis of these findings a diet can be made which imposes a known acid load, and provides stable baseline values. Hence, any additions that influence the acid-base balance can be properly studied. The data obtained in these and future studies utilising this diet may be of help in optimising the composition of nutrient solutions to be used in the care of critically ill patients.

  10. Efficacy of desensitizing agents on postoperative sensitivity following an in-office vital tooth bleaching: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjundasetty, Jyothi Kashi; Ashrafulla, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess and compare the incidence and intensity of experienced after an in-office vital tooth bleaching in case of dental fluorosis using two different types of desensitizing agents, at different time periods. Materials and Methods: Sixty-nine subjects with mild-to-moderate fluorosis were randomly divided into three groups of 23 each. Group I — control group (placebo), group II—potassium nitrate 5% and sodium monofluorophosphate 0.7% (Sensodent KF), and group III—Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) (Tooth Mousse). In-office vital tooth bleaching was done using 35% hydrogen peroxide liquid (Pola office) in two sessions. Desensitizing agent was applied for 10 min after each session. Postoperative sensitivity was recorded after 24 h and 7 days. The statistical analysis was done using chi-square test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and post hoc Tukey's test. Results: The experimental groups showed significantly less incidence and intensity of sensitivity compared to control group, whereas there was no difference between them. Conclusion: The desensitizing agents used in the study show effective reduction after an in-office vital tooth bleaching. PMID:27217631

  11. Efficacy of desensitizing agents on postoperative sensitivity following an in-office vital tooth bleaching: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Kashi Nanjundasetty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess and compare the incidence and intensity of experienced after an in-office vital tooth bleaching in case of dental fluorosis using two different types of desensitizing agents, at different time periods. Materials and Methods: Sixty-nine subjects with mild-to-moderate fluorosis were randomly divided into three groups of 23 each. Group I - control group (placebo, group II-potassium nitrate 5% and sodium monofluorophosphate 0.7% (Sensodent KF, and group III-Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP (Tooth Mousse. In-office vital tooth bleaching was done using 35% hydrogen peroxide liquid (Pola office in two sessions. Desensitizing agent was applied for 10 min after each session. Postoperative sensitivity was recorded after 24 h and 7 days. The statistical analysis was done using chi-square test, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey′s test. Results: The experimental groups showed significantly less incidence and intensity of sensitivity compared to control group, whereas there was no difference between them. Conclusion: The desensitizing agents used in the study show effective reduction after an in-office vital tooth bleaching.

  12. Foams and surface rheological properties of b-casein, gliadin and glycinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.A.; Dunnewind, B.; Vliet, van T.

    2003-01-01

    Interfacial rheological properties and their suitability for foam production and stability of two vegetable proteins were studied and compared to ß-casein. Proteins used ranged from flexible to rigid/globular in the order of ß-casein, gliadin and soy glycinin. Experiments were performed at pH 6.7. N

  13. Behaviour of casein micelles at conditions comparable to those in ice cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    The physical properties of ice cream are mainly determined by the processing and the ingredients. Milk (powder) is one of the ingredients and ice cream thus contains casein, the major milk protein. A large proportion of casein in ice cream is present in the plasma phase of ice cream. Since the behav

  14. Foams and surface rheological properties of β-casein, gliadin and glycinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.A.; Dunnewind, B.; Vliet, T. van

    2003-01-01

    Interfacial rheological properties and their suitability for foam production and stability of two vegetable proteins were studied and compared to β-casein. Proteins used ranged from flexible to rigid/globular in the order of β-casein, gliadin and soy glycinin. Experiments were performed at pH 6.7. N

  15. Proteomic analysis and cross species comparison of casein fractions from the milk of dairy animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaxia; Zhao, Xiaowei; Huang, Dongwei; Pan, Xiaocheng; Qi, Yunxia; Yang, Yongxin; Zhao, Huiling; Cheng, Guanglong

    2017-01-01

    Casein micelles contribute to the physicochemical properties of milk and may also influence its functionality. At present, however, there is an incomplete understanding of the casein micelle associated proteins and its diversity among the milk obtained from different species. Therefore, milk samples were collected from seven dairy animals groups, casein fractions were prepared by ultracentrifugation and their constituent proteins were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 193 distinct proteins were identified among all the casein micelle preparations. Protein interaction analysis indicated that caseins could interact with major whey proteins, including β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, and serum albumin, and then whey proteins interacted with other proteins. Pathway analysis found that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway is shared among the studied animals. Additionally, galactose metabolism pathway is also found to be commonly involved for proteins derived from camel and horse milk. According to the similarity of casein micelle proteomes, two major sample clusters were classified into ruminant animals (Holstein and Jersey cows, buffaloes, yaks, and goats) and non-ruminants (camels and horses). Our results provide new insights into the protein profile associated with casein micelles and the functionality of the casein micelle from the studied animals. PMID:28240229

  16. Categorization of rheological scaling models for particle gels applied to casein gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellema, M.; Opheusden, van J.H.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2002-01-01

    Rennet-induced casein gels made from skim milk were studied rheologically. A scaling model or framework for describing the rheological behavior of gels is discussed and used for classification of the structure of casein gels. There are two main parameters in the model that describe the number of def

  17. Effect of boiling on the antidiabetic property of enzyme treated sheep milk casein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhath Jan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sheep milk-born bioactive peptides have been found to exhibit various physiological activities. The present work was designed with the aim to evaluate the effect of boiling on antidiabetic property of peptides derived from sheep milk caseinate on hydrolysis with three different proteases. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, casein prepared from raw and boiled sheep milk was hydrolyzed by three commercially available proteases (trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. These hydrolysates collected at different hydrolysis times (60, 120, 160, and 240 min were assayed for their antidiabetic activity. Results: Among the three different enzyme hydrolysates, casein treated with chymotrypsin shows the highest antidiabetic activity among other enzymes. While the antidiabetic effect of raw milk-derived casein hydrolysates always exceeds than effect shown by boiled milk casein hydrolysates. Conclusion: The result obtained hence shows that the effect of boiling on the properties of bioactive peptides released during different enzyme digestion depends largely on the enzymatic formulation used and treatment conditions. Chymotrypsin treatment of raw casein yields peptides with maximum antidiabetic activity as compared to pepsin and trypsin. Moreover, the peptides produced after enzymatic treatment of boiled casein show reduced antidiabetic properties. Therefore, enzymatically treated raw milk casein hydrolysates may be used as effective nutritional supplements for diabetic patients, as it causes a significant inhibition of α-amylase activity.

  18. Bioavailability of lysine for kittens in overheated casein is underestimated by the rat growth assay method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, J A; Fascetti, A J; Calvert, C C; Rogers, Q R

    2010-10-01

    Growth assays were performed to determine lysine bioavailability for kittens and rats in untreated and heated casein; these values were compared with estimates obtained with an in vitro method. Body weight, food intake, nitrogen and dry matter digestibility, and plasma lysine were determined during an 80-day growth trial using kittens (n = 16). Body weight and food intake were determined during a 21-day growth trial using weanling rats (n = 80). The growth data showed bioavailable lysine to be 102.4% and 100.2% (for untreated casein) and 66.1% and 51.7% (for heated casein) for kittens and rats, respectively. There was no relationship between plasma lysine and dietary lysine concentrations for kittens. There were no significant differences in nitrogen or dry matter digestibility among diets for kittens. The chemically reactive lysine content of untreated casein was 99.6%, and of heated casein was 67.1%. Heat treatment of casein resulted in significantly decreased lysine bioavailability as estimated by all methods. For untreated casein, both growth assays showed good agreement with the in vitro method for available lysine. For heated casein, the rat growth assay significantly underestimated bioavailable lysine as determined in kittens while the in vitro method closely approximated this value for the cat.

  19. Antimutagenic activity of casein against MNNG in the E. coli DNA repair host-mediated assay.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Goeptar, A.R.; Alink, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of caseinate and soy protein in the diet on the mutagenicity induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) was assessed in-vivo and ex-vivo in the DNA-repair host-mediated assay and liquid suspension assay, respectively. Of the two proteins only casein showed a strong antimutagen

  20. Bovine Chymosin: A Computational Study of Recognition and Binding of Bovine κ-Casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, David S.; Christensen, Anders Uhrenholt; Sørensen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformational...

  1. Casein haplotypes and their association with milk production traits in the Finnish Ayrshire cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmala, R; Vilkki, J; Elo, K; Mäki-Tanila, A

    1995-12-01

    Polymorphism of casein genes was studied in half-sib families of artificial insemination bulls of the Finnish Ayrshire dairy breed. Ten grandsires and 300 of their sons were genotyped for the following polymorphisms: alpha s1-casein (B, C), beta-casein (A1, A2), the microsatellite within the kappa-casein gene (ms5, ms4) and kappa-casein (A, B, E). Nine different combinations of these alleles, casein haplotypes, were found. Associations between casein haplotypes and milk production traits (milk and protein yield, fat and protein percentage and milking speed) were studied with ordinary least-squares analysis to find a direct effect of the haplotypes or an association within individual grandsire families using the granddaughter design. Estimated breeding values of sons were obtained from cow evaluation by animal model. No direct effect of the casein haplotypes on the traits was found. Within grandsire families, in one out of four families the chromosomal segment characterized by haplotype 3 (B-A2-ms4-A) was associated with an increase in milk yield (P < 0.01) and a decrease in fat percentage (P < 0.01) when contrasted with haplotype 8 (B-A1-ms4-E). The results provide evidence that in the Finnish Ayrshire breed at least one quantitative trait locus affecting the genetic variation in yields traits is segregating linked to either haplotype 3 (B-A2-ms4-A) or 8 (B-A1-ms4-E).

  2. Correlations between biochemical characteristics and foam-forming and -stabilizing ability of whey and casein hydrolysates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van der C.; Bont, D.B.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Whey protein and casein were hydrolyzed with 11 commercially available enzymes. Foam properties of 44 samples were measured and were related to biochemical properties of the hydrolysates using statistical data analysis. All casein hydrolysates formed high initial foam levels, whereas whey hydrolysat

  3. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  4. Calcium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if a person has symptoms of a parathyroid disorder , malabsorption , or an overactive thyroid. A total calcium level is often measured as part of a routine health screening. It is included in the comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) and the basic metabolic panel (BMP) , ...

  5. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had kidney disease or stomach conditions.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking calcium carbonate, call your doctor.

  6. Dissolution and enzymatic hydrolysis of casein micelles studied by dynamic light scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Rui; QI Wei; SU Rongxin; ZHANG Yubin; JIN Fengmin; HE Zhimin

    2007-01-01

    The effects of temperature,ionic strength,and enzymatic hydrolysis on the average hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of casein micelles in phosphate buffer were studied by using dynamic light scattering.The results showed that the average Rh value of casein mieelles decreased irreversibly during the heating,decreased with the increase of ionic strength in lower ionic strength solution (less than 0.05 tool/L),but opposite in higher ionic strength solution (above 0.1 tool/L).The Rh value of casein increased rapidly during the process of enzymatic hydrolysis,and the structural model of casein micelles in the enzymatic hydrolysis process was also proposed,i.e.the casein micelle changed from compact sphere into unfolded and regularly flocky peptides.

  7. Correlations between biochemical characteristics and foam-forming and -stabilizing ability of whey and casein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ven, Cornelly; Gruppen, Harry; de Bont, Dries B A; Voragen, Alphons G J

    2002-05-08

    Whey protein and casein were hydrolyzed with 11 commercially available enzymes. Foam properties of 44 samples were measured and were related to biochemical properties of the hydrolysates using statistical data analysis. All casein hydrolysates formed high initial foam levels, whereas whey hydrolysates differed in their foam-forming abilities. Regression analysis using the molecular weight distribution of whey hydrolysates as predictors showed that the hydrolysate fraction containing peptides of 3-5 kDa was most strongly related to foam formation. Foam stability of whey hydrolysates and of most casein hydrolysates was inferior to that of the intact proteins. The foam stability of casein hydrolysate foams was correlated to the molecular weight distribution of the hydrolysates; a high proportion of peptides >7 kDa, composed of both intact casein and high molecular weight peptides, was positively related to foam stability.

  8. Compound exocytosis of casein micelles in mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylewski, D P; Keenan, T W

    1983-07-01

    Ultrastructure of lactating bovine and rat mammary epithelial cells was studied with emphasis on secretory vesicle interactions. In the apical zone of the cell, adjacent secretory vesicles formed ball and socket configurations at their points of apposition. Similar configurations were formed between plasma membrane and secretory vesicle membrane. These structures may be formed by the diffusion of water between vesicles with different osmotic potentials. Frequently, vesicular chains consisting of 10 or more linked secretory vesicles were observed. Prior to the exocytotic release of casein micelles, adjacent vesicles fused through fragmentation of the ball and socket membrane. These membrane fragments and the casein micelles appeared to be secreted into the alveolar lumen after passing from one vesicle into another and finally through a pore in the apical plasma membrane. Emptied vesicular chains appeared to collapse and fragmentation of their membrane was observed. Based on these observations, we suggest that most vesicular membrane does not directly contact or become incorporated into the plasma membrane during secretion of the nonfat phase of milk.

  9. Preparation of Ultra-High-Speed Casein Trade Mark Adhesive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong-Zhi Wu; Yu-Jiao Li

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In present trade mark adhesives for beer bottle labeling are mostly prepared based on starch[1] ,polyvinyl formal[2] and their derivants[3-5] ,but they can only be applied to the labeling speed of 20 000 bottle/h and their water proofness are not satisfactory, especially when the water temperature is 0℃ below. The application of metal foil requires that sealing and labeling must be finished at the same time, but different penetrating speed of water in metal foil and paper label causes different drying speed, and also, the labeling speed and need of iced beer are increasing now, so these changes result in more strict requirements for adhesive.In this paper the chelating casein adhesive was obtained with casein as main moldings, urea as dispersing agent, starch as auxiliary, and ZnSO4 as cross-linked agent. The effects of dispersing agent, cross-linked agent and starch on the performances of adhesive were investigated.

  10. A Milk Protein, Casein, as a Proliferation Promoting Factor in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Woo; Kim, Joo-Young; Kim, You-Sun; Lee, Sang Jin; Chung, Moon Kee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Despite most epidemiologic studies reporting that an increase in milk intake affects the growth of prostate cancer, the results of experimental studies are not consistent. In this study, we investigated the proliferation of prostate cancer cells treated with casein, the main protein in milk. Materials and Methods Prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and PC3), lung cancer cells (A459), stomach cancer cells (SNU484), breast cancer cells (MCF7), immortalized human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293), and immortalized normal prostate cells (RWPE1) were treated with either 0.1 or 1 mg/mL of α-casein and total casein extracted from bovine milk. Treatments were carried out in serum-free media for 72 hours. The proliferation of each cell line was evaluated by an 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results α-Casein and total casein did not affect the proliferations of RWPE1, HEK293, A459, SNU484, MCF7, HEK293, or RWPE1 cells. However, PC3 cells treated with 1 mg/mL of α-casein and casein showed increased proliferation (228% and 166%, respectively), and the proliferation of LNCaP cells was also enhanced by 134% and 142%, respectively. The proliferation mechanism of α-casein in PC3 and LNCaP cells did not appear to be related to the induction of Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), since the level of IGF-1 did not change upon the supplementation of casein. Conclusions The milk protein, casein, promotes the proliferation of prostate cancer cells such as PC3 and LNCaP. PMID:25237656

  11. Structure-Activity Relationship of Synthetic Variants of the Milk-Derived Antimicrobial Peptide αs2-Casein f(183–207)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Máire; Clifford, Tanya; Deasy, Thérèse; Considine, Kiera; Hill, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Template-based studies on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) derivatives obtained through manipulation of the amino acid sequence are helpful to identify properties or residues that are important for biological activity. The present study sheds light on the importance of specific amino acids of the milk-derived αs2-casein f(183–207) peptide to its antibacterial activity against the food-borne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Cronobacter sakazakii. Trimming of the peptide revealed that residues at the C-terminal end of the peptide are important for activity. Removal of the last 5 amino acids at the C-terminal end and replacement of the Arg at position 23 of the peptide sequence by an Ala residue significantly decreased activity. These findings suggest that Arg23 is very important for optimal activity of the peptide. Substitution of the also positively charged Lys residues at positions 15 and 17 of the αs2-casein f(183–207) peptide also caused a significant reduction of the effectiveness against C. sakazakii, which points toward the importance of the positive charge of the peptide for its biological activity. Indeed, simultaneous replacement of various positively charged amino acids was linked to a loss of bactericidal activity. On the other hand, replacement of Pro residues at positions 14 and 20 resulted in a significantly increased antibacterial potency, and hydrophobic end tagging of αs2-casein f(193–203) and αs2-casein f(197–207) peptides with multiple Trp or Phe residues significantly increased their potency against L. monocytogenes. Finally, the effect of pH (4.5 to 7.4), temperature (4°C to 37°C), and addition of sodium and calcium salts (1% to 3%) on the activity of the 15-amino-acid αs2-casein f(193–207) peptide was also determined, and its biological activity was shown to be completely abolished in high-saline environments. PMID:23793637

  12. Quantification of bio- and techno-functional peptides in tryptic bovine micellar casein and β-casein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Aline; Thienel, Katharina; Klaiber, Iris; Pfannstiel, Jens; Weiss, Jochen; Hinrichs, Jörg

    2014-09-01

    Numerous peptides generated by triptic hydrolysis of micellar casein and β-casein from bovine milk have been reported to exhibit bio-functional or techno-functional activities. In this study, the focus was placed on the quantification of eleven potential functional peptides generated by enzymatic hydrolysis with trypsin. The identity of the target peptides was verified by LC-ESI-MS/MS and a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography method (RP-HPLC) was established to quantify the peptides. The quantification was based on calibration curves drawn using synthesised purified peptides. The regression analysis comparing >30 standard measurements of each peptide standard showed a regression coefficient R(2)>0.9958. The inter-day repeatability of the quantification method was always within a relative error of 0.2-6.5%, while the relative error of the accuracy for reproducibility was in the range of 0.1-2.4%. The established method was successfully applied for the quantitative analysis of the eleven functional peptides in different dairy fractions generated by cross-flow ultrafiltration.

  13. Solution and film properties of sodium caseinate/glycerol and sodium caseinate/polyethylene glycol edible coating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, D C; Heilmann, C; Easteal, A J; Cooney, R P

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of plasticizer hydrogen bonding capability and chain length on the molecular structure of sodium caseinate (NaCAS), in NaCAS/glycerol and NaCAS/polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG) systems. Both solution and film phases were investigated. Glycerol and PEG reduced the viscosity of aqueous NaCAS, with the latter having a greater effect. This was explained in terms of protein/plasticizer aggregate size and changes to the conformation of the caseinate chain. In the film phase, glycerol caused more pronounced changes to the film tensile strength compared with PEG. However, the effect of glycerol on film water vapor permeability was smaller. These observations are attributed to the differences in plasticizer size and hydrogen bonding strength that controls the protein-plasticizer and protein-protein interactions in the films. Glass transition calculations from the tensile strength data indicate that the distribution of bonding interactions is more homogeneous in NaCAS/PEG films than in NaCAS/glycerol films.

  14. Activated CaMKII Couples GluN2B and Casein Kinase 2 to Control Synaptic NMDA Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sanz-Clemente

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic activity triggers a profound reorganization of the molecular composition of excitatory synapses. For example, NMDA receptors are removed from synapses in an activity- and calcium-dependent manner, via casein kinase 2 (CK2 phosphorylation of the PDZ ligand of the GluN2B subunit (S1480. However, how synaptic activity drives this process remains unclear because CK2 is a constitutively active kinase, which is not directly regulated by calcium. We show here that activated CaMKII couples GluN2B and CK2 to form a trimolecular complex and increases CK2-mediated phosphorylation of GluN2B S1480. In addition, a GluN2B mutant, which contains an insert to mimic the GluN2A sequence and cannot bind to CaMKII, displays reduced S1480 phosphorylation and increased surface expression. We find that although disrupting GluN2B/CaMKII binding reduces synapse number, it increases synaptic-GluN2B content. Therefore, the GluN2B/CaMKII association controls synapse density and PSD composition in an activity-dependent manner, including recruitment of CK2 for the removal of GluN2B from synapses.

  15. A novel method for separation of caseins from milk by phosphates precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chon-Ho; Lin, Yin-Shen; Tu, Ching-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Milk protein of farm animals is difficult to isolate because of the presence of casein micelles, which are hard to separate from whey by using centrifugation or filtration. Insoluble casein micelles also create an obstacle for purification instruments to operate efficiently. The conventional method, to precipitate caseins by lowering pH to 4.6 and then recover the whey fraction for further purification using chromatography techniques, is not applicable to proteins having an isoelectric point similar to caseins. In addition, the acid condition used for casein removal usually leads to significantly poor yields and reduced biological activities. In this study, a novel method of precipitating caseins under neutral or weak acidic conditions is presented. The method employs a phosphate salt and a freeze-thaw procedure to obtain a casein-free whey protein fraction. This fraction contains more than 90% yield with little loss of bioactivity of the target protein, and is readily available for further chromatographic purification. This method was successfully applied to purify recombinant human factor IX and recombinant hirudin from the milk of transgenic pigs in the presented study. It is an efficient pretreatment approach prior to chromatographic purification of milk protein from farm animals and particularly of great value to collect those recombinants secreted from transgenic livestock.

  16. Spectrofluoremetric and molecular docking study on the interaction of bisdemethoxycurcumin with bovine β-casein nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehranfar, Fahimeh [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bordbar, Abdol-Khalegh, E-mail: bordbar@chem.ui.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Keyhanfar, Mehrnaz; Behbahani, Mandana [Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, Department of Biotechnology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    The interaction of bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), as one of the main active component of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), with bovine β-casein nanoparticle, as an efficient drug carrier system, was investigated using steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking calculations. Results of fluorescence quenching experiments, Forster energy transfer measurements and molecular docking calculations suggested that BDMC bind to the hydrophobic core of β-casein via formation of 3 hydrogen bonds and several vander Waals contacts that represented the encapsulation of BDMC in β-casein micelle nanoparticles. The binding parameters including number of substantive binding sites and the binding constants were evaluated by fluorescence quenching method. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of free BDMC and BDMC-β-casein complex in human breast cancer cell line MCF7 was evaluated in vitro. The study revealed the higher cytotoxic effects of encapsulated BDMC on MCF7 cells compared to equal dose of free BDMC. -- Highlights: • BDMC binds to the hydrophobic core of β-casein. • The effective encapsulation of BDMC in β-casein micelle nanoparticles was shown. • Enhanced cytotoxicity was observed for encapsulated BDMC in β-casein nanoparticles.

  17. Proteomic characterization of specific minor proteins in the human milk casein fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yalin; Alvarado, Rudy; Phinney, Brett; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2011-12-02

    Human milk contains many bioactive proteins that are likely to support the early development of the newborn. The aim of this study was to identify whether there are specific minor proteins associated with the human milk casein micelle prepared by the acid precipitation method. Protein identification was performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Eighty-two proteins were identified in the casein micelle, 18 of which are not present in their whey compartment. Thirty-two of these proteins specifically associated with the casein micelle have not previously been identified in human milk or colostrum. Proteins involved in immune function comprised the major part (28%) of total proteins, and another significant part is involved in metabolism/energy production (22%). Most of the proteins were of extracellular or cytoplasmic origin (accounting for 50 and 29%, respectively). This study indicates that various soluble proteins should be considered as part of the casein compartment, prepared by the acid precipitation method. The data provide new insight not only into the proteomic profile of the human milk casein micelle and its physiological significance, but also into the proper proportion of casein and casein-associated proteins to use in infant formula.

  18. Association of triclosan to casein proteins through solvent-mediated high-pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, A; Dunlap, J; Harte, F

    2009-03-01

    The association of triclosan (TCS), a widely used hydrophobic compound, to the bovine casein micelle is investigated in this study. The use of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) at 0, 100, 200, and 300 MPa was introduced as a method for the dissociation of casein micelles in a skim milk/ethanol solution (1: 1, v/v) in the presence of TCS at 20, 80, and 160 mg/L where ethanol evaporation served as the final step for TCS association to caseins. The majority of TCS (over 80%) was associated with the caseins regardless of initial TCS concentration or applied pressure. TCS association to caseins was enhanced by 30% with continued pressurization to 300 MPa. Micellar dissociation and reassociation was found to be an irreversible process as evidenced by microscopy images. Pressurization to 300 MPa resulted in the formation of an integrated protein network of casein proteins and noncovalently linked whey proteins where the solubility of TCS was enhanced up to 40 times its reported water solubility at the highest initial TCS level of 160 mg/L. Reformed micelles exhibited Newtonian flow behavior at all pressure levels. This study provides evidence for the solubility enhancing quality of TCS through the solvent-mediated pressure/shear-induced dissociation of casein proteins.

  19. Nutritional evaluation of caseins and whey proteins and their hydrolysates from Protamex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SINDAYIKENGERA Séverin; XIA Wen-shui

    2006-01-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC 80) and sodium caseinate were hydrolyzed by Protamex to 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% degree of hydrolysis (DH). WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were then analyzed, compared and evaluated for their nutritional qualities. Their chemical composition, protein solubility, amino acid composition, essential amino acid index (EAA index), biological value (BV), nutritional index (NI), chemical score, enzymic protein efficiency ratio (E-PER) and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) were determined. The results indicated that the enzymatic hydrolysis of WPC 80 and sodium caseinate by Protamex improved the solubility and IVPD of their hydrolysates. WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were high-quality proteins and had a surplus of essential amino acids compared with the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) reference standard.The nutritive value of WPC 80 and its hydrolysates was superior to that of sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates as indicated by some nutritional parameters such as the amino acid composition, chemical score, EAA index and predicted BV. However, the E-PER was lower for the WPC hydrolysates as compared to unhydrolyzed WPC 80 but sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates did not differ significantly. The nutritional qualities of WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were good and make them appropriate for food formulations or as nutritional supplements.

  20. Nutritional evaluation of caseins and whey proteins and their hydrolysates from Protamex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindayikengera, Séverin; Xia, Wen-shui

    2006-02-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC 80) and sodium caseinate were hydrolyzed by Protamex to 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% degree of hydrolysis (DH). WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were then analyzed, compared and evaluated for their nutritional qualities. Their chemical composition, protein solubility, amino acid composition, essential amino acid index (EAA index), biological value (BV), nutritional index (NI), chemical score, enzymic protein efficiency ratio (E-PER) and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) were determined. The results indicated that the enzymatic hydrolysis of WPC 80 and sodium caseinate by Protamex improved the solubility and IVPD of their hydrolysates. WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were high-quality proteins and had a surplus of essential amino acids compared with the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) reference standard. The nutritive value of WPC 80 and its hydrolysates was superior to that of sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates as indicated by some nutritional parameters such as the amino acid composition, chemical score, EAA index and predicted BV. However, the E-PER was lower for the WPC hydrolysates as compared to unhydrolyzed WPC 80 but sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates did not differ significantly. The nutritional qualities of WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were good and make them appropriate for food formulations or as nutritional supplements.

  1. Characterization and genetic analysis of bovine alpha S1-casein I variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lühken, G; Caroli, A; Ibeagha-Awemu, E M; Erhardt, G

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the molecular genetic origin underlying the I variant of alpha(s1)-casein and to develop a DNA-based test for this polymorphism as a tool for genetic analyses independent of milk sample testing. All coding exons and flanking regions of the alpha(s1)-casein gene were sequenced in DNA samples from cattle of known alpha(s1)-casein genotypes (BI, CI, II, CC), determined by isoelectric focusing of milk samples. A nucleotide substitution (A>T) in exon 11 (g.19836A>T) leads to the exchange of Glu with Asp at amino acid position 84 of the mature protein (p.Glu84Asp) and perfectly co-segregated with the presence of the alpha(s1)-casein I variant in the milk of the analysed animals. Genotyping of a total of 680 DNA samples from 31 Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle breeds and from Bos grunniens, Bison bison and Bison bonasus by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed the occurrence of Asp at position 84 at low frequencies in Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds and established its origin from the alpha(s1)-casein C variant (p.Glu192Gly). Ten different intragenic haplotypes in the gene region from intron 8 to intron 12 were observed by sequencing, of which two occurred in Bison bison and one in Bison bonasus only. Using available casein gene complex information, an association of Asp at position 84 to beta-casein A(2) and kappa-casein B was shown in the Bos indicus breed Banyo Gudali. Taken together, we can postulate that the alpha(s1)-casein variant I is caused by a non-synonymous nucleotide substitution in exon 11 of the gene and that it originated within Bos indicus and spread to Bos taurus subsequently.

  2. β-casein as a functional food component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria

    Milk is a complex mixture of various components which include proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and minerals. Milk proteins can be divided into two classes: whey proteins (20%) and caseins (80% of total milk protein). As thermal treatment is a traditional method of food preservation, interactions...... which can improve stability and safety of food. Traditional methods of food preservation and sterilization require high temperature, which may result in undesirable changes such as change of color or texture. Development of novel food processing methods, which allow to create new milk-based products...... with novel textures, is highly valuable to the dairy industry. Understanding interactions that undergo during food processing is necessary for proper design of process. For example control of aggregation is required to achieve desired texture of the final product....

  3. Detecting β-Casein Variation in Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Caroli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In bovine species, β-casein (β-CN is characterized by genetic polymorphism. The two most common protein variants are β-CN A2 (the original one and A1, differing from A2 for one amino acid substitution (Pro67 to His67. Several bioactive peptides affecting milk nutritional properties can originate from β-CN. Among them, β-casomorphin-7 (BCM7 ranging from amino acid 60 to 66 can be released more easily from β-CN variants carrying His67 (A1 type instead of Pro67 (A2 type. Nowadays, “A2 milk” is produced in different countries claiming its potential benefits in human health. The aim of this study was to further develop and apply an isoelectric focusing electrophoresis (IEF method to bulk and individual milk samples in order to improve its use for β-CN studies. We succeeded in identifying A2 milk samples correctly and quantifying the percentage of A2, A1, and B variants in bulk samples not derived from A2 milk as well as in individual milk samples. The method allows us to quantify the relative proportion of β-CN variants in whole milk without eliminating whey protein by acid or enzymatic precipitation of caseins. The aim of this study was also to study the different behavior of β-CN and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG in the presence of trichloroacetic acid (TCA. The higher sensitivity of β-CN to TCA allows quantifying β-CN variants after TCA fixation because β-LG is not visible. Monitoring β-CN variation in cattle breeds is important in order to maintain a certain balance between Pro67 and His67 in dairy products. Overall, the debate between A1 and A2 milk needs further investigation.

  4. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of ovine casein genes: close linkage between the alpha s1-, alpha s2-, beta- and kappa-casein loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveziel, H; Metenier, L; Guerin, G; Cullen, P; Provot, C; Bertaud, M; Mercier, J C

    1991-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of ovine casein genes was investigated. Genomic DNA from 56 rams was digested with 10 restriction endonucleases and Southern blots probed with the four ovine casein cDNAs (alpha s1-, beta-, alpha s2- and kappa-Cn). Five enzymes, namely, BglI, PvuII, RsaI, TaqI and HindIII revealed nine different RFLPs. The inheritance of six of these polymorphisms was studied by segregation analysis of gametes in nine rams' families, and each of them could be related to the existence of alleles at the relevant casein locus. A close linkage between the four ovine casein genes was demonstrated since no recombination within the four pairs of loci examined, alpha s1-beta-Cn, alpha s1-kappa-Cn, beta-kappa-Cn and alpha s2-kappa-Cn, was observed in the progeny of double heterozygous rams. The casein genes are thus clustered in the ovine species as in the case of other mammals.

  5. Comparative screening of single nucleotide polymorphisms in β-casein and κ-casein gene in different livestock breeds of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakshya Veer; Jayakumar, S; Sharma, Anurodh; Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Dixit, S P; Gupta, Neelam; Gupta, S C

    2015-06-01

    The most polymorphic milk protein gene is β-casein; 13 protein variants are known in cattle. Milk protein genetic polymorphism has received considerable research interest in recent years because of possible associations between milk protein and economically important traits in livestock. The present study was undertaken to explore the genetic polymorphisms in exon 7 of β-casein and exon 4 of κ-casein genes in Arunachali yaks (Bos grunniens), Sahiwal (Bos indicus) cattle, malpura sheep (Ovis aries) and Gaddi goat (Capra hircus). Results of the study revealed presence of 11 SNP variants in all livestock species. Four SNPs were observed in Bos indicus; two SNPs in Bos grunniens; three SNPs in Ovis aries and three SNPs in Capra hircus. These variations are found to be synonymous in nature as these variations do not result in their corresponding amino acids. A total of five polymorphic sites have been described at the κ-casein (CSN3) locus in the Indian domestic Gaddi goat (Capra hircus) when compared with exotic goat (X60763) while sequence analysis of κ-casein gene in sheep showed three novel nucleotide changes in malpura sheep when compared with the exotic sheep (AY237637). These results highlight the importance of taking into consideration the CSN3 SNPs when performing selection for milk composition in dairy livestock breeds.

  6. Effects of gelation temperature on Mozzarella-type curd made from buffalo and cows' milk: 2. Curd yield, overall quality and casein fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Imtiaz; Yan, Jen; Grandison, Alistair S; Bell, Alan E

    2012-12-01

    The overall quality of Mozzarella-type curds made from buffalo and cows' milks were measured at gelation temperatures of 28, 34 and 39°C, and cutting times of 45, 60, 75 and 90min after chymosin addition. The curd yield and moisture content decreased with increasing gelation temperature, while whey fat losses increased. The effect of higher gelation temperature (39°C) was more pronounced in cows' milk than buffalo milk. This results in more fat losses and lower yields in both milk samples at a gelation temperature of 39°C. The minimum losses of fat and protein in rennet whey occurred at a gelation temperature of 34°C in both milk samples. The curd yield was higher in buffalo milk as compared to cows' milk. This is due to difference in total solids (fat and protein contents) of the two types of bovine milk. The different cutting times had a small effect on the yield and overall quality of curds made from both milk types. Curd moisture and loss tangent have a strong relationship with respect to effects of gelation temperature. Two different curd drainage methods (centrifugation and Buchner funnel filtration) were used to compare the final overall quality of Mozzarella-type curds made from both milk types. The α(s1) and β casein fractions were found to be in different proportions in the two milk types. The total- and casein bound-calcium were higher in buffalo milk than cows' milk. The total protein, casein and fat were also found to be higher in buffalo milk than cows' milk.

  7. Hydrolyzed casein reduces diet-induced obesity in male C57BL/6J mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillefosse, Haldis Haukås; Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Du, Zhen-Yu;

    2013-01-01

    The digestion rate of dietary protein is a regulating factor for postprandial metabolism both in humans and animal models. However, few data exist about the habitual consumption of proteins with different digestion rates with regard to the development of body mass and diet-induced obesity. Here, we...... used a factorial ANOVA design to investigate the effects of protein form (intact vs. hydrolyzed casein) and protein level (16 vs. 32 energy percent protein) on body mass gain and adiposity in obesity-prone male C57BL/6J mice fed Western diets with 35 energy percent fat. Mice fed the hydrolyzed casein...... by hydrolyzed casein ingestion translated into decreased body and adipose tissue masses. We conclude that chronic consumption of extensively hydrolyzed casein reduces body mass gain and diet-induced obesity in male C57BL/6J mice....

  8. Spectroscopic Evaluation of Effects of Heat Treatments on the Structures and Emulsifying Properties of Caseins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hao; WANG Peng-jie; LEI Xin-gen; YANG Hong-ju; ZHANG Lu-da; REN Fa-zheng; ZHENG Li-min

    2013-01-01

    The effects of heat treatment(heating temperature and pH) on the structures and emulsifying properties of caseins were systematically studied by spectroscopy.Heat treatment from 60 to 100 ℃ resulted in an increase in their fluorescence intensity,hydrodynamic diameter,turbidity and emulsifying activity index,but decreased the size polydispersity of caseins.In the pH range of 5.5 to 7.0,the fluorescence intensity,hydrodynamic diameter,turbidity and emulsifying properties decreased with increased heating pH,but the size polydispersity of caseins increased with increased pH.The relationship between the surface fluorescence intensity and emulsifying activity was also investigated,revealing a correlation coefficient of 0.90.These results suggested that heat treatment could be used to modify the structures and emulsifying properties of caseins by appropriately selecting heating conditions.

  9. Skim Milk, Whey, and Casein Increase Body Weight and Whey and Casein Increase the Plasma C-Peptide Concentration in Overweight Adolescents12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Karina; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2012-01-01

    insulin, and insulin secretion estimated as the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents. Overweight adolescents (n = 203) aged 12–15 y with a BMI of 25.4 ± 2.3 kg/m2 (mean ± SD) were randomized to 1 L/d of skim milk, whey, casein, or water for 12 wk. All milk drinks contained 35 g protein....... Outcomes were BMI-for-age Z-scores (BAZs), waist circumference, plasma insulin, homeostatic model assessment, and plasma C-peptide. We found no change in BAZ in the pretest control and water groups, whereas it was greater at 12 wk in the skim milk, whey, and casein groups compared with baseline...... and with the water and pretest control groups. The plasma C-peptide concentration increased from baseline to wk 12 in the whey and casein groups and increments were greater than in the pretest control (P milk or water group. These data suggest...

  10. Calcium, zinc, and iron bioavailabilities from a commercial human milk fortifier: a comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, P; Wallingford, J C; Miller, D D; Glahn, R P

    2004-11-01

    Adding human milk fortifiers (HMF) to human milk (HM) is one way of overcoming the nutrient deficits found in the latter. In this study, the bioavailabilities of calcium, zinc, and iron in S-26/SMA HMF added to HM were compared with those in HM fortified with various bovine milk proteins: alpha-lactalbumin, colostrum, caseinate, casein phosphopeptides, and whey protein concentrate. The bioavailability of each mineral was assessed using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model. Calcium and zinc uptake by the cells was traced with radioisotopes; iron uptake was assessed via cell ferritin levels. Samples were prepared on an equal protein content basis and with added calcium, but no zinc or iron was added. Results revealed that calcium uptake from HM + S-26/SMA was not different from any of the HM fortified with the bovine milk proteins, except for unfortified HM and HM + colostrum in which calcium uptake was significantly lower (-89 and -38%, respectively). Uptake of zinc and iron were significantly higher for HM + S-26/SMA than for the other HM + fortifiers.

  11. Electrochemical Sensing of Casein Based on the Interaction between Its Phosphate Groups and a Ruthenium(III) Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Iku; Kuramitz, Hideki; Sugawara, Kazuharu

    2016-01-01

    A reaction to casein, along with β-lactoglobulin, is a main cause of milk allergies, and also is a useful indicator of protein in allergic analyses. In the present study, a simple casein sensor was developed based on the interaction between a phosphate group of casein and electroactive [Ru(NH3)6](3+). We evaluated the voltammetric behavior of a casein-[Ru(NH3)6](3+) complex using a glassy carbon electrode. When the ruthenium(III) complex was combined with the phosphate groups of casein, the structure of the casein was changed. Since the hydrophobicity of casein was increased due to the binding, the casein was adsorbed onto the electrode. Furthermore, we modified an electrode with a ruthenium(III) ions/collagen film. When the sensor was applied to the detection of the casein contained in milk, the values coincided with those indicated by the manufacturer. Accordingly, this electrode could be a powerful sensor for the determination of casein in several foods.

  12. Effect of boiling on the antidiabetic property of enzyme treated sheep milk casein

    OpenAIRE

    Farhath Jan; Santosh Kumar; Richa Jha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Sheep milk-born bioactive peptides have been found to exhibit various physiological activities. The present work was designed with the aim to evaluate the effect of boiling on antidiabetic property of peptides derived from sheep milk caseinate on hydrolysis with three different proteases. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, casein prepared from raw and boiled sheep milk was hydrolyzed by three commercially available proteases (trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin). These hydrol...

  13. Systematic Characterization of the Immune Response to Gluten and Casein in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    of the Immune Response to Gluten and Casein in Autism Spectrum Disorders PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Armin Alaedini, PhD CONTRACTING... Gluten and Casein in Autism Spectrum Disorders 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH 10-1-0887 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...heterogeneity within this spectrum and the lack of biomarkers to characterize disease phenotypes and to understand treatment outcome. Dietary gluten

  14. Adsorption of hydrophobin/β-casein mixtures at the solid-liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, I M; Petkov, J T; Penfold, J; Thomas, R K; Cox, A R; Hedges, N

    2016-09-15

    The adsorption behaviour of mixtures of the proteins β-casein and hydrophobin at the hydrophilic solid-liquid surface have been studied by neutron reflectivity. The results of measurements from sequential adsorption and co-adsorption from solution are contrasted. The adsorption properties of protein mixtures are important for a wide range of applications. Because of competing factors the adsorption behaviour of protein mixtures at interfaces is often difficult to predict. This is particularly true for mixtures containing hydrophobin as hydrophobin possesses some unusual surface properties. At β-casein concentrations ⩾0.1wt% β-casein largely displaces a pre-adsorbed layer of hydrophobin at the interface, similar to that observed in hydrophobin-surfactant mixtures. In the composition and concentration range studied here for the co-adsorption of β-casein-hydrophobin mixtures the adsorption is dominated by the β-casein adsorption. The results provide an important insight into how the competitive adsorption in protein mixtures of hydrophobin and β-casein can impact upon the modification of solid surface properties and the potential for a wide range of colloid stabilisation applications.

  15. Application of Humidity-Controlled Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA-RH to Moisture-Sensitive Edible Casein Films for Use in Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia M. Bonnaillie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein-based and other hydrophilic thin films are promising materials for the manufacture of edible food packaging and other food and non-food applications. Calcium caseinate (CaCas films are highly hygroscopic and physical characterization under broad environmental conditions is critical to application development and film optimization. A new technology, humidity-controlled dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA-RH was explored to characterize CaCas/glycerol films (3:1 ratio during isohume temperature (T ramps and steps, and isothermal RH ramps and steps, to determine their mechanical and moisture-sorption properties during extensive T and RH variations. When RH and/or T increased, CaCas/Gly films became strongly plasticized and underwent several primary and secondary humidity-dependent transition temperatures (or transition humidities; the CaCas/Gly network hypothetically rearranged itself to adapt to the increased water-content and heat-induced molecular mobility. Between 5–40 °C and 20%–61% RH, moisture-sorption was rapid and proportional to humidity between transition points and accelerated greatly during transitions. CaCas/Gly films seemed unsuitable for storage or utilization in warm/humid conditions as they lost their mechanical integrity around Tm ~ 40 °C at 50% RH and Tm decreased greatly with increased RH. However, below Tm, both moisture- and heat-induced structural changes in the films were fully reversible and casein films may withstand a variety of moderate abuse conditions.

  16. Micellisation and immunoreactivities of dimeric beta-caseins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Reza; Gaudin, Jean-Charles; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Pourpak, Zahra; Moin, Mostafa; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Haertle, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Bovine beta-casein (beta-CN) is a highly amphiphilic micellising phospho-protein showing chaperone-like activity in vitro. Recently, existence of multiple sequential epitopes on beta-CN polypeptide chain in both hydrophilic-polar (psi) and hydrophobic-apolar domains (phi) has been evidenced. In order to clarify specific contribution of polar and apolar domains in micellisation process and in shaping immunoreactivity of beta-CN, its dimeric/bi-amphiphilic "quasi palindromic" forms covalently connected by a disulfide bond linking either N-terminal (C4 beta-CND) or C-terminal domain (C208 beta-CND) were produced and studied. Depending on the C- or N-terminal position of inserted cysteine, each dimeric beta-CN contains one polar/apolar region at the centre and two external hydrophobic/hydrophilic ends. Consequently, such casein dimers have radically different polarities/hydrophobicities on their outside surfaces. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements indicate that these dimeric casein molecules form micelles of different sizes depending on arrangement of polar fragments of the beta-CN mutants in their constrained dimers. Non-aggregated dimers have different hydrodynamic diameters that could be explained by their different geometries. Measurements of fluorescence showed more hydrophobic environment of Trp residues of C208 beta-CND, while in similar experimental conditions Trp residues of C4 beta-CND and native beta-CN were more exposed to the polar medium. Both fluorescence and DLS studies showed greater propensity for micellisation of the dimeric beta-CNs, suggesting that the factors inducing the formation of micelles are stronger in the bi-amphiphilic dimers. 1-anilino-naphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS) binding studies showed different binding of ANS by these dimers as well as different exposition of ANS binding (hydrophobic) regions in the micellar states. The differences in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) profiles of C4 beta-CND and C208 beta-CND can

  17. Partial calcium depletion during membrane filtration affects gelation of reconstituted milk protein concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshpari, H; Jimenez-Flores, R; Tong, P S; Corredig, M

    2015-12-01

    Milk protein concentrate powders (MPC) with improved rehydration properties are often manufactured using processing steps, such as acidification and high-pressure processing, and with addition of other ingredients, such as sodium chloride, during their production. These steps are known to increase the amount of serum caseins or modify the mineral equilibrium, hence improving solubility of the retentates. The processing functionality of the micelles may be affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of partial acidification by adding glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) to skim milk during membrane filtration on the structural changes of the casein micelles by observing their chymosin-induced coagulation behavior, as such coagulation is affected by both the supramolecular structure of the caseins and calcium equilibrium. Milk protein concentrates were prepared by preacidification with GDL to pH 6 using ultrafiltration (UF) and diafiltration (DF) followed by spray-drying. Reconstituted UF and DF samples (3.2% protein) treated with GDL showed significantly increased amounts of soluble calcium and nonsedimentable caseins compared with their respective controls, as measured by ion chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE electrophoresis, respectively. The primary phase of chymosin-induced gelation was not significantly different between treatments as measured by the amount of caseino-macropeptide released. The rheological properties of the reconstituted MPC powders were determined immediately after addition of chymosin, both before and after dialysis against skim milk, to ensure similar serum composition for all samples. Reconstituted samples before dialysis showed no gelation (defined as tan δ=1), and after re-equilibration only control UF and DF samples showed gelation. The gelation properties of reconstituted MPC powders were negatively affected by the presence of soluble casein, and positively affected by the amount of both soluble and insoluble

  18. Calcium and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... left to sour. The remaining 20% of cow's milk proteins are contained in the whey, the watery part that's left after the curd ... to proteins in either the casein or the whey parts of milk and sometimes even to both. Talk to your ...

