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Sample records for casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium

  1. Comparison the effect of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate and fluoride varnish on dentin hypersensitivity reduction

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    Leila Pishevar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, several casein components such as casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP are vastly considered as a suitable replacement for fluoride component . The aim of this study was to compare the effect of CPP-ACP paste and fluoride varnish on dentin hypersensitivity reduction. Materials & Methods: In this clinical trial study, thirty adult patients between the ages of 20-50 years, presenting with the chief complaint of dentin hypersensitivity were examined. The loss of dentin was less than 0.5mm. The subjects divided into three groups: In groups I and II, patients were treated using CPP-ACP and fluoride varnish following manufacturer instructions. Group III received placebo gel. A visual analog scale was used to assess subjects' response to compressed air and ice stimuli at baseline, 7 days, 28 days and 60 days after treatment. Data was analyzed by One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, Duncan Post Hoc test using the SPSS software version 21. Results: The results showed significant statistical difference between the groups (P<0.05. In fluoride varnish group and CPP-ACP paste group, the dentin hypersensitivity significantly decreased when baseline scores compared to post treatment scores at 7, 28, 60 days (P<0.05. There was no significant statistical difference in dentin hypersensitivity reduction in fluoride varnish and CPP-ACP paste groups . Conclusion: The results of this study showed that both of fluoride varnish and CPP-ACP paste effectively reduced dentinal hypersensitivity compared with placebo-control group.

  2. Adding casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate to sports drinks to eliminate in vitro erosion.

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    Ramalingam, L; Messer, L B; Reynolds, E C

    2005-01-01

    Enamel erosion can occur with frequent consumption of sports drinks. The purpose of this study was to determine a minimal concentration of casein phosphopeptide-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) which when added to a sports drink would eliminate such erosion in vitro. Human enamel specimens were immersed in: (1) the sports drink Powerade; (2) Poweradeplus 4 concentrations of CPP-ACP (0.063%, 0.09%, 0.125%, 0.25%); or (3) double deionized water. Windows of test and control enamel were profiled, and the enamel surface characteristics were examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pH of test solutions increased and the titratable acidity decreased with increasing CPP-ACP concentrations. Erosive step lesions occurred in specimens immersed in Powerade (mean depth=38.70kA +/- 5.60), which were eliminated by the addition of CPP-ACP to Powerade at all test concentrations except 0.063% CPP-ACP. Microscopic surface irregularities on test enamel were observed, apparent as adherent granules or globules. These may represent redeposited mineral phases following mobilization of calcium and phosphate from CPP-ACP. Tasters in a taste panel could not distinguish Powerade from Powerade plus 0.125% CPP-ACP. Adding casein phosphopeptide-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate to the sports drink Powerade significantly reduced the beverage's erosivity without affecting the product's taste.

  3. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate incorporated into sugar confections inhibits the progression of enamel subsurface lesions in situ.

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    Walker, G D; Cai, F; Shen, P; Adams, G G; Reynolds, C; Reynolds, E C

    2010-01-01

    Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) has been demonstrated to exhibit anticariogenic activity in randomized, controlled clinical trials of sugar-free gum and a tooth cream. Two randomized, double-blind, crossover studies were conducted to investigate the potential of CPP-ACP added to hard candy confections to slow the progression of enamel subsurface lesions in an in situ model. The confections studied were: (1) control sugar (65% sucrose + 33% glucose syrup); (2) control sugar-free; (3) sugar + 0.5% (w/w) CPP-ACP; (4) sugar + 1.0% (w/w) CPP-ACP; (5) sugar-free + 0.5% (w/w) CPP-ACP. Participants (10 and 14 in study 1 and 2) wore a removable palatal appliance containing enamel half-slabs with subsurface lesions, except for meals and oral hygiene procedures, and consumed 1 confection 6 times a day for 10 days. The enamel half-slabs were inset to allow the development of plaque on the enamel surface. Participants rested for 1 week before crossing over to another confection. The appliances were stored in a humid container at 37 degrees C when not in the mouth. After each treatment period, the enamel half-slabs were removed, paired with their demineralized control half-slabs, embedded, sectioned and then analysed using transverse microradiography. In both studies consumption of the control sugar confection resulted in significant demineralization (progression) of the enamel subsurface lesions. However, consumption of the sugar confections containing CPP-ACP did not result in lesion progression, but in fact in significant remineralization (regression) of the lesions. Remineralization by consumption of the sugar + 1.0% CPP-ACP confection was significantly greater than that obtained with the sugar-free confection. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Reduces Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Development on Glass Ionomer Cement and Disrupts Established Biofilms.

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    Stuart G Dashper

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements (GIC are dental restorative materials that are suitable for modification to help prevent dental plaque (biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incorporating casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP into a GIC on the colonisation and establishment of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and the effects of aqueous CPP-ACP on established S mutans biofilms. S. mutans biofilms were either established in flow cells before a single ten min exposure to 1% w/v CPP-ACP treatment or cultured in static wells or flow cells with either GIC or GIC containing 3% w/w CPP-ACP as the substratum. The biofilms were then visualised using confocal laser scanning microscopy after BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining. A significant decrease in biovolume and average thickness of S. mutans biofilms was observed in both static and flow cell assays when 3% CPP-ACP was incorporated into the GIC substratum. A single ten min treatment with aqueous 1% CPP-ACP resulted in a 58% decrease in biofilm biomass and thickness of established S. mutans biofilms grown in a flow cell. The treatment also significantly altered the structure of these biofilms compared with controls. The incorporation of 3% CPP-ACP into GIC significantly reduced S. mutans biofilm development indicating another potential anticariogenic mechanism of this material. Additionally aqueous CPP-ACP disrupted established S. mutans biofilms. The use of CPP-ACP containing GIC combined with regular CPP-ACP treatment may lower S. mutans challenge.

  5. Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Reduces Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Development on Glass Ionomer Cement and Disrupts Established Biofilms.

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    Dashper, Stuart G; Catmull, Deanne V; Liu, Sze-Wei; Myroforidis, Helen; Zalizniak, Ilya; Palamara, Joseph E A; Huq, N Laila; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are dental restorative materials that are suitable for modification to help prevent dental plaque (biofilm) formation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incorporating casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) into a GIC on the colonisation and establishment of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and the effects of aqueous CPP-ACP on established S mutans biofilms. S. mutans biofilms were either established in flow cells before a single ten min exposure to 1% w/v CPP-ACP treatment or cultured in static wells or flow cells with either GIC or GIC containing 3% w/w CPP-ACP as the substratum. The biofilms were then visualised using confocal laser scanning microscopy after BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining. A significant decrease in biovolume and average thickness of S. mutans biofilms was observed in both static and flow cell assays when 3% CPP-ACP was incorporated into the GIC substratum. A single ten min treatment with aqueous 1% CPP-ACP resulted in a 58% decrease in biofilm biomass and thickness of established S. mutans biofilms grown in a flow cell. The treatment also significantly altered the structure of these biofilms compared with controls. The incorporation of 3% CPP-ACP into GIC significantly reduced S. mutans biofilm development indicating another potential anticariogenic mechanism of this material. Additionally aqueous CPP-ACP disrupted established S. mutans biofilms. The use of CPP-ACP containing GIC combined with regular CPP-ACP treatment may lower S. mutans challenge.

  6. Comparative evaluation of Nano-hydroxyapatite and casein Phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on the remineralization potential of early enamel lesions: An in vitro study

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    Anshul Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benefits of remineralizing agents in a wide variety of formulations have been proved beneficial in caries management. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP–ACP nanocomplex has been recommended and used as remineralizing agent. Nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAp is one of the most biocompatible and bioactive material having wide range of application in dentistry, but does it excel better compared to CPP-ACP. Aims: To evaluate and compare the remineralizing efficiency of the paste containing hydroxyapatite and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate. Settings and Design: The study was an in vitro single blinded study with lottery method of randomization approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Materials and methods: 30 non carious premolar teeth. The teeth were demineralized and divided into 2 groups and subjected to remineralization. The samples were analysed for surface hardness and mineral content. Statistical Analysis: Student t’ test and repeated measures of ANOVA was applied. Results: Average hardness in Nano-hydroxyapatite group increased to 340 ± 31.70 SD and 426 ± 50.62 SD for 15 and 30 days respectively and that of (CPP–ACP, 355.83 ± 38.55 SD and 372.67 ± 53.63 SD. The change in the hardness values was not statistically significant with P value of 0.39 (P > 0.05. Calcium and Phosphorous levels increased in both the groups but was not significant. Conclusion: Both the agents used are effective in causing remineralization of enamel. Nano-hydroxyapatite is more effective as compared to Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate, in increasing the Calcium and Phosphorus content of enamel, and this effect is more evident over a longer treatment period. Key Message: Remineralizing agents are a boon for caries management. With the advent of many formulations it is difficult to clinically select the agent. This study compares the remineralizing potential of Casein

  7. Combined effect of paste containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and fluoride on enamel lesions: an in vitro pH-cycling study.

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    Ogata, Kiyokazu; Warita, Sachie; Shimazu, Kisaki; Kawakami, Tomomi; Aoyagi, Kyoko; Karibe, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to show through enamel remineralization that a combination of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and fluoride is better than fluoride alone when the processing time for remineralization is short. The bovine enamel slabs (n=28) were subjected to pH cycling for 4 days. Paste containing CPP-ACP and/or fluoride was applied for 30 minutes daily. The sections were observed using a polarizing microscope and microradiographs. In the groups treated solely with sodium fluoride (NaF) solution, tissue loss on the enamel surface was observed. On the other hand, in the groups that had been treated with a mixture of the NaF solution and CPP-ACP, the enamel surface was maintained. These results show that casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate-containing paste has the ability to maintain the enamel surface; the combined use of CPP-ACP paste and fluoride enhances this ability, thereby reducing demineralization.

  8. Effect of casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate containing chewing gum on salivary concentration of calcium and phosphorus: An in-vivo study

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    B P Santhosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Caries clinical trials of sugar-free chewing gum have shown that the gum is noncariogenic and in fact has anticariogenic effect through the stimulation of saliva. Sugar-free gums, therefore, may be an excellent delivery vehicle for safe and effective additive, capable of promoting enamel remineralization. Casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP nanocomplexes incorporated into sugar-free chewing gum have shown to remineralize enamel subsurface lesions in situ. So this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP containing sugar-free chewing gum on salivary concentration of calcium and phosphorous. Materials and Methods : Unstimulated saliva from each 24 selected subjects was collected. Then each subject was given two pellets of chewing gum containing CPP-ACP and asked to chew for a period of 20 min, after which saliva samples were collected from each individual. Once all the samples were collected they were assessed for calcium and phosphorous concentration using affiliated reagent kits and photometer. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained were analyzed using student′s paired t test. Results: Significant difference was found in the calcium and phosphorus concentration of saliva before and after chewing CPP-ACP containing chewing gum. Conclusions: Chewing of CPP-ACP containing chewing gum showed a significant increase in the salivary concentration of calcium for a prolonged period of time hence it may help in the remineralization of tooth surfaces.

  9. Effects of the addition of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on mechanical properties of luting and lining glass ionomer cement

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    Heravi, Farzin; Bagheri, Hossein; Rangrazi, Abdolrasoul; Mojtaba Zebarjad, Seyed

    2016-07-01

    Recently, the addition of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) into glass ionomer cements (GICs) has attracted interest due to its remineralization of teeth and its antibacterial effects. However, it should be investigated to ensure that the incorporation of CPP-ACP does not have significant adverse effects on its mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of CPP-ACP on the mechanical properties of luting and lining GIC. The first step was to synthesize the CPP-ACP. Then the CPP-ACP at concentrations of 1%, 1.56% and 2% of CPP-ACP was added into a luting and lining GIC. GIC without CPP-ACP was used as a control group. The results revealed that the incorporation of CPP-ACP up to 1.56%(w/w) increased the flexural strength (29%), diametral tensile strength (36%) and microhardness (18%), followed by a reduction in these mechanical properties at 2%(w/w) CPP-ACP. The wear rate was significantly decreased (23%) in 1.56%(w/w) concentration of CPP-ACP and it was increased in 2%(w/w). Accordingly, the addition of 1.56%(w/w) CPP-ACP into luting and lining GIC had no adverse effect on the mechanical properties of luting and lining GIC and could be used in clinical practice.

  10. Effectiveness of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and lysozyme, lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase in reducing Streptococcus mutans counts in dentinal caries.

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    Pinheiro, Sérgio Luiz; Azenha, Giuliana Rodrigues; Araujo, Giovana Spagnolo Albamonte; Puppin Rontani, Regina Maria

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the capacity of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) to that of a combination of lysozyme, lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase (LLL) in root canal disinfectant for reducing the Streptococcus mutans counts from dentinal caries. Forty human permanent third molars were selected, and flat dentin surfaces were created. Carious lesions were induced using a microbiological model. The specimens were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 20) according to the type of agent used: group 1, CPP-ACP; group 2, LLL. The S mutans counts were performed before application and after the first, second, and third applications of the agents. The duration of each application was 3 minutes. Carious dentin specimens were homogenized, diluted, and seeded onto mitis salivarius-bacitracin plates for viable counts of S mutans. Results showed that there was no significant reduction in the number of S mutans in group 1 after the applications of CPP-ACP (P > 0.05). In group 2, a significant reduction of S mutans was observed after the third application of LLL (P < 0.01). These results indicate that 3 applications of LLL enzymes can be used to reduce the number of S mutans in dentinal caries lesions.

  11. Remineralization effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate crème on artificial early enamel lesions of primary teeth.

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    Zhang, Qiong; Zou, Jing; Yang, Ran; Zhou, Xuedong

    2011-09-01

    Caries in children younger than 72 months is called early childhood caries (ECC). Sixty-six per cent of Chinese children younger than 5 years old have dental decay, and about 97% of them are untreated. This in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the remineralization effects of the casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) crème on the artificial early enamel lesions of the primary teeth and to assess its caries-prevention efficiency. Enamel specimens with artificial early lesions were produced and were then randomly divided into Group A: distilled and deionized water, DDW, as negative control; Group B: CPP-ACP crème, test group; Group C: 500 ppm NaF solution, as positive control. The enamel surface microhardness (SMH) was measured before, after demineralization, and 30 days after remineralization. The results were analysed with the SPSS 13.0 software package. The enamel specimens were analysed by the scanning electron microscope. The CPP-ACP crème increased SMH of the eroded enamel significantly more than 500 ppm NaF solution did. The morphology of the enamel was different in each group. The CPP-ACP crème is effective in remineralizing early enamel lesions of the primary teeth, a little more effective than 500 ppm NaF and can be used for the prevention of ECC. 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. An Innovative Approach to Treat Incisors Hypomineralization (MIH: A Combined Use of Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Hydrogen Peroxide—A Case Report

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    Stefano Mastroberardino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH is characterized by a developmentally derived deficiency in mineral enamel. Affected teeth present demarcated enamel opacities, ranging from white to brown; also hypoplasia can be associated. Patient frequently claims aesthetic discomfort if anterior teeth are involved. This problem leads patients to request a bleaching treatment to improve aestheticconditions.Nevertheless, hydrogen peroxide can produce serious side-effects, resulting from further mineral loss. Microabrasion and/or a composite restoration are the treatments of choice in teeth with mild/moderate MIH, but they also need enamel loss. Recently, a new remineralizing agent based on Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP has been proposed to be effective in hypomineralized enamel, improving also aesthetic conditions. The present paper presents a case report of a young man with white opacities on incisors treated with a combined use of CPP-ACP mousse and hydrogen peroxide gel to correct the aesthetic defect. The patient was instructed to use CPP-ACP for two hours per day for three months in order to obtain enamel remineralization followed by a combined use of CPP-ACP and bleaching agent for further two months. At the end of this five-month treatment, a noticeable aesthetic improvement of the opacities was observed.

  13. An Innovative Approach to Treat Incisors Hypomineralization (MIH): A Combined Use of Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Hydrogen Peroxide—A Case Report

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    Mastroberardino, Stefano; Campus, Guglielmo; Strohmenger, Laura; Villa, Alessandro; Cagetti, Maria Grazia

    2012-01-01

    Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is characterized by a developmentally derived deficiency in mineral enamel. Affected teeth present demarcated enamel opacities, ranging from white to brown; also hypoplasia can be associated. Patient frequently claims aesthetic discomfort if anterior teeth are involved. This problem leads patients to request a bleaching treatment to improve aestheticconditions.Nevertheless, hydrogen peroxide can produce serious side-effects, resulting from further mineral loss. Microabrasion and/or a composite restoration are the treatments of choice in teeth with mild/moderate MIH, but they also need enamel loss. Recently, a new remineralizing agent based on Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) has been proposed to be effective in hypomineralized enamel, improving also aesthetic conditions. The present paper presents a case report of a young man with white opacities on incisors treated with a combined use of CPP-ACP mousse and hydrogen peroxide gel to correct the aesthetic defect. The patient was instructed to use CPP-ACP for two hours per day for three months in order to obtain enamel remineralization followed by a combined use of CPP-ACP and bleaching agent for further two months. At the end of this five-month treatment, a noticeable aesthetic improvement of the opacities was observed. PMID:23243519

  14. Remineralization effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on enamel white spot lesions. A quantitative energy dispersive X ray elemental analysis: An in vitro study

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    Fabrizio Guerra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate, by means of elemental analysis the mineral density, calcium, and phosphorus weight percent of sound enamel, demineralized and CPP-ACP treated enamel. Elemental analysis allows elemental and isotopic composition of a biologic sample. It can be qualitative (determining what elements are present, and quantitative (determining how much of each are present. INCA Energy 250, Oxford Analytical Instruments Ltd. (UK, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy system for elemental analysis was performed on random assigned samples. Methods: 12 sound premolars were extracted for orthodontic reason. Each tooth was sectioned by using a double-faced diamond microtome under water cooling into three section for a total of 36 samples and randomly assigned to three groups: Group 1 (control, Group 2 (WS: white spot , Group 3 (WST white spot treated of 12 samples each. Samples (Group 2 and Group 3 underwent equally to 24 h and 48 h of acid bath duration. Then all the treated samples (Group 3 were coated with CPP-ACP for 5 min before immersion into water twice a day. Group 2 served as control for enamel damage evaluation. Inca Point & ID, an analytic platform software for SEM was used for elemental analysis on samples from Group 1 (C, 2 (WS and Group 3 (WST in order to determine the weight % and atomic % presence of Ca and P. Results: The results of the samples analysis from the three Groups show different weight % and atomic% of Ca and P, and clearly reflect the different mineralization rates. Conclusions: 10% Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP complex, promotes remineralization in vitro. The results of this in vitro study completely agree with this statement. Clinical studies to investigate the intraoral effectiveness of topical applications of CPP-ACP on white spot lesions are required to confirm these results.

  15. The role of fluoride and casein phosphopeptide/amorphous calcium phosphate in the prevention of erosive/abrasive wear in an in vitro model using hydrochloric acid.

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    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Attin, T

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of various fluoride compounds and casein phosphopeptide/amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on the reduction of erosive/abrasive tooth wear. Forty enamel samples were prepared from bovine lower incisors, stratified and allocated to 4 groups (1-4). Samples in group 1 remained untreated and served as negative controls. The test samples were treated for 2 min/day as follows: group 2 amine/sodium fluoride gel (pH 4.8; 12,500 ppm), group 3 sodium fluoride gel (pH 7.1; 12,500 ppm) and group 4 CPP-ACP-containing mousse. De- and remineralization cycling was performed for 20 days with 6 erosive attacks for 20 s with HCl (pH 3.0) per day. Samples were stored in artificial saliva between cycles and overnight. Toothbrushing (15 s; 60 strokes/min; load 2.5 N) with a toothpaste slurry was performed each day before the first and 1 h after the last erosive exposure. Tooth wear was measured by comparing baseline surface profiles with the corresponding posttreatment profiles. Tooth wear was significantly reduced in groups 2 and 3 compared with group 1, while the enamel loss of group 4 was not significantly lower compared to the negative control group 1. Between the fluoride groups 2 and 3, no significant difference in tooth wear was recorded. Erosive/abrasive tooth wear under the conditions used could be reduced significantly by the daily application of fluoride gels, irrespective of the fluoride compound, while the application of CPP-ACP-containing mousse was less effective. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. In vitro evaluation of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate effect on the shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel

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    Niloofar Shadman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP is applied for remineralization of early caries lesions or tooth sensitivity conditions and may affect subsequent resin bonding. This in vitro study investigated the effect of CPP-ACP on the shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human molar teeth were selected and randomly divided into three groups and six subgroups. Buccal or lingual surfaces of teeth were prepared to create a flat enamel surface. Adhesives used were Tetric N-Bond, AdheSE and AdheSE One F. In three subgroups, before applying adhesives, enamel surfaces were treated with Tooth Mousse CPP-ACP for one hour, rinsed and stored in 37°C temperature with 100% humidity. This procedure was repeated for 5 days and then adhesives were applied and Tetric N-Ceram composite was adhered to the enamel. This procedure was also fulfilled for the other three subgroups without CPP-ACP treatment. After 24 hour water storage, samples were tested for shear bond strength test in a universal testing machine. Failure modes were determined by stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by t-test and one-way analysis of variance with P 0.05. In non-applied CPP-ACP subgroups, there were statistically significant differences among all subgroups. Tetric N-Bond had the highest and AdheSE One F had the lowest shear bond strength. Conclusion: CPP-ACP application reduces the shear bond strength of AdheSE and AdheSE One F to enamel but not Tetric N-Bond.

  17. [Preventive and remineralization effect over incipient lesions of caries decay by phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate].

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    Juárez-López, María Lilia Adriana; Hernández-Palacios, Rosa Diana; Hernández-Guerrero, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-Farfán, Dolores; Molina-Frechero, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Dental caries continues to affect a large percentage of Mexican children and currently advises that if diagnosed at an early stage can be reversed with minimally invasive treatments. The casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate known as CPP-ACP is a phosphoprotein capable of releasing calcium and phosphate ions in the oral environment promoting remineralization. OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP with fluoride added in a scholar preventive program. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A cuasi- experimental study was conducted in 104 schools of six years old. The children were classified into three groups and received six months biweekly applications of different treatments: casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate added fluoride (CPP-ACPF), sodium fluoride (NaF) and a control group. Clinical evaluation was performed with the laser fluorescence technique (Diagnodent model 2095). 1340 teeth were included: 294 teeth with incipient lesions and 1,046 healthy teeth. Statistical tests of χ2 y Mc Nemar were used. RESULTS. In the group that received the application of CPP-ACPF, 38% of incipient carious lesions were remineralizing compared with 21% in the group receiving the NaF (p application biweekly for six months of CPP-ACPF showed a protective and remineralizing effect on incipient carious lesions. His action was better than the application of NaF. However, to reduce the impact from dental caries in schoolchildren is important to have a comprehensive preventive approach that includes promoting self-care, as well as the application of sealants.

  18. Atomic force microscopic comparison of remineralization with casein-phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate paste, acidulated phosphate fluoride gel and iron supplement in primary and permanent teeth: An in-vitro study

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    Nikita Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Demineralization of tooth by erosion is caused by frequent contact between the tooth surface and acids present in soft drinks. Aim: The present study objective was to evaluate the remineralization potential of casein-phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP paste, 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF gel and iron supplement on dental erosion by soft drinks in human primary and permanent enamel using atomic force microscopy (AFM. Materials and Methods: Specimens were made from extracted 15 primary and 15 permanent teeth which were randomly divided into three treatment groups: CPP-ACP paste, APF gel and iron supplement. AFM was used for baseline readings followed by demineralization and remineralization cycle. Results and Statistics: Almost all group of samples showed remineralization that is a reduction in surface roughness which was higher with CPP-ACP paste. Statistical analysis was performed using by one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U-test with P < 0.05. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the application of CPP-ACP paste is effective on preventing dental erosion from soft drinks.

  19. Comparative evaluation of the effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP and xylitol-containing chewing gum on salivary flow rate, pH and buffering capacity in children: An in vivo study

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    Rahul J Hegde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to compare and evaluate the changes in the salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity before and after chewing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP and xylitol-containing chewing gums in children. Materials and Methods: Sixty children aged between 8 and 12 years were selected for the study. They were randomly divided into Group 1 (CPP-ACP chewing gum and Group 2 (xylitol-containing chewing gum comprising thirty children each. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples at 15 and 30 min interval were collected from all children. All the saliva samples were estimated for salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. Results: Significant increase in salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity from baseline to immediately after spitting the chewing gum was found in both the study groups. No significant difference was found between the two study groups with respect to salivary flow rate and pH. Intergroup comparison indicated a significant increase in salivary buffer capacity in Group 1 when compared to Group 2. Conclusion: Chewing gums containing CPP-ACP and xylitol can significantly increase the physiochemical properties of saliva. These physiochemical properties of saliva have a definite relation with caries activity in children.

  20. Effect of Casein Phosphopeptide-amorphous Calcium Phosphate Treatment on Microtensile Bond Strength to Carious Affected Dentin Using Two Adhesive Strategies

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    Mahmoud Bahari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim was to evaluate the effect of casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP on microtensile bond strength (μTBS to carious affected dentin (CAD using etch-and-rinse and self-etch ad-hesive systems. Materials and methods. The occlusal surface of 32 human molars with moderate occlusal caries was removed. Infected dentin was removed until reaching CAD and the teeth were randomly divided into two groups based on the Single Bond (SB and Clearfil SE Bond (CSE adhesive systems. Before composite resin bonding, each group was subdivided into three subgroups of ND, CAD and CPP-ACP-treated CAD (CAD-CPP based on the dentin substrate. After dissecting samples to l-mm-thick cross-sections (each subgroup: n = 13, μTBS was measured at a strain rate of 0.5 mm/min. Data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA, independent samples t-test and post-hoc Tukey tests (α=0.05. Results. Bond strength of both adhesive systems to ND was significantly higher than that to CAD (P 0.05. μTBS of CSE to CAD-CPP was higher than that to CAD; however, the difference was not significant (P > 0.05. Significant differences were found between SB and CSE systems only with CAD substrate (P < 0.001. Conclusion. Regardless of the adhesive system used, surface treatment of CAD with CPP-ACP did not have a significant effect on bond strength. However, bond strength to CAD was higher with SB rather than with CSE.

  1. The decreased of Streptococcus Mutans growth after topical application of phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate paste

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    Tika Faradina Araf

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP paste is a topical application substance that consisted of a series of milk derivative peptide as a result of phosphorylation and has an antibacterial activity. The objective of this research was to find out the difference of Streptococcus mutans growth before and after CPP-ACP paste given topically to child's teeth. The method of the research was a quasi-experiment. Research samples were 10 students of MI Al Falah Islamic Boarding School, Jatinangor, West Jawa Indonesia and collected with purposive sampling technique. This research used dental plaque from child's teeth before and after applicated by CPP-ACP paste. The plaque was cultivated in selective media Tryptone Yeast Cysteine Sucrose Bacitracin (TYCSB with repeated twice. Streptococcus mutans colony in TYCSB were counted by Stuart colony counter and statistically analyzed based on paired t-test. The results showed the average of Streptococcus mutans growth before applicated CPP-ACP paste was 57.05, whereas after applicated CPP-ACP paste for 1 days was 9.4; for 3 days was 2.85, and for 14 days was 1.7 colony. The research concluded that there was a decrease of Streptococcus mutans growth in isolate plaque after CPP-ACP paste topically given to child's teeth.

  2. Treatment of post-orthodontic white spot lesions with casein phosphopeptide-stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bröchner, Ann; Christensen, Carsten; Kristensen, Bjarne

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of topical applications of 10% casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on white spot lesions (WSL) detected after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Sixty healthy adolescents with >/=1 clinically visible WSL at debonding were...... findings were largely reflected by the clinical scores. No side effects were reported. Topical treatment of white spot lesions after debonding of orthodontic appliances with a casein phosphopeptide-stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate agent resulted in significantly reduced fluorescence and a reduced...

  3. Effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and acidulated phosphate fluoride gel on erosive enamel wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam HajeNorouz Ali Tehrani

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: We concluded that although either CPP-ACP or APF can protect enamel against wear, their combination provides significant enamel wear reduction. These findings would lead to new strategies for the clinical management of tooth wear.

  4. Effect of Fluoride, Casein Phosphopeptide–Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Casein Phosphopeptide–Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Fluoride on Enamel Surface Microhardness After Microabrasion: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazaleh Ahmadi Zenouz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of applying casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP paste, casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF paste and sodium fluoride gel on surface microhardness of enamel after microabrasion.Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted human premolars were selected. All samples were subjected to hardness indentations made with the Vickers hardness machine and the average value was recorded as the initial surface microhardness. The specimens were then randomly divided into three groups (n=10 of CPP-ACPF, fluoride and CPP-ACP. The teeth were micro-abraded with Opalustre. Microhardness test was performed to assess the post-abrasion hardness. Three remineralization modalities were performed on samples of each group. The enamel surface microhardness measurements were performed. To compare the difference between groups, the rehardening and softening values were defined. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test at a significance level of 5% were used for statistical analysis.Results: The mean microhardness value (MMV had a significant decrease after microabrasion from baseline. The MMV had a significant increase after remineralization in all groups. The MMV of CPP-ACPF group was significantly more than that of fluoride group (P=0.027. The rehardening value of fluoride group was significantly more than that of other groups (P<0.001.Conclusion: All the remineralizing agents were effective for rehardening the enamel after microabrasion. The CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF pastes are effective, but to a lesser extent than neutral sodium fluoride gel in remineralizing enamel surface. Incorporation of fluoride to CPP-ACP formulation does not provide any additional remineralizing potential.Keywords: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplex; Enamel Microabrasion; Hardness; Sodium Fluoride

  5. Effect of dentin pre-treatment with a casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste on dentin bond strength in tridimensional cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra; Souza-Junior, Eduardo Jose; da Costa, Giovanna de Fátima Alves; Pinheiro, Isauremi Vieira de Assunçao; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Braz, Rodivan; Montes, Marcos Antônio Japiassú Resende

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the push-out bond strength of dimethacrylate (Clearfil SE Bond/Filtek Z250; and Adper SE Plus/Filtek Z250) and silorane-based (Filtek P90 adhesive system/Filtek P90 composite resin) restorative systems following selective dentin pre-treatment with a CPP-ACP-containing paste (MI Paste). Sixty bovine incisors were utilized. The buccal surface was wet-ground to obtain a flat dentin area. Standardized conical cavities were then prepared. Adhesive systems were applied according to manufacturers' directions and the composites were bulk-inserted into the cavity. The push-out bond strength test was performed at a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min) until failure; failure modes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test (p < 0.05). For Clearfil SE Bond/Filtek Z250 and Filtek P90 adhesive system/Filtek P90 composite resin, the dentin pre-treatment did not influence bond strength means. For Adper SE Plus/Filtek Z250, dentin samples treated with MI Paste had statistically higher bond strength means than non-treated specimens. Adhesive failures were more frequent. Dentin pre-treatment with the CPP-ACP containing paste did not negatively affect bond strength for Clearfil SE Bond/Filtek Z250 and Filtek P90 adhesive system/Filtek P90 composite resin restorative systems and improved bond strength for the Adper SE Plus/Filtek Z250 restorative system.

  6. Effect of fluoridated casein phospopeptide-amorphous-calcium phosphate complex, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets: A comparative in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C A Abdul Shahariyar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium-phosphate (CPP-ACP complex, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash on shear bond strengths (SBSs of orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: About sixty extracted healthy human premolar teeth with intact buccal enamel were divided into two equal groups to which brackets were bonded using self-etching primers (SEPs and conventional means respectively. These were further equally divided into three subgroups - (1 control (2 CPP-ACP (3 chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash. The SBSs were then measured using a universal testing machine. Results: SBS of the conventional group was significantly higher than the self-etching group. The intragroup differences were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: CPP-ACP, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash did not adversely affect SBS of orthodontic brackets irrespective of the method of conditioning. Brackets bonded with conventional technique showed greater bond strengths as compared to those bonded with SEP.

  7. The increasing of enamel calcium level after casein phosphopeptideamorphous calcium phosphate covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyasri Prananingrum

    2012-06-01

    . Demineralisasi terjadi oleh asam organik sebagai hasil fermentasi substrat karbohidrat oleh bakteri. Remineralisasi adalah proses perbaikan alami untuk lesi non cavitated. Remineralisasi terjadi jika terdapat ion Ca2+ dan PO43- dalam jumlah cukup. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP adalah bahan berbentuk pasta berisi suatu protein susu (kasein. Pada kasein terkandung mineral kalsium dan fosfat. Kemampuan kasein untuk menstabilkan kalsium fosfat dan meningkatkan kelarutan dan bioavailabilitas sehingga CPP memiliki potensi menghantarkan kalsium dan fosfat. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui kadar kalsium enamel setelah pengulasan CPP-ACP pada permukaan enamel 2 kali sehari selama 3,14 dan 28 hari. Metode: Sampel adalah gigi insisif sapi, usia 3 tahun. Pada penelitian ini sampel (n = 24 dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok yaitu kelompok I sebagai kelompok kontrol, dan kelompok II, III, IV sebagai kelompok perlakuan dengan pengulasan CPP-ACP 2 kali sehari. Semua kelompok direndam dalam saliva buatan. Kelompok II direndam 3 hari, kelompok III direndam 14 hari, kelompok IV direndam 28 hari. Pengulasan CPP-ACP sejumlah 1 tetes diratakan pada seluruh permukaan labial gigi. Pengukuran kadar kalsium dilakukan dengan metode titrasi. Semua data dianalisa dengan uji One-Way ANOVA dengan taraf kemaknaan 5%. Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan kadar kalsium enamel gigi di antara kelompok (p = 0,001. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan kadar kalsium gigi pada kelompok kontrol dan perlakuan antara lama waktu pengulasan 3, 14, dan 28 hari (p = 0,001. Kesimpulan: Pengulasan CPP-ACP selama 3, 14 dan 28 hari mampu meningkatkan kadar kalsium pada enamel.

  8. Treatment of post-orthodontic white spot lesions with casein phosphopeptide-stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröchner, Ann; Christensen, Carsten; Kristensen, Bjarne; Tranæus, Sofia; Karlsson, Lena; Sonnesen, Liselotte; Twetman, Svante

    2011-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of topical applications of 10% casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on white spot lesions (WSL) detected after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Sixty healthy adolescents with ≥1 clinically visible WSL at debonding were recruited and randomly allocated to a randomised controlled trial with two parallel groups. The intervention group was instructed to topically apply a CPP-ACP -containing agent (Tooth Mousse, GC Europe) once daily and the subjects of the control group brushed their teeth with standard fluoride toothpaste. The intervention period was 4 weeks and the endpoints were quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) on buccal surfaces of the upper incisors, cuspids and first premolars and visual scoring from digital photos. The attrition rate was 15%, mostly due to technical errors, and 327 lesions were included in the final evaluation. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) regression of the WSL was disclosed in both study groups compared to baseline, but there was no difference between the groups. The mean area of the lesions decreased by 58% in the CPP-ACP group and 26% in the fluoride group (p = 0.06). The QLF findings were largely reflected by the clinical scores. No side effects were reported. Topical treatment of white spot lesions after debonding of orthodontic appliances with a casein phosphopeptide-stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate agent resulted in significantly reduced fluorescence and a reduced area of the lesions after 4 weeks as assessed by QLF. The improvement was however not superior to the "natural" regression following daily use of fluoride toothpaste.

  9. Influence of process parameters on formation of fibrous materials from dense calcium caseinate dispersions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manski, J.M.; Zalm, van der E.E.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrated calcium caseinate (Ca-caseinate) in the presence of palm fat forms hierarchical fibrous materials after enzymatic crosslinking under well-defined deformation. The presence of fat induces the protein fibers to be arranged in bundles of 200 fibers, separated by layers that are

  10. Salt-modulated structure formation in a dense calcium caseinate system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabowska, K.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    A 30 wt% calcium caseinate dispersion can be transformed in an anisotropic and fibrous structure by applying well-defined flow and enzymatic gelation. The formation of an anisotropic structure is thought to be due to the micellar structure of the caseinate and the mild adhesion between the micelles

  11. Orthokinetic flocculation of caseinate-stabilized emulsions : influence of calcium concentration, shear rate and protein content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, E.P.; Dalgleish, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Calcium-induced flocculation of caseinate-stabilized soybean oil-in- water emulsions in conditions of Couette flow was studied. A concentrated emulsion (20% oil, 0.5-2.0% sodium caseinate in 20 mM imidazole, pH 7) was diluted 20 times in buffer containing concentrations of CaCl2 between 9 and 17 mM

  12. Calcium bioaccessibility and uptake by human intestinal like cells following in vitro digestion of casein phosphopeptide-calcium aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, Silvia; Del Favero, Elena; De Luca, Paola; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Fiorilli, Amelia; Cantu', Laura; Ferraretto, Anita

    2015-06-01

    Casein phosphopeptides (CPPs), derived by casein proteolysis, can bind calcium ions and keep them in solution. In vitro studies have demonstrated CPP-induced cell calcium uptake, depending on the formation of (CPP + calcium) complexes and on the degree of differentiation of the intestinal cells. With the present study, we address the persistence of the complexes and of the CPP-induced calcium uptake in intestinal like cells after the digestion process, thus examining their eligibility to serve as nutraceuticals. A calcium-preloaded CPP preparation of commercial origin (Ca-CPPs) was subjected to in vitro digestion. The evolution of the supramolecular structure of the Ca-CPP complexes was studied using laser-light and X-ray scattering. The bioactivity of the pre- and post-digestion Ca-CPPs was determined in differentiated Caco2 and HT-29 cells by video imaging experiments using Fura-2. We found that Ca-CPP aggregates keep a complex supramolecular organization upon digestion, despite getting smaller in size and increasing internal calcium dispersion. Concomitantly and most interestingly, digested Ca-CPPs clearly enhance the uptake of calcium ions, especially in Caco2 cells. In contrast, digestion depletes the ability of post-loaded decalcified-CPPs (Ca-dekCPPs), with a weaker internal structure, to induce calcium uptake. The enhanced bioactivity reached upon digestion strongly suggests a recognized role of Ca-CPPs, in the form used here, as nutraceuticals.

  13. Effect of calcium chelators on heat coagulation and heat-induced changes of concentrated micellar casein solutions: The role of calcium-ion activity and micellar integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, de E.J.P.; Minor, M.; Snoeren, T.A.L.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Linden, van der E.

    2012-01-01

    There is general consensus that calcium chelators enhance heat stability in milk. However, they increase the heat stability to considerably different extents. For this reason, the effect of various calcium chelators on heat coagulation and heat-induced changes of concentrated micellar casein

  14. Influence of calcium chelators on concentrated micellar casein solutions : from micellar structure to viscosity and heat stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, de E.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    In practice it is challenging to prepare a concentrated medical product with high heat stability
    and low viscosity. Calcium chelators are often added to dairy products to improve heat stability,
    but this may increase viscosity through interactions with the casein proteins. The aim of

  15. Molar incisor hypomineralization treatment with casein phosphopeptide and amorphous calcium phosphate in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Marco; Giuca, Maria R; Scatena, Martina; Gatto, Roberto; Caruso, Silvia

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of teeth with MIH in children before and after the use of a tooth mousse containing casein phosphopeptide and amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP). Forty patients, both males and females, aged from 8 to 13 years old that had a molar with MIH hypersensitivity were included in this study. In the test group (20 subjects), a tooth mousse with CPP-ACP was used while fluoride toothpaste was used in the control group. Dental sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli was evaluated before (T0) and 120 days after the beginning of the treatment (T1). In the test group, the thermal sensitivity decreased significantly (P0.05) was observed by comparing males with females. The use of the remineralizing agent containing CPP-ACP resulted in a significant improvement in dental sensitivity in patients with MIH.

  16. Calcium, vitamin D, casein and whey protein intakes and periodontitis among Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Boucher, Barbara J; Kongstad, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    /d), whey proteins (9.6 g/d) and vitamin D (5.8 μg/d) were classified as within v. above the 50th percentile. Ca intake was classified as within v. below age-specific recommendations. Severe periodontitis was defined as having ≥2 inter-proximal sites with clinical attachment loss ≥6 mm (not on the same......, smoking, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, number of teeth, daily brushing, regular visits to the dentist and chronic illness, irrespective of vitamin D intake levels. Intake of vitamin D alone was not associated severe with periodontitis. CONCLUSIONS: Intakes of Ca, casein and whey protein were......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether intakes of Ca, vitamin D, casein and whey are associated with periodontitis and to investigate the possibility of interactions between them. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. An Internet-based, 267-item FFQ was used to assess dietary intake. Intakes of casein (32.0 g...

  17. Calcium, vitamin D, casein and whey protein intakes and periodontitis among Danish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Boucher, Barbara J; Kongstad, Johanne; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Christensen, Lisa B; Heitmann, Berit L

    2016-02-01

    To investigate whether intakes of Ca, vitamin D, casein and whey are associated with periodontitis and to investigate the possibility of interactions between them. Cross-sectional study. An Internet-based, 267-item FFQ was used to assess dietary intake. Intakes of casein (32.0 g/d), whey proteins (9.6 g/d) and vitamin D (5.8 μg/d) were classified as within v. above the 50th percentile. Ca intake was classified as within v. below age-specific recommendations. Severe periodontitis was defined as having ≥2 inter-proximal sites with clinical attachment loss ≥6 mm (not on the same tooth) and ≥1 inter-proximal site with pocket depth ≥5 mm. Since vitamin D influences Ca absorption, models were stratified by lower and higher (periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, smoking, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, number of teeth, daily brushing, regular visits to the dentist and chronic illness, irrespective of vitamin D intake levels. Intake of vitamin D alone was not associated severe with periodontitis. Intakes of Ca, casein and whey protein were inversely associated with periodontitis. Consumption of foods rich in Ca, casein and whey (e.g. dairy foods) should be promoted, as they may contribute to the prevention of periodontitis. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm these associations.

  18. The physical properties and ion release of CPP-ACP-modified calcium silicate-based cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, A E; Manton, D J; Parashos, P; Wong, Rhk; Palamara, Jea; Stanton, D P; Reynolds, E C

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the physical properties and ion release of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP)-modified calcium silicate-based cements (CSCs) and compared the properties of a trial mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) with two commercially available CSCs, Biodentine(™) and Angelus(®) MTA. The setting time, solubility, compressive strength and Vickers surface microhardness of the three CSCs incorporated with 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% (w/w) CPP-ACP were investigated. Release of calcium (Ca(2+) ), phosphate ions (Pi ) and pH of the test cements were measured after 24, 72, 168 and 336 h of storage. The addition of up to 1.0% CPP-ACP into Biodentine(™) and 0.5% into the other cements did not adversely affect their physical properties except for the setting time. The addition of 0.5% CPP-ACP increased Ca(2+) released from Biodentine(™) (after 168 and 336 h), Angelus(®) MTA (after 168 h) and the trial MTA (after 72 h). The addition of 1.0-3.0% CPP-ACP increased Ca(2+) and Pi released from all the cements. Biodentine(™) released more Ca(2+) particularly in the early stages and showed shorter setting time and higher mechanical properties than the other cements. The mechanical properties of Angelus(®) MTA and the trial MTA were similar. All the cements produced highly alkaline storage solutions. Up to 1.0% CPP-ACP in Biodentine(™) improves Ca(2+) and Pi release and 0.5% CPP-ACP in Angelus(®) MTA and the trial MTA improves Ca(2+) release without altering the mechanical properties and solubility. The addition of CPP-ACP into CSCs prolonged the setting time. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  19. Protective effect of calcium nanophosphate and CPP-ACP agents on enamel erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fabiola Galbiatti de; Santos, Rogerio Lacerda dos, E-mail: fabigalbi@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Patos, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas. Div. de Odontologia; Silva Filho, Tiago Joao da; Carlo, Hugo Lemes [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Dept. de Odontologia Restauradora; Lima, Bruno Alessandro Silva Guedes de [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologia Mecanica. Lab. de Solidificacao Rapida

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different remineralizing agents on enamel microhardness (KHN) and surface topography after an erosive challenge. Forty-eight human enamel specimens (4 X 4 mm) were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control (no treatment), fluoride varnish, calcium nanophosphate paste and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste (CPP-ACP). Both pastes were applied for 5 minutes, and fluoride varnish, for 24 h. Four daily erosive cycles of 5 minutes of immersion in a cola drink and 2 h in artificial saliva were conducted for 5 days. KHN readings were performed at baseline and after 5 days. The percentage of enamel hardness change (%KHN) was obtained after erosion. The surface topography was evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The data were tested using ANOVA, Tukey's and paired-T tests (p < 0.05). After an erosive challenge, there was no statistically significant difference between the control (96.8 ± 11.4 KHN / 72.4 ± 3.0 %KHN) and the varnish (91.7 ± 14.1 KHN / 73.4 ± 5.5 %KHN) groups. The nanophosphate group showed lower enamel hardness loss (187.2 ± 27.9 /49.0 ± 7.9 %KHN), compared with the CPP-ACP group (141.8 ± 16.5 /60.6 ± 4.0 %KHN), and both were statistically different from the varnish and the control groups. AFM images showed a rough surface for the control and the varnish groups, a non-homogeneous layer with globular irregularities for CPP-ACP, and a thick homogeneous layer for the nanophosphate group. None of the agents provided protection against the development of erosion; however, nanophosphate paste was able to reduce enamel surface softening after the erosive challenge. (author)

  20. The efficiency of child formula dentifrices containing different calcium and phosphate compounds on artificial enamel caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Vongsavan, Kadkao; Saengsirinavin, Chavengkiat; Khumsub, Ploychompoo

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride toothpaste has been extensively used to prevent dental caries. However, the risk of fluorosis is concerning, especially in young children. Calcium phosphate has been an effective remineralizing agent and is present in commercial dental products, with no risk of fluorosis to users. This in vitro study aimed to compare the effects of different calcium phosphate compounds and fluoride-containing dentifrices on artificial caries in primary teeth. Fifty sound primary incisors were coated with nail varnish, leaving two 1 mm 2 windows on the labial surface before immersion in demineralizing solution for 96 hours to produce artificial enamel lesions. Subsequently, one window from each tooth was coated with nail varnish, and all 50 teeth were divided into five groups ( n = 10); group A - deionized water; group B - casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste (Tooth Mousse); group C - 500 ppm F (Colgate Spiderman ® ); group D - nonfluoridated toothpaste with triple calcium phosphate (Pureen ® ); and group E - tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Polarized light microscopy and Image-Pro ® Plus software were used to evaluate lesions. After a 7-day pH-cycle, mean lesion depths in groups A, B, C, D, and E had increased by 57.52 ± 10.66%, 33.28 ± 10.16%, 17.04 ± 4.76%, 32.51 ± 8.99%, and 21.76 ± 8.15%, respectively. All data were processed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 16.0) software package. Comparison of percentage changes using one-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least squares difference tests at a 95% level of confidence demonstrated that group A was significantly different from the other groups ( P < 0.001). Lesions in groups B and D had a significant lesion progression when compared with groups C and E. All toothpastes in this study had the potential to delay the demineralization progression of artificial enamel caries in primary teeth. The fluoride 500 ppm and TCP toothpastes were equal in the deceleration of

  1. Evaluation of a possible direct effect by casein phosphopeptides on paracellular and vitamin D controlled transcellular calcium transport mechanisms in intestinal human HT-29 and Caco2 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, Alessandra; Perego, Silvia; Ardoino, Ilaria; Marasco, Emiliano; Lombardi, Giovanni; Fiorilli, Amelia; Biganzoli, Elia; Tettamanti, Guido; Ferraretto, Anita

    2013-08-01

    Intestinal cells are continuously exposed to food whose components are able to modulate some of their physiological functions. Among the bioactive food derivatives are casein phosphopeptides (CPPs), coming from the in vitro or in vivo casein digestion, which display the ability to form aggregates with calcium ions and to increase the uptake of the minerals in differentiated intestinal human HT-29 and Caco2 cells. Since extracellular calcium is a known inactivator of the TRPV6 channel, which is also involved in the colon cancer progression, the present study aims to determine a possible modulation by CPPs of the molecular structures responsible for paracellular and/or transcellular calcium absorption in these two cell lines. The paracellular calcium transport was determined by TEER measurements in Caco2 cells and by Lucifer Yellow flow in HT-29 cells. The possible modulation of transcellular calcium absorption machinery by CPPs was investigated by determining the mRNA expression for both the TRPV6 calcium channel and the VDR receptor in 1,25(OH)₂D₃ pre-treated undifferentiated/differentiated cells. The results obtained point out that: (i) CPPs do not affect paracellular calcium absorption; (ii) 1,25(OH)₂D₃ increases the TRPV6 mRNA expression in both types of cells. In the case of HT-29 cells this is the first determination of the presence of the TRPV6 channel; (iii) CPPs per se are not able to affect the VDR and TRPV6 mRNA expression; (iv) CPP administration does not affect the TRPV6 mRNA expression in 1,25(OH)₂D₃ pre-treated HT-29 cells and Caco2 cells. Unlike peptides coming from the digestion of cheese whey protein digest, the digestion of milk casein produces peptides with no effects on TRPV6 calcium channel expression, though the same peptides are able to determine a calcium uptake by the intestinal cells.

  2. Oxidative stability of a heme iron-fortified bakery product: Effectiveness of ascorbyl palmitate and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Tres, Alba; Polo, Javier; Codony, Rafael; Guardiola, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Fortification of food products with iron is a common strategy to prevent or overcome iron deficiency. However, any form of iron is a pro-oxidant and its addition will cause off-flavours and reduce a product's shelf life. A highly bioavailable heme iron ingredient was selected to fortify a chocolate cream used to fill sandwich-type cookies. Two different strategies were assessed for avoiding the heme iron catalytic effect on lipid oxidation: ascorbyl palmitate addition and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate. Oxidation development and sensory acceptability were monitored in the cookies over one-year of storage at room temperature in the dark. The addition of ascorbyl palmitate provided protection against oxidation and loss of tocopherols and tocotrienols during the preparation of cookies. In general, ascorbyl palmitate, either alone or in combination with the co-spray-dried heme iron, prevented primary oxidation and hexanal formation during storage. The combination of both strategies resulted in cookies that were acceptable from a sensory point of view after 1year of storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bovine β-casein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atamer, Zeynep; Post, Antonie E.; Schubert, Thomas; Holder, Aline; Boom, Remko Marcel; Hinrichs, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in pure casein fractions, particularly β-casein due to its physiochemical properties as well as its bio- and techno-functional properties. A range of methods has been developed for the fractionation of casein into its individual proteins. The

  4. PENGEMBANGAN TORTILA BERKALSIUM SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF PANGAN DIET CASEIN FREE-GLUTEN FREE PADA INDUSTRI KECIL DENGAN METODE VALUE ENGINEERING (Development of Fortified Calcium Tortilla Snack as an Alternative Food for Casein-Free Gluten-Free Diet with Value Engineering Method for Small Scale Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Yonathan Sadikin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The number of people with autism increased 56% in 1998 – 2013, and it was a global problem. People with autism need special treatments and CFGF diet (casein free, gluten free was one of those treatments. That’s why, the development The calcium content was expected to substitute the calcium from dairy consumption, which shouldn’t be consumed by people with autism. The method used in this product development was value engineering which separated in three steps: information, creativity, and analysis steps. Respectively, this research was also further completed with chemical The goal of this research was to design some product implemented in small scale industry. Respondends and panelist in this research were consisted of students and teachers. They acted as the market of the product, especially as a  part of general society. This product were designed to provide CFGF snack for people with autism, and those who need CFGF diet. But this product was not limited to that market, it can be consumed by general society not only for people with autism, hence the students and teachers were used. The research showed that the best concept was a product produced with to get 200 grams of dough. This product concept was also designed to be packed in big size gusset packaging materials and the chips was triangle-shaped with size of feasible to be produced in small scale industry. Keywords: value engineering, casein-free gluten-free diet,autism   ABSTRAK Dengan jumlah penyandang autis yang terus meningkat, misalnya peningkatan sebesar 56% pada 1998 – 2013, maka produk tortila berkalsium potensial dikembangkan sebagai alternatif pangan untuk diet CFGF (, dan kandungan kalsiumnya bisa membantu menggantikan kalsium dari susu sapi yang mengandung kasein. Tujuan penelitian adalah merancang sejumlah konsep produk tortila berkalsium dan memilih satu konsep yang paling disukai Metode penelitian adalah yang terdiri dari tiga tahap: informasi, kreativitas dan

  5. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... absorb calcium as well. Sufficient calcium intake from food, and supplements if needed, can slow the rate of bone loss. Women of childbearing ... calcium absorption. People who eat a variety of foods don't have to consider ... include consumption of alcohol- and caffeine-containing beverages as well ...

  6. Prevention and Treatment of White Spot Lesions During and After Treatment with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: a Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Lopatiene

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the systematic literature review is to update the evidence for the prevention of white spot lesions, using materials containing fluoride and/or casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate during and after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Material and Methods: Information search for controlled studies on humans published between January 2008 and February 2016 was performed in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, The Cochrane Library. Inclusion criteria were: the English language, study on humans, patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances, randomized or quasi-randomized controlled clinical studies fluoride-containing product or casein derivates used throughout the appliance therapy or straightaway after debonding. Results: 326 articles were reviewed (Embase 141, PubMed 129, ScienceDirect 41, Cochrane 15. Twelve clinical studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Use of fluoridated toothpaste had a remineralizing effect on white spot lesions (WSLs (P < 0.05; fluoride varnish and casein supplements were effective in prevention and early treatment of WSLs (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Early detection of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment would allow implementing preventive measures to control the demineralization process before lesions progress. The systemic review has showed that the usage of fluoride and casein supplements in ameliorating white spot lesions during and after fixed orthodontic treatment is significantly effective. However the use of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate can be more beneficial than fluoride rinse in the reduction of demineralization spots.

  7. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with ...

  8. A clinician's guide to CAMBRA: a simple approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas A; Kutsch, V Kim; Whitehouse, Joe

    2009-03-01

    Caries risk assessment identifies those factors that are pathologic and suggests ways an astute clinician can implement protective strategies that can prevent progression and/or return the patient to health. Caries management by risk assessment (CAMBRA) focuses on treating and preventing the cause of the disease at an early stage, rather than waiting until it causes damage to tooth structure. This article summarizes and simplifies information previously published about CAMBRA implementation from the perspective of today's practicing clinician. The most recent science on prevention, remineralization, antimicrobials, and pH, as well as the use of fluoride, xylitol, and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CCP-ACP) is also discussed.

  9. Microstructural observation of casein micelles in milk by cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous sections (CEMOVIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamigaki, Takamichi; Ito, Yosiko; Nishino, Yuri; Miyazawa, Atsuo

    2018-03-02

    Casein micelles are present in bovine milk as colloidal particles with diameters of 20-600 nm, which are complex macromolecular assemblies composed of four distinct types of casein and colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP). Multiple structural models of casein micelles have been proposed based on their biochemical or physical properties and observed using electron microscopy. However, the CCP distribution and crosslinking structure between CCP and casein remain unclear. Therefore, the internal structure of casein micelles in raw milk was observed using cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous sections (CEMOVIS) with high precision at high resolution. The results confirmed that the average casein micelle diameter was about 140 nm, and that the CCP diameter in casein micelles was about 2-3 nm, with an average diameter of 2.3 nm. The distribution of CCP in casein micelles was not uniform, with an average interval between CCPs of about 5.4 nm. Areas containing no black particles (attributed to CCP) were present, with an average size of about 19.1 nm. Considering previous reports, these areas possibly correspond to pores or cavities filled with water. Based on differences in the density of structures in casein micelles, we estimated that some of the casein aggregates were able to connect with CCP in a string.

  10. Characterization of casein and casein-silver conjugated nanoparticle containing multifunctional (pectin–sodium alginate/casein) bilayer film

    OpenAIRE

    Bora, Anupama; Mishra, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Casein nano particles and casein-silver conjugated nano composite containing edible bilayer pouch was developed from a heat sealable casein layer laminated with sodium alginate–pectin layer. The physicochemical, mechanical, biodegradability and the toxicity of the film were evaluated. The synthesized casein nano particle was incorporated in the casein layer (inner layer) of the film, however, the casein-silver conjugated nano composite were incorporated in the sodium alginate–pectin (outer) l...

  11. The effect of formulated goats' milk on calcium bioavailability in male growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Hilary; Kruger, Marlena; Prosser, Colin; Lowry, Dianne

    2010-01-15

    There are two main proteins in milk; whey and casein. Casein contains casein phosphopeptides (CPP), which are released on digestion of the milk. These may increase calcium solubility by binding calcium in the small intestine. Thus increasing casein in the diet may help to stimulate bioavailability of calcium and increase bone density. The present study tested this hypothesis in growing male rats fed diets containing three different concentrations of casein from goat milk. Rats fed the diet containing no casein had significantly lower calcium absorption when compared to rats fed the diets that contained 80% and 57% of goat milk protein as casein; however, no significant difference was observed between rats fed diets with 80% and 57% casein. The varying amounts of casein had no effect on mineral uptake or retention in the femur. Biomechanical testing and mineral analysis of the femurs showed no differences between diet groups. The mechanism to explain this lack of retention remains unclear. The diets containing 80% and 57% of goat milk protein as casein delivered increased calcium absorption compared to the diet containing no casein, suggesting a minimum level of casein is needed to optimize calcium absorption from goat milk. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Prevention of enamel demineralization during orthodontic treatment: an in vitro comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichu, Yashodhan M; Kamat, Nandini; Chandra, Pavan Kumar; Kapoor, Aditi; Razmus, Thomas; Aravind, N K S

    2013-01-01

    Enamel demineralization is considered to be the most prevalent and significant iatrogenic effect associated with fixed orthodontic treatment and can seriously jeopardize both tooth longevity and dental esthetics. This in vitro study was undertaken to compare the effectiveness of four different commercially available surface treatment medicaments for the inhibition of enamel demineralization. Seventy-five intact maxillary premolars extracted from patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were divided into five equal groups and were subjected to one of the following protocols: no treatment (control group) or treatment with one of the following four medicaments: fluoride varnish (Fluor Protector [FP]), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (GC Tooth Mousse [TM]), calcium sodium phosphosilicate (SHY-NM), and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride (GC Tooth Mousse Plus [TMP]). All the teeth were subjected to ten Cate demineralization solution?for 96 hours and subsequently evaluated under polarized light microscopy to obtain the mean depths of enamel demineralization. One-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni comparison tests were used to obtain statistically significant differences between the five different groups at P < .05. All four surface treatment medicaments provided statistically significant reduction in the depths of enamel demineralization as compared with the control group. FP provided the greatest protection of enamel surface in terms of reduction of lesion depth, followed by TMP, SHY-NM, and TM. The use of these commercially available medicaments could prove to be beneficial for patients undergoing orthodontic treatment and who are at a risk for developing enamel decalcification.

  13. Chymosin-induced hydrolysis of caseins: Influence of degree of phosphorylation of alpha-s1-casein and genetic variants of beta-casein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, E.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Sikkes, S.; Jumelet, S.; Sala, G.; Olieman, K.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Huppertz, T.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of natural variations in aS1-casein and b-casein composition of milk on chymosin-induced hydrolysis of these caseins in milk gels and in sodium caseinate solutions. At 50% casein degradation, 15% more of aS1-casein with eight phosphate groups

  14. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. The membrane-associated form of α(s1-casein interacts with cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant microdomains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle Le Parc

    Full Text Available Caseins, the main milk proteins, interact with colloidal calcium phosphate to form the casein micelle. The mesostructure of this supramolecular assembly markedly influences its nutritional and technological functionalities. However, its detailed molecular organization and the cellular mechanisms involved in its biogenesis have been only partially established. There is a growing body of evidence to support the concept that α(s1-casein takes center stage in casein micelle building and transport in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. Here we have investigated the membrane-associated form of α(s1-casein in rat mammary epithelial cells. Using metabolic labelling we show that α(s1-casein becomes associated with membranes at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum, with no subsequent increase at the level of the Golgi apparatus. From morphological and biochemical data, it appears that caseins are in a tight relationship with membranes throughout the secretory pathway. On the other hand, we have observed that the membrane-associated form of α(s1-casein co-purified with detergent-resistant membranes. It was poorly solubilised by Tween 20, partially insoluble in Lubrol WX, and substantially insoluble in Triton X-100. Finally, we found that cholesterol depletion results in the release of the membrane-associated form of α(s1-casein. These experiments reveal that the insolubility of α(s1-casein reflects its partial association with a cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant microdomain. We propose that the membrane-associated form of α(s1-casein interacts with the lipid microdomain, or lipid raft, that forms within the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, for efficient forward transport and sorting in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells.

  16. Increasing intake of soybean protein or casein, but not cod meal, reduces nephrocalcinosis in female rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Beynen, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Female weanling rats were fed diets with soybean protein, casein or cod meal at 171, 342 or 513 mmol nitrogen/100 g for 3 wk. The diets were isonitrogenous and balanced for fat, cholesterol, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Cod meal feeding at 171 and 342 mmol nitrogen/100 g diet produced lower

  17. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-08-31

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  18. Genetic variability of the equine casein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, J; Jagannathan, V; Drögemüller, C; Rieder, S; Leeb, T; Thaller, G; Tetens, J

    2016-07-01

    The casein genes are known to be highly variable in typical dairy species, such as cattle and goat, but the knowledge about equine casein genes is limited. Nevertheless, mare milk production and consumption is gaining importance because of its high nutritive value, use in naturopathy, and hypoallergenic properties with respect to cow milk protein allergies. In the current study, the open reading frames of the 4 casein genes CSN1S1 (αS1-casein), CSN2 (β-casein), CSN1S2 (αS2-casein), and CSN3 (κ-casein) were resequenced in 253 horses of 14 breeds. The analysis revealed 21 nonsynonymous nucleotide exchanges, as well as 11 synonymous nucleotide exchanges, leading to a total of 31 putative protein isoforms predicted at the DNA level, 26 of which considered novel. Although the majority of the alleles need to be confirmed at the transcript and protein level, a preliminary nomenclature was established for the equine casein alleles. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebely Pal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  20. Eggshell powder, a comparable or better source of calcium than purified calcium carbonate: Piglet studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A.; Beelen, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Powdered chicken eggshells might be an interesting and widely available source of calcium. In two studies using piglets we determined the digestibility of calcium from different diets. The first study compared casein-based diets with CaCO3 (CasCC) or eggshell powder (CasES). The second study

  1. The pressure-induced, lactose-dependent changes in the composition and size of casein micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengjie; Jin, Shaoming; Guo, Huiyuan; Zhao, Liang; Ren, Fazheng

    2015-04-15

    The effects of lactose on the changes in the composition and size of casein micelles induced by high-pressure treatment and the related mechanism of action were investigated. Dispersions of ultracentrifuged casein micelle pellets with 0-10% (w/v) lactose were subjected to high pressure (400 MPa) at 20 °C for 40 min. The results indicated that the level of non-sedimentable caseins was positively related to the amount of lactose added prior to pressure treatment, and negatively correlated to the size. A mechanism for the pressure-induced, lactose-dependent changes in the casein micelles is proposed. Lactose inhibits the hydrophobic interactions between the micellar fragments during or after pressure release, through the hydrophilic layer formed by their hydrogen bonds around the micellar fragments. In addition, lactose does not favour the association between calcium and the casein aggregates after pressure release. Due to these two functions, lactose inhibited the formation of larger micelles after pressure treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. and K-casein genes in Egyptian sheep breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Casein genetic polymorphisms are important and well known due to their effects on quantitative traits and technological properties of milk manufacturing. The casein fraction of ruminant milk proteins consists of four caseins, namely 8s1-, 8s2-, β-and K-casein. At the DNA level, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ...

  3. Characterization of casein and casein-silver conjugated nanoparticle containing multifunctional (pectin-sodium alginate/casein) bilayer film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Anupama; Mishra, Poonam

    2016-10-01

    Casein nano particles and casein-silver conjugated nano composite containing edible bilayer pouch was developed from a heat sealable casein layer laminated with sodium alginate-pectin layer. The physicochemical, mechanical, biodegradability and the toxicity of the film were evaluated. The synthesized casein nano particle was incorporated in the casein layer (inner layer) of the film, however, the casein-silver conjugated nano composite were incorporated in the sodium alginate-pectin (outer) layer of the film. The mechanical, barrier, physical and antimicrobial properties of the film were investigated. Addition of nano composite/nano particle reduced the water solubility (from 67 to 46 % at 80 °C temperature) of the film improved the water barrier properties, light barrier properties, tensile strength and thermal properties of the film. The light barrier properties of the film increased and transparency reduced with increase in silver content in the conjugated nano composite film. The nano particles/nano composite containing film showed antibacterial activity against E. coli . The films were recorded safe for red blood cells as % haemolysis for all the tested samples were found to be well below the safe level.

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MILK CASEIN ASSAY METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA CĂPRIłĂ

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Casein, the main milk protein was determined by different assay methods: the gravimetric method, the method based on the neutralization of the NaOH excess used for the casein precipitate solving and the method based on the titration of the acetic acid used for the casein precipitation. The last method is the simplest one, with the fewer steps, and also with the lowest error degree. The results of the experiment revealed that the percentage of casein from the whole milk protein represents between 72.6–81.3% in experiment 1, between 73.6–81.3% in experiment 2 and between 74.3–81% in experiment 3.

  5. Towards tooth friendly soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2009-10-01

    Most soft drinks contain high concentration of simple carbohydrates and have a pH of 3 or even lower. Therefore, they are harmful for tooth structure. A tooth friendly soft drink (T.F.S.D) should have the following characteristics and elements; fluoride (approximately 1 ppm), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (2%), xylitol (4-6g/serving), tea polyphenols (2-4 mg/ml), cranberry extract (250 mg/ml of the flavonoids quercetin and myricetin), sugar free, pH close to 5.5 and super oxygenation (240,000 ppm) vs. carbonation. T.F.S.D can be packaged in a container which gaseous oxygen is dissolved in a liquid in the form of bubbles. However, looking at opportunities for so-called sophisticated soft drinks, T.F.S.D will be an example for a functional and health oriented soft drink.

  6. Microabrasion-remineralization (MAb-Re: An innovative approach for dental fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshula Neeraj Deshpande

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enamel microabrasion is a noninvasive method that removes intrinsic and superficial defects from teeth aimed to improve dental esthetic with minimal loss of dental tissue. This case presentation describes the attempt for teeth color correction utilizing that conservative technique in a young girl whose maxillary anterior teeth presented an opaque white/brown stain. Along with microabrasion, an innovative approach of application of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate crème on the tooth, and remineralization was carried out thereby reducing postoperative sensitivity of the treated tooth. Based on the results of this case report, it can be concluded that this technique is efficient and can be considered a minimally invasive procedure.

  7. Assessing the iron chelation capacity of goat casein digest isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smialowska, A; Matia-Merino, L; Carr, A J

    2017-04-01

    We isolated goat phosphopeptides via calcium and ethanol precipitation from a caseinate digest and investigated their feasibility as an iron-fortification ingredient in nutritional foods. Goat tryptic-digested phosphopeptides could bind 54.37 ± 0.50 mg of Fe/g of protein compared with goat milk, which could bind 3.83 ± 0.01 mg of Fe/g of protein, indicating that isolation did increase iron binding. However, the >13-fold increase in iron binding was only partly explained by the increased concentration of phosphoserine-rich residues in the isolated fraction: we observed a 77% increase in serine residue content and a 5.9-fold increase in phosphorus in the goat peptide isolate compared with the starting caseinate material. We investigated the effect of potential industrial processing conditions (including heating, cooling, holding time, and processing order) on iron binding by the tryptic-digested phosphopeptides. In addition, we tested the effect of ionic strength and the addition of peptides to a milk system to understand how food formulations could affect iron binding. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biphasic calcium phosphate–casein bone graft fortified with Cassia ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results revealed that CO extract-incorporated bone implants possessed better compression strength and it was able to induce proliferation and enhance alkaline phosphatase activity in SaOS-2 cells. The implant proves to be promising for bone tissue engineering, and hence it demands further in vivo evaluation.

  9. Effects of casein, whey and soy proteins on volumetric bone density and bone strength in immunocompromised piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Bjørnvad, Charlotte; Mølgaard, Christian

    2007-01-01

    assigned to a formula based on either casein (n=11), whey (n=11) or soy (n=10) as the protein source (each 55 g/L), and equal amounts of fat, carbohydrates, calcium and phosphorus. Results & Conclusion: Despite efforts to sustain immuno-protection (sow serum and antibiotic injections), some piglets became...... sick and were early euthanised. After 6 days, bone density (peripheral quantitative computed tomography), bone mechanical strength (three-point bending test) and serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) (immunoassay) were measured in the surviving piglets (casein n=5, whey n=9, soy n=5)....

  10. Acute intestinal injury induced by acetic acid and casein: prevention by intraluminal misoprostol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.J.; Zhang, x.J.; Gu, x.A.; Clark, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Acute injury was established in anesthetized rabbits by intraluminal administration of acetic acid with and without bovine casein, into loops of distal small intestine. Damage was quantified after 45 minutes by the blood-to-lumen movement of 51 Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-tagged bovine serum albumin as well as luminal fluid histamine levels. The amount of titratable acetic acid used to lower the pH of the treatment solutions to pH 4.0 was increased by the addition of calcium gluconate. Luminal acetic acid caused a 19-fold increase in 51 Cr-EDTA accumulation over saline controls; casein did not modify this effect. In saline controls, loop fluid histamine levels bordered on the limits of detection (1 ng/g) but were elevated 19-fold by acetic acid exposure and markedly increased (118-fold) by the combination of acid and casein. Intraluminal misoprostol (3 or 30 micrograms/mL), administered 30 minutes before acetic acid, significantly attenuated the increase in epithelial permeability (luminal 51 Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin accumulation) and histamine release (P less than 0.05). Diphenhydramine, alone or in combination with cimetidine, and indomethacin (5 mg/kg IV) were not protective. It is concluded that exposure of the epithelium to acetic acid promotes the transepithelial movement of casein leading to enhanced mast cell activation and mucosal injury. Damage to the epithelial barrier can be prevented by misoprostol

  11. Acute intestinal injury induced by acetic acid and casein: prevention by intraluminal misoprostol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.J.; Zhang, x.J.; Gu, x.A.; Clark, D.A. (Department of Pediatrics, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans (USA))

    1991-07-01

    Acute injury was established in anesthetized rabbits by intraluminal administration of acetic acid with and without bovine casein, into loops of distal small intestine. Damage was quantified after 45 minutes by the blood-to-lumen movement of {sup 51}Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-tagged bovine serum albumin as well as luminal fluid histamine levels. The amount of titratable acetic acid used to lower the pH of the treatment solutions to pH 4.0 was increased by the addition of calcium gluconate. Luminal acetic acid caused a 19-fold increase in {sup 51}Cr-EDTA accumulation over saline controls; casein did not modify this effect. In saline controls, loop fluid histamine levels bordered on the limits of detection (1 ng/g) but were elevated 19-fold by acetic acid exposure and markedly increased (118-fold) by the combination of acid and casein. Intraluminal misoprostol (3 or 30 micrograms/mL), administered 30 minutes before acetic acid, significantly attenuated the increase in epithelial permeability (luminal {sup 51}Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin accumulation) and histamine release (P less than 0.05). Diphenhydramine, alone or in combination with cimetidine, and indomethacin (5 mg/kg IV) were not protective. It is concluded that exposure of the epithelium to acetic acid promotes the transepithelial movement of casein leading to enhanced mast cell activation and mucosal injury. Damage to the epithelial barrier can be prevented by misoprostol.

  12. Interactions of caseins with phenolic acids found in chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuting; Seo, Sooyoun; Alli, Inteaz; Chang, Yu-Wei

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the interactions between caseins and phenolic acids, such as the ones present in chocolate, casein was incubated with protocatechuic acid or p-coumaric acid at 55°C. In addition, casein was isolated from chocolate and the phenolic compounds within these caseins were quantified. Electrophoresis results revealed that casein-phenolic interactions were induced by incubation; minor aggregation of casein subunits was observed after incubation of casein with protocatechuic acid. Minor aggregation of casein isolated from milk chocolate was also observed. In vitro hydrolysis of casein control, casein-protocatechuic acid, casein-p-coumaric acid, caseins isolated from milk chocolate and white chocolate using trypsin showed degree of hydrolysis of 19.3, 18.6, 17.7, 10.4 and 17.8% respectively. The presence of protocatechuic acid and p-coumaric acid in the model system and the presence of phenolic compounds in milk chocolate, in addition to the structural changes occurring during processing, affected the peptide profiles of casein hydrolysates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. hermal decomposition of irradiated casein molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.A.; Elsayed, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    NON-Isothermal studies were carried out using the derivatograph where thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) measurements were used to obtain the activation energies of the first and second reactions for casein (glyco-phospho-protein) decomposition before and after exposure to 1 Gy γ-rays and up to 40 x 1 04 μg Gy fast neutrons. 25C f was used as a source of fast neutrons, associated with γ-rays. 137 Cs source was used as pure γ-source. The activation energies for the first and second reactions for casein decomposition were found to be smaller at 400 μGy than that at lower and higher fast neutron doses. However, no change in activation energies was observed after γ-irradiation. it is concluded from the present study that destruction of casein molecules by low level fast neutron doses may lead to changes of shelf storage period of milk

  14. Kappa-casein gene polymorphism in Holstein and Iranian native ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caseins amount to nearly 80% of the protein output in cow milk. Caseins are biologically important proteins and they are also a raw material for the cheese making industry. The aim of this study was to identify kappa-casein genotype in Holstein and Iranian native cattle. DNA was extracted from 457 blood samples of 247 ...

  15. Structure-rheology relations in sodium caseinate containing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, H.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The general aim of the work described in this thesis was to investigate structure-rheologyrelations for dairy related products, focusing on model systems containing sodium caseinate. The acid inducedgelationof sodium caseinate, of sodium caseinate

  16. Radiotracer study of phosphate exchange between whey and casein micelles in cow's milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, Z.I.; Verburg, T.G.; Dijk, H.J.M. van

    1998-01-01

    Radiotracer method has been applied to study exchange of calcium ions between the whey calcium salts and micellar calcium phosphate (MCP). The present paper deals with a similar study pertaining to phosphate ions. 32 P-labelled Na 2 HPO 4 was used as the radiotracer for inorganic phosphates of milk. After addition of the radiotracer to skimmed-milk, samples were taken regularly for 700 hours. In the samples casein micelles were separated from whey by ultracentrifugation and finally the radiotracer quantity i.e. 32 P-concentration in the whey samples was measured using a Liquid Scintillation Counter. Compartmental analysis and modelling were used to evaluate the thus obtained time curves for radiotracer quantity in whey. This analysis revealed the presence of three phosphate compartments i.e. exchangeable phosphate entities; one being the whey phosphate. The other two are associated with the exchangeable phosphates of MCP. The mean residence times of phosphate in the latter two compartment differ considerably pointing at two distinctly different embeddings of phosphate groups in the structure of the micellar calcium phosphate of the cow's milk casein. The obtained results are in fair agreement with the mentioned model of MCP

  17. Effects of hydrolysed casein, intact casein and intact whey protein on energy expenditure and appetite regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Gomes, Sisse

    2014-01-01

    Casein and whey differ in amino acid composition and in the rate of absorption; however, the absorption rate of casein can be increased to mimic that of whey by exogenous hydrolysis. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of hydrolysed casein (HC), intact casein (IC......) and intact whey (IW) on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite regulation, and thereby to investigate the influence of amino acid composition and the rate of absorption. In the present randomised cross-over study, twenty-four overweight and moderately obese young men and women consumed three isoenergetic...... dietary treatments that varied in protein source. The study was conducted in a respiration chamber, where EE, substrate oxidation and subjective appetite were measured over 24 h at three independent visits. Moreover, blood and urine samples were collected from the participants. The results showed...

  18. Factors influencing casein micelle size in milk of individual cows: Genetic variants and glycosylation of k-casein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, E.; Vries, de R.F.M.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Huppertz, T.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The average casein micelle size varies widely between milk samples of individual cows. The factors that cause this variation in size are not known but could provide more insight into casein micelle structure and into the physiology of casein micelle formation. The objective of this research was

  19. Casein - whey protein interactions in heated milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasbinder, Astrid Jolanda

    2002-01-01

    Heating of milk is an essential step in the processing of various dairy products, like for example yoghurt. A major consequence of the heat treatment is the denaturation of whey proteins, which either associate with the casein micelle or form soluble whey protein aggregates. By combination of

  20. Co-acervates of lactoferrin and caseins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anema, S.G.; de Kruif, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    On mixing positively charged lactoferrin (LF) with negatively charged caseins (*CN) it is observed that complexes are formed. The * stands for α, β, κ or Na. The size of the complex co-acervates appears to grow indefinitely and asymptotically near the point of charge equivalency. Away from the

  1. Fused deposition modelling of sodium caseinate dispersions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Houlder, S.; Wit, de Martin; Buijsse, C.A.P.; Alting, A.C.

    2018-01-01

    Only recently, researchers have started experimenting with 3D printing of foods. The aim of this study was to investigate 3D printed objects from sodium caseinate dispersions, exhibiting reversible gelation behaviour. Gelation and dispensing behaviour were explored and structures of different

  2. Contribution to Casein Determination by UV Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanescu Raluca

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the interaction between copper ions and proteins is presented, in order to elaborate a simple and rapid spectrophotometric assay of casein in milk. Under alkaline conditions, copper ions form the biuret complex with the proteins, which can be used in protein determination. Although very specific, the biuret method is less sensitive. Using insoluble copper phosphate, casein is able to extract copper ions, with which it forms the biuret complex, while either the complex or copper ions could be determined in the ultraviolet range. Indeed, an increased absorbance of biuret complex at 215 nm was found. Nevertheless, copper ions can be determined in UV as well, their concentration being proportional to that of casein. When used tetraglycine instead casein, mass spectrometric measurements at pH higher than 11 revealed the formation of complexes with many copper ions bound to each peptide bond-containing molecule. Nevertheless, on diluting the biuret solution the complex may dissociate leading to very complex UV spectra that should be further studied.

  3. The adsorption of orthophosphate onto casein-iron precipitates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vikas A; Ellis, Ashling; Ye, Aiqian; Edwards, Patrick J B; Singh, Harjinder

    2018-01-15

    This study explored the interactions of orthophosphate with casein-iron precipitates. Casein-iron precipitates were formed by adding ferric chloride at ≥10mM to sodium caseinate solutions ranging in concentration from 1 to 3%(w/v). The addition of different concentrations of orthophosphate solution to the casein-iron precipitates resulted in gradual adsorption of the orthophosphate, causing re-dispersion of the casein-iron complexes. The interactions of added orthophosphate with iron in the presence and absence of caseins are postulated, and new mechanisms are proposed. The re-dispersed soluble complexes of casein-iron-orthophosphate generated using this process could be used as novel iron fortificants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of humidity-controlled dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA-RH) to moisture-sensitive edible casein films for use in food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein-based and other hydrophilic thin films are promising materials for the manufacture of edible food packaging and other food and non-food applications. Calcium caseinate (CaCas) films are highly hygroscopic and physical characterization under broad environmental conditions is critical to appli...

  5. Some Functional Properties of Blondo-Calcium Mix

    OpenAIRE

    Putranto, Hani; Sudarmadji, Slamet

    2014-01-01

    Blondo is a solid residue of the wet coconut milk oil extraction process. The oil extraction from coconut milk, which is facilitated by adding Ca2SO4, produced blondo-calcium mix residue. This residue was studied for its stability as a high protein food ingredient. Blondo-calcium mix contains 77.6% protein with water retention capacity of 2 ml water/g (less than skim milk powder but greater than casein) and oil retention similar to those of skim milk powder or casein. The emulsion capacity of...

  6. Influence of micellar calcium and phosphorus on rennet coagulation properties of cows milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacarne, Massimo; Franceschi, Piero; Formaggioni, Paolo; Sandri, Sandro; Mariani, Primo; Summer, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The main requirement for milk processed in most cheese typologies is its rennet coagulation ability. Despite the increasing number of studies, the causes for abnormal coagulation of milk are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to ascertain relationships between milk characteristics and its rennet coagulation ability, focusing on the influence of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). Ca and P are essential constituents of the micelles. Micellar P can be present as part of colloidal calcium phosphate (inorganic-P) or covalently bound to caseins as phosphate groups (casein-P). Eighty one herd milk samples (SCCproperties. Optimal milk was characterised by the highest contents of major constituents, protein fractions and minerals, lowest content of chloride and highest values of titratable acidity. Non-coagulating milk was characterised by the highest values of pH and the lowest of titratable acidity. At micellar level, Optimal milk showed the highest values of colloidal Ca, casein-P and colloidal Mg (g/100 g casein), while Non-coagulating milk showed the lowest values. Interestingly, there was no statistical difference regarding the content of colloidal inorganic-P (g/100 g casein) between Optimal and Non-coagulating milks. Overall, high mineralisation of the micelle (expressed as g inorganic-P/100 g casein) positively affect its rennetability. However, excessive mineralisation could lead to a reduction of the phosphate groups (g casein-P/100 g casein) available for curd formation.

  7. Skim milk powder enhances trabecular bone architecture compared with casein or whey in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Aviv; Manske, Sarah L; Eller, Lindsay K; Lorincz, Caeley; Reimer, Raylene A; Zernicke, Ronald F

    2012-03-01

    We previously showed that skim milk powder (SMP) prevents weight gain more so than casein or whey alone. Dairy foods and changes in body mass can affect bone architecture; therefore, our objective was to examine the effect of dairy proteins on bone structure in the tibia of dietary-induced obese rats. Twelve-week-old diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to one of six diets that varied in protein source (casein, whey, or SMP), Ca level (0.67% or 2.4%), and energy density (high-fat/high-sucrose [HFHS], or normal energy density [NE]). After 8 wk, body composition was assessed via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and trabecular and cortical bone parameters of the tibia were assessed using micro-computed tomography and mixed model analysis. Rats fed SMP with 2.4% calcium had significantly lower body mass and fat mass than all other groups. The ratio of bone volume to total volume (BV/TV) was significantly higher when the HFHS diet was supplemented with SMP and 2.4% calcium compared with whey (+66.7%) or casein (+32.6%). The HFHS diet group had 49.3% greater BV/TV compared with the NE groups. Increasing the amount of calcium resulted in a significant increase in BV/TV (188.9%) in the HFHS diet groups but not in the NE groups. The intake of skim milk powder supplemented with calcium enhances trabecular bone architecture in obese rats consuming HFHS diet to a greater extent than with either casein or whey protein alone. Bioactive ingredients in complete dairy may contribute to these effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Iron binding to caseins in the presence of orthophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, V A; Ellis, A; Ye, A; Edwards, P J B; Das, S; Singh, H

    2016-01-01

    As adding >5mM ferric chloride to sodium caseinate solutions results in protein precipitation, the effects of orthophosphate (0-64 mM) addition to sodium caseinate solution (2% w/v protein) on iron-induced aggregation of the caseins were studied at pH 6.8. Up to 20mM ferric chloride could be added to sodium caseinate solution containing 32 mM orthophosphate without any protein precipitation. The addition of iron to sodium caseinate solution containing orthophosphate reduced the diffusible phosphorus content in a concentration-dependent manner. Added iron appeared to interact simultaneously with phosphoserine on the caseins and inorganic phosphorus. The relative sizes of the casein aggregates were governed by the concentration of orthophosphate and the aggregates consisted of all casein fractions, even at the lowest level of ferric chloride addition (5mM). It is hypothesised that the addition of iron to caseins in the presence of orthophosphate results in the formation of colloidal structures involving casein-iron-orthophosphate interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization of vitamins A and D3 loading in re-assembled casein micelles and effect of loading on stability of vitamin D3 during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Anisa; Chan, Benny; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y

    2018-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to apply response surface methodology to optimize fat-soluble vitamin loading in re-assembled casein micelles, and to evaluate vitamin D stability of dry formulations during ambient or accelerated storage and in fortified fluid skim milk stored under refrigeration. Optimal loading of vitamin A (1.46-1.48mg/100mgcasein) was found at 9.7mM phosphate, 5.5mM citrate and 30.0mM calcium, while optimal loading of vitamin D (1.38-1.46mg/100mg casein) was found at 4.9mM phosphate, 4.0mM citrate and 26.1mM calcium. In general, more vitamin D was retained in vitamin D-re-assembled casein micelles than control powders during storage, while vitamin D loss was not different for vitamin D-re-assembled casein micelles and control fortified milks after 21days of refrigerated storage with light exposure. In conclusion, re-assembled casein micelles with high loading efficiency show promise for improving vitamin D stability during dry storage. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. RAMA casein zymography: Time-saving and highly sensitive casein zymography for MMP7 and trypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumitsu, Hidetaro; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Kanaly, Robert A

    2016-11-01

    To detect metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7), zymography is conducted using a casein substrate and conventional CBB stain. It has disadvantages because it is time consuming and has low sensitivity. Previously, a sensitive method to detect MMP7 up to 30 pg was reported, however it required special substrates and complicated handlings. RAMA casein zymography described herein is rapid, sensitive, and reproducible. By applying high-sensitivity staining with low substrate conditions, the staining process is completed within 1 h and sensitivity was increased 100-fold. The method can detect 10 pg MMP7 by using commercially available casein without complicated handlings. Moreover, it increases detection sensitivity for trypsin. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Effect of solvent and temperature on the size distribution of casein micelles measured by dynamic light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliciu, C M; Moraru, C I

    2009-05-01

    accurate results only at 20 degrees C. Results obtained in simulated milk ultrafiltrate at 6 degrees C could not be explained based on the known effects of temperature on the casein micelle, whereas at 50 degrees C, precipitation of amorphous calcium phosphate affected the DLS measurement.

  12. Casein genes of Bos taurus. II. Isolation and characterization of the β-casein gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodetskii, S.I.; Tkach, T.M.; Kapelinskaya, T.V.

    1988-01-01

    The expression of the casein genes in the cells of the mammary gland is regulated by peptide and steroid hormones. In order to study the controlling mechanisms we have isolated and characterized the β-casein gene. The gene is 8.6 kb long and exceeds by a factor of 7.8 the length of the corresponding mRNA which is encoded by nine exons. The genomic clones incorporate in addition 8.5 kb and 4.5 kb of the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions. We have determined the sequence of the 5- and 3-terminals of the gene and have performed a comparative analysis of the corresponding regions of the rat β-casein gene. Furthermore we have identified the conversed sequences identical or homologous to the potential sections of binding to the nuclear factor CTF/NF-1 by glucocorticoid and progesterone receptors. The regulatory region of the bovine casein gene contains two variants of the TATA signal, flanking the duplication section in the promoter region

  13. Circadian and pharmacological regulation of casein kinase I in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-31

    Dec 31, 2008 ... [Agostino P. V., Plano S. A. and Golombek D. A. 2008 Circadian and pharmacological regulation of casein kinase I in the hamster suprachi- asmatic nucleus. ... The protein kinases, casein kinase I epsilon (CKIε) and delta (CKIδ) ... 1 mM EGTA, 50 mM sodium fluoride, 200 mM sodium vana- date and a ...

  14. The effects of different levels of sodium caseinate on rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-29

    Mar 29, 2010 ... Key words: Sodium caseinate, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, rumen fermentation, dairy cows. INTRODUCTION ..... Casein is more rapidly degradable protein than most other proteins in rumen (Broderick and Wallace, 1988), therefore increased ammonia nitrogen concentration with CN infusion ...

  15. Anaphylaxis caused by the unexpected presence of casein in salmon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S.J.; Wensing, M.; Jong, G.A.H. de; Knulst, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    A new process for restructured meat and fish has been introduced to the market recently. Its main compound is casein, and it may therefore endanger patients with a milk allergy. Chemicals/CAS: Anti-Inflammatory Agents; Caseins; Lactoglobulins; Methylprednisolone, 83-43-2

  16. Kappa-casein gene polymorphism in Holstein and Iranian native ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... samples of 247 Holstein and 210 native cattle for identification and genotyping of kappa-casein gene by ... and protein content of milk. ... DNA extraction was performed using DNA isolation kit (Gentra Inc.,. Minneapolis, MN) according to manufacturer's instructions. PCR-RFLP assay for kappa-casein ...

  17. Casein Films: The Effects of Formulation, Environmental Conditions and the Addition of Citric Pectin on the Structure and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia M. Bonnaillie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin casein films for food packaging applications reportedly possess good strength and low oxygen permeability, but low elasticity and high sensitivity to moisture. Modifying the films to target specific behaviors depending on environmental conditions can enable a variety of commercial applications for casein-based films. The mechanical properties of solvent-cast (15% solids calcium-caseinate/glycerol films (CaCas:Gly ratio of 3:1 were characterized as a function of processing and environmental conditions, including film thickness, solution formulation and ambient humidity (from 22% to 70% relative humidity (RH at ~20 °C. At constant RH, the elongation at break (EAB had a strong positive dependence on the film thickness. When RH increased, the tensile strength (TS and modulus (E decreased approximately linearly, while EAB increased. From 0.05% to 1% (w/w of citric pectin (CP was then incorporated into CaCas/Gly films following seven different formulations (mixing sequences, to alter the protein network and to evaluate the effects of CP on the tensile properties of CaCas/Gly/CP films. At constant film thickness and ~60% RH, the addition of 0.1% or 1.0% CP to the films considerably increased or decreased EAB, TS and E in different directions and to different extents, depending on the formulation, while optical micrographs also showed vastly differing network configurations, suggesting complex formulation- and stoichiometry-dependent casein-pectin interactions within the dried films. Depending on the desired film properties and utilization conditions, pectin may be a useful addition to casein film formulations for food packaging applications.

  18. Interaction of Cocos nucifera cream casein with humic acid suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatombi, J K; Aminou, T; Lartiges, B; Topanou, N; Josse, R G

    2012-01-01

    Two caseins labelled as CaSMG (casein without fats) and CaMG (casein with fats) were extracted from coconut cream. Both caseins were used as coagulants for the aggregation of humic acid (HA) particles in synthetic water at pH = 6 during the jar-test essays. The optimum dosage of CaMG or CaSMG and the residual turbidities of treated water obtained depend on the type of used casein (CaMG or CaSMG) and the concentration of particles in solution. The optimal doses of CaMG and CaSMG are respectively 280 and 180 mg/L for solution S(1) (HA aqueous solution at 15 mg/L), and then 340 and 240 mg/L for solution S(2) (HA aqueous solution at 25 mg/L). The residual turbidities of treated water are respectively 6.88 and 3.85 NTU for solution S(1) and 4.52 and 2.53 NTU for solution S(2). The collected sediment volumes are respectively 1.2 and 1.5 mL for solutions S(1) and S(2). The electrophoretic mobility measurement and transmission electron microscopy images of flocs formed during the flocculation essays suggest that both caseins operate through both mechanisms (charge neutralisation and bridging process mechanism), this last one seems to be predominant. The aggregates formed are the large clusters and result from adsorption of HA particles by the casein molecules.

  19. Oxidative cross-linking of casein by horseradish peroxidase and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... lyzed by HRP was studied. The cross-linking of casein treated with HRP was demonstrated by the analysis of the casein samples with capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The degree of cross-linking of casein in the casein sam- ples was also measured by CZE with peak area normali- zation methodology.

  20. Genetic variations of β- and K-casein genes in Egyptian sheep breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-04-25

    Apr 25, 2013 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: Casein genetic polymorphisms are important and well known due to their effects on quantitative traits and technological properties of milk manufacturing. The casein fraction of ruminant milk proteins consists of four caseins, namely αs1-, αs2-, β-and K-casein. At the DNA level, ...

  1. Water buffalo kappa-casein gene sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mancusi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to determine the nucleotide sequence of the water buffalo CSN3 gene (κ-casein. Two overlapping clones from a genomic water buffalo library were sequenced. The sequence comprises the five exons, the relative introns, 1057 nt at the 5’ end of the gene and 476 nt downstream the polyadenylation site. In order to identify polymorphisms responsible for amino acid differences, all the five exons from 10 genetically unrelated water buffaloes were sequenced. The comparison of the obtained sequences confirmed the two single nucleotide polymorphisms already reported in literature at the fourth exon: T versus C at codon 135 (IleATC versus ThrACC and the silent mutation T versus C at codon 136. The comparison of the promoter sequences of two animals homozygous for 135Thr and 135Ile respectively, evidenced 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms that could alter the expression of the gene.

  2. Depletion interaction of casein micelles and an exocellular polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinier, R.; Ten Grotenhuis, E.; Holt, C.; Timmins, P. A.; de Kruif, C. G.

    1999-07-01

    Casein micelles become mutually attractive when an exocellular polysaccharide produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NIZO B40 (hereafter called EPS) is added to skim milk. The attraction can be explained as a depletion interaction between the casein micelles induced by the nonadsorbing EPS. We used three scattering techniques (small-angle neutron scattering, turbidity measurements, and dynamic light scattering) to measure the attraction. In order to connect the theory of depletion interaction with experiment, we calculated structure factors of hard spheres interacting by a depletion pair potential. Theoretical predictions and all the experiments showed that casein micelles became more attractive upon increasing the EPS concentration.

  3. Phosphorylation of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein gpI by mammalian casein kinase II and casein kinase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grose, C.; Jackson, W.; Traugh, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein gpI is the predominant viral glycoprotein within the plasma membranes of infected cells. This viral glycoprotein is phosphorylated on its polypeptide backbone during biosynthesis. In this report, the authors investigated the protein kinases which participate in the phosphorylation events. Under in vivo conditions, VZV gpI was phosphorylated on its serine and threonine residues by protein kinases present within lysates of either VZV-infected or uninfected cells. Because this activity was diminished by heparin, a known inhibitor of casein kinase II, isolated gpI was incubated with purified casein kinase II and shown to be phosphorylated in an in vitro assay containing [γ- 32 P]ATP. The same glycoprotein was phosphorylated when [ 32 P]GTP was substituted for [ 32 P]ATP in the protein kinase assay. They also tested whether VZV gpI was phosphorylated by two other ubiquitous mammalian protein kinases--casein kinase I and cyclic AMP-dependent kinase--and found that only casein kinase I modified gpI. When the predicted 623-amino-acid sequence of gpI was examined, two phosphorylation sites known to be optimal for casein kinase II were observed. In summary, this study showed that VZV gpI was phosphorylated by each of two mammalian protein kinases (casein kinase I and casein kinase II) and that potential serine-threonine phosphorylation sites for each of these two kinases were present in the viral glycoprotein

  4. Biological activity of camel milk casein following enzymatic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Maryam; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Moosavi-Movahedi, Faezeh; Ehsani, Mohammad Reza; Yousefi, Reza; Farhadi, Mohammad; Niasari-Naslaji, Amir; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Haertlé, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis with digestive enzymes of camel whole casein and beta-casein (β-CN) on their antioxidant and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory properties. Peptides in each hydrolysate were fractionated with ultra-filtration membranes. The antioxidant activity was determined using a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) scale. After enzymatic hydrolysis, both antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of camel whole casein and camel β-CN were enhanced. Camel whole casein and β-CN showed significant ACE-inhibitory activities after hydrolysis with pepsin alone and after pepsinolysis followed by trypsinolysis and chymotrypsinolysis. Camel β-CN showed high antioxidant activity after hydrolysis with chymotrypsin. The results of this study suggest that when camel milk is consumed and digested, the produced peptides start to act as natural antioxidants and ACE-inhibitors.