  19. Mayaro virus infection cycle relies on casein kinase 2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Madalena M S; Lima, Carla S; Silva-Neto, Mário A C; Da Poian, Andrea T

    2002-09-06

    Replication of Mayaro virus in Vero cells induces dramatic cytopathic effects and cell death. In this study, we have evaluated the role of casein kinase 2 (CK2) during Mayaro virus infection cycle. We found that CK2 was activated during the initial stages of infection ( approximately 36% after 4h). This activation was further confirmed when the enzyme was partially purified from the cellular lysate either by Mono Q 5/5Hr column or heparin-agarose column. Using this later column, we found that the elution profile of CK2 activity from infected cells was different from that obtained for control cell enzyme, suggesting a structural modification of CK2 after infection. Treatment of infected cells with a cell-permeable inhibitor of CK2, dichloro-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)benzimidazole (DRB), abolished the cytopathic effect in a dose-dependent manner. Together this set of data demonstrates for the first time that CK2 activity in host cells is required in Mayaro virus infection cycle.

  20. [Effects of glycerol on the spectral properties of sodium caseinate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Chang, Fen-fen; Gao, Huan-yuan; Cao, Qing; Jin, Li-e

    2015-01-01

    Although the immigration of water molecule, and diffusion and traversing of oxygen can be prevented by the edible film prepared through sodium caseinate, which plays a good protection role for the food, the strong hydrophilicity makes its watertightness and mechanical properties become inferior. Because the toughness and water resistance of SC films can be enhanced by glycerol (G) as an additive, it is necessary to elucidate the interaction between G and SC through the spectral characteristics such as fluorescence spectra, infrared spectra and UV spectra. The results show that the fluorescence intensity of SC decreases due to the addition of G. The binding constant obtained by the double logarithmic regression curve analysis is 1. 127 x 10(3) L . mol-1 and the number of binding sites reaches 1. 161. It indicates that the weak chemical bond is primary between G and SC molecules; From IR the absorption peaks of SC are almost the same before and after adding G. However, there is a certain difference among their absorption intensities. It reveals that the secondary structure of SC is affected, β folding length decreases, α helix, random coil structure, β angle structure increases, and the intermolecular hydrogen bond is strengthened; From UV the peptide bond structure of SC is not changed after the addition of G, but the polymer with larger molecular weight, which is formed by non-covalent bond, makes the peak intensity decrease. The research gives the mode of G and SC from the molecular level.

  1. Casein/pectin nanocomplexes as potential oral delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yangchao; Pan, Kang; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-01-01

    Delivery systems prepared with natural biopolymers are of particular interests for applications in food, pharmaceutics and biomedicine. In this study, nanocomplex particles of sodium caseinate (NaCas) and pectin were fabricated and investigated as potential oral delivery vehicles. Nanocomplexes were prepared with three mass ratios of NaCas/pectin by acidification using glucono-δ-lactone and thermal treatment. NaCas/pectin at 1:1 mass ratio resulted in dispersions with the lowest turbidity and the smallest and most uniform nanocomplexes. Thermal treatment at 85 °C for 30 min facilitated the formation of stable, compact, and spherical nanocomplexes. Heating not only greatly increased the yield of nanocomplexes but also significantly improved the encapsulation capability of rutin studied as a model compound. Pectin in nanocomplexes delayed the hydrolysis of NaCas by pepsin at gastric conditions and enabled the controlled release of most rutin in simulated intestinal conditions. The nanocomplexes based on food-sourced biopolymers have promising features for oral delivery of nutrients and medicines.

  2. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cart Home › Patients › Treatment › Calcium/Vitamin D Calcium/Vitamin D Getting enough calcium and vitamin D is ... the-counter medications and calcium supplements. What is Vitamin D and What Does it Do? Vitamin D ...

  3. Ser2 is the autophosphorylation site in the beta subunit from bicistronically expressed human casein kinase-2 and from native rat liver casein kinase-2 beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; James, P; Staudenmann, W;

    1993-01-01

    Human casein kinase-2 (CK-2) subunits alpha and beta were bicistronically expressed in bacteria. The recombinant holoenzyme shared all investigated properties with the native CK-2 from mammalian sources (rat liver, Krebs II mouse ascites tumour cells). Contrary to recombinant human CK-2 produced...

  4. Moleculer analysis of genotype kappa casein and composition of goat milk Etawah grade, Saanen and their crossbred

    OpenAIRE

    Yayu Zurriyati; R. R. Noor; R. R. A. Maheswari

    2011-01-01

    Polymorphism of goat casein gene closely linked to the quality of milk protein. κ-casein is one of the casein fractions that influence the shape and stability of grain milk. This study is aimed to identify the variation of genotype κ-casein and related with milk quality from Etawah grade, Saanen and their crossbreed (PE-SA). The number of dairy goats used in this study was 150 animals consisted of Etawah grade (48 animals), Saanen (51 animals) and PE-SA (51 animals). Steps of experiment were:...

  5. Effect of cross-linking on microstructure and physical performance of casein protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arun; Ali, M Azam; Dias, George J

    2009-07-13

    The development of advanced materials from biorenewable protein biopolymers requires the generation of more exogenous bonds to maintain the microstructure and durability in the final products. Casein is the main protein of milk, representing about 80% of the total protein. In the present investigation the casein protein was solubilized and/or emulsified in aqueous alkaline solutions, and 2D films and 3D matrices were produced. The effects of silane (3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane), DL-glyceraldehyde and glutaraldehyde on tensile properties and water swelling/absorption of 2D casein films and also the microstructure of the freeze-dried 3D matrices were analyzed. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed that there were no significant changes in the molecular weight (19-23.9 kDa) of the casein proteins on exposure to alkaline solutions of sodium hydroxide and silane. The casein films produced without glycerol plasticizer and with heat treatment (130 °C for 18 h) were fragile. However, the fragile films were transformed into ductile and tough materials on exposure to moisture (i.e., conditioned for one week at 50 ± 2% relative humidity and 22 ± 2 °C) and showed a maximum average tensile strength of 49-52 MPa and modulus of 1107-1391 MPa. The chemical cross-linkers (i.e., DL-glyceraldehyde and glutaraldehyde) improved the microstructure of glycerol plasticized casein protein, when analyzed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Furthermore, these chemical cross-linking agents enhanced the mechanical properties and water resistant properties of casein films.

  6. Imaging calcium in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grienberger, Christine; Konnerth, Arthur

    2012-03-08

    Calcium ions generate versatile intracellular signals that control key functions in all types of neurons. Imaging calcium in neurons is particularly important because calcium signals exert their highly specific functions in well-defined cellular subcompartments. In this Primer, we briefly review the general mechanisms of neuronal calcium signaling. We then introduce the calcium imaging devices, including confocal and two-photon microscopy as well as miniaturized devices that are used in freely moving animals. We provide an overview of the classical chemical fluorescent calcium indicators and of the protein-based genetically encoded calcium indicators. Using application examples, we introduce new developments in the field, such as calcium imaging in awake, behaving animals and the use of calcium imaging for mapping single spine sensory inputs in cortical neurons in vivo. We conclude by providing an outlook on the prospects of calcium imaging for the analysis of neuronal signaling and plasticity in various animal models.

  7. Use of /γ-irradiation to produce films from whey, casein and soya proteins: structure and functionals characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M.; Le, T. C.; Ouattara, B.; Yu, H.; Letendre, M.; Sabato, S. F.; Mateescu, M. A.; Patterson, G.

    2002-03-01

    γ-irradiation and thermal treatments have been used to produce sterilized cross-linked films. Formulations containing variable concentrations of calcium caseinate and whey proteins (whey protein isolate (WPI) and commercial whey protein concentrate) or mixture of soya protein isolate (SPI) with WPI was investigated on the physico-chemical properties of these films. Results showed that the mechanical properties of cross-linked films improved significantly the puncture strength for all types of films. Size-exclusion chromatography showed for no cross-linked proteins, a molecular mass of around 40 kDa. The soluble fractions of the cross-linked proteins molecular distributions were between 600 and 3800 kDa. γ-irradiation seems to modify to a certain extent the conformation of proteins which will adopt structures more ordered and more stable, as suggested by X-ray diffraction analysis. Microstructure observations showed that the mechanical characteristics of these films are closely related to their microscopic structure. Water vapor permeability of films based on SPI was also significantly decreased when irradiated. Microbial resistance was also evaluated for cross-linked films. Results showed that the level of biodegradation of cross-linked films was 36% after 60 d of fermentation in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  8. Use of {gamma}-irradiation to produce films from whey, casein and soya proteins: structure and functionals characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca; Le, T.C.; Ouattara, B.; Yu, H.; Letendre, M.; Sabato, S.F.; Mateescu, M.A.; Patterson, G

    2002-03-01

    {gamma}-irradiation and thermal treatments have been used to produce sterilized cross-linked films. Formulations containing variable concentrations of calcium caseinate and whey proteins (whey protein isolate (WPI) and commercial whey protein concentrate) or mixture of soya protein isolate (SPI) with WPI was investigated on the physico-chemical properties of these films. Results showed that the mechanical properties of cross-linked films improved significantly the puncture strength for all types of films. Size-exclusion chromatography showed for no cross-linked proteins, a molecular mass of around 40 kDa. The soluble fractions of the cross-linked proteins molecular distributions were between 600 and 3800 kDa. {gamma}-irradiation seems to modify to a certain extent the conformation of proteins which will adopt structures more ordered and more stable, as suggested by X-ray diffraction analysis. Microstructure observations showed that the mechanical characteristics of these films are closely related to their microscopic structure. Water vapor permeability of films based on SPI was also significantly decreased when irradiated. Microbial resistance was also evaluated for cross-linked films. Results showed that the level of biodegradation of cross-linked films was 36% after 60 d of fermentation in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  9. Skim milk, whey, and casein increase body weight and whey and casein increase the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnberg, Karina; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Jensen, Signe Marie; Trolle, Ellen; Larnkjær, Anni

    2012-12-01

    In adults, dietary protein seems to induce weight loss and dairy proteins may be insulinotropic. However, the effect of milk proteins in adolescents is unclear. The objective was to test whether milk and milk proteins reduce body weight, waist circumference, homeostatic model assessment, plasma insulin, and insulin secretion estimated as the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents. Overweight adolescents (n = 203) aged 12-15 y with a BMI of 25.4 ± 2.3 kg/m(2) (mean ± SD) were randomized to 1 L/d of skim milk, whey, casein, or water for 12 wk. All milk drinks contained 35 g protein/L. Before randomization, a subgroup of adolescents (n = 32) was studied for 12 wk before the intervention began as a pretest control group. The effects of the milk-based test drinks were compared with baseline (wk 0), the water group, and the pretest control group. Diet and physical activity were registered. Outcomes were BMI-for-age Z-scores (BAZs), waist circumference, plasma insulin, homeostatic model assessment, and plasma C-peptide. We found no change in BAZ in the pretest control and water groups, whereas it was greater at 12 wk in the skim milk, whey, and casein groups compared with baseline and with the water and pretest control groups. The plasma C-peptide concentration increased from baseline to wk 12 in the whey and casein groups and increments were greater than in the pretest control (P milk or water group. These data suggest that high intakes of skim milk, whey, and casein increase BAZs in overweight adolescents and that whey and casein increase insulin secretion. Whether the effect on body weight is primary or secondary to the increased insulin secretion remains to be elucidated.

  10. Milk and growth in children: effects of whey and casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølgaard, Christian; Larnkjær, Anni; Arnberg, Karina; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of cow's milk is recommended in many countries. Observational and intervention studies show that cow's milk most likely has a positive influence on growth in children. The strongest evidence comes from observational studies and intervention studies in low-income countries, but there are also observational studies from high-income countries showing positive associations between milk intake and growth. Milk seems thus to have a specific stimulating effect on linear growth, not only in developing countries with high rates of malnutrition, but also in industrialized countries. However, it is not known which components in milk stimulate growth. Possible components are proteins, minerals, vitamins or combinations of these. Cow's milk proteins have a high protein quality, and whey has a slightly higher quality than casein, according to some indices based on amino acid composition. Studies, mainly from sport medicine, have suggested that whey protein also has the potential to increase muscle mass. Whether whey improves body composition to a larger extent than other milk proteins is not clear. The mechanism behind a possible growth-stimulating effect of milk and milk components is likely to be through a stimulation of insulin-like growth factor-I synthesis and maybe insulin secretion. In conclusion, there is strong evidence that milk stimulates linear growth. The mechanism is not yet clear, and more intervention studies are needed to understand which components in milk are responsible for the growth stimulation. The effects of milk on linear growth and adult height may have both positive and negative long-term implications.

  11. Casein kinase Iepsilon modulates the signaling specificities of dishevelled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Feng; Schweizer, Liang; Varmus, Harold

    2004-03-01

    Wnt signaling is critical to many aspects of development, and aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway can cause cancer. Dishevelled (Dvl) protein plays a central role in this pathway by transducing the signal from the Wnt receptor complex to the beta-catenin destruction complex. Dvl also plays a pivotal role in the planar cell polarity pathway that involves the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). How functions of Dvl are regulated in these two distinct pathways is not clear. We show that deleting the C-terminal two-thirds of Dvl, which includes the PDZ and DEP domains and is essential for Dvl-induced JNK activation, rendered the molecule a much more potent activator of the beta-catenin pathway. We also found that casein kinase Iepsilon (CKIepsilon), a previously identified positive regulator of Wnt signaling, stimulated Dvl activity in the Wnt pathway, but dramatically inhibited Dvl activity in the JNK pathway. Consistent with this, overexpression of CKIepsilon in Drosophila melanogaster stimulated Wnt signaling and disrupted planar cell polarity. We also observed a correlation between the localization and the signaling activity of Dvl in the beta-catenin pathway and the JNK pathway. Furthermore, by using RNA interference, we demonstrate that the Drosophila CKIepsilon homologue Double time positively regulates the beta-catenin pathway through Dvl and negatively regulates the Dvl-induced JNK pathway. We suggest that CKIepsilon functions as a molecular switch to direct Dvl from the JNK pathway to the beta-catenin pathway, possibly by altering the conformation of the C terminus of Dvl.

  12. Analysis of Casein Biopolymers Adsorption to Lignocellulosic Biomass as a Potential Cellulase Stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckard, Anahita Dehkhoda; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Gibbons, William

    2012-01-01

    Although lignocellulosic materials have a good potential to substitute current feedstocks used for ethanol production, conversion of these materials to fermentable sugars is still not economical through enzymatic hydrolysis. High cost of cellulase has prompted research to explore techniques that can prevent from enzyme deactivation. Colloidal proteins of casein can form monolayers on hydrophobic surfaces that alleviate the de-activation of protein of interest. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and Kjeldahl and BSA protein assays were used to investigate the unknown mechanism of action of induced cellulase activity during hydrolysis of casein-treated biomass. Adsorption of casein to biomass was observed with all of the analytical techniques used and varied depending on the pretreatment techniques of biomass. FT-IR analysis of amides I and II suggested that the substructure of protein from casein or skim milk were deformed at the time of contact with biomass. With no additive, the majority of one of the cellulase mono-component, 97.1 ± 1.1, was adsorbed to CS within 24 h, this adsorption was irreversible and increased by 2% after 72 h. However, biomass treatment with skim-milk and casein reduced the adsorption to 32.9% ± 6.0 and 82.8% ± 6.0, respectively. PMID:23118515

  13. How to squeeze a sponge: casein micelles under osmotic stress, a SAXS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoux, Antoine; Gésan-Guiziou, Geneviève; Pérez, Javier; Cabane, Bernard

    2010-12-01

    By combining the osmotic stress technique with small-angle x-ray scattering measurements, we followed the structural response of the casein micelle to an overall increase in concentration. When the aqueous phase that separates the micelles is extracted, they behave as polydisperse repelling spheres and their internal structure is not affected. When they are compressed, the micelles lose water and shrink to a smaller volume. Our results indicate that this compression is nonaffine, i.e., some parts of the micelle collapse, whereas other parts resist deformation. We suggest that this behavior is consistent with a spongelike casein micelle having a triple hierarchical structure. The lowest level of the structure consists of the CaP nanoclusters that serve as anchors for the casein molecules. The intermediate level consists of 10- to 40-nm hard regions that resist compression and contain the nanoclusters. Those regions are connected and/or partially merged with each other, thus forming a continuous and porous material. The third level of structure is the casein micelle itself, with an average size of 100 nm. In our view, such a structure is consistent with the observation of 10- to 20-nm casein particles in the Golgi vesicles of lactating cells: upon aggregation, those particles would rearrange, fuse, and/or swell to form the spongelike micelle.

  14. Analysis of Casein Biopolymers Adsorption to Lignocellulosic Biomass as a Potential Cellulase Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Dehkhoda Eckard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although lignocellulosic materials have a good potential to substitute current feedstocks used for ethanol production, conversion of these materials to fermentable sugars is still not economical through enzymatic hydrolysis. High cost of cellulase has prompted research to explore techniques that can prevent from enzyme deactivation. Colloidal proteins of casein can form monolayers on hydrophobic surfaces that alleviate the de-activation of protein of interest. Scanning electron microscope (SEM, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, capillary electrophoresis (CE, and Kjeldahl and BSA protein assays were used to investigate the unknown mechanism of action of induced cellulase activity during hydrolysis of casein-treated biomass. Adsorption of casein to biomass was observed with all of the analytical techniques used and varied depending on the pretreatment techniques of biomass. FT-IR analysis of amides I and II suggested that the substructure of protein from casein or skim milk were deformed at the time of contact with biomass. With no additive, the majority of one of the cellulase mono-component, 97.1 ± 1.1, was adsorbed to CS within 24 h, this adsorption was irreversible and increased by 2% after 72 h. However, biomass treatment with skim-milk and casein reduced the adsorption to 32.9% ± 6.0 and 82.8% ± 6.0, respectively.

  15. Analysis of polymorphism in the bovine casein genes by use of the polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, S J; Perry, B N; Skidmore, C J; Savva, D

    1991-01-01

    Methods have been devised for detecting polymorphisms in the bovine beta- and kappa-casein genes using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed either by restriction enzyme digestion (to reveal a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP] or by hybridization of an allele-specific oligonucleotide. These methods, as well as being faster and more sensitive than traditional RFLP methods, are of more general applicability since they can detect any change in DNA sequence. They require only a small sample of blood or semen and are applicable to animals of any age or sex. These methods make possible large-scale screening and thus selection for alleles at these loci. Typing of blood DNA can give erroneous results when the animal concerned is a twin; however, this can be overcome by retesting using milk or semen. Analysis of the kappa-casein genotype of Holstein-Friesian bulls gives frequencies for the A and B alleles of 0.80 and 0.20 respectively. Selection in favour of the B allele, which is superior for cheese production, could thus have a large effect. The A3 and B alleles at the beta-casein locus have been shown to be rare in the Holstein-Friesian population. Linkage disequilibrium exists between beta-casein B and kappa-casein B.

  16. Function of ram spermatozoa frozen in diluents supplemented with casein and vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle, I; Souter, A; Maxwell, W M C; Muiño-Blanco, T; Cebrián-Pérez, J A

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess biologically safer components as alternatives to egg yolk for the frozen storage of ram semen using casein, coconut or palm oil in either Salamon's diluent (S) or a swim-up medium (SU). Ejaculates were frozen as pellets and sperm motility (subjectively) and acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA/PI) by flow cytometry were assessed at 0, 3 and 6h after thawing and incubation at 37°C. Three experiments were done: different concentrations of palm oil (5%, 10% and 20%); casein added as emulsifier and protective agent; and differences between egg yolk, coconut and palm oil in S and SU. 20% of oil added to SU accounted for a lesser percentage (Poil levels on viable cells. When casein was added to diluents containing 5% of palm oil, no differences were found between palm or casein (P>0.05). No differences were found when S and SU were compared neither as groups nor between S alone and containing coconut or palm oil; however, SU alone yielded less motility than SU 5% coconut. However, in both groups, S and SU, egg yolk accounted for the greatest values in both bases. These results indicate that none of biologically safer media components (casein, palm or coconut oil) used in this study maintained the function of ram spermatozoa after freeze-thawing better than S-containing egg yolk. The application of vegetable oils as substitutes for egg yolk in diluents for the cryopreservation of ram spermatozoa requires further research.

  17. Effect of calcium chloride addition on ice cream structure and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, F F; Resende, J V; Abreu, L R; Goff, H D

    2008-06-01

    The influence of calcium fortification by the addition of calcium chloride on quality parameters of ice cream based on physical properties was investigated, as was the effect of kappa-carrageenan at modifying the effects of this calcium fortification. Four ice cream mixes of conventional composition, with added kappa-carrageenan (0 or 0.025%) and added calcium chloride (0 or 4.4 g L(-1) = 40 mM of added Ca(2+)), were prepared. Modulated temperature-differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the effect of calcium chloride on the nucleation temperature, enthalpy of melting, and freezing point depression. The protein composition of 15.4% (wt/wt) reconstituted skim milk powder solutions with or without 4.4 g L(-1) added CaCl(2) and in the supernatant after ultracentrifugation was determined. Fat particle size distributions in ice cream were characterized by light scattering. Ice crystal sizes before and after temperature cycling were determined by cold-stage light microscopy. The results demonstrated that the addition of calcium chloride led to a substantial increase in ice crystal sizes and in fat partial coalescence, which were exacerbated by the addition of kappa-carrageenan. These results can be explained by the interaction between Ca(2+) ions and casein micelles, rather than any effects on freezing point depression. The calcium ions led to a more compact micelle, less serum beta-casein, and high fat destabilization, all of which would be expected to reduce macromolecular structure and volume occupancy in the unfrozen phase, which led to increased rates of ice recrystallization.

  18. Effect of Fatty acids and beeswax addition on properties of sodium caseinate dispersions and films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra, M J; Jiménez, A; Atarés, L; Talens, P; Chiralt, A

    2009-06-08

    Edible films based on sodium caseinate and different saturated fatty acids, oleic acid, or beeswax were formulated. Film-forming emulsions were characterized in terms of particle size distribution, rheological behavior and surface tension. In order to evaluate the influence of lipids on sodium caseinate matrices, mechanical, optical, and water vapor barrier properties were studied, taking into account the effect of water content and film structure on such properties. Saturated fatty acids affected the film properties in a particular way due to the formation of bilayer structures which limited water vapor permeability, giving rise to nonflexible and more opaque films. Oleic acid and beeswax were less effective as water vapor barriers, although the former imparted more flexibility to the caseinate films and did not reduce the film transparency notably.

  19. Chaperone-Like Activity of ß-Casein and Its Effect on Residual in Vitro Activity of Food Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria

    Agaricus bisporus and equine cytochrome c. Only for the first target β-casein was acting as a molecular chaperone i.e. its presence resulted in higher residual activity (higher degree of the function preservation). β-Casein did not have any influence on the residual activity of tyrosinase. Surprisingly...

  20. Identification of casein as the major allergenic and antigenic protein of cow's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docena, G H; Fernandez, R; Chirdo, F G; Fossati, C A

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze both the allergenicity and immunogenicity of cow's milk proteins. To this end, 80 milk-atopic patients were selected on the basis of the presence of cow's milk-specific IgE antibodies in serum and compatible clinical history. Fifteen patients allergic to other allergens and 10 nonatopic subjects were studied as controls. The specificity of serum IgG and IgE antibodies was determined by immunoblotting, employing both cow's milk and milk components, i.e., alpha- and beta-casein, beta-lactoglobulin, and alpha-lactalbumin separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The experiments showed that casein-specific IgE antibodies were present in all (80/80) sera examined; 10/80 showed reactivity to beta-lactoglobulin, and 5/80 showed reactivity to alpha-lactalbumin. None of the 25 negative control sera analyzed showed the presence of specific IgE antibodies against milk proteins. These results were similar to those corresponding to the detection, by the radioallergosorbent test, of IgE antibodies against the milk components coupled to paper disks. All sera from milk-atopic patients also showed IgE reactivity against a high-molecular-mass fraction that hardly enters the gel. This fraction, after separation by gel filtration and treatment with beta-mercaptoethanol and urea, was shown by SDS-PAGE analysis to be formed by casein monomers. All sera analyzed by immunoblotting reacted against the components corresponding to casein monomers. Inhibition of immunoblotting by adsorption with different milk components confirmed that those high-molecular-mass aggregates are formed by casein components. The results presented here strongly suggest that casein is the major allergenic component of cow's milk.

  1. Complexation of sodium caseinate with gum tragacanth: Effect of various species and rheology of coacervates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani Gorji, Sara; Ghorbani Gorji, Elham; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Zargaraan, Azizollaah

    2014-06-01

    We investigated complex coacervation of sodium caseinate/Astragalus rahensis (A.r) as a function of pH with light scattering, spectrophotometry, and viscosity measurements. Interestingly, sodium caseinate/A.r displayed five structural transitions; pH 7.00 to pH ∼5.40: no interaction occurred, pH ∼5.40 to pH ∼4.80: initiation of the formation of primary soluble complexes, pH ∼4.80 to ∼4.30: formation of interpolymer complexes, pH ∼4.30 to ∼4.02: optimum coacervation and pH ∼4.02 to ∼2.50: suppression of coacervation. In addition, rheological properties of sodium caseinate/A.r coacervates were studied at various pH values. A much higher storage modulus (G') than loss modulus (G″) for all sodium caseinate/A.r coacervates suggests the formation of highly interconnected gel-like network structures with mainly elastic behaviour. Moreover, sodium caseinate/A.r coacervates at all pH values exhibited a shear thinning behaviour across the entire shear rate range investigated. Effects of different species of gum tragacanth on the interactions with sodium caseinate have been scarcely studied. Our study showed that systems containing various species (A.r, soluble fraction of A.r and Astragalus gossypinus (A.g)) had different critical pH values and particle sizes during complex coacervation, which could be due to different ratio of soluble to insoluble fractions and uronic acid content of various species.

  2. Analysis of beta-casein gene (CSN2 polymorphism in different breeds of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Miluchová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The goal of work was identification of b - casein gene polymorphism in different breeds of cow. The beta - casein constitutes up to 45 % of the casein of bovine milk. The most common forms of beta-casein in dairy cattle breeds are A1 and A2, while B is less common. The b-casein A1 variant was associated with the incidence of diabetes mellitus 1st type, coronary heart disease and autism. The A2 variant reduces serum cholesterol. The material involved 287 cows (Simmental breed – 111 cows, Pinzgau breed – 89 cows, Holstein breed – 87 cows. Bovine genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood by using commercial kit and used in order to estimate b - casein genotypes by means of PCR-RFLP method. In the populations included in the study were detected all three genotypes – homozygote genotype A1A1, heterozygote genotype A1A2 and homozygote genotype A2A2 with frequencies 0.1261, 0.3333 and 0.5405 in Simmental breed; 0.1379, 0.4598 and 0.4023 in Holstein breed, 0.3034, 0.5168 and 0.1798 in Pinzgau breed. In population of Simmental breed and Holstein breed was higher frequency of allele A2 (0.7072 and 0.6322. In opposite, in population of Pinzgau breed was present higher frequency of the allele A1 (0.5618.

  3. Whey or Casein Hydrolysate with Carbohydrate for Metabolism and Performance in Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuyse, T; Carstens, M; Millen, A M E

    2015-07-01

    The protein type most suitable for ingestion during endurance exercise is undefined. This study compared co-ingestion of either 15 g/h whey or casein hydrolysate with 63 g/h fructose: maltodextrin (0.8:1) on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, exercise metabolism and performance. 2 h postprandial, 8 male cyclists ingested either: carbohydrate-only, carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate or placebo-water in a crossover, double-blind design during 2 h of exercise at 60%W max followed by a 16-km time trial. Data were evaluated by magnitude-based inferential statistics. Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, measured from (13)CO2 breath enrichment, was not substantially influenced by co-ingestion of either protein hydrolysate. However, only co-ingestion of carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate substantially decreased (98% very likely decrease) total carbohydrate oxidation (mean±SD, 242±44; 258±47; 277±33 g for carbohydrate-casein, carbohydrate-whey and carbohydrate-only, respectively) and substantially increased (93% likely increase) total fat oxidation (92±14; 83±27; 73±19 g) compared with carbohydrate-only. Furthermore, only carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate ingestion resulted in a faster time trial (-3.6%; 90% CI: ±3.2%) compared with placebo-water (95% likely benefit). However, neither protein hydrolysate enhanced time trial performance when compared with carbohydrate-only. Under the conditions of this study, ingesting carbohydrate-casein, but not carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, favourably alters metabolism during prolonged moderate-strenuous cycling without substantially altering cycling performance compared with carbohydrate-only.

  4. Serotonin suppresses β-casein expression via PTP1B activation in human mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Takeshi; Maeda, Tomoji; Sanbe, Atsushi; Kudo, Kenzo

    2016-04-22

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytriptamine, 5-HT) has an important role in milk volume homeostasis within the mammary gland during lactation. We have previously shown that the expression of β-casein, a differentiation marker in mammary epithelial cells, is suppressed via 5-HT-mediated inhibition of signal transduction and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) phosphorylation in the human mammary epithelial MCF-12A cell line. In addition, the reduction of β-casein in turn was associated with 5-HT7 receptor expression in the cells. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the 5-HT-mediated suppression of β-casein and STAT5 phosphorylation. The β-casein level and phosphorylated STAT5 (pSTAT5)/STAT5 ratio in the cells co-treated with 5-HT and a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (KT5720) were significantly higher than those of cells treated with 5-HT alone. Exposure to 100 μM db-cAMP for 6 h significantly decreased the protein levels of β-casein and pSTAT5 and the pSTAT5/STAT5 ratio, and significantly increased PTP1B protein levels. In the cells co-treated with 5-HT and an extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK) inhibitor (FR180294) or Akt inhibitor (124005), the β-casein level and pSTAT5/STAT5 ratio were equal to those of cells treated with 5-HT alone. Treatment with 5-HT significantly induced PTP1B protein levels, whereas its increase was inhibited by KT5720. In addition, the PTP1B inhibitor sc-222227 increased the expression levels of β-casein and the pSTAT5/STAT5 ratio. Our observations indicate that PTP1B directly regulates STAT5 phosphorylation and that its activation via the cAMP/PKA pathway downstream of the 5-HT7 receptor is involved in the suppression of β-casein expression in MCF-12A cells.

  5. Phosphorylation of acidic ribosomal proteins from rabbit reticulocytes by a ribosome-associated casein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1977-01-01

    Two acidic proteins from 80-S ribosomes were isolated and purified to homogeneity. The purified acidic proteins could be phosphorylated by casein kinase using [gamma-32P]ATP and [gamma-32P]GTP as a phosphoryl donor. The proteins became phosphorylated in situ, too. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacryl......Two acidic proteins from 80-S ribosomes were isolated and purified to homogeneity. The purified acidic proteins could be phosphorylated by casein kinase using [gamma-32P]ATP and [gamma-32P]GTP as a phosphoryl donor. The proteins became phosphorylated in situ, too. Sodium dodecyl sulfate...

  6. An E. coli over-expression system for multiply-phosphorylated proteins and its use in a study of calcium phosphate sequestration by novel recombinant phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Roger A; Holt, Carl

    2009-09-01

    Phosphoproteins and phosphopeptides were expressed by E. coli to give yields of 30-200mg of purified protein per litre with an average degree of phosphorylation at multiple sites of 61-83%. The method employed two compatible cohabiting plasmids having low and high copy number, expressing a protein kinase and, more abundantly, the substrate (poly)peptide, respectively. It was used to phosphorylate recombinant beta-casein or osteopontin at multiple casein kinase-2 sites. Two constructs were designed to produce shorter peptides containing one or more clusters of phosphorylation sites resembling the phosphate centres of caseins. In the first, a 53-residue 6-His tagged phosphopeptide was expressed at a 5-fold higher molar yield. The second had multiple tandem repeats of a tryptic phosphopeptide sequence to give a similar increase in efficiency. Each recombinant phosphopeptide was purified (30-100mg) and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements showed that they, like certain casein and osteopontin phosphopeptides, sequester amorphous calcium phosphate to form calcium phosphate nanoclusters. In principle, the method can provide novel phosphopeptides for the control of biocalcification or be adapted for use with other kinases and cognate proteins or peptides to study the effect of specific phosphorylations on protein structure. Moreover, the insertion of a phosphate centre sequence, possibly with a linker peptide, may allow thermodynamically stable, biocompatible nanoparticles to be made from virtually any sequence.

  7. Casein addition to a whey-based formula has limited effects on gut function in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thymann, T.; Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Bering, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    followed by 30 h of enteral feeding with whey [protein fraction of milk formula based on whey (WHEY); n = 11] or casein and/or whey [protein fraction of milk formula based on a combination of casein and whey (CASEIN); n = 9]-based formulas. Sugar absorptive function was investigated at 6 and 30 h after......Preterm infants are susceptible to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Using preterm pigs, we determined whether a whey–casein-based formula would be superior to a formula based on whey protein alone. Twenty cesarean-derived preterm pigs (92% gestation) were given total parenteral nutrition for 36 h...... studied in gut contents. Severity of NEC lesions was similar between diet groups but galactose absorption was markedly higher in CASEIN than in WHEY (P

  8. Magnetic bead and gold nanoparticle probes based immunoassay for β-casein detection in bovine milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y S; Meng, X Y; Zhou, Y; Zhang, Y Y; Meng, X M; Yang, L; Hu, P; Lu, S Y; Ren, H L; Liu, Z S; Wang, X R

    2015-04-15

    In this work, a double-probe based immunoassay was developed for rapid and sensitive determination of β-casein in bovine milk samples. In the method, magnetic beads (MBs), employed as supports for the immobilization of anti-β-casein polyclonal antibody (PAb), were used as the capture probe. Colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), employed as a bridge for loading anti-β-casein monoclonal antibody (McAb) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), were used as the amplification probe. The presence of β-casein causes the sandwich structures of MBs-PAb-β-casein-McAb-AuNPs through the interaction between β-casein and the anti-β-casein antibodies. The HRP, used as an enzymatic-amplified tracer, can catalytically oxidize the substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), generating optical signals that are proportional to the quantity of β-casein. The linear range of the immunoassay was from 6.5 to 1520ngmL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.8ngmL(-1) which was 700 times lower than that of MBs-antibody-HRP based immunoassay and 6-7 times lower than that from the microplate-antibody-HRP based assay. The recoveries of β-casein from bovine milk samples were from 95.0% to 104.3% that had a good correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.9956) with those obtained by an official standard Kjeldahl method. For higher sensitivity, simple sample pretreatment and shorter time requirement of the antigen-antibody reaction, the developed immunoassay demonstrated the viability for detection of β-casein in bovine milk samples.

  9. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  10. Calcium - Function and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Jianfen; He, Yifan; Gao, Qian; Wang, Xuan; Nout, M.J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the primary food source for more than half of the world population. Levels of calcium contents and inhibitor - phytic acid are summarized in this chapter. Phytic acid has a very strong chelating ability and it is the main inhibit factor for calcium in rice products. Calcium contents in br

  11. Combining CPP-ACP with fluoride: a synergistic remineralization potential of artificially demineralized enamel or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayad, I. I.; Sakr, A. K.; Badr, Y. A.

    2008-08-01

    Background and objective: Minimal intervention dentistry (MID) calls for early detection and remineralization of initial demineralization. Laser fluorescence is efficient in detecting changes in mineral tooth content. Recaldent is a product of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP- ACP) which delivers calcium and phosphate ions to enamel. A new product which also contains fluoride is launched in United States. The remineralizing potential of CPP- ACP per se, or when combined with 0.22% Fl supplied in an oral care gel on artificially demineralised enamel using laser fluorescence was investigated. Methods: Fifteen sound human molars were selected. Mesial surfaces were tested using He-Cd laser beam at 441.5nm with 18mW power as excitation source on a suitable set-up based on Spex 750 M monochromator provided with PMT for detection of collected auto-fluorescence from sound enamel. Mesial surfaces were subjected to demineralization for ten days. The spectra from demineralized enamel were measured. Teeth were then divided according to the remineralizing regimen into three groups: group I recaldent per se, group II recaldent combined with fluoride gel and group III artificial saliva as a positive control. After following these protocols for three weeks, the spectra from remineralized enamel from the three groups were measured. The spectra of enamel auto-fluorescence were recorded and normalized to peak intensity at about 540 nm to compare between spectra from sound, demineralized and remineralized enamel surfaces. Results: A slight red shift was noticed in spectra from demineralized enamel, while a blue shift may occur in remineralized enamel. Group II showed the highest remineralizing potential. Conclusions: Combining fluoride with CPP-ACP had a synergistic effect on enamel remineralization. In addition, laser auto-fluorescence is an accurate technique for assessment of changes in tooth enamel minerals.

  12. An in vitro Comparative Evaluation of Three Remineralizing Agents using Confocal Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokshi, Achala; Konde, Sapna; Shetty, Sunil Raj; Chandra, Kumar Narayan; Jana, Sinjana; Mhambrey, Sanjana; Thakur, Sneha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The caries process has been thought to be irreversible, resulting in the permanent loss of tooth substance and eventually the development of a cavity. Recent approaches focused on application of remineralizing agents to incipient carious lesions, aim at controlling demineralization and promoting remineralization. Remineralizing agents create a supersaturated environment around the lesion; thus, preventing mineral loss and forces calcium and phosphate ions in the vacant areas. Aim To compare and evaluate the remineralization potential of Fluoride Varnish, CPP-ACP Paste (Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate) and fTCP Paste (functionalized Tricalcium Phosphate) using confocal microscope. Materials and Methods Two windows of 3X3mm were created on the labial cervical and incisal thirds in 60 permanent maxillary central incisors. The teeth were demineralized to create artificial caries and divided into three groups of 20 each. Group I specimens were coated with Fluoride Varnish once whereas those in CPP-ACP paste group and fTCP group were brushed for 2 minutes, twice daily for 20 and 40 days. The specimens were stored in artificial saliva during the study period and were later sectioned and observed under confocal microscope. Data obtained was statistically analyzed using Fischer’s exact test, ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni’s test. Results Fluoride Varnish, CPP-ACP Paste and fTCP Paste showed remineralization of artificial carious lesions at both the time intervals. Fluoride varnish showed the highest remineralization followed by CPP-ACP Paste and fTCP Paste. A statistically significant increase in remineralization potential of CPP-ACP Paste and fTCP Paste was observed at the end of 40 days as compared to 20 days. Conclusion Fluoride varnish showed the greatest remineralization potential of artificial carious lesions followed by CPP-ACP Paste and fTCP Paste respectively. PMID:27504408

  13. Stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by whey and caseinate ingestion after resistance exercise in elderly individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, K J; Reitelseder, S; Petersen, S G;

    2011-01-01

    before exercise (CasPre), caseinate intake immediately after exercise (CasPost), whey intake immediately after exercise (Whey), or intake of a non-caloric control drink (Control). Muscle myofibrillar and collagen fractional synthesis rates (FSR) were measured by a primed continuous infusion of L-[1...... protein synthesis (MPS) to intakes of whey and caseinate after heavy resistance exercise in healthy elderly individuals, and, furthermore, to compare the timing effect of caseinate intake. Twenty-four elderly men and women (mean ± SEM; 68 ± 1 years) were randomized to one of four groups: caseinate intake......-(13) C]leucine using labeled proteins during a 6-h recovery period. No differences were observed in muscle myofibrillar and collagen FSR with Whey (0.09 ± 0.01%/h) compared with CasPost (0.09 ± 0.003%/h), and it did not differ between CasPre (0.10 ± 0.01%/h) and CasPost. MPS does not differ with whey...

  14. The balance between caseins and whey proteins in cow's milk determines its allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Villoslada, F; Olivares, M; Xaus, J

    2005-05-01

    Cow's milk allergy is quite common in the first years of human life. Protein composition plays an important role in this pathology, particularly the casein/whey protein ratio. It is known that milks from different species have different sensitization capacities although their protein sources are quite similar. Thus, the objective of this work was to compare the allergenicity of native cow's milk and milk with a modified ratio of casein and whey proteins in a murine model of atopy. Twenty-four Balb/c mice were orally sensitized to native cow's milk or modified cow's milk with a casein/whey protein ratio of 40:60. During the sensitization period, the number of mice suffering from diarrhea was significantly higher in the native cow's milk-sensitized group than in the modified milk-sensitized group. Once mice were killed, plasma histamine levels were shown to be significantly higher in native cow's milk-sensitized mice. In addition, cow's milk proteins induced a higher lymphocyte sensitization in the native milk-sensitized mice, with a significant increase in the specific proliferation ratio of these cells. These results suggest that the balance between caseins and whey proteins plays an important role in the sensitization capacity of cow's milk, and its modification might be a way to reduce the allergenicity of cow's milk.

  15. Cloning and sequencing of the casein kinase 2 alpha subunit from Zea mays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrowolska, G; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1991-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA coding for the alpha subunit of casein kinase 2 of Zea mays has been determined. The cDNA clone contains an open reading frame of 996 nucleotides encoding a polypeptide comprising 332 amino acids. The primary amino acid sequence exhibits 75% identity to the alpha...

  16. Acid-induced gelation behavior of casein/whey protein solutions assessed by oscillatory rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mahboubeh; Madadlou, Ashkan; Khosrowshahi, Asghar; Mohammadifar, Mohammadamin

    2014-09-01

    Gelation process of acid-induced casein gels was studied using response surface method (RSM). Ratio of casein to whey proteins, incubation and heating temperatures were independent variables. Final storage modulus (G') measured 200 min after the addition of glucono-δ-lactone and the gelation time i.e. the time at which G' of gels became greater than 1 Pa were the parameters studied. Incubation temperature strongly affected both parameters. The higher the incubation temperature, the lower was the G' and the shorter the gelation time. Increased heating temperature however, increased the G' but again shortened the gelation time. Increase in G' was attributed to the formation of disulphide cross-linkages between denatured whey proteins and casein chains; whilst the latter was legitimized by considering the higher isoelectric pH of whey proteins. Maximum response (G' = 268.93 Pa) was obtained at 2.7 % w/w, 25 °C and 90 °C for casein content, incubation and heating temperatures, respectively.

  17. The adsorption of lysozyme and chymosin onto emulsion droplets and their association with caseins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de A.

    1999-01-01

    The proteolytic action of proteases present in cheese plays a major role in the ripening of cheese. These proteases originate from the rennet, the starter cultures and from the milk itself. The proteolysis in cheese results in the degradation of the casein proteins into smaller peptides and free ami

  18. Trichostatin A inhibits beta-casein expression in mammary epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujuguet, Philippe; Radisky, Derek; Levy, Dinah; Lacza, Charlemagne; Bissell, Mina J.

    2002-02-22

    Many aspects of cellular behavior are affected by information derived from association of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and with cell membrane receptors. When cultured in the presence of laminin-containing ECM and prolactin (Prl), normal mammary epithelial cells express the milk protein beta-casein. Previously, we defined the minimal ECM- and Prl-responsive enhancer element BCE-1 from the upstream region of the beta-casein gene. We also found that BCE-1 was only active when stably integrated into chromatin, and that trichostatin A (TSA), a reagent that leads to alterations in chromatin structure, was able to activate the integrated enhancer element. We now show that endogenous b-casein gene, which is controlled by a genetic assembly that is highly similar to that of BCE-1 and which is also activated by incubation in ECM and Prl, is instead inhibited by TSA. We provide evidence that the differing response of b-casein and BCE-1 to TSA is neither due to an unusual effect of TSA on mammary epithelial cells, nor to secondary consequences from the expression of a separate gene, nor to a particular property of the BCE-1 construct. As a component of this investigation, we also showed that ECM could mediate rapid histone deacetylation in mammary epithelial cells. These results are discussed in combination with previous work showing that TSA mediates the differentiation of many types of cancer cells but inhibits differentiation of some nonmalignant cell types.

  19. Casein and soybean protein-based thermoplastics and composites as alternative biodegradable polymers for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz, C.M.; Fossen, M.; Tuil, van R.F.; Graaf, de L.A.; Reis, R.L.; Cunha, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    This work reports on the development and characterization of novel meltable polymers and composites based on casein and soybean proteins. The effects of inert (Al2O3) and bioactive (tricalcium phosphate) ceramic reinforcements over the mechanical performance, water absorption, and bioactivity behavi

  20. Effects of structural rearrangements on the rheology of rennet-induced casein particle gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellema, M.; Walstra, P.; Opheusden, van J.H.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2002-01-01

    During ageing of casein or skim milk gels, structural changes take place that affect gel parameters, such as pore size and storage modulus. These changes can be explained in terms of rearrangements of the gel network at various length scales. In this paper, rheological experiments on rennet-induced

  1. The influence of casein and urea as nitrogen sources on in vitro equine caecal fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, A.S.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Martin-Rosset, W.; Cotovio, M.; Silva, F.; Bennett, R.N.; Cone, J.W.; Bessa, R.J.B.; Rodrigues, M.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    To access the fermentative response of equine caecal microbial population to nitrogen availability, an in vitro study was conducted using caecal contents provided with adequate energy sources and nitrogen as limiting nutrient. Two nitrogen (N) sources were provided, protein (casein) and non-protein

  2. Ultrasound effects on the assembly of casein micelles in reconstituted skim milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Juliano, Pablo; Williams, Roderick P W; Niere, Julie; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2014-05-01

    Reconstituted skim milks (10 % w/w total solids, pH 6·7-8·0) were ultrasonicated (20, 400 or 1600 kHz at a specific energy input of 286 kJ/kg) at a bulk milk temperature of <30 °C. Application of ultrasound to milk at different pH altered the assembly of the casein micelle in milk, with greater effects at higher pH and lower frequency. Low frequency ultrasound caused greater disruption of casein micelles causing release of protein from the micellar to the serum phase than high frequency. The released protein re-associated to form aggregates of smaller size but with surface charge similar to the casein micelles in the original milk. Ultrasound may be used as a physical intervention to alter the size of the micelles and the partitioning of caseins between the micellar and serum phases in milk. The altered protein equilibria induced by ultrasound treatment may have potential for the development of milk with novel functionality.

  3. Divergence at the casein haplotypes in dairy and meat goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Julia; Chessa, Stefania; Rignanese, Daniela; Caroli, Anna; Erhardt, Georg

    2010-02-01

    Casein genes have been proved to have an influence on milk properties, and are in addition appropriate for phylogeny studies. A large number of casein polymorphisms exist in goats, making their analysis quite complex. The four casein loci were analyzed by molecular techniques for genetic polymorphism detection in the two dairy goat breeds Bunte Deutsche Edelziege (BDE; n=96), Weisse Deutsche Edelziege (WDE; n=91), and the meat goat breed Buren (n=75). Of the 35 analyzed alleles, 18 were found in BDE, and 17 in Buren goats and WDE. In addition, a new allele was identified at the CSN1S1 locus in the BDE, showing a frequency of 0.05. This variant, named CSN1S1*A', is characterized by a t-->c transversion in intron 9. Linkage disequilibrium was found at the casein haplotype in all three breeds. A total of 30 haplotypes showed frequencies higher than 0.01. In the Buren breed only one haplotype showed a frequency higher than 0.1. The ancestral haplotype B-A-A-B (in the order: CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3) occurred in all three breeds, showing a very high frequency (>0.8) in the Buren.

  4. The Gluten-Free, Casein-Free Diet and Autism: Limited Return on Family Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The gluten-free, casein-free (GFCF) diet is widely used by families of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Despite its popularity, there is limited evidence in support of the diet. The purpose of this article was to identify and evaluate well-controlled studies of the GFCF diet that have been implemented with children with ASD. A review…

  5. Properties of acid casein gels made by acidification with Glucono-δ-lactone. 1. Rheological properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucey, J.A.; Vliet, van T.; Grolle, K.; Geurts, T.; Walstra, P.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of gelation temperature (20, 30 or 40 °C), assay temperature, concentration of glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) added, and NaCl concentration on the rheological properties of acid casein gels were studied at small and large deformations. Gels prepared at a high incubation temperature had very low

  6. Phosphorylation of nm23/nucleoside diphosphate kinase by casein kinase 2 in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, M; Issinger, O G; Lascu, I;

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated phosphorylation of human nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) and of homologous NDPK from different species by human casein kinase 2 (CK-2). The human NDPK isotypes A and B were phosphorylated by CK-2 in vitro both when the purified proteins and total lysate of HL-60 leukemia...

  7. Reconstitution of normal and hyperactivated forms of casein kinase-2 by variably mutated beta-subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Meggio, F; Pinna, L A;

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-one mutants of the noncatalytic beta-subunit of human casein kinase-2 have been created, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to homogeneity. They are either modified at the autophosphorylation site (mutants beta delta 1-4 and beta A 5,6) or bear variable deletions in their C...

  8. Caseins from bovine colostrum and milk strongly bind piscidin-1, an antimicrobial peptide from fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kütt, Mary-Liis; Stagsted, Jan

    2014-09-01

    A model system of bovine colostrum and piscidin, a fish-derived antimicrobial peptide, was developed to study potential interactions of antimicrobial peptides in colostrum. We did not detect any antimicrobial activity of colostrum using the radial plate diffusion assay; in fact colostrum completely abrogated activity of added piscidin. This could not be explained by degradation of piscidin by colostrum, which was less than ten percent. We found that colostrum even protected piscidin against degradation by added proteases. We further observed that colostrum and milk rapidly quenched the fluorescence of fluorescein-piscidin but not that of fluorescein. This effect was not seen with BSA and the specific quenching of fluorescein-piscidin by colostrum was saturably inhibited with unlabeled piscidin. Size exclusion chromatography indicated that fluorescein-piscidin bound to casein micelles with no apparent binding to IgG or whey proteins. Further, addition of pure caseins was able to quench fluorescence of fluorescein-piscidin and to inhibit the antimicrobial activity of piscidin. The interaction between caseins and piscidin could be dissociated by guanidine hydrochloride and recovered piscidin had antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Based on our results we propose that caseins could be carriers for antimicrobial peptides in colostrum and milk.

  9. Analysis of the endogenous peptide profile of milk: identification of 248 mainly casein-derived peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Florian; Fedorova, Maria; Ebner, Jennifer; Hoffmann, Ralf; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2013-12-06

    Milk is an excellent source of bioactive peptides. However, the composition of the native milk peptidome has only been partially elucidated. The present study applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) directly or after prefractionation of the milk peptides by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) or OFFGEL fractionation for the comprehensive analysis of the peptide profile of raw milk. The peptide sequences were determined by MALDI-TOF/TOF or nano-ultra-performance liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS. Direct MALDI-TOF-MS analysis led to the assignment of 57 peptides. Prefractionation by both complementary methods led to the assignment of another 191 peptides. Most peptides originate from α(S1)-casein, followed by β-casein, and α(S2)-casein. κ-Casein and whey proteins seem to play only a minor role as peptide precursors. The formation of many, but not all, peptides could be explained by the activity of the endogenous peptidases, plasmin or cathepsin D, B, and G. Database searches revealed the presence of 22 peptides with established physiological function, including those with angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, immunomodulating, or antimicrobial activity.

  10. Interfacial properties, thin film stability and foam stability of casein micelle dispersions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Min; Sala, G.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Linden, van der E.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Foam stability of casein micelle dispersions (CMDs) strongly depends on aggregate size. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, the role of interfacial and thin film properties was investigated. CMDs were prepared at 4 °C and 20 °C, designated as CMD4 °C and CMD20 °C. At equal protein concentrations,

  11. Calcium signaling and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlein, Ortrud K

    2014-08-01

    Calcium signaling is involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. Over the last decade, it has been increasingly recognized as an important factor in epileptogenesis, and it is becoming obvious that the excess synchronization of neurons that is characteristic for seizures can be linked to various calcium signaling pathways. These include immediate effects on membrane excitability by calcium influx through ion channels as well as delayed mechanisms that act through G-protein coupled pathways. Calcium signaling is able to cause hyperexcitability either by direct modulation of neuronal activity or indirectly through calcium-dependent gliotransmission. Furthermore, feedback mechanisms between mitochondrial calcium signaling and reactive oxygen species are able to cause neuronal cell death and seizures. Unravelling the complexity of calcium signaling in epileptogenesis is a daunting task, but it includes the promise to uncover formerly unknown targets for the development of new antiepileptic drugs.

  12. Impact of Casein and Gluten Free Dietary Intervention on Selected Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerappan Nishadevi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Autism is a life long developmental disorder that emerges in early childhood and results in significant lifelong disability. The goal of treatment is to promote the childs social and language development and minimize behaviors that interfere with the childs functioning and learning. This study evaluated the impact of casein and gluten free diet among selected autistic children. Methods: Three private special schools in Salem District, Tamilnadu, India were selected. A total number of 50 autistic children 10 from SIMEC, 10 from MMIC and 30 from CSI comprised the study sample. Background information, clinical history and nutritional status, dietary pattern were collected from the 50 selected autistic children. Out of 50 autistic children 30 autistic children were selected for the dietary intervention. Diet counseling regarding casein free diet was imparted to Group I (n=10, gluten free diet to Group II (n=10 and both casein and gluten free diet for Group III (n=10. The diet was followed for a period of 2 months. The efficacy of the dietary exclusion of casein and gluten was evaluated using a food and behavior diary on a day to day basis, using observation method. Findings: Results about Group I autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of casein free diet showed that the mean scores before and after casein free dietary intervention depiticted these improvements as, 1 to 1.2 for attention, 2.8 to 2.9 for sleep, 1.1 to 1.3 for hyperactivity, 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety/compulsion. For Group II autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of gluten free diet showed the improvements as 1.1 to 1.4 for attention 2.5 to 3 for sleep, 1.7 to 1.9 for hyperactivity, 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety/compulsion. About Group III autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of both casein and gluten free diet showed the improvements as 1.1 to 1.3 for attention, 2.5 to 2.7 for sleep, 1.3 to 1.7 for hyperactivity, and 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety

  13. Casein kinase II protein kinase is bound to lamina-matrix and phosphorylates lamin-like protein in isolated pea nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    A casein kinase II (CK II)-like protein kinase was identified and partially isolated from a purified envelope-matrix fraction of pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei. When [gamma-32P]ATP was directly added to the envelope-matrix preparation, the three most heavily labeled protein bands had molecular masses near 71, 48, and 46 kDa. Protein kinases were removed from the preparation by sequential extraction with Triton X-100, EGTA, 0.3 M NaCl, and a pH 10.5 buffer, but an active kinase still remained bound to the remaining lamina-matrix fraction after these treatments. This kinase had properties resembling CK II kinases previously characterized from animal and plant sources: it preferred casein as an artificial substrate, could use GTP as efficiently as ATP as the phosphoryl donor, was stimulated by spermine, was calcium independent, and had a catalytic subunit of 36 kDa. Some animal and plant CK II kinases have regulatory subunits near 29 kDa, and a lamina-matrix-bound protein of this molecular mass was recognized on immunoblot by anti-Drosophila CK II polyclonal antibodies. Also found associated with the envelope-matrix fraction of pea nuclei were p34cdc2-like and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases, but their properties could not account for the protein kinase activity bound to the lamina. The 71-kDa substrate of the CK II-like kinase was lamin A-like, both in its molecular mass and in its cross-reactivity with anti-intermediate filament antibodies. Lamin phosphorylation is considered a crucial early step in the entry of cells into mitosis, so lamina-bound CK II kinases may be important control points for cellular proliferation.

  14. Relative efficacy of casein or soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil on hyperuricaemia in rats.

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    Lo, Hui-Chen; Wang, Yao-Horng; Chiou, Hue-Ying; Lai, Shan-Hu; Yang, Yu

    2010-07-01

    Diets that ameliorate the adverse effects of uric acid (UA) on renal damage deserve attention. The effects of casein or soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil on various serum parameters and renal histology were investigated on hyperuricaemic rats. Male Wistar rats administered with oxonic acid and UA to induce hyperuricaemia were fed with casein or soya protein plus palm- or safflower-seed oil-supplemented diets. Normal rats and hyperuricaemic rats with or without allopurinol treatment (150 mg/l in drinking water) were fed with casein plus maize oil-supplemented diets. After 8 weeks, allopurinol treatment and soya protein plus safflower-seed oil-supplemented diet significantly decreased serum UA in hyperuricaemic rats (one-way ANOVA; P soya protein and casein attenuated hyperuricaemia-induced decreases in serum albumin and insulin, respectively (two-way ANOVA; P soya protein significantly decreased renal NO and nitrotyrosine and palm oil significantly decreased renal nitrotyrosine, TNF-alpha and interferon-gamma and increased renal transforming growth factor-beta. Casein with safflower-seed oil significantly attenuated renal tubulointerstitial nephritis, crystals and fibrosis. Comparing casein v. soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil, the results support that casein with safflower-seed oil may be effective in attenuating hyperuricaemia-associated renal damage, while soya protein with safflower-seed oil may be beneficial in lowering serum UA and TAG.

  15. Purification and characterization of a casein kinase 2-type protein kinase from pea nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Almost all the polyamine-stimulated protein kinase activity associated with the chromatin fraction of nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.35 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified over 2000-fold by salt fractionation and anion-exchange and casein-agarose column chromatography, after which it is more than 90% pure. The purified kinase has a specific activity of about 650 nanomoles per minute per milligram protein in the absence of polyamines, with either ATP or GTP as phosphoryl donor. Spermidine can stimulate its activity fourfold, with half-maximal activation at about 2 millimolar. Spermine and putrescine also stimulate activity, although somewhat less effectively. This kinase has a tetrameric alpha 2 beta 2 structure with a native molecular weight of 130,000, and subunit molecular weights of 36,000 for the catalytic subunit (alpha) and 29,000 for the regulatory subunit (beta). In western blot analyses, only the alpha subunit reacts strongly with polyclonal antibodies to a Drosophila casein kinase II. The pea kinase can use casein and phosvitin as artificial substrates, phosphorylating both the serine and threonine residues of casein. It has a pH optimum near 8.0, a Vmax of 1.5 micromoles per minute per milligram protein, and a Km for ATP of approximately 75 micromolar. Its activity can be almost completely inhibited by heparin at 5 micrograms per milliliter, but is relatively insensitive to concentrations of staurosporine, K252a, and chlorpromazine that strongly antagonize Ca(2+) -regulated protein kinases. These results are discussed in relation to recent findings that casein kinase 2-type kinases may phosphorylate trans-acting factors that bind to light-regulated promoters in plants.

  16. Characterization of casein gene complex and genetic diversity analysis in Indian goats.

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    Rout, P K; Kumar, A; Mandal, A; Laloe, D; Singh, S K; Roy, R

    2010-04-01

    Milk protein polymorphism plays an important role in genetic diversity analysis, phylogenetic studies, establishing geographical diversity, conservation decision, and improving breeding goals. Milk protein polymorphism in Indian goat breeds has not been well studied; therefore, an investigation was carried out to analyze the genetic structure of the casein gene and milk protein diversity at six milk protein loci in nine Indian goat breeds/genetic groups from varied agro-climatic zones. Milk protein genotyping was carried out in 1098 individual milk samples by SDS-PAGE at alphaS1-CN (CSN1S1), beta-CN (CSN2), alphaS2-CN (CSN1S2), kappa-CN (CSN3), beta-LG, and alpha-LA loci. Indian goats exhibited alphaS1-casein A allele in higher frequency in the majority of breeds except Ganjam and local goats. The alphaS1-casein A allele frequencies varied from 0.45 to 0.77. A total of 16 casein haplotypes were observed in seven breeds and breed specific haplotypes were observed with respect to geographic region. The average number of alleles was lowest in Ganjam (1.66 +/- 0.81) and highest in Sirohi goats (2.50 +/- 1.05). Expected heterozygosity at six different loci demonstrated genetic diversity and breed fragmentation. Neighbor-Joining tree was built basing on Nei's distance. There was about 16.95% variability due to differences between breeds, indicating a strong subdivision. Principal component analysis was carried out to highlight the relationship among breeds. The variability among goat breeds was contributed by alphaS2-CN, beta-LG and alphaS1-CN. The Indian goats exhibited alphaS1-CN (CSN1S1) A allele in higher frequency in all the breeds indicating the higher casein yield in their milk.

  17. Identification of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B and casein as substrates for 124-v-Mos

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    Stabel Silvia

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mos proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic serine/threonine-specific protein kinase with crucial function during meiotic cell division in vertebrates. Based on oncogenic amino acid substitutions the viral derivative, 124-v-Mos, displays constitutive protein kinase activity and functions independent of unknown upstream effectors of mos protein kinase. We have utilized this property of 124-v-Mos and screened for novel mos substrates in immunocomplex kinase assays in vitro. Results We generated recombinant 124-v-Mos using the baculovirus expression system in Spodoptera frugiperda cells and demonstrated constitutive kinase activity by the ability of 124-v-Mos to auto-phosphorylate and to phosphorylate vimentin, a known substrate of c-Mos. Using this approach we analyzed a panel of acidic and basic substrates in immunocomplex protein kinase assays and identified novel in vitro substrates for 124-v-Mos, the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B, alpha-casein and beta-casein. We controlled mos-specific phosphorylation of PTP1B and casein in comparative assays using a synthetic kinase-inactive 124-v-Mos mutant and further, tryptic digests of mos-phosphorylated beta-casein identified a phosphopeptide specifically targeted by wild-type 124-v-Mos. Two-dimensional phosphoamino acid analyses showed that 124-v-mos targets serine and threonine residues for phosphorylation in casein at a 1:1 ratio but auto-phosphorylation occurs predominantly on serine residues. Conclusion The mos substrates identified in this study represent a basis to approach the identification of the mos-consensus phosphorylation motif, important for the development of specific inhibitors of the Mos protein kinase.

  18. The effect of calcium salts, ascorbic acid and peptic pH on calcium, zinc and iron bioavailabilities from fortified human milk using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model.

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    Etcheverry, Paz; Wallingford, John Charles; Miller, Dennis Dean; Glahn, Raymond Philip

    2005-05-01

    The calcium, zinc, and iron bioavailabilities of human milk with commercial and noncommercial human milk fortifiers (HMFs) were evaluated under a variety of conditions: peptic digestion at pH 2 and pH 4, supplementation of ascorbic acid, and addition of three calcium salts. The noncommercial HMFs consisted of casein phosphopeptides (CPPs), alpha-lactalbumin, colostrum, and hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate (WPC). They were mixed with human milk (HM) and calcium, zinc, and iron were added. Ascorbic acid (AA) was added in certain studies. The commercial HMFs were Nestlé FM-85, Similac HMF (SHMF), and Enfamil HMF (EHMF). All HMFs were compared to S-26/SMA HMF. Results showed that the peptic pH (2 vs. 4) had no effect on mineral bioavailability. Addition of different calcium salts had no effect on calcium cell uptake and cell ferritin levels (an indicator of iron uptake), however, the addition of calcium glycerophosphate/gluconate increased zinc uptake by Caco-2 cells. Addition of AA significantly increased ferritin levels, with no effect on calcium or zinc uptake. Among the commercial HMFs, FM-85 was significantly lower in zinc uptake than S-26/SMA, and HM+EHMF was significantly higher than HM+S-26/SMA. Cell ferritin levels were significantly higher for HM+S-26/SMA than for all other commercial fortifiers. None of the commercial HMFs were different from HM+S-26/SMA in calcium uptake.

  19. Research on Physico-chemical Composition of "Nai-zha" and Processing Technology of Casein from Yaks Milk%牦牛"奶渣"理化成分及干酪素生产工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进波; 孙昊; 孙烨琪; 吕俊梅; 黄艾祥

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the physico-chemical composition of “Nai-zha”(which was made by congealing, depositing and pressing of Yak milk after extracted fat, the samples were collected from the shangri-la area) were analyzed, and the processing technology of yak casein from“Nai-zha” was studied by orthogonal experiment.The results indicted that the physico-chemical composition of the fresh” Nai-zha” as: protein (19.64%);fat (2.40%); moisture (74.40%); ash (1.1%); calcium (0.47%); phosphorus (0.17%); acidity (540T); pH (3.66).The best technical parameters of casein products from fresh “Nai-zha” were that the centrifugal defatted speed (4 000r/min); centrifugal time(5min); drying for 10h (60℃) and the casein yield 34.18%.The optimal technical parameters of casein products from dry“Nai-zha”were that the centrifugal defatted speed (5 000r/min); centrifugal time(5min); drying time for 15h (60℃), and the casein yield 83.40%.The products of Yak casein met the standard of Industrial Casein (QB/T 3780-1999).%本文对采自香格里拉地区的牦牛"奶渣"(是提取乳脂肪后的牦牛乳成分经压榨而成)鲜样、发酵样、干样进行理化分析,并对鲜、干"奶渣"加工干酪素的工艺进行了研究.结果表明,香格里拉鲜"奶渣"蛋白质含量为19.64%,脂肪为2.40%,水分为74.40%,灰分为1.1%,钙为0.47%,磷为0.17%,酸度为54°T,pH值为3.66.通过正交试验筛选出以鲜"奶渣"生产干酪素的最佳工艺参数为离心脱脂转速为4 000r/min、离心5min、干燥10h(60℃),干酪素成品率34.18%;筛选出以干"奶渣"生产干酪素的最佳工艺参数离心脱脂转速为5 000r/min、离心时间为5min、干燥时间为15h(60℃),成品率达83.40%.经测定成品符合QB/T 3780-1999工业干酪素的要求.

  20. Remineralization potential of fluoride and amorphous calcium phosphate-casein phospho peptide on enamel lesions: An in vitro comparative evaluation

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    Lata S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This in vitro study was conducted on enamel blocks of human premolars with the aim of evaluating the remineralization potential of fluoride and ACP-CPP and the combination of ACP-CPP and fluoride on early enamel lesions. Materials and Methods: Fifteen intact carious free human premolars were selected. The coronal part of each tooth was sectioned into four parts to make 4 enamel blocks. The baseline SMH (surface microhardness was measured for all the enamel specimens using Vickers microhardness (VHN testing machine. Artificial enamel carious lesions were created by inserting the specimens in demineralization solution for 3 consecutive days. The SMH of the demineralised specimens was evaluated. Then the four enamel sections of each tooth were subjected to various surface treatments , i.e. Group 1- Fluoride varnish, Group 2- ACP-CPP cream, Group 3- Fluoride + ACP-CPP & Group 4- Control (No surface treatment. A caries progression test (pH cycling was carried out, which consisted of alternative demineralization (3hours and remineralization with artificial saliva (21 hours for five consecutive days. After pH cycling again SMH of each specimen was assessed to evaluate the remineralization potential of each surface treatment agent. Then, to asses the remineralization potential of various surface treatments at the subsurface level, each enamel specimen was longitudinally sectioned through the centre to expose the subsurface enamel area. Cross-sectional microhardness (CSMH was evaluated to assess any subsurface remineralization Results: Statistical analysis using one-way ANOVA followed by multiple comparisons test was applied to detect significant differences at P ≤ 0.05 levels between various surface treatments at different phases. Conclusions: With in the limits, the present study concludes that; ACP-CPP cream is effective, but to a lesser extent than fluoride in remineralizing early enamel caries at surface level. Combination of fluoride and ACP-CPP does not provide any additive remineralization potential compared to fluoride alone. Fluoride, ACP-CPP and their combination are not effective in remineralizing the early enamel caries at the subsurface level.

  1. A comparative evaluation of remineralizing ability of bioactive glass and amorphous calcium phosphate casein phosphopeptide on early enamel lesion

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    Udaya Kumar Palaniswamy

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Both the remineralizing agents tested in this study can be considered effective in repair and prevention of demineralization. BAG showed better results initially, but eventually both have similar remineralizing potential.

  2. Calcium is important forus.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高利平

    2005-01-01

    Calcium is important for our health.We must have it in our diet to stay well.A good place to get it is from dairy products like milk, cheese and ice cream.One pound of cheese has fifty times the calcium we should have every day.Other foods have less.For example,a pound of beans also has calcium.But it has only three times the amount we ought to have daily.

  3. Effect of spray drying on the sensory and physical properties of hydrolysed casein using gum arabic as the carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subtil, S F; Rocha-Selmi, G A; Thomazini, M; Trindade, M A; Netto, F M; Favaro-Trindade, C S

    2014-09-01

    This study was aimed at spray drying hydrolysed casein using gum Arabic as the carrier agent, in order to decrease the bitter taste. Three formulations with differing proportions of hydrolysed casein: gum Arabic (10:90, 20:80 and 30:70) were prepared and characterized. They were evaluated for their moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, dispersibility in water and in oil, particle size and distribution, particle morphology, thermal behaviour (DSC) and bitter taste by a trained sensory panel using a paired-comparison test (free samples vs. spray dried samples). The proportion of hydrolysed casein did not affect the morphology of the microspheres. The spray drying process increased product stability and modified the dissolution time, but had no effect on the ability of the material to dissolve in either water or oil. The sensory tests showed that the spray drying process using gum Arabic as the carrier was efficient in attenuating or masking the bitter taste of the hydrolysed casein.

  4. An in vitro study on the retentive strength of orthodontic bands cemented with CPP-ACP-containing GIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heravi, Farzin; Bagheri, Hossein; Rangrazi, Abdolrasoul; Mojtaba Zebarjad, Seyed

    2016-12-01

    Caries and white spot lesions around orthodontic bands are well known occurrences in fixed orthodontic treatment. There are several methods to overcome these problems. One of these includes modification of the band cement with remineralizing agents such as casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP). However, it should be evaluated that the cement modification has no significant negative effects on the retentive strength of the cemented orthodontic bands. In a continuation of our previous studies on the effects of the addition of CPP-ACP on the mechanical properties of luting and lining glass ionomer cement (GIC), this study aimed to investigate the retentive strength of orthodontic bands cemented with CPP-ACP containing GIC. Sixty extracted human pre molars teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and randomly divided into two groups of 30 specimens. In group 1, bands were cemented to the tooth with a GIC. In group 2, CPP-ACP (1.56% w/w) was added to the GIC before cementation. The retentive strength of each groups was determined with a universal testing machine. Further, the amount of cement remaining on the tooth surface was evaluated under a stereomicroscope, and the adhesive remnant index (ARI) score was determined. Results of this study showed that there were no significant differences between the groups in retentive strength and ARI score. In conclusion, modification of GIC with 1.56% w/w CPP-ACP had no negative effects on the retentive strength of the bands so can be used during fixed orthodontic treatment.

  5. Effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate combined with hydrogen peroxide and CPP-ACPF in whitening and microhardness of enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Nadia; Rajabi, Omid; Forouzannejad, Zakiyeh

    2017-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) combined with 1.5% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF) on color and microhardness of enamel. Material and Methods Seventy-five bovine incisors were immersed in a tea solution for 7.5 days. The specimens were randomly divided into five groups according to the whitening agent applied: 1) 94% NaHCO3, 2) a blend of 94% NaHCO3 and CPP-ACPF, 3) a blend of 94% NaHCO3 and 1.5% H2O2, 4) a blend of 94% NaHCO3, 1.5% H2O2 and CPP-ACPF, 5) control. The whitening procedure was performed for 10 times over 10 days. At each day, the buccal surfaces were covered with whitening agents for 5 minutes and then brushed for 30 seconds. After the 10 days, the teeth were again immersed in a tea solution for 10 minutes. Color assessment was performed at baseline (T1), after the first staining process (T2), after the whitening procedure (T3), and after the second staining process (T4). Finally, the specimens were subjected to microhardness test. Results There was a statistically significant difference in the color change between T2 and T3 stages among the study groups (p<0.05), with the greatest improvement observed in group 4. Microhardness was significantly greater in groups 2 and 4, as compared to the other groups (p<0.05). Conclusions The combination of 94% NaHCO3, 1.5% H2O2 and CPP-ACPF was effective in improving color and microhardness of teeth with extrinsic stains and could be recommended in the clinical situation.

  6. The effect of remin pro and MI paste plus on bleached enamel surface roughness.

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    Haleh Heshmat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for enhanced esthetic appearance has led to great developments in bleaching products. The exposure of hard tissues of the tooth to bleaching agents can affect the roughness of the enamel surface. The freshly bleached enamel surface exposed to various surface treatments such as fluoride and other remineralizing agents have been assessed in this study. The aim of this experimental study was to compare the effect of Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate with Fluoride (MI Paste Plus and Remin Pro on the enamel surface roughness after bleaching.Thirty enamel samples of sound human permanent molars were prepared for this study. After initial roughness measurement with profilometer, the samples were exposed to 37% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent 20 minutes twice, and randomly divided into three groups of ten. In group 1, a CPP-ACPF containing paste (MI Paste Plus and in group 2, Remin Pro were applied to the teeth during a 15 day period for 5 minutes, twice a day. Samples of group 3 (control were immersed in artificial saliva for 15 days. The roughness of all samples were measured at the beginning, after bleaching and after the study intervention and statistically analyzed.The surface roughness significantly increased in all groups following bleaching, and then it showed a decrease after application of both Remin Pro and CPP-ACPF in comparison to using bleaching agent (P0.05.There was no difference between surface roughness of MI Paste Plus and Remin Pro groups. Also the surface roughness was decreased compared to the initial enamel surface roughness.

  7. Effects of Treatment with Various Remineralizing Agents on the Microhardness of Demineralized Enamel Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehzadeh Esfahani, Kiana; Mazaheri, Romina; Pishevar, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Remineralization of incipient caries is one of the goals in dental health care. The present study aimed at comparing the effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate complex (CPP-ACP), Remin Pro(®), and 5% sodium fluoride varnish on remineralization of enamel lesions. Materials and methods. In this in vitro study, 60 enamel samples were randomly allocated to six groups of 10. After four days of immersion in demineralizing solution, microhardness of all samples was measured. Afterward, groups 1-3 underwent one-time treatment with fluoride varnish, CPP-ACP, and Remin Pro(®), respectively. Microhardness of groups 4-6 was measured not only after one-month treatment with the above-mentioned materials (for eight hours a day), but also after re-exposing to the demineralizing solution. The results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), repeated measures ANOVA, and Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) test. Results . None of the regimens could increase microhardness in groups 1-3. However, one-month treatment regimens in groups 4-6 caused a significant increase in microhardness. The greatest microhardness was detected in the group treated with CPP-ACP (P = 0.001). In addition, although microhardness reduced following re-demineralization in all three groups, the mean reduction was minimum in the CPP-ACP-treated group (P microhardness, the remineralization potential of CPP-ACP was significantly higher than that of Remin Pro(®) and sodium fluoride varnish.

  8. Efficacy of a novel at-home bleaching technique with carbamide peroxides modified by CPP-ACP and its effect on the microhardness of bleached enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, B C D; Borges, J S; de Melo, C D; Pinheiro, I V A; Santos, A J S Dos; Braz, R; Montes, M A J R

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate in vitro the efficacy of a novel at-home bleaching technique using 10% or 16% carbamide peroxide modified by casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and its influence on the microhardness of bleached enamel. A total of 40 bovine incisors were divided into four groups (n=10) according to the bleaching agent used: 10% carbamide peroxide only; a blend of 10% carbamide peroxide and a CPP-ACP paste; 16% carbamide peroxide only; and a blend of 16% carbamide peroxide and a CPP-ACP paste. During the 14-day bleaching regimen, the samples were stored in artificial saliva. The Vickers microhardness and color of the teeth were assessed at baseline (T0) and immediately after the bleaching regimen (T14) using a microhardness tester and a spectrophotometer, respectively. The degree of color change was determined by the Commission Internationale de l'Eclariage (CIE) L*a*b* system (ΔE, ΔL*, Δa*, and Δb*) and Vita shade guide parameters. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance and the Tukey test (pmicrohardness values at T14 compared with T0, whereas the samples that were bleached with peroxide only did not show any differences in their microhardness values. All of the bleaching agents were effective at whitening the teeth and did not show a statistically significant difference using the CIEL*a*b* system (ΔE, ΔL*, Δa*, and Δb*) or the Vita shade guide parameters. The use of a CPP-ACP paste with carbamide peroxide bleaching agents increased the bleached enamel's microhardness and did not have an influence on whitening efficacy.

  9. The Effect of Laser Irradiation on Shear Bond Strength of GI to Dentin After CPP-ACP Treatment

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    Moezizadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Dentin sensitivity is one of the most important problems in dentistry. Enamel loss due to root exposure is serious issue and common exposure is one of the reasons for dentin hypersensitivity. There are different methods for solving this problem. One of the most conservative and least expensive methods is use of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP paste. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate shear bond strength of GIC to dentin, with or without laser, CPP-ACP paste and polyacrylic acid treatments. Materials and Methods Fifty sound human third molars were bisected in a mesiodistal direction using a diamond disk. Using 400, 600 and 800 grit silicon carbide paper, dentin surfaces were exposed. The teeth were divided into five groups. In groups A, B, D and H, CPP-ACP (GC tooth mousse Itabashi-Ku, Tokyo, Japan was applied for one hour the first day and repeated at the same time of day for a total of five days. In groups B, C, D and E, the specimens were subjected to laser for 10 seconds using Er, Cr: YSGG laser. In groups B, C, H and G, specimens were treated with 10% polyacrylic acid for 20 seconds. A plastic tube containing GI was positioned over the tooth. Samples were loaded in shear bond using a Universal Testing Machine (Zwick/Roell, Germany, at a 0.5 mm/minute crosshead speed. Results Despite the failing of groups A and D, group analysis showed that there were no significant differences between the groups. The predominant type of fracture in all groups was adhesive. Conclusions Application of CPP-ACP, without preconditioning with polyacrylic acid, can decrease shear bond strength. Laser irradiation has no effect on shear bond strength of GIC to dentin in this condition.

  10. Effects of various remineralizing agents on the outcome of post-orthodontic white spot lesions (WSLs: a clinical trial

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    Sombir Singh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most undesirable side effects of comprehensive orthodontic treatment is white spot lesions (WSLs. Despite many attempts at prevention of WSLs, its prevalence remains very high on debonding. There are many agents like fluoride toothpastes, fluoride varnishes, and fluoride mouth rinses, and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP is frequently used for the remineralization of WSLs. However, there is no consensus in the literature with respect to the success rates of these agents. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of fluoride toothpaste alone and in combination with fluoride varnish and CPP-ACP plus crème in the remineralization of post-orthodontic WSLs. Methods Forty-five subjects in the age range of 16–25 years having at least one post-orthodontic WSL were included in the study. All the subjects were randomly divided into three groups (toothpaste group, varnish group, and CPP-ACP group. The efficacy of various remineralizing agents on the remineralization of WSLs was evaluated clinically and by DIAGNOdent immediately after debonding and subsequently after 1, 3, and 6 months of their use. Results Twice daily use of fluoride toothpaste alone had no significant effect on remineralization of WSLs at various intervals of observations (P = 0.078. Application of fluoride varnish along with twice daily use of fluoride toothpaste for 6 months significantly decreased the severity of WSLs (P  0.05. Conclusions The use of fluoride varnish and CPP-ACP plus crème in addition to twice daily use of fluoride toothpaste had no additional benefit in the remineralization of post-orthodontic WSLs.

  11. Casein addition to a whey-based formula has limited effects on gut function in preterm pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thymann, T; Støy, C A F; Bering, S B; Mølbak, L; Sangild, P T

    2012-12-01

    Preterm infants are susceptible to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Using preterm pigs, we determined whether a whey-casein-based formula would be superior to a formula based on whey protein alone. Twenty cesarean-derived preterm pigs (92% gestation) were given total parenteral nutrition for 36 h followed by 30 h of enteral feeding with whey [protein fraction of milk formula based on whey (WHEY); n = 11] or casein and/or whey [protein fraction of milk formula based on a combination of casein and whey (CASEIN); n = 9]-based formulas. Sugar absorptive function was investigated at 6 and 30 h after initiation of enteral feeding using bolus feedings with galactose and mannitol. Pigs were killed after the last in vivo sugar absorption test and evaluated for NEC and the mid intestine was used for ex vivo measurements of hexose absorption. Microbiota profile and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels were studied in gut contents. Severity of NEC lesions was similar between diet groups but galactose absorption was markedly higher in CASEIN than in WHEY (P SCFA concentration. Casein may transiently stimulate intestinal sugar absorption but has limited effects on gut structure, microbiota, and NEC in preterm pigs.

  12. Moleculer analysis of genotype kappa casein and composition of goat milk Etawah grade, Saanen and their crossbred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayu Zurriyati

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphism of goat casein gene closely linked to the quality of milk protein. κ-casein is one of the casein fractions that influence the shape and stability of grain milk. This study is aimed to identify the variation of genotype κ-casein and related with milk quality from Etawah grade, Saanen and their crossbreed (PE-SA. The number of dairy goats used in this study was 150 animals consisted of Etawah grade (48 animals, Saanen (51 animals and PE-SA (51 animals. Steps of experiment were: blood and milk sampling collection, DNA amplification by PCR and the product digestion using Pst1 enzyme, κ-casein gene sequencing and analyzing the quality of fresh milk. The results showed that κ-casein gene is monomorphic by PCR-RFLP (Pst1 for all the goat breeds, but DNA sequencing indicated 38 point of mutation. Observation on goat milk quality showed that Etawah grade milk had highest (P < 0.05 density value (1.033 ± 0.002 and solid non fat (9.577 ± 0.704% than those of Saanen and PE-SA fresh milk goat.

  13. Estimation of whey protein in casein coprecipitate and milk powder by high-performance liquid chromatography quantification of cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballin, Nicolai Z

    2006-06-14

    An analytical high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescence method for indirect measuring of whey protein in casein coprecipitate and milk powder was developed. Samples were hydrolyzed with HCl, and cysteyl residues were derivatized with 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid and 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate. The cysteine content was used to calculate the percentage of whey protein in commercial samples with use of European Union Regulation cysteine reference values in both casein and whey protein. Method validation studies were performed for caseinates and milk powder, and results indicate that the present HPLC approach can be applied as a fast method with a standard deviation of repeatability between 3.3 and 9.5%. Applicability was studied by analysis of 40 commercial caseinate samples, and all complied to European legislation with a content of whey protein not exceeding 5%. Finally, an approach used to estimate the cysteine amount in pure casein by comparison of calculated and experimental values questions the generally accepted cysteine reference value in casein, which is most likely an overestimation.

  14. Respons Tulang Femur Tikus Ovariohisterektomi yang Mengkonsumsi Kasein dan Disuplementasi Calcitriol Selama 30 Minggu (THE RESPONSE OF BONE FEMUR OVARIOHISTERECTOMIZED RATS CONSUMING CASEIN AND CALCITRIOL SUPPLEMENTATION FOR 30 WEEKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartiningsih .

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Calcitriol supplementation in ovariohisterectomized rat was known to decreased calcium retention.The objective of the research was to study the response of femur bone to calcitriol supplementation for 30weeks in ovariohisterectomized rats consuming casein. Twenty female Wistar rats at 8 weeks of age wererandomly divided into four groups (unovariohisterectomy without calcitriol supplementation (N,unovariohisterectomy with calcitriol supplementation (ND, ovariohisterectomy without calcitriolsupplementation (O and ovariohisterectomy with calcitriol supplementation (OD of five each. Thirtyweeks after surgery, femur was taken for histopathological and immunohistochemistry examination.Immunohistochemistry of distal femur metaphysis in group O and OD were revealed decreasing tartrateresistant alkaline phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b in trabecular bone, which was located in bone marrow space,and also in trabecular speculum surface. Histopathological analysis of distal femur metaphysis in groupN and ND were showed normal structure, meanwhile, distal femur metaphysis in group O and OD wereshown some abonormalities, such as increased of bone marrow space, domination of adipocytes in the bonemarrow, and decreased of trabecular bone speculum in metaphysis. Based on the results, it was concludedthat femur bone of ovariohisterectomized rats fed casein with and without calcitriol 8ng/daysupplementation for 30 weeks were showed unbalanced between resorption and formation of bone whichwas domination by bone resorption.

  15. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  16. Calcium signaling in neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreses-Werringloer Ute

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is a key signaling ion involved in many different intracellular and extracellular processes ranging from synaptic activity to cell-cell communication and adhesion. The exact definition at the molecular level of the versatility of this ion has made overwhelming progress in the past several years and has been extensively reviewed. In the brain, calcium is fundamental in the control of synaptic activity and memory formation, a process that leads to the activation of specific calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways and implicates key protein effectors, such as CaMKs, MAPK/ERKs, and CREB. Properly controlled homeostasis of calcium signaling not only supports normal brain physiology but also maintains neuronal integrity and long-term cell survival. Emerging knowledge indicates that calcium homeostasis is not only critical for cell physiology and health, but also, when deregulated, can lead to neurodegeneration via complex and diverse mechanisms involved in selective neuronal impairments and death. The identification of several modulators of calcium homeostasis, such as presenilins and CALHM1, as potential factors involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, provides strong support for a role of calcium in neurodegeneration. These observations represent an important step towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of calcium signaling disturbances observed in different brain diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases.

  17. Interfacial properties, thin film stability and foam stability of casein micelle dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Sala, Guido; Meinders, Marcel B J; van Valenberg, Hein J F; van der Linden, Erik; Sagis, Leonard M C

    2017-01-01

    Foam stability of casein micelle dispersions (CMDs) strongly depends on aggregate size. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, the role of interfacial and thin film properties was investigated. CMDs were prepared at 4°C and 20°C, designated as CMD4°C and CMD20°C. At equal protein concentrations, foam stability of CMD4°C (with casein micelle aggregates) was markedly higher than CMD20°C (without aggregates). Although the elastic modulus of CMD4°C was twice as that of CMD20°C at 0.005Hz, the protein adsorbed amount was slightly higher for CMD20°C than for CMD4°C, which indicated a slight difference in interfacial composition of the air/water interface. Non-linear surface dilatational rheology showed minor differences between mechanical properties of air/water interfaces stabilized by two CMDs. These differences in interfacial properties could not explain the large difference in foam stability between two CMDs. Thin film analysis showed that films made with CMD20°C drained to a more homogeneous film compared to films stabilized by CMD4°C. Large casein micelle aggregates trapped in the thin film of CMD4°C made the film more heterogeneous. The rupture time of thin films was significantly longer for CMD4°C (>1h) than for CMD20°C (foam stability decreased significantly. In conclusion, the increased stability of foam prepared with CMD4°C appears to be the result of entrapment of casein micelle aggregates in the liquid films of the foam.

  18. How to Squeeze a Sponge: Casein Micelles under Osmotic Stress, a SAXS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchoux, Antoine; Gésan-Guiziou, Geneviève; Pérez, Javier; Cabane, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    By combining the osmotic stress technique with small-angle x-ray scattering measurements, we followed the structural response of the casein micelle to an overall increase in concentration. When the aqueous phase that separates the micelles is extracted, they behave as polydisperse repelling spheres and their internal structure is not affected. When they are compressed, the micelles lose water and shrink to a smaller volume. Our results indicate that this compression is nonaffine, i.e., some p...

  19. Gluten-free and casein-free diets in the treatment of autism

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Reissmann; Joachim Hauser; Ewelina Makulska-Gertruda; Loredana Tomsa; Lange, Klaus W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autism is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by three core symptoms, i.e. impairments in social interaction, restricted patterns of behavior and impairments in communication. In the framework of the “opioid excess theory”, the disorder symptoms are compared to the behavioral effects of opiates. Based on this, a possible nutritional basis of autism has been proposed, hypothesizing that certain food proteins such as gluten and casein can be transformed ...

  20. A review of gluten- and casein-free diets for treatment of autism: 2005–2015

    OpenAIRE

    Elder, Jennifer; Kreider, Consuelo; Schaefer, Nancy; deLaosa,Mary

    2015-01-01

    Jennifer Harrison Elder,1 Consuelo Maun Kreider,2 Nancy M Schaefer,3 Mary B de Laosa4 1Department of Family and Community Health Nursing Science, 2Department of Occupational Therapy, 3Health Science Center Library, 4Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Background: The gluten-free, casein-free (GFCF) diet is heralded by strong anecdotal parental reports to greatly improve and even "cure" symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Yet, to d...

  1. A review of gluten- and casein-free diets for treatment of autism: 2005–2015

    OpenAIRE

    Elder JH; Kreider CM; Schaefer NM; de Laosa MB

    2015-01-01

    Jennifer Harrison Elder,1 Consuelo Maun Kreider,2 Nancy M Schaefer,3 Mary B de Laosa4 1Department of Family and Community Health Nursing Science, 2Department of Occupational Therapy, 3Health Science Center Library, 4Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Background: The gluten-free, casein-free (GFCF) diet is heralded by strong anecdotal parental reports to greatly improve and even "cure" symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Yet, to date, lit...