  5. Proteostasis and the Regulation of Intra- and Extracellular Protein Aggregation by ATP-Independent Molecular Chaperones: Lens α-Crystallins and Milk Caseins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, John A; Ecroyd, Heath; Truscott, Roger J W; Thorn, David C; Holt, Carl

    2018-03-20

    lens proteostasis and, ultimately, lens transparency. As there is little metabolic activity and no protein turnover in the lens, crystallins are very long lived proteins. Lens proteostasis is therefore very different to that in normal, metabolically active cells. Crystallins undergo extensive post-translational modification (PTM), including deamidation, racemization, phosphorylation, and truncation, which can alter their stability. Despite this, the lens remains transparent for tens of years, implying that lens proteostasis is intimately integrated with crystallin PTMs. Many PTMs do not significantly alter crystallin stability, solubility, and functionality, which thereby facilitates lens transparency. In the long term, however, extensive accumulation of crystallin PTMs leads to large-scale crystallin aggregation, lens opacification, and cataract formation. Extracellularly, various ATP-independent molecular chaperones exist that exhibit sHsp-like structural and functional features. For example, caseins, the major milk proteins, exhibit chaperone ability by inhibiting the amorphous and amyloid fibrillar aggregation of a diversity of destabilized proteins. Caseins maintain proteostasis within milk by preventing deleterious casein amyloid fibril formation via incorporation of thousands of individual caseins into an amorphous structure known as the casein micelle. Hundreds of nanoclusters of calcium phosphate are sequestered within each casein micelle through interactions with short, highly phosphorylated casein sequences. This results in a stable biofluid that contains a high concentration of potentially amyloidogenic caseins and concentrations of calcium and phosphate that can be far in excess of the solubility of calcium phosphate. Casein micelle formation therefore performs vital roles in neonatal nutrition and calcium homeostasis in the mammary gland.

  6. Effect of soy protein/animal protein ratio on calcium metabolism of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Gun Ae; Hwang, Hye Jin

    2006-04-01

    This study examined the effects of a ratio of soy protein to animal protein on bone metabolism of rats. Experimental groups were a high soy protein group (200 g of soy protein and 0 g of casein per kilogram of diet; HSoy), a middle soy protein group (100 g of soy protein and 100 g of casein per kilogram of diet; MSoy), a low soy protein group (50 g of soy protein and 150 g of casein per kilogram of diet; LSoy), and a no soy protein group (0 g of soy protein and 200 g of casein per kilogram of diet; NSoy). Calcium excretion and retention, biochemical parametrically related calcium metabolism, and bone mineral density were measured. Statistical analysis was performed with SAS software. Urinary excretion of calcium was significantly high in the LSoy and NSoy groups, and there was no difference in absorption of calcium across experimental groups. Calcium retention was significantly higher in the HSoy and MSoy groups than in the LSoy and NSoy groups. Experimental groups showed no differences in the activity of alkaline phosphatase. The casein group (NSoy) showed a remarkably lower degree of serum osteocalcin concentration. The concentration of deoxypyridinoline in urine showed an increasing tendency, i.e., HSoy and MSoy protein/soy proteins, its concentration increases. Wet weight of the femur appeared to be significantly greater in the MSoy and LSoy groups than in the NSoy group. Ash content of the femur and bone density were highest in the MSoy group, with the ratio of 1:1 between soy protein and animal protein. This study indicated that deoxypyridinoline concentration was lower and the density of osteocalcin was higher in the MSoy group than in the NSoy group, and that calcium retention was high and bone mineral density was the highest in the MSoy group. The ratio of soy to animal protein that seemed to have the most positively significant effect on calcium metabolism was 1:1.

  7. Structural investigations of sodium caseinate micelles in complex environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huck Iriart, C.; Herrera, M.L.; Candal, R. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Oliveira, C.L.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Torriani, I. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The most frequent destabilization mechanisms in Sodium Caseinate (NaCas) emulsions are creaming and flocculation. Coarse or fine emulsions with low protein con- tent destabilize mainly by creaming. If migration mechanism is suppressed, flocculation may become the main mechanism of destabilization. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) technique was applied to investigate sodium caseinate micelles structure in different environments. As many natural products, Sodium Caseinate samples have large polydisperse size distribution. The experimental data was analyzed using advanced modeling approaches. The Form Factor for the Caseinate micelle subunits was described by an ellipsoidal core shell model and the structure factor was split into two contributions, one corresponding to the particle-particle interactions and another one for the long range correlation of the subunits in the supramolecular structure. For the first term the hard sphere structure factor using the Percus-Yevick approximation for closure relation was used and for the second term a fractal model was applied. Three concentrations of sodium Caseinate (2, 5 and 7.5 %wt.) were measured in pure water, sugar solutions (20 %wt.) and in three different lipid phase emulsions containing 10 %wt. sunflower seed, olive and fish oils. Data analysis provided an average casein subunit radius of 4 nm, an average distance between the subunits of around 20nm and a fractal dimension value of around 3 for all samples. As indicated by the values of the correlation lengths for the set of studied samples, the casein aggregation is strongly affected by simple sugar additions and it is enhanced by emulsion droplets hydrophobic interaction. As will be presented, these nanoscale structural results provided by scattering experiments is consistent with macroscopic results obtained from several techniques, providing a new understanding of NaCas emulsions. (author)

  8. Serine Protease Zymography: Low-Cost, Rapid, and Highly Sensitive RAMA Casein Zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumitsu, Hidetaro

    2017-01-01

    To detect serine protease activity by zymography, casein and CBB stain have been used as a substrate and a detection procedure, respectively. Casein zymography has been using substrate concentration at 1 mg/mL and employing conventional CBB stain. Although ordinary casein zymography provides reproducible results, it has several disadvantages including time-consuming and relative low sensitivity. Improved casein zymography, RAMA casein zymography, is rapid and highly sensitive. RAMA casein zymography completes the detection process within 1 h after incubation and increases the sensitivity at least by tenfold. In addition to serine protease, the method also detects metalloprotease 7 (MMP7, Matrilysin) with high sensitivity.

  9. The role of casein in supporting the operation of surface bound kinesin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hancock William O

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microtubules and associated motor proteins such as kinesin are envisioned for applications such as bioseparation and molecular sorting to powering hybrid synthetic mechanical devices. One of the challenges in realizing such systems is retaining motor functionality on device surfaces. Kinesin motors adsorbed onto glass surfaces lose their functionality or ability to interact with microtubules if not adsorbed with other supporting proteins. Casein, a milk protein, is commonly used in microtubule motility assays to preserve kinesin functionality. However, the mechanism responsible for this preservation of motor function is unknown. To study casein and kinesin interaction, a series of microtubule motility assays were performed where whole milk casein, or its αs1 and αs2, β or κ subunits, were introduced or omitted at various steps of the motility assay. In addition, a series of epifluorescence and total internal reflection microscopy (TIRF experiments were conducted where fluorescently labeled casein was introduced at various steps of the motility assay to assess casein-casein and casein-glass binding dynamics. From these experiments it is concluded that casein forms a bi-layer which supports the operation of kinesin. The first tightly bound layer of casein mainly performs the function of anchoring the kinesin while the second more loosely bound layer of casein positions the head domain of the kinesin to more optimally interact with microtubules. Studies on individual casein subunits indicate that β casein was most effective in supporting kinesin functionality while κ casein was found to be least effective.

  10. ISOLATION, MOLECULAR AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GOAT MILK CASEIN AND ITS FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Ahmed Salem

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The SDS-PAGE electrophoretic pattern of goats´ milk has a unique pattern compared to those of cow and human milk. β-casein is the major fraction and comprises 70.2% of total goat-milk caseins, while αs- is a minor fraction (29.85 %. This pattern is similar to that of human casein but different to that of cow casein. Purified casein fractions of goat milk showed different electrophoretic migration compared to those of bovine milk. The corresponding Mr(s of goat αs- and β-casein were estimated at 30.2 for αs and 26.6 & 23.9 for β1 and β2 versus 32.6 and 26.6 for bovine αs- and β-casein, respectively. The amino acid composition of goat-milk whole casein appeared to be similar to those of cow, sheep and camel caseins. Meanwhile, goat casein has the satisfactory balance of essential amino acids equal to or exceeding the FAO/ WHO/ UNU requirements for each amino acid. Goat αs-casein was characterized by the presence of higher contents of both acidic and basic amino acids than β-casein. Peptide mapping profiles of goat, cow and human caseins were completely different. This means that each protein has its own unique peptide mapping.

  11. The decontamination of industrial casein and milk powder by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegota, H. [Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Technical University, Wroblewskiego 15, 93-590 Lodz (Poland)], E-mail: ahzegota@mitr.p.lodz.pl; Malolepszy, B. [Fleur Comp. Ltd., Artyleryjska 6, 91-072 Lodz (Poland)

    2008-09-15

    The efficacy of gamma radiation decontamination of industrial casein, a milk protein utilized as a component of many food and non-food products has been studied. Low-fat milk powder was also included with a purpose to study the microflora survival in protein-rich materials. Microbial analysis of the samples prior to irradiation showed that the initial total viable count was higher than 6.0 log cfu g{sup -1} in both casein and milk powders. The contamination of casein with moulds and yeasts was found to be equal to 3.56 log cfu g{sup -1}. The counts of coliforms have not exceeded the value of 2.48 log cfu g{sup -1}. Radiation processing of casein and milk powder has substantially reduced the microbial population of all samples. The dose of 5 kGy was sufficient to reduce the total microflora and coliforms counts to the level permitted for food products. Survivals of microorganisms were analyzed by the generalized exponential equation, SF=exp[-D/D{sub o}){sup {alpha}}]. Values of an exponent, {alpha}, standing for the dispersion parameter, were equal to 0.65 and 0.70 for microorganisms contaminating casein and milk powders, respectively. The numerical value of the dispersion parameter {alpha}<1 indicates the concave dependence of a logarithm of surviving fraction versus radiation dose. No difference in microflora survival in irradiated samples tested immediately and in samples stored for 1-month after irradiation has been noticed.

  12. The decontamination of industrial casein and milk powder by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zegota, H.; Malolepszy, B.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of gamma radiation decontamination of industrial casein, a milk protein utilized as a component of many food and non-food products has been studied. Low-fat milk powder was also included with a purpose to study the microflora survival in protein-rich materials. Microbial analysis of the samples prior to irradiation showed that the initial total viable count was higher than 6.0 log cfu g -1 in both casein and milk powders. The contamination of casein with moulds and yeasts was found to be equal to 3.56 log cfu g -1 . The counts of coliforms have not exceeded the value of 2.48 log cfu g -1 . Radiation processing of casein and milk powder has substantially reduced the microbial population of all samples. The dose of 5 kGy was sufficient to reduce the total microflora and coliforms counts to the level permitted for food products. Survivals of microorganisms were analyzed by the generalized exponential equation, SF=exp[-D/D o ) α ]. Values of an exponent, α, standing for the dispersion parameter, were equal to 0.65 and 0.70 for microorganisms contaminating casein and milk powders, respectively. The numerical value of the dispersion parameter α<1 indicates the concave dependence of a logarithm of surviving fraction versus radiation dose. No difference in microflora survival in irradiated samples tested immediately and in samples stored for 1-month after irradiation has been noticed

  13. Is there a place for Tooth Mousse in the prevention and treatment of early dental caries? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Sarah; Blinkhorn, Anthony

    2015-09-25

    It is important for Dental Professionals to consider the evidence for the effectiveness of the preventive strategies used to maintain good oral health and reduce the risk of caries in their patients. Whilst many of the traditional preventive activities, including the recommendation and use of fluoride products and the placement of fissure sealants have a wealth of clinical evidence to support their use, some of the newer preventive agents have a more limited evidence base. In order to investigate the level of scientific support behind one such technology, a systematic literature review was carried out to assess the effectiveness of Tooth Mousse (MI Paste) and Tooth Mousse Plus (MI Paste Plus) in the prevention and treatment of early dental caries. A broad search strategy using Medline via OvidSP and EMBASE was performed in order to capture all published studies to related Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate. In addition to the above searches the terms "CPP ACP" and "casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate" were searched using PREMEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Inclusion criteria were clinical trials of participants of any age, comparing the use of Tooth Mousse (MI Paste) or Tooth Mousse Plus (MI Paste Plus) to a routine oral care regimen and reporting recognised clinical outcome measures for early caries lesions. Only research studies in English were selected. 7576 articles were identified, but the majority were duplicates. Once these were removed 172 articles were inspected and the focus on 'CPP-ACP formulations of Tooth Mousse (MI Paste) and Tooth Mousse Plus (MI Paste Plus) resulted in 29 articles being selected, and of these 12 studies met the inclusion criteria and were considered acceptable for the systematic review. The overall findings of this review did not show any significant benefits of using Tooth Mousse (MI Paste) products over brushing with a fluoride toothpaste for the prevention of early

  14. Investigation of eco-friendly casein fibre production methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, M. C.; Kohn, S.; Stierand, A.; Grimmelsmann, N.; Homburg, S. V.; Rattenholl, A.; Ehrmann, A.

    2017-10-01

    The growing environmentally awareness of the consumers leads to a lot of new products in the textile industry. Either a sustainably produced textile or one which is created by reuse of a waste product is preferred. One possibility to create fibers from waste is using waste milk for casein fiber production. Opposite to several other biopolymers, however, spinning fibers from casein causes diverse problems. This article gives an overview of the investigations on how to produce fibres from the milk protein casein in a sustainable way, i.e. without formaldehyde or other polluting ingredients. Mechanical properties as well as water-resistance were investigated for chemical and physical modifications of the base composition. In this way, the positive influence of paraffin oil and wax as well as aggregation at high temperatures could be proven, while temperature treatment resulted in a higher E-modulus.

  15. Electrochemical immunosensor for the determination of β-casein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Molinari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric biosensor for the quantification of food allergens based on an inhibitory immunoassay is presented. As a proof of concept, the experimental conditions were optimized for the detection of β-casein in the 0-10 ppm range. Eight electro­che­mi­cal cells were integrated into a small-sized portable potentiostat controlled by a smart­phone via Bluetooth communication. The determination of β-casein in eight different samples can be measured with the electrochemical biosensor, which has the potential to be modified for the detection of multiple allergens.

  16. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Local Goat Milk Casein for Nutraceutical Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Mohd Akmal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptide from casein play a very important role in biological functionalities such as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Casein is the main protein that derived from goat milk which consists of alpha (α, beta (β and kappa (κ casein. Dietary protein such as casein from animal can provide rich source of bioactive peptide. However, the macromolecular protein such as cow milk can cause allergic response to certain individuals. On the other hand, goat milk have been known for its hypoallergenic and therapeutic properties in human nutrition and health. The purpose of this study is to extract casein from local breed goat milk and identify the molecular characterization of casein for nutraceutical value. The casein was successfully extracted using extraction method. Extraction is a common technique used to separate a desired substance when it is mixed with other components. The average percentage of casein obtained was 24.25%. Then, the casein was analysed by running it in the SDS-Page. The major fraction is β-casein and the minor is α-casein that can be seen between 20kDa and 30kDa respectively. There is no contaminated protein appear in the purified α-amylase. The result obtained in this study indicates that isolated casein from Malaysian goat milk was pure and can be used as bioactive peptide for nutraceutical value.

  17. In situ effect of CPP-ACP chewing gum upon erosive enamel loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Ribeiro Barros de ALENCAR

    Full Text Available Abstract Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP is able to increase salivary calcium and phosphate levels at an acidic pH. Previous studies demonstrated that a CPP-ACP chewing gum was able to enhance the re-hardening of erosion lesions, but could not diminish enamel hardness loss. Therefore, there is no consensus regarding the effectiveness of CPP-ACP on dental erosion. Objective This in situ study investigated the ability of a CPP-ACP chewing gum in preventing erosive enamel loss. Material and Methods: During three experimental crossover phases (one phase per group of seven days each, eight volunteers wore palatal devices with human enamel blocks. The groups were: GI – Sugar free chewing gum with CPP-ACP; GII – Conventional sugar free chewing gum; and GIII – No chewing gum (control. Erosive challenge was extraorally performed by immersion of the enamel blocks in cola drink (5 min, 4x/day. After each challenge, in groups CPP and No CPP, volunteers chewed one unit of the corresponding chewing gum for 30 minutes. Quantitative analysis of enamel loss was performed by profilometry (µm. Data were analyzed by Repeated-Measures ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p0.05. Conclusion The CPP-ACP chewing gum was not able to enhance the anti-erosive effect of conventional chewing gum against enamel loss.

  18. Effect of potential remineralizing agents on acid softened enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Maeda, Fernando A; Messias, Danielle C F; Neto, Francisco C Rehder; Serra, Mônica C; Galafassi, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    To assess whether pastes containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSP) protect acid softened enamel against further erosive episodes. Enamel slabs of bovine teeth with preformed erosion-like lesions were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (n = 15): A) CPP-ACP (MI Paste, GC America); B) CPP-ACP+Fluoride (CPP-ACP+F, MI Plus Paste, GC America); C) CSP (Tooth Revitalizing Paste, Oravive); D) fluoridated dentifrice (FD, Sensodyne Cool Gel, GSK); E) control (CO, unexposed to any product). Paste treatments (1:3 slurry in deionized water or undiluted product in the case of the CPP-ACP formulae) were performed between five cycles of alternating erosive challenge (0.3% citric acid, pH = 3.2) and remineralization in artificial saliva. Specimens were analyzed by Knoop surface microhardness (SMH). ANOVA indicated a significant (P< 0.0001) difference among the SMH values attained by acid softened enamel following the exposure to the pastes interspersed with erosion-remineralization cycles. Tukey's test ascertained that SMH values observed for the CPP-ACP+F and CSP groups did not differ from that of FD group, which were significantly higher than that found for the CO group. Specimens treated with CPP-ACP did not differ from any of the other groups.

  19. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520.1157 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... alopecia, scaliness of the skin surface, loss of hair, seborrhea, thickening of the skin, hyperpigmentation...

  20. Effect of fortifying amaranth diets with amino acids, casein and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two feeding trials with broilers (1-31 days of age) were carried out to determine the effect of fortifying grain amaranth based diets with lysine, methionine, casein and ethylene diamine tetra acetate (EDTA) on broiler performance, amino acid availability, plasma amino acid concentrations and nitrogen and mineral retention.

  1. Short communication: casein haplotype variability in sicilian dairy goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigli, I; Maizon, D O; Riggio, V; Sardina, M T; Portolano, B

    2008-09-01

    In the Mediterranean region, goat milk production is an important economic activity. In the present study, 4 casein genes were genotyped in 5 Sicilian goat breeds to 1) identify casein haplotypes present in the Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, Messinese, Derivata di Siria, and Maltese goat breeds; and 2) describe the structure of the Sicilian goat breeds based on casein haplotypes and allele frequencies. In a sample of 540 dairy goats, 67 different haplotypes with frequency >or=0.01 and 27 with frequency >or=0.03 were observed. The most common CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3 haplotype for Derivata di Siria and Maltese was FCFB (0.17 and 0.22, respectively), whereas for Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana and Messinese was ACAB (0.06, 0.23, and 0.10, respectively). According to the haplotype reconstruction, Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, and Messinese breeds presented the most favorable haplotype for cheese production, because the casein concentration in milk of these breeds might be greater than that in Derivata di Siria and Maltese breeds. Based on a cluster analysis, the breeds formed 2 main groups: Derivata di Siria, and Maltese in one group, and Argentata dell'Etna and Messinese in the other; the Girgentana breed was between these groups but closer to the latter.

  2. The effect of intraruminal infusion of iodinated casein on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This increase was however found to be dose (iodinated casein) dependent The result of this experiment will hopefully expand the possibilities of exploiting the nutritional benefits of some ruminant feeds particularly the more fibrous, rumen undegradable, non-conventional feed resources through the inclusion of appropriate ...

  3. Bioinformatic analyses of kappa casein gene in mammalian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kappa casein (CSN3) gene is a variant of the milk protein highly conserved in mammalian species. Genetic variations in CSN3 gene of six mammalian livestock species were investigated using bioinformatics approach. A total of twenty-seven CSN3 gene sequences with corresponding amino acids belonging to the six ...

  4. Order of 17 july 1991 on treatment by ionizing radiation of casein and casein products for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Order authorizes and fixes the conditions for the sale and marketing of casein (one of the chief constituents of milk which forms the basis of cheese), which is treated by ionizing radiation, for human consumption. The absorbed radiation dose must not exceed 6 kGy [fr

  5. Tertiary and quaternary structural differences between two genetic variants of bovine casein by small-angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessen, H.; Kumosinski, T.F.; Farrell, H.M. Jr.; Brumberger, H. (Dept. of Agriculture, Eastern Regional Research Center, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The casein complexes of bovine milk consist of four major protein fractions, alpha s1, alpha s2, beta, and kappa. Colloidal particles of casein (termed micelles) contain inorganic calcium and phosphate; they are very roughly spherical with an average radius of 650 A. Removal of Ca2+ leads to the formation of smaller protein aggregates with an average radius of 94 A. Two genetic variants, A and B, of the predominant fraction, alpha s1-casein, result in milks with markedly different physical properties, such as solubility and heat stability. To investigate the molecular basis for these differences, small-angle X-ray scattering was performed on the respective colloidal micelles and submicelles. Scattering curves for submicelles of both variants showed multiple Gaussian character; data for the B variant were previously interpreted in terms of two concentric regions of different electron density, i.e., a compact core and a relatively loose shell. For the submicelle of A, there was a third Gaussian, reflecting a negative contribution due to interparticle interference. Molecular parameters for submicelles of both A and B are in agreement with hydrodynamic data in the literature. Data for the micelles, for which scattering yields cross-sectional information, were fitted by a sum of three Gaussians for both variants; for these, the corresponding two lower radii of gyration represent the two concentric regions of the submicelles, while the third reflects the average packing of submicelles within the micellar cross section. Most of the molecular parameters obtained showed small but consistent differences between A and B, but for submicelles within the micelle several differences were particularly notable: A has a greater molecular weight for the compact region of the constituent submicelle (82,000 vs 60,000) and a much greater submicellar packing number.

  6. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha

    2015-01-01

    ), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p...-malignant as well as normal. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, calcium electroporation seems to be more effective in inducing cell death in cancer cell spheroids than in a normal fibroblast spheroid, even though intracellular ATP level is depleted in all spheroid types after treatment. These results may indicate......BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...

  7. Digestibility of transglutaminase cross-linked caseinate versus native caseinate in an in vitro multicompartmental model simulating young child and adult gastrointestinal conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenaar, R.; Jong, A. de; Koenen, M.E.; Bilsen, J. van; Janssen, A.M.; Labij, E.; Westerbeek, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the digestion of transglutaminase cross-linked caseinate (XLC) versus native caseinate (NC) in solution and in cheese spread under digestive conditions for adults and children mimicked in a gastrointestinal model. Samples were collected for gel electrophoresis

  8. On studying protein phosphorylation patterns using bottom-up LC-MS/MS: the case of human alpha-casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Frank; Savitski, Mikhail M; Nielsen, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    Most proteomics studies involving mapping post-translational modifications, such as the phosphorylation of serine and threonine, are performed today using the 'bottom-up' approach. This approach involves enzymatic cleavage of proteins, most often by trypsin, with subsequent nano-LC-MS/MS. The occ......Most proteomics studies involving mapping post-translational modifications, such as the phosphorylation of serine and threonine, are performed today using the 'bottom-up' approach. This approach involves enzymatic cleavage of proteins, most often by trypsin, with subsequent nano......-LC-MS/MS. The occupancy rates of phosphosites in proteins may differ by orders of magnitude, and thus the occupancy rate must be reported for each occupied phosphosite. To highlight potential pitfalls in quantifying the occupancy rates, alpha(s1)-casein from human milk was selected as a model molecule representing...... moderately phosphorylated proteins. For this purpose, human milk from one Caucasian woman in the eighth month of lactation was used. The phosphorylation level of caseins is believed to have major implications for the formation of micelles that are involved in delivering valuable calcium phosphate and other...

  9. Toxicity and biodistribution of orally administered casein nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ana Gloria; Irache, Juan Manuel; Peñuelas, Iván; González Navarro, Carlos Javier; López de Cerain, Adela

    2017-08-01

    In the last years, casein nanoparticles have been proposed as carriers for the oral delivery of biologically active compounds. However, till now, no information about their possible specific hazards in vivo was available. The aim of this work was to assess the safety of casein nanoparticles when administered orally to animals through a 90 days dose-repeated toxicity study (OECD guideline 408), that was performed in Wistar rats under GLP conditions. After 90 days, no evidences of significant alterations in animals treated daily with 50, 150 or 500 mg/kg bw of nanoparticles were found. This safety agrees well with the fact that nanoparticles were not absorbed and remained within the gut as observed by radiolabelling in the biodistribution study. After 28 days, there was a generalized hyperchloremia in males and females treated with the highest dose of 500 mg/kg bw, that was coupled with hypernatremia in the females. These effects were related to the presence of mannitol which was used as excipient in the formulation of casein nanoparticles. According to these results, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) could be established in 150 mg/kg bw/day and the Lowest Observed Effect Level (LOEL) could be established in 500 mg/kg bw/day. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effects of bleaching agents and Tooth Mousse(™) on human enamel hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhtib, Asmaa; Manton, David J; Burrow, Michael F; Saber-Samandari, Saeed; Palamara, Joseph E A; Gross, Kārlis A; Reynolds, Eric C

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this laboratory study was to investigate the effect of three commercial bleaching agents and Tooth Mousse(™) containing 10% w/w casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on the hardness of tooth enamel. Sixteen human enamel specimens were exposed to one of three commercial bleaching agents with or without subsequent exposure to Tooth Mousse(™) . Nanoindentation was used to measure the hardness and reduced modulus before and after treatments. When bleaching materials were applied for a short period of time following the manufacturers' instructions, there was an increase in enamel hardness and reduced modulus for some bleaching groups, with no statistically significant difference from the baseline values. After extended bleaching periods a statistically significant decrease in enamel hardness and reduced modulus was found and after applying Tooth Mousse(™) post-bleaching, the hardness and reduced modulus returned to close to baseline values. The application of bleaching agents for an extended period of time significantly decreases enamel hardness and the reduced modulus. The application of Tooth Mousse(™) after bleaching was able to reestablish the baseline enamel hardness and reduced modulus, decreasing the adverse effects of bleaching enamel. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Comparison of the Effect of Recaldent and Xylitol on the Amounts of Salivary Streptococcus Mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Emamieh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available  Background:Dental caries is associated with oral pathogenes and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutansis one of the primary cariogenic organisms. The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the effect of sugar free chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate(CPP-ACP and Xylitol on salivary Streptococcus mutan. Materials and Methods: 60 dental students, who volunteered after signing an informed consent, were randomly allocated to receive one of the following interventions: (A Chewing gum containing CPP-ACP, (B Chewing gum containing Xylitol. Subjects within the experimental groups chewed gum for 20 minutes, three times a day after meals for 3 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention unstimulated saliva samples were quantified for Streptococcus mutans count. Results: A statistically significant reduction (p<0.05 of salivary S. mutans was displayed in both groups A and B after the intervention. When results compared with baseline, and group A shows more statistically significant reduction of salivary S. mutans than group B.Conclusion: In conclusion, daily chewing gum containing CPP-ACP and xylitol reduce the level of salivary S. mutans in a significant way, but chewing gum containing CPP-ACP can reduce the level of salivary S. mutans in a significant way than Xylitol chewing gum.

  12. Prevention and treatment of white spot lesions in orthodontic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khoroushi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decalcification of enamel, appearing as white spot lesions (WSLs, around fixed orthodontic appliances is a major challenge during and after fixed orthodontic treatment by considering the fact that the goal of orthodontic treatment is to enhance facial and dental esthetic appearance. Banded or bonded teeth exhibit a significantly higher rate of WSLs compared to the controls with no braces as fixed appliances and the bonding materials promote retention of biofilms. These lesions are managed in the first step by establishing good oral hygiene habits and prophylaxis with topical fluorides, including high-fluoride toothpastes, fluoride mouthwashes, gels, varnishes, fluoride-containing bonding materials, and elastic ligatures. Recently, other materials and methods have been recommended, including the application of casein phosphopeptides-amorphous calcium phosphate, antiseptics, probiotics, polyols, sealants, laser, tooth bleaching agents, resin infiltration, and microabrasion. This article reviews the currently used methods to manage enamel demineralization during and after orthodontic treatment and the risk factors and preventive measures based on the latest evidence.

  13. Developing pathways for oral care in elders: evidence-based interventions for dental caries prevention in dentate elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, Elisa M

    2014-02-01

    Dental caries is becoming an ever-growing challenge as the number of elders maintaining their teeth increases. There is a need for low-cost, effective preventive interventions to retain natural teeth for elders. The purpose of this article is to evaluate evidence based interventions for dentate elders, specifically the adjunct therapies of fluoride, chlorhexidine, xylitol, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate, ozone, and herbal liquorice. Fluoride interventions have demonstrated prevention and remineralization of dental caries in elders. Systematic reviews of the literature are unable to establish definitive conclusions regarding the effectiveness of other adjunct therapies in dental caries prevention. Further research with elders requires improved study design with well designed multi-center trials. Considerations for new strategies for research of the effectiveness of therapies to reduce dental caries include the development and evaluation of combinations of therapeutic interventions and dental caries management by risk assessment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Gluten-free and casein-free diets in the therapy of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Klaus W; Hauser, Joachim; Reissmann, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the role of gluten-free and casein-free diets in the treatment of autism. In a recent UK survey, more than 80% of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder reported some kind of dietary intervention for their child (gluten-free and casein-free diet in 29%). When asked about the effects of the gluten-free and casein-free diet, 20-29% of the parents reported significant improvements on the autism spectrum disorder core dimensions. The findings of this study suggest additional effects of a gluten-free and casein-free diet on comorbid problems of autism such as gastrointestinal symptoms, concentration, and attention. The findings of another recent investigation suggested that age and certain urine compounds may predict the response of autism symptoms to a gluten-free and casein-free diet. Although these results need to be replicated, they highlight the importance of patient subgroup analysis. Intervention trials evaluating the effects of a gluten-free and casein-free diet on autistic symptoms have so far been contradictory and inconclusive. Most investigations assessing the efficacy of a gluten-free and casein-free diet in the treatment of autism are seriously flawed. The evidence to support the therapeutic value of this diet is limited and weak. A gluten-free and casein-free diet should only be administered if an allergy or intolerance to nutritional gluten or casein is diagnosed.

  15. SOYBEAN AND CASEIN HYDROLYSATES INDUCE GRAPEVINE IMMUNE RESPONSES AND RESISTANCE AGAINST PLASMOPARA VITICOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihed eLachhab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, is one of the most devastating grape pathogen in Europe and North America. Although phytochemicals are used to control pathogen infections, the appearance of resistant strains and the concern for possible adverse effects on environment and human health are increasing the search for alternative strategies. In the present investigation, we successfully tested two protein hydrolysates from soybean (soy and casein (cas to trigger grapevine resistance against P. viticola. On Vitis vinifera cv. Marselan plants, the application of soy and cas reduced the infected leaf surface by 76 and 63%, as compared to the control, respectively. Since both hydrolysates might trigger the plant immunity, we investigated their ability to elicit grapevine defence responses. On grapevine cell suspensions, a different free cytosolic calcium signature was recorded for each hydrolysate, whereas a similar transient phosphorylation of two MAP kinases of 45 and 49 kDa was observed. These signalling events were followed by transcriptome reprogramming, including the up-regulation of defence genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR proteins and the stilbene synthase enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of resveratrol, the main grapevine phytoalexin. Liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the production of resveratrol and its dimer metabolites, δ- and ε-viniferins. Overall, soy effects were more pronounced as compared to the cas one. Both hydrolysates proved to act as elicitors to enhance grapevine immunity against pathogen attack.

  16. Influence of calcium depletion on iron-binding properties of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, V A; Ellis, A; Ye, A; Das, S; Singh, H

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the effects of calcium depletion on the binding of iron in milk. A weakly acidic cation-exchange resin was used to remove 3 different levels (18-22, 50-55, and 68-72%) of calcium from milk. Five levels of iron (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mM) were added to each of these calcium-depleted milks (CDM) and the resultant milks were analyzed for particle size, microstructure, and the distribution of protein and minerals between the colloidal and soluble phases. The depletion of calcium affected the distribution of protein and minerals in normal milk. Iron added to normal milk and low-CDM (~20% calcium depletion) bound mainly to the colloidal phase (material sedimented at 100,000 × g for 1 h at 20 °C), with little effect on the integrity of the casein micelles. Depletion of ~70% of the calcium from milk resulted in almost complete disintegration of the casein micelles, as indicated by all the protein remaining in the soluble phase upon ultracentrifugation. Addition of up to ~20 mM iron to high CDM resulted in the formation of small fibrous structures that remained in the soluble phase of milk. It appeared that the iron bound to soluble (nonsedimentable) caseins in high-CDM. We observed a decrease in the aqueous phosphorus content of all milks upon iron addition, irrespective of their calcium content. We considered the interaction between aqueous phosphorus and added iron to be responsible for the high iron-binding capacity of the proteins in milk. The soluble protein-iron complexes formed in high-CDM (~70% calcium depletion) could be used as an effective iron fortificant for a range of food products because of their good solubility characteristics. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tensile and solubility properties of calcium caseinate films cross-linked with genipin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible films made from dairy proteins have the potential to improve food quality and safety and reduce petrochemical-based packaging because of their excellent grease, aroma and oxygen barrier properties. However, most are soluble in water and sensitive to humidity which limits their use in many app...

  18. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and over: 1,200 mg/day The body needs vitamin D to help absorb calcium. You can get ... from your diet. Ask your provider whether you need to take a vitamin D supplement. SIDE EFFECTS AND SAFETY DO NOT ...

  19. A DIGITAL TOOL FOR CASEIN ISOLECTRIC POINT DETERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M.T. Trindade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Casein is a milk protein that has the same number of positive and negative charges in a pH around 4.7. This characteristic is called the isoelectric point (pI. The pI varies from protein to protein and it depends on the charges of the lateral chain of the constituent aminoacids. At this pH value the protein has its minimum solubility since the net charge is zero and the repulsion between molecules is decreased. Furthermore, the electrostatic interaction occurs between the protein molecules. Thus, they form clumps which tend to precipitate. On the other hand, when they are placed in a solution whose pH is above or below of its pI, the protein molecules have respectively a negative or positive net charge, with strong repulsion between themselves and great interaction with the solvent (water. Objective: This learning object presents a simulation of a laboratory practice for the determination of casein isoelectric point. Materials and Methods: Cartoons were planned in order to show the methodology procedures and biochemical fundamentals. Animations were developed with the aid of the Adobe ® Flash 8 software associated with logic programming. Results: The simulation consists of six steps that reproduce the activities performed in the laboratory. Among them, the user can observe different degrees of turbidity and / or precipitation of casein in solutions with different pH values, he can measure these values with paper indicator strips and then determine the pI of this protein. Conclusions: This learning object was tested by students of Biochemistry I, Pharmacy course since 2012/2. The navigation features, design, interaction, interactivity were considered excellent by 80% of students indicating that this object can be used as an interesting tool to assist the teaching and learning of basic biochemistry.  Available at:www.ufrgs.br/gcoeb/PontoIsoleletricoDaCaseina/PontoIsoleletricoDaCaseina.swf

  20. DNA polymorphism at the casein loci in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gregorio, P; Rando, A; Pieragostini, E; Masina, P

    1991-01-01

    By using seven endonucleases and four bovine cDNA probes specific for alpha S1-, alpha S2-, beta-, and kappa-casein genes, nine restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) have been found in the sheep orthologous DNA regions. In contrast to the low level of variation observed at the protein level, these DNA polymorphisms determine a high level of heterozygosity and, therefore, represent useful tools for genetic analyses since they can also be obtained without the need for gene expression. In fact, informative matings suggest that in sheep, as in cattle, the four loci are linked.

  1. Effect of casein-based semi-synthetic food on renal acid excretion and acid-base state of blood in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlstra, W G; Langbroek, A J; Kraan, J; Rispens, P; Nijmeijer, A

    1995-01-01

    Urinary acid excretion and blood acid-base state were determined in dogs fed a casein-based semi-synthetic food (SSF), to which different amounts of salts had been added, in comparison with feeding normal dog food. Net acid excretion (NAE) and inorganic acid excretion (IAE) increased during SSF feeding. IAE was higher than the acid load calculated from the sulphur and phosphorus content of the casein. This higher IAE appeared to be due to the presence of calcium and magnesium phosphate in the diet, because calcium and magnesium may be in part precipitated as carbonate, leaving phosphate to be absorbed as phosphoric acid. Acid excretion decreased by addition of CaO. When no neutral Na+ and K+ salts were added, the increase in NAE was accompanied by a metabolic acidosis. K+ was more effective in attenuating the acidosis than Na+. On the basis of these findings a diet can be made which imposes a known acid load, and provides stable baseline values. Hence, any additions that influence the acid-base balance can be properly studied. The data obtained in these and future studies utilising this diet may be of help in optimising the composition of nutrient solutions to be used in the care of critically ill patients.

  2. Lipoprotein(a) and dietary proteins: casein lowers lipoprotein(a) concentrations as compared with soy protein1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilausen, Karin Johanne; Meinertz, H.

    1999-01-01

    Lipoprotein(a), plasma lipoproteins, dietary proteins, soy protein, casein, liquid-formula, coronary artery disease, men, Denmark......Lipoprotein(a), plasma lipoproteins, dietary proteins, soy protein, casein, liquid-formula, coronary artery disease, men, Denmark...

  3. Predictors of High Serum Casein Antibody Levels among Malnourished Infants and Young Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inas R. El-Alameey

    2015-03-01

    CONCLUSION: Serum casein antibody levels play a significant role in the pathogenesis of malnutrition. Encouragement of breast feeding and avoidance of early cow's milk consumption could prevent the development of antibody response to bovine casein.

  4. Proteomic analysis and cross species comparison of casein fractions from the milk of dairy animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaxia; Zhao, Xiaowei; Huang, Dongwei; Pan, Xiaocheng; Qi, Yunxia; Yang, Yongxin; Zhao, Huiling; Cheng, Guanglong

    2017-01-01

    Casein micelles contribute to the physicochemical properties of milk and may also influence its functionality. At present, however, there is an incomplete understanding of the casein micelle associated proteins and its diversity among the milk obtained from different species. Therefore, milk samples were collected from seven dairy animals groups, casein fractions were prepared by ultracentrifugation and their constituent proteins were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 193 distinct proteins were identified among all the casein micelle preparations. Protein interaction analysis indicated that caseins could interact with major whey proteins, including β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, and serum albumin, and then whey proteins interacted with other proteins. Pathway analysis found that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway is shared among the studied animals. Additionally, galactose metabolism pathway is also found to be commonly involved for proteins derived from camel and horse milk. According to the similarity of casein micelle proteomes, two major sample clusters were classified into ruminant animals (Holstein and Jersey cows, buffaloes, yaks, and goats) and non-ruminants (camels and horses). Our results provide new insights into the protein profile associated with casein micelles and the functionality of the casein micelle from the studied animals. PMID:28240229

  5. Antimutagenic activity of casein against MNNG in the E. coli DNA repair host-mediated assay.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Goeptar, A.R.; Alink, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of caseinate and soy protein in the diet on the mutagenicity induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) was assessed in-vivo and ex-vivo in the DNA-repair host-mediated assay and liquid suspension assay, respectively. Of the two proteins only casein showed a strong

  6. Correlations between biochemical characteristics and foam-forming and -stabilizing ability of whey and casein hydrolysates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van der C.; Bont, D.B.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Whey protein and casein were hydrolyzed with 11 commercially available enzymes. Foam properties of 44 samples were measured and were related to biochemical properties of the hydrolysates using statistical data analysis. All casein hydrolysates formed high initial foam levels, whereas whey

  7. Oxidative cross-linking of casein by horseradish peroxidase and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central composite design using response surface methodology was used to optimize cross-linking conditions of casein. The optimal cross-linking conditions of casein ... Cross-linking of food proteins induced by horseradish peroxidase might serve as an alternative approach to modify functional property of the proteins.

  8. Behaviour of casein micelles at conditions comparable to those in ice cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    The physical properties of ice cream are mainly determined by the processing and the ingredients. Milk (powder) is one of the ingredients and ice cream thus contains casein, the major milk protein. A large proportion of casein in ice cream is present in the plasma phase of ice cream. Since

  9. Effects of gamma-irradiation on some properties of bovine casein micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Zenichi

    1974-01-01

    Sedimentation studies and electron microscopic observations revealed that an association between casein micelles dispersed in water or milk serum was not induced significantly by gamma-irradiation of exposure up to 3 x 10 6 R, whereas a release of nonprotein nitrogen was observed to a certain extent. It was concluded from the results of turbidi-metry and gel filtration using 3 size groups of casein micelles, namely large, medium and small, that an irradiation-induced polymerization or association occurred within individual casein micelles, and strengthend the micelle structure. Thus the irradiated casein micelles resisted, more or less, to the solubilizing effect of NaCl, EDTA, pyrophosphate and urea. Stabilities of casein micelles for ethanol and for acidification to an isoelectric point were decreased and increased, respectively, after irradiation. Gamma irradiation also caused the decrease of glycomacropeptide released from casein micelles by the action of rennin, and this resulted in the delay of rennin-coagulation of casein. There were no essential differences among the 3 size groups of casein micelles concerning the above described tendencies. (auth.)

  10. Purification and properties of a ribosomal casein kinase from rabbit reticulocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1977-01-01

    A casein kinase was isolated and purifed from rabbit reticulocytes. About 90% of the enzyme activity co-sedimented with the ribosomal fraction, whereas about 10% of the enzyme activity was found in the ribosome-free supernatant. Both casein kinases (the ribosome-bound enzyme as well as the free...

  11. Enhanced bioethanol production from pretreated corn stover via multi-positive effect of casein micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckard, Anahita Dehkhoda; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Gibbons, William

    2013-05-01

    Casein polypeptides containing substructures of αs1-casein, β-casein, k-casein, αs2-casein were used as a lignin-blocker at above critical micelles concentration to improve the bioethanol production of dilute acid, lime, alkali, extrusion and AFEX pretreated corn stover (CS). Application of 0.5 g/g glucan of casein was found to effectively increase the glucose yield of CS pretreated with dilute acid, lime, alkali, extrusion and AFEX by 31.9%, 17.0%, 22.7%, 29.5%, and 17.4%, respectively with no positive impact on Avicel. Consequently 96 h simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of these hydrolysates reduced the fermentation period by up to 48 h and increased the theoretical yield of ethanol by 8.48-33.7% compared to control. Application of casein during saccharification reduced the enzyme utilization by 33.0%. Recycling of hydrolysate from casein-treated CS for a 2nd round hydrolysis resulted in average glucose yield of 36.4% compared to 29.0% control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Purification and properties of a ribosomal casein kinase from rabbit reticulocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1977-01-01

    A casein kinase was isolated and purifed from rabbit reticulocytes. About 90% of the enzyme activity co-sedimented with the ribosomal fraction, whereas about 10% of the enzyme activity was found in the ribosome-free supernatant. Both casein kinases (the ribosome-bound enzyme as well as the free...... enzyme) showed identical activity and the same molecular weight. On sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis a single band of about 70 000 mol.wt. was observed. Sucrose-gradient analysis, however, showed that the enzyme activity sedimented with a s20,w of approx. 7.5S. This observation...... suggested that the casein kinase is a dimer composed of subunits of identical molecular weight. The enzyme utilizes GTP as well as ATP as a phosphoryl donor. It preferentially phosphorylates acidic proteins, in particular the model substrates casein and phosvitin. Casein kinase is cyclic AMP...

  13. Stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by whey and caseinate ingestion after resistance exercise in elderly individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, Kasper; Reitelseder, Søren; Petersen, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a well-known phenomenon in elderly individuals and resistance exercise together with sufficient amino acid (AA) availability has proved to be a counteractive implement. However, the source of AA and supplement timing require further investigation. The objective was to compare muscle...... protein synthesis (MPS) to intakes of whey and caseinate after heavy resistance exercise in healthy elderly individuals, and, furthermore, to compare the timing effect of caseinate intake. Twenty-four elderly men and women (mean ± SEM; 68 ± 1 years) were randomized to one of four groups: caseinate intake...... and caseinate feeding immediately after heavy resistance exercise in elderly individuals, and MPS is similar with caseinate ingestion before and after exercise....

  14. Protein degradation by ruminal microorganisms from sheep fed dietary supplements of urea, casein, or albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R J; Broderick, G A; Brammall, M L

    1987-01-01

    Ruminal fluid from sheep fed hay plus concentrate diets containing 1.8% urea, 6% casein, or 6% egg albumin had proteolytic activities of 4.12, 3.02, or 4.00 mg of [14C]casein hydrolyzed ml-1 h-1, respectively. Dietary albumin had no effect on the rate of albumin breakdown relative to that of casein (0.06). Greater numbers of highly proteolytic bacteria, mainly Butyrivibrio spp., were isolated from the rumens of sheep receiving albumin. Albumin hydrolysis by these isolates was even slower relative to that of casein (0.03) than in ruminal fluid and was similar to that found in isolates from urea- and casein-fed sheep. Hence, there appears to be no mechanism by which ruminal bacteria can alter their proteolytic activity to utilize resistant soluble protein more effectively. PMID:3579280

  15. Short communication: Effect of alphaS1-casein (CSN1S1) and kappa-casein (CSN3) genotypes on milk composition in Murciano-Granadina goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca, F; Carrizosa, J; Urrutia, B; Baena, F; Jordana, J; Amills, M; Badaoui, B; Sánchez, A; Angiolillo, A; Serradilla, J M

    2009-06-01

    The effects of the caprine alpha(S1)-casein (CSN1S1) polymorphisms on milk quality have been widely demonstrated. However, much less is known about the consequences of the kappa-casein (CSN3) genotype on milk composition in goats. Moreover, the occurrence of interactions between CSN3 and CSN1S1 genotypes has not been investigated. In this study, an association analysis between CSN1S1 and CSN3 genotypes and milk quality traits was performed in 89 Murciano-Granadina goats. Total milk yield as well as total protein, fat, solids-not-fat, lactose, alpha(S1)-casein (CSN1S1), and alpha(S2)-casein (CSN1S2) contents were recorded every other month during a whole lactation (316 observations). Data analysis using a linear mixed model for repeated observations revealed no interaction between the CSN1S1 and CSN3 genotypes. With regard to the effect of the CSN3 locus, AB and BB genotypes were significantly associated with higher levels of total casein and protein content compared with the AA CSN3 genotype. In strong contrast with French breeds, the CSN1S1 genotype did not affect protein, casein, and fat concentrations in Murciano-Granadina goats. These results highlight the importance of taking into consideration the CSN3 genotype when performing selection for milk composition in dairy goats.