  2. Kappa-casein gene study in Iranian Sistani cattle breed (Bos indicus) using PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohallah, Alinaghizadeh; Mohammadreza, Mohammad Abadi; Shahin, Moradnasab Badrabadi

    2007-12-01

    In cattle, caseins are subdivided into four main groups: alphaS1-, alphaaS2-, beta- and kappa-caseins. kappa-caseins (CSN2) considerably differ from other caseins in structure and other properties. Testing the A and B alleles is of practical importance, because the milk of cows that carry the B allele of CSN3 has a better thermal resistance and shorter coagulation time, better curdles and contains micelles of different sizes. Iranian Sistani cattle (Bos indicus) are a heavy built breed and used as dual-purpose cattle breed in Eastern Iran. This breed is a genetic resource that shows special features of adaptation to rustic environments. One of the most distinctive features of Sistani cattle is its great capability to resist diseases which makes it a potential reservoir of germplasm useful for future crosses. Our main goal was to study DNA-polymorphism of the CSN3 gene in the Iranian Sistani native cattle (Bos indicus) and analyze the information value of CSN3 gene polymorphism as a genetic marker. We genotyped and analyzed 65 animals of this breed using PCR-RFLP. The frequencies of A and B alleles were 0.6385 and 0.3615 and those of AA, AB and BB genotypes were 0.4000, 0.4769 and 0.1231, respectively. In the Sistani Zebu breed, frequency of B allele is higher than other Zebu breeds, indicating that intensive selection for dairy production have been done and indirectly influenced CSN3 allele frequencies.

  3. Short communication: genetic variability in the predicted microRNA target sites of caprine casein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidi, A; Amills, M; Tomás, A; Vidal, O; Ramírez, O; Carrizosa, J; Urrutia, B; Serradilla, J M; Clop, A

    2010-04-01

    The main goal of the current work was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that might create or disrupt microRNA (miRNA) target sites in the caprine casein genes. The 3' untranslated regions of the goat alpha(S1)-, alpha(S2)-, beta-, and kappa-casein genes (CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2, and CSN3, respectively) were resequenced in 25 individuals of the Murciano-Granadina, Cashmere, Canarian, Saanen, and Sahelian breeds. Five SNP were identified through this strategy: c.175C>T at CSN1S1; c.109T>C, c.139G>C, and c.160T>C at CSN1S2; and c.216C>T at CSN2. Analysis with the Patrocles Finder tool predicted that all of these SNP are located within regions complementary to the seed of diverse miRNA sequences. These in silico results suggest that polymorphism at miRNA target sites might have some effect on casein expression. We explored this issue by genotyping the c.175C>T SNP (CSN1S1) in 85 Murciano-Granadina goats with records for milk CSN1S1 concentrations. This substitution destroys a putative target site for miR-101, a miRNA known to be expressed in the bovine mammary gland. Although TT goats had higher levels (6.25 g/L) of CSN1S1 than their CT (6.05 g/L) and CC (6.04 g/L) counterparts, these differences were not significant. Experimental confirmation of the miRNA target sites predicted in the current work and performance of additional association analyses in other goat populations will be an essential step to find out if polymorphic miRNA target sites constitute an important source of variation in casein expression.

  4. K-酪蛋白研究进展%Research on k-casein: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文静; 郑玉才; 钟光辉

    2001-01-01

    对k-酪蛋白(kappa-casein,k-CN)的基本特征,遗传多态性及其与乳成分、凝乳性能的关系,以及k-CN定型技术作了综述;并探讨了k-CN遗传多态性在乳酪生产和牦牛育种中的应用前景.

  5. Galactose content of legumes, caseinates, and some hard cheeses: implications for diet treatment of classic galactosemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Calcar, Sandra C; Bernstein, Laurie E; Rohr, Frances J; Yannicelli, Steven; Berry, Gerard T; Scaman, Christine H

    2014-02-12

    There are inconsistent reports on the lactose and/or galactose content of some foods traditionally restricted from the diet for classic galactosemia. Therefore, samples of cheeses, caseinates, and canned black, pinto, kidney, and garbanzo beans were analyzed for free galactose content using HPLC with refractive index or pulsed amperometric detection. Galactose concentrations in several hard and aged cheeses and three mild/medium Cheddars, produced by smaller local dairies, was galactosemia.

  6. Bovine kappa-casein gene polymorphism and its association with milk production traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayana Rachagani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Point mutations in exon IV of the bovine κ-casein (CSN3 gene determine two allelic variants, A and B. These variants were distinguished by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis in the indigenous Sahiwal and Tharparkar cattle breeds. DNA samples (252 Sahiwal and 56 Tharparkar were analyzed for allelic variants of the CSN3 gene. Polymorphism was detected by digestion of PCR-amplified products with HindIII, HhaI and HaeIII restriction enzymes, followed by separation on 3% agarose gels, and resolved by ethidium bromide staining. Allele A of the κ-casein gene occurred at a higher frequency than allele B, in both Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds. The genotypic frequencies of AA, AB, and BB in the Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds were 0.758, 0.230 and 0.012, and 0.0.732, 0.250 and 0.018, respectively. The frequencies of alleles A and B in the Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds were 0.873 and 0.127, and 0.857 and 0.143, respectively. Genotype BB of the kappa-casein gene had more influence on the monthly milk yield, 305-days milk yield, monthly solids-not-fat (SNF yield, and monthly protein yield, in the Sahiwal cattle.

  7. Casein peptization, functional properties, and sensory acceptance of processed cheese spreads made with different emulsifying salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Clarissa R; Viotto, Walkiria H

    2010-01-01

    "Requeijão cremoso" is a traditional Brazilian processed cheese spread, showing ample acceptance on the national market. Emulsifying salts (ES) are an important factor influencing the characteristics of processed cheeses, but the literature presents conflicting results about their action on cheese functionality. Requeijão cremoso obtained from anhydrous ingredients allows the study of the influence of each type of ES on the cheese properties, since it can be treated as a model system where the variables are limited and well known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different types of ES (TSC-sodium citrate, SHMP-sodium hexametaphosphate, STPP-sodium tripolyphosphate, and TSPP-tetrasodium pyrophosphate) on the sensory and functional characteristics of requeijão cremoso-processed cheeses obtained from anhydrous ingredients. The physicochemical composition, degree of casein dissociation, fat particle size, melting index, color, texture profile, and sensory acceptance of the cheeses were determined. The functional behavior of processed cheeses was strongly influenced by the type of ES and its physicochemical properties including its ability to bind Ca, the casein dispersion during cooking, and the possible creation of cross-links with casein during cooling. The cheese made with SHMP was the one most differentiated from the others, presenting lower melting index, whiter color, and higher values for hardness, gumminess, and adhesiveness. The differences in texture had an impact on sensory acceptance: with the exception of the sample manufactured with sodium hexametaphosphate, all the samples presented good sensory acceptance.

  8. Genetic parameters for casein and urea content in the Italian Brown Swiss dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pedron

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 137,753 test day records of 20,745 Italian Brown Swiss dairy cows from 26 provinces of Italy were used to estimate heritability for casein and urea content in milk and their genetic correlations with other production traits and milk somatic cell score. Milk component values were obtained by Fourier Transformed Infrared (IR Spectroscopy from milk samples collected during national routine recording and were analysed using test day repeatability animal models. Fixed effects included 1,001 levels of herd-test date, 15 classes of days in milk, and 13 classes of age at calving within parity. The variation among cows was large for most of the traits. The heritability value for casein content was 0.31, as for protein content, and genetic and phenotypic correlations between these two traits were large (0.99 and 0.97 respectively. Milk urea content had a heritability of 0.17 and a positive genetic relationship with fat (0.12, null with protein (0.03 and casein (0.002 content and a negative genetic correlation with milk yield (-0.17 suggesting that the genetic improvement for milk urea content would be possible, but genetic gain would be affected by other traits included as selection criteria in the economic index and by their relative economic emphasis.

  9. Influence of ultrasound on chemically induced gelation of micellar casein systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrapala, Jayani; Zisu, Bogdan; Kentish, Sandra; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2013-05-01

    Gelation is a significant operation in dairy processing. Protein gelation can be affected by several factors such as temperature, pH, or enzyme addition. Recently, the use of ultrasonication has been shown to have a significant impact on the formation of whey protein gels. In this work, the effect of ultrasonication on the gelation of casein systems was investigated. Gels were formed by the addition of 7.6 mm Tetra Sodium Pyro Phosphate (TSPP) to 5 wt% micellar casein (MC) solutions. Sonication at 20 KHz and 31 W for up to 30 min changed the surface hydrophobicity of the proteins, whereas surface charge was unaltered. Sonication before the addition of TSPP formed a firm gel with a fine protein network and low syneresis. Conversely, sonication after TSPP addition led to an inconsistent weak-gel-like structure with high syneresis. Gel strength in both cases increased significantly after short sonication times, while the viscoelastic properties were less affected. Overall, the results showed that ultrasonication can have a significant effect on the final gel properties of casein systems.

  10. Kinetics of N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine formation in aqueous model systems of sugars and casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the formation of N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (CML) in two caseinate solutions containing: (1) glucose, (2) lactose, each heated at 120 °C and 130 °C. At both heating temperatures, CML concentration in lactose-caseinate solution was higher than in glucose-caseinate solution. In both solutions, more CML was formed at 130 °C than at 120 °C. Using multiresponse modelling, two degradation routes for the sugars were confirmed: (1) isomerisation of glucose or lactose and subsequent degradation via Lobry de Bruyn-Alberda van Ekenstein (LA) arrangement; (2) the Maillard reaction between the reducing sugar and lysine residues. Modelling results suggested that CML was not formed from oxidation of the reducing sugars, but from the Maillard reaction via the Amadori rearrangement product. Since CML appeared to be thermally unstable under the current study conditions, it may not be a perfect indicator for heat damage of processed foods. This is the first study in which CML formation was linked to available information on the Maillard reaction via multiresponse modelling.

  11. Incorporation of radiolabeled whey proteins into casein micelles by heat processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, B.; Richardson, T. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Skim milk was heated at .70, 95, and 140{degree}C to simulate the processes of pasteurization, forewarming, and UHT sterilization, and the specific interactions between {alpha}-lactalbumin or {beta}-lactoglobulin and the caseins studied using tracer amounts of added {sup 14}C-labeled whey protein. Radioactivities of the whey and of the washed casein pellets from renneted skim milk were measured and the extent of the interaction estimated. Upon heating skim milk at 70{degree}C for 45 s, less than 2% {beta}-lactoglobulin and less than .3% {alpha}-lactalbumin were incorporated into the curd. Heating at 95{degree}C for .5 to 20 min resulted in 58 to 85% of the {beta}-lactoglobulin and 8 to 55% of the {alpha}-lactalbumin becoming associated with the curd. Heating at 140{degree}C for 2 and 4 s caused 43 and 54% of the {beta}-lactoglobulin and 9 and 12% of the {alpha}-lactalbumin, respectively, to be bound to the curd fraction. The radiolabeling technique is very sensitive and useful for tracing low levels of interaction between whey proteins and casein in heated milk systems.

  12. Enhanced dispersibility and bioactivity of curcumin by encapsulation in casein nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Kang; Zhong, Qixin; Baek, Seung Joon

    2013-06-26

    In this work, a novel encapsulation method was studied by spray-drying a warm aqueous ethanol solution with codissolved sodium caseinate (NaCas) and lipophilic food components, using curcumin as a model compound. The encapsulation caused the loss of crystallinity of curcumin. After hydration of spray-dried powder and centrifugation, 137 μg/mL curcumin was dispersed in the transparent dispersion, which was 4 decades higher than its water solubility. Dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy results showed that curcumin-loaded casein nanoparticles were bigger than those of NaCas processed at encapsulation conditions but were smaller than those of the native NaCas. The increased nanoparticle dimension, together with fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopy results, suggested that curcumin was entrapped in the nanoparticle core through hydrophobic interactions. The curcumin encapsulated in casein nanoparticles had higher biological activity, as assessed by antioxidant and cell proliferation assays, than pristine curcumin, likely due to the improved dispersibility. This simple approach may be applied to encapsulate various lipophilic bioactive compounds.

  13. Stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by whey and caseinate ingestion after resistance exercise in elderly individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, Kasper; Reitelseder, Søren; Petersen, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    -(13) C]leucine using labeled proteins during a 6-h recovery period. No differences were observed in muscle myofibrillar and collagen FSR with Whey (0.09 ± 0.01%/h) compared with CasPost (0.09 ± 0.003%/h), and it did not differ between CasPre (0.10 ± 0.01%/h) and CasPost. MPS does not differ with whey......Sarcopenia is a well-known phenomenon in elderly individuals and resistance exercise together with sufficient amino acid (AA) availability has proved to be a counteractive implement. However, the source of AA and supplement timing require further investigation. The objective was to compare muscle...... protein synthesis (MPS) to intakes of whey and caseinate after heavy resistance exercise in healthy elderly individuals, and, furthermore, to compare the timing effect of caseinate intake. Twenty-four elderly men and women (mean ± SEM; 68 ± 1 years) were randomized to one of four groups: caseinate intake...

  14. Biosurfactant Production by Cultivation of Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372 in Semidefined Glucose/Casein-Based Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Neves, Luiz Carlos Martins; de Oliveira, Kátia Silva; Kobayashi, Márcio Junji; Vessoni Penna, Thereza Christina; Converti, Attilio

    Biosurfactants are proteins with detergent, emulsifier, and antimicrobial actions that have potential application in environmental applications such as the treatment of organic pollutants and oil recovery. Bacillus atrophaeus strains are nonpathogenic and are suitable source of biosurfactants, among which is surfactin. The aim of this work is to establish a culture medium composition able to stimulate biosurfactants production by B. atrophaeus ATCC 9372. Batch cultivations were carried out in a rotary shaker at 150 rpm and 35°C for 24 h on glucose- and/or casein-based semidefined culture media also containing sodium chloride, dibasic sodium phosphate, and soy flour. The addition of 14.0 g/L glucose in a culture medium containing 10.0 g/L of casein resulted in 17 times higher biosurfactant production (B max=635.0 mg/L). Besides, the simultaneous presence of digested casein (10.0 g/L), digested soy flour (3.0 g/L), and glucose (18.0 g/L) in the medium was responsible for a diauxic effect during cell growth. Once the diauxie started, the average biosurfactants concentration was 16.8% less than that observed before this phenomenon. The capability of B. atrophaeus strain to adapt its own metabolism to use several nutrients as energy sources and to preserve high levels of biosurfactants in the medium during the stationary phase is a promising feature for its possible application in biological treatments.

  15. Gluten- and casein-free dietary intervention for autism spectrum conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eWhiteley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intervention as a tool for maintaining and improving physical health and wellbeing is a widely researched and discussed topic. Speculation that diet may similarly affect mental health and wellbeing particularly in cases of psychiatric and behavioural symptomatology opens up various avenues for potentially improving quality of life. We examine evidence suggestive that a gluten-free, casein-free or combined gluten- and casein-free diet can ameliorate core and peripheral symptoms and improve developmental outcome in some cases of autism spectrum conditions. Although not wholly affirmative, the majority of published studies indicate statistically significant positive changes to symptom presentation following dietary intervention. In particular, changes to areas of communication, attention and hyperactivity are detailed, despite the presence of various methodological shortcomings. Specific characteristics of best- and non-responders to intervention have not been fully elucidated; neither has the precise mode of action for any universal effect outside of known individual cases of food-related co-morbidity. With the publication of controlled medium- and long-term group studies of a gluten- and casein-free diet alongside more consolidated biological findings potentially linked to intervention, the appearance of a possible diet-related autism phenotype seems to be emerging supportive of a positive dietary effect in some cases. Further debate on whether such dietary intervention should form part of best practice guidelines for autism spectrum conditions and onward representative of an autism dietary-sensitive enteropathy is warranted.

  16. Effect of Processing Temperature on Salts and Casein Colloid in Bovine Milk%热处理对牛乳中盐类组分及酪蛋白胶体特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 孙琦; 刘鹭; 张书文; 梁霄; 吕加平

    2012-01-01

    As important components of milk,salts and casein colloid play a key role in maintaining the stability of milk system.In order to explore the effect of processing temperature on salts and casein colloid in bovine milk,we measured indicators of milk quality at different temperatures.The results showed that processing temperature had a significant impact on the form and content of salts in milk(P0.05).As the temperature increased,the soluble calcium and soluble phosphorus were transferred to the colloidal phase;milk casein colloidal particle size,surface potential,hydration and other properties also revealed an obvious change due to the denaturation of whey protein.Therefore,there is a close relationship of processing temperature with salts and casein colloid in milk,which is important for the quality of milk.%为研究热处理对牛乳中盐类组分和酪蛋白胶体特性的影响,对不同温度处理后的牛乳进行相关指标的测定。结果表明:不同温度处理对牛乳中主要盐类的存在形态及含量有着显著影响(P〈0.05),随着温度的升高,溶解相的钙和磷逐渐向胶体相转变;同时,受乳清蛋白变性的影响,牛乳中酪蛋白胶体粒径、表面电势、水合作用等特性也发生了显著变化。因此,加工温度与牛乳中的盐类组分及酪蛋白胶体特性有着密切关联,是造成牛乳品质变化的一个重要因素。

  17. Optimization of caseinate-coated simvastatin-zein nanoparticles: improved bioavailability and modified release characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed OA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osama AA Ahmed,1,2 Khaled M Hosny,1,3 Majid M Al-Sawahli,1,4 Usama A Fahmy11Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, Minia, Egypt; 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt; 4Holding Company for Biological Products & Vaccines (VACSERA, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: The current study focuses on utilization of the natural biocompatible polymer zein to formulate simvastatin (SMV nanoparticles coated with caseinate, to improve solubility and hence bioavailability, and in addition, to modify SMV-release characteristics. This formulation can be utilized for oral or possible depot parenteral applications. Fifteen formulations were prepared by liquid–liquid phase separation method, according to the Box–Behnken design, to optimize formulation variables. Sodium caseinate was used as an electrosteric stabilizer. The factors studied were: percentage of SMV in the SMV-zein mixture (X1, ethanol concentration (X2, and caseinate concentration (X3. The selected dependent variables were mean particle size (Y1, SMV encapsulation efficiency (Y2, and cumulative percentage of drug permeated after 1 hour (Y3. The diffusion of SMV from the prepared nanoparticles specified by the design was carried out using an automated Franz diffusion cell apparatus. The optimized SMV-zein formula was investigated for in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters compared with an oral SMV suspension. The optimized nanosized SMV-zein formula showed a 131 nm mean particle size and 89% encapsulation efficiency. In vitro permeation studies displayed delayed permeation characteristics, with about 42% and 85% of SMV cumulative amount released after 12 and 48 hours, respectively. Bioavailability estimation in rats revealed an augmentation in SMV bioavailability

  18. Proving the adulteration of ewe and goat cheeses with cow milk using the reference method of isoelectric focusing of γ-casein

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Mikulec; Dijana Plavljanić; Jasminka Špoljarić; Biljana Radeljević; Jasmina Havranek; Neven Antunac

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce a reference method for the detection of cow milk in ewe and goat cheeses (EC 273/08) in order to protect manufacturers and consumers from adulterations and imitations, and to ensure alignment with the demands of domestic and EU markets. The method includes isolation of casein from cheese, isoelectric focusing of γ2- and γ3-casein originating from the hydrolysis of β-casein by plasmin, the detection and quantitative determination of γ-casein in cow, ewe a...

  19. 酪蛋白胶束结构研究方法综述%A review on the studying means of casein micelle structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史莹; 杨敏; 梁琪; 乔海军; 张卫兵

    2012-01-01

    Caseins,the main components of milk protein, represent about 80% of the total protein in the milk.Owing to the importance of casein and casein micelles for the functional behavior of dairy products, and widely application of caseins, the study of casein is always drawing more attention.Especially, the exact structure of casein micelles is still under debate.Many scholars have proposed various theoretic models for casein micelle structure. This paper reviewed kinds means of casein micelles structure,dissociation and aggregation in order to provide a reference for studying casein in the future.%酪蛋白是乳中蛋白质的主要成分,约占其80%。由于酪蛋白胶束对乳制品的功能特性起重要作用,因此其研究一直备受关注,但酪蛋白胶束的内部结构至今没有确切的定义,而是许多学者提出了各种理论模型。文章综述了酪蛋白胶束结构、解离与聚集的多种研究方法,为以后学者研究酪蛋白提供借鉴。

  20. Studies on the photophysical properties of 1,8-naphthalimide derivative and aggregation induced emission recognition for casein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yang, E-mail: 66160692@qq.com [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an University of Arts and Science, No. 168, Taibai South Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710065 (China); Liang, Xuhua; Fan, Jun [School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, No. 229, Taibai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Han, Quan, E-mail: xahanq@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an University of Arts and Science, No. 168, Taibai South Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710065 (China)

    2013-09-15

    A novel water-soluble 1,8-naphthalimide derivative 1, bearing two acetic carboxylic groups, exhibited fluorescent turn-on recognition for casein micelle based on the aggregation induced emission (AIE) character. The photophysical properties of 1 consisting of donor and acceptor units were investigated by the solvation effect. Changing from polar to non-polar solvent increased the solvent interaction; both the excitation and emission spectra were shifted to shorter wavelength and intensity decreased through taking advantage of twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) and self-association fluorescence emission. Moreover, the red-shift and quenching in protic solvent were caused by the excited-state hydrogen bond strengthening effect. The density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) were used to obtain the most stable structure, electronic excitation energy, dipole moments and charge distribution. The AIE mechanism of 1 with casein micelle was due to 1 docked in the hydrophobic cavity between sub-micelles and bound with amino acid residues, resulting in the aggregation of 1 on the casein micelle surface and emission enhancement, based on which, a novel casein assay method was developed. The proposed method exhibited a good linear range from 0.1 to 10.5 μg mL{sup −1}, with the detection limit of 3.0 ng mL{sup −1}. Satisfactory reproducibility, reversibility and a short response time were realized. This method was applied for the determination of casein in milk powder samples, avoiding the interferences from other components and illegal additives in milk. -- Highlights: • A water-soluble 1,8-naphthalimide-based fluorescent probe 1 was synthesized. • Photophysical characterization of 1 was studied. • Aggregation induced emission enhancement of 1 with casein was investigated. • A novel casein quantification method was developed.

  1. Short communication: retinoic acid plus prolactin to synergistically increase specific casein gene expression in MAC-T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H Y; Heo, Y T; Lee, S E; Hwang, K C; Lee, H G; Choi, S H; Kim, N H

    2013-06-01

    Mammary alveolar (MAC-T) cells, an established bovine mammary epithelial cell line, are frequently used to investigate differentiation. A lactogenic phenotype in these cells is induced by treatment with a combination of hydrocortisone, insulin, and prolactin (PRL). The effect of the vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA), which induces differentiation in many cells, has not been studied in MAC-T cells. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differentiation potential of RA (1 μM) in MAC-T cells and to examine the effect of combined treatment with RA (1 μM) and PRL (5 μg/mL). Although RA treatment alone inhibited MAC-T cell proliferation, co-treatment of RA with PRL increased cell growth compared with the control group (treated with 1 μg/mL hydrocortisone and 5 μg/mL insulin). The ratio of Bcl to Bax mRNA was decreased in the RA treatment compared with RA+PRL or control. Retinoic acid-induced differentiation of MAC-T cells was associated with an increase in the mRNA expression of αS1-casein (3.9-fold), αS2-casein (4.5-fold), and β-casein (4.4-fold) compared with the control group. Expression of αS1-casein, αS2-casein, and β-casein was increased 12.9-fold, 11.9-fold, and 19.3-fold, respectively, following treatment with RA and PRL combined compared with the control group. These results demonstrate that RA induces differentiation of MAC-T cells and acts synergistically with PRL to increase specific casein gene expression.

  2. Effect of insoluble calcium concentration on endogenous syneresis rate in rennet-coagulated bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J; Horne, D S; Lucey, J A

    2015-09-01

    values of gels (indicating greater mobility), probably due to the loss of insoluble calcium phosphate crosslinking within micelles, which was significantly negatively correlated (r≥0.81) with the rate constant for endogenous syneresis. In the EDTA trial, with an increase in the EDTA concentration no maximum was observed in the rate constants related to proteolysis of κ-casein hairs or crosslinking of these activated sites. The rate constant for endogenous syneresis decreased at higher EDTA levels. The different rheological/modeling behavior in the EDTA trials was likely due to the very significant inhibition of rennet gelation induced by the use of EDTA, which also resulted in extremely long reaction times. Our modified Carlson model fit our experimental pH trial data very well, which indicates that the rennet gel system has the potential to synerese from the start; indeed this ability is an innate property of the casein micelle. Endogenous syneresis was enhanced by the loss of insoluble calcium phosphate crosslinking within casein micelles as this increased bond mobility within rennet gels.

  3. Casein phosphopeptides and CaCl2 increase penicillin production and cause an increment in microbody/peroxisome proteins in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Santos, Rebeca; Kosalková, Katarina; García-Estrada, Carlos; Barreiro, Carlos; Ibáñez, Ana; Morales, Alejandro; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2017-03-06

    Transport of penicillin intermediates and penicillin secretion are still poorly characterized in Penicillium chrysogenum (re-identified as Penicillium rubens). Calcium (Ca(2+)) plays an important role in the metabolism of filamentous fungi, and casein phosphopeptides (CPP) are involved in Ca(2+) internalization. In this study we observe that the effect of CaCl2 and CPP is additive and promotes an increase in penicillin production of up to 10-12 fold. Combination of CaCl2 and CPP greatly promotes expression of the three penicillin biosynthetic genes. Comparative proteomic analysis by 2D-DIGE, identified 39 proteins differentially represented in P. chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255 after CPP/CaCl2 addition. The most interesting group of overrepresented proteins were a peroxisomal catalase, three proteins of the methylcitrate cycle, two aminotransferases and cystationine β-synthase, which are directly or indirectly related to the formation of penicillin amino acid precursors. Importantly, two of the enzymes of the penicillin pathway (isopenicillin N synthase and isopenicillin N acyltransferase) are clearly induced after CPP/CaCl2 addition. Most of these overrepresented proteins are either authentic peroxisomal proteins or microbody-associated proteins. This evidence suggests that addition of CPP/CaCl2 promotes the formation of penicillin precursors and the penicillin biosynthetic enzymes in peroxisomes and vesicles, which may be involved in transport and secretion of penicillin.

  4. Calcium and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for dinner. Create mini-pizzas by topping whole-wheat English muffins or bagels with pizza sauce, low- ... Minerals Do I Need to Drink Milk? Lactose Intolerance Becoming a Vegetarian Soy Foods and Health Calcium ...

  5. Stoichiometry of Calcium Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    The topic of calcium supplement and its effects on human lives is presented in the way of questions to the students. It enables the students to realize the relevance of chemistry outside the classroom surrounding.

  6. Calcium and Calcium-Base Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-01-01

    should be satisfactory, because the electrolytic process for •(!>: A. H. Everts and G. D. Baglev’, " Physical «nrt m<„.+„4 i «_ of Calcium«, Electrochem...Rev. Metalurgie , 3j2, (1), 129 (1935). 10 ^sm^mssss^ma^^ extension between two known loads, is preferable to the value of 3,700,000 p.B.i. obtained

  7. Separation and characterization of mares' milk alpha(s1)-, beta-, kappa-caseins, gamma-casein-like, and proteose peptone component 5-like peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egito, A S; Miclo, L; López, C; Adam, A; Girardet, J M; Gaillard, J L

    2002-04-01

    The equine alpha(s1)- and beta-caseins (CN) were purified by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and by reversed-phase HPLC. The alpha(s1)-, beta-, and kappa-CN were characterized either by monodimensional urea-PAGE or sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS)-PAGE or by bidimensional electrophoresis. Kappa-casein was characterized after electrophoresis by glycoprotein-specific staining. To identify alpha(s1)-CN without ambiguity, internal sequences were determined after trypsin or chymosin digestion of purified alpha(s1)-CN. These sequences, that could be estimated to correspond to 62% of the full protein, presented strong identities with regions of alpha(s1)-CN primary structures of other species. In particular, 51, 48, 43, and 40% identities were obtained with corresponding regions of sow, dromedary, cow, and human alpha(s1)-CN, respectively. On the other hand, trace amounts of equine gamma-CN-like and proteose peptone component 5-like peptides were found in the whole CN. They were identified by microsequencing and corresponded to beta-CN peptides generated by plasmin action on the whole CN. The equine alpha(s1), beta-, and kappa-CN were separated by bidimensional electrophoresis in numerous isoelectric variants with apparent isoelectric points distributed between pH 4.4 to 6.3, 4.4 to 5.9, and 3.5 to 5.5, respectively. The beta- and kappa-CN displayed a more acidic character in the mare than in the cow.

  8. Marked effect of beta-lactoglobulin polymorphism on the ratio of casein to total protein in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundén, A; Nilsson, M; Janson, L

    1997-11-01

    The relationship between genetic variants for milk protein and the composition of milk was analyzed on 4475 repeated milk samples from individual cows; 371 dairy cows of the Swedish Red and White breed and 204 cows of the Swedish Holstein breed were used. The registrations included percentages of casein, protein, fat, and lactose in combination with milk yield and SCC. The genotype of individual cows for alpha(s1)-CN, beta-CN, kappa-CN, and beta-LG was determined by alkaline and acidic PAGE. A mixed animal model was used for the analysis; beta-LG and aggregate casein genotypes were included simultaneously as separate fixed effects in the statistical model. The results suggest a positive additive effect of the beta-LG B allele on casein content and on the ratio of casein to total protein. For the latter trait, the beta-LG genotype accounted for a relatively large part of the phenotypic variance, corresponding to a reduction in residual variance of 11% when included in the model. The corresponding value for casein content was 0.5%. The lack of unfavorable associations between milk protein variants and the traits included in this study makes the beta-LG gene an obvious candidate when the breeding objective is improved conversion of milk protein into cheese.

  9. Co-autodisplay of Z-domains and bovine caseins on the outer membrane of E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Gu; Saenger, Thorsten; Bong, Ji-Hong; Jose, Joachim; Kang, Min-Jung; Pyun, Jae-Chul

    2015-12-01

    In this work, two proteins, Z-domains and bovine casein, were auto-displayed on the outer membrane of the same Escherichia coli cells by co-transformation of two different auto-display vectors. On the basis of SDS-PAGE densitometry, Z-domains and bovine casein were expressed at 3.12 × 10⁵ and 1.55 × 10⁵ proteins/E. coli cell, respectively. The co-auto-displayed Z-domains had antibody-binding activity and the bovine casein had adhesive properties. E. coli with co-auto-displayed proteins were analyzed by fluorescence assisted cell sorting (FACS). E. coli with co-auto-displayed Z-domains and bovine casein aggregated due to hydrophobic interaction. For application to immunoassays, the Z-domain activity was estimated after (1) immobilizing the E. coli and (2) forming an OM layer. E. coli with co-auto-displayed two proteins that were immobilized on a polystyrene microplate had the same antibody-binding activity as did E. coli with auto-displayed Z-domains only. The OM layer from the co-transformed E. coli had Z-domains and bovine casein expressed at a 1:2 ratio from antibody-binding activity measurements.

  10. Comparative analysis on the structural features of the 5' flanking region of κ-casein genes from six different species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitelaw C Bruce A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract κ-casein plays an essential role in the formation, stabilisation and aggregation of milk micelles. Control of κ-casein expression reflects this essential role, although an understanding of the mechanisms involved lags behind that of the other milk protein genes. We determined the 5'-flanking sequences for the murine, rabbit and human κ-casein genes and compared them to the published ruminant sequences. The most conserved region was not the proximal promoter region but an approximately 400 bp long region centred 800 bp upstream of the TATA box. This region contained two highly conserved MGF/STAT5 sites with common spacing relative to each other. In this region, six conserved short stretches of similarity were also found which did not correspond to known transcription factor consensus sites. On the contrary to ruminant and human 5' regulatory sequences, the rabbit and murine 5'-flanking regions did not harbour any kind of repetitive elements. We generated a phylogenetic tree of the six species based on multiple alignment of the κ-casein sequences. This study identified conserved candidate transcriptional regulatory elements within the κ-casein gene promoter.

  11. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate ab

  12. 不同前处理条件对动态光散射检测酪蛋白胶束粒径的影响%Effect of different pre-treatment methods on size determination of casein nanoparticles by dynamic light scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏杰; 简澍瑜; 王辰元; 郭慧媛; 文鹏程; 任发政

    2015-01-01

    The size and size distribution of casein nanoparticles plays an important role in the functionality and stability of milk. Dynamic light scattering is an effective method of measuring the size and size distribution of casein nanoparticles. But as biomacromolecules, casein nanoparticles are quite sensitive to their microenvironment changes. And therefore, the physicochemical properties of casein nanoparticles could be easily altered in different treatments, resulting in the incorrect size information determined by dynamic light scattering. The object of the present research was to analyze the effect of pre-treatment methods on the size and size distribution of casein nanoparticles determined by dynamic light scattering. The results suggested that when water and calcium imidazole buffer were used as the diluents, the counting rate of the samples was less than 7 ×103 counts/s, indicating there were no particles that could influence the size determination of casein nanoparticles. However, it was also found when water and calcium imidazole buffer were used as the dilution of casein nanoparticles, a significant decrease in the counting rate could be observed. This indicated both water and calcium imidazole buffer could easily alter the microenvironments of casein micelle dispersions, resulting in the partially dissociation of nanoparticles. And thus, the water and calcium imidazole buffer were not suitable for the dilution of casein nanoparticles. When simulated milk ultrafiltrate and milk ultrafiltrate were used as the diluents, it was found that there were no significant changes in the counting rate of the casein micelle dispersions. This indicated the microenvironment of both simulated milk ultrafiltrate and milk ultrafiltrate (10 kDa) was quite similar to that of milk, and thus the casein nanoparticles could not dissociate in both simulated milk ultrafiltrate and milk ultrafiltrate. However, extra particles occurred in both simulated milk ultrafiltrate and milk

  13. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  14. Kappa-Casein Genotypic Frequencies in Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cattle in West Java Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anggraeni

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Kappa casein (ĸ-cn gene as one of the four casein genes commonly has two variant alleles. B allele is positively correlated with milk proteins, so potentially be used as MAS to improve milk protein content. This study aimed to identify genetic variation of the ĸ-casein gene in Holstein-Friesian (HF from several dairy regions in West Java. Blood samples were taken through jugular vein of lactating heifers and cows, from intensive managements under the Local Government Dairy Breeding Station - Cikole (BBPT Cikole-SP (82 hds, Embryo Transfer Station (BET (50 hds, and Eco Farm of Animal Science Faculty of Bogor Agricultural University (EcoFarm (20 hds; as well as from semi-intensive managements of small dairy farmers under the supervision of the North Lembang Cooperative Unit (KPSBU Lembang in two villages of Cilumber (98 hds and Pasar Kemis (92 hds. Blood samples were also taken via cocsigalis vein of AI (active and non active HF bulls at the two National AI Stations in Lembang (25 hds and Singosari (32 hds. Identification of genetic variation was by applying PCR-RFLP method. Three genotypes were identified, namely AA, AB, and BB, resulting two alleles of A and B. Results entirely showed that the frequencies of the BB HF female were very low, with the range of 0%-6% (vs AA genotype= 10%-54% and AB genotype= 46%-85%, despite of the relatively high frequency of the B allele over the A allele (23%-48% vs. 52%-77%. The low frequency of the observed BB females might be due to the limited AI active BB bulls used for services by the two national AI stations (0%-4%.

  15. Casein haplotypes and their association with milk production traits in Norwegian Red cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Heidi; Olsen, Hanne Gro; Hayes, Ben; Sehested, Erling; Svendsen, Morten; Nome, Torfinn; Meuwissen, Theo; Lien, Sigbjørn

    2009-02-20

    A high resolution SNP map was constructed for the bovine casein region to identify haplotype structures and study associations with milk traits in Norwegian Red cattle. Our analyses suggest separation of the casein cluster into two haplotype blocks, one consisting of the CSN1S1, CSN2 and CSN1S2 genes and another one consisting of the CSN3 gene. Highly significant associations with both protein and milk yield were found for both single SNPs and haplotypes within the CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2 haplotype block. In contrast, no significant association was found for single SNPs or haplotypes within the CSN3 block. Our results point towards CSN2 and CSN1S2 as the most likely loci harbouring the underlying causative DNA variation. In our study, the most significant results were found for the SNP CSN2_67 with the C allele consistently associated with both higher protein and milk yields. CSN2_67 calls a C to an A substitution at codon 67 in beta-casein gene resulting in histidine replacing proline in the amino acid sequence. This polymorphism determines the protein variants A1/B (CSN2_67 A allele) versus A2/A3 (CSN2_67 C allele). Other studies have suggested that a high consumption of A1/B milk may affect human health by increasing the risk of diabetes and heart diseases. Altogether these results argue for an increase in the frequency of the CSN2_67 C allele or haplotypes containing this allele in the Norwegian Red cattle population by selective breeding.

  16. Application of Asian pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia) serine proteinase for production of biologically active peptides from casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Anna; Szołtysik, Marek; Babij, Konrad; Pokora, Marta; Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Chrzanowska, Józefa

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine potential application of a serine proteinase derived from Asian pumpkin for obtaining biologically active peptides from casein. The course of casein hydrolysis by three doses of the enzyme (50, 150, 300 U/mg of protein) was monitored for 24 hours by the determinations of: hydrolysis degree DH (%), free amino group content (μmole Gly/g), RP HPLC peptide profiles and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In all hydrolyzates analyzed antioxidant activities were determined using three tests: the ability to reduce iron ions in FRAP test, the ability to scavenge free radicals in DPPH test, and Fe(2+) chelating activity. The antimicrobial activity of obtained peptide fractions was determined as the ability to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens in a diffusion plate test. The deepest degradation, expressed as the DH [%] and the free amino group content (67% and 7528 µmole Gly/mg, respectively), was noted in samples hydrolyzed with 300 U/ml of enzyme for 24 hours, while in other samples the determined values were about three and two times lower. The results were in agreement with the peptide profiles obtained by RP HPLC. The highest antioxidative activities determined in all tests were seen for the casein hydrolysate obtained with 300 U/mg protein of serine proteinase after 24 h of reaction (2.15 µM Trolox/mg, 96.15 µg Fe(3+)/mg, 814.97 µg Fe(2+)/mg). Antimicrobial activity was presented in three preparations. In other samples no antimicrobial activity was detected.

  17. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian

    2017-01-01

    Background Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. Scope A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent...

  18. [Microbial geochemical calcium cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavarzin, G A

    2002-01-01

    The participation of microorganisms in the geochemical calcium cycle is the most important factor maintaining neutral conditions on the Earth. This cycle has profound influence on the fate of inorganic carbon, and, thereby, on the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. The major part of calcium deposits was formed in the Precambrian, when prokaryotic biosphere predominated. After that, calcium recycling based on biogenic deposition by skeletal organisms became the main process. Among prokaryotes, only a few representatives, e.g., cyanobacteria, exhibit a special calcium function. The geochemical calcium cycle is made possible by the universal features of bacteria involved in biologically mediated reactions and is determined by the activities of microbial communities. In the prokaryotic system, the calcium cycle begins with the leaching of igneous rock predominantly through the action of the community of organotrophic organisms. The release of carbon dioxide to the soil air by organotrophic aerobes leads to leaching with carbonic acid and soda salinization. Under anoxic conditions, of major importance is the organic acid production by primary anaerobes (fermentative microorganisms). Calcium carbonate is precipitated by secondary anaerobes (sulfate reducers) and to a smaller degree by methanogens. The role of the cyanobacterial community in carbonate deposition is exposed by stromatolites, which are the most common organo-sedimentary Precambrian structures. Deposition of carbonates in cyanobacterial mats as a consequence of photoassimilation of CO2 does not appear to be a significant process. It is argued that carbonates were deposited at the boundary between the "soda continent", which emerged as a result of subaerial leaching with carbonic acid, and the ocean containing Ca2+. Such ecotones provided favorable conditions for the development of the benthic cyanobacterial community, which was a precursor of stromatolites.

  19. Structural Basis for the Potent and Selective Inhibition of Casein Kinase 1 Epsilon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Alexander M. [Amgen Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Zhao, Huilin [Amgen Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Huang, Xin [Amgen Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-10-29

    Casein kinase 1 epsilon (CK1ε) and its closest homologue CK1δ are key regulators of diverse cellular processes. We report two crystal structures of PF4800567, a potent and selective inhibitor of CK1ε, bound to the kinase domains of human CK1ε and CK1δ as well as one apo CK1ε crystal structure. These structures provide a molecular basis for the strong and specific inhibitor interactions with CK1ε and suggest clues for further development of CK1δ inhibitors.

  20. The effect of sucrose on unfrozen water and syneresis of acidified sodium caseinate-xanthan gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, A L M; Cunha, R L

    2005-07-01

    The influence of the ingredients of acidified Na caseinate-xanthan-sucrose gels on thermophysical properties and syneresis of the gels was studied. Sucrose concentration affected all of the gel equilibrium properties and the rate of syneresis. The positive effect of sucrose on syneresis and unfrozen water (UFW) values was attributed to different effects. The amount of UFW was governed mainly by the colligative properties of sucrose whereas the equilibrium syneresis behaviour was associated with the changes in network dynamics caused by the kosmotropic properties of sucrose. The latter could enhance xanthan-sucrose association or favour xanthan-protein interactions.

  1. Differential effects of casein versus whey on fasting plasma levels of insulin, IGF-1 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoppe, Camilla; Mølgaard, Christian; Dalum, Cathrine

    2009-01-01

    to the identification of which components in milk that stimulate growth, we have performed an intervention study with 57 eight-year-old boys in which we examined the effects of the two major milk protein fractions, whey and casein, and milk minerals (Ca and P) in a 2x2 factorial design on IGFs and glucose......–insulin metabolism. The amounts of whey and casein were identical to the content in 1.5 l skim milk. The amounts of Ca and P were similar to 1.5 l skim milk in the high-mineral drinks, whereas the amounts of Ca and P were reduced in the low-mineral drinks. Results: There were no interactions between milk mineral...... groups (high, low) and milk protein groups (whey, casein). Serum IGF-1 increased by 15% (P...

  2. Quantification of αS1-casein in breast milk using a targeted mass spectrometry-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altendorfer, Irina; König, Simone; Braukmann, Achim; Saenger, Thorsten; Bleck, Ellen; Vordenbäumen, Stefan; Kubiak, Anna; Schneider, Matthias; Jose, Joachim

    2015-01-25

    The caseins comprise a milk protein fraction of high nutritional value and, as more recently discovered, of immunologic relevance. In particular, αS1-casein (CSN1S1) is of interest being a potential autoantigen. So far, the concentration of caseins in human milk was primarily determined by indirect methods. The aim of this study was to directly measure the CSN1S1 content in breast milk using mass spectrometry (MS). The quantification was based on tryptic CSN1S1 peptides with the best response in liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS analysis. Targeted experiments allowed both specific and sensitive detection at the low fmol level. For this pilot study, twenty breast milk samples of the first week post-partum were analyzed and contained between 3 and 540μg/ml CSN1S1. Limitations of CSN1S1 quantification are discussed.

  3. Chaperone-like activity of β-casein and its effect on residual in vitro activity of horseradish peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria; Olsen, Karsten; Sørensen, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    , as similar experiment with bovine serum albumin resulted in residual activity of horseradish peroxidase that was significantly lower than without any addition. The effect of β-casein on HRP disappears when pH is below the isoelectric point of β-casein. It was also proven by light scattering studies that β...

  4. RNA-sequencing data analysis of uterus in ovariectomized rats fed with soy protein isolate,17B-estradiol and casein

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data file describes the bioinformatics analysis of uterine RNA-seq data comparing genome wide effects of feeding soy protein isolate compared to casein to ovariectomized female rats age 64 days relative to treatment of casein fed rats with 5 ug/kg/d estradiol and relative to rats treated with e...

  5. Cross-linking of bovine and caprine caseins by microbial transglutaminase and their use as microencapsulating agents for n-3 fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine and caprine caseins were cross-linked with microbial transglutaminase (mTG). The mTG-cross-linked bovine or caprine casein dispersion, mixed with 14.5% maltodextrin (DE = 40), was used to prepare emulsions with 10.5% algae oil. Oxidative stability of emulsions was evaluated by peroxide valu...

  6. Do different casein concentrations increase the adverse effect of rutin on the biology of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Mariana C; Boiça, Arlindo L; de Oliveira, Maria C N; da Graça, José P; da Silva, Débora M; Hoffmann-Campo, Clara B

    2010-01-01

    The flavonoid rutin is recognized as playing an important role in the protection of plants against lepidopterans. Bioassays with this compound are generally carried out using artificial diets. Proteins of high energy value, such as casein, are important ingredients of insect artificial diets as a source of essential amino acids. However, such proteins can generally increase the allelochemical activity. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of rutin on larvae of the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner by incorporating this allelochemical into diets with different concentrations of casein. Three casein concentrations (0, 7 g, or 14 g) combined with none, 0.65%, or 1.30% of rutin were added to the rearing diet and offered to the larvae from hatching to pupation. Rutin negatively affected larval development, the amount of food consumed, and pupal weight of A. gemmatalis. These negative effects were clearly seen in insects fed on diets with 7 g of casein to which any concentration of rutin was added. The effects of rutin when added to the diets without casein were stronger than in diets containing a suitable amount of casein (14 g). The greater negative effects of rutin in diets containing suboptimal concentrations of casein indicate that casein can increase the effects of rutin only when the diets are nutritionally unsuitable for insect development.