  16. A milk protein, casein, as a proliferation promoting factor in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Woo; Kim, Joo-Young; Kim, You-Sun; Lee, Sang Jin; Lee, Sang Don; Chung, Moon Kee

    2014-08-01

    Despite most epidemiologic studies reporting that an increase in milk intake affects the growth of prostate cancer, the results of experimental studies are not consistent. In this study, we investigated the proliferation of prostate cancer cells treated with casein, the main protein in milk. Prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and PC3), lung cancer cells (A459), stomach cancer cells (SNU484), breast cancer cells (MCF7), immortalized human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293), and immortalized normal prostate cells (RWPE1) were treated with either 0.1 or 1 mg/mL of α-casein and total casein extracted from bovine milk. Treatments were carried out in serum-free media for 72 hours. The proliferation of each cell line was evaluated by an 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. α-Casein and total casein did not affect the proliferations of RWPE1, HEK293, A459, SNU484, MCF7, HEK293, or RWPE1 cells. However, PC3 cells treated with 1 mg/mL of α-casein and casein showed increased proliferation (228% and 166%, respectively), and the proliferation of LNCaP cells was also enhanced by 134% and 142%, respectively. The proliferation mechanism of α-casein in PC3 and LNCaP cells did not appear to be related to the induction of Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), since the level of IGF-1 did not change upon the supplementation of casein. The milk protein, casein, promotes the proliferation of prostate cancer cells such as PC3 and LNCaP.

  17. Activated CaMKII Couples GluN2B and Casein Kinase 2 to Control Synaptic NMDA Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sanz-Clemente

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic activity triggers a profound reorganization of the molecular composition of excitatory synapses. For example, NMDA receptors are removed from synapses in an activity- and calcium-dependent manner, via casein kinase 2 (CK2 phosphorylation of the PDZ ligand of the GluN2B subunit (S1480. However, how synaptic activity drives this process remains unclear because CK2 is a constitutively active kinase, which is not directly regulated by calcium. We show here that activated CaMKII couples GluN2B and CK2 to form a trimolecular complex and increases CK2-mediated phosphorylation of GluN2B S1480. In addition, a GluN2B mutant, which contains an insert to mimic the GluN2A sequence and cannot bind to CaMKII, displays reduced S1480 phosphorylation and increased surface expression. We find that although disrupting GluN2B/CaMKII binding reduces synapse number, it increases synaptic-GluN2B content. Therefore, the GluN2B/CaMKII association controls synapse density and PSD composition in an activity-dependent manner, including recruitment of CK2 for the removal of GluN2B from synapses.

  18. Spectrofluoremetric and molecular docking study on the interaction of bisdemethoxycurcumin with bovine β-casein nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehranfar, Fahimeh; Bordbar, Abdol-Khalegh; Keyhanfar, Mehrnaz; Behbahani, Mandana

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), as one of the main active component of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), with bovine β-casein nanoparticle, as an efficient drug carrier system, was investigated using steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking calculations. Results of fluorescence quenching experiments, Forster energy transfer measurements and molecular docking calculations suggested that BDMC bind to the hydrophobic core of β-casein via formation of 3 hydrogen bonds and several vander Waals contacts that represented the encapsulation of BDMC in β-casein micelle nanoparticles. The binding parameters including number of substantive binding sites and the binding constants were evaluated by fluorescence quenching method. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of free BDMC and BDMC-β-casein complex in human breast cancer cell line MCF7 was evaluated in vitro. The study revealed the higher cytotoxic effects of encapsulated BDMC on MCF7 cells compared to equal dose of free BDMC. -- Highlights: • BDMC binds to the hydrophobic core of β-casein. • The effective encapsulation of BDMC in β-casein micelle nanoparticles was shown. • Enhanced cytotoxicity was observed for encapsulated BDMC in β-casein nanoparticles

  19. Spectrofluoremetric and molecular docking study on the interaction of bisdemethoxycurcumin with bovine β-casein nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehranfar, Fahimeh [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bordbar, Abdol-Khalegh, E-mail: bordbar@chem.ui.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Keyhanfar, Mehrnaz; Behbahani, Mandana [Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, Department of Biotechnology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    The interaction of bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), as one of the main active component of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), with bovine β-casein nanoparticle, as an efficient drug carrier system, was investigated using steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking calculations. Results of fluorescence quenching experiments, Forster energy transfer measurements and molecular docking calculations suggested that BDMC bind to the hydrophobic core of β-casein via formation of 3 hydrogen bonds and several vander Waals contacts that represented the encapsulation of BDMC in β-casein micelle nanoparticles. The binding parameters including number of substantive binding sites and the binding constants were evaluated by fluorescence quenching method. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of free BDMC and BDMC-β-casein complex in human breast cancer cell line MCF7 was evaluated in vitro. The study revealed the higher cytotoxic effects of encapsulated BDMC on MCF7 cells compared to equal dose of free BDMC. -- Highlights: • BDMC binds to the hydrophobic core of β-casein. • The effective encapsulation of BDMC in β-casein micelle nanoparticles was shown. • Enhanced cytotoxicity was observed for encapsulated BDMC in β-casein nanoparticles.

  20. Evaluation of the effect of rennet type on casein proteolysis in an ovine milk cheese by means of capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irigoyen, A; Izco, J M; Ibáñez, F C; Torre, P

    2000-06-09

    Capillary electrophoresis was used to study the evolution of casein throughout the ripening process of Roncal Denomination of Origin ewe's milk cheese and to assess the type of rennet in its hydrolysis. Two manufactures were prepared, each with four vats; two of them had added lamb artisan rennet, batch A [clotting activity of 97.54 rennet units (RU) ml(-1)] and batch B [clotting activity of 16.26 RU ml(-1)]; one vat included calf industrial rennet, batch I (clotting activity of 45.70 RU ml(-1)); and the fourth vat had added mixed rennet, batch M, a 50:50 mixture of lamb (batch A) and calf (batch I) (clotting activity of 77.53 RU ml(-1)). The content of casein nitrogen in fractions alpha-casein1CE, alpha-casein2CE, beta-casein1CE and beta-casein2CE was quantified in cheese after 1, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 days of ripening. Beta-casein fractions undergo lesser degradation during the ripening time than alpha-casein proteins. The degradation of alpha-caseins is very much influenced by the clotting activity of the rennet used, so that the more active the clotting activity the greater the hydrolysis of those caseins. Nevertheless, it is at the level of beta-caseins that we observe the evidence of the influence of the type of rennet, thus noting a less intense proteolytic activity in the batch made with calf rennet, batch I.

  1. κ-CASEIN GENE POLYMORPHISMS IN RIVERINE AND SWAMP BUFFALO IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Rini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kappa-casein (κ-casein gene is known as a gene that plays a role in controlling milk protein andalso play a crucial role in the coagulation and curdling of milk. This study was aimed to identifypolymorphisms of the κ-Casein gene of local buffaloes in Indonesia. A total number of 40 heads ofriverine buffalo and 250 heads of swamp buffalo. This study used PCR-RFLP method, whichamplification of the κ-Casein gene resulted an amplicon with length of 157 bp, located in exon 4. Theamplified fragment were digested with EcoRV restriction enzyme, which cut the κ-Casein gene in exon4 at nucleotides of GAT|ATC, revealed the presence of one polymorphism at the base position of 23 bpthat occurs with a substitution of Ile (ATC of the T genetic variant into Thr (ACC of the C geneticvariant. Genotyping κ-Casein gene in riverine buffalo produced two types of allele, namely C allele (157bp and T allele (136 and 21 bp. These two alleles resulted in three types of genotypes, namely CC, CT,and TT. Frequency of the C allele was dominant to T allele. κ-Casein gene in swamp buffalo wasmonomorphic with one allele, namely C allele. Heterozygosity value of riverine and swamp buffaloeswere low. PIC value in riverine and swamp buffalo ranged 0.000-0.288. Fixation index of κ-Casein genein riverine buffalo was low (Siborong-borong SBBC = -0,0036; Deli Serdang = -0.025, but in swampbuffalo was in fixation. This study showed that κ-Casein|EcoRV were polymorphic in riverine buffaloand monomorphic in swamp buffalo.

  2. Helicobacter pylori induces cell migration and invasion through casein kinase 2 in gastric epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeo Song; Lee, Do Yeon; Yu, Da Yeon; Kim, Shin; Lee, Yong Chan

    2014-12-01

    Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is causally linked with gastric carcinogenesis. Virulent H. pylori strains deliver bacterial CagA into gastric epithelial cells. Induction of high motility and an elongated phenotype is considered to be CagA-dependent process. Casein kinase 2 plays a critical role in carcinogenesis through signaling pathways related to the epithelial mesenchymal transition. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of H. pylori infection on the casein kinase 2-mediated migration and invasion in gastric epithelial cells. AGS or MKN28 cells as human gastric epithelial cells and H. pylori strains Hp60190 (ATCC 49503, CagA(+)) and Hp8822 (CagA(-)) were used. Cells were infected with H. pylori at multiplicity of infection of 100 : 1 for various times. We measured in vitro kinase assay to examine casein kinase 2 activity and performed immunofluorescent staining to observe E-cadherin complex. We also examined β-catenin transactivation through promoter assay and MMP7 expression by real-time PCR and ELISA. H. pylori upregulates casein kinase 2 activity and inhibition of casein kinase 2 in H. pylori-infected cells profoundly suppressed cell invasiveness and motility. We confirmed that casein kinase 2 mediates membranous α-catenin depletion through dissociation of the α-/β-catenin complex in H. pylori-infected cells. We also found that H. pylori induces β-catenin nuclear translocation and increases MMP7 expressions mediated through casein kinase 2. We show for the first time that CagA(+) H. pylori upregulates cellular invasiveness and motility through casein kinase 2. The demonstration of a mechanistic interplay between H. pylori and casein kinase 2 provides important insights into the role of CagA(+) H. pylori in the gastric cancer invasion and metastasis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Cloning and Molecular Characterization of Porcine β-casein Gene (CNS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Mi Lee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of therapeutic proteins from transgenic animals is one of the most important successes of animal biotechnology. Milk is presently the most mature system for production of therapeutic proteins from a transgenic animal. Specifically, β-casein is a major component of cow, goat and sheep milk, and its promoter has been used to regulate the expression of transgenic genes in the mammary gland of transgenic animals. Here, we cloned the porcine β-casein gene and analyzed the transcriptional activity of the promoter and intron 1 region of the porcine β-casein gene. Sequence inspection of the 5′-flanking region revealed potential DNA elements including SRY, CdxA, AML-a, GATA-3, GATA-1 and C/EBP β. In addition, the first intron of the porcine β-casein gene contained the transcriptional enhancers Oct-1, SRY, YY1, C/EBP β, and AP-1, as well as the retroviral TATA box. We estimated the transcriptional activity for the 5′-proximal region with or without intron 1 of the porcine β-casein gene in HC11 cells stimulated with lactogenic hormones. High transcriptional activity was obtained for the 5′-proximal region with intron 1 of the porcine β-casein gene. The β-casein gene containing the mutant TATA box (CATAAAA was also cloned from another individual pig. Promoter activity of the luciferase vector containing the mutant TATA box was weaker than the same vector containing the normal TATA box. Taken together, these findings suggest that the transcription of porcine β-casein gene is regulated by lactogenic hormone via intron 1 and promoter containing a mutant TATA box (CATAAAA has poor porcine β-casein gene activity.

  4. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  5. β-casein as a functional food component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria

    Milk is a complex mixture of various components which include proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and minerals. Milk proteins can be divided into two classes: whey proteins (20%) and caseins (80% of total milk protein). As thermal treatment is a traditional method of food preservation, interactions...... which can improve stability and safety of food. Traditional methods of food preservation and sterilization require high temperature, which may result in undesirable changes such as change of color or texture. Development of novel food processing methods, which allow to create new milk-based products...... with novel textures, is highly valuable to the dairy industry. Understanding interactions that undergo during food processing is necessary for proper design of process. For example control of aggregation is required to achieve desired texture of the final product....

  6. Detecting β-Casein Variation in Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Caroli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In bovine species, β-casein (β-CN is characterized by genetic polymorphism. The two most common protein variants are β-CN A2 (the original one and A1, differing from A2 for one amino acid substitution (Pro67 to His67. Several bioactive peptides affecting milk nutritional properties can originate from β-CN. Among them, β-casomorphin-7 (BCM7 ranging from amino acid 60 to 66 can be released more easily from β-CN variants carrying His67 (A1 type instead of Pro67 (A2 type. Nowadays, “A2 milk” is produced in different countries claiming its potential benefits in human health. The aim of this study was to further develop and apply an isoelectric focusing electrophoresis (IEF method to bulk and individual milk samples in order to improve its use for β-CN studies. We succeeded in identifying A2 milk samples correctly and quantifying the percentage of A2, A1, and B variants in bulk samples not derived from A2 milk as well as in individual milk samples. The method allows us to quantify the relative proportion of β-CN variants in whole milk without eliminating whey protein by acid or enzymatic precipitation of caseins. The aim of this study was also to study the different behavior of β-CN and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG in the presence of trichloroacetic acid (TCA. The higher sensitivity of β-CN to TCA allows quantifying β-CN variants after TCA fixation because β-LG is not visible. Monitoring β-CN variation in cattle breeds is important in order to maintain a certain balance between Pro67 and His67 in dairy products. Overall, the debate between A1 and A2 milk needs further investigation.

  7. Molecular mechanisms involved in casein gene expression and secretion in mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.Y.H.P.; Lee, W.H.; Parry, G.; Bissell, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Mouse mammary epithelial cells (MMEC) secrete a group of milk-specific proteins including various caseins and whey proteins. Dissociated mammary epithelial cells maintain expression of most of their differentiated functions only if cells are plated on a suitable substratum. Casein production and section, cell morphology, and production of α-lactalbumin have been used as markers to assess the degree of differentiation of mammary cells in culture. The general consensus is that cells express their differentiated properties at high levels and for longer periods of time on such substrata. In this paper, the authors demonstrate that modulation of the expression of caseins by floating collagen gels is manifested at several regulatory points

  8. Effect of microbial transglutaminase and sodium caseinate on quality of chicken döner kebab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Birol

    2003-03-01

    The effect of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) and sodium caseinate on the quality of chicken döner kebab was investigated. Yield, color, pH, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), texture, and sensory evaluations were measured. The results of SDS-PAGE showed that addition of MTGase with or without sodium caseinate created cross-linking between meat proteins. Texture measurements indicated that the effect of the enzyme on binding properties of chicken meat is more effective if it is used with sodium caseinate (P<0.05). Sensory evaluation was not significantly different statistically among treatments.

  9. Antioxidant activity of camel milk casein before and after in vitro simulated enzymatic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeineb Jrad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a successive in vitro hydrolysis by pepsin and pancreatin on the free radical scavenging activity of camel milk casein was investigated in order to assess the effect of gastro-intestinal digestion. Hydrolysis of camel casein was controlled by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Anti-oxidant activity was measured by the 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbensothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (ABTS method. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC values of camel casein and its hydrolysate were 1.6±0.12 μmol TE/mg protein and 0.25 μmol TE/μmol eq. NH2, respectively. After digestion, the scavenging activity of the casein peptides was more efficient than those reported in the literature regarding digestive hydrolysates of camel milk, colostrum and whey proteins.

  10. Stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by whey and caseinate ingestion after resistance exercise in elderly individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, K J; Reitelseder, S; Petersen, S G

    2011-01-01

    protein synthesis (MPS) to intakes of whey and caseinate after heavy resistance exercise in healthy elderly individuals, and, furthermore, to compare the timing effect of caseinate intake. Twenty-four elderly men and women (mean ± SEM; 68 ± 1 years) were randomized to one of four groups: caseinate intake......Sarcopenia is a well-known phenomenon in elderly individuals and resistance exercise together with sufficient amino acid (AA) availability has proved to be a counteractive implement. However, the source of AA and supplement timing require further investigation. The objective was to compare muscle...... before exercise (CasPre), caseinate intake immediately after exercise (CasPost), whey intake immediately after exercise (Whey), or intake of a non-caloric control drink (Control). Muscle myofibrillar and collagen fractional synthesis rates (FSR) were measured by a primed continuous infusion of L-[1...

  11. Improvement of ACE inhibitory activity of casein hydrolysate by Maillard reaction with xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xu; Meng, Jun; Lu, Rong-Rong

    2015-01-01

    The Maillard reaction is widely used to improve the functional properties or biological activities of food. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the Maillard reaction on angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity in a casein hydrolysate-xylose system. Two-step hydrolysis was used to prepare casein ACE inhibitory peptides. Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were prepared by heating hydrolyzed casein with xylose at pH 8.0, 110 °C for up to 16 h. The results showed that the content of free amino group decreased (P Maillard reaction (P reaction in the MRPs. The study shows that the Maillard reaction under appropriate conditions can improve the ACE inhibitory activity of casein hydrolysate effectively. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Cloning and sequencing of the casein kinase 2 alpha subunit from Zea mays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrowolska, G; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1991-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA coding for the alpha subunit of casein kinase 2 of Zea mays has been determined. The cDNA clone contains an open reading frame of 996 nucleotides encoding a polypeptide comprising 332 amino acids. The primary amino acid sequence exhibits 75% identity to the alpha...... subunit and 71% identity to the alpha' subunit of human casein kinase 2....

  13. Factors affecting antioxidant activity of soybean meal and caseine protein hydrolysates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korczak, J.

    1998-01-01

    Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysates was dependent on the raw material, condition of hydrolysis and lipid substrate used in model systems. Soybean meal hydrolysate was more active in lard and in linoleic acid emulsion than caseine hydrolysate, whereas caseine was more active in vegetable oils. Antioxidant activity of evaluated protein hydrolysates in all lipid systems, with or without oxidation catalysts, suggests them as natural food additives for lipid stabilization, thus for improvement of its nutritional value and sensory properties

  14. Pyrolysis of casein, characterization and properties of obtained solid and liquid products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Purevsuren

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Have been determined the technical characteristics and elemental composition of milk casein. Pyrolysis experiments of casein carried out at different heating temperatures and determined the yields of obtained solid (biochar, liquid (tar and pyrolysis water and gas products. A temperature around 550ºC determined as an optimal heating temperature of pyrolysis and approximately 28.33% biochar, 37.38% tar, 13.23% pyrolysis water and 20.84% gas obtained after pyrolysis. First time a biochar with higher content of nitrogen was obtained by pyrolysis of casein and determined it is elemental composition and technical specifications. The porous structure of casein biochar was characterized by mercury porosimeter and SEM analysis confirmed that casein biochar has mostly meso and macro pores. The casein tar had the elemental composition: C-66.7%, H-8.3%, N-12.1%, O-12.9% and was completely soluble in 1-methyl-2-pyrroldinone. The tar consisted mostly of moderate molecular mass components with SEC elution times between 18-26 min and an estimated mass range up to 3000-5000 mass units as well as some larger size components, possibly 3-dimentional. The property and determined chemical composition of casein tar by GC/MS analysis were an evidence for using it as a curing agent for crosslinking reactions of epoxy resins. The necessary amount of tar for curing reaction of epoxy resin was determined experimentally as a 15-20% for the stoichiometric amount of reactive epoxy groups (15-20% epoxy group content in epoxy resin and obtained cured epoxy resin with 95% degree of crosslinking reaction. Have been suggested several curing reaction schemes of epoxy resin with amines, nitriles and phenols of the casein tar

  15. Irradiation effect on α- and β-caseins of milk and Queso Blanco cheese determined by capillary electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, J.S.; Jeong, S.G.; Lee, S.G.; Han, G.S.; Chae, H.S.; Yoo, Y.M.; Kim, D.H.; Lee, W.K.; Jo, C.

    2009-01-01

    Milk and Queso Blanco cheese were exposed to irradiation with doses of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 kGy to investigate the irradiation effect on α- and β-casein using a capillary electrophoresis. α S1 -Casein to total protein ratio in raw milk was decreased from 19.63% to 8.64% by 10 kGy of gamma irradiation. The ratio of α S1 - to α S0 -casein was also decreased from 1.38 to 0.53, which showed α S1 -casein is more susceptible to gamma irradiation than α S0 -casein. Similarly, α S1 -casein to total protein ratio in Queso Blanco cheese was decreased from 17.48% to 7.82% and the ratio of α S1 - to α S0 -casein was decreased from 1.16 to 0.43 by 10 kGy of gamma irradiation. Dose-dependent reduction of β A1 -casein was also found. β A1 -Casein to total protein ratios in raw milk and Queso Blanco cheese were decreased from 22.00% to 14.16% and from 21.96% to 13.89% after 10 kGy, respectively. The ratios of β A1 - to β A2 -casein were from 1.10 to 0.64 and 0.93 to 0.57 in milk and Queso Blanco cheese, respectively. However, α S0 -, β B -, and β A3 -casein increased by irradiation at 10 kGy. The results suggest that α S1 -casein and β A1 -casein were more susceptible to gamma irradiation, and may be related to the reduction of milk allergenicity caused by gamma irradiation

  16. Application of Humidity-Controlled Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA-RH to Moisture-Sensitive Edible Casein Films for Use in Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia M. Bonnaillie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein-based and other hydrophilic thin films are promising materials for the manufacture of edible food packaging and other food and non-food applications. Calcium caseinate (CaCas films are highly hygroscopic and physical characterization under broad environmental conditions is critical to application development and film optimization. A new technology, humidity-controlled dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA-RH was explored to characterize CaCas/glycerol films (3:1 ratio during isohume temperature (T ramps and steps, and isothermal RH ramps and steps, to determine their mechanical and moisture-sorption properties during extensive T and RH variations. When RH and/or T increased, CaCas/Gly films became strongly plasticized and underwent several primary and secondary humidity-dependent transition temperatures (or transition humidities; the CaCas/Gly network hypothetically rearranged itself to adapt to the increased water-content and heat-induced molecular mobility. Between 5–40 °C and 20%–61% RH, moisture-sorption was rapid and proportional to humidity between transition points and accelerated greatly during transitions. CaCas/Gly films seemed unsuitable for storage or utilization in warm/humid conditions as they lost their mechanical integrity around Tm ~ 40 °C at 50% RH and Tm decreased greatly with increased RH. However, below Tm, both moisture- and heat-induced structural changes in the films were fully reversible and casein films may withstand a variety of moderate abuse conditions.

  17. Analysis of beta-casein gene (CSN2 polymorphism in different breeds of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Miluchová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of work was identification of b - casein gene polymorphism in different breeds of cow. The beta - casein constitutes up to 45 % of the casein of bovine milk. The most common forms of beta-casein in dairy cattle breeds are A1 and A2, while B is less common. The b-casein A1 variant was associated with the incidence of diabetes mellitus 1st type, coronary heart disease and autism. The A2 variant reduces serum cholesterol. The material involved 287 cows (Simmental breed – 111 cows, Pinzgau breed – 89 cows, Holstein breed – 87 cows. Bovine genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood by using commercial kit and used in order to estimate b - casein genotypes by means of PCR-RFLP method. In the populations included in the study were detected all three genotypes – homozygote genotype A1A1, heterozygote genotype A1A2 and homozygote genotype A2A2 with frequencies 0.1261, 0.3333 and 0.5405 in Simmental breed; 0.1379, 0.4598 and 0.4023 in Holstein breed, 0.3034, 0.5168 and 0.1798 in Pinzgau breed. In population of Simmental breed and Holstein breed was higher frequency of allele A2 (0.7072 and 0.6322. In opposite, in population of Pinzgau breed was present higher frequency of the allele A1 (0.5618.

  18. Cloning and sequencing of the gene for human β-casein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennerdal, B.; Bergstroem, S.; Andersson, Y.; Hialmarsson, K.; Sundgyist, A.; Hernell, O.

    1990-01-01

    Human β-casein is a major protein in human milk. This protein is part of the casein micelle and has been suggested to have several physiological functions in the newborn. Since there is limited information on βcasein and the factors that affect its concentration in human milk, the authors have isolated and sequenced the gene for this protein. A human mammary gland cDNA library (Clontech) in gt 11 was screened by plaque hy-hybridization using a 42-mer synthetic 32 p-labelled oligo-nucleotide. Positive clones were identified and isolated, DNA was prepared and the gene isolated by cleavage with EcoR1. Following subcloning (PUC18), restriction mapping and Southern blotting, DNA for sequencing was prepared. The gene was sequenced by the dideoxy method. Human β-casein has 212 amino acids and the amino acid sequence deducted from the nucleotide sequence is to 91% identical to the published sequence for human β-casein show a high degree of conservation at the leader peptide and the highly phosphorylated sequences, but also deletions and divergence at several positions. These results provide insight into the structure of the human β-casein gene and will facilitate studies on factors affecting its expression

  19. Mixed micellization between natural and synthetic block copolymers: β-casein and Lutrol F-127.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnaya, Irina; Khalfin, Rafail; Kesselman, Ellina; Ramon, Ory; Cogan, Uri; Danino, Dganit

    2011-02-28

    Amphiphilic block copolymers and mixtures of amphiphiles find broad applications in numerous technologies, including pharma, food, cosmetic and detergency. Here we report on the interactions between a biological charged diblock copolymer, β-casein, and a synthetic uncharged triblock copolymer, Lutrol F-127 (EO(101)PO(56)EO(101)), on their mixed micellization characteristics and the micelles' structure and morphology. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments indicate that mixed micelles form when Lutrol is added to monomeric as well as to assembled β-casein. The main driving force for the mixed micellization is the hydrophobic interactions. Above β-casein CMC, strong perturbations caused by penetration of the hydrophobic oxypropylene sections of Lutrol into the protein micellar core lead to disintegration of the micelles and reformation of mixed Lutrol/β-casein micelles. The negative enthalpy of micelle formation (ΔH) and cooperativity increase with raising β-casein concentration in solution. ζ-potential measurements show that Lutrol interacts with the protein micelles to form mixed micelles even below its critical micellization temperature (CMT). They further indicate that Lutrol effectively masks the protein charges, probably by forming a coating layer of the ethyleneoxide rich chains. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) indicate relatively small changes in the oblate micellar shape, but do show swelling along the small axis of β-casein micelles in the presence of Lutrol, thereby confirming the formation of mixed micelles.

  20. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    -saccharate becomes spontaneously supersaturated with both d-gluconate and d-saccharate calcium salts, from which only calcium d-saccharate slowly precipitates. Calcium d-saccharate is suggested to act as a stabilizer of supersaturated solutions of other calcium hydroxycarboxylates with endothermic complex formation......Molar conductivity of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium d-saccharate, used as a stabilizer of beverages fortified with calcium d-gluconate, increases strongly upon dilution, indicating complex formation between calcium and d-saccharate ions, for which, at 25 °C, Kassoc = 1032 ± 80, ΔHassoc...

  1. Measurement by radioimmunoassay of casein content in rabbit mammary gland during pregnancy and after prolactin stimulation in organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, G.; Dusanter-Fourt, I.; Kelly, P.A.; Houdebine, L.M.; Djiane, J.

    1987-01-01

    A specific homologous radioimmunoassay was developed to measure rabbit β-casein in rabbit mammary gland with a sensitivity of 0.5 ng/ml protein. It was used to measure casein concentration during pregnancy and in organ culture of mammary gland explants. Casein was detectable in virgin mammary glands, showed a small increase during the first half of pregnancy, increased more than 20-fold between Days 21 and 27, and diminished somewhat on the first days of lactation. After 24 hr of culture, mammary gland explants had no detectable casein, but the addition of increasing concentrations of prolactin to a culture medium which contained insulin (5 μg/ml) and cortisol (0.5 μg/ml) induced a regular increase in the casein content of the tissue. Casein started to increase when 10 ng/ml of prolactin was present and maximal values were achieved for 100 ng/ml of the hormone

  2. Thyme oil nanoemulsions coemulsified by sodium caseinate and lecithin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jia; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-10-08

    Many nanoemulsions are currently formulated with synthetic surfactants. The objective of the present work was to study the possibility of blending sodium caseinate (NaCas) and lecithin to prepare transparent thyme oil nanoemulsions. Thyme oil was emulsified using NaCas and soy lecithin individually or in combination at neutral pH by shear homogenization. The surfactant combination improved the oil content in transparent/translucent nanoemulsions, from 1.0% to 2.5% w/v for 5% NaCas with and without 1% lecithin, respectively. Nanoemulsions prepared with the NaCas-lecithin blend had hydrodynamic diameters smaller than 100 nm and had significantly smaller and more narrowly distributed droplets than those prepared with NaCas or lecithin alone. Particle dimension and protein surface load data suggested the coadsorption of both surfactants on oil droplets. These characteristics of nanoemulsions minimized destabilization mechanisms of creaming, coalescence, and Ostwald ripening, as evidenced by no significant changes in appearance and particle dimension after 120-day storage at 21 °C.

  3. Use of γ-irradiation to produce films from whey, casein and soya proteins: structure and functionals characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.; Le, T.C.; Ouattara, B.; Yu, H.; Letendre, M.; Sabato, S.F.; Mateescu, M.A.; Patterson, G.

    2002-01-01

    γ-irradiation and thermal treatments have been used to produce sterilized cross-linked films. Formulations containing variable concentrations of calcium caseinate and whey proteins (whey protein isolate (WPI) and commercial whey protein concentrate) or mixture of soya protein isolate (SPI) with WPI was investigated on the physico-chemical properties of these films. Results showed that the mechanical properties of cross-linked films improved significantly the puncture strength for all types of films. Size-exclusion chromatography showed for no cross-linked proteins, a molecular mass of around 40 kDa. The soluble fractions of the cross-linked proteins molecular distributions were between 600 and 3800 kDa. γ-irradiation seems to modify to a certain extent the conformation of proteins which will adopt structures more ordered and more stable, as suggested by X-ray diffraction analysis. Microstructure observations showed that the mechanical characteristics of these films are closely related to their microscopic structure. Water vapor permeability of films based on SPI was also significantly decreased when irradiated. Microbial resistance was also evaluated for cross-linked films. Results showed that the level of biodegradation of cross-linked films was 36% after 60 d of fermentation in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  4. Analysis of Casein Biopolymers Adsorption to Lignocellulosic Biomass as a Potential Cellulase Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Dehkhoda Eckard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although lignocellulosic materials have a good potential to substitute current feedstocks used for ethanol production, conversion of these materials to fermentable sugars is still not economical through enzymatic hydrolysis. High cost of cellulase has prompted research to explore techniques that can prevent from enzyme deactivation. Colloidal proteins of casein can form monolayers on hydrophobic surfaces that alleviate the de-activation of protein of interest. Scanning electron microscope (SEM, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, capillary electrophoresis (CE, and Kjeldahl and BSA protein assays were used to investigate the unknown mechanism of action of induced cellulase activity during hydrolysis of casein-treated biomass. Adsorption of casein to biomass was observed with all of the analytical techniques used and varied depending on the pretreatment techniques of biomass. FT-IR analysis of amides I and II suggested that the substructure of protein from casein or skim milk were deformed at the time of contact with biomass. With no additive, the majority of one of the cellulase mono-component, 97.1 ± 1.1, was adsorbed to CS within 24 h, this adsorption was irreversible and increased by 2% after 72 h. However, biomass treatment with skim-milk and casein reduced the adsorption to 32.9% ± 6.0 and 82.8% ± 6.0, respectively.

  5. Kappa-casein gene study with molecular markers in female buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Roberto Otaviano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Caseins comprise make up about 80% of the total protein content of milk and present polymorphism with changes in the amino acid sequence. Within this abundance of proteins, kappa-casein is noteworthy, since it has been associated with differences in milk yield, composition and processing. The objective of this study was to observe the existence of polymorphism in the kappa-casein gene in female buffaloes. For this purpose, blood samples from 115 female buffaloes, collected with vacutainer by needle punctionure of the jugular vein, were used. for genomic DNA extraction was done from blood samples. The PCR-RFLP and SSCP techniques demonstrated that the studied animals were monomorphic for the kappa-casein gene. Only allele B was observed in these animals, which was present in homozygosis. Therefore, it was not possible to quantify the gene action on milk yield and its constituents. The monomorphism observed in the population studied would allow the development of a method to identify mixtures of cow and buffalo milk in mozzarella cheese production, especially because, in cattle, the kappa-casein gene is polymorphic.

  6. Conformational transition of κ-casein in micellar environment: Insight from the tryptophan fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Smruti; Meher, Geetanjali; Chakraborty, Hirak

    2017-11-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are under intense analysis due to their structural flexibility and importance in biological functions. Minuscule modulation in the microenvironment induces significant conformational changes in IDPs, and these non-native conformations of the IDPs often induce aggregation and cause cell death. Changes in the membrane composition often change the microenvironment, which promote conformational change and aggregation of IDPs. κ-Casein, an important milk protein, belongs to the class of IDPs containing net negative charges. In this present work, we have studied the interaction of κ-casein with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), a positively charged surfactant, utilizing various steady state fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Our results clearly indicate that κ-casein undergoes at least two conformational transitions in presence of various concentrations of CTAB. The intrinsically disordered κ-casein assumes a partially folded conformation at lower concentration of CTAB, which adopts an unstructured conformation at higher concentration of CTAB. The partially folded conformation of κ-casein at a lower CTAB concentration might be induced by the favorable electrostatic interaction between the positively charged surfactant headgroup and net negative charges of the protein, whereas surfactant nature of CTAB is being pronounced at higher concentration of CTAB.

  7. Physicochemical characterization of native and modified sodium caseinate- Vitamin A complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chitra; Arora, Sumit; Syama, M A; Sharma, Apurva

    2018-04-01

    Native and modified sodium caseinate- Vitamin A complexes {Sodium caseinate- Vit A complex by stirring (NaCas-VA ST), succinylated sodium caseinate- Vit A complex by stirring (SNaCas-VA ST), reassembled sodium caseinate- Vit A complex (RNaCas-VA) and reassembled succinylated sodium caseinate- Vit A complex (RSNaCas-VA)} were prepared and characterized for their physicochemical characteristics e.g. particle size, zeta potential, turbidity analysis and tryptophan intensities which confirmed structural modification of both native (NaCas-VA ST) and modified (SNaCas-VA ST, RNaCas-VA and RSNaCas- VA) proteins upon complex formation with vitamin A. Binding of vitamin A to milk protein reduced the turbidity caused by vitamin A, however, the particle size and zeta potential of milk protein increased after complexation. Microstructure details of NaCas (spray dried) showed uniform spherical structure, however, other milk proteins and milk protein- Vit A complexes (freeze dried) showed broken glass and flaky structures. Tiny particles were observed on the surface of reassembled protein and reassembled protein- Vit A complexes. Binding of vitamin A to milk protein did not have an influence on the electrophoretic mobility and elution profile (RP-HPLC). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Calcium Channel Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... conditions, such as Raynaud's disease For people of African heritage and older people, calcium channel blockers might ... high-blood-pressure/in-depth/calcium-channel-blockers/ART-20047605 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  9. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  10. Calcium - Function and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Jianfen; He, Yifan; Gao, Qian; Wang, Xuan; Nout, M.J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the primary food source for more than half of the world population. Levels of calcium contents and inhibitor - phytic acid are summarized in this chapter. Phytic acid has a very strong chelating ability and it is the main inhibit factor for calcium in rice products. Calcium contents in

  11. Calcium, An Overview-1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiercinski, Floyd J

    1989-06-01

    An overview of calcium is presented including introduction, pre-history, chronology of the research recorded in the literature, discussion, summary, recent references, literature cited, acknowledgments, and appendix. Elemental calcium began with the Earth's formation. Calcium was used for utilitarian purposes in B.C. times. In the 12th and 13th centuries A.D., calcium oxide was formed by roasting limestone to form calcium carbonate. A test for calcium was found in the 17th century, and "stones" were observed in humans (see appendix). In the 19th century, calcium was isolated and chemically identified by electrolysis, and later in that century calcium was found to be needed in a physiological solution similar to the ionic content of blood. In the 20th century it was found that, in the absence of calcium, living cells pulled away from one another. Anesthesia was produced by massive injection of magnesium salts into a mammal-conciousness could be restored by the addition of calcium, which neutralized the magnesium. Finally, calcium out of control in necrosis has an invasive action. Calcium antagonists and their mode of action were described in 1986.

  12. Toward water-solvation of rice proteins via backbone hybridization by casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Yue, Ming; Xu, Pengcheng; Wang, Ren; Chen, Zhengxing

    2018-08-30

    Water insolubility is one of the major bottlenecks restricting the commercial availability of such food proteins as rice proteins (RPs), zein, etc. Here, we report that the structural hybridization of RPs and casein in a mass ratio of 1:0.01 can boost the solubility of RPs to over 90%. A structural analysis demonstrated that the backbones of the RPs and casein were integrated in basic solution (pH 12.0) and folded together into higher structures with subsequent neutralization. The hybrid backbones obtained improved the molecules' resistance to structural changes during neutralization, and formed protein bodies with appreciable exposed polar groups, which may have been buried in the absence of casein. Morphological observations confirmed the formation of well-defined nanoscale particles with no visible aggregation. Both proteins also retained their intact primary peptide chains, thus significantly protecting the original nature of the plant and animal derivatives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nonenzymatic browning of lactose and caseinate during dry heating at different relative humidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Geoffrey Ge; Melton, Laurence D

    2007-11-28

    Dry mixtures of lactose and caseinate were heated at 60 degrees C for up to 96 h at different relative humidities (RHs) ranging from 29 to 95%. The resulting nonenzymatic browning was studied by determining lactulosyl lysine formation in the caseinate (as measured by the conversion to furosine), amount of reacted lactose, loss of lysine, color formation, and fluorescent intensity. For each measurement, the maximum reaction occurred at intermediate RHs. While there is general agreement between the results obtained by different methods, discrepancies are understandable given the complex nature of nonenzymatic browning. It was shown that the degradation of the Amadori product, lactulosyl lysine, increased with RH. Moreover, the Maillard reaction, as opposed to caramelization of lactose, was the major pathway at all RHs. Visible browning occurred when the destruction of Amadori product became dominant, and interactions between sugar fragments and caseinate were not the rate-limiting steps in the nonenzymatic browning.

  14. Phase behavior of casein micelles/exocellular polysaccharide mixtures: Experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinier, R.; de Kruif, C. G.

    1999-05-01

    Dispersions of casein micelles and an exocellular polysaccharide (EPS), obtained from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NIZO B40 EPS, show a phase separation. The phase separation is of the colloidal gas-liquid type. We have determined a phase diagram that describes the separation of skim milk with EPS into a casein-micelle rich phase and an EPS rich phase. We compare the phase diagram with those calculated from theories developed by Vrij, and by Lekkerkerker and co-workers, showing that the experimental phase boundary can be predicted quite well. From dynamic light scattering measurements of the self-diffusion of the casein micelles in the presence of EPS the spinodal could be located and it corresponds with the experimental phase boundary.

  15. Effects of dietary casein and soy protein on metabolism of radiolabelled low density apolipoprotein B in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samman, S.; Khosla, P.; Carroll, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    Rabbits fed semipurified diets containing casein have elevated plasma cholesterol levels compared to those fed soy protein. As part of continuing studies on the mechanism of casein-induced hypercholesterolemia, two groups of six rabbits were fed these diets for 14 to 16 weeks. Animals fed the casein diet were found to have significantly higher plasma concentrations of protein, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, phospholipid and apolipoprotein B (apo B) associated with low density lipoprotein (LDL) than those fed the soy protein diet. Kinetic studies showed that the fractional catabolic rate of LDL-apo B was significantly lower in animals fed casein than in those fed soy protein regardless of whether the tracer LDL was obtained from donors fed casein or soy protein. The production rate of LDL-apo B was higher in casein-fed animals but this was not statistically significant. These results show that the efficiency of removal of LDL is significantly reduced in animals fed casein compared to those fed soy protein, and that the source of LDL did not affect the efficiency of its subsequent removal. The accumulation of LDL in casein-fed animals is consistent with down-regulation of the LDL receptor

  16. Whey or Casein Hydrolysate with Carbohydrate for Metabolism and Performance in Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuyse, T; Carstens, M; Millen, A M E

    2015-07-01

    The protein type most suitable for ingestion during endurance exercise is undefined. This study compared co-ingestion of either 15 g/h whey or casein hydrolysate with 63 g/h fructose: maltodextrin (0.8:1) on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, exercise metabolism and performance. 2 h postprandial, 8 male cyclists ingested either: carbohydrate-only, carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate or placebo-water in a crossover, double-blind design during 2 h of exercise at 60%W max followed by a 16-km time trial. Data were evaluated by magnitude-based inferential statistics. Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, measured from (13)CO2 breath enrichment, was not substantially influenced by co-ingestion of either protein hydrolysate. However, only co-ingestion of carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate substantially decreased (98% very likely decrease) total carbohydrate oxidation (mean±SD, 242±44; 258±47; 277±33 g for carbohydrate-casein, carbohydrate-whey and carbohydrate-only, respectively) and substantially increased (93% likely increase) total fat oxidation (92±14; 83±27; 73±19 g) compared with carbohydrate-only. Furthermore, only carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate ingestion resulted in a faster time trial (-3.6%; 90% CI: ±3.2%) compared with placebo-water (95% likely benefit). However, neither protein hydrolysate enhanced time trial performance when compared with carbohydrate-only. Under the conditions of this study, ingesting carbohydrate-casein, but not carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, favourably alters metabolism during prolonged moderate-strenuous cycling without substantially altering cycling performance compared with carbohydrate-only. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Casein addition to a whey-based formula has limited effects on gut function in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thymann, T.; Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Bering, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    studied in gut contents. Severity of NEC lesions was similar between diet groups but galactose absorption was markedly higher in CASEIN than in WHEY (P digestive enzymes......Preterm infants are susceptible to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Using preterm pigs, we determined whether a whey–casein-based formula would be superior to a formula based on whey protein alone. Twenty cesarean-derived preterm pigs (92% gestation) were given total parenteral nutrition for 36 h...... followed by 30 h of enteral feeding with whey [protein fraction of milk formula based on whey (WHEY); n = 11] or casein and/or whey [protein fraction of milk formula based on a combination of casein and whey (CASEIN); n = 9]-based formulas. Sugar absorptive function was investigated at 6 and 30 h after...

  18. Gastric Emptying and Gastrointestinal Transit Compared among Native and Hydrolyzed Whey and Casein Milk Proteins in an Aged Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, Julie E; Young, Wayne; McKenzie, Catherine M; Haggarty, Neill W; Roy, Nicole C

    2017-12-13

    Little is known about how milk proteins affect gastrointestinal (GI) transit, particularly for the elderly, in whom digestion has been observed to be slowed. We tested the hypothesis that GI transit is faster for whey than for casein and that this effect is accentuated with hydrolysates, similar to soy. Adult male rats (18 months old) were fed native whey or casein, hydrolyzed whey (WPH) or casein (CPH), hydrolyzed blend (HB; 60% whey:40% casein), or hydrolyzed soy for 14 days then treated with loperamide, prucalopride, or vehicle-control for 7 days. X-ray imaging tracked bead-transit for: gastric emptying (GE; 4 h), small intestine (SI) transit (9 h), and large intestine (LI) transit (12 h). GE for whey was 33 ± 12% faster than that for either casein or CPH. SI transit was decreased by 37 ± 9% for casein and 24 ± 6% for whey compared with hydrolyzed soy, and persisted for casein at 12 h. Although CPH and WPH did not alter transit compared with their respective intact counterparts, fecal output was increased by WPH. Slowed transit by casein was reversed by prucalopride (9-h), but not loperamide. However, rapid GE and slower SI transit for the HB compared with intact forms were inhibited by loperamide. The expected slower GI transit for casein relative to soy provided a comparative benchmark, and opioid receptor involvement was corroborated. Our findings provide new evidence that whey slowed SI transit compared with soy, independent of GE. Increased GI transit from stomach to colon for the HB compared with casein suggests that including hydrolyzed milk proteins in foods may benefit those with slowed intestinal transit.

  19. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recker, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  20. In situ Effect of Chewing Gum with and without CPP-ACP on Enamel Surface Hardness Subsequent to ex vivo Acid Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordão, M C; Alencar, C R B; Mesquita, I M; Buzalaf, M A R; Magalhães, A C; Machado, M A A M; Honório, H M; Rios, D

    2016-01-01

    The erosion-protective effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is controversial. This study aimed to investigate the ability of CPP-ACP chewing gum to prevent a single event of erosive demineralization in situ. Bovine enamel blocks (n = 120) were randomly assigned to 3 phases according to the baseline surface hardness: phase I (PI) - chewing gum with CPP-ACP, phase II (PII) - chewing gum without CPP-ACP, and control phase (PIII) - salivary effect without stimulation (no gum). Nineteen volunteers participated in this study during 3 crossover phases of 2 h. In PI and PII, the volunteers wore intraoral palatal appliances for 120 min and chewed a unit of the corresponding chewing gum for the final 30 min. In the control phase the volunteers wore the appliance for 2 h, without chewing gum. Immediately after intraoral use, the appliances were extraorally immersed in a cola drink for 5 min to promote erosive demineralization. The percentage of surface hardness loss was calculated. The data were analyzed by ANOVA models and Tukey's test. Lower enamel hardness loss was found after the use of chewing gum with CPP-ACP (PI: 32.7%) and without CPP-ACP (PII: 33.5%) compared to the salivary effect without stimulation (PIII: 39.8%) (p 0.05). The results suggest that the use of chewing gum immediately before an erosive demineralization can diminish enamel hardness loss. However, the presence of CPP-ACP in the chewing gum cannot enhance this protective effect. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. An in vitro study on the retentive strength of orthodontic bands cemented with CPP-ACP-containing GIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heravi, Farzin; Bagheri, Hossein; Rangrazi, Abdolrasoul; Mojtaba Zebarjad, Seyed

    2016-12-01

    Caries and white spot lesions around orthodontic bands are well known occurrences in fixed orthodontic treatment. There are several methods to overcome these problems. One of these includes modification of the band cement with remineralizing agents such as casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP). However, it should be evaluated that the cement modification has no significant negative effects on the retentive strength of the cemented orthodontic bands. In a continuation of our previous studies on the effects of the addition of CPP-ACP on the mechanical properties of luting and lining glass ionomer cement (GIC), this study aimed to investigate the retentive strength of orthodontic bands cemented with CPP-ACP containing GIC. Sixty extracted human pre molars teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and randomly divided into two groups of 30 specimens. In group 1, bands were cemented to the tooth with a GIC. In group 2, CPP-ACP (1.56% w/w) was added to the GIC before cementation. The retentive strength of each groups was determined with a universal testing machine. Further, the amount of cement remaining on the tooth surface was evaluated under a stereomicroscope, and the adhesive remnant index (ARI) score was determined. Results of this study showed that there were no significant differences between the groups in retentive strength and ARI score. In conclusion, modification of GIC with 1.56% w/w CPP-ACP had no negative effects on the retentive strength of the bands so can be used during fixed orthodontic treatment.

  2. Effect of non-fluoride agents on the prevention of dental caries in primary dentition: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    Full Text Available To assess the effect of non-fluoride agents on the prevention of dental caries in primary dentition.Medline, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, CBM and CNKI databases were searched to identify all the relevant articles published prior to 16 December 2016. Grey literature was also searched. Randomized controlled human clinical trials in which non-fluoride agents were delivered by any method were considered.Of the 1,236 studies screened, 39 full articles were scrutinized and 14 selected for inclusion in the final sample. Five chemical agents, namely arginine, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP, chlorhexidine, triclosan and xylitol were investigated in these included studies. The cariostatic effects of non-fluoride agents in vivo were evaluated in comparison with fluoride or placebos in randomized controlled trials. There is evidence that the use of certain doses of xylitol may be effective in arresting dental caries in primary dentition. However, quantitative synthesis could not be carried out because of the clinical and methodological heterogeneity of the included studies.A study at low risk of bias indicated that daily use of xylitol wipes is a useful adjunct for caries control in young children, however, this conclusion should be interpreted with caution as this study had a very limited sample size. Chlorhexidine and CPP-ACP may be more effective than a placebo in managing caries in primary dentition, but their effectiveness is borderline when compared with fluoride. Arginine-containing mint confection and 0.3% triclosan varnish were found to reduce caries development in primary teeth but the evidence was at high risk of bias. High quality randomized controlled trials are needed in order to make a conclusive recommendation.

  3. [Study on application of CPP-ACP on tooth mineralization during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-dan; Liu, Ying-zhi; Xu, Yuan-yuan; Chen, Dong

    2010-04-01

    To determine the value of clinical application of CPP-ACP during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance. Seventy-five subjects were divided randomly into three groups, the control group, experimental group A and experimental group B. The control group were emphasized on daily oral hygiene. Experimental group A used fluor protector every three months under the dentist's guidance. Experimental group B used Casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate(CCP-ACP) once a day. After finishing the orthodontic treatment, photos were taken under the same condition ,then the degree of the enamel's demineralization was examined and the enamel decalcification index(EDI) was calculated. SPSS11.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. (1)The incidence of three groups' enamel decalcification declined in sequence as the control group(60%),experimental group A (36%), experimental group B (32%).(2)The incidence of the teeth's enamel calcification of three groups declined in sequence as the control group(14.7%),experimental group A (8.46%), experimental group B (7.72%), the difference between the control group and two experimental groups was significant, while no significant difference was found between the two experimental groups.(3(EDI of the control group was 0.155+/-0.023, EDI of the experimental group A was 0.082+/-0.009,while EDI of the experimental group B was 0.078+/-0.006. The difference between the control group and two experimental groups was statistically significant, while was not statistically significant between the two experimental groups. The application of fluor protector and CPP-ACP can improve the mineralization of the teeth during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance. CPP-ACP is more convenient for the patients to use. Supported by Research Fund of Bureau of Science and Technology of Futian District Shenzhen City(Grant No.FTWS056).

  4. Long-term remineralizing effect of MI Paste Plus on regression of early caries after orthodontic fixed appliance treatment: a 12-month follow-up randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerens, Moniek W; Ten Cate, Jacob M; Buijs, Mark J; van der Veen, Monique H

    2017-11-17

    Casein-phosphopeptide-amorphous-calcium-fluoride-phosphate (CPP-ACFP) can remineralize subsurface lesions. It is the active ingredient of MI-Paste-Plus® (MPP). The long-term remineralization efficacy is unknown. To evaluate the long-term effect of MPP versus a placebo paste on remineralization of enamel after fixed orthodontic treatment over a 12-month period. This trial was designed as a prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled RCT. Patients with subsurface lesions scheduled for removal of the appliance were included. They applied either MPP or control paste once a day at bedtime for 12 months, complementary to normal oral hygiene. Changes in enamel lesions (primary outcome) were fluorescence loss and lesion area determined by quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). Secondary outcomes were Microbial composition, by conventional plating, and acidogenicity of plaque, by capillary ion analysis (CIA), and lesion changes scored visually on clinical photographs. Participants [age = 15.5 years (SD = 1.6)] were randomly assigned to either the MPP or the control group, as determined by a computer-randomization scheme, created and locked before the start of the study. Participants received neutral-coloured concealed toothpaste tubes marked A or B. The patients and the observers were blinded with respect to the content of tube A or B. A total of 51 patients were analysed; MPP (n = 25) versus control group (n = 26); data loss (n = 14). There was no significant difference between the groups over time for all the used outcome measures. There was a significant improvement in enamel lesions (fluorescence loss) over time in both groups (P orthodontic fixed appliance treatment did not improve these lesions during the 1 year following debonding. This trial is registered at the medical ethical committee of the VU Medical Centre in Amsterdam (NL.199226.029.07). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society

  5. Effects of Treatment with Various Remineralizing Agents on the Microhardness of Demineralized Enamel Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiana Salehzadeh Esfahani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Remineralization of incipient caries is one of the goals in dental health care. The present study aimed at comparing the effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate complex (CPP-ACP, Remin Pro®, and 5% sodium fluoride varnish on remineralization of enamel lesions. Materials and methods. In this in vitro study, 60 enamel samples were randomly allocated to six groups of 10. After four days of immersion in demineralizing solution, microhardness of all samples was measured. Afterward, groups 1-3 under-went one-time treatment with fluoride varnish, CPP-ACP, and Remin Pro®, respectively. Microhardness of groups 4-6 was measured not only after one-month treatment with the above-mentioned materials (for eight hours a day, but also after re-exposing to the demineralizing solution. The results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, repeated measures ANOVA, and Fisher’s least significant difference (LSD test. Results. None of the regimens could increase microhardness in groups 1-3. However, one-month treatment regimens in groups 4-6 caused a significant increase in microhardness. The greatest microhardness was detected in the group treated with CPP-ACP (P = 0.001. In addition, although microhardness reduced following re-demineralization in all three groups, the mean reduction was minimum in the CPP-ACP-treated group (P < 0.001. Conclusion. While long-term repeated application of all compounds improved microhardness, the remineralization potential of CPP-ACP was significantly higher than that of Remin Pro® and sodium fluoride varnish.

  6. Evaluation of bovine beta casein polymorphism in two dairy farms located in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Massella

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bovine beta casein A1 is one of the most common variants in dairy cattle breeds; it is considered a risk factor in milk intolerance and in other important human diseases, because of the bioactive peptide beta casomorphin-7 (BCM7 produced by raw or processed A1-milk, but not by A2- milk, during digestion. The aim of this study was to perform a cheap and rapid method to investigate beta casein polymorphism in copious animals. The study included 2 dairy farms with a totally of 1230 cows. Beta casein genotypes were estimated evaluating Exon 7 region of bovine beta casein gene (CSN2 by sequences analysis. In the population included in the study 5 variants (A1, A2, B, F, I and 13 genotypes (A1A1, A1A2, A1B, A1F, A1I, A2A2, A2B, A2F, A2I, BB, BF, BI, FI were detected. The method showed high sensibility and specificity, resulted low-cost and few time consuming.

  7. Transglutaminase-mediated protein immobilization to casein nanolayers created on a plastic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Noriho; Doi, Satoshi; Tominaga, Jo; Ichinose, Hirofumi; Goto, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    An enzymatic method for covalent and site-specific immobilization of recombinant proteins on a plastic surface was explored. Using Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (AP) with a specific peptide tag (MKHKGS) genetically incorporated at the N-terminus as a model (NK-AP), microbial transglutaminase (MTG)-mediated protein immobilization was demonstrated. To generate a reactive surface for MTG, a 96-well polystyrene microtiter plate was physically coated with casein, a good MTG substrate. Successful immobilization of recombinant AP to the nanolayer of casein on the surface of the microtiter plate was verified by the detection of enzymatic activity. Since little activity was observed when wild-type AP was used, immobilization of NK-AP was likely directed by the specific peptide tag. When polymeric casein prepared by MTG was used as a matrix on the plate, the loading capacity of AP was increased about 2-fold compared to when casein was used as the matrix. Transglutaminase-mediated site-specific posttranslational modification of proteins offers one way of generating a variety of protein-based solid formulations for biotechnological applications.

  8. Production of the antimicrobial peptides Caseicin A and B by Bacillus isolates growing on sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, R M; Guinane, C M; O'Connor, P M; Fitzgerald, G F; Hill, C; Stanton, C; Ross, R P

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Bacillus isolates capable of degrading sodium caseinate and subsequently to generate bioactive peptides with antimicrobial activity. Sodium caseinate (2.5% w/v) was inoculated separately with 16 Bacillus isolates and allowed to ferment overnight. Protein breakdown in the fermentates was analysed using gel permeation-HPLC (GP-HPLC) and screened for peptides (<3-kDa) with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Caseicin A (IKHQGLPQE) and caseicin B (VLNENLLR), two previously characterized antimicrobial peptides, were identified in the fermentates of both Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates. The caseicin peptides were subsequently purified by RP-HPLC and antimicrobial assays indicated that the peptides maintained the previously identified inhibitory activity against the infant formula pathogen Cronobacter sakazakii. We report a new method using Bacillus sp. to generate two previously characterized antimicrobial peptides from casein. This study highlights the potential to exploit Bacillus sp. or the enzymes they produce for the generation of bioactive antimicrobial peptides from bovine casein. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Trichostatin A inhibits beta-casein expression in mammary epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujuguet, Philippe; Radisky, Derek; Levy, Dinah; Lacza, Charlemagne; Bissell, Mina J.

    2002-02-22

    Many aspects of cellular behavior are affected by information derived from association of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and with cell membrane receptors. When cultured in the presence of laminin-containing ECM and prolactin (Prl), normal mammary epithelial cells express the milk protein beta-casein. Previously, we defined the minimal ECM- and Prl-responsive enhancer element BCE-1 from the upstream region of the beta-casein gene. We also found that BCE-1 was only active when stably integrated into chromatin, and that trichostatin A (TSA), a reagent that leads to alterations in chromatin structure, was able to activate the integrated enhancer element. We now show that endogenous b-casein gene, which is controlled by a genetic assembly that is highly similar to that of BCE-1 and which is also activated by incubation in ECM and Prl, is instead inhibited by TSA. We provide evidence that the differing response of b-casein and BCE-1 to TSA is neither due to an unusual effect of TSA on mammary epithelial cells, nor to secondary consequences from the expression of a separate gene, nor to a particular property of the BCE-1 construct. As a component of this investigation, we also showed that ECM could mediate rapid histone deacetylation in mammary epithelial cells. These results are discussed in combination with previous work showing that TSA mediates the differentiation of many types of cancer cells but inhibits differentiation of some nonmalignant cell types.

  10. A polylysine-induced aggregation of substrate accompanies the stimulation of casein kinase II by polylysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, F J; Lechuga, C G; Collado, M; Benítez, M J; Jiménez, J S

    1993-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CK-II) activation by polylysine parallels an aggregation of substrates promoted by the polycation. CK-II is known to be stimulated by basic polypeptides and polyamines. The mechanism by which this stimulation takes place, however, is not yet fully understood. Here we show that, in the usual CK-II assay, polylysine induces the aggregation of casein. This aggregation has been monitored by turbidimetry, electron microscopy and gel filtration. The polylysine-concentration-dependence of the casein aggregation parallels the polylysine-concentration-dependence of the enzyme stimulation. In the presence of polylysine the enzyme is incorporated into the casein aggregates promoted by the polycation, thus supporting the view that this substrate aggregation is directly related to the mechanism of CK-II stimulation. Preliminary results show that a similar parallelism occurs with other natural substrates of the enzyme. The physiological meaning of this substrate aggregation, and its possible relation to other polylysine-stimulated enzymes and polylysine-aggregated proteins, are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8435062

  11. The polymorphisms of κ-casein gene and their associations with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... The polymorphisms of exon 4 and 5 of κ-casein (CSN3) gene and their associations with milk production traits and .... eenennaam and Medrano, 1991) and protein content. (Gonyon et al., 1987; Bovenhuis et al., 1992) in most cases. The allele B has been associated with higher (Ng- kwai-hang et al., 1986) ...

  12. Enhanced pattern resolution, swelling-behaviour and biocompatibility of bioimprinted casein microdevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Azadeh; de Decker, Fanny; Orcheston-Findlay, Louise; Ali, M. Azam; Alkaisi, Maan M.; Nock, Volker

    2017-11-01

    This work introduces casein microstructures with surface features as a biodegradable biomedical platform technology for enhancing tissue-engineering applications. An optimized fabrication process is presented to reduce the hydrophobicity of intermediate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds and to transfer high-resolution regular and biomimetic features onto the surface of casein devices. Four different cross-linking reagents, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, citric acid and transglutaminase (TG) were investigated to increase the degradation time of casein and their influence on swelling and biocompatibility of the films was studied. TG was found to be the only cross-linker to effectively increase the degradation time and show reduced film swelling after immersion into media, while remaining compatible with cell-culture. The maximum expansion of the films cross-linked via TG was 33% after 24 hours of immersion in cell-culture media. C2C12 cells were successfully cultured on the patterned films for up to 72 hours. The patterned biodegradable casein substrates presented here have promising applications in stem-cell engineering, regenerative medicine, and implantable devices.

  13. Nano-preparation of Andrographis paniculata extract by casein micelle for antidiabetic agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbianti, Rita; Dewi, Veronica; Imansari, Farisa; Hermansyah, Heri; Sahlan, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    Side effects caused by oral medications for person with diabetic are the background of the development of alternative treatments by traditional medicine, herbs. Andrographis paniculata (AP) is one of the herbs that is potent to be anti-diabetic agent. The active compound of AP, andrographolide have been examined to have anti-diabetic activity as α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitor. This research aims to encapsulate sambiloto's extract with casein micelle and produce nanoparticles which have anti-diabetic activity as α-glucosidase inhibitor. Extract of AP is encapsulated by casein micelle and made into nano size using sonicator. The dominant active compounds in AP extract coated by casein are andrographolide, neoandrographolide, 14-deoxy-11,12didehydroandrographolide with encapsulation efficiency of 68.83%, 89.15% and 81.69%, the average diameter of the particles is about 120.57 nm and its loading capacity is 28.85%. AP's extract has antidiabetic activity as α-glucosidase inhibitor with percent inhibition of 95%. The morphology of nanoencapsulated AP's extract analyzed by FE-SEM, were similar with casein micelle.

  14. Casein kinase 1-Like 3 is required for abscisic acid regulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Casein kinase 1-Like 3 is required for abscisic acid regulation of seed germination, root growth, and gene expression in Arabidopsis. M Wang, D Yu, X Guo, X Li, J Zhang, L Zhao, H Chang, S Hu, C Zhang, J Shi, X Liu ...

  15. Enhanced pattern resolution, swelling-behaviour and biocompatibility of bioimprinted casein microdevices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Hashemi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces casein microstructures with surface features as a biodegradable biomedical platform technology for enhancing tissue-engineering applications. An optimized fabrication process is presented to reduce the hydrophobicity of intermediate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS molds and to transfer high-resolution regular and biomimetic features onto the surface of casein devices. Four different cross-linking reagents, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, citric acid and transglutaminase (TG were investigated to increase the degradation time of casein and their influence on swelling and biocompatibility of the films was studied. TG was found to be the only cross-linker to effectively increase the degradation time and show reduced film swelling after immersion into media, while remaining compatible with cell-culture. The maximum expansion of the films cross-linked via TG was 33% after 24 hours of immersion in cell-culture media. C2C12 cells were successfully cultured on the patterned films for up to 72 hours. The patterned biodegradable casein substrates presented here have promising applications in stem-cell engineering, regenerative medicine, and implantable devices.

  16. Casein and soybean protein-based thermoplastics and composites as alternative biodegradable polymers for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz, C.M.; Fossen, M.; Tuil, van R.F.; Graaf, de L.A.; Reis, R.L.; Cunha, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    This work reports on the development and characterization of novel meltable polymers and composites based on casein and soybean proteins. The effects of inert (Al2O3) and bioactive (tricalcium phosphate) ceramic reinforcements over the mechanical performance, water absorption, and bioactivity

  17. Bovine Chymosin: A Computational Study of Recognition and Binding of Bovine κ-Casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, David S.; Christensen, Anders Uhrenholt; Sørensen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformation......) is found to be important for stabilizing the binding pose. The catalytic site (including the catalytic water molecule) is stable in the starting conformation of the previously proposed general acid/base catalytic mechanism for 18 ns of molecular dynamics simulations......Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformational...... search algorithms, and molecular dynamics simulations. In agreement with limited experimental evidence, the model suggests that the substrate binds in an extended conformation with charged residues on either side of the scissile bond playing an important role in stabilizing the binding pose. Lys111...

  18. Reconstitution of normal and hyperactivated forms of casein kinase-2 by variably mutated beta-subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Meggio, F; Pinna, L A

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-one mutants of the noncatalytic beta-subunit of human casein kinase-2 have been created, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to homogeneity. They are either modified at the autophosphorylation site (mutants beta delta 1-4 and beta A 5,6) or bear variable deletions in their C...

  19. Design of Simple Instrumentation System for the Quality Analysis of Milk (Casein Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Sangam

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a simple instrumentation system for the analysis of casein concentration in the milk. Casein is one of the major constituent of milk and its concentration describes the quality of the milk. Normally casein is analyzed by conventional analytical methods or by using Spectrophotometric methods. Here an attempt has been made to develop a simple portable system using optical instrumentation technique. The objective of the developed system is the real time analysis of the casein concentration of the milk at the field. The system involves UV light source, UV filter, cuvette, photo detector, display unit, data Acquisition Card (DAC as peripheral with USB port. Appropriate program has been developed in visual studio 6 and turbo C. Repeated number of real time analysis was carried out for different samples of milk; the results obtained are in excellent agreement with the amount determined by standard conventional methods with an accuracy of ±1.5 %, and the response time is within 100 seconds. This system can be used in the field for the quality analysis of milk as an independent unit and can also be interfaced to PC with USB port. The system has good accuracy, less response time and low cost.

  20. Selective Inhibition of Casein Kinase 1 epsilon Minimally Alters Circadian Clock Period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Walton, K. M.; Fisher, K.; Rubitski, D.; Marconi, M.; Meng, Q.-J.; Sládek, Martin; Adams, J.; Bass, M.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Butler, T.; Griffor, M.; Rajamohan, F.; Serpa, M.; Chen, Y.; Claffey, M.; Hastings, M.; Loudon, A.; Maywood, E.; Ohren, J.; Doran, A.; Wager, T. T.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 330, č. 2 (2009), s. 430-439 ISSN 0022-3565 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : circadian clock * casein kinase 1 epsilon * inhibitor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.093, year: 2009

  1. The Gluten-Free, Casein-Free Diet and Autism: Limited Return on Family Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The gluten-free, casein-free (GFCF) diet is widely used by families of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Despite its popularity, there is limited evidence in support of the diet. The purpose of this article was to identify and evaluate well-controlled studies of the GFCF diet that have been implemented with children with ASD. A review…

  2. Association of bovine ß-casein protein variant I with milk production and milk protein composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visker, M.H.P.W.; Dibbits, B.W.; Kinders, S.M.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect new polymorphisms in the bovine ß-casein (ß-CN) gene and to evaluate association of (new) ß-CN protein variants with milk production traits and milk protein composition. Screening of the ß-CN gene in genomic DNA from 72 Holstein Friesian (HF) bulls resulted in

  3. Characterization, subcellular localization and nuclear targeting of casein kinase 2 from Zea mays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peracchia, G; Jensen, A B; Culiáñez-Macià, F A

    1999-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized the genomic clone of maize casein kinase 2 (CK2) alpha subunit using the previously described alphaCK2-1 cDNA clone as a probe. The genomic clone is 7.5 kb long and contains 10 exons, separated by 9 introns of different size, two larger than 1.5 kb and the other...

  4. The adsorption of chymosin and lysozyme onto emulsion droplets and their association with casein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de A.L.

    1999-01-01

    The proteolytic action of proteases present in cheese plays a major role in the ripening of cheese. These proteases originate from the rennet, the starter cultures and from the milk itself. The proteolysis in cheese results in the degradation of the casein proteins into smaller peptides and

  5. Targeting the human lysozyme gene on bovine αs1- casein gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Targeting an exogenous gene into a favorable gene locus and for expression under endogenous regulators is an ideal method in mammary gland bioreactor research. For this purpose, a gene targeting vector was constructed to targeting the human lysozyme gene on bovine αs1-casein gene locus. In this case, the ...

  6. Targeting the human lysozyme gene on bovine αs1- casein gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... Targeting an exogenous gene into a favorable gene locus and for expression under endogenous regulators is an ideal method in mammary gland bioreactor research. For this purpose, a gene targeting vector was constructed to targeting the human lysozyme gene on bovine αs1-casein gene locus. In this.

  7. Plasmin digest of κ-casein as a source of antibacterial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghati, Marjaneh; Ezzatpanah, Hamid; Boojar, Masoud Mashhadi Akbar; Ebrahimi, Maryam Tajabadi; Aminafshar, Mehdi

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the antibacterial properties of plasmin, the plasmin hydrolysis of bovine κ-casein and the fractions (named κC1, κC2, κC3, κC4, and κC5) liberated from it using RP-HPLC. The target bacteria were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus (pathogenic), Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus (probiotic). Three peptides (kC1, kC3, and kC4) were found to have antibacterial activity, with κC3 peptide being the most active. The plasmin digest of bovine κ-casein proved to be stronger than any of its fractions in terms of antibacterial potential. Measurement of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) showed that Gram-positive bacteria are generally more sensitive to antibacterial activity than Gram-negative bacteria. The MIC of nisin, as a bacteriocin peptide, was also measured. The three antibacterial peptides were identified using LC-Mass. The molecular mass of kC1, kC3, and kC4 corresponded to the f(17-21), f(22-24), and f(1-3) of bovine κ-casein, respectively. It was also found that the positive charge and hydrophobicity of a peptide are not key factors in antibacterial activity. On the whole, the present study demonstrated that the plasmin digest of κ-casein has a high antibacterial potential and can be considered as a natural antibacterial agent in the food chain.

  8. Hypocholesterolemic effect of dietary soy protein versus casein in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, A H; West, C E; Fennis, J T; Schouten, J A; van der Veen, E A

    1984-01-01

    Ten mature female rhesus monkeys were alternately fed semipurified diets containing casein or soy protein for periods of 13 to 17 wk. Each diet was fed for two periods. When the animals were changed from the commercial diet to the semipurified diet containing soy protein, a significant elevation in serum cholesterol occurred. The serum cholesterol levels gradually increased further, when the soy protein in the diet was replaced by casein. However, when subsequently the casein in the diet was replaced by soy protein, a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels was observed. Finally, when the animals were changed back to the casein diet, a significant increase in serum cholesterol again occurred. Changes in serum cholesterol due to modulations in the type of protein in the diet were reflected mainly by changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Thus, the results of this study clearly show that the type of protein in the diet markedly affects serum cholesterol levels not only in experimental animals such as the rabbit, as is well known, but also in the rhesus monkey, which is more akin to man.

  9. The polymorphisms of κ-casein gene and their associations with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The polymorphisms of exon 4 and 5 of κ-casein (CSN3) gene and their associations with milk production traits and expression pattern in Chinese Holstein cattle were investigated. Nine mutational sites, of which seven were novel mutational sites, were identified and genotyped by polymerase chain reactionrestriction ...

  10. Mutagenicity of heated sugar-casein systems : effect of the Maillard :reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, C.M.J.; Alink, G.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2000-01-01

    The formation of mutagens after the heating of sugar-casein model systems at 120 C was examined by the Ames test, using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100. Several sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, tagatose, lactose, and lactulose) were compared in their mutagenicities. Mutagenicity could be

  11. Hierarchical Networks of Casein Proteins: An Elasticity Study Based on Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uricanu, V.I.; Duits, Michael H.G.; Mellema, J.

    2004-01-01

    2D- and 3D-atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments were performed on single casein micelles (CM) in native state, submerged in liquid, using a home-built AFM instrument. The micelles were immobilized via carbodiimide chemistry to a self-assembled monolayer supported on gold-coated slides. Off-line

  12. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  13. Dengue and Calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan C; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is potentially fatal unless managed appropriately. No specific treatment is available and the mainstay of treatment is fluid management with careful monitoring, organ support, and correction of metabolic derangement. Evidence with regards to the role of calcium homeostasis in dengue is limited. Low blood calcium levels have been demonstrated in dengue infection and hypocalcemia maybe more pronounced in more severe forms. The cause of hypocalcemia is likely to be multifactorial. Calcium...

  14. Relative efficacy of casein or soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil on hyperuricaemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hui-Chen; Wang, Yao-Horng; Chiou, Hue-Ying; Lai, Shan-Hu; Yang, Yu

    2010-07-01

    Diets that ameliorate the adverse effects of uric acid (UA) on renal damage deserve attention. The effects of casein or soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil on various serum parameters and renal histology were investigated on hyperuricaemic rats. Male Wistar rats administered with oxonic acid and UA to induce hyperuricaemia were fed with casein or soya protein plus palm- or safflower-seed oil-supplemented diets. Normal rats and hyperuricaemic rats with or without allopurinol treatment (150 mg/l in drinking water) were fed with casein plus maize oil-supplemented diets. After 8 weeks, allopurinol treatment and soya protein plus safflower-seed oil-supplemented diet significantly decreased serum UA in hyperuricaemic rats (one-way ANOVA; P soya protein and casein attenuated hyperuricaemia-induced decreases in serum albumin and insulin, respectively (two-way ANOVA; P soya protein significantly decreased renal NO and nitrotyrosine and palm oil significantly decreased renal nitrotyrosine, TNF-alpha and interferon-gamma and increased renal transforming growth factor-beta. Casein with safflower-seed oil significantly attenuated renal tubulointerstitial nephritis, crystals and fibrosis. Comparing casein v. soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil, the results support that casein with safflower-seed oil may be effective in attenuating hyperuricaemia-associated renal damage, while soya protein with safflower-seed oil may be beneficial in lowering serum UA and TAG.

  15. Investigation into the antimicrobial action and mechanism of a novel endogenous peptide β-casein 197 from human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanrong; Ji, Chenbo; Chen, Xiaohui; Cui, Xianwei; Wang, Xing; Feng, Jie; Li, Yun; Qin, Rui; Guo, Xirong

    2017-12-01

    A novel endogenous peptide cleaved from 197-213 AA of β-casein, named β-casein 197, was identified by tandem mass spectrometry. β-casein 197 constituted a significant proportion of the peptide content in preterm milk. This study investigated the antibacterial effects and mechanisms against common pathogenic bacteria. Six bacterial strains were selected for this study: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Bacillus subtilis. After synthesis, serial twofold dilutions of β-casein 197 were added to select for sensitive bacteria. The disk diffusion method and analysis of bacterial staining were used to identify antibacterial effect, while DNA-binding, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to explore antimicrobial mechanisms. Disk diffusion showed that E. coli, S. aureus and Y. enterocolitica were sensitive to the β-casein 197. In addition, live/dead fluorescent staining also confirmed antibacterial effects. Scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy revealed affected extracellular and intracellular structure for three species of bacteria, while a DNA-binding assay showed that the antimicrobial activity did not occur through DNA binding. This study suggests that β-casein 197 has antimicrobial activity against common pathogenic bacteria in newborns with infection. The peptide induced membrane permeabilization but did not bind to genomic DNA. Based on our findings, β-casein 197 has potential clinical value for preventing infections of premature infants.

  16. Identification of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B and casein as substrates for 124-v-Mos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stabel Silvia

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mos proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic serine/threonine-specific protein kinase with crucial function during meiotic cell division in vertebrates. Based on oncogenic amino acid substitutions the viral derivative, 124-v-Mos, displays constitutive protein kinase activity and functions independent of unknown upstream effectors of mos protein kinase. We have utilized this property of 124-v-Mos and screened for novel mos substrates in immunocomplex kinase assays in vitro. Results We generated recombinant 124-v-Mos using the baculovirus expression system in Spodoptera frugiperda cells and demonstrated constitutive kinase activity by the ability of 124-v-Mos to auto-phosphorylate and to phosphorylate vimentin, a known substrate of c-Mos. Using this approach we analyzed a panel of acidic and basic substrates in immunocomplex protein kinase assays and identified novel in vitro substrates for 124-v-Mos, the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B, alpha-casein and beta-casein. We controlled mos-specific phosphorylation of PTP1B and casein in comparative assays using a synthetic kinase-inactive 124-v-Mos mutant and further, tryptic digests of mos-phosphorylated beta-casein identified a phosphopeptide specifically targeted by wild-type 124-v-Mos. Two-dimensional phosphoamino acid analyses showed that 124-v-mos targets serine and threonine residues for phosphorylation in casein at a 1:1 ratio but auto-phosphorylation occurs predominantly on serine residues. Conclusion The mos substrates identified in this study represent a basis to approach the identification of the mos-consensus phosphorylation motif, important for the development of specific inhibitors of the Mos protein kinase.

  17. Analysis of calibration results for casein determination via indirect method of infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Casein measurement is important for cheesemaking and control of dairy cow nutrition. Reference Kjeldahl method is not suitable for routine purposes. Infra-red spectroscopy MIR and MIR-FT use can be a solutin. However, their casein specifity is relatively limited. Aim of the work was to assess the quality of performed calibrations for validation of calibration parameters. A retrospective analysis of MIR and MIR-FT calibrations was performed for estimation of limits their suitable parameters. Mean casein values of reference sample sets varied from 2.49 to 2.7% (2.61 ± 0.155. Mean variation range was 0.561 ± 0.164%. The mean correlation coefficient of calibration (KKK was 0.974 ± 0.018 (P < 0.001. The mean standard deviation of mean for individual differences (SDID was 0.03 ± 0.011% (from 0.01 to 0.08. MIR-FT results were slightly better both for calibration and for proficiency testing. The high and low KKKs were higher in the case of accepted calibration as in proficiency testing for MIR-FT and MIR (0.986 > 0.964 and 0.970 > 0.948; 0.982 > 0.947 and 0.947 > 0.911; P < 0.001. The casein number varied from 79.4 to 80.56% in bulk milk samples in three years, its variability was low from 1.4 to 1.5% relatively, which shows on relatively reliable casein analyses by methods MIR and MIR-FT. It does not need to agree fuly for individual milk samples. It is linked more to MIR than MIR-FT. Limits for acceptable calibration parameters were derived: > 0.945 for KKK; 0.048 for SDID and 0.029% for mean difference as maximum.

  18. Purification and characterization of a casein kinase 2-type protein kinase from pea nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Almost all the polyamine-stimulated protein kinase activity associated with the chromatin fraction of nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.35 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified over 2000-fold by salt fractionation and anion-exchange and casein-agarose column chromatography, after which it is more than 90% pure. The purified kinase has a specific activity of about 650 nanomoles per minute per milligram protein in the absence of polyamines, with either ATP or GTP as phosphoryl donor. Spermidine can stimulate its activity fourfold, with half-maximal activation at about 2 millimolar. Spermine and putrescine also stimulate activity, although somewhat less effectively. This kinase has a tetrameric alpha 2 beta 2 structure with a native molecular weight of 130,000, and subunit molecular weights of 36,000 for the catalytic subunit (alpha) and 29,000 for the regulatory subunit (beta). In western blot analyses, only the alpha subunit reacts strongly with polyclonal antibodies to a Drosophila casein kinase II. The pea kinase can use casein and phosvitin as artificial substrates, phosphorylating both the serine and threonine residues of casein. It has a pH optimum near 8.0, a Vmax of 1.5 micromoles per minute per milligram protein, and a Km for ATP of approximately 75 micromolar. Its activity can be almost completely inhibited by heparin at 5 micrograms per milliliter, but is relatively insensitive to concentrations of staurosporine, K252a, and chlorpromazine that strongly antagonize Ca(2+) -regulated protein kinases. These results are discussed in relation to recent findings that casein kinase 2-type kinases may phosphorylate trans-acting factors that bind to light-regulated promoters in plants.

  19. Colonic protein fermentation and promotion of colon carcinogenesis by thermolyzed casein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpet, Denis E.; Yin, Y.; Zhang, X. M.; Rémésy, C.; Stamp, D.; Medline, A.; Thompson, L.U.; Bruce, W. R.; Archer, M. C.

    1995-01-01

    Thermolyzed casein is known to promote the growth of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colon cancer when it is fed to rats that have been initiated with azoxymethane. We speculated that the promotion was a consequence of increased colonic protein fermentation (i.e., that the thermolysis of the casein decreases its digestibility, increases the amount of protein reaching the colon, and increases colonic protein fermentation and that the potentially toxic products of this fermentation promote colon carcinogenesis). We found that the thermolysis of casein reduces its digestibility and increases colonic protein fermentation, as assessed by fecal ammonium and urinary phenol, cresol, and indol-3-ol. Thermolysis of two other proteins, soy and egg white protein, also increases colonic protein fermentation with increased fecal ammonia and urinary phenols, and thermolysis of all three proteins increases the levels of ammonia and butyric, valeric, and i-valeric acids in the cecal contents. We found, however, that the increased protein fermentation observed with thermolysis is not associated with promotion of colon carcinogenesis. With casein, the kinetics of protein fermentation with increasing thermolysis time are clearly different from the kinetics of promotion of ACF growth. The formation of the fermentation products was highest when the protein was thermolyzed for one hour, whereas promotion was highest for protein that had been thermolyzed for two or more hours. With soy and egg white, thermolysis increased colonic protein fermentation but did not promote colon carcinogenesis. Thus, although thermolysis of dietary casein increases colonic protein fermentation, products of this fermentation do not appear to be responsible for the promotion of colon carcinogenesis. Indeed, the results suggest that protein fermentation products do not play an important role in colon cancer promotion. PMID:7603887

  20. Application of Response Surface Methodology to study the effect of different calcium sources in fish muscle-alginate restructured products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena María Moreno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium alginate needs the presence of calcium ions to gelify. For this reason, the contribution of the calcium source in a fish muscle mince added by sodium alginate, makes gelification possible, resulting a restructured fish product. The three different calcium sources considered were: Calcium Chloride (CC; Calcium Caseinate (CCa; and Calcium lactate (CLa. Several physical properties were analyzed, including mechanical properties, colour and cooking loss. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was used to determine the contribution of different calcium sources to a restructured fish muscle. The calcium source that modifies the system the most is CC. A combination of CC and sodium alginate weakened mechanical properties as reflected in the negative linear contribution of sodium alginate. Moreover, CC by itself increased lightness and cooking loss. The mechanical properties of restructured fish muscle elaborated were enhanced by using CCa and sodium alginate, as reflected in the negative linear contribution of sodium alginate. Also, CCa increased cooking loss. The role of CLa combined with sodium alginate was not so pronounced in the system discussed here.

  1. A comparative evaluation of remineralizing ability of bioactive glass and amorphous calcium phosphate casein phosphopeptide on early enamel lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya Kumar Palaniswamy

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Both the remineralizing agents tested in this study can be considered effective in repair and prevention of demineralization. BAG showed better results initially, but eventually both have similar remineralizing potential.

  2. Influence of pigments and protein aging on protein identification in historically representative casein-based paints using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fang; Atlasevich, Natalya; Baade, Brian; Loike, John; Arslanoglu, Julie

    2016-01-01

    A systematic study on the influence of pigments and sample aging on casein identification was performed on 30 reconstructed paints. The protein in all the paints was extracted into solution for analysis. The amount of protein that can be retrieved for solution-based analysis in each of the reconstructed paints was studied with a well-developed NanoOrange method before and after artificial aging. The results showed that in the paints with calcium phosphate (in bone black) and copper carbonate, hydroxide, or acetate (in verdigris and azurite), the amount of protein that can be retrieved for liquid-phase analysis is much smaller than the other paints, indicating that the protein degradation was accelerated significantly in those paints. Carbon (in vine black), calcium carbonate (in natural chalk), and calcium sulfate (terra alba gypsum and ground alabaster) did not affect much the amount of protein that can be retrieved in the paints compared to non-pigmented binder, meaning that the protein degradation rate was not affected much by those pigments. Artificial aging was observed to decrease the amount of retrievable protein in all the reconstructed paints that were studied. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was applied to the 28 reconstructed paints (except two verdigris paints) to assess the protein identification. The ELISA responses from the different paints were compared at fixed protein concentrations. Natural chalk, bone black, raw sienna, stack lead white, and cochineal red-violet lake had the lowest ELISA signal in this study, which indicated that the binding sites (epitopes) on the target protein in these paints are likely to deteriorate more than those in the other paints. Artificial aging did not influence the ELISA response as much as the pigments when the protein concentration was kept the same for the paints that were studied.

  3. Calcium signaling in neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreses-Werringloer Ute

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is a key signaling ion involved in many different intracellular and extracellular processes ranging from synaptic activity to cell-cell communication and adhesion. The exact definition at the molecular level of the versatility of this ion has made overwhelming progress in the past several years and has been extensively reviewed. In the brain, calcium is fundamental in the control of synaptic activity and memory formation, a process that leads to the activation of specific calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways and implicates key protein effectors, such as CaMKs, MAPK/ERKs, and CREB. Properly controlled homeostasis of calcium signaling not only supports normal brain physiology but also maintains neuronal integrity and long-term cell survival. Emerging knowledge indicates that calcium homeostasis is not only critical for cell physiology and health, but also, when deregulated, can lead to neurodegeneration via complex and diverse mechanisms involved in selective neuronal impairments and death. The identification of several modulators of calcium homeostasis, such as presenilins and CALHM1, as potential factors involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, provides strong support for a role of calcium in neurodegeneration. These observations represent an important step towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of calcium signaling disturbances observed in different brain diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases.

  4. DIHYDROPYRIDINE CALCIUM- CHANNELBLOCKERSFOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and degenerative dementias the calcium-channel blocker nimodipine, compared with placebo, slightly improved the. MMSE scores." Thus, an additional or alternative explanation, albeit still unproven, could involve specific neuroprotection conferred by calcium-channel blockade.~Indeed, the ageing brain loses its ability to ...

  5. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this ... vary. However, the main ingredient is called a calcium-channel antagonist. It helps decrease the heart's pumping strength, which ...

  6. Extracellular Calcium and Magnesium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The cause of preeclampsia remains unknown and calcium and magnesium supplement are being suggested as means of prevention. The objective of this study was to assess magnesium and calcium in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of Nigerian women with preedamp sia and eclampsia. Setting was ...

  7. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eat in their diet. Vitamin D is the hormone that helps the gut absorb more calcium. Many older adults have common risks that make bone health worse. Calcium intake in the diet (milk, cheese, yogurt) is low. Vitamin D levels are ...

  8. Mammary alveolar cell as evaluation system for casein gene expression involved in glucose level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Tae Heo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective Glucose is an essential fuel in the energy metabolism and synthesis pathways of all mammalian cells. In lactating animals, glucose is the major precursor for lactose and is a substrate for the synthesis of milk proteins and fat in mammary secretory (alveolar epithelial cells. However, clear utilization of glucose in mammary cells during lactogenesis is still unknown, due to the lack of in vitro analyzing models. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test the reliability of the mammary alveolar (MAC-T cell as an in vitro study model for glucose metabolism and lactating system. Methods Undifferentiated MAC-T cells were cultured in three types of Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium with varying levels of glucose (no-glucose: 0 g/L, low-glucose: 1 g/L, and high-glucose: 4.5 g/L for 8 d, after which differentiation to casein secretion was induced. Cell proliferation and expression levels of apoptotic genes, Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF1 receptor, oxytocin receptor, αS1, αS2, and β casein genes were analyzed at 1, 2, 4, and 8 d after differentiation. Results The proliferation of MAC-T cells with high-glucose treatment was seen to be significantly higher. Expression of apoptotic genes was not affected in any group. However, expression levels of the mammary development related gene (IGF1 receptor and lactation related gene (oxytocin receptor were significantly higher in the low-glucose group. Expressions of αS1-casein, αS2-casein, and β-casein were also higher in the low-glucose treated group as compared to that in the no-glucose and high-glucose groups. Conclusion The results demonstrated that although a high-glucose environment increases cell proliferation in MAC-T cells, a low-glucose treatment to MAC-T cells induces higher expression of casein genes. Our results suggest that the MAC-T cells may be used as an in vitro model to analyze mammary cell development and lactation connected with precise biological effects.

  9. Amino acids content and electrophoretic profile of camel milk casein from different camel breeds in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Salmen, Saleh H.; Abu-Tarboush, Hamza M.; Al-Saleh, Abdulrahman A.; Metwalli, Ali A.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate amino acids content and the electrophoretic profile of camel milk casein from different camel breeds. Milk from three different camel breeds (Majaheim, Wadah and Safrah) as well as cow milk were used in this study.

  10. Preparation of novel cross-linked and octylated caseinates using a biphasic enzymatic procedure and their functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqiong; Niu, Yuge; Yao, Fangyi; Dai, Bona; Wang, Qin; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2014-08-27

    A novel microbial transglutaminase-catalyzed aqueous-organic biphasic reaction system was successfully developed to prepare caseinate derivatives by cross-linking and incorporating nonpolar octyl tails for the first time. SDS-PAGE and (1)H NMR analysis confirmed that cross-linking and octyl conjugation occurred simultaneously. The octyl substitution degree (SD) was measured by (1)H NMR and used as an index to determine a suitable reaction condition. It was found that at the condition of 0.125% (w/v) protein concentration and 6 h of reaction time, the modified caseinate had the highest SD of 28.96%. The modified caseinate also had an increased surface hydrophobicity, better emulsifying activity, and improved thermal and salt stabilities. However, its emulsion stability or in vitro enzymatic digestibility was slightly lower than that of the native caseinate.

  11. Overproduction of bovine ß-casein in Escherichia coli and engineering of its main chymosin cleavage site.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, G.; Heuvel, van den W.; Reynen, T.; Frijters, A.; Rutten, G.; Slangen, C.; Groenen, M.; Vos, de W.M.; Siezen, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A cDNA clone containing the entire coding region for bovine β-casein A3 flanked by 53 base pairs of 5′ non-coding and 358 base pairs of 3′ non-coding sequences was isolated from a bovine mammary cDNA phagemid library. The coding segment for mature β-casein was subcloned into the T7 expression

  12. Casein improves brachial and central aortic diastolic blood pressure in overweight adolescents: a randomised, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Karina; Larnkjær, Anni; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness, blood pressure (BP) and blood lipids may be improved by milk in adults and the effects may be mediated via proteins. However, limited is known about the effects of milk proteins on central aortic BP and no studies have examined the effects in children. Therefore, the present...... trial examined the effect of milk and milk proteins on brachial and central aortic BP, blood lipids, inflammation and arterial stiffness in overweight adolescents. A randomised controlled trial was conducted in 193 overweight adolescents aged 12–15 years. They were randomly assigned to drink 1 litre...... stiffness or blood lipid concentrations. A high intake of casein improves DBP in overweight adolescents. Thus, casein may be beneficial for younger overweight subjects in terms of reducing the longterm risk of CVD. In contrast, whey protein seems to increase BP compared with drinking water; however, water...

  13. An allele associated with a non-detectable amount of alpha s2 casein in goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramunno, L; Longobardi, E; Pappalardo, M; Rando, A; Di Gregorio, P; Cosenza, G; Mariani, P; Pastore, N; Masina, P

    2001-02-01

    The goat CSN1S2 locus is characterized by the presence of three alleles, A, B and C, all associated with about 2.5 g/l of protein per allele. The SDS-PAGE analysis of 441 individual milk samples obtained from goats belonging to a population reared in Southern Italy showed that the milk produced by three goats did not apparently contain alpha s2-casein, whereas milk produced by 37 goats showed a less intense electrophoretic band of this casein fraction (about 50%). These results can be explained by hypothesizing the presence of another allele at this locus, CSN1S2o, associated with a 'null' content of alpha s2-casein. Southern blot, PCR and PCR-RFLP analyses of the DNA region containing the CSN1S2 gene of individuals producing milk with and without alpha s2-casein did not show differences between the two groups. As a consequence, goats producing milk without alpha s2-casein carry an apparently intact gene. The first results obtained by sequencing part of the CSN1S2o allele revealed a G-->A transition at nucleotide 80 of the 11th exon which creates a stop codon and could be responsible for the absence of the alpha s2-casein in goat milk. This mutation eliminates a NcoI restriction site. A test based on this polymorphism has been established in order to identify carriers of the CSN1S2o allele.

  14. Yak milk casein as potential precursor of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides based on in silico proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai; Zhang, Lan-Wei; Han, Xue; Xin, Liang; Meng, Zhao-Xu; Gong, Pi-Min; Cheng, Da-You

    2018-07-15

    Yak milk casein was selected as a potential precursor of bioactive peptides based on in silico analysis. Most notable among these are the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides. First, yak milk casein has high homology with cow milk casein by homologous analysis. The potential of yak milk casein for the releasing bioactive peptides was evaluated by determining the frequency of occurrence of fragments with a given activity. Through the BIOPEP database analysis, there are many bioactive peptides in yak milk casein sequences. Then, an in silico proteolysis using single or combined enzymes to obtained ACE inhibitory peptides was investigated. Cytotoxicity analysis using the online toxic prediction tool ToxinPred revealed that all in silico proteolysis derived ACE inhibitory peptides are non-cytotoxic. Overall, the present study highlights a in silico proteolysis approach to assist the yak milk casein releasing ACE inhibitory peptides and provides a guidance for the actual hydrolysis of proteins for the production of bioactive peptides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Size Separation Techniques for the Characterisation of Cross-Linked Casein: A Review of Methods and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Raak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Casein is the major protein fraction in milk, and its cross-linking has been a topic of scientific interest for many years. Enzymatic cross-linking has huge potential to modify relevant techno-functional properties of casein, whereas non-enzymatic cross-linking occurs naturally during the storage and processing of milk and dairy products. Two size separation techniques were applied for characterisation of these reactions: gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography. This review summarises their separation principles and discusses the outcome of studies on cross-linked casein from the last ~20 years. Both methods, however, show limitations concerning separation range and are applied mainly under denaturing and reducing conditions. In contrast, field flow fractionation has a broad separation range and can be easily applied under native conditions. Although this method has become a powerful tool in polymer and nanoparticle analysis and was used in few studies on casein micelles, it has not yet been applied to investigate cross-linked casein. Finally, the principles and requirements for absolute molar mass determination are reviewed, which will be of increased interest in the future since suitable calibration substances for casein polymers are scarce.

  16. Increased gene dosage for β- and κ-casein in transgenic cattle improves milk composition through complex effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Götz; Smolenski, Grant; Wheeler, Thomas; Brophy, Brigid

    2016-01-01

    We have previously generated transgenic cattle with additional copies of bovine β- and κ casein genes. An initial characterisation of milk produced with a hormonally induced lactation from these transgenic cows showed an altered milk composition with elevated β-casein levels and twofold increased κ-casein content. Here we report the first in-depth characterisation of the composition of the enriched casein milk that was produced through a natural lactation. We have analyzed milk from the high expressing transgenic line TG3 for milk composition at early, peak, mid and late lactation. The introduction of additional β- and κ-casein genes resulted in the expected expression of the transgene derived proteins and an associated reduction in the size of the casein micelles. Expression of the transgenes was associated with complex changes in the expression levels of other milk proteins. Two other major milk components were affected, namely fat and micronutrients. In addition, the sialic acid content of the milk was increased. In contrast, the level of lactose remained unchanged. This novel milk with its substantially altered composition will provide insights into the regulatory processes synchronizing the synthesis and assembly of milk components, as well as production of potentially healthier milk with improved dairy processing characteristics. PMID:27876865

  17. The Calcium-Binding Activity of a Vacuole-Associated, Dehydrin-Like Protein Is Regulated by Phosphorylation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyen, Bruce J.; Alsheikh, Muath K.; Smith, Elizabeth A.; Torvik, Carl F.; Seals, Darren F.; Randall, Stephen K.