  7. Modification of Casein and its Application in Leather Finishing%酪素的改性方法及其在皮革涂饰中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐瑶; 付柯; 赵丹; 张哲

    2015-01-01

    简述了酪素的性质,综述了酪素的改性方法及在皮革涂饰中的应用。%The properties of casein were briefly introduced. Modification methods of casein and its applica-tion in synthesizing leather finishing agents were reviewed.

  8. Effects of soy vs. casein protein on body weight and glycemic control in female monkeys and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Janice D; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Cline, J Mark; Lees, Cynthia J; Franke, Adrian A; Zhang, Li; Ayers, Melissa R; Schultz, Carrie; Kaplan, Jay R

    2009-09-01

    Nutritional interventions are important for reducing obesity and related conditions. Soy is a good source of protein and also contains isoflavones that may affect plasma lipids, body weight, and insulin action. Described here are data from a monkey breeding colony in which monkeys were initially fed a standard chow diet that is low fat with protein derived from soy. Monkeys were then randomized to a defined diet with a fat content similar to the typical American diet (TAD) containing either protein derived from soy (TAD soy) or casein-lactalbumin (TAD casein). The colony was followed for over two years to assess body weight, and carbohydrate and lipid measures in adult females (n=19) and their offspring (n=25). Serum isoflavone concentrations were higher with TAD soy than TAD casein, but not as high as when monkey chow was fed. Offspring consuming TAD soy had higher serum isoflavone concentrations than adults consuming TAD soy. Female monkeys consuming TAD soy had better glycemic control, as determined by fructosamine concentrations, but no differences in lipids or body weight compared with those consuming diets with TAD casein. Offspring born to dams consuming TAD soy had similar body weights at birth but over a two-year period weighed significantly less, had significantly lower triglyceride concentrations, and like adult females, had significantly lower fructosamine concentrations compared to TAD casein. Glucose tolerance tests in adult females were not significantly different with diet, but offspring eating TAD soy had increased glucose disappearance with overall lower glucose and insulin responses to the glucose challenge compared with TAD casein. Potential reasons for the additional benefits of TAD soy observed in offspring but not in adults may be related to higher serum isoflavone concentrations in offspring, presence of the diet differences throughout more of their lifespan (including gestation), or different tissue susceptibilities in younger animals.

  9. Immediate and residual effects of heat stress and restricted intake on milk protein and casein composition and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, F C; Barber, D G; Houlihan, A V; Poppi, D P

    2015-04-01

    The effects of heat stress on dairy production can be separated into 2 distinct causes: those effects that are mediated by the reduced voluntary feed intake associated with heat stress, and the direct physiological and metabolic effects of heat stress. To distinguish between these, and identify their effect on milk protein and casein concentration, mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 24) were housed in temperature-controlled chambers and either subjected to heat stress [HS; temperature-humidity index (THI) ~78] or kept in a THIheat-stressed cows (TN-R) for 7 d. A control group of cows was kept in a THIheat stress. Heat stress reduced the milk protein concentration, casein number, and casein concentration and increased the urea concentration in milk beyond the effects of restriction of intake. Under HS, the proportion in total casein of αS1-casein increased and the proportion of αS2-casein decreased. Because no effect of HS on milk fat or lactose concentration was found, these effects appeared to be the result of specific downregulation of mammary protein synthesis, and not a general reduction in mammary activity. No residual effects were found of HS or TN-R on milk production or composition after THIHeat-stressed cows had elevated blood concentrations of urea and Ca, compared with TN-R and TN-AL. Cows in TN-R had higher serum nonesterified fatty acid concentrations than cows in HS. It was proposed that HS and TN-R cows may mobilize different tissues as endogenous sources of energy.

  10. Inositol trisphosphate and calcium signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Inositol trisphosphate is a second messenger that controls many cellular processes by generating internal calcium signals. It operates through receptors whose molecular and physiological properties closely resemble the calcium-mobilizing ryanodine receptors of muscle. This family of intracellular calcium channels displays the regenerative process of calcium-induced calcium release responsible for the complex spatiotemporal patterns of calcium waves and oscillations. Such a dynamic signalling pathway controls many cellular processes, including fertilization, cell growth, transformation, secretion, smooth muscle contraction, sensory perception and neuronal signalling.

  11. Characterization of the alpha and beta subunits of casein kinase 2 by far-UV CD spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G; Brockel, C; Boldyreff, B;

    1992-01-01

    Although Chou-Fasman calculations of the secondary structure of recombinant casein kinase 2 subunits alpha and beta suggest they have a similar overall conformation, circular dichroism (CD) studies show that substantial differences in the conformation of the two subunits exist. In addition......, no changes in the far-UV CD spectrum of the alpha subunit are observed in the presence of casein or the synthetic decapeptide substrate RRRDDDSDDD. Furthermore, the alpha-helical structure of the alpha subunit (but not the beta subunit) can be increased in the presence of stoichiometric amounts of heparin...

  12. Rennet-induced gelation of concentrated milk in the presence of sodium caseinate: differences between milk concentration using ultrafiltration and osmotic stressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnankutty Nair, P; Corredig, M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrating milk is a common unit operation in the dairy industry. With the reduction of water, the particles interact more frequently with each other and the functionality of the casein micelles may depend on the interactions occurring during concentration. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of concentration on the renneting properties of the casein micelles by comparing 2 concentration methods: ultrafiltration and osmotic stressing. Both methods selectively concentrate the protein fraction of milk, while the composition of the soluble phase is unaltered. To evaluate possible differences in the rearrangements of the casein micelles during concentration, renneting properties were evaluated with or without the addition of soluble caseins, added either before or after concentration. The results indicate that casein micelles undergo rearrangements during concentration and that shear during membrane filtration may play a role in affecting the final properties of the milk.

  13. Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

  14. Calcium and Calcium Supplements: Achieving the Right Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone mass, which is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Many Americans don't get enough calcium in their diets. Children and adolescent girls are at particular risk, but so are adults age 50 and older. How much calcium you ...

  15. Heat stability and acid gelation properties of calcium-enriched reconstituted skim milk affected by ultrasonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrapala, Jayani; Bui, Don; Kentish, Sandra; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2014-05-01

    The aggregation of proteins after heating of calcium-fortified milks has been an ongoing problem in the dairy industry. This undesirable effect restricts the manufacture of calcium rich dairy products. To overcome this problem, a completely new approach in controlling the heat stability of dairy protein solutions, developed in our lab, has been employed. In this approach, high intensity, low frequency ultrasound is applied for a very short duration after a pre-heating step at ⩾70 °C. The ultrasound breaks apart whey/whey and whey/casein aggregates through the process of acoustic cavitation. Protein aggregates do not reform on subsequent post-heating, thereby making the systems heat stable. In this paper, the acid gelation properties of ultrasonicated calcium-enriched skim milks have also been investigated. It is shown that ultrasonication alone does not change the gelation properties significantly whereas a sequence of preheating (72 °C/1 min) followed by ultrasonication leads to decreased gelation times, decreased gel syneresis and increased skim milk viscosity in comparison to heating alone. Overall, ultrasonication has the potential to provide calcium-fortified dairy products with increased heat stability. However, enhanced gelation properties can only be achieved when ultrasonication is completed in conjunction with heating.

  16. Dystroglycan loss disrupts polarity and beta-casein induction inmammary epithelial cells by perturbing laminin anchoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, M. Lynn; Oppizzi, Maria Luisa; Henry, Michael D.; Onishi,Akiko; Campbell, Kevin P.; Bissell, Mina J.; Muschler, John L.

    2006-02-17

    Precise contact between epithelial cells and their underlying basement membrane is critical to the maintenance of tissue architecture and function. To understand the role that the laminin receptor dystroglycan (DG) plays in these processes, we assayed cell responses to laminin-111 following conditional ablation of DG expression in cultured mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Strikingly, DG loss disrupted laminin-111-induced polarity and {beta}-casein production, and abolished laminin assembly at the step of laminin binding to the cell surface. DG re-expression restored these deficiencies. Investigations of mechanism revealed that DG cytoplasmic sequences were not necessary for laminin assembly and signaling, and only when the entire mucin domain of extracellular DG was deleted did laminin assembly not occur. These results demonstrate that DG is essential as a laminin-111 co-receptor in MECs that functions by mediating laminin anchoring to the cell surface, a process that allows laminin polymerization, tissue polarity, and {beta}-casein induction. The observed loss of laminin-111 assembly and signaling in DG-/-MECs provides insights into the signaling changes occurring in breast carcinomas and other cancers, where DG's laminin-binding function is frequently defective.

  17. Novel hierarchical microparticles super-assembled from nanoparticles with the induction of casein micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Xiaopeng, E-mail: xpxiong@xmu.edu.cn; Duan, Jiangjiang; Wang, Yong; Yu, Zhaoju [Xiamen University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials (China)

    2013-08-15

    We have demonstrated a solution-based synthesis of novel waxberry-like hierarchical ZnO microparticles in the presence casein micelles under mild conditions. The microstructures of the sub-micrometer-sized hierarchical microparticles were characterized, and the synthesis conditions were optimized. The formation mechanism of the hierarchical microparticle was analyzed through control experiments. The hierarchical ZnO microparticles are found to be super-assemblies of 30-70 nm ZnO nanoparticles, which are thought to be based on casein micelle induction followed by Ostwald ripening. In the same manner, copper-based hierarchical microparticles with a similar morphology have also been successfully synthesized. By controlling the synthetic time or temperature, solid or hollow microparticles can be fabricated. The narrowly distributed ZnO microparticles have a high specific surface area, exhibiting great potential application in fields such as photocatalytic and energy conversion. Our findings may meanwhile open a new bottom-up strategy in order to construct structurally sophisticated nanomaterials.

  18. Encapsulation of antioxidant peptide enriched casein hydrolysate using maltodextrin-gum arabic blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Priyanka Singh; Bajaj, Rajesh Kumar; Mann, Bimlesh; Arora, Sumit; Tomar, S K

    2016-10-01

    Antioxidant peptide enriched casein hydrolysate (AO-CH) are receiving increasing attention due to their potential as functional ingredient. Encapsulation of AO-CH using maltodextrin-gum arabic (MD/GA) as wall material could represent an attractive approach to overcome the problems related to their direct application. Encapsulation parameter were optimized using different ratio of core to coat and proportion of coating material (10:0, 8:2, 6:4) under varying pH (2-8) for encapsulation efficiency (EE).The preparation P3 resulted in maximum EE (87%) using core to coat ratio 1:20, at pH 6.0 with 8:2 MD/GA ratio. The encapsulated preparation showed reduced bitterness (p < 0.05) compared to the casein hydrolysate together with maximum retention of antioxidant activity (93%). Further, the narrow range of particle size, indicates their better stability and represents a promising food additive for incorporation in food.

  19. Casein gene expression in mouse mammary epithelial cell lines: Dependence upon extracellular matrix and cell type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, D.; Oborn, C.J. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA)); Li, M.L.; Bissell, M.J. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1987-09-01

    The COMMA-D mammary cell line exhibits mammary-specific functional differentiation under appropriate conditions in cell culture. The cytologically heterogeneous COMMA-D parental line and the clonal lines DB-1, TA-5, and FA-1 derived from the COMMA-D parent were examined for similar properties of functional differentiation. In monolayer cell culture, the cell lines DB-1, TA-5, FA-1, and MA-4 were examined for expression of mammary-specific and epithelial-specific proteins by an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The clonal cell lines were relatively homogeneous in their respective staining properties and seemed to represent three subpopulations found in the heterogeneous parental COMMA-D lines. None of the four clonal lines appeared to represent myoepithelial cells. The cell lines were examined for expression of {beta}-casein mRNA in the presence or absence of prolactin. The inducibility of {beta}-casein in the COMMA-D cell line was further enhanced by a reconstituted basement membrane preparation enriched in laminin, collagen IV, and proteoglycans. These results support the hypothesis that the functional response of inducible mammary cell populations is a result of interaction among hormones, multiple extracellular matrix components, and specific cell types.

  20. How does oil type determine emulsion characteristics in concentrated Na-caseinate emulsions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui Lin; McGrath, Kathryn M

    2013-08-01

    Macroscopic properties and ensemble average diffusion of concentrated (dispersed phase 50-60 wt%) Na-caseinate-stabilised emulsions for three different oils (soybean oil, palm olein and tetradecane) were explored. On a volume fraction basis, pulsed gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE)-NMR data show that droplet dynamics for all three systems are similar within a region of the emulsion morphology diagram. The exact limits of the emulsion space depend however on which oil is considered. The reduced solubility of tetradecane in water, and Na-caseinate in tetradecane, result in the stabilisation of flocs during formulation. Floc formation is not observed when soybean oil or palm olein is used under identical emulsion formulation conditions. Linear rheology experiments provide indirect evidence that the local structure and the properties of the thin film interfacial domain of tetradecane emulsions vary from those of soybean oil and palm olein emulsions. Collectively these data indicate that protein/oil interactions within a system dominate over specific oil droplet structure and size distribution, which are similar in the three systems.

  1. Casein kinase 1δ/ε inhibitor PF-5006739 attenuates opioid drug-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Travis T; Chandrasekaran, Ramalakshmi Y; Bradley, Jenifer; Rubitski, David; Berke, Helen; Mente, Scot; Butler, Todd; Doran, Angela; Chang, Cheng; Fisher, Katherine; Knafels, John; Liu, Shenping; Ohren, Jeff; Marconi, Michael; DeMarco, George; Sneed, Blossom; Walton, Kevin; Horton, David; Rosado, Amy; Mead, Andy

    2014-12-17

    Casein kinase 1 delta (CK1δ) and casein kinase 1 epsilon (CK1ε) inhibitors are potential therapeutic agents for a range of psychiatric disorders. The feasibility of developing a CNS kinase inhibitor has been limited by an inability to identify safe brain-penetrant compounds with high kinome selectivity. Guided by structure-based drug design, potent and selective CK1δ/ε inhibitors have now been identified that address this gap, through the design and synthesis of novel 4-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(piperidin-4-yl)-1H-imidazol-5-yl]pyrimidin-2-amine derivatives. PF-5006739 (6) possesses a desirable profile, with low nanomolar in vitro potency for CK1δ/ε (IC50 = 3.9 and 17.0 nM, respectively) and high kinome selectivity. In vivo, 6 demonstrated robust centrally mediated circadian rhythm phase-delaying effects in both nocturnal and diurnal animal models. Further, 6 dose-dependently attenuated opioid drug-seeking behavior in a rodent operant reinstatement model in animals trained to self-administer fentanyl. Collectively, our data supports further development of 6 as a promising candidate to test the hypothesis of CK1δ/ε inhibition in treating multiple indications in the clinic.

  2. Genetic polymorphism of β-lactoglobulin and κ-casein of cattle breeds in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Ivanković

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Profitable milk production respects the interests of producers, processing industries, consumer requirements and welfare of animals. Development of new methods of direct gene analysis responsible for milk proteins polymorphism provide new tools to raise the profitability of milk production and dairy products through implementation of breed genetic profile in breeding program. Because of necessity to determinate genetic profiles of cattle breeds in Croatia using new analytical methods, the ratio of dominant allelic polymorphic variants of beta-lactoglobulin (β-Lg and kappa-casein (κ-CN is defined. The share of beta-lactoglobulin B variant is dominant in all investigated cattle breeds (>52.9 %. Kappa- casein allelic variant A is dominant in selected cattle breeds (60.7-76.4 %, while the share of B variant is significantly more presented in autochthonous cattle breeds (48.2-84.1 %. Knowledge about genetic profile of breeds due to studied polymorphic variants of milk proteins is useful in further breeding development and economic reaffirmation of cattle breeds, especially autochthonous ones.

  3. A sialic acid assay in isolation and purification of bovine k-casein glycomacropeptide: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takuo; Ozimek, Lech

    2014-01-01

    Sialic acid is a carbohydrate moiety of k-casein glycomacropeptide (GMP), which is a 64 amino acid residue C-terminal sialylated phosphorylated glycopeptide released from k-casein by the action of chymosin during cheese making. GMP lacks aromatic amino acids including phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. Because of its unique amino acid composition and various biological activities, GMP is thought to be a potential ingredient for dietetic foods (e.g., a food for PKU patients) and pharmaceuticals. Thus, increased attention has been given to the development of techniques to purify GMP. In this review, techniques of GMP purification described in patents and scientific research papers were introduced. A sialic acid assay is the important method to track GMP isolation and purification processes, for which the thiobarbituric acid reaction with 1-propanol as a chromophore extracting solvent is an inexpensive, practical and specific technique. Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography, cellulose acetate electrophoresis, and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are the major techniques to identify sialic acid specific to GMP. Sephacryl S-200 chromatography and cellulose acetate electrophoresis are also used to detect GMP sialic acid in whey pearmeate and whey added commercial margarine samples. Future research includes development of an economical industrial scale method to produce high purity GMP.

  4. Interfacial and foaming interactions between casein glycomacropeptide (CMP) and propylene glycol alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, María J; Pizones Ruiz-Henestrosa, Víctor M; Carrera Sánchez, Cecilio; Rodríguez Patino, Juan M; Pilosof, Ana M R

    2012-06-15

    Proteins and polysaccharides are widely used in food formulation. While most of the proteins are surface active, only few polysaccharides can adsorb at the air-water interface; this is the case of propylene glycol alginates (PGA). It is known that casein glycomacropeptide (CMP), a bioactive polypeptide derived from κ-casein by the action of chymosin, presents a great foaming capacity but provides unstable foams. So, the objective of this work was to analyze the impact of mixing CMP and a commercial variety of PGA, Kelcoloid O (KO), on the interfacial and foaming properties at pH 7.0. It was determined the surface pressure isotherm, the dynamics of adsorption and the foaming properties for CMP, KO and the mixed system CMP-KO. CMP dominated the surface pressure of CMP-KO mixed system. The presence of KO synergistically improved the viscoelastic properties of surface film. The foaming capacity of CMP was altered by KO. KO foam presented a higher stability than CMP foam and it controlled the stability against drainage and the initial collapse in the mixed foam.

  5. Affinity chromatography matrices for depletion and purification of casein glycomacropeptide from bovine whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baieli, María F; Urtasun, Nicolás; Martinez, María J; Hirsch, Daniela B; Pilosof, Ana M R; Miranda, María V; Cascone, Osvaldo; Wolman, Federico J

    2017-01-01

    Casein glycomacropeptide (CMP) is a 64- amino acid peptide found in cheese whey, which is released after κ-casein specific cleavage by chymosin. CMP lacks aromatic amino acids, a characteristic that makes it usable as a nutritional supplement for people with phenylketonuria. CMP consists of two nonglycosylated isoforms (aCMP A and aCMP B) and its different glycosylated forms (gCMP A and gCMP B). The most predominant carbohydrate of gCMP is N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid). Here, we developed a CMP purification process based on the affinity of sialic acid for wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). After formation of chitosan beads and adsorption of WGA, the agglutinin was covalently attached with glutaraldehyde. Two matrices with different WGA density were assayed for CMP adsorption. Maximum adsorption capacities were calculated according to the Langmuir model from adsorption isotherms developed at pH 7.0, being 137.0 mg/g for the matrix with the best performance. In CMP reduction from whey, maximum removal percentage was 79% (specifically 33.7% of gCMP A and B, 75.8% of aCMP A, and 93.9% of aCMP B). The CMP was recovered as an aggregate with an overall yield of 64%. Therefore, the matrices developed are promising for CMP purification from cheese whey. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:171-180, 2017.

  6. Impact of cationic surfactant on the self-assembly of sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceković, Marko; Curlin, Marija; Jurašin, Darija

    2014-08-27

    The impact of a cationic surfactant, dodecylammonium chloride (DDACl), on the self-assembly of sodium caseinate (SC) has been investigated by light scattering, zeta potential, and rheological measurements as well as by microscopy (transmission electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy). In SC dilute solutions concentration-dependent self-assembly proceeds through the formation of spherical associates and their aggregation into elongated structures composed of connected spheres. DDACl interacts with SC via its hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, inducing changes in SC self-assembled structures. These changes strongly depend on the surfactant aggregation states (monomeric or micellar) as well as concentration ratio of both components, leading to the formation of soluble and insoluble complexes of nano- to microdimensions. DDACl monomers interact with SC self-assembled entities in a different way compared to their micelles. Surfactant monomers form soluble complexes (similar to surfactant mixed micelles) at lower SC concentration but insoluble gelatinous complexes at higher SC concentration. At surfactant micellar concentration soluble complexes with casein chains wrapped around surfactant micelles are formed. This study suggests that the use of proper cationic surfactant concentration will allow modification and control of structural changes of SC self-assembled entities.

  7. Is gluten free and casein free (GFCF diet effective for individuals with autism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah S. Widyahening

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Even though the etiology of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD has not been clearly known, various types of therapies have been offered. One of the most popular therapies is Gluten Free and Casein Free Diet – GFCF diet.Methods: A structured internet literature search was conducted using Pubmed and Cochrane library. Titles and abstracts were screened using predetermined selection criteria. Critical appraisal was conducted based on standard criteria for relevance, validity, and levels of evidence.Results: Based on relevance, only four out of twelve selected articles can be used; one is a systematic review and three randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Several methodological problems which could lead to over-estimation of the effect were found in the studies including poor randomization and selective drop-out. Risk of under-estimation of report due to small number of participants and in-adequate duration of intervention was also found. Small to moderate improvement were found in some outcome measured including overall autistic traits, social isolation, and the ability in communication and interaction. However, insignificant differences also found in some area such as individual’s behavior, cognitive and motor function.Conclusion: Available studies fail to provide sufficiently credible and strong evidence to recommend the practice of GFCF diet in treating autism. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:114-8Keywords: autism, gluten free and casein free diet

  8. Calcium, vitamin D and bone

    OpenAIRE

    Borg, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Calcium, protein and vitamin D are the main nutrients relevant to bone health. This short article discusses the importance of vitamin D and its relation to calcium homeostasis. The various causes, clinical manifestations and treatment are outlined.

  9. Casein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1993-01-01

    subunits are highly conserved during evolution. The relationship between CK-2 alpha from humans and plants is still 73%. Similar relationships are reported for the beta-subunit. Chromosomal assignment of CK-2 alpha shows two gene loci, one of which is a pseudogene. They are located on different chromosomes......, no genetic changes are necessarily involved; the observed changes may be entirely due to a signal transduction pathway where CK-2 could be phosphorylated by another kinase(s). CK-2 cDNAs from various organisms have been isolated and characterized. From the deduced amino acid sequence it turns out that CK-2......-subunit affecting: (i) stability, (ii) enzyme specificity and (iii) enzyme activity. The question where CK-2 and its subunits are located throughout the cell cycle has also been addressed, mainly because of the large discrepancies that still exist between results obtained by different investigators. Tissue...

  10. Calcium ion channel and epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yudan Lü; Weihong Lin; Dihui Ma

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between calcium ion channel and epilepsy for well investigating the pathogenesis of epilepsy and probing into the new therapeutic pathway of epilepsy.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online research Calcium ion channel and epilepsy related articles published between January 1994 and December 2006 in the CKNI and Wanfang database with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy, calcium-channel blocker". The language was limited to Chinese. At the same time,related articles published between January 1993 and December 2006 in Pubmed were searched for on online with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy" in English.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were selected firstly. Inclusive criteria: ① Studies related to calcium ion channel and the pat1hogenesis of epilepsy. ② Studies on the application of calcium ion channel blocker in the treatment of epilepsy. Exclusive criteria: repetitive or irrelated studies.DATA EXTRACTION: According to the criteria, 123 articles were retrieved and 93 were excluded due to repetitive or irrelated studies. Altogether 30 articles met the inclusive criteria, 11 of them were about the structure and characters of calcium ion channel, 10 about calcium ion channel and the pathogenesis of epilepsy and 9 about calcium blocker and the treatment of epilepsy.DATA SYNTHESIS: Calcium ion channels mainly consist of voltage dependent calcium channel and receptor operated calcium channel. Depolarization caused by voltage gating channel-induced influxion is the pathological basis of epileptic attack, and it is found in many studies that many anti-epileptic drugs have potential and direct effect to rivalizing voltage-dependent calcium ion channel.CONCLUSION: Calcium influxion plays an important role in the seizure of epilepsy. Some calcium antagonists seen commonly are being tried in the clinical therapy of epilepsy that is being explored, not applied in clinical practice. If there are enough evidences to

  11. Studies on the phosphorus requirement and proper calcium/phosphorus ratio in the diet of the black sea bream ( Sparus macrocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingke; Li, Maotang; Wang, Keling; Wang, Xincheng; Liu, Jianking

    1993-06-01

    An expriment on the phosphorus requirement and the proper Ca/P ratio in the diet of the black sea bream using the phosphorus gradient method (with casein as basic diet, sodium dihydrogen phosphate as source of phosphorus, and calcium lactate as source of calcium) showed that growth was greatly affected by the diet's phosphorus content and Ca/P ratio. Inadequate phosphorus in the diet resulted in slow growth and poor food conversion ratio (FCR). Analyses of the fish body showed it contained a high level of lipid but a low level of moisture, ash, calcium and phosphorus. The optimal values of phosphorus and Ca/P ratio in the black sea bream diet are 0.68% and 1∶2 respectively. Phosphorus in excess of this optimum value resulted in slow growth or even death. The results of this experiment clearly indicated that phosphorus is the principal mineral additive affecting black sea bream growth.

  12. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium carbonate is not very poisonous. Recovery is quite likely. But, long-term overuse is more serious than a single overdose, because it can cause kidney damage. Few people die from an antacid overdose. Keep all medicines in child-proof bottles and out ...

  13. High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as well as kidney function and levels of calcium in your urine. Your provider may do other tests to further assess your condition, such as checking your blood levels of phosphorus (a mineral). Imaging studies also may be helpful, such as bone ...

  14. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about 500...

  15. Calcium aluminate in alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Arzu

    The properties of ceramic materials are determined not only by the composition and structure of the phases present, but also by the distribution of impurities, intergranular films and second phases. The phase distribution and microstructure both depend on the fabrication techniques, the raw materials used, the phase-equilibrium relations, grain growth and sintering processes. In this dissertation research, various approaches have been employed to understand fundamental phenomena such as grain growth, impurity segregation, second-phase formation and crystallization. The materials system chosen was alumina intentionally doped with calcium. Atomic-scale structural analyses of grain boundaries in alumina were carried on the processed samples. It was found that above certain calcium concentrations, CA6 precipitated as a second phase at all sintering temperatures. The results also showed that abnormal grain growth can occur after precipitation and it is not only related to the calcium level, but it is also temperature dependent. In order to understand the formation mechanism of CA6 precipitates in calcium doped alumina samples, several studies have been carried out using either bulk materials or thin films The crystallization of CA2 and CA6 powders has been studied. Chemical processing techniques were used to synthesize the powders. It was observed that CA2 powders crystallized directly, however CA6 powders crystallized through gamma-Al 2O3 solid solution. The results of energy-loss near-edge spectrometry confirmed that gamma-Al2O3 can dissolve calcium. Calcium aluminate/alumina reaction couples have also been investigated. All reaction couples were heat treated following deposition. It was found that gamma-Al2O3 was formed at the interface as a result of the interfacial reaction between the film and the substrate. gamma-Al 2O3 at the interface was stable at much higher temperatures compared to the bulk gamma-Al2O3 formed prior to the CA6 crystallization. In order to

  16. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...

  17. Bioceramics of calcium orthophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V

    2010-03-01

    A strong interest in use of ceramics for biomedical applications appeared in the late 1960's. Used initially as alternatives to metals in order to increase a biocompatibility of implants, bioceramics have become a diverse class of biomaterials, presently including three basic types: relatively bioinert ceramics, bioactive (or surface reactive) and bioresorbable ones. Furthermore, any type of bioceramics could be porous to provide tissue ingrowth. This review is devoted to bioceramics prepared from calcium orthophosphates, which belong to the categories of bioresorbable and bioactive compounds. During the past 30-40 years, there have been a number of major advances in this field. Namely, after the initial work on development of bioceramics that was tolerated in the physiological environment, emphasis was shifted towards the use of bioceramics that interacted with bones by forming a direct chemical bond. By the structural and compositional control, it became possible to choose whether the bioceramics of calcium orthophosphates was biologically stable once incorporated within the skeletal structure or whether it was resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics, which is able to regenerate bone tissues, has been developed. Current biomedical applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics include replacements for hips, knees, teeth, tendons and ligaments, as well as repair for periodontal disease, maxillofacial reconstruction, augmentation and stabilization of the jawbone, spinal fusion and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Potential future applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics will include drug-delivery systems, as well as they will become effective carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and/or various types of cells for tissue engineering purposes.

  18. Probing the characteristics of casein as green binder for non-aqueous electrochemical double layer capacitors' electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzi, Alberto; Raccichini, Rinaldo; Marinaro, Mario; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    Casein from bovine milk is evaluated in this work as binding agent for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) electrodes. It is demonstrated that casein provides excellent adhesion strength to the current collector (1187 kPa compared to 51 kPa achieved with PVdF), thus leading to mechanically stable electrodes. At the same time, it offers high thermal stability (above 200 °C) and electrochemical stability in organic electrolytes. Apparently though, the casein-based electrodes offer lower electronic conductivity than those based on other state-of-the-art binders, which can limit the rate performance of the resulting EDLC. In the attempt of improving the electrochemical performance, it is found that the application of a pressing step can solve this issue, leading to excellent rate capability (up to 84% capacitance retention at 50 mA cm-2) and cycling stability (96.8% after 10,000 cycles at 10 mA cm-2) in both PC- and ACN-based electrolytes. Although the adhesive power casein is known since ancient times, this report presents the first proof of concept of its employment in electrochemical power sources.

  19. RNA helicase DDX3 is a regulatory subunit of casein kinase 1 in Wnt-beta-catenin signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruciat, C.M.; Dolde, C.; de Groot, R.E.; Ohkawara, B.; Reinhard, C.; Korswagen, H.C.; Niehrs, C.

    2013-01-01

    Casein kinase 1 (CK1) members play key roles in numerous biological processes. They are considered "rogue" kinases, because their enzymatic activity appears unregulated. Contrary to this notion, we have identified the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 as a regulator of the Wnt-beta-catenin network, where i

  20. Possible mechanisms behind the differential effects of soy protein and casein feedings on colon cancer biomarkers in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, E.H.; Geerse, G.J.; Klaassens, E.S.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Alink, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the present studies, several hypotheses were tested to explain previously reported differential effects of soy and casein on colon cancer biomarkers like cell proliferation, fecal fat, fecal bile acid, alkaline phosphatase, and magnesium excretion in rats. In Study 1, the effect of methionine, a

  1. Nutritional Impact of a Gluten-Free Casein-Free Diet in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Suárez-Varela, María Morales

    2016-01-01

    We compared anthropometric values, nutrient intake, the Healthy Eating Index and food variety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 20 on a gluten-free casein-free (GFCF) diet and 85 on a regular diet in Valencia (Spain) using 3-days food diaries. Those on the GFCF diet had a lower weight, body mass index, and total energy, pantothenic…

  2. EFFECT OF CASEIN-BASED SEMISYNTHETIC FOOD ON RENAL ACID EXCRETION AND ACID-BASE STATE OF BLOOD IN DOGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJLSTRA, WG; LANGBROEK, AJM; KRAAN, J; RISPENS, P; NIJMEIJER, A

    1995-01-01

    Urinary acid excretion and blood acid-base stare were determined in dogs fed a casein-based semi-synthetic food (SSF), to which different amounts of salts had been added, in comparison with feeding normal dog food. Net acid excretion (NAE) and inorganic acid excretion (IAE) increased during SSF feed

  3. Whey Protein Delays Gastric Emptying and Suppresses Plasma Fatty Acids and Their Metabolites Compared to Casein, Gluten, and Fish Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan; Schou, Simon S; Holmer-Jensen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Whey protein has been demonstrated to improve fasting lipid and insulin response in overweight and obese individuals. To establish new hypotheses for this effect and to investigate the impact of stomach emptying, we compared plasma profiles after intake of whey isolate (WI), casein, gluten (GLU...

  4. Gluten-Free and Casein-Free Diets in the Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulloy, Austin; Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Rispoli, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    This paper systematically reviews research on the effects of gluten-free and/or casein-free (GFCF) diets in the treatment of ASD. Database, hand, and ancestry searches identified 15 articles for review. Each study was analyzed and summarized in terms of (a) participants, (b) specifics of the intervention, (c) dependent variables, (d) results, and…

  5. Addendum to "Gluten-Free and Casein-Free Diets in Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulloy, Austin; Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Rispoli, Mandy

    2011-01-01

    Shortly after the publication of our literature review on gluten-free and casein-free (GFCF) diets in the treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD; Mulloy et al., 2010), Whiteley et al. (2010) published the results of experimental evaluation of a GFCF diet. To update our previous literature review, we herein provide an analysis of the Whiteley…

  6. Role of the beta subunit of casein kinase-2 on the stability and specificity of the recombinant reconstituted holoenzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meggio, F; Boldyreff, B; Marin, O;

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant human alpha subunit from casein kinase-2 (CK-2) was subjected, either alone or in combination with recombinant human beta subunit, to high temperature, tryptic digestion and urea treatment. In all three cases, it was shown that the presence of the beta subunit could drastically reduce...

  7. The effects of transglutaminase catalysis on the functional and immunoglobulin binding properties of peanut flour dispersions containing casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The functionality of light roasted peanut flour (PF) dispersions containing supplemental casein (CN), was altered after polymerization with microbial transglutaminase (TGase). The formation of high molecular weight covalent cross-links was observed with potential formation of PF-PF, PF-CN, and CN-CN...

  8. Enzymatic hydrolysis of whey and casein protein- effect on functional, rheological, textural and sensory properties of breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Adil; Broadway, A A; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Wani, Ali Abas; Maqsood, Sajid; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Shah, Asima; Rather, Sajad Ahmad; Gani, Asir

    2015-12-01

    Milk proteins were hydrolyzed by papain and their effect on the rheological, textural and sensory properties of bread were investigated. Water absorption capacity, emulsification capacity, foam volume, foam stability and solubility of Whey and casein protein concentrates and their hydrolysates were determined. The farinograph parameters of wheat flour and blends of wheat flour with casein and whey protein and their hydrolysates were determined to evaluate changes in water absorption capacity, dough development time, dough stability time and mixing tolerance index. The incorporation of WPC, casein and their hydrolysates up to the level of 5 % showed dough properties comparable to control. It was also found that 5 % level incorporation of milk proteins and their hydrolysates have no drastic effect on physical and sensory attributes of bread. The pasting properties showed significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) when compared with wheat flour at all levels of addition of whey and casein protein concentrates and hydrolysates. Scanning electron microscopy of bread samples shows disruption in the well-defined protein - starch complex of wheat flour bread and the structure of gluten was weak as the concentration of whey protein increases in the wheat flour bread.

  9. Using self-consistent-field theory to understand enhanced steric stabilization by casein-like copolymers at low surface coverage in mixed protein layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Emma L; Ettelaie, Rammile; Dickinson, Eric

    2005-01-01

    We present a statistical mechanical approach to predicting the properties of mixed copolymer layers using the Scheutjens-Fleer self-consistent-field theory. Our model copolymers are based on the primary structures of the major bovine casein monomers, alpha(s1)-casein and beta-casein. Numerical calculations have been carried out to determine the polymer segment density profiles at an isolated hydrophobic surface and the interaction forces as a pair of polymer-coated surfaces is brought to close interlayer separation. For a copolymer model containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments, we show how the steric stabilizing capacity of a casein-like macromolecule at very low surface coverage is enhanced in the presence of a thin dense layer of shorter tethered amphiphilic chains. Using a more refined protein model, which also distinguishes between the charged and uncharged hydrophilic segments along the chain, we clearly demonstrate that the enhanced steric repulsion from beta-casein exceeds that from alpha(s1)-casein. These calculations explain how the replacement of just a few percent of beta-lactoglobulin by casein can inhibit the heat-induced thickening and flocculation behavior observed experimentally with some whey protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions.

  10. Viability of the microencapsulation of a casein hydrolysate in lipid microparticles of cupuacu butter and stearic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Cristina Pinho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE Solid lipid microparticles produced with a mixture of cupuacu butter and stearic acid were used to microencapsulate a commercial casein hydrolysate (Hyprol 8052. The composition of the lipid matrix used for the production of the lipid microparticles was chosen according to data on the wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC of bulk lipid mixtures, which indicated that the presence of 10 % cupuacu butter was sufficient to significantly change the crystalline arrangement of pure stearic acid. Preliminary tests indicated that a minimum proportion of 4 % of surfactant (polysorbate 80 was necessary to produce empty spherical lipid particles with average diameters below 10 mm. The lipid microparticles were produced using 20 % cupuacu butter and 80 % stearic acid and then stabilized with 4 % of polysorbate 80, exhibiting an encapsulation efficiency of approximately 74 % of the casein hydrolysate. The melting temperature of the casein hydrolysate-loaded lipid microparticles was detected at 65.2 °C, demonstrating that the particles were solid at room temperature as expected and indicating that the incorporation of peptides had not affected their thermal behavior. After 25 days of storage, however, there was a release of approximately 30 % of the initial amount of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. This release was not thought to have been caused by the liberation of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. Instead, it was attributed to the possible desorption of the adsorbed peptides present on the surface of the lipid microparticles.

  11. Composite β-κ-casein genotypes and their effect on composition and coagulation of milk from Estonian Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallas, M; Kaart, T; Värv, S; Pärna, K; Jõudu, I; Viinalass, H; Pärna, E

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of composite β-κ-CN genotypes on milk coagulation and composition traits, and on the additive genetic variation of these traits in Estonian Holstein dairy cattle. A total of 23,970 milk samples, repeated measurements from the first to third lactation from 2,859 Estonian Holstein cows from 78 herds across the country, were analyzed for milk yield, milk fat and protein percentages, somatic cell count, and milk coagulation properties (milk coagulation time and curd firmness). Each cow had at least 3 measurements per lactation. Two single-trait random regression animal models were fitted for the traits studied. The first model considered fixed effects of year-season of sampling and year-season of calving, calving age (nested within lactation), sample age (only for milk coagulation traits) and days in milk, and random herd, additive genetic, and permanent environmental effects. The animal and permanent environmental effects were modeled over the lactation period by using Legendre polynomials. The second model had the additional fixed β-κ-casein effect in the form of a third-order Legendre polynomial. The 2 most frequent β-κ-casein composite genotypes were A2A2AA and A1A2AA, both with prevalence greater than 20%. Percentages of the remaining 31 genotypes were less than 8%, including 20 genotypes with percentages less than 1%. The β-κ-casein genotype-specific lactation curves were significantly different for milk coagulation traits and milk protein percentage. The B variant of κ-casein showed a favorable effect on both milk coagulation traits, whereas the IB haplotype had an increasing effect on curd firmness and protein percentage. Inclusion of the β-κ-casein genotype effects in the model resulted in decreases in the mean additive genetic variations for milk coagulation time and curd firmness of 12.9 and 51.1%, respectively.

  12. Calcium signaling in taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F

    2015-09-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium.

  13. Small intestinal digestion of raw cornstarch in cattle consuming a soybean hull-based diet is improved by duodenal casein infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, D W; Titgemeyer, E C; Bailey, E A; Anderson, D E

    2014-09-01

    Six duodenally and ileally cannulated steers were used in 3 sequential studies to measure 1) basal nutrient flows from a soybean hull-based diet, 2) small intestinal digestibility of raw cornstarch continuously infused into the duodenum, and 3) responses of small intestinal starch digestion to duodenal infusion of 200 or 400 g/d casein. Our objective was to evaluate responses in small intestinal starch digestion in cattle over time and to measure responses in small intestinal starch digestion to increasing amounts of MP. On average, cattle consumed 3.7 kg/d DM, 68 g/d dietary N, and 70 g/d dietary starch. Starch flow to the duodenum was small (38 g/d), and N flow was 91 g/d. Small intestinal digestibility of duodenal N was 57%, and small intestinal digestion of duodenal starch flow was extensive (92%). Small intestinal starch digestibility was 34% when 1.5 kg/d raw cornstarch was continuously infused into the duodenum. Subsequently, cattle were placed in 1 of 2 replicated Latin squares that were balanced for carryover effects to determine response to casein infusions and time required for adaptation. Duodenal infusion of casein linearly increased (P ≤ 0.05) small intestinal starch digestibility, and small intestinal starch digestion adapted to infusion of casein in 6 d. Ethanol-soluble starch and unpolymerized glucose flowing to the ileum increased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) with increasing infusion of casein. Plasma cholecystokinin was not affected by casein infusion, but circulating levels of glucose were increased by casein supplementation (P ≤ 0.05). Responses in small intestinal starch digestion in cattle adapted to casein within 6 d, and increases in duodenal supply of casein up to 400 g/d increased small intestinal starch digestion in cattle.

  14. Ligand-protein interactions of selective casein kinase 1δ inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Scot; Arnold, Eric; Butler, Todd; Chakrapani, Subramanyam; Chandrasekaran, Ramalakshmi; Cherry, Kevin; DiRico, Ken; Doran, Angela; Fisher, Katherine; Galatsis, Paul; Green, Michael; Hayward, Matthew; Humphrey, John; Knafels, John; Li, Jianke; Liu, Shenping; Marconi, Michael; McDonald, Scott; Ohren, Jeff; Paradis, Vanessa; Sneed, Blossom; Walton, Kevin; Wager, Travis

    2013-09-12

    Casein kinase 1δ (CK1δ) and 1ε (CK1ε) are believed to be necessary enzymes for the regulation of circadian rhythms in all mammals. On the basis of our previously published work demonstrating a CK1ε-preferring compound to be an ineffective circadian clock modulator, we have synthesized a series of pyrazole-substitued pyridine inhibitors, selective for the CK1δ isoform. Additionally, using structure-based drug design, we have been able to exploit differences in the hinge region between CK1δ and p38 to find selective inhibitors that have minimal p38 activity. The SAR, brain exposure, and the effect of these inhibitors on mouse circadian rhythms are described. The in vivo evaluation of these inhibitors demonstrates that selective inhibition of CK1δ at sufficient central exposure levels is capable of modulating circadian rhythms.

  15. Quantitative analysis of complex casein hydrolysates based on chromatography and membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Wei; Yu Yanjun; He Zhimin

    2006-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysates of casein are so complex that there is no effective method to do quantitative analysis.The common techniques,such as high performance chromatography and SDS-PAGE,can only carry out qualitative analysis.On the basis of membrane separation and high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC),standard peptides with different molecular mass range were prepared,and the linear relationships between mass concentration of the standard peptides and the ultraviolet absorption of corresponding peak areas were established.Consequently,mass concentration of the different hydrolysates at different reaction times could be accurately calculated.The combination of chromatography and membrane separation is of great importance to the quantitative analysis of the complex hydrolysates,which can also be applied to the other macromolecular systems,such as carbohydrates.

  16. The gluten-free, casein-free diet in autism: an overview with clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Jennifer Harrison

    The prevalence of classic autism and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) appears to be on the rise, and to date, there remains no clear etiology or cure. Out of desperation, many families are turning to new therapies and interventions discovered through various media sources and anecdotal reports from other parents. Unfortunately, many of these newer, well-publicized interventions have little empirical support. One of the most popular yet currently scientifically unproven interventions for ASD is the gluten-free, casein-free (GFCF) diet. Clinicians working with families of individuals with ASD are often asked for advice and find themselves unable to offer the most up-to-date and scientifically credible information. This article provides an overview of ASD and the GFCF diet, a summary and critique of current research findings, recommendations for future research, and practical advice for families to use in deciding if a trial of the GFCF diet is in the best interest of their child and family.

  17. Casein improves brachial and central aortic diastolic blood pressure in overweight adolescents: a randomised, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Karina; Larnkjær, Anni; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2013-01-01

    of water, skimmed milk, whey or casein for 12 weeks. The milk-based test drinks contained 35 g protein/l. The effects were compared with the water group and a pretest control group consisting of thirty-two of the adolescents followed 12 weeks before the start of the intervention. Outcomes were brachial......Arterial stiffness, blood pressure (BP) and blood lipids may be improved by milk in adults and the effects may be mediated via proteins. However, limited is known about the effects of milk proteins on central aortic BP and no studies have examined the effects in children. Therefore, the present...... trial examined the effect of milk and milk proteins on brachial and central aortic BP, blood lipids, inflammation and arterial stiffness in overweight adolescents. A randomised controlled trial was conducted in 193 overweight adolescents aged 12–15 years. They were randomly assigned to drink 1 litre...