    2002-01-01

    A vacuole membrane-associated calcium-binding protein with an apparent mass of 45 kD was purified from celery (Apium graveolens). This protein, VCaB45, is enriched in highly vacuolate tissues and is located within the lumen of vacuoles. Antigenically related proteins are present in many dicotyledonous plants. VCaB45 contains significant amino acid identity with the dehydrin family signature motif, is antigenically related to dehydrins, and has a variety of biochemical properties similar to dehydrins. VCaB45 migrates anomalously in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis having an apparent molecular mass of 45 kD. The true mass as determined by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time of flight was 16.45 kD. VCaB45 has two characteristic dissociation constants for calcium of 0.22 ± 0.142 mm and 0.64 ± 0.08 mm, and has an estimated 24.7 ± 11.7 calcium-binding sites per protein. The calcium-binding properties of VCaB45 are modulated by phosphorylation; the phosphorylated protein binds up to 100-fold more calcium than the dephosphorylated protein. VCaB45 is an “in vitro” substrate of casein kinase II (a ubiquitous eukaryotic kinase), the phosphorylation resulting in a partial activation of calcium-binding activity. The vacuole localization, calcium binding, and phosphorylation of VCaB45 suggest potential functions. PMID:12376635

  18. Phosphorylation of acidic ribosomal proteins from rabbit reticulocytes by a ribosome-associated casein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1977-01-01

    Two acidic proteins from 80-S ribosomes were isolated and purified to homogeneity. The purified acidic proteins could be phosphorylated by casein kinase using [gamma-32P]ATP and [gamma-32P]GTP as a phosphoryl donor. The proteins became phosphorylated in situ, too. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacryl...... polyacrylamide gel analysis of the purified acidic proteins and 80-S particles showed identical phosphoproteins in the 16 000 dalton region....

  19. Effects of α s1-casein (CSN1S1) and κ-casein (CSN3) genotypes on milk coagulation properties in Murciano-Granadina goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca, Francisco; Ares, José Luis; Carrizosa, Juan; Urrutia, Baltasar; Baena, Francisca; Jordana, Jordi; Badaoui, Bouabid; Sànchez, Armand; Angiolillo, Antonella; Amills, Marcel; Serradilla, Juan Manuel

    2011-02-01

    The effects of the caprine α s1-casein (CSN1S1) polymorphisms on milk quality and cheese yield have been widely studied in French and Italian goat breeds. Much less is known about the consequences of κ-casein (CSN3) genotype on the technological and coagulation properties of goat milk. In the current study, we have performed an association analysis between polymorphisms at the goat CSN1S1 and CSN3 genes and milk coagulation (rennet coagulation time, curdling rate and curd firmness) and technological (time to cutting of curd and cheese yield) properties. In this analysis, we have included 193 records from 74 Murciano-Granadina goats (with genotypes constituted by different combinations of alleles B, E and F of the gene CSN1S1 and alleles A and B of the gene CSN3) distributed in three herds, which were collected bimonthly during a whole lactation. Data analysis, using a linear mixed model for repeated observations, revealed significant associations between CSN1S1 genotypes and the rate of the curdling process. In this way, milk from EE goats had a significantly higher curdling rate than milk from BB individuals (PAB, P<0·05) but not on cheese yield. No interaction between the CSN1S1 and CSN3 genotypes was observed.

  20. Differential metabolic effects of casein and soy protein meals on skeletal muscle in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiking, Yvette C; Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Soeters, Peter B; Boirie, Yves; Deutz, Nicolaas E P

    2011-02-01

    Dietary protein intake is known to affect whole body and interorgan protein turnover. We examined if moderate-nitrogen and carbohydrate casein and soy meals have a different effect on skeletal muscle protein and amino acid kinetics in healthy young subjects. Muscle protein and amino acid kinetics were measured in the postabsorptive state and during 4-h enteral intake of isonitrogenous [0.21 g protein/(kg body weight. 4 h)] protein-based test meals, which contained either casein (CAPM; n = 12) or soy protein (SOPM; n = 10) in 2 separate groups. Stable isotope and muscle biopsy techniques were used to study metabolic effects. The net uptake of glutamate, serine, histidine, and lysine across the leg was larger during CAPM than during SOPM intake. Muscle concentrations of glutamate, serine, histidine, glutamine, isoleucine and BCAA changed differently after CAPM and SOPM (P CAPM and SOPM, but differences in their (net) breakdown rates were not significant. Muscle protein synthesis was not different between CAPM and SOPM. Moderate-nitrogen casein and soy protein meals differently alter leg amino acid uptake without a significant difference in influencing acute muscle protein metabolism. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. The goat alphas1-casein gene: gene structure and promoter analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramunno, Luigi; Cosenza, Gianfranco; Rando, Andrea; Illario, Rosa; Gallo, Daniela; Di Berardino, Dino; Masina, Piero

    2004-06-09

    The level of alphas1-casein in goat milk shows strong variations determined by at least 15 alleles associated with four different efficiencies of protein synthesis. The nucleotide sequence of the whole goat alphas1-casein-encoding gene (CSN1S1) plus 1973 nucleotides at the 5' flanking region and 610 nucleotides at the 3' flanking region was determined and aligned with its bovine counterpart. The gene is spread over 16.7 kb and consists of 19 exons varying in length from 24 bp (exons 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 13 and 16) to 385 bp (exon 19) and 18 introns from 90 bp of intron 10 to 1685 bp of intron 2. Furthermore, highly conserved sequences, mainly located in the 5' flanking region, were found between this gene and other casein-encoding genes. Finally, seven interspersed repeated elements (10 in the bovine CSN1S1 gene) were also identified at four different locations of the sequenced region: 5' untranscribed region and introns 2, 8 and 11.

  2. Biosurfactant Production by Cultivation of Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372 in Semidefined Glucose/Casein-Based Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Neves, Luiz Carlos Martins; de Oliveira, Kátia Silva; Kobayashi, Márcio Junji; Vessoni Penna, Thereza Christina; Converti, Attilio

    Biosurfactants are proteins with detergent, emulsifier, and antimicrobial actions that have potential application in environmental applications such as the treatment of organic pollutants and oil recovery. Bacillus atrophaeus strains are nonpathogenic and are suitable source of biosurfactants, among which is surfactin. The aim of this work is to establish a culture medium composition able to stimulate biosurfactants production by B. atrophaeus ATCC 9372. Batch cultivations were carried out in a rotary shaker at 150 rpm and 35°C for 24 h on glucose- and/or casein-based semidefined culture media also containing sodium chloride, dibasic sodium phosphate, and soy flour. The addition of 14.0 g/L glucose in a culture medium containing 10.0 g/L of casein resulted in 17 times higher biosurfactant production (B max=635.0 mg/L). Besides, the simultaneous presence of digested casein (10.0 g/L), digested soy flour (3.0 g/L), and glucose (18.0 g/L) in the medium was responsible for a diauxic effect during cell growth. Once the diauxie started, the average biosurfactants concentration was 16.8% less than that observed before this phenomenon. The capability of B. atrophaeus strain to adapt its own metabolism to use several nutrients as energy sources and to preserve high levels of biosurfactants in the medium during the stationary phase is a promising feature for its possible application in biological treatments.

  3. Genetic polymorphism of the kappa-casein gene in Brazilian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, A L S; Nascimento, C S; Steinberg, R S; Carvalho, M R S; Peixoto, M G C D; Teodoro, R L; Verneque, R S; Guimarães, S E F; Machado, M A

    2008-07-15

    Frequencies of kappa-casein gene alleles were determined in 1316 animals from the Brazilian Bos indicus genetic groups (Sindhi cows, Gyr sires, Gyr cows, Guzerat sires, Guzerat cows, Nellore sires, and Gyr x Holstein crossbreds) by means of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using two independent restriction nucleases (Hinf I and HaeIII). The genotyping of kappa-casein alleles (A and B) is of practical importance, since the B allele is found to correlate with commercially valuable parameters of cheese yielding efficiency. The frequencies of the B allele of kappa-casein among breeds ranged from 0.01 to 0.30. The Sindhi breed had the highest frequency for the B allele (0.30), while the frequencies of this allele in other breeds ranged from 0.01 to 0.18. A wide variation in the B allele frequency among B. indicus breeds was found suggesting that molecular selection for animals carrying the B allele could impact breeding programs for dairy production.

  4. Incorporation of radiolabeled whey proteins into casein micelles by heat processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, B.; Richardson, T.

    1989-01-01

    Skim milk was heated at .70, 95, and 140 degree C to simulate the processes of pasteurization, forewarming, and UHT sterilization, and the specific interactions between α-lactalbumin or β-lactoglobulin and the caseins studied using tracer amounts of added 14 C-labeled whey protein. Radioactivities of the whey and of the washed casein pellets from renneted skim milk were measured and the extent of the interaction estimated. Upon heating skim milk at 70 degree C for 45 s, less than 2% β-lactoglobulin and less than .3% α-lactalbumin were incorporated into the curd. Heating at 95 degree C for .5 to 20 min resulted in 58 to 85% of the β-lactoglobulin and 8 to 55% of the α-lactalbumin becoming associated with the curd. Heating at 140 degree C for 2 and 4 s caused 43 and 54% of the β-lactoglobulin and 9 and 12% of the α-lactalbumin, respectively, to be bound to the curd fraction. The radiolabeling technique is very sensitive and useful for tracing low levels of interaction between whey proteins and casein in heated milk systems

  5. Antioxidative effect of yak milk caseinates hydrolyzed with three different proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Yak milk is a type of milk that people are less familiar with due to its remote geographical location which may havesignificant effects on composition, microbiota and hydrolytic outcome. Present work was designed with the aim to evaluatethe antioxidative effect of peptides derived from yak milk caseinate on hydrolysis with three different proteases.Materials and Methods: In this investigation Yak milk casein was hydrolyzed by three commercially available proteases(Trypsin, Pepsin and chymotrypsin. These hydrolysates collected at different hydrolysis times (30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120min, 150 min, 180 min, 210 min, 240 min, 270 min, 300 min, 330 min and 360 min were assayed for their antioxidant activitywith respect to the effect of incubation period.Results: Among all the enzyme hydrolysates, the tryptic hydrolysates showed highest antioxidant activity followed bychymotryptic hydrolysates. Further, the peptide samples showing highest activity were subjected to RP-HPLC for their partialcharacterization. Tryptic and peptic hydrolysates produced peaks mainly in the region of hydrophillic solvent indicating thepresence of hydrophillic peptides/peptides.Conclusion: The results indicated that yak milk casein could be a resource to generate antioxidative peptides and be used asmultifunctional active ingredients for many value-added functional foods as well as a traditional food protein.

  6. Incorporation of radiolabeled whey proteins into casein micelles by heat processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, B.; Richardson, T. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Skim milk was heated at .70, 95, and 140{degree}C to simulate the processes of pasteurization, forewarming, and UHT sterilization, and the specific interactions between {alpha}-lactalbumin or {beta}-lactoglobulin and the caseins studied using tracer amounts of added {sup 14}C-labeled whey protein. Radioactivities of the whey and of the washed casein pellets from renneted skim milk were measured and the extent of the interaction estimated. Upon heating skim milk at 70{degree}C for 45 s, less than 2% {beta}-lactoglobulin and less than .3% {alpha}-lactalbumin were incorporated into the curd. Heating at 95{degree}C for .5 to 20 min resulted in 58 to 85% of the {beta}-lactoglobulin and 8 to 55% of the {alpha}-lactalbumin becoming associated with the curd. Heating at 140{degree}C for 2 and 4 s caused 43 and 54% of the {beta}-lactoglobulin and 9 and 12% of the {alpha}-lactalbumin, respectively, to be bound to the curd fraction. The radiolabeling technique is very sensitive and useful for tracing low levels of interaction between whey proteins and casein in heated milk systems.

  7. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by supporting muscles needed to avoid falls. Children need vitamin D to build strong bones, and adults need ... be taken at one time. While your body needs vitamin D to absorb calcium, you do not need ...

  8. High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney function and levels of calcium in your urine. Your provider may do other tests to further assess your condition, such as checking your blood levels of phosphorus (a mineral). Imaging studies also may be helpful, ...

  9. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement thickening products, and many others) Many hair relaxers and straighteners Slaked lime This list may not include all sources of ...

  10. Effect of insoluble calcium concentration on endogenous syneresis rate in rennet-coagulated bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J; Horne, D S; Lucey, J A

    2015-09-01

    0.96) with the loss tangent values of gels (indicating greater mobility), probably due to the loss of insoluble calcium phosphate crosslinking within micelles, which was significantly negatively correlated (r≥0.81) with the rate constant for endogenous syneresis. In the EDTA trial, with an increase in the EDTA concentration no maximum was observed in the rate constants related to proteolysis of κ-casein hairs or crosslinking of these activated sites. The rate constant for endogenous syneresis decreased at higher EDTA levels. The different rheological/modeling behavior in the EDTA trials was likely due to the very significant inhibition of rennet gelation induced by the use of EDTA, which also resulted in extremely long reaction times. Our modified Carlson model fit our experimental pH trial data very well, which indicates that the rennet gel system has the potential to synerese from the start; indeed this ability is an innate property of the casein micelle. Endogenous syneresis was enhanced by the loss of insoluble calcium phosphate crosslinking within casein micelles as this increased bond mobility within rennet gels. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimization of caseinate-coated simvastatin-zein nanoparticles: improved bioavailability and modified release characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed OA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osama AA Ahmed,1,2 Khaled M Hosny,1,3 Majid M Al-Sawahli,1,4 Usama A Fahmy11Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, Minia, Egypt; 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt; 4Holding Company for Biological Products & Vaccines (VACSERA, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: The current study focuses on utilization of the natural biocompatible polymer zein to formulate simvastatin (SMV nanoparticles coated with caseinate, to improve solubility and hence bioavailability, and in addition, to modify SMV-release characteristics. This formulation can be utilized for oral or possible depot parenteral applications. Fifteen formulations were prepared by liquid–liquid phase separation method, according to the Box–Behnken design, to optimize formulation variables. Sodium caseinate was used as an electrosteric stabilizer. The factors studied were: percentage of SMV in the SMV-zein mixture (X1, ethanol concentration (X2, and caseinate concentration (X3. The selected dependent variables were mean particle size (Y1, SMV encapsulation efficiency (Y2, and cumulative percentage of drug permeated after 1 hour (Y3. The diffusion of SMV from the prepared nanoparticles specified by the design was carried out using an automated Franz diffusion cell apparatus. The optimized SMV-zein formula was investigated for in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters compared with an oral SMV suspension. The optimized nanosized SMV-zein formula showed a 131 nm mean particle size and 89% encapsulation efficiency. In vitro permeation studies displayed delayed permeation characteristics, with about 42% and 85% of SMV cumulative amount released after 12 and 48 hours, respectively. Bioavailability estimation in rats revealed an augmentation in SMV bioavailability

  12. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.P.T.; Branch, W.J.; Southgate, D.A.T.

    1978-01-01

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  13. Prior lactose glycation of caseinate via the Maillard reaction affects in vitro activities of the pepsin-trypsin digest toward intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X P; Zhao, X H

    2017-07-01

    The well-known Maillard reaction in milk occurs between lactose and milk proteins during thermal treatment, and its effects on milk nutrition and safety have been well studied. A lactose-glycated caseinate was prepared via this reaction and digested using 2 digestive proteases, pepsin and trypsin. The glycated caseinate digest was assessed for its in vitro activities on rat intestinal epithelial cells in terms of growth proliferation, anti-apoptotic effect, and differentiation induction using caseinate digest as reference, to verify potential effects of the Maillard reaction on these activities of caseinate digest to the cells. Two digests had proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects, and reached the highest effects at 0.02 g/L of digest concentration with treatment time of 24 h. In comparison with caseinate digest, glycated caseinate digest always showed weaker proliferative (5.3-14.2%) and anti-apoptotic (5.9-39.0%) effects, and was more toxic to the cells at 0.5 g/L of digest concentration with treatment time of 48 h. However, glycated caseinate digest at 2 incubation times of 4 to 7 d showed differentiation induction higher than caseinate digest, as it could confer the cells with increased activities in lactase (16.3-26.6%), sucrase (22.4-31.2%), and alkaline phosphatase (17.4-24.8%). Transmission electron microscopy observation results also confirmed higher differentiation induction of glycated caseinate digest. Amino acid loss and lactose glycation partially contributed to these decreased and enhanced activities of glycated caseinate digest, respectively. The Maillard reaction of caseinate and lactose is thus shown in this study to have effects on the activities of caseinate digest to intestinal epithelial cells. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate

  15. Ischaemic heart disease, Type 1 diabetes, and cow milk A1 beta-casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, Murray; Elliott, Robert

    2003-01-24

    To test the correlation of per capita A1 beta-casein (A1/capita) and milk protein with: 1) ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality; 2) Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (DM-1) incidence. A1/capita was estimated as the product of per capita cow milk and cream supply and its A1 beta-casein content (A1/beta) (calculated from herd tests and breed distribution, or from tests of commercial milk), then tested for correlation with: 1) IHD five years later in 1980, 1985, 1990 and 1995, in 20 countries which spent at least US $1000 (purchasing power parities) per capita in 1995 on healthcare; 2) DM-1 at age 0-14 years in 1990-4 (51 were surveyed by WHO DiaMond Project; 19 had A1 data). For comparison, we also correlated 77 food, and 110 nutritive supply FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization)-based measures, against IHD and DM-1. For IHD, cow milk proteins (A1/capita, r = 0.76, p milk protein r = 0.60, p = 0.005) had stronger positive correlations with IHD five years later, than fat supply variables, such as the atherogenic index (r = 0.50), and myristic, the 14-carbon saturated fat (r = 0.48, p cholesterol (r = 0.42); saturated fat (r = 0.37); and total dairy fat (r = 0.31) were not significant for IHD in 1995. Across the 20 countries, a 1% change in A1/capita in 1990 was associated with a 0.57% change in IHD in 1995. A1/capita correlations were stronger for male than female mortality. On multiple regression of A1/capita and other food supply variables in 1990, only A1/capita was significantly correlated with IHD in 1995. DM-1 was correlated with supply of: A1/capita in milk and cream (r = 0.92, p milk and cream protein excluding cheese (r = 0.68, p milk and cream (r = 0.47, p milk beta-casein. DM-1 incidence at 0-4, 5-9 and 10-14 years was equally correlated (r = 0.80, 0.81, 0.81 respectively) with milk protein supply. A 1% change in A1/capita was associated with a 1.3% change in DM-1 in the same direction. Cow A1 beta-casein per capita supply in milk and cream

  16. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  17. Skim Milk, Whey, and Casein Increase Body Weight and Whey and Casein Increase the Plasma C-Peptide Concentration in Overweight Adolescents12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Karina; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2012-01-01

    In adults, dietary protein seems to induce weight loss and dairy proteins may be insulinotropic. However, the effect of milk proteins in adolescents is unclear. The objective was to test whether milk and milk proteins reduce body weight, waist circumference, homeostatic model assessment, plasma...... insulin, and insulin secretion estimated as the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents. Overweight adolescents (n = 203) aged 12–15 y with a BMI of 25.4 ± 2.3 kg/m2 (mean ± SD) were randomized to 1 L/d of skim milk, whey, casein, or water for 12 wk. All milk drinks contained 35 g protein....../L. Before randomization, a subgroup of adolescents (n = 32) was studied for 12 wk before the intervention began as a pretest control group. The effects of the milk-based test drinks were compared with baseline (wk 0), the water group, and the pretest control group. Diet and physical activity were registered...

  18. Extracellular matrix and hormones transcriptionally regulate bovine. beta. -casein 5 prime sequences in stably transfected mouse mammary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidhauser, C. Bissell, M.J. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Myers, C.A.; Casperson, G.F. (Monsanto Corporate Research, St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1990-12-01

    Milk protein regulation involves synergistic action of lactogenic hormones and extracellular matrix (ECM). It is well established that substratum has a dramatic effect on morphology and function of mammary cells. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the ECM- and hormone-dependent gene expression, however, have not been resolved. To address this question, a subpopulation (designated CID 9) of the mouse mammary epithelial cell strain COMMA-2D has been developed in which more than 35% of the cells express {beta}-casein, form alveoli-like structures when plated onto a reconstituted basement membrane, and secrete {beta}-casein undirectionally into a lumen. These cells were stably transfected with a series of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) fusion genes to study transcriptional regulation of the bovine {beta}-casein gene. The expression of CAT in these lines demonstrated a striking matrix and hormone dependency. This regulation occurered primarily at the transcriptional level and was dependent on the length of the 5{prime} flanking region of the {beta}-casein promotor. Both matrix and hormonal control of transcription occurred within at least the first 1790 base pairs upstream and/or 42 base pairs downstream of the transcriptional initiation site. The ECM effect was independent of glucocorticoid stimulation. However, prolactin was essential and hydrocortisone further increased CAT expression. Endogenous {beta}-casein expression in these lines was similar to that of the parent CID 9 cells. Our data indicate the existence of matrix-dependent elements that regulate transcription.

  19. Study on photophysical and aggregation induced emission recognition of 1,8-naphthalimide probe for casein by spectroscopic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang; Liu, Zhen; Liang, Xuhua; Fan, Jun; Han, Quan

    2013-05-01

    A novel water-soluble 1,8-naphthalimide derivative 1, bearing two acetic carboxylic groups, exhibited fluorescent turn-on recognition for casein based on the aggregation induced emission (AIE) character. The photophysical properties of 1 consisting of donor and acceptor units were investigated in different solutions. The fluorescence intensity decreased through taking advantage of twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) and self-association emission with increasing solvent polarity. Moreover, the spectral red-shift and intensity quench in protic solvents were caused by the excited-state hydrogen bond strengthening effect. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations revealed that 1 exhibited a strong TICT character. The AIE mechanism of 1 with casein was due to 1 docked in the hydrophobic cavity between sub-micelles and bound with Tyr and Trp residues, resulting in the aggregation of 1 on the casein surface and emission enhancement. Based on this, a novel casein assay method was developed. The proposed exhibited a good linear range from 0.1 to 22 μg mL-1, with the detection limit of 2.8 ng mL-1. Satisfactory reproducibility, reversibility and a short response time were realized. This method was applied to the determination of casein in milk powder samples and the results were in good agreement with the result of Biuret method.

  20. Milk β-casein as a vehicle for delivery of bis(indolyl)methane: Spectroscopy and molecular docking studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezhampanah, Hamid; Esmaili, Masoomeh; Khorshidi, Alireza

    2017-05-01

    The interaction of bis(indolyl)methane with bovine milk β-casein was investigated using spectroscopy and molecular docking studies at different temperatures (25-37 °C). The circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic data demonstrated that β-casein interacts with BIM molecule mainly via both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions with a minor change in the secondary structure of β-casein. The fluorescence quenching measurements revealed that the presence of a single binding site on β-casein for BIM with the binding constant value of ∼104 M-1. The negative values of entropy and enthalpy changes confirm the predominate role of hydrogen binding and van der Waals interactions in the binding process. Fӧrster energy transfer measurement suggested that the distance between bound BIM and Trp residue is higher than the respective critical distance. Hence, the static quenching is more likely responsible for the fluorescence quenching rather than the mechanism of non-radiative. Docking study showed that BIM molecule forms three hydrogen bonds and several van der Waals contacts with β-casein.

  1. Binding analysis for interaction of diacetylcurcumin with β-casein nanoparticles by using fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehranfar, Fahimeh; Bordbar, Abdol-Khalegh; Fani, Najme; Keyhanfar, Mehrnaz

    2013-11-01

    The interaction of diacetylcurcumin (DAC), as a novel synthetic derivative of curcumin, with bovine β-casein (an abundant milk protein that is highly amphiphilic and self assembles into stable micellar nanoparticles in aqueous solution) was investigated using fluorescence quenching experiments, Forster energy transfer measurements and molecular docking calculations. The fluorescence quenching measurements revealed the presence of a single binding site on β-casein for DAC with the binding constant value equals to (4.40 ± 0.03) × 104 M-1. Forster energy transfer measurements suggested that the distance between bound DAC and Trp143 residue is higher than the respective critical distance, hence, the static quenching is more likely responsible for fluorescence quenching other than the mechanism of non-radiative energy transfer. Our results from molecular docking calculations indicated that binding of DAC to β-casein predominantly occurred through hydrophobic contacts in the hydrophobic core of protein. Additionally, in vitro investigation of the cytotoxicity of free DAC and DAC-β-casein complex in human breast cancer cell line MCF7 revealed the higher cytotoxic effect of DAC-β-casein complex.

  2. Effects of casein, ovalbumin, and dextran on the astringency of tea polyphenols determined by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yunfeng; Hu, Jinhua; Yao, Ping

    2009-01-06

    Tea polyphenols (TPPs) can bind with proteins and peptides through hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding. Casein, ovalbumin, and dextran were used to investigate their influence on the interactions between TPP and gelatin and, therefore, to investigate their influence on TPP taste. Casein-g-dextran (CgD) and ovalbumin-g-dextran (OgD) grafting conjugates were prepared through the Maillard reaction. Dispersible CgD/OgD-TPP complexes formed in acidic pH solution even after a heating process. At the same weight ratio of protein to TPP, about 20-30% of TPP was bound to the proteins. TPP affinity for dextran is much lower. Gelatin, a model of the salivary proteins in buccal cavity, was immobilized on quartz crystal sensor surface through covalent bond. By use of a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, we found that the complexation of TPP with gelatin causes a dehydration and collapse of the gelatin layer on the sensor surface that is similar to the sensation of dryness and constriction on oral membranes caused by polyphenols. The complexation between TPP and casein/ovalbumin/dextran can decrease the interaction between TPP and gelatin by decreasing the free TPP molecules and shielding gelatin surface from TPP. Casein has stronger binding ability on the gelatin surface compared to ovalbumin and dextran, and therefore casein is more effective to decrease the sensation of astringency caused by TPP.

  3. Co-autodisplay of Z-domains and bovine caseins on the outer membrane of E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Gu; Saenger, Thorsten; Bong, Ji-Hong; Jose, Joachim; Kang, Min-Jung; Pyun, Jae-Chul

    2015-12-01

    In this work, two proteins, Z-domains and bovine casein, were auto-displayed on the outer membrane of the same Escherichia coli cells by co-transformation of two different auto-display vectors. On the basis of SDS-PAGE densitometry, Z-domains and bovine casein were expressed at 3.12 × 10⁵ and 1.55 × 10⁵ proteins/E. coli cell, respectively. The co-auto-displayed Z-domains had antibody-binding activity and the bovine casein had adhesive properties. E. coli with co-auto-displayed proteins were analyzed by fluorescence assisted cell sorting (FACS). E. coli with co-auto-displayed Z-domains and bovine casein aggregated due to hydrophobic interaction. For application to immunoassays, the Z-domain activity was estimated after (1) immobilizing the E. coli and (2) forming an OM layer. E. coli with co-auto-displayed two proteins that were immobilized on a polystyrene microplate had the same antibody-binding activity as did E. coli with auto-displayed Z-domains only. The OM layer from the co-transformed E. coli had Z-domains and bovine casein expressed at a 1:2 ratio from antibody-binding activity measurements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

  5. Application of Asian pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia) serine proteinase for production of biologically active peptides from casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Anna; Szołtysik, Marek; Babij, Konrad; Pokora, Marta; Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Chrzanowska, Józefa

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine potential application of a serine proteinase derived from Asian pumpkin for obtaining biologically active peptides from casein. The course of casein hydrolysis by three doses of the enzyme (50, 150, 300 U/mg of protein) was monitored for 24 hours by the determinations of: hydrolysis degree DH (%), free amino group content (μmole Gly/g), RP HPLC peptide profiles and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In all hydrolyzates analyzed antioxidant activities were determined using three tests: the ability to reduce iron ions in FRAP test, the ability to scavenge free radicals in DPPH test, and Fe(2+) chelating activity. The antimicrobial activity of obtained peptide fractions was determined as the ability to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens in a diffusion plate test. The deepest degradation, expressed as the DH [%] and the free amino group content (67% and 7528 µmole Gly/mg, respectively), was noted in samples hydrolyzed with 300 U/ml of enzyme for 24 hours, while in other samples the determined values were about three and two times lower. The results were in agreement with the peptide profiles obtained by RP HPLC. The highest antioxidative activities determined in all tests were seen for the casein hydrolysate obtained with 300 U/mg protein of serine proteinase after 24 h of reaction (2.15 µM Trolox/mg, 96.15 µg Fe(3+)/mg, 814.97 µg Fe(2+)/mg). Antimicrobial activity was presented in three preparations. In other samples no antimicrobial activity was detected.

  6. Vascular sources of phenylalanine, tyrosine, lysine, and methionine for casein synthesis in lactating goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bequette, B J; Backwell, F R; Kyle, C E; Calder, A G; Buchan, V; Crompton, L A; France, J; MaCrae, J C

    1999-02-01

    The contribution to casein biosynthesis of peptides derived from blood was examined in late lactation goats (254 to 295 d in milk). Ratios of mammary uptake of free amino acids (AA) in blood to output of AA in milk protein and ratios of the enrichments of Phe, Tyr, Met, and Lys at isotopic plateau in secreted milk casein to the free AA in arterial and mammary vein blood were monitored during the last 5 h of a 30-h continuous i.v. infusion of [1-13C]Phe, [2H4]Tyr, [5-13CH3]Met, and [2-15N]Lys on two occasions: before (control) and on d 6 of an i.v. infusion of Phe (6 g/d). During the control, uptakes of free Phe and Met were less than their output in milk. This result was comparable with the labeling kinetic results, suggesting that vascular peptides contributed 5 to 11% of Phe and 8 to 18% of Met. Free Tyr and Lys uptakes during the control were sufficient for milk output; however, the labeling kinetics indicated that 13 to 25% of the Tyr and 4 to 13% of the Lys were derived from peptides. Infusion of Phe increased the uptake of free AA but reduced the contribution of peptides toward Phe (0 to 3%) and Tyr (8 to 14%) supply for casein synthesis. Whole body hydroxylation of Phe to Tyr increased from 10 to 18% with the infusion of Phe; within the mammary gland, this conversion was lower (3 to 5%). Results suggest that the mammary utilization of peptides containing Phe and Tyr appears to depend on the supply of free AA in blood.

  7. The effect of sucrose on unfrozen water and syneresis of acidified sodium caseinate-xanthan gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, A L M; Cunha, R L

    2005-07-01

    The influence of the ingredients of acidified Na caseinate-xanthan-sucrose gels on thermophysical properties and syneresis of the gels was studied. Sucrose concentration affected all of the gel equilibrium properties and the rate of syneresis. The positive effect of sucrose on syneresis and unfrozen water (UFW) values was attributed to different effects. The amount of UFW was governed mainly by the colligative properties of sucrose whereas the equilibrium syneresis behaviour was associated with the changes in network dynamics caused by the kosmotropic properties of sucrose. The latter could enhance xanthan-sucrose association or favour xanthan-protein interactions.

  8. Characterization of casein kinase II in human colonic carcinomas after heterotransplantation into nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitz, G; Münstermann, U; Schneider, H R

    1989-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) activity in colorectal tumours was compared before and after heterotransplantation onto nude mice. The test revealed that the enzyme activity was about two-fold enhanced in the tumours isolated from the nude mice when compared to the respective primary tumours from which...... they were derived. Immunoblots using a polyclonal CKII-specific antibody showed that the increase of activity was due to a higher expression of the enzyme. Immunohistochemical studies on cross sections of nude mouse tumours showed that most of the CKII molecules were located at the peripheral part...

  9. Casein kinase II activity in the brain of an insect, Acheta domesticus: characterization and hormonal regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrelle, F; Renucci, M; Charpin, P; Tirard, A

    1997-01-01

    This study documented casein kinase II (CK II) activity in Acheta domesticus brain using specific antibodies and its regulation by polyamines. In control animals a transient decrease in CK II activity at day 3 after imaginal moult was observed in the brain but not in the fat body. If deprived of ecdysone by ovariectomy a different pattern was observed, with CK II activity being significantly higher on days 3 and 4 after emergence. After ecdysone injection in ovariectomized females, CK II activity decreased to levels similar to those in controls. The implications of ecdysone regulation of brain CK II activity are discussed.

  10. Differential effects of casein versus whey on fasting plasma levels of insulin, IGF-1 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoppe, Camilla; Mølgaard, Christian; Dalum, Cathrine

    2009-01-01

    to the identification of which components in milk that stimulate growth, we have performed an intervention study with 57 eight-year-old boys in which we examined the effects of the two major milk protein fractions, whey and casein, and milk minerals (Ca and P) in a 2x2 factorial design on IGFs and glucose......–insulin metabolism. The amounts of whey and casein were identical to the content in 1.5 l skim milk. The amounts of Ca and P were similar to 1.5 l skim milk in the high-mineral drinks, whereas the amounts of Ca and P were reduced in the low-mineral drinks. Results: There were no interactions between milk mineral...... groups (high, low) and milk protein groups (whey, casein). Serum IGF-1 increased by 15% (P...

  11. Physicochemical characterization of mineral (iron/zinc) bound caseinate and their mineral uptake in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilpashree, B G; Arora, Sumit; Kapila, Suman; Sharma, Vivek

    2018-08-15

    Milk proteins (especially caseins) are widely accepted as good vehicle for the delivery of various bioactive compounds including minerals. Succinylation is one of the most acceptable chemical modification techniques to enhance the mineral binding ability of caseins. Addition of minerals to succinylated proteins may alter their physicochemical and biochemical properties. Physicochemical characteristics of succinylated sodium caseinate (S.NaCN)-mineral (iron/zinc) complexes were elucidated. Chromatographic behaviour and fluorescence intensity confirmed the structural modification of S.NaCN upon binding with minerals. The bound mineral from protein complexes showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) in vitro bioavailability (mineral uptake) than mineral salts in Caco-2 cells. Also, iron bound S.NaCN showed higher cellular ferritin formation than iron in its free form. These mineral bound protein complexes with improved bioavailability could safely replace inorganic fortificants in various functional food formulations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about 500...

  13. Calcium in aardappel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velvis, H.

    2001-01-01

    Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de literatuur m.b.t. het element calcium in aardappel. Daarbij wordt gekeken naar de functie in de plant, de opname en het interne transport, en de gevolgen van tekorten voor de opbrengst en de vatbaarheid voor pathogenen

  14. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Burton, Rachel A.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact fruit development, physical traits and disease susceptibility through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling...

  15. Effects of composite casein and beta-lactoglobulin genotypes on renneting properties and composition of bovine milk by assuming an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. IKONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of kappa-beta-casein genotypes and b-lactoglobulin genotypes on the renneting properties and composition of milk were estimated for 174 and 155 milk samples of 59 Finnish Ayrshire and 55 Finnish Friesian cows, respectively. As well as the random additive genetic and permanent environmental effects of a cow, the model included the fixed effects for parity, lactation stage, season, kappa-beta-casein genotypes and b-lactoglobulin genotypes. Favourable renneting properties were associated with kappa-beta-casein genotypes ABA 1 A 2 , ABA 1 A 1 and AAA 1 A 2 in the Finnish Ayrshire, and with ABA 2 B, AAA 1 A 3 , AAA 2 A 3 , ABA 1 A 2 and ABA 2 A 2 in the Finnish Friesian. The favourable effect of these genotypes on curd firming time and on firmness of the curd was partly due to their association with a high kappa-casein concentration in the milk. The effect of the kappa-casein E allele on renneting properties was unfavourable compared with that of the kappa-casein B allele, and possibly with that of the A allele. The beta-lactoglobulin genotypes had no effect on renneting properties but they had a clear effect on the protein composition of milk. The beta-lactoglobulin AA genotype was associated with a high whey protein % and beta-lactoglobulin concentration and the BB genotype with a high casein % and casein number.;

  16. RNA-sequencing data analysis of uterus in ovariectomized rats fed with soy protein isolate,17B-estradiol and casein

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data file describes the bioinformatics analysis of uterine RNA-seq data comparing genome wide effects of feeding soy protein isolate compared to casein to ovariectomized female rats age 64 days relative to treatment of casein fed rats with 5 ug/kg/d estradiol and relative to rats treated with e...

  17. A novel method for in Situ detection of hydrolyzable casein fragments in a cheese matrix by antibody phage display technique and CLSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Zhi; Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Siegumfeldt, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    three small synthetic peptides of the alpha(s1)-casein sequence. These peptides traverse enzymatic cleavage sites of casein during cheese ripening. The specificity of the generated anti-peptide antibodies was determined by ELISA and Western blot. Finally, an immunofluorescent labeling protocol...

  18. Comparison of casein and whey in diets on performance, immune responses and metabolomic profile of weaning pigs challenged with E.coli F4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Jensen, Bent Borg; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2014-01-01

    The differences in amino acid composition in casein and whey have been thought to exert different immunomodulatory and metabolic effects. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of casein and whey on performance, immune responses and plasma metabolomic profile of weanling pigs chal...

  19. Alpha S1-casein polymorphisms in camel (Camelus dromedarius) and descriptions of biological active peptides and allergenic epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Georg; Shuiep, El Tahir Salih; Lisson, Maria; Weimann, Christina; Wang, Zhaoxin; El Zubeir, Ibtisam El Yas Mohamed; Pauciullo, Alfredo

    2016-06-01

    Milk samples of 193 camels (Camelus dromedarius) from different regions of Sudan were screened for casein variability by isoelectric focusing. Kappa-casein and beta-casein were monomorphic, whereas three protein patterns named αs1-casein A, C, and D were identified. The major allele A revealed frequencies of 0.79 (Lahaoi), 0.75 (Shanbali), 0.90 (Arabi Khali), and 0.88 (Arabi Gharbawi) in the different ecotypes. CSN1S1*C shows a single G > T nucleotide substitution in the exon 5, leading to a non-synonymous amino acid exchange (p.Glu30 > Asp30) in comparison to CSN1S1*A and D. At cDNA level, no further single nucleotide polymorphisms could be identified in CSN1S1* A, C, and D, whereas the variants CSN1S1*A and CSN1S1*C are characterized by missing of exon 18 compared to the already described CSN1S1*B, as consequence of DNA insertion of 11 bp at intron 17 which alter the pre-mRNA spliceosome machinery. A polymerase chain-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP) was established to type for G > T nucleotide substitution at genomic DNA level. The occurrence and differences of IgE-binding epitopes and bioactive peptides between αs1-casein A, C, and D after digestion were analyzed in silico. The amino acid substitutions and deletion affected the arising peptide pattern and thus modifications between IgE-binding epitopes and bioactive peptides of the variants were found. The allergenic potential of these different peptides will be investigated by microarray immunoassay using sera from milk-sensitized individuals, as it was already demonstrated for bovine αs1-casein variants.

  20. Impact of casein and egg white proteins on the structure of wheat gluten-based protein-rich food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Arno G B; Rombouts, Ine; Lagrain, Bert; Delcour, Jan A

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing interest in texturally and nutritionally satisfying vegetable alternatives to meat. Wheat gluten proteins have unique functional properties but a poor nutritional value in comparison to animal proteins. This study investigated the potential of egg white and bovine milk casein with well-balanced amino acid composition to increase the quality of wheat gluten-based protein-rich foods. Heating a wheat gluten (51.4 g)-water (100.0 mL) blend for 120 min at 100 °C increased its firmness less than heating a wheat gluten (33.0 g)-freeze-dried egg white (16.8 g)-water (100.0 mL) blend. In contrast, the addition of casein to the gluten-water blend negatively impacted firmness after heating. Firmness was correlated with loss of protein extractability in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing medium during heating, which was higher with egg white than with casein. Even more, heat-induced polymerization of the gluten-water blend with egg white but not with casein was greater than expected from the losses in extractability of gluten and egg white on their own. Structure formation was favored by mixing gluten with egg white but not with casein. These observations were linked to the intrinsic polymerization behavior of egg white and casein, but also to their interaction with gluten. Thus not all nutritionally suitable proteins can be used for enrichment of gluten-based protein-rich foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF K-CASEIN ALLELES ON MILK PRODUCTION AND QUALITY IN A HOLSTEIN-FRISIAN COW POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. BENCSIK

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Milk production and its composition are determined by quantitative loci, whichunder the influence of some environmental factors are producing an allelicvariability, meaning a genetic polymorphism of the gene. K-casein is a milk proteinwhose genetic polymorphism can serve as molecular marker for milk production,composition and industrial processing suitability. The allelic variants for k-casein Aand B are the most common and the most important of them. The experiments wereconducted on 24 Holstein-Friesian milking cows from a private farm in Giroc. Themilk production on a normal lactation is 8444 milk kg/305 days, with a fat percentof 3.9 and a protein percent of 3.3. The cows were divided in three groups AA, ABand BB in function of the genotyped obtained after the allelic variantsdetermination. The DNA isolation was made from hair roots and blood, the cowpopulation studied is not in genetic equilibrium fore k-casein gene, the frequency ofallele A is 0.43 and the frequency of B allele is 0.58. The highest genotype frequencywas 0.5 for CSN3-AB genotype, the BB genotype had 0.33 frequency, and the lowestfrequency was 0.17 for AA genotype. The mean daily milk production from cowswith BB genotype for k-casein is significant (p<5% higher compared to the allelicvariant AA. The fat percent is significant higher at the allelic variant AA comparedto the other allelic variants (AB and BB of the k-casein gene. Between the fatpercent of the three genotypes variants of K-casein (AA, AB and BB there are nosignificant differences.

  2. Study of Thermal Properties, Turbidity, Effective Factors on Particle Size and Oscillatory Rheology of Pectin-Caseinate Biopolymer Nanocomplexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajedeh Bahrani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The biopolymer-based nanocomplexes are a group of nanocapsules that are used for encapsulation and control delivery of nutraceuticals. They are formed by binding of proteins and polysaccharides. In this study, complex formation between pectin and sodium caseinate was taken place by addition of pectin solutions(0.2, 0.45 and 0.7 % w/v into the caseinate solutions (0.5, 1 and 1.5 % w/v and adjusted their pH below isoelecteric point of sodium caseinate. The effect of various factors such as biopolymer concentration, salt concentration, temperature and time of ultrasound on the properties of pectin-casein nanocomplexes was investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and particle size analyzer were used for study of complex formation and particle size determination, respectively. The results of DSC and turbidimetry showed complex formation between the pectin and casein at pH below 5 and the results of particle size showed formation of stable dispersion with a minimum size of 86 nm at pH 4.1, caseinate of 1 % w/v and pectin 0.45 % w/v concentration. The ultrasound for more than 1 min reduced particle size and addition of salt at high and low concentrations had different effects on the stability of the colloidal system. The lowering of temperature from 21 to 4°C resulted in smaller particle size of nanocomplexes. The oscillatory rheological results showed that with increasing pectin concentration, viscoelastic moduli were increased and loss moduli were higher than storage modulus.

  3. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone...... in the renal tubule and then discuss why not all gene defects that cause renal tubular acidosis are associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis....

  4. The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1983-01-01

    Three aspect of cellular calcium metabolism in animal cells was discussed including the importance of the plasma membrane in calcium homeostasis, experiments dealing with the actual mechanism of the calcium pump, and the function of the pump in relationship to the mitochondria and to the function of calmodulin in the intact cell.

  5. Coagulation properties and Nostrano di Primiero cheese yield of milk from Brown grazing cows of different k-casein genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gaiarin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variants of milk proteins affect composition, technological characteristics and, as a consequence, cheesemaking properties of milk (Jakob and Puhan, 1992; Mariani and Summer, 1999. The effects of αS1, β and k-caseins variants, on milk coagulation properties are well known (Grosclaude, 1988. Cheesemaking involving many cheese varieties showed shorter clotting and curd firming times, higher curd firmness and cheese yields with the k-casein BB variant (Van Den Berg et al., 1992;Walsh et al., 1998......

  6. Genetic polymorphism of β-lactoglobulin and κ-casein of cattle breeds in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Ivanković

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Profitable milk production respects the interests of producers, processing industries, consumer requirements and welfare of animals. Development of new methods of direct gene analysis responsible for milk proteins polymorphism provide new tools to raise the profitability of milk production and dairy products through implementation of breed genetic profile in breeding program. Because of necessity to determinate genetic profiles of cattle breeds in Croatia using new analytical methods, the ratio of dominant allelic polymorphic variants of beta-lactoglobulin (β-Lg and kappa-casein (κ-CN is defined. The share of beta-lactoglobulin B variant is dominant in all investigated cattle breeds (>52.9 %. Kappa- casein allelic variant A is dominant in selected cattle breeds (60.7-76.4 %, while the share of B variant is significantly more presented in autochthonous cattle breeds (48.2-84.1 %. Knowledge about genetic profile of breeds due to studied polymorphic variants of milk proteins is useful in further breeding development and economic reaffirmation of cattle breeds, especially autochthonous ones.

  7. Effect of Casein Hydrolysates on Yogurt Fermentation and Texture Properties during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang-Zhong Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of casein hydrolysates by papain on acidification of the yogurts and growth of probiotic bacteria during yogurt fermentation have been investigated. The viability of probiotic bacteria and texture characteristics of the yogurts during storage at 4 °C have been evaluated. The hydrolysates strongly decreased the fermentation and coagulation time of the yogurts. The post-fermentation acidification was retarded by the hydrolysates. The hydrolysates increased the probiotic counts during initial fermentation stage. The growth of the probiotic organisms decreased at the final stage. Survival of probiotic bacteria was improved by the hydrolysates. The hydrolysates significantly (p<0.05 increased the adhesiveness of the yogurts except for 0.5 % of hydrolysate with degree of hydrolysis of 8.5 %. The sensory evaluation scores of the yogurts were significantly (p<0.05 improved by the hydrolysates after the storage. The effect of casein hydrolysates on fermentation and texture properties was related to the molecular mass of the hydrolysates.

  8. Micellization of bovine beta-casein studied by isothermal titration microcalorimetry and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnaya, Irina; Cogan, Uri; Livney, Yoav D; Ramon, Ory; Shimoni, Karin; Rosenberg, Moshe; Danino, Dganit

    2006-07-26

    The association behavior, critical micellization concentration (CMC), and enthalpy of demicellization (DeltaHdemic) of bovine beta-casein were studied, for the first time by isothermal titration calorimetry, in a pH 7.0 phosphate buffer with 0.1 ionic strength and in pure water. In the buffer solutions, the CMC decreased asymptotically from 0.15 to 0.006 mM as the temperature was raised from 16 to 45 degrees C. DeltaHdemic decreased with increasing temperature between 16 and 28 degrees C but increased from 28 to 45 degrees C. Thermodynamic analysis below 30 degrees C is consistent with the Kegeles shell model, which suggests a stepwise association process. At higher temperatures, this model exhibits limitations, and the micellization becomes much more cooperative. The CMC values in water, measured between 17 and 28 degrees C, decreased with increasing temperature and, expectedly, were higher than those found in the buffer solutions. beta-Casein micelles were visualized and characterized, for the first time in their hydrated state, using advanced digital-imaging cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. The images revealed small, oblate micelles, about approximately 13 nm in diameter. The micelles shape and dimensions remained nearly constant in the temperature range of 24-35 degrees C.

  9. Dystroglycan loss disrupts polarity and beta-casein induction inmammary epithelial cells by perturbing laminin anchoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, M. Lynn; Oppizzi, Maria Luisa; Henry, Michael D.; Onishi,Akiko; Campbell, Kevin P.; Bissell, Mina J.; Muschler, John L.