  18. Effect of Xanthan Gum on the Rheological Behavior and Microstructure of Sodium Caseinate Acid Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Hidalgo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of xanthan gum (XG on the gelation process of bovine sodium caseinate (NaCAS induced by acidification with glucono-δ-lactone (GDL and on the mixed acid gel microstructure. Before GDL addition, segregative phase separation was observed in all the NaCAS-XG mixtures evaluated. The gelation process was analyzed by using a fractional factorial experimental design. The images of the microstructure of the mixed acid gels were obtained by conventional optical microscopy and the mean diameter of the interstices was determined. Both the elastic character and the microstructure of the gels depended on the concentrations of XG added. As XG concentration increased, the kinetics of the gelation process was modified and the degree of compactness and elasticity component of the gel network increased. The microstructure of gels depends on the balance among thermodynamic incompatibility, protein gelation and NaCAS-XG interactions.

  19. Heterogeneity of caprine beta-casein elucidated by RP-HPLC/MS: genetic variants and phosphorylations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Carole; Mollé, Daniel; Moreno, Javier; Martin, Patrice; Léonil, Joëlle

    2002-11-01

    Casein variants occurring in milks from goats homozygous at the alpha(s1)-Cn locus were separated and identified by an RP-HPLC/ESI-MS method. Preferential haplotypes arose as well as some particularities in posttranslational modifications. A new variant of caprine beta-Cn, named C, as well as the phosphorylations pattern of the protein were characterized by the combined use of peptide mass fingerprinting and sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry. The molecular mass of the new variant in its 6P form was measured as 23854 Da and it differs in a mono amino acid substitution, A177 --> V177, from the variant A. The phosphorylation pattern of caprine beta-Cn is homologous to bovine beta-Cn concerning the 5P located on Ser15, 17, 18, 19, 35 but it presents a specific additional phosphorylation site on Thr12 that is comparable to human beta-Cn phosphorylation located on Thr3.

  20. Circadian and pharmacological regulation of casein kinase I in the hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patricia V. Agostino; Santiago A. Plano; Diego A. Golombek

    2008-12-01

    In mammals, the mechanism for the generation of circadian rhythms and entrainment by light–dark (LD) cycles resides in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), and the principal signal that adjusts this biological clock with environmental timing is the light:dark cycle. Within the SCN, rhythms are generated by a complex of molecular feedback loops that regulate the transcription of clock genes, including per and cry. Posttranslational modification plays an essential role in the regulation of biological rhythms; in particular, clock gene phosphorylation by casein kinase I, both epsilon (CKI) and delta (CKI), regulates key molecular mechanisms in the circadian clock. In this paper, we report for the first time that CKI activity undergoes a significant circadian rhythm in the SCN (peaking at circadian time 12, the start of the subjective night), and its pharmacological inhibition alters photic entrainment of the clock, indicating that CKI may be a key element in this pathway.

  1. Drying Technology of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptide Derived from Bovine Casein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhanmei; Hue Guicheng; TIAN Be

    2009-01-01

    Drying technology of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides derived from bovine casein was investigated. No significance was observed on ACE inhibitory activity of products prepared by spay drying and freeze drying (P>0.05). Spay drying was the best drying process for practical industry production. The inlet temperature ranged from 140℃ to 160℃ and the exit temperature ranged from 70℃ to 90℃ during the spay drying process. Under the optimal eonditious, scale-up of angiotensin converted enzyme inhibitory peptide from 1 L to 10 L and the experiment was successively conducted. Peptide yield was 29% and half inhibitory concentration(IC50) was 0.53g·L-1.

  2. Genetic polymorphism of the K-casein (CSN3 gene in goats reared in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pilla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available K-casein (K-CN represents one of the most important proteins determining the manufacturing properties of milk,because of its essential role in micelle formation and stabilisation.Several genetic variants of K-CN have been described in goats. To investigate the occurrence of seven alleles and theirdistribution among breeds, a total of 170 animals, from six different breeds reared in Italy (Cilentana Nera, Derivata diSiria, Maltese, Jonica, Garganica and Cashmere, have been analysed in this paper by the primer extension method.Alleles A and B were found to be the most represented in all the analysed breeds; allele D is present only in Maltese andCashmere animals with a very low frequency; while allele G has been found in all but two (Garganica and Cashmerebreeds. Alleles C, E and F were not present in the material used for this study.

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF BETA-LACTOGLOBULIN AND KAPPA-CASEIN GENOTYPES IN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TESIO C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta-lactoglobulin (b-Lg and kappa-casein (k-Cn are two of the most importantproteins in the mammals’ milk synthesized by the epithelial cells of the mammaryglands. They play a crucial role in the milk quality and coagulation process(production of cheese and butter. The PCR-RFLP test was performed to distinguishthe different alleles in a population of Romanian Black Spotted cattle, a dairy breed.Genetic polymorphism was detected by digestion with the endonucleases Hae III (b-Lg and Hinf I (k-Cn, followed by electrophoresis in agarose high resolution gelstained with ethidium bromide. Fifty DNA samples from Romanian Black Spottedbreed were analyzed for A and B variants. This simple PCR-RFLP test makesfeasible the inclusion of b-Lg and k-Cn genotypes in breeding plans and cattleselection.

  4. Isolation and characterization of recombinant human casein kinase II subunits alpha and beta from bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grankowski, N; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1991-01-01

    cDNA encoding the casein kinase II (CKII) subunits alpha and beta of human origin were expressed in Escherichia coli using expression vector pT7-7. Significant expression was obtained with E. coli BL21(DE3). The CKII subunits accounted for approximately 30% of the bacterial protein; however, most...... of the expressed proteins were produced in an insoluble form. The recombinant CKII alpha subunit was purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, followed by phosphocellulose and heparin-agarose chromatography. The recombinant CKII beta subunit was extracted from the insoluble pellet and purified in a single step...... on phosphocellulose. From 10 g bacterial cells, the yield of soluble protein was 12 mg alpha subunit and 5 mg beta subunit. SDS/PAGE analysis of the purified recombinant proteins indicated molecular masses of 42 kDa and 26 kDa for the alpha and beta subunits, respectively, in agreement with the molecular masses...

  5. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradleigh eHocking

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact fruit development, physical traits and disease susceptibility through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to ripening and the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g. blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples. This review works towards an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved

  6. Influence of using a blend of rennet casein and whey protein concentrate as protein source on the quality of Mozzarella cheese analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanraj, Padhiyar; Jana, Atanu; Modha, Hiral; Aparnathi, K D

    2017-03-01

    The effect of incorporating whey protein concentrate (WPC) on the quality characteristics of Mozzarella cheese analogue (MCA) based on rennet casein (RC) was studied. The proportion of RC:WPC tried out were 95:5, 90:10, and 85:15 w/w. The formulation of MCA comprised of 23.5% of blend of RC and WPC, 15% specialty vegetable fat, 2.75% trisodium citrate + disodium hydrogen orthophosphate (2.5:1, w/w), 0.07% calcium chloride, 0.6% citric acid, 1.1% NaCl, 1.5% cheese bud flavoring, and rest water. Varying the proportion of RC and WPC had a significant influence on the composition, textural properties, baking qualities and sensory quality of MCA judged as a topping on pizza pie. MCA made using protein blends (RC:WPC-90:10 or 85:15) behaved satisfactorily during pizza baking trials. However, looking at the superiority of MCA made using RC:WPC (90:10) with regard to shred quality and marginal superiority in terms of the total sensory score of cheese, judged as pizza topping, the former blend (i.e. RC:WPC, 90:10) was selected. The MCA obtained employing such protein blend had composition similar to that of Pizza cheese prepared from cheese milk and had requisite baking characteristics needed as a pizza topping. It is recommended to use a blend of RC and WPC (90:10) as the protein source in the formulation of MCA to obtain nutritionally superior cheese product having desired functional properties for its end use in baking applications.

  7. Formulation and characterization of nanoencapsulated curcumin using sodium caseinate and its incorporation in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deep Diyuti; Mann, Bimlesh; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Rajan; Bajaj, Rajesh; Minaxi

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, the preparation and characterization of a curcumin nanoemulsion with milk protein (sodium caseinate) and its incorporation into ice cream were undertaken. Among the different combinations, the most stable formulation was observed using milk fat (8%), medium chain triglycerides (2%), curcumin (0.24%) and sodium caseinate (6%) with a mean particle size of 333.8 ± 7.18 nm, a zeta potential of -44.1 ± 0.72 mV and an encapsulation efficiency of 96.9 ± 0.28%. The effect of different processing conditions (heating, pH and ionic strength) on the particle size distribution and zeta potential of the nanoemulsion was evaluated. During heat treatment, the particle size of the nanoemulsion was increased from 333.8 ± 7.18 to 351.1 ± 4.04 nm. The nanoemulsion was destabilized at pH 4.6 and the particle size increased above and below pH 5.0. However, there was a slight increase in the particle size with a change in the ionic concentration. The release kinetics data suggested that in simulated gastro-intestinal digestion, the nanoemulsion was stable against pepsin digestion (a 5.25% release of curcumin), while pancreatic action led to a 16.12% release of curcumin from the nanoemulsion. Finally, our formulation was successfully incorporated into ice cream and the sensory attributes were evaluated. No significant difference was observed in the scores of the sensory attributes between the control and ice cream prepared with a curcumin nanoemulsion. Moreover, the encapsulation efficiency of the curcumin incorporated into the ice cream was 93.7%, which indicates that it can withstand the processing conditions. The findings suggest that ice cream is a suitable dairy product for the delivery of lipophilic bioactive components (curcumin) which can be used for therapeutic purposes.

  8. Novel ionically crosslinked casein nanoparticles for flutamide delivery: formulation, characterization, and in vivo pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzoghby AO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed O Elzoghby,1 Maged W Helmy,2 Wael M Samy,1,3 Nazik A Elgindy11Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharos University, Alexandria, Egypt; 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beirut Arab University, Beirut, LebanonAbstract: A novel particulate delivery matrix based on ionically crosslinked casein (CAS nanoparticles was developed for controlled release of the poorly soluble anticancer drug flutamide (FLT. Nanoparticles were fabricated via oil-in-water emulsification then stabilized by ionic crosslinking of the positively charged CAS molecules below their isoelectric point, with the polyanionic crosslinker sodium tripolyphosphate. With the optimal preparation conditions, the drug loading and incorporation efficiency achieved were 8.73% and 64.55%, respectively. The nanoparticles exhibited a spherical shape with a size below 100 nm and a positive zeta potential (+7.54 to +17.3 mV. FLT was molecularly dispersed inside the nanoparticle protein matrix, as revealed by thermal analysis. The biodegradability of CAS nanoparticles in trypsin solution could be easily modulated by varying the sodium tripolyphosphate crosslinking density. A sustained release of FLT from CAS nanoparticles for up to 4 days was observed, depending on the crosslinking density. After intravenous administration of FLT-CAS nanoparticles into rats, CAS nanoparticles exhibited a longer circulation time and a markedly delayed blood clearance of FLT, with the half-life of FLT extended from 0.88 hours to 14.64 hours, compared with drug cosolvent. The results offer a promising method for tailoring biodegradable, drug-loaded CAS nanoparticles as controlled, long-circulating drug delivery systems of hydrophobic anticancer drugs in aqueous vehicles.Keywords: casein nanoparticles, ionic crosslinking, biodegradability

  9. Autoantibodies to αS1-casein are induced by breast-feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Petermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The generation of antibodies is impaired in newborns due to an immature immune system and reduced exposure to pathogens due to maternally derived antibodies and placental functions. During nursing, the immune system of newborns is challenged with multiple milk-derived proteins. Amongst them, caseins are the main constituent. In particular, human αS1-casein (CSN1S1 was recently shown to possess immunomodulatory properties. We were thus interested to determine if auto-antibodies to CSN1S1 are induced by breast-feeding and may be sustained into adulthood. METHODS: 62 sera of healthy adult individuals who were (n = 37 or were not (n = 25 breast-fed against human CSN1S1 were investigated by a new SD (surface display-ELISA. For cross-checking, these sera were tested for anti Epstein-Barr virus (EBV antibodies by a commercial ELISA. RESULTS: IgG-antibodies were predominantly detected in individuals who had been nursed. At a cut-off value of 0.4, the SD-ELISA identified individuals with a history of having been breast-fed with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 92%. Under these conditions, 35 out of 37 sera from healthy donors, who where breast-fed, reacted positively but only 5 sera of the 25 donors who were not breast-fed. The duration of breast-feeding was of no consequence to the antibody reaction as some healthy donors were only short term breast-fed (5 days minimum until 6 weeks maximum, but exhibited significant serum reaction against human CSN1S1 nonetheless. CONCLUSION: We postulate that human CSN1S1 is an autoantigen. The antigenicity is orally determined, caused by breast-feeding, and sustained into adulthood.

  10. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  11. Synthesis of calcium superoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rewick, R. T.; Blucher, W. G.; Estacio, P. L.

    1972-01-01

    Efforts to prepare Ca(O2) sub 2 from reactions of calcium compounds with 100% O3 and with O(D-1) atoms generated by photolysis of O3 at 2537 A are described. Samples of Ca(OH) sub 2, CaO, CaO2, Ca metal, and mixtures containing suspected impurities to promote reaction have been treated with excess O3 under static and flow conditions in the presence and absence of UV irradiation. Studies with KO2 suggest that the superoxide anion is stable to radiation at 2537 A but reacts with oxygen atoms generated by the photolysis of O3 to form KO3. Calcium superoxide is expected to behave in an analogous.

  12. Models of calcium signalling

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Geneviève; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the ways in which mathematical, computational, and modelling methods can be used to help understand the dynamics of intracellular calcium. The concentration of free intracellular calcium is vital for controlling a wide range of cellular processes, and is thus of great physiological importance. However, because of the complex ways in which the calcium concentration varies, it is also of great mathematical interest.This book presents the general modelling theory as well as a large number of specific case examples, to show how mathematical modelling can interact with experimental approaches, in an interdisciplinary and multifaceted approach to the study of an important physiological control mechanism. Geneviève Dupont is FNRS Research Director at the Unit of Theoretical Chronobiology of the Université Libre de Bruxelles;Martin Falcke is head of the Mathematical Cell Physiology group at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin;Vivien Kirk is an Associate Professor in the Depar...

  13. Calcium signalling and calcium channels: evolution and general principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Parpura, Vladimir

    2014-09-15

    Calcium as a divalent cation was selected early in evolution as a signaling molecule to be used by both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Its low cytosolic concentration likely reflects the initial concentration of this ion in the primordial soup/ocean as unicellular organisms were formed. As the concentration of calcium in the ocean subsequently increased, so did the diversity of homeostatic molecules handling calcium. This includes the plasma membrane channels that allowed the calcium entry, as well as extrusion mechanisms, i.e., exchangers and pumps. Further diversification occurred with the evolution of intracellular organelles, in particular the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, which also contain channels, exchanger(s) and pumps to handle the homeostasis of calcium ions. Calcium signalling system, based around coordinated interactions of the above molecular entities, can be activated by the opening of voltage-gated channels, neurotransmitters, second messengers and/or mechanical stimulation, and as such is all-pervading pathway in physiology and pathophysiology of organisms.

  14. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian

    2017-01-01

    Background Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. Scope A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent-to-treat population (N=2520), 752 patients with recorded dose data for calcium acetate (n=551)/calcium carbonate (n=201) at baseline and lanthanum carbonate at week 16 were studied. Elemental calcium intake, serum phosphate, corrected serum calcium, and serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were analyzed. Findings Of the 551 patients with calcium acetate dose data, 271 (49.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day at baseline, and 142 (25.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) serum phosphate levels were 6.1 (5.89, 6.21) mg/dL at baseline and 6.2 (6.04, 6.38) mg/dL at 16 weeks; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.3 (9.16, 9.44) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Of the 201 patients with calcium carbonate dose data, 117 (58.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day, and 76 (37.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% CI) serum phosphate levels were 5.8 (5.52, 6.06) mg/dL at baseline and 5.8 (5.53, 6.05) mg/dL at week 16; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.7 (9.15, 10.25) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Conclusion Calcium acetate/calcium carbonate phosphate binders, taken to control serum phosphate levels, may result in high levels of elemental calcium intake. This may lead to complications related to calcium balance. PMID:28182142

  15. Magnesium-Calcite Crystal Formation Mediated by the Thermophilic Bacterium Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius Requires Calcium and Endospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Rie; Yoshida, Naoto

    2016-11-01

    Fresh Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius cells grown on soybean-casein digest nutrient agar were inoculated as a parent colony 1 cm in diameter on the surface of an agar gel containing acetate and calcium ions (calcite-promoting hydrogel) and incubated at 60 °C for 4 days, after which magnesium-calcite single crystals of 50-130 µm in size formed within the parent colony. Addition of EDTA, polyacrylic acid or N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide to the calcite-forming hydrogel inhibited the parent colony from forming magnesium-calcite crystals. Inoculation of G. thermoglucosidasius on calcite-forming hydrogel containing 5 µM cadmium and 20 µM zinc resulted in a decrease in the sporulation rate from 55 to 7-8 %. Magnesium-calcite synthesis decreased relative to the sporulation rate. G. thermoglucosidasius exhibited higher adsorption/absorbance of calcium than other Geobacillus sp. that do not mediate calcite formation and higher levels of magnesium accumulation. Calcium ions contained in the calcite-promoting hydrogel and magnesium ions concentrated in G. thermoglucosidasius cells serve as the elements for magnesium-calcite synthesis. The observed decreases in sporulation rate and magnesium-calcite formation support the hypothesis that endospores act as nuclei for the synthesis of magnesium-calcite single crystals.

  16. Whey and casein labelled with L-[1-13C]-leucine and muscle protein synthesis: effect of resistance exercise and protein ingestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitelseder, Søren; Agergaard, Jakob; Doessing, Simon

    2011-01-01

    to a single bolus intake of whey or casein after performance of heavy resistance exercise. Young male individuals were randomly assigned to participate in two protein trials (n = 9) or one control trial (n = 8). Infusion of l-[1-(13)C]leucine was carried out, and either whey, casein (0.3 g/kg lean body mass......), or a noncaloric control drink was ingested immediately after exercise. l-[1-(13)C]leucine-labeled whey and casein were used while muscle protein synthesis (MPS) was assessed. Blood and muscle tissue samples were collected to measure systemic hormone and amino acid concentrations, tracer enrichments......, and myofibrillar protein synthesis. Western blots were used to investigate the Akt signaling pathway. Plasma insulin and branched-chain amino acid concentrations increased to a greater extent after ingestion of whey compared with casein. Myofibrillar protein synthesis was equally increased 1-6 h postexercise after...

  17. Study on genetic variability at αS1 and αS2 casein loci in autochthonous goat populations of the Lombardy Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Crepaldi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In cattle, sheep and goats (Hayes et al., 1993 the casein genes form a cluster, on the chromosome 6, of four tightly linked genes, whose sequence is: αS1-β-αS2-k (Threadgill and Womack, 1990; Ferretti et al., 1990; Gallagher et al., 1994; Rijnkles et al., 1997. For this reason the alleles at these loci are generally inherited all together (Di Stasio and Mariani, 2000, with low recombination frequency. Thus it is worth noting the importance of describing the casein haplotypes namely the inherited combination of closely linked alleles (King and Stansfield, 1985; Meuwissen and Goddard, 2001. The knowledge of the casein allele associations could be important for the selection. In goat milk the casein alleles are related to important differences in the level of synthesis of the respective gene products and in milk chemical-physical properties........

  18. The milk protein α-casein functions as a tumor suppressor via activation of STAT1 signaling, effectively preventing breast cancer tumor growth and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonuccelli, Gloria; Castello-Cros, Remedios; Capozza, Franco; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Lin, Zhao; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Xuanmao, Jiao; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Howell, Anthony; Lisanti, Michael P; Sotgia, Federica

    2012-11-01

    Here, we identified the milk protein α-casein as a novel suppressor of tumor growth and metastasis. Briefly, Met-1 mammary tumor cells expressing α-casein showed a ~5-fold reduction in tumor growth and a near 10-fold decrease in experimental metastasis. To identify the molecular mechanism(s), we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Interestingly, our results show that α-casein upregulates gene transcripts associated with interferon/STAT1 signaling and downregulates genes associated with "stemness." These findings were validated by immunoblot and FACS analysis, which showed the upregulation and hyperactivation of STAT1 and a decrease in the number of CD44(+) "cancer stem cells." These gene signatures were also able to predict clinical outcome in human breast cancer patients. Thus, we conclude that a lactation-based therapeutic strategy using recombinant α-casein would provide a more natural and non-toxic approach to the development of novel anticancer therapies.

  19. A preparation of cow's late colostrum fraction containing αs1-casein promoted the proliferation of cultured rat intestinal IEC-6 epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairangzhuoma; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Xijier; Inagaki, Mizuho; Uchida, Kenji; Yamashita, Kousaku; Saito, Shouichiro; Yabe, Tomio; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Colostrum is a complex mixture of bioactives that promotes neonate growth. Recently, we have found by in vivo study that skimmed, sterilized, and concentrated bovine late colostrum (SCBLC), obtained from a Holstein herd on days 6-7 after parturition, had an ability to maintain intestinal integrity. In the present study we investigated effects of SCBLC on rat intestinal IEC-6 cell proliferation in vitro. A fraction containing αs1-casein was found to have a robust stimulation effect as compared to other protein fractions from SCBLC and even the αs1-casein fraction from milk from other Holstein herds. Furthermore, the SCBLC αs1-casein molecule demonstrated not only slightly slower mobility on both SDS- and native-PAGE than other bovine milk αs1-caseins, but also a peculiar conformation reminiscent of moltenglobule in the circular dichroism spectrum. These findings may be of relevant to the competence of SCBLC to preserve intestinal integrity.

  20. Nitrogen balance in lambs fed low-quality brome hay and infused with differing proportions of casein in the rumen and abomasum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, K C; Freetly, H C; Ferrell, C L

    2004-02-01

    Twenty wether lambs (46 +/- 2 kg) fitted with ruminal and abomasal infusion catheters were used in a completely randomized design to determine the effects of differing proportions of ruminal and abomasal casein infusion on N balance in lambs fed low-quality brome hay (0.8% N, DM basis) for ad libitum intake. Wethers were infused with 0 (control) or 10.7 g/d of N from casein with ratios of ruminal:abomasal infusion of 100:0 (100R:0A), 67:33 (67R:33A), 33:67 (33R:67A), or 0:100% (0R:100A), respectively, over a 12-d period. Total N supply (hay N intake + N from casein infusion) was greater (P = 0.001) in lambs receiving casein infusion than in controls. Urinary N excretion (g/d) was greater (P = 0.001) in lambs receiving casein infusion than in controls. Urinary N excretion decreased as casein infusion was shifted from 100R:0A to 33R:67A and then slightly increased in lambs receiving 0R:100A (quadratic, P = 0.02). Total N excretion was greater (P = 0.001) in lambs receiving casein infusion than in controls and decreased linearly (P = 0.005) as casein infusion was shifted to the abomasum. Retained N (g/d, % of N intake, and % of digested N) was greater (P = 0.001) in lambs receiving casein than in controls. Retained N increased as infusion was shifted from 100R:0A to 33R:67A and then slightly decreased in lambs receiving 0R: 100A (quadratic, P infusion to maximize N retention was 68% into the abomasum. The regression suggests that supplementation with undegradable intake protein had an additional benefit over supplementation with ruminally degradable intake protein (100R:0A) and that changing the percentage of ruminally undegradable intake protein in supplemental protein from 33 to 100% resulted in minimal differences in N retention. Apparent N, DM, OM, and energy digestibility (% of intake) was greater (P infused with casein than controls but did not differ among casein infusion groups. These data suggest that feeding protein supplements containing a portion (greater

  1. Calcium – how and why?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J K Jaiswal

    2001-09-01

    Calcium is among the most commonly used ions, in a multitude of biological functions, so much so that it is impossible to imagine life without calcium. In this article I have attempted to address the question as to how calcium has achieved this status with a brief mention of the history of calcium research in biology. It appears that during the origin and early evolution of life the Ca2+ ion was given a unique opportunity to be used in several biological processes because of its unusual physical and chemical properties.

  2. Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials: An Update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Current calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials for bone repair, substitution, augmentation and regeneration include hydroxyapatite ( HA ) from synthetic or biologic origin, beta-tricalcium phosphate ( β-TCP ) , biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), and are available as granules, porous blocks, components of composites (CaP/polymer) cements, and as coatings on orthopedic and dental implants. Experimental calcium phosphate biomaterials include CO3- and F-substituted apatites, Mg-and Zn-substituted β-TCP, calcium phosphate glasses. This paper is a brief review of the different types of CaP biomaterials and their properties such as bioactivity, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity.

  3. Proving the adulteration of ewe and goat cheeses with cow milk using the reference method of isoelectric focusing of γ-casein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Mikulec

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to introduce a reference method for the detection of cow milk in ewe and goat cheeses (EC 273/08 in order to protect manufacturers and consumers from adulterations and imitations, and to ensure alignment with the demands of domestic and EU markets. The method includes isolation of casein from cheese, isoelectric focusing of γ2- and γ3-casein originating from the hydrolysis of β-casein by plasmin, the detection and quantitative determination of γ-casein in cow, ewe and goat cheese by densitometry. Ewe or goat cheese products with a minimum of 1 % of cow milk are considered to be adulterated. For the quantitative determination of cow, ewe and goat milk in cheeses, standard mixtures of cow-ewe and cow-goat milk were made by adding 0; 0.5; 1; 2; 5; 10; 25; 50; 75 and 100 % (v/v of cow milk. The quantification was performed by determining the peak area ratio of cow γ-casein in comparison to ewe/goat casein in prepared standard cheeses. The calibration curves were calculated based on the relation of the peak area ratio of cow γ-caseins (calculated as the percentage of total γ-caseins in contrast to the relative content (% of cow milk in the mixture. The method proved to be adequate for the detection of raw and heat-treated cow milk in fresh and ripened cheeses made from ewe or goat milk, or a mixture of ewe and goat milk.

  4. 牛αS1-酪蛋白基因研究新进展%The Study Progress of Alpha-s1-casein Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田青

    2011-01-01

    Casein is the main component of milk protein,accounts for about 70~80 percent of total protein.as1-casein is the main component of casein,accounting for about 39~46 percent of total milk protein.It is one of the quite active functional genes in the cattle's mammary gland tissue,so it is important and very necessary to study the cow alpha S1-casein gene.The paper summarized the gene structure,genetic diversity and casein active peptide of alpha-s1-casein gene,which would provide the theory basis to study alpha-s1-casein gene deeply and to improve the milk protein content by regulating as1-casein gene.%酪蛋白是牛奶蛋白质的主要组成部分,约占总蛋白的70%~80%,而as1-酪蛋白又是酪蛋白的主要组成部分,约占牛奶总蛋白的39%~46%,是牛乳腺组织中转录相当活跃的一个功能基因,因此研究牛αS1-酪蛋白基因就显得尤为重要而且很有必要。本文从牛as1-酪蛋白基因结构、遗传多态性和酪蛋白活性肽方面做了综述,旨在为以后牛as1-酪蛋白基因的深入研究和通过调控as1-酪蛋白基因而提高牛奶蛋白质的含量提供理论基础。

  5. $\\beta$-Caseinophosphopeptide (f1-25) confers on $\\beta$-casein tryptic hydrolysate an antioxidant activity during iron/ascorbate-induced oxidation of liposomes

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    International audience; Protein ingredients such as hydrolysates of milk proteins may improve the nutritive value of functional foods. For instance, $\\beta$-casein tryptic hydrolysate could simultaneously increase iron absorption and prevent lipid oxidation in foods containing high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of $\\beta$-casein tryptic hydrolysate and of its $\\beta$-caseinophosphopeptide (f1-25) on Fe(III)/asco...

  6. Calcium measurement methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rightly stressed by prof. Wolfgang Walz in the Preface to the series Neuromethods series, the “careful application of methods is probably the most important step in the process of scientific inquiry”. Thus, I strongly suggest to all those interested in calcium signaling and especially to the new-comers in the hot topic of neuroscience (which has so much space even in science-society debate for its implications in legal issues and in the judge-decision process to take profit from this so well edited book. I am saying this since prof. Verkhratsky and prof. Petersen......

  7. Extracellular calcium sensing and extracellular calcium signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E. M.; MacLeod, R. J.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    , localized changes in Ca(o)(2+) within the ECF can originate from several mechanisms, including fluxes of calcium ions into or out of cellular or extracellular stores or across epithelium that absorb or secrete Ca(2+). In any event, the CaR and other receptors/sensors for Ca(o)(2+) and probably for other extracellular ions represent versatile regulators of numerous cellular functions and may serve as important therapeutic targets.

  8. αS1-casein in goat milk: identification of genetic variants by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis compared to Isoelectric Focusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Enne

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AlphaS1 casein fraction in caprine milk is characterized by an important polymorphism due to substitution, deletion of amino acids and post trascriptional modifications (Grosclaude et al., 1994; Ferranti et al., 1997. This structural polymorphism is associated to a quantitative variability in protein expression related to different milk quality and dairy properties (Pierre et al., 1998; Remeuf, 1993; Vassal et al., 1994. Classical electrophoretic methods were applied to characterize the phenotypic variants at αS1-casein fraction (Addeo et al., 1988; Russo et al., 1986. During the last ten years capillary electrophoresis became an analytical technique for rapid and automated analysis requiring small sample volume and small solvent waste. These characteristics, together with the high resolution and the chance to give quantitative results, made this technique a useful tool........

  9. Thermal protection of β-carotene in re-assembled casein micelles during different processing technologies applied in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz-Abajo, María-José; González-Ferrero, Carolina; Moreno-Ruiz, Ana; Romo-Hualde, Ana; González-Navarro, Carlos J

    2013-06-01

    β-Carotene is a carotenoid usually applied in the food industry as a precursor of vitamin A or as a colourant. β-Carotene is a labile compound easily degraded by light, heat and oxygen. Casein micelles were used as nanostructures to encapsulate, stabilise and protect β-carotene from degradation during processing in the food industry. Self-assembly method was applied to re-assemble nanomicelles containing β-carotene. The protective effect of the nanostructures against degradation during the most common industrial treatments (sterilisation, pasteurisation, high hydrostatic pressure and baking) was proven. Casein micelles protected β-carotene from degradation during heat stabilisation, high pressure processing and the processes most commonly used in the food industry including baking. This opens new possibilities for introducing thermolabile ingredients in bakery products.

  10. Casein and soya-bean protein have different effects on whole body protein turnover at the same nitrogen balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Kondrup, J; Elsner, Petteri

    1994-01-01

    was recovered from urinary ammonia and urea during isotope steady state for measurement of protein synthesis and protein degradation. Compared with starvation the protein-free diet decreased N excretion by 75%, probably by increasing the rate of reutilization of amino acids from endogenous proteins for protein...... synthesis. The protein diets produced a positive N balance which was independent of the protein source. Intact and hydrolysed casein increased protein synthesis 2.6- and 2.0-fold respectively, compared with the protein-free diet. Protein degradation increased 1.4- and 1.2-fold respectively. Hydrolysed soya......-bean protein did not increase protein synthesis but decreased protein degradation by 35% compared with the protein-free diet. Compared with the hydrolysed soya-bean protein, intact casein resulted in 2.2- and 2.8-fold higher rates of protein synthesis and degradation respectively. These results are not easily...

  11. Crosslinking with transglutaminase does not change metabolic effects of sodium caseinate in model beverage in healthy young individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvonen Kristiina R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial metabolic and appetitive responses of proteins are dependent on protein source and processing technique prior to ingestion. Studies on the postprandial effects of enzymatic crosslinking of milk proteins are sparse. Our aim was to study the effect of transglutaminase (TG-induced crosslinking of sodium caseinate on postprandial metabolic and appetite responses. Whey protein was included as reference protein. Methods Thirteen healthy individuals (23.3 ± 1.1 y, BMI 21.7 ± 0.4 kg/m2 participated in a single-blind crossover design experiment in which the subjects consumed three different isovolumic (500 g pourable beverages containing either sodium caseinate (Cas, 29 g, TG-treated sodium caseinate (Cas-TG, 29 g or whey protein (Wh, 30 g in a randomized order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and for 4 h postprandially for the determination of plasma glucose, insulin and amino acid (AA concentrations. Gastric emptying (GE was measured using the 13 C-breath test method. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales. Results All examined postprandial responses were comparable with Cas and Cas-TG. The protein type used in the beverages was reflected as differences in plasma AA concentrations between Wh and Cas, but there were no differences in plasma glucose or insulin responses. A tendency for faster GE rate after Wh was detected. Appetite ratings or subsequent energy intake did not differ among the protein beverages. Conclusions Our results indicate that the metabolic responses of enzymatically crosslinked and native sodium caseinate in a liquid matrix are comparable, suggesting similar digestion and absorption rates and first pass metabolism despite the structural modification of Cas-TG.

  12. Prolactin-like activity of anti-prolactin receptor antibodies on casein and DNA synthesis in the mammary gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Djiane, J; Houdebine, L M; Kelly, P A

    1981-01-01

    Prolactin receptors were partially purified from rabbit mammary gland membranes by using an affinity chromatography technique. Antibodies against this prolactin receptor preparation were obtained in guinea pig and sheep. Both antisera were able to inhibit the binding of 125I-labeled ovine prolactin to rabbit mammary gland membranes. When added to culture media of rabbit mammary explants, the anti-prolactin receptor antiserum inhibited the capacity of prolactin to initiate casein synthesis and...

  13. The Effect of Β-casein Nanoparticles on Bioavailability and Cellular Uptake of Platinum Complex as a Cancer Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Razmi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Due to the low solubility and high toxicity of drugs, treatment of cancers is problematic therefore, the encapsulation and targeted delivery of therapeutic effect is required. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nanoparticles on cellular uptake and bioavailability of beta-casein on platinum complexes as cancer drugs. Methods: In the present experimental study, the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles as drug carriers of beta-casein devices using dynamic light scattering (DLS and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were investigated. In order to evaluate the toxicity effects of platinum complexes, the colon cancer cells in the absence or presence of free platinum complex concentration and nanoparticle loaded with platinum complexes were incubated for 24 and 48 hours. LD50 Values (concentration of compound causing 50% mortality in the cells was determined using the MTT assay. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and post-hoc test. Results: At a concentration of 1 mg ml, beta-casein nanoparticle drug carriers were synthesized in the range of 100 to 300 µM. In addition, the mortality rate in cancer cells by the release of platinum complexes (without and with the capsule, were 70 and 26 in 24 hours, and 60 µM and 21 µM in 48 hours respectively, Conclusion: The study showed that the bioavailability of the encapsulated platinum complexes increases and new drug delivery system may be a good candidate for the treatment of cancer. Key words: Beta-casein, Pt (II Complex, Bioavalibility, Nanocarrier, Micelle

  14. Preparation of (+)-1-Phenylethylamine by Optical Resolution of Racemic 1-Phenylethylamine with a Chiral Biopolymer,Casein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results It has been reported that crystalline form racemates can be resoluted by various methods[1],but for optical resolution of liquid form racemates,the method is limited in chromatograph.So chiral compounds cannot be obtained on large scale by such method.In our previous paper,(+)-3-chloro-1,2-propanediol has been obtained by optical resolution of its racemata (liquid) with a chiral biopolymer,casein[2].

  15. The Gluten-Free/Casein-Free Diet: A Double-Blind Challenge Trial in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Susan L.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Foley, Jennifer; Cain, Usa; Peck, Robin; Morris, Danielle D.; Wang, Hongyue; Smith, Tristram

    2016-01-01

    To obtain information on the safety and efficacy of the gluten-free/casein-free (GFCF) diet, we placed 14 children with autism, age 3-5 years, on the diet for 4-6 weeks and then conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled challenge study for 12 weeks while continuing the diet, with a 12-week follow-up. Dietary challenges were delivered via weekly…

  16. Production efficiency of micellar casein concentrate using polymeric spiral-wound microfiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, S L; Zulewska, J; Newbold, M; Barbano, D M

    2010-10-01

    Most current research has focused on using ceramic microfiltration (MF) membranes for micellar casein concentrate production, but little research has focused on the use of polymeric spiral-wound (SW) MF membranes. A method for the production of a serum protein (SP)-reduced micellar casein concentrate using SW MF was compared with a ceramic MF membrane. Pasteurized (79°C, 18s) skim milk (1,100 kg) was microfiltered at 50°C [about 3 × concentration] using a 0.3-μm polyvinylidene fluoride spiral-wound membrane, bleed-and-feed, 3-stage process, using 2 diafiltration stages, where the retentate was diluted 1:2 with reverse osmosis water. Skim milk, permeate, and retentate were analyzed for SP content, and the reduction of SP from skim milk was determined. Theoretically, 68% of the SP content of skim milk can be removed using a single-stage 3× MF. If 2 subsequent water diafiltration stages are used, an additional 22% and 7% of the SP can be removed, respectively, giving a total SP removal of 97%. Removal of SP greater than 95% has been achieved using a 0.1-μm pore size ceramic uniform transmembrane pressure (UTP) MF membrane after a 3-stage MF with diafiltration process. One stage of MF plus 2 stages of diafiltration of 50°C skim milk using a polyvinylidene fluoride polymeric SW 0.3-μm membrane yielded a total SP reduction of only 70.3% (stages 1, 2, and 3: 38.6, 20.8, and 10.9%, respectively). The SP removal rate for the polymeric SW MF membrane was lower in all 3 stages of processing (stages 1, 2, and 3: 0.05, 0.04, and 0.03 kg/m(2) per hour, respectively) than that of the comparable ceramic UTP MF membrane (stages 1, 2, and 3: 0.30, 0.11, and 0.06 kg/m(2) per hour, respectively), indicating that SW MF is less efficient at removing SP from 50°C skim milk than the ceramic UTP system. To estimate the number of steps required for the SW system to reach 95% SP removal, the third-stage SP removal rate (27.4% of the starting material SP content) was used to

  17. Gluten-free and casein-free diets in the treatment of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Reissmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by three core symptoms, i.e. impairments in social interaction, restricted patterns of behavior and impairments in communication. In the framework of the “opioid excess theory”, the disorder symptoms are compared to the behavioral effects of opiates. Based on this, a possible nutritional basis of autism has been proposed, hypothesizing that certain food proteins such as gluten and casein can be transformed to opioid peptides during digestion. These peptides might eventually be able to enter the blood stream and act upon the central nervous system. As a consequence, a diet low in such proteins has been hypothesized to ameliorate the behavioral symptoms of autistic children. Objective: The scope of this review was to analyze the effects of gluten-free and casein-free (GFCF diets on children with autism, as well as to provide information concerning additional aspects related to the GFCF diet in autism. Methods: A literature search was conducted including scientific publications up until December 2013. Search results were screened for any kind of GFCF dietary intervention as well as surveys dealing with GFCF as a treatment for autism. Results: A review of survey data shows that up to 25 % of parents of affected children report on current use of a GFCF diet. The majority of identified studies evaluating GFCF diet outcomes failed to meet basic methodological standards of interventional science. Comparison of study results did not show any clear-cut results, with a substantial proportion of studies failing to show any positive dietary effect. The results of more sophisticated trials were far from equivocal and the studies differed by many methodological aspects. Some variables such as information source and trial duration seemed to affect outcome. Conclusions: Evidence for the effectiveness of the GFCF diet in the treatment of autism is sparse. Rigorous scientific evaluations partly

  18. A review of gluten- and casein-free diets for treatment of autism: 2005–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder JH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Harrison Elder,1 Consuelo Maun Kreider,2 Nancy M Schaefer,3 Mary B de Laosa4 1Department of Family and Community Health Nursing Science, 2Department of Occupational Therapy, 3Health Science Center Library, 4Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Background: The gluten-free, casein-free (GFCF diet is heralded by strong anecdotal parental reports to greatly improve and even "cure" symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Yet, to date, little conclusive empirical evidence exists supporting its use. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the state of the recent evidence regarding the use of GFCF diet for treatment of individuals with ASD. Methods: Five database providers (PubMed, Web of Knowledge, EBSCO, ProQuest, and WorldCat were used to search 19 databases, yielding a total of 491 articles that were published through February 2015. Peer-reviewed articles published between January 2005 and February 2015 were included for review if study participants were identified as having ASD and if the study investigated the effects of the GFCF diet on ASD behaviors or the relationship between the diet and these behaviors. Results: Evaluation of search results yielded eleven reviews, seven group experimental studies including five randomized controlled trials, five case reports, and four group observational studies published during the last 10 years. These studies represent a marked increase in the number of reported studies as well as increased scientific rigor in investigation of GFCF diets in ASD. Conclusion: While strong empirical support for the GFCF diet in ASD is currently lacking, studies point to the need for identifying subsets of individuals (eg, those with documented gastrointestinal abnormalities who may be the best responders to the GFCF diet. Identifying these subsets is critically needed to enhance rigor in this research area. Until rigorous research supporting the use of

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ovine casein genes detected by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriotti, G; Chessa, S; Bolla, P; Budelli, E; Bianchi, L; Duranti, E; Caroli, A

    2004-08-01

    Casein genetic polymorphisms are important and well known due to their effects on quantitative traits and technological properties of milk. At the DNA level, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) allows for the simultaneous typing of several alleles at casein loci, as well as the detection of unknown polymorphisms. Here we describe the usefulness of the PCR-SSCP technique for casein typing in sheep. In particular, three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) are described at CSN1S1, CSN2, and CSN3, all resulting in amino acid exchanges. At CSN1S1, a transition T-->C was found, resulting in the deduced amino acid exchange Ile186-->Thr186. A transition A-->G resulting in the deduced amino acid exchange Met183-->Val183 was identified at CSN2. The 2 SNP showed a rather high frequency (ranging from 0.12 to 0.26) in 3 Italian breeds (Sarda, Comisana, Sopravissana). Another transition C-->T (Ser104-->Leu104) was found at CSN3 in one heterozygous animal.

  20. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM AT THE K-CASEIN LOCUS IN A DAIRY HERD OF ROMANIAN SPOTTED AND BROWN OF MARAMURES BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA ILIE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Caseins are a family of milk proteins that exist in several molecular forms and arethe main proteins present in the bovine milk. Genetic variation of these proteins hasbeen associated with the quality and quantity of cheese derived from milk.This study was focused on possibilities to evaluate the frequency of the K-casein Ballele in dairy herds from the Research and Development Station for Bovine RaisingArad in order to have breeding programs that target an increase in the frequency ofthe B allele in the dairy cattle population.In order to differentiate the favorable genotype for superior composition and highercheese yield, we used simple DNA extraction method from fresh blood andtechniques based on DNA analysis, which include polymerase chain reaction andrestriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP methods. Employing thesetechniques we were able to determine the k-casein genotype of all individuals in agiven population under selection, regardless of sex, age or physiological stage.As a result, it is now possible to include information on milk protein genotypes intomarker assisted selection programs and consequently improve response to selection.

  1. Effects of dairy factory, milk casein content and titratable acidity on coagulation properties in Trentingrana dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penasa, Mauro; Toffanin, Valentina; Cologna, Nicola; Cassandro, Martino; De Marchi, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of environmental factors, milk casein content and titratable acidity on milk coagulation properties (MCP) of samples routinely collected in the Trento province (northeast Italy) under field conditions. Rennet coagulation time (RCT, min), curd-firming time (k20, min) and curd firmness (a30, mm) were determined by Formagraph on 14 971 samples from 635 herds associated to 17 dairy factories. Besides MCP, fat, protein, and casein percentages, titratable acidity (TA), and somatic cell and bacterial counts were available. A standardised index of milk aptitude to coagulate (IAC) was derived using information of RCT and a30. An analysis of variance was conducted on MCP and IAC using a fixed effects linear model. Approximately 3% of milk samples did not form a curd within the testing time (30 min) and k20 was missing for 26% of milks. The percentage of samples without information on k20 largely differed among dairy factories (1·7-20·9%). Significant differences were estimated between the best and the worst dairy factory for RCT (-2 min), k20 (-1·2 min), a30 (+3·4 mm) and IAC (+2·6 points). Milk casein content and TA were important factors in explaining the variation of MCP and IAC, supporting the central role of these two traits on technological properties. The Trento province is heterogeneous in terms of dairy systems and this could explain the differences among dairy factories.

  2. Effect of high pressure--low temperature treatments on structural characteristics of whey proteins and micellar caseins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Daniel; Purschke, Benedict; Schmitt, Christophe; Rawel, Harshadrai M; Knorr, Dietrich

    2015-11-15

    In this study, structural changes in micellar caseins and whey proteins due to high pressure--low temperature treatments (HPLT) were investigated and compared to changes caused by high pressure treatments at room temperature. Whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions as well as micellar casein (MC) dispersions and mixtures were treated at 500 MPa (pH 7.0 and 5.8) at room temperature, -15 °C and -35 °C. Surface hydrophobicity and accessible thiol groups remained nearly unchanged after HPLT treatments whereas HP treatments at room temperature caused an unfolding of the WPI, resulting in an increase in surface hydrophobicity and exposure of the thiol groups. For HPLT treatments, distinct changes in the secondary structure (increase in the amount of β-sheets) were observed while the tertiary structure remained unchanged. Large flocs, stabilized by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds, were formed in casein containing samples due to HPLT treatments. Depending on the pH and the applied HPLT treatment parameters, these interactions differed significantly from the interactions determined in native micelles.