    2006-02-17

    Precise contact between epithelial cells and their underlying basement membrane is critical to the maintenance of tissue architecture and function. To understand the role that the laminin receptor dystroglycan (DG) plays in these processes, we assayed cell responses to laminin-111 following conditional ablation of DG expression in cultured mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Strikingly, DG loss disrupted laminin-111-induced polarity and {beta}-casein production, and abolished laminin assembly at the step of laminin binding to the cell surface. DG re-expression restored these deficiencies. Investigations of mechanism revealed that DG cytoplasmic sequences were not necessary for laminin assembly and signaling, and only when the entire mucin domain of extracellular DG was deleted did laminin assembly not occur. These results demonstrate that DG is essential as a laminin-111 co-receptor in MECs that functions by mediating laminin anchoring to the cell surface, a process that allows laminin polymerization, tissue polarity, and {beta}-casein induction. The observed loss of laminin-111 assembly and signaling in DG-/-MECs provides insights into the signaling changes occurring in breast carcinomas and other cancers, where DG's laminin-binding function is frequently defective.

  10. Ketogenic diet versus gluten free casein free diet in autistic children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rashidy, Omnia; El-Baz, Farida; El-Gendy, Yasmin; Khalaf, Randa; Reda, Dina; Saad, Khaled

    2017-12-01

    Many diet regimens were studied for patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over the past few years. Ketogenic diet is gaining attention due to its proven effect on neurological conditions like epilepsy in children. Forty-five children aged 3-8 years diagnosed with ASD based on DSM-5 criteria were enrolled in this study. Patients were equally divided into 3 groups, first group received ketogenic diet as modified Atkins diet (MAD), second group received gluten free casein free (GFCF) diet and the third group received balanced nutrition and served as a control group. All patients were assessed in terms of neurological examination, anthropometric measures, as well as Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Autism Treatment Evaluation Test (ATEC) scales before and 6 months after starting diet. Both diet groups showed significant improvement in ATEC and CARS scores in comparison to control group, yet ketogenic scored better results in cognition and sociability compared to GFCF diet group. Depending on the parameters measured in our study, modified Atkins diet and gluten free casein free diet regimens may safely improve autistic manifestations and could be recommended for children with ASD. At this stage, this study is a single center study with a small number of patients and a great deal of additional wide-scale prospective studies are however needed to confirm these results. UMIN-CTR Study Design: trial Number UMIN000021433.

  11. Antioxidant, antihypertensive and antimicrobial properties of ovine milk caseinate hydrolyzed with a microbial protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Ana Paula F; Daroit, Daniel J; Coelho, Julise; Meira, Stela M M; Lopes, Fernanda C; Segalin, Jéferson; Risso, Patrícia H; Brandelli, Adriano

    2011-09-01

    Bioactive peptides might be released from precursor proteins through enzymatic hydrolysis. These molecules could be potentially employed in health and food products. In this investigation, ovine milk caseinate hydrolysates obtained with a novel microbial protease derived from Bacillus sp. P7 were evaluated for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities. Antioxidant activity measured by the 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid method increased with hydrolysis time up to 2 h, remaining stable for up to 4 h. Hydrolysates showed low 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging abilities, with higher activity (31%) reached after 1 h of hydrolysis. Fe(2+) -chelating ability was maximum for 0.5 h hydrolysates (83.3%), decreasing thereafter; and the higher reducing power was observed after 1 h of hydrolysis. ACE-inhibitory activity was observed to increase up to 2 h of hydrolysis (94% of inhibition), declining afterwards. 3 h hydrolysates were shown to inhibit the growth of Bacillus cereus, Corynebacterium fimi, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Penicillium expansum. Ovine caseinate hydrolyzed with Bacillus sp. P7 protease presented antioxidant, antihypertensive, and antimicrobial activities. Hydrolysis time was observed to affect the evaluated bioactivities. Such hydrolysates might have potential applications in the food industry. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Casein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1993-01-01

    stages of development and showing basal activity values at others; (ii) CK-2 activity can be enhanced in vitro by treatment of tissue culture cells with various growth factors and serum and (iii) CK-2 activity is constitutively enhanced in rapidly proliferating cells. The regulated CK-2 activity changes....... Expression of the CK-2 subunits in Escherichia coli and the Baculo expression system is shown. The recombinant subunits can self-assemble to a functional holoenzyme in vitro. Biochemical and biophysical analysis of the recombinant beta-subunit suggests it to be trifunctional in association with the alpha...

  13. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradleigh eHocking

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact fruit development, physical traits and disease susceptibility through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to ripening and the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g. blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples. This review works towards an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved

  14. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D; Burton, Rachel A; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  15. Lead content of calcium supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, E A; Szabo, N J; Tebbett, I R

    2000-09-20

    Substantial quantities of lead have been reported in some over-the-counter calcium supplement preparations, including not only bone-meal and dolomite, but also over-the-counter natural and refined calcium carbonate formulations. Examination of this issue is warranted given recent increases in physician recommendations for calcium supplements for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. To determine the lead content of calcium supplements and to quantify the lead exposure from popular brands of calcium in dosages used for childhood recommended daily allowance, osteoporosis, and phosphate binding in dialysis patients. Analysis of lead content in 21 formulations of nonprescription calcium carbonate (including 7 natural [ie, oyster shell] and 14 refined), 1 brand of prescription-only calcium acetate, and 1 noncalcium synthetic phosphate binder conducted in March 2000. Lead content, assayed using electrothermal atomic absorption, expressed as micrograms of lead per 800 mg/d of elemental calcium, per 1500 mg/d of calcium, and for a range of dosages for patients with renal failure. Six microg/d of lead was considered the absolute dietary limit, with no more than 1 microg/d being the goal for supplements. Four of 7 natural products had measurable lead content, amounting to approximately 1 microg/d for 800 mg/d of calcium, between 1 and 2 microg/d for 1500 mg/d of calcium, and up to 10 microg/d for renal dosages. Four of the 14 refined products had similar lead content, including up to 3 microg/d of lead in osteoporosis calcium dosages and up to 20 microg/d in high renal dosages. No lead was detected in the calcium acetate or polymer products. Lead was present even in some brand name products from major pharmaceutical companies not of natural oyster shell derivation. Despite increasingly stringent limits of lead exposure, many calcium supplement formulations contain lead and thereby may pose an easily avoidable public health concern. JAMA. 2000;284:1425-1429.

  16. Models of calcium signalling

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Geneviève; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the ways in which mathematical, computational, and modelling methods can be used to help understand the dynamics of intracellular calcium. The concentration of free intracellular calcium is vital for controlling a wide range of cellular processes, and is thus of great physiological importance. However, because of the complex ways in which the calcium concentration varies, it is also of great mathematical interest.This book presents the general modelling theory as well as a large number of specific case examples, to show how mathematical modelling can interact with experimental approaches, in an interdisciplinary and multifaceted approach to the study of an important physiological control mechanism. Geneviève Dupont is FNRS Research Director at the Unit of Theoretical Chronobiology of the Université Libre de Bruxelles;Martin Falcke is head of the Mathematical Cell Physiology group at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin;Vivien Kirk is an Associate Professor in the Depar...

  17. Calcium, essential for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Victoria, Emilio

    2016-07-12

    Calcium (Ca) is the most abundant mineral element in our body. It accounts for about 2% of body weight. The functions of calcium are: a) functions skeletal and b) regulatory functions. Bone consists of a protein matrix that mineralizes mainly with calcium (the most abundant), phosphate and magnesium, for it is essential an adequate dietary intake of Ca, phosphorus and vitamin D. The ionic Ca (Ca2+) is essential to maintain and / or perform different specialized functions of, virtually, all body cells cellular. Because of its important functions Ca2+ must be closely regulated, keeping plasma concentrations within narrow ranges. For this reason there is an accurate response against hypocalcemia or hypercalcemia in which the parathormone, calcitriol, calcitonin and vitamin K are involved. Ca intakes in the Spanish population are low in a significant percentage of the older adult’s population, especially in women. The main source of Ca in the diet is milk and milk derivatives. Green leafy vegetables, fruits and legumes can be important sources of Ca in a Mediterranean dietary pattern. The bioavailability of dietary Ca depends on physiological and dietary factors. Physiological include age, physiological status (gestation and lactation) Ca and vitamin D status and disease. Several studies relate Ca intake in the diet and various diseases, such as osteoporosis, cancer, cardiovascular disease and obesity.

  18. Possible mechanisms behind the differential effects of soy protein and casein feedings on colon cancer biomarkers in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, E.H.; Geerse, G.J.; Klaassens, E.S.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Alink, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the present studies, several hypotheses were tested to explain previously reported differential effects of soy and casein on colon cancer biomarkers like cell proliferation, fecal fat, fecal bile acid, alkaline phosphatase, and magnesium excretion in rats. In Study 1, the effect of methionine, a

  19. Modulating the aggregation behaviour to restore the mechanical response of acid induced mixed gels of sodium caseinate and soy proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Anneke H.; Los Reyes Jiménez, De Marta L.; Pouvreau, Laurice

    2016-01-01

    Partial replacement of milk proteins with plant proteins is a challenge due to the reported negative effect on physical and sensory properties. Understanding of how the mechanical properties of acidified milk gels can be restored when 30% casein is replaced with soy proteins is therefore

  20. Modulating the aggregation behaviour to restore the mechanical response of acid induced mixed gels of sodium caseinate and soy proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, A.H.; Reyes Jiménez, M. L. de los; Pouvreau, L.

    2016-01-01

    Partial replacement of milk proteins with plant proteins is a challenge due to the reported negative effect on physical and sensory properties. Understanding of how the mechanical properties of acidified milk gels can be restored when 30% casein is replaced with soy proteins is therefore explored.

  1. Combination of sodium caseinate and succinylated alginate improved stability of high fat fish oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yesiltas, Betül; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús

    2018-01-01

    Sodium caseinate (CAS) and commercial sodium alginate (CA), long chain modified alginate (LCMA) or short chain modified alginate (SCMA) were used in combination for emulsifying and stabilizing high fat (50–70%) fish oil-in-water emulsions. Physical (creaming, droplet size, viscosity and protein...

  2. Chaperone-like activity of β-casein and its effect on residual in vitro activity of horseradish peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria; Olsen, Karsten; Sørensen, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    , as similar experiment with bovine serum albumin resulted in residual activity of horseradish peroxidase that was significantly lower than without any addition. The effect of β-casein on HRP disappears when pH is below the isoelectric point of β-casein. It was also proven by light scattering studies that β...... proteins. Incubating HRP (0.1 mg mL-1) for 10 min at 72 °C resulted in residual activity of 59 ± 5%, while addition of 1 mg mL-1 β-casein resulted in increase in residual activity up to 85 ± 1%. Increased residual activity is not merely attributed to an effect of higher total protein concentration......-casein interacts with horseradish peroxidase when the temperature was increased from 25 to 70 °C whereas interactions seem to cease when temperature was lowered back to 25 °C. This study highlights how specific proteins can influence enzyme activity, which is of potential importance for various industries...

  3. The effects of transglutaminase catalysis on the functional and immunoglobulin binding properties of peanut flour dispersions containing casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The functionality of light roasted peanut flour (PF) dispersions containing supplemental casein (CN), was altered after polymerization with microbial transglutaminase (TGase). The formation of high molecular weight covalent cross-links was observed with potential formation of PF-PF, PF-CN, and CN-CN...

  4. In vitro digestibility of b-casein and b-lactoglobulin under simulated human gastric and duodenal conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandalari, G.; Adel-Patient, K.; Barkholt, V.; Baro, C.; Bennett, L.; Bublin, M.; Gaier, S.; Graser, G.; Ladics, G.S.; Mierzejewska, D.; Vassilopoulou, E.; Vissers, Y.M.; Zuidmeer, L.; Rigby, N.M.; Salt, L.J.; Defernez, M.; Mulholland, F.; Mackie, A.R.; Wickham, M.S.J.; Mills, E.N.C.

    2009-01-01

    Initially the resistance to digestion of two cow's milk allergens, beta-casein, and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg), was compared using a "high-protease assay" and a "low-protease assay" in a single laboratory. The low-protease assay represents an alternative standardised protocol mimicking conditions

  5. Yeast phospholipase C is required for stability of casein kinase I Yck2p and expression of hexose transporters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, T.; Galdieri, L.; Hašek, Jiří; Vančura, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 364, č. 22 (2017), č. článku fnx227. ISSN 0378-1097 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05497S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : phospholipase C * casein kinase I * hexose transporters Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology , Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.765, year: 2016

  6. Evaluation of casein & whey protein hydrolysates as well as milk fermentates from Lactobacillus helveticus for expression of gut hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Dilip Chaudhari

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Casein as well as fermentates obtained from L. helveticus fermented milk showed higher potential for GLP-1 induction. These can be explored as novel therapeutics to T2DM effectively after demonstrating their in vivo efficacy in appropriate animal models.

  7. EFFECT OF CASEIN-BASED SEMISYNTHETIC FOOD ON RENAL ACID EXCRETION AND ACID-BASE STATE OF BLOOD IN DOGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJLSTRA, WG; LANGBROEK, AJM; KRAAN, J; RISPENS, P; NIJMEIJER, A

    1995-01-01

    Urinary acid excretion and blood acid-base stare were determined in dogs fed a casein-based semi-synthetic food (SSF), to which different amounts of salts had been added, in comparison with feeding normal dog food. Net acid excretion (NAE) and inorganic acid excretion (IAE) increased during SSF

  8. Nutritional Impact of a Gluten-Free Casein-Free Diet in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Suárez-Varela, María Morales

    2016-01-01

    We compared anthropometric values, nutrient intake, the Healthy Eating Index and food variety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 20 on a gluten-free casein-free (GFCF) diet and 85 on a regular diet in Valencia (Spain) using 3-days food diaries. Those on the GFCF diet had a lower weight, body mass index, and total energy, pantothenic…

  9. Gluten-Free and Casein-Free Diets in the Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulloy, Austin; Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Rispoli, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    This paper systematically reviews research on the effects of gluten-free and/or casein-free (GFCF) diets in the treatment of ASD. Database, hand, and ancestry searches identified 15 articles for review. Each study was analyzed and summarized in terms of (a) participants, (b) specifics of the intervention, (c) dependent variables, (d) results, and…

  10. The Gluten-Free, Casein-Free Diet in Autism: Results of a Preliminary Double Blind Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Jennifer Harrison; Shankar, Meena; Shuster, Jonathan; Theriaque, Douglas; Burns, Sylvia; Sherrill, Lindsay

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a gluten-free and casein-free (GFCF) diet in treating autism using a randomized, double blind repeated measures crossover design. The sample included 15 children aged 2-16 years with autism spectrum disorder. Data on autistic symptoms and urinary peptide levels were collected in the subjects' homes over the 12…

  11. Addendum to "Gluten-Free and Casein-Free Diets in Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulloy, Austin; Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Rispoli, Mandy

    2011-01-01

    Shortly after the publication of our literature review on gluten-free and casein-free (GFCF) diets in the treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD; Mulloy et al., 2010), Whiteley et al. (2010) published the results of experimental evaluation of a GFCF diet. To update our previous literature review, we herein provide an analysis of the Whiteley…

  12. Determination of percent calcium carbonate in calcium chromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    The precision, accuracy and reliability of the macro-combustion method is superior to the Knorr alkalimetric method, and it is faster. It also significantly reduces the calcium chromate waste accrual problem. The macro-combustion method has been adopted as the official method for determination of percent calcium carbonate in thermal battery grade anhydrous calcium chromate and percent calcium carbonate in quicklime used in the production of calcium chromate. The apparatus and procedure can be used to measure the percent carbonate in inorganic materials other than calcium chromate. With simple modifications in the basic apparatus and procedure, the percent carbon and hydrogen can be measured in many organic material, including polymers and polymeric formulations. 5 figures, 5 tables

  13. Changes of pH in β-Lactoglobulin and β-Casein Solutions during High Pressure Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Olsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pH changes in the milk systems, β-lactoglobulin B, β-casein, and mixture of β-lactoglobulin and β-casein (pH 7 and ionic strength 0.08 M were measured in situ during increasing pressure up to 500 MPa. An initial decrease to pH 6.7 was observed from 0.1 to 150 MPa for β-lactoglobulin, followed by an increase to pH 7.3 at 500 MPa. The initial decrease is suggested to be caused by the deprotonation of histidine, while the increase is suggested to result from an increase of hydroxide ions due to the loss of tertiary structure. The change in pH of the β-casein solution displayed an almost linear increasing pressure dependency up to a pH of 7.7 at 500 MPa. The limited tertiary structure of β-casein could allow exposure of all amino acids; thus the increase of pH can be caused by binding of water protons resulting in an increase of hydroxide ions. Addition of β-casein to β-lactoglobulin (1:1 was found to suppress the initial pH decrease found for the β-lactoglobulin solution. The pH change of the mixture did not suggest any intermolecular interaction, and a simple additive model is proposed to calculate the pH change of the mixture from the corresponding individual samples.

  14. Casein and soy protein meals differentially affect whole-body and splanchnic protein metabolism in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiking, Yvette C; Deutz, Nicolaas E P; Jäkel, Martin; Soeters, Peter B

    2005-05-01

    Dietary protein quality is considered to be dependent on the degree and velocity with which protein is digested, absorbed as amino acids, and retained in the gut as newly synthesized protein. Metabolic animal studies suggest that the quality of soy protein is inferior to that of casein protein, but confirmatory studies in humans are lacking. The study objective was to assess the quality of casein and soy protein by comparing their metabolic effects in healthy human subjects. Whole-body protein kinetics, splanchnic leucine extraction, and urea production rates were measured in the postabsorptive state and during 8-h enteral intakes of isonitrogenous [0.42 g protein/(kg body weight . 8 h)] protein-based test meals, which contained either casein (CAPM; n = 12) or soy protein (SOPM; n = 10) in 2 separate groups. Stable isotope techniques were used to study metabolic effects. With enteral food intake, protein metabolism changed from net protein breakdown to net protein synthesis. Net protein synthesis was greater in the CAPM group than in the SOPM group [52 +/- 14 and 17 +/- 14 nmol/(kg fat-free mass (FFM) . min), respectively; P CAPM (P = 0.07). Absolute splanchnic extraction of leucine was higher in the subjects that consumed CAPM [306 +/- 31 nmol/(kg FFM . min)] vs. those that consumed SOPM [235 +/- 29 nmol/(kg FFM . min); P < 0.01]. In conclusion, a significantly larger portion of soy protein is degraded to urea, whereas casein protein likely contributes to splanchnic utilization (probably protein synthesis) to a greater extent. The biological value of soy protein must be considered inferior to that of casein protein in humans.

  15. Viability of the microencapsulation of a casein hydrolysate in lipid microparticles of cupuacu butter and stearic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Cristina Pinho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE Solid lipid microparticles produced with a mixture of cupuacu butter and stearic acid were used to microencapsulate a commercial casein hydrolysate (Hyprol 8052. The composition of the lipid matrix used for the production of the lipid microparticles was chosen according to data on the wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC of bulk lipid mixtures, which indicated that the presence of 10 % cupuacu butter was sufficient to significantly change the crystalline arrangement of pure stearic acid. Preliminary tests indicated that a minimum proportion of 4 % of surfactant (polysorbate 80 was necessary to produce empty spherical lipid particles with average diameters below 10 mm. The lipid microparticles were produced using 20 % cupuacu butter and 80 % stearic acid and then stabilized with 4 % of polysorbate 80, exhibiting an encapsulation efficiency of approximately 74 % of the casein hydrolysate. The melting temperature of the casein hydrolysate-loaded lipid microparticles was detected at 65.2 °C, demonstrating that the particles were solid at room temperature as expected and indicating that the incorporation of peptides had not affected their thermal behavior. After 25 days of storage, however, there was a release of approximately 30 % of the initial amount of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. This release was not thought to have been caused by the liberation of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. Instead, it was attributed to the possible desorption of the adsorbed peptides present on the surface of the lipid microparticles.

  16. Small intestinal digestion of raw cornstarch in cattle consuming a soybean hull-based diet is improved by duodenal casein infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, D W; Titgemeyer, E C; Bailey, E A; Anderson, D E

    2014-09-01

    Six duodenally and ileally cannulated steers were used in 3 sequential studies to measure 1) basal nutrient flows from a soybean hull-based diet, 2) small intestinal digestibility of raw cornstarch continuously infused into the duodenum, and 3) responses of small intestinal starch digestion to duodenal infusion of 200 or 400 g/d casein. Our objective was to evaluate responses in small intestinal starch digestion in cattle over time and to measure responses in small intestinal starch digestion to increasing amounts of MP. On average, cattle consumed 3.7 kg/d DM, 68 g/d dietary N, and 70 g/d dietary starch. Starch flow to the duodenum was small (38 g/d), and N flow was 91 g/d. Small intestinal digestibility of duodenal N was 57%, and small intestinal digestion of duodenal starch flow was extensive (92%). Small intestinal starch digestibility was 34% when 1.5 kg/d raw cornstarch was continuously infused into the duodenum. Subsequently, cattle were placed in 1 of 2 replicated Latin squares that were balanced for carryover effects to determine response to casein infusions and time required for adaptation. Duodenal infusion of casein linearly increased (P ≤ 0.05) small intestinal starch digestibility, and small intestinal starch digestion adapted to infusion of casein in 6 d. Ethanol-soluble starch and unpolymerized glucose flowing to the ileum increased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) with increasing infusion of casein. Plasma cholecystokinin was not affected by casein infusion, but circulating levels of glucose were increased by casein supplementation (P ≤ 0.05). Responses in small intestinal starch digestion in cattle adapted to casein within 6 d, and increases in duodenal supply of casein up to 400 g/d increased small intestinal starch digestion in cattle.

  17. alpha-Dicarbonyl compounds formed by nonenzymatic browning during the dry heating of caseinate and lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Pan, Geoffrey; Oliver, Christine M; Melton, Laurence D

    2006-09-06

    A method using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detection was developed for monitoring the alpha-dicarbonyl compound profiles generated from nonenzymatic browning using o-phenylenediamine (OPD) as a trapping agent. The alpha-dicarbonyl compounds were generated by the "dry" reaction of sodium caseinate and lactose heated at various relative humidities (RHs). The proportions of alpha-dicarbonyls formed were different for samples heated at low, intermediate, and high RHs. This study shows that relatively large amounts of 3-deoxypentosulose and galactosyl 2-pentosulose are produced under high RHs, while galactosyl hexosulose and 1,4-dideoxyhexosulose are elevated under low RH conditions. Both caramelization and Maillard reaction pathways contributed to the generation of alpha-dicarbonyls.

  18. Kappa-casein micelles: structure, interaction and gelling studied by small-angle neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kruif, C G; May, R P

    1991-09-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on dilute and concentrated dispersions of kappa-casein micelles in a buffer at pH = 6.7 were made using the D11 diffractometer in Grenoble. Results indicate that the micelles have a dense core with a fluffy outer layer. This outer layer appears to give rise to a steeply repulsive interaction on contact. In fact, the hard-sphere model best fits the measured scattering intensities. Adding chymosin to the dispersion initiated a fractal flocculation of the micelles and consecutively a coalescence of the micelles. This unexpected second process resembled that of spinodal demixing. The dispersion phase thus separates into a water and a protein phase on a time scale of hours. The observed phenomona contribute to the understanding of the cheese-making process.

  19. Ligand-protein interactions of selective casein kinase 1δ inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Scot; Arnold, Eric; Butler, Todd; Chakrapani, Subramanyam; Chandrasekaran, Ramalakshmi; Cherry, Kevin; DiRico, Ken; Doran, Angela; Fisher, Katherine; Galatsis, Paul; Green, Michael; Hayward, Matthew; Humphrey, John; Knafels, John; Li, Jianke; Liu, Shenping; Marconi, Michael; McDonald, Scott; Ohren, Jeff; Paradis, Vanessa; Sneed, Blossom; Walton, Kevin; Wager, Travis

    2013-09-12

    Casein kinase 1δ (CK1δ) and 1ε (CK1ε) are believed to be necessary enzymes for the regulation of circadian rhythms in all mammals. On the basis of our previously published work demonstrating a CK1ε-preferring compound to be an ineffective circadian clock modulator, we have synthesized a series of pyrazole-substitued pyridine inhibitors, selective for the CK1δ isoform. Additionally, using structure-based drug design, we have been able to exploit differences in the hinge region between CK1δ and p38 to find selective inhibitors that have minimal p38 activity. The SAR, brain exposure, and the effect of these inhibitors on mouse circadian rhythms are described. The in vivo evaluation of these inhibitors demonstrates that selective inhibition of CK1δ at sufficient central exposure levels is capable of modulating circadian rhythms.

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF BETA-LACTOGLOBULIN AND KAPPA-CASEIN GENOTYPES IN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TESIO C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta-lactoglobulin (b-Lg and kappa-casein (k-Cn are two of the most importantproteins in the mammals’ milk synthesized by the epithelial cells of the mammaryglands. They play a crucial role in the milk quality and coagulation process(production of cheese and butter. The PCR-RFLP test was performed to distinguishthe different alleles in a population of Romanian Black Spotted cattle, a dairy breed.Genetic polymorphism was detected by digestion with the endonucleases Hae III (b-Lg and Hinf I (k-Cn, followed by electrophoresis in agarose high resolution gelstained with ethidium bromide. Fifty DNA samples from Romanian Black Spottedbreed were analyzed for A and B variants. This simple PCR-RFLP test makesfeasible the inclusion of b-Lg and k-Cn genotypes in breeding plans and cattleselection.

  1. Assignment of casein kinase 2 alpha sequences to two different human chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Klett, C; Göttert, E

    1992-01-01

    Human casein kinase 2 alpha gene (CK-2-alpha) sequences have been localized within the human genome by in situ hybridization and somatic cell hybrid analysis using a CK-2 alpha cDNA as a probe. By in situ hybridization, the CK-2 alpha cDNA could be assigned to two different loci, one on 11p15.1-ter...... and one on 20p13. The existence of two separate chromosomal loci suggests that CK-2 alpha is a member of a gene family. Only the locus on chromosome 11 was confirmed by somatic cell hybrid analysis. The analysis was based on the presence of a CK-2-alpha-specific 20-kb fragment. However, the CK-2 alpha c...

  2. Antioxidant activity of bovine casein hydrolysates produced by Ficus carica L.-derived proteinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Giovanna; O'Keeffe, Martina B; Poyarkov, Alexey; Lomolino, Giovanna; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2014-08-01

    A Ficus carica L. latex proteinase preparation was investigated for its ability to produce antioxidant hydrolysates/peptides from bovine casein (CN). The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) values for NaCN and β-CN hydrolysates ranged from 0.06 to 0.18, and from 0.51 to 1.19μmol Trolox equivalents/mg freeze-dried sample, respectively. Gel permeation HPLC showed that the β-CN hydrolysate with a degree of hydrolysis of 21% had 65% of peptide material with a molecular mass <500Da. The RP-UPLC profiles also indicated that β-CN was substantially hydrolysed during the early stages of hydrolysis. Analysis of the 4h β-CN hydrolysate by LC-ESI-MS/MS allowed identification of 8 peptide sequences with potential antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enzymolysis Technology Optimization for Production of Antioxidant Peptides from Goat Milk Casein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Guowei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant peptides can inhibit lipid peroxidation and scavenging free radicals, maintain the balance of free radicals, and against a variety of diseases. Response surface methodology was used to optimize process conditions for producing antioxidative peptides from goat’s milk casein hydrolysate with Alcalase. The results suggested that the optimal process parameters were: temperature at 62.5°C, pH 8.9, E/S ration at 2.5%, substrate concentration at 4.4% and hydrolysis time was 173min. Metal-chelating effect, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity were shown to be 87.21±0.88%, 49.18±1.42% and 69.07±1.26% respectively under the optimal condition. The actual and predicated value were closely which indicated the optimized data fit well to model and the optimized parameters are reliable.

  4. Bitterness in sodium caseinate hydrolysates: role of enzyme preparation and degree of hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Dara; Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2017-10-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium caseinate (NaCas) may lead to the development of bitterness. Careful selection of hydrolysis conditions (i.e. enzyme preparation and duration) yielding different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) may aid in the development of low bitterness. Eighteen NaCas hydrolysates were generated with four enzyme preparations (Alcalase 2.4L, Prolyve 1000, FlavorPro Whey and pepsin) to different DH values. Hydrolysate bitterness score, assessed using a trained panel (ten assessors), generally increased at higher DH values for Alcalase, Prolyve and pepsin hydrolysates. However, all FlavorPro Whey hydrolysates (DH 0.38-10.62%) displayed low bitterness score values ( 0.05). Enzyme preparation and DH affect the bitterness of NaCas hydrolysates. The results are relevant for the generation of NaCas hydrolysates with reduced bitterness. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Genetic polymorphism of the K-casein (CSN3 gene in goats reared in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pilla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available K-casein (K-CN represents one of the most important proteins determining the manufacturing properties of milk,because of its essential role in micelle formation and stabilisation.Several genetic variants of K-CN have been described in goats. To investigate the occurrence of seven alleles and theirdistribution among breeds, a total of 170 animals, from six different breeds reared in Italy (Cilentana Nera, Derivata diSiria, Maltese, Jonica, Garganica and Cashmere, have been analysed in this paper by the primer extension method.Alleles A and B were found to be the most represented in all the analysed breeds; allele D is present only in Maltese andCashmere animals with a very low frequency; while allele G has been found in all but two (Garganica and Cashmerebreeds. Alleles C, E and F were not present in the material used for this study.

  6. Isolation and characterization of recombinant human casein kinase II subunits alpha and beta from bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grankowski, N; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1991-01-01

    cDNA encoding the casein kinase II (CKII) subunits alpha and beta of human origin were expressed in Escherichia coli using expression vector pT7-7. Significant expression was obtained with E. coli BL21(DE3). The CKII subunits accounted for approximately 30% of the bacterial protein; however, most...... of the expressed proteins were produced in an insoluble form. The recombinant CKII alpha subunit was purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, followed by phosphocellulose and heparin-agarose chromatography. The recombinant CKII beta subunit was extracted from the insoluble pellet and purified in a single step...... at a 1:1 ratio of both subunits. Using a synthetic peptide (RRRDDDSDDD) as a substrate, the maximum protein kinase stimulation observed was fourfold under the conditions used. The Km of the reconstituted enzyme for the synthetic peptide (80 microM) was comparable to the mammalian enzyme (40-60 micro...

  7. Casein phosphopeptides and CaCl2increase penicillin production and cause an increment in microbody/peroxisome proteins in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Santos, Rebeca; Kosalková, Katarina; García-Estrada, Carlos; Barreiro, Carlos; Ibáñez, Ana; Morales, Alejandro; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2017-03-06

    Transport of penicillin intermediates and penicillin secretion are still poorly characterized in Penicillium chrysogenum (re-identified as Penicillium rubens). Calcium (Ca 2+ ) plays an important role in the metabolism of filamentous fungi, and casein phosphopeptides (CPP) are involved in Ca 2+ internalization. In this study we observe that the effect of CaCl 2 and CPP is additive and promotes an increase in penicillin production of up to 10-12 fold. Combination of CaCl 2 and CPP greatly promotes expression of the three penicillin biosynthetic genes. Comparative proteomic analysis by 2D-DIGE, identified 39 proteins differentially represented in P. chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255 after CPP/CaCl 2 addition. The most interesting group of overrepresented proteins were a peroxisomal catalase, three proteins of the methylcitrate cycle, two aminotransferases and cystationine β-synthase, which are directly or indirectly related to the formation of penicillin amino acid precursors. Importantly, two of the enzymes of the penicillin pathway (isopenicillin N synthase and isopenicillin N acyltransferase) are clearly induced after CPP/CaCl 2 addition. Most of these overrepresented proteins are either authentic peroxisomal proteins or microbody-associated proteins. This evidence suggests that addition of CPP/CaCl 2 promotes the formation of penicillin precursors and the penicillin biosynthetic enzymes in peroxisomes and vesicles, which may be involved in transport and secretion of penicillin. Penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum is one of the best characterized secondary metabolism processes. However, the mechanism by which penicillin is secreted still remains to be elucidated. Taking into account the role played by Ca 2+ and CPP in the secretory pathway and considering the positive effect that Ca 2+ exerts on penicillin production, the analysis of global protein changes produced after CPP/CaCl 2 addition is very helpful to decipher the processes related to the

  8. Influence of using a blend of rennet casein and whey protein concentrate as protein source on the quality of Mozzarella cheese analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanraj, Padhiyar; Jana, Atanu; Modha, Hiral; Aparnathi, K D

    2017-03-01

    The effect of incorporating whey protein concentrate (WPC) on the quality characteristics of Mozzarella cheese analogue (MCA) based on rennet casein (RC) was studied. The proportion of RC:WPC tried out were 95:5, 90:10, and 85:15 w/w. The formulation of MCA comprised of 23.5% of blend of RC and WPC, 15% specialty vegetable fat, 2.75% trisodium citrate + disodium hydrogen orthophosphate (2.5:1, w/w), 0.07% calcium chloride, 0.6% citric acid, 1.1% NaCl, 1.5% cheese bud flavoring, and rest water. Varying the proportion of RC and WPC had a significant influence on the composition, textural properties, baking qualities and sensory quality of MCA judged as a topping on pizza pie. MCA made using protein blends (RC:WPC-90:10 or 85:15) behaved satisfactorily during pizza baking trials. However, looking at the superiority of MCA made using RC:WPC (90:10) with regard to shred quality and marginal superiority in terms of the total sensory score of cheese, judged as pizza topping, the former blend (i.e. RC:WPC, 90:10) was selected. The MCA obtained employing such protein blend had composition similar to that of Pizza cheese prepared from cheese milk and had requisite baking characteristics needed as a pizza topping. It is recommended to use a blend of RC and WPC (90:10) as the protein source in the formulation of MCA to obtain nutritionally superior cheese product having desired functional properties for its end use in baking applications.

  9. [Calcium--essential for everybody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2014-06-01

    Calcium regulates majority of metabolic processes within human organism and its optimal intake decreases risk of metabolic illnesses conditioned by diet. Deficiency of calcium results in higher body max index, increase risk of insulin resistance, diabetes type 2 and osteoporosis. Diet delivering full calcium load diminished impendency of hypertension; calcium regulates tension of smooth muscles of blood vessels, limits neurotransmitters activity and also diminish hazardous activity of sodium chloride. Anticancerogenic activity of calcium results from formation insoluble bile acids and fat acids salts, and most of all, from inhibition of intestine mucosa cells hyper proliferation. Due to presence of vitamin D3, CLA, proteins and bioactive peptides emerging from them, milk is more efficient in prophylaxis of diet conditioned illnesses than calcium supplements. Efficiency of milk and dairy products in treatment of obesity, sclerosis and hypertension has been proved by DASH diet.

  10. Foam and thin films of hydrophilic silica particles modified by β-casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Sala, G; van Valenberg, H J F; van Hooijdonk, A C M; van der Linden, E; Meinders, M B J

    2018-03-01

    Foaming properties of particle dispersions can be modified by addition of amphiphiles. The molar ratio between particles and amphiphiles will influence the wetting properties of the particles as well as the bulk concentration of the amphiphiles. This will have an effect on air/water interfacial composition as well as on the thin film and foam stability of the mixed system. In this research foams and thin films of hydrophilic silica particles in presence of β-casein (β-CN) were investigated with different particle sizes and varying β-CN/silica weight ratios (between 1:10 and 1:100). Samples were characterized for particles size, morphology as well as contact angle and related to their foaming, interfacial, and thin film properties. A threshold weight ratio of β-CN/silica was found to be 1:50 for foam stabilization with mixtures containing silica particles no larger than 1 μm and 1:30 for film stabilization with mixtures containing larger particles. At the interface, the modified silica particles were rather diluted without much interaction for surface compressions up to 30%. Large silica particles (0.0015% β-CN, C silica  ≤ 0.15%) were dragged to the periphery of the thin liquid films but no decrease of the inner film draining rate by a decrease of capilary pressure gradient across the film was observed. The depletion of β-casein in the bulk by particles played a major role in foam destabilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Formulation and characterization of nanoencapsulated curcumin using sodium caseinate and its incorporation in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deep Diyuti; Mann, Bimlesh; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Rajan; Bajaj, Rajesh; Minaxi

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, the preparation and characterization of a curcumin nanoemulsion with milk protein (sodium caseinate) and its incorporation into ice cream were undertaken. Among the different combinations, the most stable formulation was observed using milk fat (8%), medium chain triglycerides (2%), curcumin (0.24%) and sodium caseinate (6%) with a mean particle size of 333.8 ± 7.18 nm, a zeta potential of -44.1 ± 0.72 mV and an encapsulation efficiency of 96.9 ± 0.28%. The effect of different processing conditions (heating, pH and ionic strength) on the particle size distribution and zeta potential of the nanoemulsion was evaluated. During heat treatment, the particle size of the nanoemulsion was increased from 333.8 ± 7.18 to 351.1 ± 4.04 nm. The nanoemulsion was destabilized at pH 4.6 and the particle size increased above and below pH 5.0. However, there was a slight increase in the particle size with a change in the ionic concentration. The release kinetics data suggested that in simulated gastro-intestinal digestion, the nanoemulsion was stable against pepsin digestion (a 5.25% release of curcumin), while pancreatic action led to a 16.12% release of curcumin from the nanoemulsion. Finally, our formulation was successfully incorporated into ice cream and the sensory attributes were evaluated. No significant difference was observed in the scores of the sensory attributes between the control and ice cream prepared with a curcumin nanoemulsion. Moreover, the encapsulation efficiency of the curcumin incorporated into the ice cream was 93.7%, which indicates that it can withstand the processing conditions. The findings suggest that ice cream is a suitable dairy product for the delivery of lipophilic bioactive components (curcumin) which can be used for therapeutic purposes.

  12. Nitrogen balance in lambs fed low-quality brome hay and infused with differing proportions of casein in the rumen and abomasum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, K C; Freetly, H C; Ferrell, C L

    2004-02-01

    Twenty wether lambs (46 +/- 2 kg) fitted with ruminal and abomasal infusion catheters were used in a completely randomized design to determine the effects of differing proportions of ruminal and abomasal casein infusion on N balance in lambs fed low-quality brome hay (0.8% N, DM basis) for ad libitum intake. Wethers were infused with 0 (control) or 10.7 g/d of N from casein with ratios of ruminal:abomasal infusion of 100:0 (100R:0A), 67:33 (67R:33A), 33:67 (33R:67A), or 0:100% (0R:100A), respectively, over a 12-d period. Total N supply (hay N intake + N from casein infusion) was greater (P = 0.001) in lambs receiving casein infusion than in controls. Urinary N excretion (g/d) was greater (P = 0.001) in lambs receiving casein infusion than in controls. Urinary N excretion decreased as casein infusion was shifted from 100R:0A to 33R:67A and then slightly increased in lambs receiving 0R:100A (quadratic, P = 0.02). Total N excretion was greater (P = 0.001) in lambs receiving casein infusion than in controls and decreased linearly (P = 0.005) as casein infusion was shifted to the abomasum. Retained N (g/d, % of N intake, and % of digested N) was greater (P = 0.001) in lambs receiving casein than in controls. Retained N increased as infusion was shifted from 100R:0A to 33R:67A and then slightly decreased in lambs receiving 0R: 100A (quadratic, P < 0.07). Based on regression analysis, the predicted optimum proportion of casein infusion to maximize N retention was 68% into the abomasum. The regression suggests that supplementation with undegradable intake protein had an additional benefit over supplementation with ruminally degradable intake protein (100R:0A) and that changing the percentage of ruminally undegradable intake protein in supplemental protein from 33 to 100% resulted in minimal differences in N retention. Apparent N, DM, OM, and energy digestibility (% of intake) was greater (P < 0.03) in lambs infused with casein than controls but did not differ among casein

  13. Whey and casein labelled with L-[1-13C]-leucine and muscle protein synthesis: effect of resistance exercise and protein ingestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitelseder, Søren; Agergaard, Jakob; Doessing, Simon

    2011-01-01

    to a single bolus intake of whey or casein after performance of heavy resistance exercise. Young male individuals were randomly assigned to participate in two protein trials (n = 9) or one control trial (n = 8). Infusion of l-[1-(13)C]leucine was carried out, and either whey, casein (0.3 g/kg lean body mass......), or a noncaloric control drink was ingested immediately after exercise. l-[1-(13)C]leucine-labeled whey and casein were used while muscle protein synthesis (MPS) was assessed. Blood and muscle tissue samples were collected to measure systemic hormone and amino acid concentrations, tracer enrichments...

  14. Enhanced removal of detergent and recovery of enzymatic activity following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: UUse of casein in gel wash buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrew, B.R.; Green, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    The inclusion of 1% casein or bovine serum albumin in buffer used to reactivate enzymes subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide electrophoresis resulted in accelerated removal of SDS and restoration of nuclease and beta-galactosidase enzyme activities. Nuclease and beta-galactosidase activities which are absent from gels after longer wash procedures are detectable with this technique. Enzyme activity in gels prepared with SDS which contained inhibitory contaminants was partially restored by the casein wash procedure. The threshold of detection of two-dimensionally separated deoxyribonuclease I using the casein wash procedure was 1 picogram

  15. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...

  16. Laser Sintered Calcium Phosphate Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vail, Neil

    1999-01-01

    ...) technology selective laser sintering (SLS). BME has successfully implemented a pilot facility to fabricate calcium phosphate implants using anatomical data coupled with the selective laser sintering process...

  17. The milk protein α-casein functions as a tumor suppressor via activation of STAT1 signaling, effectively preventing breast cancer tumor growth and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonuccelli, Gloria; Castello-Cros, Remedios; Capozza, Franco; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Lin, Zhao; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Xuanmao, Jiao; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Howell, Anthony; Lisanti, Michael P; Sotgia, Federica

    2012-11-01

    Here, we identified the milk protein α-casein as a novel suppressor of tumor growth and metastasis. Briefly, Met-1 mammary tumor cells expressing α-casein showed a ~5-fold reduction in tumor growth and a near 10-fold decrease in experimental metastasis. To identify the molecular mechanism(s), we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Interestingly, our results show that α-casein upregulates gene transcripts associated with interferon/STAT1 signaling and downregulates genes associated with "stemness." These findings were validated by immunoblot and FACS analysis, which showed the upregulation and hyperactivation of STAT1 and a decrease in the number of CD44(+) "cancer stem cells." These gene signatures were also able to predict clinical outcome in human breast cancer patients. Thus, we conclude that a lactation-based therapeutic strategy using recombinant α-casein would provide a more natural and non-toxic approach to the development of novel anticancer therapies.

  18. Potential mechanisms explaining why hydrolyzed casein-based diets outclass single amino acid-based diets in the prevention of autoimmune diabetes in diabetes-prone BB rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J. T. J.; Bos, N. A.; Harthoorn, L. F.; Stellaard, F.; Beijer-Liefers, S.; Rozing, J.; van Tol, E. A. F.

    Background It remains controversial whether avoidance of dietary diabetogenic triggers, such as cow's milk proteins, can prevent type 1 diabetes in genetically susceptible individuals. Here, different extensive casein hydrolysates (HC) and single amino acid (AA) formulations were tested for their

  19. Gambaran Pola Perilaku Anak Penyandang Autisme dengan Penerapan Diet Gluten Free-casein Free (Gfcf) di Sekolah Inklusi Cahaya Bangsa Khatulistiwa Pontianak

    OpenAIRE

    Yesi Putri Ari Hartiningrum

    2013-01-01

    Diet Gluten-Free Casein-Free (GFCF) merupakan salahsatu terapi yang kontroversial pada gangguan autistik. Tujuan: Penelitianini bertujuan mengetahui gambaran pola perilaku pada anak penyandangautisme dengan penerapan diet GFCF.

  20. Calcium chromate process related investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillard, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    A pilot plant for production of calcium chromate has been scaled up to a small production facility at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department. In preparation for this scale-up, the process and final product were studied in order to evaluate problems not considered previously. The variables and processes studied included: (1) the determination of optimum drying temperature and time for product analysis; (2) the effect of the grade of lime used as the precipitating agent on the purity of the calcium chromate; (3) product purity when calcium chromate is precipitated by the addition of ammonium chromate to slaked lime; (4) the reagents best suited for cleaning calcium chromate spills; and (5) methods for determining hydroxide ion concentration in calcium chromate. The optimum drying time for the product before analysis is four hours at 600 0 C. Gases evolved at various temperatures during the drying process were carbon dioxide and water vapor. Technical grade lime produced calcium chromate of the highest purity. Both nitric and acetic acids were efficient dissolvers of calcium chromate spills. Direct titration of hydroxide ion with sulfuric acid gave an average recovery of 93% for samples spiked with calcium hydroxide. 1 figure, 17 tables

  1. Calcium kinetics in parathyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymling, J.F.

    1964-01-01

    This paper reports a study of calcium kinetics in twelve cases of parathyroid disease. The data suggest that hyperparathyroidism usually causes increased bone turnover. The study of calcium kinetics may be a valuable tool in the differential diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism and in evaluating treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. The bone turnover in one case of hypoparathyroidism was extremely low. 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Calcium – how and why?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    calcium has achieved this status with a brief mention of the history of calcium research in biology. It appears that during the origin and early evolution of life the Ca2+ ion was given a ... tion and development of tissues (bone and calcareous skeleton) (Ringer and Sainsbury 1894), conduction of nerve impulse to muscle, cell ...

  3. Calcium Supplements: Do Men Need Them Too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition and healthy eating Should men take calcium supplements? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... healthy men don't need to take calcium supplements. Calcium is important for men for optimal bone ...

  4. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing features ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D do I Need? Amounts of calcium are given ...

  5. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... in the char conversion process. Comprehensive global equilibrium calculations predicted important characteristics of the inorganic ash residue. Equilibrium calculations predict the formation of liquid salt if sufficient amounts of Ca are added and according to experiments as well as calculations calcium binds...

  6. Rapid quantification of casein in skim milk using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, enzymatic perturbation, and multiway partial least squares: Monitoring chymosin at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Hansen, P. W.; Nørgaard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we introduce enzymatic perturbation combined with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a concept for quantifying casein in subcritical heated skim milk using chemometric multiway analysis. Chymosin is a protease that cleaves specifically caseins. As a result of hydroly......, and cream. This method can be used at different stages in the dairy production chain to ensure the quality of the delivered milk. In particular, the cheese-making industry can benefit from such methods to optimize production control....

  7. Effect Of Five Proteases Including Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Papain, Proteinase K And Trypsin On Antioxidative Activities Of Casein Hydrolysate From Goat Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Shu Guowei; Zhang Qian; Chen He; Wan Hongchang; Li Hong

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation was related to the pathogenesis of human diseases. Adequate intake of antioxidant activity of food can reduce the levels of free radicals, prevent lipid peroxidation, and help the body against diseases. In the paper, casein from goat milk was hydrolyzed by five commercial proteases, namely, Alcalase, flavourzyme, papain, proteinase K and trypsin. The antioxidant activities of casein hydrolysates were assessed by evaluating hydrolysis degree, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, metal-c...

  8. Chaperone-Like Activity of ß-Casein and Its Effect on Residual in Vitro Activity of Food Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria

    . The negative effect of BSA on enzyme was not observed before. The residual activity of horseradish peroxidase was also improved by the reconstituted skim milk: addition of reconstituted skim milk prior to heat treatment resulted in higher residual activity of HRP compared to no addition (58±3% and 30......±1%, respectively) The findings of this study show that β-casein can influence the response of food enzymes to heat treatment. β-Casein is not a universal chaperone and its effect on different targets needs to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. This study also shows that proteins as e.g. BSA may affect......ABSTRACT Activity of endogenous enzymes may cause browning of fruits and vegetables. These enzymes can be inactivated, for example by heat treatment, but the response of enzymes to heat treatment depends on many factors. Foods are very complex systems and the stability of enzymes...