  3. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM AT THE K-CASEIN LOCUS IN A DAIRY HERD OF ROMANIAN SPOTTED AND BROWN OF MARAMURES BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIE DANIELA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Caseins are a family of milk proteins that exist in several molecular forms and arethe main proteins present in the bovine milk. Genetic variation of these proteins hasbeen associated with the quality and quantity of cheese derived from milk.This study was focused on possibilities to evaluate the frequency of the K-casein Ballele in dairy herds from the Research and Development Station for Bovine RaisingArad in order to have breeding programs that target an increase in the frequency ofthe B allele in the dairy cattle population.In order to differentiate the favorable genotype for superior composition and highercheese yield, we used simple DNA extraction method from fresh blood andtechniques based on DNA analysis, which include polymerase chain reaction andrestriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP methods. Employing thesetechniques we were able to determine the k-casein genotype of all individuals in agiven population under selection, regardless of sex, age or physiological stage.As a result, it is now possible to include information on milk protein genotypes intomarker assisted selection programs and consequently improve response to selection.

  4. Diffusion and partitioning of macromolecules in casein microgels: evidence for size-dependent attractive interactions in a dense protein system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Paulo D S; Bouchoux, Antoine; Huet, Sébastien; Madec, Marie-Noëlle; Thomas, Daniel; Floury, Juliane; Gésan-Guiziou, Geneviève

    2015-02-10

    Understanding the mechanisms that determine the diffusion and interaction of macromolecules (such as proteins and polysaccharides) that disperse through dense media is an important fundamental issue in the development of innovative technological and medical applications. In the current work, the partitioning and diffusion of macromolecules of different sizes (from 4 to 10 nm in diameter) and shapes (linear or spherical) within dispersions of casein micelles (a protein microgel) is studied. The coefficients for diffusion and partition are measured using FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) and analyzed with respect to the structural characteristics of the microgel determined by the use of TEM (transmission electron microscopy) tomography. The results show that the casein microgel displays a nonspecific attractive interaction for all macromolecules studied. When the macromolecular probes are spherical, this affinity is clearly size-dependent, with stronger attraction for the larger probes. The current data show that electrostatic effects cannot account for such an attraction. Rather, nonspecific hydration molecular forces appear to explain these results. These findings show how weak nonspecific forces affect the diffusion and partitioning of proteins and polysaccharides in a dense protein environment. These results could be useful to better understand the mechanisms of diffusion and partitioning in other media such as cells and tissues. Furthermore, there arises the possibility of using the casein micelle as a size-selective molecular device.

  5. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Balance › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin ...

  6. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  7. Vitamin D and Intestinal Calcium Absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Christakos, Sylvia; Dhawan, Puneet; Porta, Angela; Mady, Leila J.; Seth, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase calcium absorption from the intestine. Calcium is absorbed by both an active transcellular pathway, which is energy dependent, and by a passive paracellular pathway through tight junctions. 1,25Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) the hormonally active form of vitamin D, through its genomic actions, is the major stimulator of active intestinal calcium absorption which involves calcium influx, translocation of calcium throu...

  8. Mammary-Specific Ablation of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor During Lactation Alters Maternal Calcium Metabolism, Milk Calcium Transport, and Neonatal Calcium Accrual

    OpenAIRE

    Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; VanHouten, Joshua; Dann, Pamela; Bikle, Daniel; Chang, Wenhan; Brown, Edward; Wysolmerski, John

    2013-01-01

    To meet the demands for milk calcium, the lactating mother adjusts systemic calcium and bone metabolism by increasing dietary calcium intake, increasing bone resorption, and reducing renal calcium excretion. As part of this adaptation, the lactating mammary gland secretes PTHrP into the maternal circulation to increase bone turnover and mobilize skeletal calcium stores. Previous data have suggested that, during lactation, the breast relies on the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to coordinate ...

  9. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion related to a notification from the International Organisation of Vine and Wine (OIV) on casein/caseinate/milk products to be used in the manufacture of wine as clarification processing aids pursuant to Article 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    of wine as clarification processing aids pursuant to Article 6, paragraph 11 of Directive 2000/13/EC – for permanent exemption from labelling. In earlier assessments, the Panel concluded that wines fined with casein/caseinate/milk products may trigger adverse reactions in susceptible individuals under...... refers to new analytical methods developed for the detection of milk allergens in the fining agent and the detection of casein in wine. There were no changes in the wine manufacturing process and no new clinical studies were provided. Taking into account the information provided on the characterisation...

  10. Active Bilayer PE/PCL Films for Food Packaging Modified with Zinc Oxide and Casein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rešček

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the properties of active polymer food packaging bilayer polyethylene/polycaprolactone (PE/PCL films. Such packaging material consists of primary PE layer coated with thin film of PCL coating modified with active component (zinc oxide or zinc oxide/casein complex with intention to extend the shelf life of food and to maintain the quality and health safety. The influence of additives as active components on barrier, mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties of such materials was studied. The results show that, in comparison to the neat PE and PE/PCL films, some of PE/PCL bilayer films with additives exhibit improved barrier properties i.e. decreased water vapour permeability. Higher thermal stability of modified PE/PCL material is obtained due to a modified mechanism of thermal degradation. The samples with the additive nanoparticles homogeneously dispersed in the polymer matrix showed good mechanical properties. Addition of higher ZnO content contributes to the enhanced antibacterial activity of a material.

  11. Functional analysis of Casein Kinase 1 in a minimal circadian system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerben van Ooijen

    Full Text Available The Earth's rotation has driven the evolution of cellular circadian clocks to facilitate anticipation of the solar cycle. Some evidence for timekeeping mechanism conserved from early unicellular life through to modern organisms was recently identified, but the components of this oscillator are currently unknown. Although very few clock components appear to be shared across higher species, Casein Kinase 1 (CK1 is known to affect timekeeping across metazoans and fungi, but has not previously been implicated in the circadian clock in the plant kingdom. We now show that modulation of CK1 function lengthens circadian rhythms in Ostreococcustauri, a unicellular marine algal species at the base of the green lineage, separated from humans by ~1.5 billion years of evolution. CK1 contributes to timekeeping in a phase-dependent manner, indicating clock-mediated gating of CK1 activity. Label-free proteomic analyses upon overexpression as well as inhibition revealed CK1-responsive phosphorylation events on a set of target proteins, including highly conserved potentially clock-relevant cellular regulator proteins. These results have major implications for our understanding of cellular timekeeping and can inform future studies in any circadian organism.

  12. Microstructural evolution of viscoelastic emulsions stabilised by sodium caseinate and xanthan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschakis, Thomas; Murray, Brent S; Dickinson, Eric

    2005-04-15

    The time-dependent evolution of the phase-separated microstructure of a caseinate-stabilised emulsion containing xanthan gum added before emulsification has been investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy, image analysis and rheology. Moderately low levels of xanthan addition lead to depletion flocculation and gravity-induced phase separation. Increasing the polysaccharide concentration causes immobilisation of the microstructure due to an increase in the local viscoelasticity: that is, the emulsion structure cannot easily rearrange to expel xanthan-enriched aqueous serum phase because a weak gel-like network is generated. The effect of xanthan on the evolving microstructure of phase-separated regions, which reflects indirectly the local emulsion micro-rheology, has been estimated from image analysis of time sequences of confocal micrographs. A comparison has been made between object shape analysis using four different shape descriptors. The roundness parameter has been found to be a convenient descriptor for reliably quantifying the structural change in terms of the relaxation rate of xanthan-rich aqueous drops. The Taylor parameter has been used to link the kinetics of drop relaxation to the time-dependent small-deformation rheological behaviour. The analysis of the combined experimental data reveals the difficulty of relating the evolving microstructure to bulk rheological measurements.

  13. Casein kinase 1 proteomics reveal prohibitin 2 function in molecular clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna S Kategaya

    Full Text Available Throughout the day, clock proteins synchronize changes in animal physiology (e.g., wakefulness and appetite with external cues (e.g., daylight and food. In vertebrates, both casein kinase 1 delta and epsilon (CK1δ and CK1ε regulate these circadian changes by phosphorylating other core clock proteins. In addition, CK1 can regulate circadian-dependent transcription in a non-catalytic manner, however, the mechanism is unknown. Furthermore, the extent of functional redundancy between these closely related kinases is debated. To further advance knowledge about CK1δ and CK1ε mechanisms of action in the biological clock, we first carried out proteomic analysis of both kinases in human cells. Next, we tested interesting candidates in a cell-based circadian readout which resulted in the discovery of PROHIBITIN 2 (PHB2 as a modulator of period length. Decreasing the expression of PHB2 increases circadian-driven transcription, thus revealing PHB2 acts as an inhibitor in the molecular clock. While stable binding of PHB2 to either kinase was not detected, knocking down CK1ε expression increases PHB2 protein levels and, unexpectedly, knocking down CK1δ decreases PHB2 transcript levels. Thus, isolating CK1 protein complexes led to the identification of PHB2 as an inhibitor of circadian transcription. Furthermore, we show that CK1δ and CK1ε differentially regulate the expression of PHB2.

  14. The endoplasmic reticulum and casein-containing vesicles contribute to milk fat globule membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honvo-Houéto, Edith; Henry, Céline; Chat, Sophie; Layani, Sarah; Truchet, Sandrine

    2016-10-01

    During lactation, mammary epithelial cells secrete huge amounts of milk from their apical side. The current view is that caseins are secreted by exocytosis, whereas milk fat globules are released by budding, enwrapped by the plasma membrane. Owing to the number and large size of milk fat globules, the membrane surface needed for their release might exceed that of the apical plasma membrane. A large-scale proteomics analysis of both cytoplasmic lipid droplets and secreted milk fat globule membranes was used to decipher the cellular origins of the milk fat globule membrane. Surprisingly, differential analysis of protein profiles of these two organelles strongly suggest that, in addition to the plasma membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum and the secretory vesicles contribute to the milk fat globule membrane. Analysis of membrane-associated and raft microdomain proteins reinforces this possibility and also points to a role for lipid rafts in milk product secretion. Our results provide evidence for a significant contribution of the endoplasmic reticulum to the milk fat globule membrane and a role for SNAREs in membrane dynamics during milk secretion. These novel aspects point to a more complex model for milk secretion than currently envisioned.

  15. Thermally-dried immobilized kefir on casein as starter culture in dried whey cheese production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrellou, D; Kourkoutas, Y; Koutinas, A A; Kanellaki, M

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of thermally-dried immobilized kefir on casein as a starter culture for protein-enriched dried whey cheese. For comparison reasons, dried whey cheese with thermally-dried free kefir culture and with no starter culture were also produced. The effect of the nature of the culture, the ripening temperature and the ripening process on quality characteristics of the whey cheese was studied. The association of microbial groups during cheese maturation suggested repression of spoilage and protection from pathogens due to the thermally-dried kefir, as counts of coliforms, enterobacteria and staphylococci were significantly reduced in cheeses produced using thermally-dried kefir starter cultures. The effect of the starter culture on production of volatile compounds responsible for cheese flavor was also studied using the SPME GC/MS technique. Thermally-dried immobilized kefir starter culture resulted in an improved profile of aroma-related compounds. The preliminary sensory evaluation ascertained the soft, fine taste and the overall improved quality of cheese produced with the thermally-dried immobilized kefir. The potential of protein-based thermally-dried starter cultures in dairy products is finally highlighted and assessed.

  16. Circadian metabolic regulation through crosstalk between casein kinase 1δ and transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siming; Chen, Xiao-Wei; Yu, Lei; Saltiel, Alan R; Lin, Jiandie D

    2011-12-01

    Circadian clock coordinates behavior and physiology in mammals in response to light and feeding cycles. Disruption of normal clock function is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, underscoring the emerging concept that temporal regulation of tissue metabolism is a fundamental aspect of energy homeostasis. We have previously demonstrated that transcriptional coactivator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), coordinates circadian metabolic rhythms through simultaneous regulation of metabolic and clock gene expression. In this study, we found that PGC-1α physically interacts with, and is phosphorylated by, casein kinase 1δ (CK1δ), a core component of the circadian pacemaker. CK1δ represses the transcriptional function of PGC-1α in cultured hepatocytes, resulting in decreased gluconeogenic gene expression and glucose secretion. At the molecular level, CK1δ phosphorylation of PGC-1α within its arginine/serine-rich domain enhances its degradation through the proteasome system. Together, these results elucidate a novel mechanism through which circadian pacemaker transduces timing signals to the metabolic regulatory network that controls hepatic energy metabolism.

  17. Regulation of Ceramide Synthase by Casein Kinase 2-dependent Phosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresques, Tara; Niles, Brad; Aronova, Sofia; Mogri, Huzefa; Rakhshandehroo, Taha; Powers, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Complex sphingolipids are important components of eukaryotic cell membranes and, together with their biosynthetic precursors, including sphingoid long chain bases and ceramides, have important signaling functions crucial for cell growth and survival. Ceramides are produced at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by a multicomponent enzyme complex termed ceramide synthase (CerS). In budding yeast, this complex is composed of two catalytic subunits, Lac1 and Lag1, as well as an essential regulatory subunit, Lip1. Proper formation of ceramides by CerS has been shown previously to require the Cka2 subunit of casein kinase 2 (CK2), a ubiquitous enzyme with multiple cellular functions, but the precise mechanism involved has remained unidentified. Here we present evidence that Lac1 and Lag1 are direct targets for CK2 and that phosphorylation at conserved positions within the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of each protein is required for optimal CerS activity. Our data suggest that phosphorylation of Lac1 and Lag1 is important for proper localization and distribution of CerS within the ER membrane and that phosphorylation of these sites is functionally linked to the COP I-dependent C-terminal dilysine ER retrieval pathway. Together, our data identify CK2 as an important regulator of sphingolipid metabolism, and additionally, because both ceramides and CK2 have been implicated in the regulation of cancer, our findings may lead to an enhanced understanding of their relationship in health and disease. PMID:25429105

  18. Regulation of ceramide synthase by casein kinase 2-dependent phosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresques, Tara; Niles, Brad; Aronova, Sofia; Mogri, Huzefa; Rakhshandehroo, Taha; Powers, Ted

    2015-01-16

    Complex sphingolipids are important components of eukaryotic cell membranes and, together with their biosynthetic precursors, including sphingoid long chain bases and ceramides, have important signaling functions crucial for cell growth and survival. Ceramides are produced at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by a multicomponent enzyme complex termed ceramide synthase (CerS). In budding yeast, this complex is composed of two catalytic subunits, Lac1 and Lag1, as well as an essential regulatory subunit, Lip1. Proper formation of ceramides by CerS has been shown previously to require the Cka2 subunit of casein kinase 2 (CK2), a ubiquitous enzyme with multiple cellular functions, but the precise mechanism involved has remained unidentified. Here we present evidence that Lac1 and Lag1 are direct targets for CK2 and that phosphorylation at conserved positions within the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of each protein is required for optimal CerS activity. Our data suggest that phosphorylation of Lac1 and Lag1 is important for proper localization and distribution of CerS within the ER membrane and that phosphorylation of these sites is functionally linked to the COP I-dependent C-terminal dilysine ER retrieval pathway. Together, our data identify CK2 as an important regulator of sphingolipid metabolism, and additionally, because both ceramides and CK2 have been implicated in the regulation of cancer, our findings may lead to an enhanced understanding of their relationship in health and disease.

  19. Goat's αS1-casein polymorphism affects gene expression profile of lactating mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, S; Chauvet, S; Martin, P; Chilliard, Y; Leroux, C

    2008-04-01

    Goat's αS1-casein (CSN1S1) polymorphism has a significant effect on milk protein and lipid composition, which affects the nutritional quality and technological properties of milk. Moreover, this polymorphism has a large impact on the morphology of mammary epithelial cells. To explore the metabolic pathways modulated in relation to this polymorphism, we compared the mammary gene expression profiles of two groups of lactating goats carrying either two reference or two defective alleles, using a bovine oligonucleotide microarray representing 8379 genes. We identified 41 differentially expressed genes between the two genotype groups. In particular, we showed a downregulation of two key lipogenic genes encoding fatty acid synthase and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase in agreement with the low fat concentration associated with CSN1S1 deficiency. In addition, this study highlights changes in the expression level of several genes known to influence membrane fluidity, cell-cell interaction or chromatin organization. Our results open up new fields of investigation on structural modifications associated with CSN1S1 deficiency that could affect mammary gland function.

  20. Casein kinase G may be the target of spermine during progesterone-induced oocyte maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIRUNSHENG; JIAKETSO

    1993-01-01

    Casein kinase G (CKG) with more than 2500-fold enrichraent was purified from Bufo bufo gargarizans ovaries. The catalytic activity of the enzyme was found to be associated with its 42 kD subunit, and its 26 kD subunit was found to be the major tsrget for the enzyme autophos phorylation. Each fuU-grown oocyte contained 1.9 units of CKG corresponding to an intracellular concentration of 93 nM. After injecting an amount of 0,38 units of the enzyme into the oocyte, approximately 50% of the progesterone-induoed maturation was inhibited. The inhibitory effect was enhanced in oocytes pretreated with spermine, which was consistent with the results that the enzyme was activated in vitro in the presence of spermine, The MPF-induced oocyte maturation was delayed and even prohibited in the kinase-microinjected oocytes. A 55 kD oocyte protein was identified as an suhstrate of CKG both in vivo and in vitro, and the enhancement of the 55 kD protein phosphory[ation was associated with kinase inhibition on maturation and on protein synthesis in kinase-microinjected oocytes. As the endogenous spermine level decreased in the course of progesteroneinduced oocyte maturation. 55 kD protein was dephosphorylated, Heparin, a specific inhibitor of CKG, potentiated the progesterone-induced oocyte maturation. Altogether the experimental reSults indicated Strongly that CKG may be the physiological target of spermine.

  1. Regulation of Ikaros function by casein kinase 2 and protein phosphatase 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy; K; Erbe; Aleksandar; Savic; Sinisa; Dovat

    2011-01-01

    The Ikaros gene encodes a zinc finger,DNA-binding protein that regulates gene transcription and chromatin remodeling.Ikaros is a master regulator of hematopoiesis and an established tumor suppressor.Moderate alteration of Ikaros activity (e.g.haploinsufficiency) appears to be sufficient to promote malignant transformation in human hematopoietic cells.This raises questions about the mechanisms that normally regulate Ikaros function and the potential of these mechanisms to contribute to the development of leukemia.The focus of this review is the regulation of Ikaros function by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation.Site-specific phosphorylation of Ikaros by casein kinase 2 (CK2) controls Ikaros DNA-binding ability and subcellular localization.As a consequence,the ability of Ikaros to regulate cell cycle progression,chromatin remodeling,target gene expression,and thymocyte differentiation are controlled by CK2.In addition,hyperphosphorylation of Ikaros by CK2 leads to decreased Ikaros levels due to ubiquitinmediated degradation.Dephosphorylation of Ikaros by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) acts in opposition to CK2 to increase Ikaros stability and restore Ikaros DNA binding ability and pericentromeric localization.Thus,the CK2 and PP1 pathways act in concert to regulate Ikaros activity in hematopoiesis and as a tumor suppressor.This highlights the importance of these signal transduction pathways as potential mediators of leukemogenesis via their role in regulating the activities of Ikaros.

  2. Double-antibody based immunoassay for the detection of β-casein in bovine milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Song, F; Li, Y S; Liu, J Q; Lu, S Y; Ren, H L; Liu, Z S; Zhang, Y Y; Yang, L; Li, Z H; Zhang, J H; Wang, X R

    2013-11-01

    The concentration of casein (CN) is one of the most important parameters for measuring the quality of bovine milk. Traditional approach to CN concentration determination is Kjeldahl, which is an indirect method for determination of total nitrogen content. Here, we described a double-antibody based direct immunoassay for the detection of β-CN in bovine milk samples. Monoclonal antibody (McAb) was used as capture antibody and polyclonal antibody (PcAb) labelled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as detection antibody. With the direct immunoassay format, the linear range of the detection was 0.1-10.0 μg mL(-1). The detection limit was 0.04 μg mL(-1). In addition, the concentration of β-CN in real bovine milk samples has been detected by the developed immunoassay. There was a good correlation between the results obtained by the developed technique and Kjeldahl method from commercial samples. Compared to the traditional approach, the advantage of the assay is no need of time-consuming sample pretreatment.

  3. Casein Kinase 2 Reverses Tail-Independent Inactivation of Kinesin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Reddy, Babu J. N.; Anand, Preetha; Shu, Zhanyong; Cermelli, Silvia; Mattson, Michelle K.; Tripathy, Suvranta K.; Hoss, Matthew T.; James, Nikita S.; King, Stephen J.; Huang, Lan; Bardwell, Lee; Gross, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    Kinesin-1 is a plus-end microtubule-based motor, and defects in kinesin-based transport are linked to diseases including neurodegeneration. Kinesin can auto-inhibit via a head-tail interaction, but is believed to be active otherwise. Here we report a tail-independent inactivation of kinesin, reversible by the disease-relevant signaling protein, casein kinase 2 (CK2). The majority of initially active kinesin (native or tail-less) loses its ability to interact with microtubules in vitro, and CK2 reverses this inactivation (~ 4-fold) without altering kinesin’s single motor properties. This activation pathway does not require motor phosphorylation, and is independent of head-tail auto-inhibition. In cultured mammalian cells, reducing CK2 expression, but not its kinase activity, decreases the force required to stall lipid droplet transport, consistent with a decreased number of active kinesin motors. Our results provide the first direct evidence of a protein kinase up-regulating kinesin-based transport, and suggest a novel pathway for regulating the activity of cargo-bound kinesin. PMID:22453827

  4. Gold nanoparticle aggregation-based colorimetric assay for β-casein detection in bovine milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y S; Zhou, Y; Meng, X Y; Zhang, Y Y; Song, F; Lu, S Y; Ren, H L; Hu, P; Liu, Z S; Zhang, J H

    2014-11-01

    Traditional Kjeldahl method, used for quality evaluation of bovine milk, has intrinsic defects of time-consuming sample preparation and two analyses to determine the difference between non-protein nitrogen content and total protein nitrogen content. Herein, based upon antibody functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), we described a colorimetric method for β-casein (β-CN) detection in bovine milk samples. The linear dynamic range and the LOD were 0.08-250 μg mL(-1), and 0.03 μg mL(-1) respectively. In addition, the real content of β-CN in bovine milk was measured by using the developed assay. The results are closely correlated with those from Kjeldahl method. The advantages of β-CN triggered AuNP aggregation-based colorimetric assay are simple signal generation, the high sensitivity and specificity as well as no need of complicated sample preparation, which make it for on-site detection of β-CN in bovine milk samples.

  5. Novel ionically crosslinked casein nanoparticles for flutamide delivery: formulation, characterization, and in vivo pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzoghby, Ahmed O; Helmy, Maged W; Samy, Wael M; Elgindy, Nazik A

    2013-01-01

    A novel particulate delivery matrix based on ionically crosslinked casein (CAS) nanoparticles was developed for controlled release of the poorly soluble anticancer drug flutamide (FLT). Nanoparticles were fabricated via oil-in-water emulsification then stabilized by ionic crosslinking of the positively charged CAS molecules below their isoelectric point, with the polyanionic crosslinker sodium tripolyphosphate. With the optimal preparation conditions, the drug loading and incorporation efficiency achieved were 8.73% and 64.55%, respectively. The nanoparticles exhibited a spherical shape with a size below 100 nm and a positive zeta potential (+7.54 to +17.3 mV). FLT was molecularly dispersed inside the nanoparticle protein matrix, as revealed by thermal analysis. The biodegradability of CAS nanoparticles in trypsin solution could be easily modulated by varying the sodium tripolyphosphate crosslinking density. A sustained release of FLT from CAS nanoparticles for up to 4 days was observed, depending on the crosslinking density. After intravenous administration of FLT-CAS nanoparticles into rats, CAS nanoparticles exhibited a longer circulation time and a markedly delayed blood clearance of FLT, with the half-life of FLT extended from 0.88 hours to 14.64 hours, compared with drug cosolvent. The results offer a promising method for tailoring biodegradable, drug-loaded CAS nanoparticles as controlled, long-circulating drug delivery systems of hydrophobic anticancer drugs in aqueous vehicles.

  6. Casein kinase 1 proteomics reveal prohibitin 2 function in molecular clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kategaya, Lorna S; Hilliard, Aisha; Zhang, Louying; Asara, John M; Ptáček, Louis J; Fu, Ying-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the day, clock proteins synchronize changes in animal physiology (e.g., wakefulness and appetite) with external cues (e.g., daylight and food). In vertebrates, both casein kinase 1 delta and epsilon (CK1δ and CK1ε) regulate these circadian changes by phosphorylating other core clock proteins. In addition, CK1 can regulate circadian-dependent transcription in a non-catalytic manner, however, the mechanism is unknown. Furthermore, the extent of functional redundancy between these closely related kinases is debated. To further advance knowledge about CK1δ and CK1ε mechanisms of action in the biological clock, we first carried out proteomic analysis of both kinases in human cells. Next, we tested interesting candidates in a cell-based circadian readout which resulted in the discovery of PROHIBITIN 2 (PHB2) as a modulator of period length. Decreasing the expression of PHB2 increases circadian-driven transcription, thus revealing PHB2 acts as an inhibitor in the molecular clock. While stable binding of PHB2 to either kinase was not detected, knocking down CK1ε expression increases PHB2 protein levels and, unexpectedly, knocking down CK1δ decreases PHB2 transcript levels. Thus, isolating CK1 protein complexes led to the identification of PHB2 as an inhibitor of circadian transcription. Furthermore, we show that CK1δ and CK1ε differentially regulate the expression of PHB2.

  7. Efficiency of manganese absorption in chicks fed corn-soy and casein diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, K M; Chausow, D G; Baker, D H

    1986-09-01

    Experiments were conducted with young chicks to quantify the absorption efficiency of manganese (Mn) using tibia Mn uptake as the response criterion. Chicks in experiment 1 were fed a corn-soybean meal diet and either injected intraperitoneally or crop intubated twice daily with three levels of inorganic Mn provided as MnSO4 X H2O. After 14 d, chicks were killed, and intact tibias were removed to facilitate calculation of bone Mn concentration. Excellent straight-line fits (bone Mn concentration as a function of Mn administered) allowed estimation of gut absorption efficiency of Mn by slope-ratio methodology. Absorption efficiency of Mn was calculated to be 1.71% for chicks fed the corn-soy diet. Identical methodology was employed in experiment 2 wherein chicks were fed a phytate- and fiber-free casein-dextrose diet. An absorption efficiency of 2.40% was estimated for chicks fed this diet. Hence, absorption efficiency of inorganic Mn was 40% greater in chicks fed the purified diet than in those fed the conventional corn-soy diet.

  8. Water plasticization of extruded material made from meat and bone meal and sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rafael A; Onwulata, Charles I; Ashby, Richard D

    2004-06-16

    Meat and bone meal (MBM) is a high protein agricultural commodity that currently has few applications other than as an animal feed. Unmodified MBM has poor functional properties, due to its low solubility. Our results from pilot plant trials demonstrate that MBM can be extrusion-processed along with sodium caseinate to produce a useful plastic material. We developed this material for use as a dog chew toy. For this application, elastic modulus (stiffness) is a key characteristic. Our results detail the relationship between ambient relative humidity and equilibrium moisture content (MC) in the material. The influence of MC on the glass transition temperature and elastic modulus reflects the plasticization of this material by water. On the basis of a comparison to a commercially available dog chew, the range of stiffness achievable with our material, 0.25-2.50 GPa, encompasses the values appropriate for a dog chew. Our results show that a particular desired stiffness can be maintained by applying an edible moisture barrier to the surface of the material.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of... soda process”; (2) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide in the...

  10. Evolution of the Calcium Paradigm: The Relation between Vitamin D, Serum Calcium and Calcium Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borje E. Christopher Nordin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is the index disease for calcium deficiency, just as rickets/osteomalacia is the index disease for vitamin D deficiency, but there is considerable overlap between them. The common explanation for this overlap is that hypovitaminosis D causes malabsorption of calcium which then causes secondary hyperparathyroidism and is effectively the same thing as calcium deficiency. This paradigm is incorrect. Hypovitaminosis D causes secondary hyperparathyroidism at serum calcidiol levels lower than 60 nmol/L long before it causes malabsorption of calcium because serum calcitriol (which controls calcium absorption is maintained until serum calcidiol falls below 20 nmol/L. This secondary hyperparathyroidism, probably due to loss of a “calcaemic” action of vitamin D on bone first described in 1957, destroys bone and explains why vitamin D insufficiency is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Vitamin D thus plays a central role in the maintenance of the serum (ionised calcium, which is more important to the organism than the preservation of the skeleton. Bone is sacrificed when absorbed dietary calcium does not match excretion through the skin, kidneys and bowel which is why calcium deficiency causes osteoporosis in experimental animals and, by implication, in humans.

  11. Limestone reaction in calcium aluminate cement–calcium sulfate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzozero, Julien, E-mail: julien.bizzozero@gmail.com; Scrivener, Karen L.

    2015-10-15

    This paper reports a study of ternary blends composed of calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and limestone. Compressive strength tests and hydration kinetics were studied as a function of limestone and calcium sulfate content. The phase evolution and the total porosity were followed and compared to thermodynamic simulation to understand the reactions involved and the effect of limestone on these binders. The reaction of limestone leads to the formation of hemicarboaluminate and monocarboaluminate. Increasing the ratio between sulfate and aluminate decreases the extent of limestone reaction.

  12. Caprine and ovine Greek dairy products: The official German method generates false-positive results due to κ-casein gene polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsartsianidou, V; Triantafillidou, D; Karaiskou, N; Tarantili, P; Triantafillidis, G; Georgakis, E; Triantafyllidis, A

    2017-03-16

    Caseins are widely used for species identification of dairy products. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) of para-κ-casein peptide is used as the official German method for the differentiation between caprine (isoform A) and ovine (isoform B) dairy products, based on their different isoelectric points. The discrimination between Greek goat and ewe dairy products using IEF has, however, been shown to be problematic because of the existence of the ewe isoform in milk from Greek indigenous dairy goats. This could be due to nucleotide polymorphisms within the goat κ-casein gene of Greek indigenous breeds, which alter the isoelectric point of the para-κ-casein peptide and lead to false positive results. Previous DNA analysis of the goat κ-casein gene has shown high levels of polymorphism; however, no such information is available for Greek indigenous dairy goats. Therefore, 87 indigenous dairy goats were sequenced at exon IV of κ-casein gene. In total, 9 polymorphic sites were detected. Three nonsynonymous point mutations were identified, which change the isoelectric point of the goat para-κ-casein peptide so that it appears identical to that of the ewe peptide. Ten composite genotypes were reconstructed and 6 of them included the problematic point mutations. For the verification of genetic results, IEF was carried out. Both goat and ewe patterns appeared in the problematic genotypes. The frequency of these genotypes could be characterized as moderate (0.23) to high (0.60) within Greek indigenous breeds. However, this is not an issue restricted to Greece, as such genotypes have been detected in various non-Greek goat breeds. In conclusion, IEF based on the official German method is certainly inappropriate for ovine and caprine discrimination concerning Greek dairy goat products, and consequently a new method should be established.

  13. Calcium binding protein-mediated regulation of voltage-gated calcium channels linked to human diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasrin NFJATBAKHSH; Zhong-ping FENG

    2011-01-01

    Calcium ion entry through voltage-gated calcium channels is essential for cellular signalling in a wide variety of cells and multiple physiological processes. Perturbations of voltage-gated calcium channel function can lead to pathophysiological consequences. Calcium binding proteins serve as calcium sensors and regulate the calcium channel properties via feedback mechanisms. This review highlights the current evidences of calcium binding protein-mediated channel regulation in human diseases.

  14. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-09

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness.

  15. A kinetic model of dopamine- and calcium-dependent striatal synaptic plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Nakano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Corticostriatal synapse plasticity of medium spiny neurons is regulated by glutamate input from the cortex and dopamine input from the substantia nigra. While cortical stimulation alone results in long-term depression (LTD, the combination with dopamine switches LTD to long-term potentiation (LTP, which is known as dopamine-dependent plasticity. LTP is also induced by cortical stimulation in magnesium-free solution, which leads to massive calcium influx through NMDA-type receptors and is regarded as calcium-dependent plasticity. Signaling cascades in the corticostriatal spines are currently under investigation. However, because of the existence of multiple excitatory and inhibitory pathways with loops, the mechanisms regulating the two types of plasticity remain poorly understood. A signaling pathway model of spines that express D1-type dopamine receptors was constructed to analyze the dynamic mechanisms of dopamine- and calcium-dependent plasticity. The model incorporated all major signaling molecules, including dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein with a molecular weight of 32 kDa (DARPP32, as well as AMPA receptor trafficking in the post-synaptic membrane. Simulations with dopamine and calcium inputs reproduced dopamine- and calcium-dependent plasticity. Further in silico experiments revealed that the positive feedback loop consisted of protein kinase A (PKA, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, and the phosphorylation site at threonine 75 of DARPP-32 (Thr75 served as the major switch for inducing LTD and LTP. Calcium input modulated this loop through the PP2B (phosphatase 2B-CK1 (casein kinase 1-Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5-Thr75 pathway and PP2A, whereas calcium and dopamine input activated the loop via PKA activation by cyclic AMP (cAMP. The positive feedback loop displayed robust bi-stable responses following changes in the reaction parameters. Increased basal dopamine levels disrupted this dopamine-dependent plasticity. The

  16. Effects of dietary protein supply on caseins, whey proteins, proteolysis and renneting properties in milk from cows grazing clover or N fertilized grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, J E; Ostersen, S; Justesen, N C; Aaes, O

    1999-05-01

    The objective of this work was to examine whether variation in the amino acid supply to cows could be a reason for the reduced casein content and poorer renneting properties of milk that often occur in late summer, or whether these effects are related to proteolysis in the raw milk. In a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design, we investigated the effects of sward (clover v. rye-grass) and supplementary feed with a high or low level of rumen-soluble N or of rumen undegradable protein on milk protein composition during the grazing season. A total of 32 Danish Holstein cows were included in the experiment. Milk protein and casein contents and the ratios casein N:total N and casein:true protein were at a minimum in late summer, whereas the contents of urea, non-protein N and whey protein were higher during this period. These seasonal effects were unrelated to either the type of supplementary feed or the type of sward; neither were they clearly related to proteolysis, although casein: true protein was related to the proteose peptone content. The results indicated that whey proteins other than alpha-lactalbumin or beta-lactoglobulin accounted for the higher proportion or concentration of whey protein in late summer. Based on a principal component analysis including variables such as citric acid, lactose and non-protein N, we suggest that the cows' energy supply during this period may be a critical factor in determining the milk protein composition, although our results were not conclusive. There was an interaction between the supplement of rumen undegradable protein and type of sward. When clover was grazed, a high supplement increased the concentrations of protein and casein in milk and the kappa-casein: total casein ratio. When rye-grass was grazed, the opposite response was found, and overall milk protein yield was not affected. The very low N content of clover in early summer reduced milk protein and casein protein during this period.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1187 - Calcium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium alginate. 184.1187 Section 184.1187 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1187 Calcium alginate. (a) Calcium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005.... Calcium alginate is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH...

  18. Effects of Whey, Caseinate, or Milk Protein Ingestion on Muscle Protein Synthesis after Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Atsushi; Nakayama, Kyosuke; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Nagata, Masashi; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-03

    Whey protein (WP) is characterized as a "fast" protein and caseinate (CA) as a "slow" protein according to their digestion and absorption rates. We hypothesized that co-ingestion of milk proteins (WP and CA) may be effective for prolonging the muscle protein synthesis response compared to either protein alone. We therefore compared the effect of ingesting milk protein (MP) to either WP or CA alone on muscle protein synthesis after exercise in rats. We also compared the effects of these milk-derived proteins to a control, soy protein (SP). Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for two hours. Immediately after exercise, one of the following four solutions was administered: WP, CA, MP, or SP. Individual rats were euthanized at designated postprandial time points and triceps muscle samples collected for measurement of the protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR). FSR tended to increase in all groups post-ingestion, although the initial peaks of FSR occurred at different times (WP, peak time = 60 min, FSR = 7.76%/day; MP, peak time = 90 min, FSR = 8.34%/day; CA, peak time = 120 min, FSR = 7.85%/day). Milk-derived proteins caused significantly greater increases (p < 0.05) in FSR compared with SP at different times (WP, 60 min; MP, 90 and 120 min; CA, 120 min). Although statistical analysis could not be performed, the calculated the area under the curve (AUC) values for FSR following this trend were: MP, 534.61; CA, 498.22; WP, 473.46; and SP, 406.18. We conclude that ingestion of MP, CA or WP causes the initial peak time in muscle protein synthesis to occur at different times (WP, fast; MP, intermediate; CA, slow) and the dairy proteins have a superior effect on muscle protein synthesis after exercise compared with SP.

  19. Association and regulation of casein kinase 2 activity by adenomatous polyposis coli protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Miwako Kato; Li, Dongxia; Krebs, Edwin G.; Yuasa, Yasuhito; Homma, Yoshimi

    2002-01-01

    Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis coli and also sporadic colorectal cancer development. By using antibodies raised against the N-terminal region of APC protein, we have detected the variable masses of endogenous APC proteins in individual cell lines established from human colorectal carcinomas caused by nonsense mutations of the gene. Phosphorylation of immunoprecipitates of full-length and truncated APC were observed in in vitro kinase reaction, indicating association of APC with protein kinase activity. The kinase activity complexed with APC was sensitive to heparin and used GTP as phosphoryl donor, suggesting an involvement of casein kinase 2 (CK2). Both CK2α- and β-subunits were found to associate with APC in immunoprecipitates as well as in pull-down assays, with preferential interaction of APC with tetrameric CK2 holoenzyme. In synchronized cell populations, the association of APC with CK2 was cell cycle dependent, with the highest association in G2/M. Unexpectedly, APC immunoprecipitates containing full-length APC protein inhibited CK2 in vitro, whereas immunoprecipitates of truncated APC had little effect. This was confirmed by using recombinant APC, and the inhibitory region was localized to the C terminus of APC between residues 2086 and 2394. Overexpression of this fragment in SW480 cells suppressed cell proliferation rates as well as tumorigenesis. These results demonstrate a previously uncharacterized functional interaction between the tumor suppressor protein APC and CK2 and suggest that growth-inhibitory effects of APC may be regulated by inhibition of CK2. PMID:11972058

  20. Functional analysis of Trichoderma reesei CKIIα2, a catalytic subunit of casein kinase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingyu; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Meiling; Liu, Kuimei; Wang, Hanbin; Luo, Yi; Fang, Xu

    2015-07-01

    Trichoderma reesei is the most important industrial cellulase-producing filamentous fungus. Although its molecular physiology has been investigated, the signal transduction pathways are not fully understood. In particular, the role of casein kinase II (CKII) is not yet clear. In this work, we carried out functional investigations on a catalytic subunit of CKII, CKIIα2. Comparison of the phenotypic features of T. reesei parent and Δck2α2 strains showed significant changes following ck2α2 disruption. T. reesei Δck2α2 form significantly smaller mycelial pellets in glucose-containing liquid minimum media, have shorter and fewer branch hyphae, produce smaller amounts of chitinases, produce more spores, show more robust growth on glucose-containing agar plates, and consume glucose at a significantly higher rate. Suggestions can be made that CKIIα2 governs chitinase expression, and the disruption of ck2α2 results in lower levels of chitinase production, leading to a weaker cell wall disruption capability, further resulting in weaker hyphal branching, which eventually leads to smaller mycelial pellets in liquid media. Further conclusions can be made that CKIIα2 is involved in repression of sporulation and glucose metabolism, which is consistent with the proposal that CKIIα2 represses global metabolism. These observations make the deletion of ck2α2 a potentially beneficial genetic disruption for T. reesei during industrial applications, as smaller mycelial pellets, more spores and more robust glucose metabolism are all desired traits for industrial fermentation. This work reports novel unique functions of a CKII catalytic subunit and is also the first genetic and physiological investigation on CKII in T. reesei.

  1. A review of gluten- and casein-free diets for treatment of autism: 2005–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Jennifer Harrison; Kreider, Consuelo Maun; Schaefer, Nancy M.; de Laosa, Mary B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The gluten free, casein free (GFCF) diet is heralded by strong anecdotal parental reports to greatly improve and even “cure” symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Yet to date, little conclusive empirical evidence exists supporting its use. Objective The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the state of the recent evidence regarding use of GFCF diet for treatment of individuals with ASD. Methods Five database providers (PubMed, Web of Knowledge, EBSCO, ProQuest, and WorldCat) were used to search 19 databases yielding a total of 491 articles that were published through February 2015. Peer reviewed articles published between 2005 and February 2015 were included for review if study participants were identified as having ASD and investigated the effects of the GFCF diet on ASD behaviors or the relationship between the diet and these behaviors. Results Evaluation of search results yielded 11 reviews, 7 group experimental studies including 5 randomized controlled trials, 5 case reports, and 4 group observational studies published during the last 10 years. These studies represent a marked increase in number of reported studies as well as increased scientific rigor in investigation of GFCF diets in ASD. Conclusions While strong empirical support for the GFCF diet in ASD is currently lacking, studies point to the need for identifying subsets of individuals (e.g., those with documented gastrointestinal abnormalities) who may be the best responders to the GFCF diet. Identifying these subsets is critically needed to enhance rigor in this research area. Until rigorous research supporting use of GFCF diet is reported, clinicians should continue use caution and consider several factors when advising regarding implementation of the GFCF diet for individuals with ASD. PMID:28111520

  2. The Effect of Casein Protein Prior to Sleep on Fat Metabolism in Obese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber W. Kinsey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that ingesting protein at night before sleep is either beneficial or non-detrimental to metabolism, health, and body composition in obese women. However, the overnight protein-induced lipolytic actions and mechanism for improved metabolism and body composition have not been fully established. Therefore, in a crossover design, twelve obese men (age, 27.0 ± 2.2 years were randomly assigned to ingest (within 30 min of sleep casein protein (CAS, 120 kcal or a non-nutritive placebo (PLA before going to sleep. Markers of fat metabolism (lipolysis, substrate utilization, growth hormone, insulin, glucose, resting energy expenditure (REE, and appetite (questionnaire and ghrelin were measured. During sleep and the next morning, interstitial glycerol from the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT was measured using microdialysis. There were no differences in SCAAT glycerol (overnight: CAS, 177.4 ± 26.7; PLA, 183.8 ± 20.2 μmol/L; morning: CAS, 171.6 ± 19.1; PLA, 161.5 ± 18.6 μmol/L, substrate utilization, REE, or any blood markers between CAS and PLA. Desire to eat was greater for CAS compared to baseline (p = 0.03, but not different from PLA (baseline: 39 ± 6, CAS: 62 ± 8, PLA: 55 ± 5 mm. CAS consumption before sleep did not affect fat or glucose metabolism, REE, or suppress appetite in hyperinsulemic obese men. CAS may be consumed before sleep without impeding overnight or morning fat metabolism in young, obese men.

  3. Effect Of Five Proteases Including Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Papain, Proteinase K And Trypsin On Antioxidative Activities Of Casein Hydrolysate From Goat Milk

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    Shu Guowei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation was related to the pathogenesis of human diseases. Adequate intake of antioxidant activity of food can reduce the levels of free radicals, prevent lipid peroxidation, and help the body against diseases. In the paper, casein from goat milk was hydrolyzed by five commercial proteases, namely, Alcalase, flavourzyme, papain, proteinase K and trypsin. The antioxidant activities of casein hydrolysates were assessed by evaluating hydrolysis degree, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, metal-chelating activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The results showed as follows: the DH of proteinase K, Alcalase, and trypsin were higher significantly than those of papain and flavourzyme. The Fe2+-chelation activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity of casein hydrolysates from goat milk by Alcalase was higher than the others, the DPPH scavenging activities of casein hydrolysates by Alcalase and papain was higher than the others and the DPPH scavenging activities by Alcalase and papain had no significant diffierence (p<0.05, so the optimal proteinase for hydrolysis casein from goat milk to produce antioxidant peptide was Alcalase.

  4. Effect of casein genes - beta-LGB, DGAT1, GH, and LHR - on milk production and milk composition traits in crossbred Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molee, A; Poompramun, C; Mernkrathoke, P

    2015-03-30

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of a single gene and composite genotype of the casein gene family, including the beta-lactoglobulin gene (beta-LGB), acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 gene (DGAT1), growth hormone gene (GH), and luteinizing hormone receptor gene (LHR) on milk yield, milk composition, the percentage of fat, protein, solids-not-fat, and total solid in crossbred Holsteins. A total of 231 crossbred Holstein cows were examined for the study. The genotype of the beta-casein gene was analyzed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, while the alpha-S1, alpha-S2, kappa-casein, DGAT1, beta-LGB, and GH genes were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. The association between genes and milk yield and milk composition was analyzed. Three pairs of genes, for which significant associations were detected, were beta + kappa-casein, DGAT1 + beta-casein, and GH + beta-LGB. In the single-gene model, most loci are significantly associated with traits. A significant association between the composite genotype and the traits was detected in all composite genotypes. GH + beta-LGB appears to be the most suitable variants for improving milk production and percentage of milk protein. Overall, the effects of the composite genotype and single gene were different. A physical or functional relationship between genes is necessary for investigating gene markers.

  5. Effect of soluble calcium and lactose on limiting flux and serum protein removal during skim milk microfiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael C; Hurt, Emily E; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    The tendency of calcium to promote microfiltration (MF) membrane fouling is well documented, but the role of lactose has not been studied. Milk protein concentrate that is 85% protein on a dry basis (MPC85) contains less calcium and lactose than skim milk. Our objectives were to determine the effects of skim milk soluble calcium and lactose concentrations on the limiting fluxes (LF) and serum protein (SP) removal factors of 0.1-µm ceramic graded permeability membranes. The MF was fed with 3 different milks: skim milk, liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein content of skim milk with reverse osmosis water (MPC), and liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein and lactose contents of skim milk with reverse osmosis water and lactose monohydrate (MPC+L). Retentate and permeate were continuously recycled to the feed tank. The LF for each feed was determined by increasing flux once per hour from 55 kg·m(-2)·h(-1) until flux did not increase with increasing transmembrane pressure. Temperature, pressure drop across the membrane length, and protein concentration in the retentate recirculation loop were maintained at 50°C, 220 kPa, and 8.77 ± 0.2%, respectively. Experiments were replicated 3 times and the Proc GLM procedure of SAS was used for statistical analysis. An increase in LF between skim milk (91 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) and MPC+L (124 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) was associated with a reduction in soluble calcium. The LF of MPC+L was lower than the LF of MPC (137 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) due to the higher viscosity contributed by lactose. Permeates produced from the MPC and MPC+L contained more protein than the skim milk permeate due to the transfer of caseins from the micelles into the reduced-calcium sera of the MPC and MPC+L. A SP removal factor was calculated by dividing true protein in the permeate by SP in the permeate portion of the feed to describe the ease of SP passage through the membrane. No differences in SP removal factors were detected among the

  6. Study of the protein-bound fraction of calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc in bovine milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernando V.; Lopes, Gisele S.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Souza, Gilberto B.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.

    2001-10-01

    Two approaches were used to study the interaction of Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn with bovine milk proteins by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES). Selective separations in bovine milk samples were accomplished employing an acid protein precipitation using 100 g l -1 trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and an enzymatic protein hydrolysis using 50 g l -1 pepsin (PEP) solution, respectively. The results were compared with total mineral contents determined after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The results obtained by enzymatic and acid precipitation evidenced the different interaction forms of Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn in the system formed by milk components. Iron was not solubilized by the TCA treatment, but was recovered completely after the enzymatic treatment. Quantitative recoveries of Ca, Mg and Zn were obtained using both approaches, showing that these analytes were bound to milk compounds affected by either treatment. Calcium, Mg and Zn are mainly associated with colloidal calcium phosphate and Fe is bound to the backbone of the casein polypeptide chain, cleaved by pepsin enzyme. The proposed approaches could be used to assess the complexity of these chemical interactions.

  7. Calcium Orthophosphate Cements and Concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In early 1980s, researchers discovered self-setting calcium orthophosphate cements, which are a bioactive and biodegradable grafting material in the form of a powder and a liquid. Both phases form after mixing a viscous paste that after being implanted, sets and hardens within the body as either a non-stoichiometric calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA or brushite, sometimes blended with unreacted particles and other phases. As both CDHA and brushite are remarkably biocompartible and bioresorbable (therefore, in vivo they can be replaced with newly forming bone, calcium orthophosphate cements represent a good correction technique for non-weight-bearing bone fractures or defects and appear to be very promising materials for bone grafting applications. Besides, these cements possess an excellent osteoconductivity, molding capabilities and easy manipulation. Furthermore, reinforced cement formulations are available, which in a certain sense might be described as calcium orthophosphate concretes. The concepts established by calcium orthophosphate cement pioneers in the early 1980s were used as a platform to initiate a new generation of bone substitute materials for commercialization. Since then, advances have been made in the composition, performance and manufacturing; several beneficial formulations have already been introduced as a result. Many other compositions are in experimental stages. In this review, an insight into calcium orthophosphate cements and concretes, as excellent biomaterials suitable for both dental and bone grafting application, has been provided.

  8. Casein-Coated Fe5C2 Nanoparticles with Superior r2 Relaxivity for Liver-Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowger, Taku A; Tang, Wei; Zhen, Zipeng; Hu, Kai; Rink, David E; Todd, Trever J; Wang, Geoffrey D; Zhang, Weizhong; Chen, Hongmin; Xie, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have been extensively used as T2 contrast agents for liver-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The applications, however, have been limited by their mediocre magnetism and r2 relaxivity. Recent studies show that Fe5C2 nanoparticles can be prepared by high temperature thermal decomposition. The resulting nanoparticles possess strong and air stable magnetism, suggesting their potential as a novel type of T2 contrast agent. To this end, we improve the synthetic and surface modification methods of Fe5C2 nanoparticles, and investigated the impact of size and coating on their performances for liver MRI. Specifically, we prepared 5, 14, and 22 nm Fe5C2 nanoparticles and engineered their surface by: 1) ligand addition with phospholipids, 2) ligand exchange with zwitterion-dopamine-sulfonate (ZDS), and 3) protein adsorption with casein. It was found that the size and surface coating have varied levels of impact on the particles' hydrodynamic size, viability, uptake by macrophages, and r2 relaxivity. Interestingly, while phospholipid- and ZDS-coated Fe5C2 nanoparticles showed comparable r2, the casein coating led to an r2 enhancement by more than 2 fold. In particular, casein coated 22 nm Fe5C2 nanoparticle show a striking r2 of 973 mM(-1)s(-1), which is one of the highest among all of the T2 contrast agents reported to date. Small animal studies confirmed the advantage of Fe5C2 nanoparticles over iron oxide nanoparticles in inducing hypointensities on T2-weighted MR images, and the particles caused little toxicity to the host. The improvements are important for transforming Fe5C2 nanoparticles into a new class of MRI contrast agents. The observations also shed light on protein-based surface modification as a means to modulate contrast ability of magnetic nanoparticles.

  9. Factors that influence the membrane area of a multistage microfiltration process required to produce a micellar casein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Emily E; Barbano, David M

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the work reported in this paper was to develop a theoretical model to determine the effect of type of microfiltration (MF)-process feed, number of stages, and flux on the minimization of the MF membrane area required to produce a 95% serum protein-reduced micellar casein concentrate. The MF feed, number of stages, and flux were all factors that had an effect on the MF membrane area and should be taken into consideration when designing a MF system to produce a 95% serum protein-reduced micellar casein concentrate. Feeding the MF process with a diluted ultrafiltration retentate (DUR) diluted to the protein concentration of skim milk, as opposed to skim milk, reduced the required membrane area by 36% for a 5-stage process. When DUR was the MF feed, feed protein concentration, which depended on the number of MF stages, was optimized. The DUR protein concentration that minimized the required MF membrane area was 2.47, 3.85, 4.77, and 5.41% for a 2-, 3-, 4-, or 5-stage MF process, respectively. For a 5-stage process, increasing the protein concentration of the feed from 3.2 to 5.4% decreased the required MF membrane area by 10%. It was also found that as the number of stages increased from 2 to 5, the required MF membrane area decreased by 39%, when the MF feed was DUR at the optimal feed protein concentration. Finally, increasing the flux from 50 to 60 kg/m(2) per hour decreased the required MF membrane area by 17% when the MF feed was DUR at the optimal MF feed protein concentration. Overall, using DUR as a feed for MF could reduce the amount of MF membrane area required to make a 95% serum protein-reduced micellar casein concentrate.

  10. Casein phosphopeptides drastically increase the secretion of extracellular proteins in Aspergillus awamori. Proteomics studies reveal changes in the secretory pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosalková Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The secretion of heterologous animal proteins in filamentous fungi is usually limited by bottlenecks in the vesicle-mediated secretory pathway. Results Using the secretion of bovine chymosin in Aspergillus awamori as a model, we found a drastic increase (40 to 80-fold in cells grown with casein or casein phosphopeptides (CPPs. CPPs are rich in phosphoserine, but phosphoserine itself did not increase the secretion of chymosin. The stimulatory effect is reduced about 50% using partially dephosphorylated casein and is not exerted by casamino acids. The phosphopeptides effect was not exerted at transcriptional level, but instead, it was clearly observed on the secretion of chymosin by immunodetection analysis. Proteomics studies revealed very interesting metabolic changes in response to phosphopeptides supplementation. The oxidative metabolism was reduced, since enzymes involved in fermentative processes were overrepresented. An oxygen-binding hemoglobin-like protein was overrepresented in the proteome following phosphopeptides addition. Most interestingly, the intracellular pre-protein enzymes, including pre-prochymosin, were depleted (most of them are underrepresented in the intracellular proteome after the addition of CPPs, whereas the extracellular mature form of several of these secretable proteins and cell-wall biosynthetic enzymes was greatly overrepresented in the secretome of phosphopeptides-supplemented cells. Another important 'moonlighting' protein (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, which has been described to have vesicle fusogenic and cytoskeleton formation modulating activities, was clearly overrepresented in phosphopeptides-supplemented cells. Conclusions In summary, CPPs cause the reprogramming of cellular metabolism, which leads to massive secretion of extracellular proteins.

  11. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of a new gene of Schistosoma japonicum encoding casein kinase Ⅱ beta subunit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭寨玉; 余新炳; 吴忠道; 徐劲; 吴德; 李孜

    2004-01-01

    Background Nowadays it is now a focus topic in schistosomiasis research to find ideal vaccine candidates and new drug targets for developing anti-schistosomiasis vaccine. We cloned a new gene, casein kinase Ⅱ beta subunit, of Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) and express it in Escherichia coli (E.coli).Methods The ESTs obtained in our laboratory were analyzed by homologous searching, and a new gene was recognized. The full-length cDNA of the new gene was obtained by joining the 3'RACE PCR fragment and the EST clone. To express the new gene, the cDNA was cloned into pGEX-4T-1 vector and then transformed into E.coli JM109. The recombinant protein was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western-blot. Results A 908 bp cDNA was isolated from S. japonicum and identified to be casein kinase Ⅱ beta subunit gene by sequence analysis. The open reading frame of the gene encodes a protein of 217 amino acids exhibiting 75.8%, 75.8%, 73.9%, 68.2%, 51.6% identity to the amino acids sequence of the corresponding genes of Homo sapiens (H. sapiens), Xenopus laevi (X. laevi), Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster), Caenorhabditis elegan (C. elegan), and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. promber) respectively. The predicted molecular weight of the protein was 24.921 kDa. The new cDNA sequence had been submitted to GenBank, and its accession number is AY241391. This cDNA was subcloned into the pGEX-4T-1 vector and expressed in E.coli JM109.The recombinant protein could be recognized by the S. japonicum infected rabbit serum. Conclusion The full-length cDNA sequences encoding S. japonicum casein kinase Ⅱ beta subunit were firstly sequenced, cloned, and expressed in E.coli.

  12. Factors affecting calcium balance in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jing; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Ailing; Du, Weijing; Wang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Xiaoqi; Ma, Guansheng

    2010-01-01

    Chinese dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for calcium were developed mainly from studies conducted amongst Caucasians, yet a recent review showed that reference calcium intakes for Asians are likely to be different from those of Caucasians (Lee and Jiang, 2008). In order to develop calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents, it is necessary to explore the characteristics and potential influencing factors of calcium metabolic balance in Chinese adolescents. A total of 80 students (15.1+/-0.8 years) were recruited stratified by gender from a 1-year calcium supplementation study. Subjects were randomly designed to four groups and supplemented with calcium carbonate tablets providing elemental calcium at 63, 354, 660, and 966 mg/day, respectively. Subjects consumed food from a 3-day cycle menu prepared by staff for 10 days. Elemental calcium in samples of foods, feces, and urine was determined in duplicates by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The total calcium intake ranged from 352 to 1323 mg/day. The calcium apparent absorption efficiency and retention in boys were significantly higher than that in girls (68.7% vs. 46.4%, 480 mg/day vs. 204 mg/day, PCalcium retention increased with calcium intakes, but did not reach a plateau. Calcium absorption efficiency in boys increased with calcium intake up to 665 mg/day, and decreased after that. In girls, calcium absorption efficiency decreased with calcium intake. Calcium absorption efficiency increased within 1 year after first spermatorrhea in boys, but decreased with pubertal development in girls. Sex, calcium intake, age, and pubertal development were the most important determinants of calcium absorption (R(2)=0.508, Pcalcium intake, age, and pubertal development are important factors for calcium retention and absorption during growth, which should be considered for the development of calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents.

  13. Comparison of milk oligosaccharides between goats with and without the genetic ability to synthesize αs1-casein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyrand, M.; Dallas, D.C.; Caillat, H.; Bouvier, F.; Martin, P.; Barile, D.

    2014-01-01

    Milk oligosaccharides (OS)—free complex carbohydrates—confer unique health benefits to the nursing neonate. Though human digestive enzymes cannot degrade these sugars, they provide nourishment to specific commensal microbes and act as decoys to prevent the adhesion of pathogenic micro-organisms to gastrointestinal cells. At present, the limited quantities of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) impede research on these molecules and their potential applications in functional food formulations. Considerable progress has been made in the study of OS structures; however, the synthetic pathways leading to their synthesis in the mammary gland are poorly understood. Recent studies show that complex OS with fucose and N-acetyl neuraminic acid (key structural elements of HMO bioactivity) exist in goat milk. Polymorphisms in the CSN1S1 locus, which is responsible for synthesis of αs1-casein, affect lipid and casein micelle structure in goat milk. The present study sought to determine whether CSN1S1 polymorphisms also influence goat milk oligosaccharide (GMO) production and secretion. The GMO compositions of thirty-two goat milk samples, half of which were from genotype A/A (αs1-casein producers) and half from genotype O/O (αs1-casein non-producers), were determined with nanoflow liquid chromatography high-accuracy mass spectrometry. This study represents the most exhaustive characterization of GMO to date. A systematic and comprehensive GMO library was created, consolidating information available in the literature with the new findings. Nearly 30 GMO, 11 of which were novel, were confirmed via tandem mass spectrometric analyses. Six fucosylated OS were identified; 4 of these matched HMO compositions and three were identified for the first time in goat milk. Importantly, multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that the OS profiles of the A/A and O/O genotype milks could be discriminated by the fucosylated OS. Quantitative analysis revealed that the goat milk

  14. Short communication: Casein hydrolysate and whey proteins as excipients for cyanocobalamin to increase intestinal absorption in the lactating dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artegoitia, V M; de Veth, M J; Harte, F; Ouellet, D R; Girard, C L

    2015-11-01

    Bioavailability of vitamin B12 is low in humans and animals. Improving vitamin B12 absorption is important for optimal performance in dairy cows and for increasing vitamin B12 concentrations in milk for human consumption. However, when supplemented in the diet, 80% of synthetic vitamin B12, cyanocobalamin (CN-CBL), is degraded in the rumen of dairy cows and only 25% of the amount escaping destruction in the rumen disappears from the small intestine between the duodenal and ileal cannulas. In pigs, vitamin B12 from milk is more efficiently absorbed than synthetic CN-CBL. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of casein hydrolysate and whey proteins as excipients for CN-CBL to increase portal-drained viscera (PDV) flux of the vitamin in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous lactating Holstein cows (237 ± 17 DIM) equipped with a rumen cannula and catheters in the portal vein and a mesenteric artery were used in a randomized Youden square design. They were fed every 2 h to maintain steady digesta flow. On experimental days, they received a postruminal bolus of (1) CN-CBL alone (0.1 g), (2) CN-CBL (0.1 g) + casein hydrolysate (10 g), or (3) CN-CBL (0.1 g) + whey proteins (10 g). Starting 30 min after the bolus, blood samples were taken simultaneously from the 2 catheters every 15 min during the first 2 h and then every 2 h until 24 h postbolus. Milk yield, DMI, and vitamin B12 portal-arterial difference and PDV flux were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Milk yield and DMI were not affected by treatments. The portal-arterial difference of vitamin B12 during the 24-h period following the bolus of vitamin was greater when the vitamin was given in solution with casein hydrolysate (2.9 ± 4.6 pg/mL) than alone (-17.5 ± 5.2 pg/mL) or with whey protein (-13.4 ± 4.2 pg/mL). The treatment effects were similar for the PDV flux. The present results suggest that CN-CBL given with casein hydrolysate increases vitamin B12 absorption as compared with

  15. Determination of casein content in milk by Kjeldahl method%凯氏定氮法测定牛乳中酪蛋白含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏梁; 高洁

    2012-01-01

    酪蛋白是牛乳中的特征性成分,其含量可作为牛乳掺假检验的定量指标。实验结果表明等电点法结合凯氏定氮法能够有效地检测牛乳中酪蛋白含量,测定结果准确,重复性好。实验验证了纯牛乳中酪蛋白含量为2.5%。%Casein is the characteristic composition of milk, its content can be used as quantitative indicator of milk adulteration. The results showed that isoelectric point method combined with the Kjeldahl method could detect casein content in milk effectively, the results were accurate and reproduced well. The experiment verified that casein content was about 2.5% in pure milk.

  16. Comparison of casein and whey in diets on performance, immune responses and metabolomic profile of weaning pigs challenged with E.coli F4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Jensen, Bent Borg; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2014-01-01

    The differences in amino acid composition in casein and whey have been thought to exert different immunomodulatory and metabolic effects. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of casein and whey on performance, immune responses and plasma metabolomic profile of weanling pigs...... challenged with E. coli F4. Two factorial experiments involving 24 weanling pigs were conducted. Diets containing casein or whey, and challenge with E. coli O149:F4 or not, were the two factors. Blood was sampled at the day before challenge and 4 and 7 days postchallenge. For measurement of mucosal immune...... responses and intestinal dimensions, samples were collected from the small intestine (SI) immediately after killing at 7 days postchallenge. Feeding the whey-diet decreased (P

  17. In vitro digestibility of beta-casein and beta-lactoglobulin under simulated human gastric and duodenal conditions: A multi-laboratory evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandalari, G.; Adel-Patient, K.; Barkholt, Vibeke;

    2009-01-01

    Initially the resistance to digestion of two cow's milk allergens, beta-casein, and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg), was compared using a "high-protease assay" and a "low-protease assay" in a single laboratory. The low-protease assay represents an alternative standardised protocol mimicking conditions...... found in the gastrointestinal tract. For the high-protease assay, both proteins were incubated with either pepsin or pancreatin and digestion monitored by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography. The low-protease assay involved...... gastroduodenal digestion in the presence or absence of phosphatidylcholine (PC). Both beta-casein and beta-Lg were susceptible to hydrolysis by pepsin and pancreatin in the high-protease assay. In contrast, the kinetics of beta-casein digestion in the low-protease assay were slower, beta-Lg being pepsin...

  18. A peptidomic approach to study the contribution of added casein proteins to the peptide profile in Spanish dry-fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Leticia; Escudero, Elizabeth; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

    2015-11-06

    Peptidomics is a necessary alternative in the analysis of naturally generated peptides in dry-fermented processing. The intense proteolysis occurred during the processing of dry-fermented sausages is due to the action of endopeptidases and exopeptidases from both, endogenous muscle origin and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) added in the starter. Sodium caseinate is frequently used as an additive in this type of products because of its emulsifying properties, and consequently influences the protein profile available during the proteolysis. In this study, a mass spectrometry approach has been used to determine the impact of added sodium caseinate in the final peptide profile as well as to analyse its possible influence in the presence of certain previously described casein-derived bioactive peptides.

  19. Mitochondrial calcium uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, George S B; Boyman, Liron; Chikando, Aristide C; Khairallah, Ramzi J; Lederer, W J

    2013-06-25

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) uptake into the mitochondrial matrix is critically important to cellular function. As a regulator of matrix Ca(2+) levels, this flux influences energy production and can initiate cell death. If large, this flux could potentially alter intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) signals. Despite years of study, fundamental disagreements on the extent and speed of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake still exist. Here, we review and quantitatively analyze mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake fluxes from different tissues and interpret the results with respect to the recently proposed mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) candidate. This quantitative analysis yields four clear results: (i) under physiological conditions, Ca(2+) influx into the mitochondria via the MCU is small relative to other cytosolic Ca(2+) extrusion pathways; (ii) single MCU conductance is ∼6-7 pS (105 mM [Ca(2+)]), and MCU flux appears to be modulated by [Ca(2+)]i, suggesting Ca(2+) regulation of MCU open probability (P(O)); (iii) in the heart, two features are clear: the number of MCU channels per mitochondrion can be calculated, and MCU probability is low under normal conditions; and (iv) in skeletal muscle and liver cells, uptake per mitochondrion varies in magnitude but total uptake per cell still appears to be modest. Based on our analysis of available quantitative data, we conclude that although Ca(2+) critically regulates mitochondrial function, the mitochondria do not act as a significant dynamic buffer of cytosolic Ca(2+) under physiological conditions. Nevertheless, with prolonged (superphysiological) elevations of [Ca(2+)]i, mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake can increase 10- to 1,000-fold and begin to shape [Ca(2+)]i dynamics.

  20. Dopaminergic regulation of dendritic calcium: fast multisite calcium imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Liang; Oikonomou, Katerina D; Short, Shaina M; Antic, Srdjan D

    2013-01-01

    Optimal dopamine tone is required for the normal cortical function; however it is still unclear how cortical-dopamine-release affects information processing in individual cortical neurons. Thousands of glutamatergic inputs impinge onto elaborate dendritic trees of neocortical pyramidal neurons. In the process of ensuing synaptic integration (information processing), a variety of calcium transients are generated in remote dendritic compartments. In order to understand the cellular mechanisms of dopaminergic modulation it is important to know whether and how dopaminergic signals affect dendritic calcium transients. In this chapter, we describe a relatively inexpensive method for monitoring dendritic calcium fluctuations at multiple loci across the pyramidal dendritic tree, at the same moment of time (simultaneously). The experiments have been designed to measure the amplitude, time course and spatial extent of action potential-associated dendritic calcium transients before and after application of dopaminergic drugs. In the examples provided here the dendritic calcium transients were evoked by triggering the somatic action potentials (backpropagation-evoked), and puffs of exogenous dopamine were applied locally onto selected dendritic branches.

  1. Formation of calcium complexes by borogluconate in vitro and during calcium borogluconate infusion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farningham, D A

    1985-07-01

    The effect of borogluconate on plasma calcium fractions was studied in vitro and in vivo in sheep. In vitro calcium chloride was more effective in raising ionised plasma calcium than calcium borogluconate. Sodium borate or gluconate added to blood caused only small decreases in blood ionised calcium. However, together, a synergistic reduction in ionised calcium was observed. Following calcium borogluconate infusions into sheep, total plasma calcium rose primarily because of an increase in the unionised ultrafiltrable fraction. Other changes observed following the infusion were hypercalciuria, decreased glomerular filtration rate and acidosis. Sodium borogluconate administered subcutaneously lowered total plasma calcium. This probably resulted from enhanced calcium excretion. It is suggested that since the anionic component of calcium solutions alters the availability and retention of calcium, it is likely to affect clinical efficacy significantly.

  2. Technology on Modification of Casein and properties of Productions%酪素改性的技术手段与改性产品的性能特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申晓庆; 兰云军; 许晓红

    2009-01-01

    Modified graft principle of casein was introduced. Different technical means of modified casein and the characteristics of productions were described and classified.%介绍酪素的接枝改性原理,分类描述了酪素改性的技术手段与改性产品的性能特点.

  3. In Vitro Proliferation and Anti-Apoptosis of the Papain-Generated Casein and Soy Protein Hydrolysates towards Osteoblastic Cells (hFOB1.19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wen Pan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Casein and soy protein were digested by papain to three degrees of hydrolysis (DH 7.3%–13.3%, to obtain respective six casein and soy protein hydrolysates, aiming to clarify their in vitro proliferation and anti-apoptosis towards a human osteoblastic cell line (hFOB1.19 cells. Six casein and soy protein hydrolysates at five levels (0.01–0.2 mg/mL mostly showed proliferation as positive 17β-estradiol did, because they conferred the osteoblasts with cell viability of 100%–114% and 104%–123%, respectively. The hydrolysates of higher DH values had stronger proliferation. Casein and soy protein hydrolysates of the highest DH values altered cell cycle progression, and enhanced cell proportion of S-phase from 50.5% to 56.5% and 60.5%. The two also antagonized etoposide- and NaF-induced osteoblast apoptosis. In apoptotic prevention, apoptotic cells were decreased from 31.6% to 22.6% and 15.6% (etoposide treatment, or from 19.5% to 17.7% and 12.4% (NaF treatment, respectively. In apoptotic reversal, soy protein hydrolysate decreased apoptotic cells from 13.3% to 11.7% (etoposide treatment, or from 14.5% to 11.0% (NaF treatment, but casein hydrolysate showed no reversal effect. It is concluded that the hydrolysates of two kinds had estradiol-like action on the osteoblasts, and soy protein hydrolysates had stronger proliferation and anti-apoptosis on the osteoblasts than casein hydrolysates.

  4. Protein feeding pattern, casein feeding, or milk-soluble protein feeding did not change the evolution of body composition during a short-term weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adechian, Solange; Balage, Michèle; Remond, Didier; Migné, Carole; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie; Marset-Baglieri, Agnès; Rousset, Sylvie; Boirie, Yves; Gaudichon, Claire; Dardevet, Dominique; Mosoni, Laurent

    2012-10-15

    Studies have shown that timing of protein intake, leucine content, and speed of digestion significantly affect postprandial protein utilization. Our aim was to determine if one can spare lean body mass during energy restriction by varying the quality and the timing of protein intake. Obese volunteers followed a 6-wk restricted energy diet. Four groups were compared: casein pulse, casein spread, milk-soluble protein (MSP, = whey) pulse, and MSP spread (n = 10-11 per group). In casein groups, caseins were the only protein source; it was MSP in MSP groups. Proteins were distributed in four meals per day in the proportion 8:80:4:8% in the pulse groups; it was 25:25:25:25% in the spread groups. We measured weight, body composition, nitrogen balance, 3-methylhistidine excretion, perception of hunger, plasma parameters, adipose tissue metabolism, and whole body protein metabolism. Volunteers lost 7.5 ± 0.4 kg of weight, 5.1 ± 0.2 kg of fat, and 2.2 ± 0.2 kg of lean mass, with no difference between groups. In adipose tissue, cell size and mRNA expression of various genes were reduced with no difference between groups. Hunger perception was also never different between groups. In the last week, due to a higher inhibition of protein degradation and despite a lower stimulation of protein synthesis, postprandial balance between whole body protein synthesis and degradation was better with caseins than with MSP. It seems likely that the positive effect of caseins on protein balance occurred only at the end of the experiment.

  5. [Calcium metabolism characteristics in microgravity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, A I; Larina, I M; Morukov, B V

    1999-06-01

    The results of research of calcium exchange parameters at cosmonauts taken part in long space flights (SF) onboard of orbital stations "SALUT" and "MIR" within 1978-1998 were generalized. The analysis of data received during observation of 44 cosmonauts (18 of them have taken part in long SF twice) was done. The observation was carried out before and after SF by duration 30-438 days. The content of a total calcium in blood serum was increased basically by the increase of its ionized fraction after flights of moderate (3-6 months) and large duration (6-14 months) along with the significant increase of PTH and decrease of calcitonin levels. The content of osteocalcin after SF was increased. Three cosmonauts participated in research of calcium kinetics using stable isotopes before, in time and after a 115-day SF. Reduction of intestinal absorption, excretion through a gastrointestinal tract, and increase of calcium excretion with urine were marked in time of SF. In early postflight period a level of intestinal absorption, on the average, was much lower than in SF, and the calcium removal through intestine was increased. Both renal and intestinal excretion of calcium were not normalized in 3.5-4.5 months after end of SF. Increase of resorbtive processes in bone tissues which induced negative bone balance during flight was observed in all test subjects, proceeding from estimations of speed of the basic calcium flows made on the basis of mathematical modeling. The conclusion about decrease in speed of bone tissue remodeling and strengthening of its resorption proves to be true by data of research of biochemical and endocrine markers.

  6. Calcium wave of tubuloglomerular feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peti-Peterdi, János

    2006-08-01

    ATP release from macula densa (MD) cells into the interstitium of the juxtaglomerular (JG) apparatus (JGA) is an integral component of the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism that controls the glomerular filtration rate. Because the cells of the JGA express a number of calcium-coupled purinergic receptors, these studies tested the hypothesis that TGF activation triggers a calcium wave that spreads from the MD toward distant cells of the JGA and glomerulus. Ratiometric calcium imaging of in vitro microperfused isolated JGA-glomerulus complex dissected from rabbits was performed with fluo-4/fura red and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Activation of TGF by increasing tubular flow rate at the MD rapidly produced a significant elevation in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in extraglomerular mesangial cells (by 187.6 +/- 45.1 nM) and JG renin granular cells (by 281.4 +/- 66.6 nM). Subsequently, cell-to-cell propagation of the calcium signal at a rate of 12.6 +/- 1.1 microm/s was observed upstream toward proximal segments of the afferent arteriole and adjacent glomeruli, as well as toward intraglomerular elements including the most distant podocytes (5.9 +/- 0.4 microm/s). The same calcium wave was observed in nonperfusing glomeruli, causing vasoconstriction and contractions of the glomerular tuft. Gap junction uncoupling, an ATP scavenger enzyme cocktail, and pharmacological inhibition of P(2) purinergic receptors, but not adenosine A(1) receptor blockade, abolished the changes in [Ca(2+)](i) and propagation of the calcium wave. These studies provided evidence that both gap junctional communication and extracellular ATP are integral components of the TGF calcium wave.

  7. Shear Bond Strength of Resin Bonded to Bleached Enamel Using Different Modified 35% Hydrogen Peroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosavi H

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Bleaching systems with different concentrations and applications are widely used to improve the visual appearance of the teeth, but one of the complications of these materials is reduction of bond strength for immediately bonding to the bleached enamel. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of using different modified hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents on the shear bond strength of composite resin bonded to the bleached enamel. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight sound extracted premolar teeth were collected, sectioned 1 mm below the CEJ to detach the root. The proximal surfaces of the teeth were flattened using diamond disks and silicon carbide papers to achieve flat homogeneous enamel surfaces without exposure to the dentin. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups as follows (n = 12: group 1: bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide gel; group 2: bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide gel contained (casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP; group 3: bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide gel combined with fluoride; and group 4: bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide applying one week before resin restoration placement. Composite resin, Clearfil AP-X (Kuraray, Tokyo, Japan, was bonded on each tooth in the mould (4 mm diameter × 3 mm height using Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray, Tokyo, Japan. After 24 hours of storage and 1000 cycles of thermocycling, the shear bond strength of the specimens at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min was measured in MPa. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test. Results: The minimum and maximum mean shear bond strength values were observed in groups 2 (15.82 ± 4.41 and 4 (21.00 ± 3.90, respectively. Multiple comparisons of groups revealed no significant differences among the groups except between group 4 and all the other groups. The most common type of failure was adhesive. Conclusions: Using modified bleaching agents decreased the bond

  8. A novel method for in Situ detection of hydrolyzable casein fragments in a cheese matrix by antibody phage display technique and CLSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Zhi; Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Siegumfeldt, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    was successfully developed for the detection of scFvs binding to different alpha(s1)-casein fragments inside a cheese matrix by CLSM. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstrated immunofluorescent labeling method for in situ analysis of proteolysis phenomena in the cheese matrix. Additionally, this technique......A novel method to monitor in situ hydrolyzable casein fragments during cheese ripening by using immunofluorescent labeling and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was developed. Monoclonal single chain variable fragments of antibody (scFvs) were generated by antibody phage display toward...

  9. Importance of casein micelle size and milk composition for milk gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, M; Devold, T G; Vegarud, G E; Lindmark Månsson, H; Stålhammar, H; Paulsson, M

    2010-04-01

    The economic output of the dairy industry is to a great extent dependent on the processing of milk into other milk-based products such as cheese. The yield and quality of cheese are dependent on both the composition and technological properties of milk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the importance and effects of casein (CN) micelle size and milk composition on milk gelation characteristics in order to evaluate the possibilities for enhancing gelation properties through breeding. Milk was collected on 4 sampling occasions at the farm level in winter and summer from dairy cows with high genetic merit, classified as elite dairy cows, of the Swedish Red and Swedish Holstein breeds. Comparisons were made with milk from a Swedish Red herd, a Swedish Holstein herd, and a Swedish dairy processor. Properties of CN micelles, such as their native and rennet-induced CN micelle size and their zeta-potential, were analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy, and rennet-induced gelation characteristics, including gel strength, gelation time, and frequency sweeps, were determined. Milk parameters of the protein, lipid, and carbohydrate profiles as well as minerals were used to obtain correlations with native CN micelle size and gelation characteristics. Milk pH and protein, CN, and lactose contents were found to affect milk gelation. Smaller native CN micelles were shown to form stronger gels when poorly coagulating milk was excluded from the correlation analysis. In addition, milk pH correlated positively, whereas Mg and K correlated negatively with native CN micellar size. The milk from the elite dairy cows was shown to have good gelation characteristics. Furthermore, genetic progress in relation to CN micelle size was found for these cows as a correlated response to selection for the Swedish breeding objective if optimizing for milk gelation characteristics. The results indicate that selection for smaller native CN micelles and lower milk pH through breeding would

  10. Calcium supplement: humanity's double-edged sword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyaratavej, Narong; Buranasinsup, Shutipen

    2011-10-01

    The principle aim of the present study is to investigate the dark side of calcium, pollutions in calcium preparation especially lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd). The collected samples were the different calcium salts in the market and 18 preparations which were classified into 3 groups: Calcium carbonate salts, Chelated calcium and natural-raw calcium. All samples were analyzed for lead, cadmium and mercury by inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique, in house method based on AOAC (2005) 999.10 by ICP-MS. The calcium carbonate and the natural-raw calcium in every sample contained lead at 0.023-0.407 mg/kg of calcium powder. Meanwhile, the natural-raw calcium such as oyster, coral and animal bone showed amount of lead at 0.106-0.384 mg/kg with small amounts of mercury and cadmium. The chelated calcium such as calcium gluconate, calcium lactate and calcium citrate are free of lead.

  11. Casein and soya-bean protein have different effects on whole body protein turnover at the same nitrogen balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Kondrup, J; Elsner, Petteri

    1994-01-01

    , or hydrolysed soya-bean protein at a level of 9.1 g/kg BW per d. The diets, which were isoenergetic with the same carbohydrate: fat ratio, were given as a continuous intragastric infusion for at least 4 d. During the last 19 h 15N-glycine (a primed continuous infusion) was given intragastrically and 15N...... synthesis. The protein diets produced a positive N balance which was independent of the protein source. Intact and hydrolysed casein increased protein synthesis 2.6- and 2.0-fold respectively, compared with the protein-free diet. Protein degradation increased 1.4- and 1.2-fold respectively. Hydrolysed soya......-bean protein did not increase protein synthesis but decreased protein degradation by 35% compared with the protein-free diet. Compared with the hydrolysed soya-bean protein, intact casein resulted in 2.2- and 2.8-fold higher rates of protein synthesis and degradation respectively. These results are not easily...

  12. Synthesis and biological response of casein-based silica nano-composite film for drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianzhong; Xu, Qunna; Zhou, Jianhua; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Limin; Tang, Huiru; Chen, Lihong

    2013-11-01

    Casein possesses many interesting properties that make it a good candidate for conventional and novel drug delivery systems. In this study, casein-based silica nano-composite was prepared via double in situ method, and the as-prepared latex particles were evaluated in terms of their morphology and size through transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The film morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and the mechanical property and response behavior of the films as a function of silica content were discussed. Ibuprofen was used as the model drug. The drug load and release properties were studied by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (solid-state NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), SEM and in vitro test. The composite latex particle showed a stable core-shell structure, and the film exhibited a regular surface with even SiO2 distribution. The drug load efficiency of the composite films increased with adding silica because of the adsorption of the drugs on the silica. In an acidic release medium, the ibuprofen-loaded composite showed a slower drug release dependent on the silica content. These behaviors were most likely due to the reduced diffusion rate of the drug through the composite microsphere, which resulted from the interaction between the silica and the drug.

  13. The investigation of the secondary structures of various peptide sequences of β-casein by the multicanonical simulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaşar, F.; Çelik, S.; Köksel, H.

    2006-05-01

    The structural properties of Arginine-Glutamic acid-Leucine-Glutamic acid-Glutamic acid-Leucine-Asparagine-Valine-Proline-Glycine (RELEELNVPG, in one letter code), Glutamic acid-Glutamic acid-Glutamine-Glutamine-Glutamine-Threonine-Glutamic acid (EEQQQTE) and Glutamic acid-Aspartic acid-Glutamic acid-Leucine-Glutamine-Aspartic acid-Lysine-Isoleucine (EDELQDKI) peptide sequences of β-casein were studied by three-dimensional molecular modeling. In this work, the three-dimensional conformations of each peptide from their primary sequences were obtained by multicanonical simulations. With using major advantage of this simulation technique, Ramachandran plots were prepared and analysed to predict the relative occurrence probabilities of β-turn, γ-turn and helical structures. Structural predictions of these sequences of β-casein molecule indicate the presence of high level of helical structures and βIII-turns. The occurrence probabilities of inverse and classical β-turns were low. The probability of helical structure of each sequence significantly decreased when the temperature increased. Our results show these peptides have highly helical structure and better agreement with the results of spectroscopic techniques and other prediction methods.

  14. Genetic polymorphism of beta-casein gene and its associations with milk traits in Holstein-Friesian cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Bugeac

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In animal breeding finding and using effective genetic markers for improving important traits it is a continuous challenge. In this respect, several genetic markers were associated in cattle with increased milk production or a better milk quality. This proved to be a useful tool for improving certain traits by selecting individuals carriers of allelic variants that have an effect on a desirable trait. In particular, positive associations between certain alleles found at the milk protein loci with some milk production traits convincingly demonstrated in several cattle breeds. Although, in some cases the results obtained in various studies were not in agreement and varied between breeds or populations. Therefore the objective of this study was to establish associations (if any between alleles found at the beta-casein (CSN2 locus and some milk production traits (milk yield and fat, protein, casein and lactose content in a Holstein-Friesian population reared in Romania. Genetic variants at CSN2 locus were identified by isoelectric focusing (IEF of milk samples. In order to determine milk composition the samples were analysed with MilkoScan FT 6000. For the statistical analysis of data SPSS v.19 for Windows was used. At the CSN2 locus four alleles and seven genotypes were identified in the analyzed cattle population. The cows carriers of CSN2 A2 allele produced the highest milk yield and the highest milk protein content, this result being in agreement with other previous studies.

  15. Short communication: the beta-casein (CSN2) silent allele C1 is highly spread in goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, S; Rignanese, D; Küpper, J; Pagnacco, G; Erhardt, G; Caroli, A

    2008-11-01

    Several single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in the goat milk casein genes, most of them modifying the amino acid sequence of the coded protein. At least 9 variants have been found in goat beta-CN (CSN2); 6 of them were characterized at the DNA level (A, A1, C, E, 0, and 0'), whereas the other 3 variants were described only at the protein level. The recently identified silent A1 allele is characterized by a C-->T transition at the 180th nucleotide of the ninth exon. In the present work, typing results from different breeds (3 Italian, 3 German, and a composite of African breeds for a total of 335 samples) demonstrated that the same mutation is carried by the CSN2*C allele. In addition, the T nucleotide at the 180th nucleotide of the ninth exon was always associated with CSN2*C in all the breeds analyzed. Thus, another silent allele occurs at goat CSN2 and can be named CSN2*C1. The much wider distribution of C1 with respect to the A1 allele indicates that the single nucleotide polymorphisms characterizing the silent mutation originated from CSN2*C. A method for the identification of this allele simultaneously with 5 of the 6 DNA-characterized alleles is also proposed. The mutation involved codifies for the same protein of the C allele; nevertheless, its location in the 3' untranslated region of the gene might affect the specific casein expression.

  16. Development and Validation of a Lateral Flow Immunoassay Test Kit for Dual Detection of Casein and β-Lactoglobulin Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiri, Jongkit; Barrios-Lopez, Brianda; Benoit, Lora; Tamayo, Joshua; Day, Jeffrey; Nadala, Cesar; Sung, Shao-Lei; Samadpour, Mansour

    2016-03-01

    Allergies to cow's milk are very common and can present as life-threatening anaphylaxis. Consequently, food labeling legislation mandates that foods containing milk residues, including casein and/or β-lactoglobulin, provide an indication of such on the product label. Because contamination with either component independent of the other can occur during food manufacturing, effective allergen management measures for containment of milk residues necessitates the use of dual screening methods. To assist the food industry in improving food safety practices, we have developed a rapid lateral flow immunoassay test kit that reliably reports both residues down to 0.01 μg per swab and 0.1 ppm of protein for foods. The assay utilizes both sandwich and competitive format test lines and is specific for bovine milk residues. Selectivity testing using a panel of matrices with potentially interfering substances, including commonly used sanitizing agents, indicated reduction in the limit of detection by one-to fourfold. With food, residues were easily detected in all cow's milk-based foods tested, but goat and sheep milk residues were not detected. Specificity analysis revealed no cross-reactivity with common commodities, with the exception of kidney beans when present at high concentrations (> 1%). The development of a highly sensitive and rapid test method capable of detecting trace amounts of casein and/or β-lactoglobulin should aid food manufacturers and regulatory agencies in monitoring for milk allergens in environmental and food samples.

  17. Calcium and Vitamin D Supplement Prescribing Practices among Providers Caring for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Are We Addressing Bone Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shylaja Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD have several risk factors for low bone mineral density. The gluten-free, casein-free (GFCF diet is a complementary therapy sometimes used in ASD that raises concerns for the adequacy of calcium and vitamin D intake. This study evaluated the prescribing practices of calcium and vitamin D supplements and the practice of checking 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD levels by providers in 100 children with ASD, 50 of whom were on the GFCF diet. Fifty-two percent and 46% of children on the GFCF diet were on some form of vitamin D and calcium supplements, respectively, compared to 18% and 14% of those not on this diet. Twenty-four percent of children in the GFCF group had a documented 25(OHD level compared to none in the non-GFCF group. The data highlight a gap in calcium and vitamin D supplement prescribing practices among providers caring for children with ASD as well as a gap in the practice of checking 25(OHD levels.

  18. The effect of variable calcium and very low calcium diets on human calcium metabolism. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of a very low calcium diet, with variable high and low protein intake, on the dynamics of calcium metabolism and the mechanism of calciuretics, are examined. The experiment, using male subjects, was designed to study the role of intestinal calcium absorption on urinary calcium excretion, and the rate of production of endogeneously secreted calcium in the gastrointestinal tract. The study showed an average of 70% fractional absorption rate during very low calcium intake, and that a decrease in renal tubular reabsorption of calcium is responsible for calciuretic effects of high protein intake. The study also indicates that there is a tendency to develop osteoporosis after long periods of low calcium intake, especially with a concurrent high protein intake.

  19. Vitamin D and intestinal calcium absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, Sylvia; Dhawan, Puneet; Porta, Angela; Mady, Leila J; Seth, Tanya

    2011-12-05

    The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase calcium absorption from the intestine. Calcium is absorbed by both an active transcellular pathway, which is energy dependent, and by a passive paracellular pathway through tight junctions. 1,25Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) the hormonally active form of vitamin D, through its genomic actions, is the major stimulator of active intestinal calcium absorption which involves calcium influx, translocation of calcium through the interior of the enterocyte and basolateral extrusion of calcium by the intestinal plasma membrane pump. This article reviews recent studies that have challenged the traditional model of vitamin D mediated transcellular calcium absorption and the crucial role of specific calcium transport proteins in intestinal calcium absorption. There is also increasing evidence that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can enhance paracellular calcium diffusion. The influence of estrogen, prolactin, glucocorticoids and aging on intestinal calcium absorption and the role of the distal intestine in vitamin D mediated intestinal calcium absorption are also discussed.

  20. Calcium electroporation in three cell lines; a comparison of bleomycin and calcium, calcium compounds, and pulsing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gissel, Hanne; Hojman, Pernille;

    2013-01-01

    electroporation and electrochemotherapy. METHODS: The effects of calcium electroporation and bleomycin electroporation (alone or in combination) were compared in three different cell lines (DC-3F, transformed Chinese hamster lung fibroblast; K-562, human leukemia; and murine Lewis Lung Carcinoma). Furthermore...... survival at similar applied voltage parameters. The effect of calcium electroporation is independent of calcium compound. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study strongly supports the use of calcium electroporation as a potential cancer therapy and the results may aid in future clinical trials....