  9. Casein and soya-bean protein have different effects on whole body protein turnover at the same nitrogen balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Kondrup, J; Elsner, Petteri

    1994-01-01

    The present study examined whether different proteins have different effects on whole-body protein turnover in adult rats. The rats were either starved, given a protein-free but energy-sufficient diet (1 MJ/kg body weight (BW) per d) or a diet containing intact casein, hydrolysed casein......, or hydrolysed soya-bean protein at a level of 9.1 g/kg BW per d. The diets, which were isoenergetic with the same carbohydrate: fat ratio, were given as a continuous intragastric infusion for at least 4 d. During the last 19 h 15N-glycine (a primed continuous infusion) was given intragastrically and 15N...... was recovered from urinary ammonia and urea during isotope steady state for measurement of protein synthesis and protein degradation. Compared with starvation the protein-free diet decreased N excretion by 75%, probably by increasing the rate of reutilization of amino acids from endogenous proteins for protein...

  10. Response surface methodology applied to the generation of casein hydrolysates with antioxidant and dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongonierma, Alice B; Maux, Solène Le; Esteveny, Claire; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2017-03-01

    Hydrolysis parameters affecting the release of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory and antioxidant peptides from milk proteins have not been extensively studied. Therefore, a multifactorial (i.e. pH, temperature and hydrolysis time) composite design was used to optimise the release of bioactive peptides (BAPs) with DPP-IV inhibitory and antioxidant [oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)] properties from sodium caseinate. Fifteen sodium caseinate hydrolysates (H1-H15) were generated with Protamex TM , a bacillus proteinase activity. Hydrolysis time (1 to 5 h) had the highest influence on both DPP-IV inhibitory properties and ORAC activity (P 0.05) as the response surface methodology (RSM) predicted optimum bioactivities. Generation of milk protein hydrolysates through multifactorial design approaches may aid in the optimal enzymatic release of BAPs with serum glucose lowering and antioxidant properties. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. EFFECTIVENESS OF FORMULA BASED ON CASEIN HYDROLYSATE IN CHILDREN WITH ALLERGY TO PROTEINS OF COW’S MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Makarova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietotherapy along with medicinal and external treatment is one of components of complex treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD in children. Severe forms of alimentary allergy are treated with special formulas based on casein hydrolisates. Clinical effectiveness of such formula was studied in 20 patients 2–7 months old intolerant to proteins of cow’s and goat’s milk. Treatment resulted in remission achievement, lessening of external therapy and cancellation of medicinal one in all children including those with cutaneous and gastrointestinal symptoms of AD.Key words: children, atopic dermatitis, dietotherapy, casein hydrolysate, SCORAD.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(3:97-101

  12. Casein and soya-bean protein have different effects on whole body protein turnover at the same nitrogen balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Kondrup, J; Elsner, Petteri

    1994-01-01

    was recovered from urinary ammonia and urea during isotope steady state for measurement of protein synthesis and protein degradation. Compared with starvation the protein-free diet decreased N excretion by 75%, probably by increasing the rate of reutilization of amino acids from endogenous proteins for protein...... synthesis. The protein diets produced a positive N balance which was independent of the protein source. Intact and hydrolysed casein increased protein synthesis 2.6- and 2.0-fold respectively, compared with the protein-free diet. Protein degradation increased 1.4- and 1.2-fold respectively. Hydrolysed soya......-bean protein did not increase protein synthesis but decreased protein degradation by 35% compared with the protein-free diet. Compared with the hydrolysed soya-bean protein, intact casein resulted in 2.2- and 2.8-fold higher rates of protein synthesis and degradation respectively. These results are not easily...

  13. Casein Supplementation Does Not Affect the Estimates of True Total Tract Digestibility of Phosphorus in Soybean Meal for Growing Pigs Determined by the Regression Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight barrows with an average initial body weight of 25.5±0.3 kg were assigned to 6 dietary treatments arranged in a 3×2 factorial of 3 graded levels of P at 1.42, 2.07, or 2.72 g/kg, and 2 levels of casein at 0 or 50 g/kg to compare the estimates of true total tract digestibility (TTTD of P in soybean meal (SBM for pigs fed diets with or without casein supplementation. The SBM is the only source of P in diets without casein, and in the diet with added casein, 1.0 to 2.4 g/kg of total dietary P was supplied by SBM as dietary level of SBM increased. The experiment consisted of a 5-d adjustment period and a 5-d total collection period with ferric oxide as a maker to indicate the initiation and termination of fecal collection. There were interactive effects of casein supplementation and total dietary P level on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD and retention of P (p0.05. In summary, our results demonstrate that the estimates of TTTD of P in SBM for pigs were not affected by constant casein inclusion in the basal diets.

  14. The influence of casein haplotype on morphometric characteristics of fat globules and fatty acid composition of milk in Italian Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of casein haplotypes (αS1-, β-, and κ-caseins) on morphometric characteristics of fat globules and fatty acid composition of Italian Holstein milk. Casein haplotypes were determined by isoelectric focusing; milk fat globule size was measured by using a fluorescence microscope; and fatty acid profile was determined by gas chromatography. Casein haplotype significantly affected the fat globule size, the percentage incidence of each globule size class on total measured milk fat globules, and fatty acid composition. A higher incidence of smaller milk fat globules was associated with the BB-A(2)A(2)-BB genotype (αS1-, β-, and κ-casein haplotypes, respectively), whereas small globules were not detected in BB-A(2)A(1)-AA milk, but that milk had the highest percentage of large globules. A higher content of monounsaturated fatty acids was associated with the BB-A(2)A(2)-AB genotype, whereas higher contents of conjugated linoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were detected in BB-A(1)A(1)-AA milk. Our results indicate that casein haplotype could affect fat characteristics and, therefore, the nutritional and technological quality of milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Two-dimensional cartography of equine beta-casein variants achieved by isolation of phosphorylation isoforms and control of the deamidation phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matéos, A; Girardet, J-M; Mollé, D; Dary, A; Miclo, L; Gaillard, J-L

    2009-06-01

    Because of variable degrees of phosphorylation, alternative splicing, and probable instability resulting from nonenzymatic deamidation, equine beta-casein presents a complex pattern by 2-dimensional electrophoresis that needs clarification. beta-Casein prepared from Haflinger mare's milk by hydrophobic interaction chromatography was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography according to the degree of phosphorylation. Isoforms were identified by mass spectrometry; they corresponded to the full-length protein having 3 to 7 phosphate groups and to the splicing variant involving exon 5 and containing 4 to 7 phosphate groups. Investigations of nonenzymatic deamidation showed that beta-casein did not deamidate spontaneously in stored milk and during the different steps of chromatography, but deamidation could occur when 2-dimensional electrophoresis was performed, increasing the beta-casein pattern complexity. This phenomenon was strongly minimized when the first dimension step was carried out at 10 degrees C instead of at room temperature. Finally, spot attribution on 2-dimensional pattern of beta-casein was achieved by mixing each phosphorylation isoform in its native state with the whole beta-casein fraction.

  16. Prolactin-like activity of anti-prolactin receptor antibodies on casein and DNA synthesis in the mammary gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Djiane, J; Houdebine, L M; Kelly, P A

    1981-01-01

    Prolactin receptors were partially purified from rabbit mammary gland membranes by using an affinity chromatography technique. Antibodies against this prolactin receptor preparation were obtained in guinea pig and sheep. Both antisera were able to inhibit the binding of 125I-labeled ovine prolactin to rabbit mammary gland membranes. When added to culture media of rabbit mammary explants, the anti-prolactin receptor antiserum inhibited the capacity of prolactin to initiate casein synthesis and...

  17. Effects of L-tryptophan, Fructan, and Casein on Reducing Ammonia, Hydrogen Sulfide, and Skatole in Fermented Swine Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. K. Sheng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of daily dietary Bacillus subtilis (Bs, and adding L-tryptophan, fructan, or casein to fecal fermentation broths were investigated as means to reduce the production of noxious gas during manure fermentation caused by ammonia, hydrogen sulfide (H2S, and 3-methylindole (skatole. Eighty swine (50.0±0.5 kg were equally apportioned to an experimental group given Bs in daily feed, or a control group without Bs. After 6 weeks, fresh manure was collected from both groups for fermentation studies using a 3×3 orthogonal array, in which tryptophan, casein, and fructan were added at various concentrations. After fermentation, the ammonia, H2S, L-tryptophan, skatole, and microflora were measured. In both groups, L-tryptophan was the principle additive increasing skatole production, with significant correlation (r = 0.9992. L-tryptophan had no effect on the production of ammonia, H2S, or skatole in animals fed Bs. In both groups, fructan was the principle additive that reduced H2S production (r = 0.9981. Fructan and Bs significantly interacted in H2S production (p = 0.014. Casein was the principle additive affecting the concentration of ammonia, only in the control group. Casein and Bs significantly interacted in ammonia production (p = 0.039. The predominant bacteria were Bacillus spp. CWBI B1434 (26% in the control group, and Streptococcus alactolyticus AF201899 (36% in the experimental group. In summary, daily dietary Bs reduced ammonia production during fecal fermentation. Lessening L-tryptophan and increasing fructan in the fermentation broth reduced skatole and H2S.

  18. Crosslinking with transglutaminase does not change metabolic effects of sodium caseinate in model beverage in healthy young individuals

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    Juvonen Kristiina R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial metabolic and appetitive responses of proteins are dependent on protein source and processing technique prior to ingestion. Studies on the postprandial effects of enzymatic crosslinking of milk proteins are sparse. Our aim was to study the effect of transglutaminase (TG-induced crosslinking of sodium caseinate on postprandial metabolic and appetite responses. Whey protein was included as reference protein. Methods Thirteen healthy individuals (23.3 ± 1.1 y, BMI 21.7 ± 0.4 kg/m2 participated in a single-blind crossover design experiment in which the subjects consumed three different isovolumic (500 g pourable beverages containing either sodium caseinate (Cas, 29 g, TG-treated sodium caseinate (Cas-TG, 29 g or whey protein (Wh, 30 g in a randomized order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and for 4 h postprandially for the determination of plasma glucose, insulin and amino acid (AA concentrations. Gastric emptying (GE was measured using the 13 C-breath test method. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales. Results All examined postprandial responses were comparable with Cas and Cas-TG. The protein type used in the beverages was reflected as differences in plasma AA concentrations between Wh and Cas, but there were no differences in plasma glucose or insulin responses. A tendency for faster GE rate after Wh was detected. Appetite ratings or subsequent energy intake did not differ among the protein beverages. Conclusions Our results indicate that the metabolic responses of enzymatically crosslinked and native sodium caseinate in a liquid matrix are comparable, suggesting similar digestion and absorption rates and first pass metabolism despite the structural modification of Cas-TG.

  19. The Gluten-Free/Casein-Free Diet: A Double-Blind Challenge Trial in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Susan L.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Foley, Jennifer; Cain, Usa; Peck, Robin; Morris, Danielle D.; Wang, Hongyue; Smith, Tristram

    2016-01-01

    To obtain information on the safety and efficacy of the gluten-free/casein-free (GFCF) diet, we placed 14 children with autism, age 3-5 years, on the diet for 4-6 weeks and then conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled challenge study for 12 weeks while continuing the diet, with a 12-week follow-up. Dietary challenges were delivered via weekly…

  20. A review of gluten- and casein-free diets for treatment of autism: 2005–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder JH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Harrison Elder,1 Consuelo Maun Kreider,2 Nancy M Schaefer,3 Mary B de Laosa4 1Department of Family and Community Health Nursing Science, 2Department of Occupational Therapy, 3Health Science Center Library, 4Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Background: The gluten-free, casein-free (GFCF diet is heralded by strong anecdotal parental reports to greatly improve and even "cure" symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Yet, to date, little conclusive empirical evidence exists supporting its use. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the state of the recent evidence regarding the use of GFCF diet for treatment of individuals with ASD. Methods: Five database providers (PubMed, Web of Knowledge, EBSCO, ProQuest, and WorldCat were used to search 19 databases, yielding a total of 491 articles that were published through February 2015. Peer-reviewed articles published between January 2005 and February 2015 were included for review if study participants were identified as having ASD and if the study investigated the effects of the GFCF diet on ASD behaviors or the relationship between the diet and these behaviors. Results: Evaluation of search results yielded eleven reviews, seven group experimental studies including five randomized controlled trials, five case reports, and four group observational studies published during the last 10 years. These studies represent a marked increase in the number of reported studies as well as increased scientific rigor in investigation of GFCF diets in ASD. Conclusion: While strong empirical support for the GFCF diet in ASD is currently lacking, studies point to the need for identifying subsets of individuals (eg, those with documented gastrointestinal abnormalities who may be the best responders to the GFCF diet. Identifying these subsets is critically needed to enhance rigor in this research area. Until rigorous research supporting the use of

  1. Gluten-free and casein-free diets in the treatment of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Reissmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by three core symptoms, i.e. impairments in social interaction, restricted patterns of behavior and impairments in communication. In the framework of the “opioid excess theory”, the disorder symptoms are compared to the behavioral effects of opiates. Based on this, a possible nutritional basis of autism has been proposed, hypothesizing that certain food proteins such as gluten and casein can be transformed to opioid peptides during digestion. These peptides might eventually be able to enter the blood stream and act upon the central nervous system. As a consequence, a diet low in such proteins has been hypothesized to ameliorate the behavioral symptoms of autistic children. Objective: The scope of this review was to analyze the effects of gluten-free and casein-free (GFCF diets on children with autism, as well as to provide information concerning additional aspects related to the GFCF diet in autism. Methods: A literature search was conducted including scientific publications up until December 2013. Search results were screened for any kind of GFCF dietary intervention as well as surveys dealing with GFCF as a treatment for autism. Results: A review of survey data shows that up to 25 % of parents of affected children report on current use of a GFCF diet. The majority of identified studies evaluating GFCF diet outcomes failed to meet basic methodological standards of interventional science. Comparison of study results did not show any clear-cut results, with a substantial proportion of studies failing to show any positive dietary effect. The results of more sophisticated trials were far from equivocal and the studies differed by many methodological aspects. Some variables such as information source and trial duration seemed to affect outcome. Conclusions: Evidence for the effectiveness of the GFCF diet in the treatment of autism is sparse. Rigorous scientific evaluations partly

  2. Prolactin and glucocorticoid signaling induces lactation-specific tight junctions concurrent with β-casein expression in mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ken; Tsugami, Yusaku; Matsunaga, Kota; Oyama, Shoko; Kuki, Chinatsu; Kumura, Haruto

    2016-08-01

    Alveolar mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in mammary glands are highly specialized cells that produce milk for suckling infants. Alveolar MECs also form less permeable tight junctions (TJs) to prevent the leakage of milk components after parturition. In the formation process of less permeable TJs, MECs show a selective downregulation of Cldn4 and a localization change of Cldn3. To investigate what induces less permeable TJs through these compositional changes in Cldns, we focused on two lactogenesis-related hormones: prolactin (Prl) and glucocorticoids. Prl caused a downregulation of Cldn3 and Cldn4 with the formation of leaky TJs in MECs in vitro. Prl-treated MECs also showed low β-casein expression with the activation of STAT5 signaling. By contrast, dexamethasone (Dex), a glucocorticoid analogue, upregulated Cldn3 and Cldn4, concurrent with the formation of less permeable TJs and the activation of glucocorticoid signaling without the expression of β-casein. Cotreatment with Prl and Dex induced the selective downregulation of Cldn4 and the concentration of Cldn3 in the region of TJs concurrent with less permeable TJ formation and high β-casein expression. The inhibition of Prl secretion by bromocriptine in lactating mice induced the upregulation of Cldn3 and Cldn4 concurrent with the downregulation of milk production. These results indicate that the coactivation of Prl and glucocorticoid signaling induces lactation-specific less permeable TJs concurrent with lactogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of casein haplotype on quality, coagulation, and yield traits of milk from Italian Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Gambacorta, Emilio; Simonetti, Amalia

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of casein haplotype (CSN1S1, CSN2, and CSN3) on quality, coagulation, and yield traits of milk from Italian Holstein cows. The casein haplotype was determined by isoelectric focusing; milk clotting properties were determined by using a mechanical lacto-dynamographic instrument; and the yields of pressed and pasta filata cheeses were expressed as kilograms of cheese per 100kg of milk processed. Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the casein haplotype. In particular, BB-A(1)A(1)-AA milk showed the highest fat content (4.01g/100g), whereas BB-A(2)A(2)-BB milk had a higher protein content, the best coagulation characteristics, and the highest yields in pressed and pasta filata cheeses, and, consequently, better ability to retain fat and protein in the curd. The results of this study suggest that knowledge of milk protein polymorphisms not only allows the production of milk with specific qualitative and quantitative characteristics, but it could also be used as a specific marker within a breed to identify milk suitable for cheesemaking, which confers an economical advantage for dairy producers. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of dairy factory, milk casein content and titratable acidity on coagulation properties in Trentingrana dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penasa, Mauro; Toffanin, Valentina; Cologna, Nicola; Cassandro, Martino; De Marchi, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of environmental factors, milk casein content and titratable acidity on milk coagulation properties (MCP) of samples routinely collected in the Trento province (northeast Italy) under field conditions. Rennet coagulation time (RCT, min), curd-firming time (k20, min) and curd firmness (a30, mm) were determined by Formagraph on 14 971 samples from 635 herds associated to 17 dairy factories. Besides MCP, fat, protein, and casein percentages, titratable acidity (TA), and somatic cell and bacterial counts were available. A standardised index of milk aptitude to coagulate (IAC) was derived using information of RCT and a30. An analysis of variance was conducted on MCP and IAC using a fixed effects linear model. Approximately 3% of milk samples did not form a curd within the testing time (30 min) and k20 was missing for 26% of milks. The percentage of samples without information on k20 largely differed among dairy factories (1·7-20·9%). Significant differences were estimated between the best and the worst dairy factory for RCT (-2 min), k20 (-1·2 min), a30 (+3·4 mm) and IAC (+2·6 points). Milk casein content and TA were important factors in explaining the variation of MCP and IAC, supporting the central role of these two traits on technological properties. The Trento province is heterogeneous in terms of dairy systems and this could explain the differences among dairy factories.

  5. Casein and soya-bean protein have different effects on whole body protein turnover at the same nitrogen balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Kondrup, J; Elsner, Petteri

    1994-01-01

    synthesis. The protein diets produced a positive N balance which was independent of the protein source. Intact and hydrolysed casein increased protein synthesis 2.6- and 2.0-fold respectively, compared with the protein-free diet. Protein degradation increased 1.4- and 1.2-fold respectively. Hydrolysed soya......The present study examined whether different proteins have different effects on whole-body protein turnover in adult rats. The rats were either starved, given a protein-free but energy-sufficient diet (1 MJ/kg body weight (BW) per d) or a diet containing intact casein, hydrolysed casein......, or hydrolysed soya-bean protein at a level of 9.1 g/kg BW per d. The diets, which were isoenergetic with the same carbohydrate: fat ratio, were given as a continuous intragastric infusion for at least 4 d. During the last 19 h 15N-glycine (a primed continuous infusion) was given intragastrically and 15N...

  6. Real-time monitoring of peptic and tryptic digestions of bovine β-casein using quartz crystal microbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huenerbein, Andreas; Schmelzer, Christian E.H.; Neubert, Reinhard H.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study peptic and tryptic digestions of bovine β-casein were investigated using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). β-Casein, which was used as a model protein, was immobilized on the surface of the QCM sensor where its degradation caused shifts in the resonant frequency. Atomic force microscopy was applied for the characterization of the protein layer. Different pH-values for peptic or tryptic digestions were chosen to visualize their effect on enzyme activity. Lower frequency shifts were observed at pH-values deviating from those at the maximum enzyme activity. In the case of the peptic digestion the frequency shift at pH 4 was more than 10 times smaller than those at pH 2. The frequency shifts for tryptic digestions at pH 5.4 and pH 6.4 were about two thirds compared to that obtained for the digestion at pH 7.4. The identification of peptides using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry was used for verification of the proteolyses of the immobilized protein. Furthermore, it was shown that the QCM technique allows close observation of the effect of different pH-values on the immobilized casein layer. All in all, QCM facilitates the monitoring of the progress of enzymatic reactions in real-time

  7. Real-time monitoring of peptic and tryptic digestions of bovine {beta}-casein using quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenerbein, Andreas [Institute of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Wolfgang-Langenbeck-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)]. E-mail: andreas.huenerbein@pharmazie.uni-halle.de; Schmelzer, Christian E.H. [Institute of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Wolfgang-Langenbeck-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Neubert, Reinhard H.H. [Institute of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Wolfgang-Langenbeck-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2007-02-12

    In this study peptic and tryptic digestions of bovine {beta}-casein were investigated using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). {beta}-Casein, which was used as a model protein, was immobilized on the surface of the QCM sensor where its degradation caused shifts in the resonant frequency. Atomic force microscopy was applied for the characterization of the protein layer. Different pH-values for peptic or tryptic digestions were chosen to visualize their effect on enzyme activity. Lower frequency shifts were observed at pH-values deviating from those at the maximum enzyme activity. In the case of the peptic digestion the frequency shift at pH 4 was more than 10 times smaller than those at pH 2. The frequency shifts for tryptic digestions at pH 5.4 and pH 6.4 were about two thirds compared to that obtained for the digestion at pH 7.4. The identification of peptides using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry was used for verification of the proteolyses of the immobilized protein. Furthermore, it was shown that the QCM technique allows close observation of the effect of different pH-values on the immobilized casein layer. All in all, QCM facilitates the monitoring of the progress of enzymatic reactions in real-time.

  8. epsilon-fructoselysine in urine of rats fed 14C-lysine-labeled casein browned by amino-carbonyl reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Bunpei; Kojima, Kazumi; Saito, Susumu

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive substances were identified in urine of rats fed on browned casein, which had been labeled with U- 14 C-L-lysine. When browned casein was ingested by growing rats, high radioactivity was found in urine taken for 24 hr after feeding. Urinary recovery of radioactivity and specific radioactivity were about 9-times as high as those of the control. The radioactive substances were separated by Sephadex gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography 75 - 83% of the total radioactivity was recovered in the first peak of Sephadex gel filtration. The material with radioactivity was separated into two fractions by ionexchange chromatography. The ratio of radioactivity of these peaks on the chromatogram was about 30 to 70. The main peak was identified as epsilon-fructoselysine with an amino acid autoanalyzer. Urinary epsilon-fructoselysine content of 24 hr after a single dose feeding of 600 mg browned labeled casein was 13 - 18 mg per head. The relationship between epsilon-fructoselysine content as an absorption delayed-material in the small intestinal lumen and the amount excreted in urine was explained in a scheme together with results from previous studies. (author)

  9. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM AT THE K-CASEIN LOCUS IN A DAIRY HERD OF ROMANIAN SPOTTED AND BROWN OF MARAMURES BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIE DANIELA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Caseins are a family of milk proteins that exist in several molecular forms and arethe main proteins present in the bovine milk. Genetic variation of these proteins hasbeen associated with the quality and quantity of cheese derived from milk.This study was focused on possibilities to evaluate the frequency of the K-casein Ballele in dairy herds from the Research and Development Station for Bovine RaisingArad in order to have breeding programs that target an increase in the frequency ofthe B allele in the dairy cattle population.In order to differentiate the favorable genotype for superior composition and highercheese yield, we used simple DNA extraction method from fresh blood andtechniques based on DNA analysis, which include polymerase chain reaction andrestriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP methods. Employing thesetechniques we were able to determine the k-casein genotype of all individuals in agiven population under selection, regardless of sex, age or physiological stage.As a result, it is now possible to include information on milk protein genotypes intomarker assisted selection programs and consequently improve response to selection.

  10. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM AT THE K-CASEIN LOCUS IN A DAIRY HERD OF ROMANIAN SPOTTED AND BROWN OF MARAMURES BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA ILIE

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Caseins are a family of milk proteins that exist in several molecular forms and arethe main proteins present in the bovine milk. Genetic variation of these proteins hasbeen associated with the quality and quantity of cheese derived from milk.This study was focused on possibilities to evaluate the frequency of the K-casein Ballele in dairy herds from the Research and Development Station for Bovine RaisingArad in order to have breeding programs that target an increase in the frequency ofthe B allele in the dairy cattle population.In order to differentiate the favorable genotype for superior composition and highercheese yield, we used simple DNA extraction method from fresh blood andtechniques based on DNA analysis, which include polymerase chain reaction andrestriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP methods. Employing thesetechniques we were able to determine the k-casein genotype of all individuals in agiven population under selection, regardless of sex, age or physiological stage.As a result, it is now possible to include information on milk protein genotypes intomarker assisted selection programs and consequently improve response to selection.

  11. Calcium Impact on Milk Gels Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutina, Glykeria

    salts. The perturbation of calcium equilibria by these factors will affect the final properties of acid, calcium and rennet milk gels. By decreasing the pH from 6.0 to 5.2 (acid gels), the calcium equilibrium was significantly affected by temperature (4, 20, 30, 40 oC), and different combinations...... enriched dairy products. Calcium gels can be produced by addition of a calcium salt and heat treatment at temperatures higher than 70 oC for several minutes. The combination of heat treatment and calcium addition to milk with pH values between 6.6 and 5.6, will produce calcium milk gels with unique...... to be formed. In addition the low amount of micellar calcium caused a more compact gel structure with many protein aggregates. The results of this study highlighted the importance of calcium for the formation of acid, calcium and rennet gels. The content and the interactions of calcium with proteins during...

  12. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-09

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness.

  13. Influence of dietary calcium on bone calcium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, M.; Roland, D.A. Sr.; Clark, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    In Experiment 1, 10 microCi 45 Ca/day were administered to 125 hens for 10 days. Hens were then allocated to five treatments with calcium levels ranging from .08 to 3.75% of the diet. In Experiment 2, hens with morning oviposition times were randomly allocated to 11 treatments that were periods of time postoviposition ranging from 6 hr to 24 hr, in 2-hr increments (Experiment 2). At the end of each 2-hr period, eggs from 25 hens were removed from the uterus. The 18-, 20-, and 22-hr treatments were replicated three times. In Experiment 3, hens were fed either ad libitum or feed was withheld the last 5 or 6 hr before oviposition. In Experiment 4, hens were fed 10 microCi of 45 Ca for 15 days to label skeletal calcium. Hens were divided into two groups and fed a .08 or 3.75% calcium diet for 2 days. On the second day, 25 hens fed the 3.75% calcium diet were intubated with 7 g of the same diet containing .5 g calcium at 1700, 2100, 0100, 0500, and 0700 hr. The measurements used were egg weight, shell weight, and 45 Ca content of the egg shell. Results indicated a significant linear or quadratic regression of dietary calcium levels on 45 Ca accumulation in eggshells and eggshell weight (Experiment 1). As the calcium level of the diet increased, eggshell weight increased and 45 Ca recovery decreased. Utilization of skeletal calcium for shell formation ranged from 28 to 96%. In Experiment 2, the rate of shell calcification was not constant throughout the calcification process but varied significantly

  14. Complex coacervation for the development of composite edible films based on LM pectin and sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbal, Noushin; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid; Mousavi, Mohammad; Degraeve, Pascal; Oulahal, Nadia; Gharsallaoui, Adem

    2016-10-20

    Coacervation between sodium caseinate (CAS) and low methoxyl pectin (LMP) at pH 3 was investigated as a function of protein/polysaccharide ratio. The highest amount of complex coacervates was formed at a CAS/LMP ratio of 2 at which the ζ-potential value was zero and the turbidity reached its highest value. Then, the properties of films based on these complex coacervates were studied. Coacervation resulted in decreasing water content and water sorption of films as the protein concentration increased. The mechanical properties of films were highly influenced by the formation of electrostatic complexes. The highest values of Young's modulus (182.97± 6.48MPa) and tensile strength (15.64±1.74MPa) with a slight increase of elongation at break (9.35±0.10%) were obtained for films prepared at a CAS/LMP ratio equal to 0.05. These findings show that interactions between LMP and CAS can be used to develop innovative packaging containing active molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Active Bilayer PE/PCL Films for Food Packaging Modified with Zinc Oxide and Casein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rešček

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the properties of active polymer food packaging bilayer polyethylene/polycaprolactone (PE/PCL films. Such packaging material consists of primary PE layer coated with thin film of PCL coating modified with active component (zinc oxide or zinc oxide/casein complex with intention to extend the shelf life of food and to maintain the quality and health safety. The influence of additives as active components on barrier, mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties of such materials was studied. The results show that, in comparison to the neat PE and PE/PCL films, some of PE/PCL bilayer films with additives exhibit improved barrier properties i.e. decreased water vapour permeability. Higher thermal stability of modified PE/PCL material is obtained due to a modified mechanism of thermal degradation. The samples with the additive nanoparticles homogeneously dispersed in the polymer matrix showed good mechanical properties. Addition of higher ZnO content contributes to the enhanced antibacterial activity of a material.

  16. Functional analysis of Casein Kinase 1 in a minimal circadian system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerben van Ooijen

    Full Text Available The Earth's rotation has driven the evolution of cellular circadian clocks to facilitate anticipation of the solar cycle. Some evidence for timekeeping mechanism conserved from early unicellular life through to modern organisms was recently identified, but the components of this oscillator are currently unknown. Although very few clock components appear to be shared across higher species, Casein Kinase 1 (CK1 is known to affect timekeeping across metazoans and fungi, but has not previously been implicated in the circadian clock in the plant kingdom. We now show that modulation of CK1 function lengthens circadian rhythms in Ostreococcustauri, a unicellular marine algal species at the base of the green lineage, separated from humans by ~1.5 billion years of evolution. CK1 contributes to timekeeping in a phase-dependent manner, indicating clock-mediated gating of CK1 activity. Label-free proteomic analyses upon overexpression as well as inhibition revealed CK1-responsive phosphorylation events on a set of target proteins, including highly conserved potentially clock-relevant cellular regulator proteins. These results have major implications for our understanding of cellular timekeeping and can inform future studies in any circadian organism.

  17. Viscoelastic properties of oil-water interfaces covered by bovine beta-casein tryptic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardet, J M; Debomy, L; Courthaudon, J L; Miclo, T L; Humbert, G; Gaillard, J L

    2000-11-01

    A combination of proteolysis and dilational rheology has been used to study the behavior of films of beta-casein (beta-CN) and of peptides spread at the oil-water interface. Identification of the peptides produced by trypsin hydrolysis of beta-CN in emulsion at 37 degrees C provided information on the structure of beta-CN adsorbed at the oil-water interface. Good interface properties were observed for beta-CN or its peptides, probably because of the amphipathic nature of beta-CN or a synergistic effect between hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptides. Remarkable surface activity was found for the amphipathic peptide beta-CN (f114-169). Rheological studies had shown that interface films made with peptide fractions or with beta-CN were elastic rather than viscous. Film made with the purified peptide beta-CN (f114-169) was merely elastic at the triolein-water interface. A decrease of the viscoelastic modulus was observed for aging beta-CN film but not for aging peptide films; The beta-CN decrease was related to the flexibility of its structure. When the interface is increased by the dilation of an aqueous droplet plunged into oil, beta-CN may expose new polypeptide trains to cover the increased interface, unlike peptides with simpler structures.

  18. Influence of casein hydrolysates on exopolysaccharide synthesis by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingli; Yang, Bao; Brashears, Mindy M; Yu, Zhimin; Zhao, Mouming; Liu, Ning; Li, Yinjuan

    2014-05-01

    A lot of interesting research has been undertaken to enhance the yield of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of casein hydrolysates (CH) with molecular weight less than 3 kDa on cell viability, EPS synthesis and the enzyme activity involved in EPS synthesis during the co-culturing of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus in MRS broth for 72 h at 37 ± 0.1 °C. The highest EPS yield (150.1 mg L⁻¹) was obtained on CH prepared with papain (CHP) at 48 h. At 24 h, EPS were composed of galactose, glucose and rhamnose in a molar ratio of 1.0:2.4:1.5. The monosaccharide composition changed with extension of the fermentation time. The activities of α-phosphoglucomutase, uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP)-glucose pyrophosphorylase and UDP-galactose 4-epimerase were associated with EPS synthesis. Moreover, the activities of β-phosphoglucomutase and deoxythymadine 5'-diphosphate (dTDP)-glucose pyrophosphorylase involved in rhamnose synthesis were very low at the exponential growth phase and could not be detected during other given periods. The influence of different CH (<3 kDa) on LAB viability, EPS production, EPS monomeric composition and activity levels of key metabolic enzymes was distinct. Besides, their influence was related to the distribution of amino acids. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Troglitazone inhibits endothelial cell proliferation through suppression of casein kinase 2 activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kuy-Sook; Park, Jin-Hee; Lee, Seahyoung; Lim, Hyun-Joung; Jang, Yangsoo; Park, Hyun-Young

    2006-01-01

    Troglitazone, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptorγ (PPARγ), has been reported to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation by suppressing Akt activation. Recently, it has been also proposed that phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) plays an important role in such effect of troglitazone. However, the mechanism of how troglitazone regulates PTEN remains to be elucidated. We therefore investigated the effects of troglitazone on casein kinase 2 (CK2), which is known to negatively regulate PTEN activity. Troglitazone significantly inhibited serum-induced proliferation of HUVEC in a concentration dependent manner. Serum-induced Akt and its downstream signaling pathway activation was attenuated by troglitazone (10 μM) pretreatment. The phosphorylation of PTEN, which was directly related to Akt activation, was decreased with troglitazone pretreatment and was inversely proportional to CK2 activity. DRB, a CK2 inhibitor, also showed effects similar to that of troglitazone on Akt and its downstream signaling molecules. In conclusion, our results suggest that troglitazone inhibits proliferation of HUVECs through suppression of CK2 activity rendering PTEN to remain activated, and this effect of troglitazone in HUVECs seems to be PPARγ independent

  20. Encapsulation of L-ascorbic acid via polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol-casein bioblends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozsagiroglu Erhan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to encapsulate, L-ascorbic acid, in biopolymers in order to obtain (i enhancing its encapsulation efficiency (ii increasing drug release ratio using different pH mediums. Microparticles based on polycaprolactone, polyethylene glycol and casein are prepared by spray drying technique. Microparticles are in vitro characterized in terms of yield of production, particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, and drug release. In this manner, the importance of the study is producing of a stable and effective drug encapsulation system by PCL-PEG-CS polymer mixture by spray dryer. We achieved minimum 27.540±0.656 μm particle size with 0.512 m2/g surface area, 84.05% maximum drug loading, and 68.92% drug release ratio at pH 9.6. Release profiles are fitted to previously developed kinetic models to differentiate possible release mechanisms. The Korsmeyer–Peppas model is the best described each release scenario, and the drug release is governed by non-Fickian diffusion at pH 9.6. Our study proposed as an alternative or adjuvants for controlling release of L-ascorbic acid.

  1. Casein kinase 2 inhibits HomolD-directed transcription by Rrn7 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Ramos, Sandra; Rojas, Diego A; Montes, Matías; Urbina, Fabiola; Miralles, Vicente J; Maldonado, Edio

    2015-02-01

    In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, ribosomal protein gene (RPG) promoters contain a TATA analogue element called the HomolD box. The HomolD-binding protein Rrn7 forms a complex with the RNA polymerase II machinery. Despite the importance of ribosome biogenesis to cell survival, the mechanisms involved in the regulation of transcription of eukaryotic RPGs are unknown. In this study, we identified Rrn7 as a new substrate of the pleiotropic casein kinase 2 (CK2), which is a regulator of basal transcription. Recombinant Rrn7 from S. pombe, which is often used as a model organism for studying eukaryotic transcription, interacted with CK2 in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, CK2-mediated phosphorylation of Rrn7 inhibited its HomolD-directed transcriptional activity and ability to bind to an oligonucleotide containing a HomolD box in vitro. Mutation of Rrn7 at Thr67 abolished these effects, indicating that this residue is a critical CK2 phosphorylation site. Finally, Rrn7 interacted with the regulatory subunit of CK2 in vivo, inhibition of CK2 in vivo potentiated ribosomal protein gene transcription, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses identified that the catalytic subunit of CK2 was associated with the rpk5 gene promoter in S. pombe. Taken together, these data suggest that CK2 inhibits ribosomal protein gene transcription in S. pombe via phosphorylation of Rrn7 at Thr67. © 2014 FEBS.

  2. Composite β-κ-casein genotypes and their effect on composition and coagulation of milk from Estonian Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallas, M; Kaart, T; Värv, S; Pärna, K; Jõudu, I; Viinalass, H; Pärna, E

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of composite β-κ-CN genotypes on milk coagulation and composition traits, and on the additive genetic variation of these traits in Estonian Holstein dairy cattle. A total of 23,970 milk samples, repeated measurements from the first to third lactation from 2,859 Estonian Holstein cows from 78 herds across the country, were analyzed for milk yield, milk fat and protein percentages, somatic cell count, and milk coagulation properties (milk coagulation time and curd firmness). Each cow had at least 3 measurements per lactation. Two single-trait random regression animal models were fitted for the traits studied. The first model considered fixed effects of year-season of sampling and year-season of calving, calving age (nested within lactation), sample age (only for milk coagulation traits) and days in milk, and random herd, additive genetic, and permanent environmental effects. The animal and permanent environmental effects were modeled over the lactation period by using Legendre polynomials. The second model had the additional fixed β-κ-casein effect in the form of a third-order Legendre polynomial. The 2 most frequent β-κ-casein composite genotypes were A2A2AA and A1A2AA, both with prevalence greater than 20%. Percentages of the remaining 31 genotypes were less than 8%, including 20 genotypes with percentages less than 1%. The β-κ-casein genotype-specific lactation curves were significantly different for milk coagulation traits and milk protein percentage. The B variant of κ-casein showed a favorable effect on both milk coagulation traits, whereas the IB haplotype had an increasing effect on curd firmness and protein percentage. Inclusion of the β-κ-casein genotype effects in the model resulted in decreases in the mean additive genetic variations for milk coagulation time and curd firmness of 12.9 and 51.1%, respectively. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc

  3. Calcium phosphates for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canillas, M.; Pena, P.; Aza, A.H. de; Rodriguez, M.A.

    2017-07-01

    The history of calcium phosphates in the medicine field starts in 1769 when the first evidence of its existence in the bone tissue is discovered. Since then, the interest for calcium phosphates has increased among the scientific community. Their study has been developed in parallel with new advances in materials sciences, medicine or tissue engineering areas. Bone tissue engineering is the field where calcium phosphates have had a great importance. While the first bioceramics are selected according to bioinert, biocompatibility and mechanical properties with the aim to replace bone tissue damaged, calcium phosphates open the way to the bone tissue regeneration challenge. Nowadays, they are present in the majority of commercial products directed to repair or regenerate damaged bone tissue. Finally, in the last few decades, they have been suggested and studied as drug delivering devices and as vehicles of DNA and RNA for the future generation therapies. (Author)

  4. [Calcium metabolism after the menopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanovitch, D; Klotz, H P

    1976-02-16

    The authors recall the antagonism between estradiol and parathormone. Estradiol tends to lower serum calcium and fix calcium in the bones as shown by one of us 25 years ago. The mechanism of this action of estrogen on calcium metabolism has been determined by numerous authors but some points are still not clear, e.g. the interferences between estrogen and calcitonin. Classically, parathormone is known to increase bony reabsorption and raise serum calcium. After the menopause the gradual reduction in estradiol secretion leads to post-menopausal osteoporosis. It is better to administer estrogens prophylactically to women after the menopause provided a cervical smear and mammography have been carried out to eliminate latent carcinoma of the breast or uterine cervix.

  5. Calcium phosphates for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Canillas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of calcium phosphates in the medicine field starts in 1769 when the first evidence of its existence in the bone tissue is discovered. Since then, the interest for calcium phosphates has increased among the scientific community. Their study has been developed in parallel with new advances in materials sciences, medicine or tissue engineering areas. Bone tissue engineering is the field where calcium phosphates have had a great importance. While the first bioceramics are selected according to bioinert, biocompatibility and mechanical properties with the aim to replace bone tissue damaged, calcium phosphates open the way to the bone tissue regeneration challenge. Nowadays, they are present in the majority of commercial products directed to repair or regenerate damaged bone tissue. Finally, in the last few decades, they have been suggested and studied as drug delivering devices and as vehicles of DNA and RNA for the future generation therapies.

  6. Calcium-sensing beyond neurotransmitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Han, Weiping

    2009-01-01

    Neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones are released through the regulated exocytosis of SVs (synaptic vesicles) and LDCVs (large dense-core vesicles), a process that is controlled by calcium. Synaptotagmins are a family of type 1 membrane proteins that share a common domain structure. Most....... Also, we discuss potential roles of synaptotagmins in non-traditional endocrine systems....... synaptotagmins are located in brain and endocrine cells, and some of these synaptotagmins bind to phospholipids and calcium at levels that trigger regulated exocytosis of SVs and LDCVs. This led to the proposed synaptotagmin-calcium-sensor paradigm, that is, members of the synaptotagmin family function...... as calcium sensors for the regulated exocytosis of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones. Here, we provide an overview of the synaptotagmin family, and review the recent mouse genetic studies aimed at understanding the functions of synaptotagmins in neurotransmission and endocrine-hormone secretion...

  7. A kinetic model of dopamine- and calcium-dependent striatal synaptic plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Nakano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Corticostriatal synapse plasticity of medium spiny neurons is regulated by glutamate input from the cortex and dopamine input from the substantia nigra. While cortical stimulation alone results in long-term depression (LTD, the combination with dopamine switches LTD to long-term potentiation (LTP, which is known as dopamine-dependent plasticity. LTP is also induced by cortical stimulation in magnesium-free solution, which leads to massive calcium influx through NMDA-type receptors and is regarded as calcium-dependent plasticity. Signaling cascades in the corticostriatal spines are currently under investigation. However, because of the existence of multiple excitatory and inhibitory pathways with loops, the mechanisms regulating the two types of plasticity remain poorly understood. A signaling pathway model of spines that express D1-type dopamine receptors was constructed to analyze the dynamic mechanisms of dopamine- and calcium-dependent plasticity. The model incorporated all major signaling molecules, including dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein with a molecular weight of 32 kDa (DARPP32, as well as AMPA receptor trafficking in the post-synaptic membrane. Simulations with dopamine and calcium inputs reproduced dopamine- and calcium-dependent plasticity. Further in silico experiments revealed that the positive feedback loop consisted of protein kinase A (PKA, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, and the phosphorylation site at threonine 75 of DARPP-32 (Thr75 served as the major switch for inducing LTD and LTP. Calcium input modulated this loop through the PP2B (phosphatase 2B-CK1 (casein kinase 1-Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5-Thr75 pathway and PP2A, whereas calcium and dopamine input activated the loop via PKA activation by cyclic AMP (cAMP. The positive feedback loop displayed robust bi-stable responses following changes in the reaction parameters. Increased basal dopamine levels disrupted this dopamine-dependent plasticity. The

  8. Fortification of milk with calcium: effect on calcium bioavailability and interactions with iron and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Sara; Barberá, Reyes; Lagarda, María Jesús; Farré, Rosaura

    2006-06-28

    Calcium solubility, dialysability, and transport and uptake (retention + transport) by Caco-2 cells as indicators of calcium bioavailability have been estimated in the in vitro gastrointestinal digests of milk and calcium fortified milk. A significant linear correlation (p calcium uptake and the amount of soluble calcium added to the cells, and also between percentage calcium uptake and the calcium measured in the analyzed samples. The solubility, dialysis, transport, and uptake values are higher (p calcium fortified milks than for nonfortified milks; that is, calcium fortification increases not only calcium content but also its bioavailability. An inhibitory effect of calcium from fortified milks upon iron absorption was found. The observed effect of calcium from fortified milks upon zinc bioavailability depends on the in vitro method used, zinc solubility and dialysis decrease in calcium fortified milks, and percentage zinc uptake remains unchanged.

  9. Caprine and ovine Greek dairy products: The official German method generates false-positive results due to κ-casein gene polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsartsianidou, V; Triantafillidou, D; Karaiskou, N; Tarantili, P; Triantafillidis, G; Georgakis, E; Triantafyllidis, A

    2017-05-01

    Caseins are widely used for species identification of dairy products. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) of para-κ-casein peptide is used as the official German method for the differentiation between caprine (isoform A) and ovine (isoform B) dairy products, based on their different isoelectric points. The discrimination between Greek goat and ewe dairy products using IEF has, however, been shown to be problematic because of the existence of the ewe isoform in milk from Greek indigenous dairy goats. This could be due to nucleotide polymorphisms within the goat κ-casein gene of Greek indigenous breeds, which alter the isoelectric point of the para-κ-casein peptide and lead to false positive results. Previous DNA analysis of the goat κ-casein gene has shown high levels of polymorphism; however, no such information is available for Greek indigenous dairy goats. Therefore, 87 indigenous dairy goats were sequenced at exon IV of κ-casein gene. In total, 9 polymorphic sites were detected. Three nonsynonymous point mutations were identified, which change the isoelectric point of the goat para-κ-casein peptide so that it appears identical to that of the ewe peptide. Ten composite genotypes were reconstructed and 6 of them included the problematic point mutations. For the verification of genetic results, IEF was carried out. Both goat and ewe patterns appeared in the problematic genotypes. The frequency of these genotypes could be characterized as moderate (0.23) to high (0.60) within Greek indigenous breeds. However, this is not an issue restricted to Greece, as such genotypes have been detected in various non-Greek goat breeds. In conclusion, IEF based on the official German method is certainly inappropriate for ovine and caprine discrimination concerning Greek dairy goat products, and consequently a new method should be established. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rosiglitazone attenuates casein-induced hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress in Sprague-Dawley rats: a novel model of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Saet Byol; Kim, Hyun Min; Kim, Hyung Jun; Seok, Hannah; Huh, Ji Hye; Lee, Byung-Wan; Kang, Eun Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

    2013-01-01

    The proteins found in cow milk have been reported to cause systemic inflammation. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is known to be involved in the development of several metabolic disorders including insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, the effect of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) on ER stress is still controversial. This is why we want to investigate in this study whether casein, which is the major protein in cow's milk, induces ER stress in the liver and whether rosiglitazone can attenuate these changes. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were separated into three groups: (1) vehicle treated; (2) daily subcutaneous injections of 1 mL 10% casein; (3) daily subcutaneous injection of 1 mL 10% casein and rosiglitazone 4 mg/[kg d]. After 6 weeks, body weight, food intake, glucose and lipid parameters, and serum AST/ALT levels were measured after an overnight fast. Real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining for various ER stress markers were performed, and a TUNEL analysis was also performed. After 6 weeks, casein injection induced weight reduction, systemic inflammation, and hepatic dysfunction in SD rats. Casein injection increased both the gene and protein expression of ER stress markers in the liver and also caused hepatocyte apoptosis. Rosiglitazone treatment attenuated casein-induced systemic inflammation, ER stress, deteriorated liver function, and increased apoptosis. In conclusion, our results may provide further insight into the effects of casein on chronic inflammatory diseases, and to have a better understanding of the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory properties of rosiglitazone regardless of its hypoglycemic effect.

  11. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; hide

    2002-01-01

    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P Basal and thrombin-stimulated platelet free calcium (intracellular calcium concentration) were also reduced (P metabolism (P metabolism are relatively impervious to dietary calcium in the short term, 2) increased ionized calcium did not normalize low-calcium-induced elevations of BP, and 3) parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  12. Calcium affects on vascular endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Vaishali B

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is one of the most abundant minerals in the body and its metabolism is one of the basic biologic processes in humans. Although historically linked primarily to bone structural development and maintenance, calcium is now recognized as a key component of many physiologic pathways necessary for optimum health including cardiovascular, neurological, endocrine, renal, and gastrointestinal systems. A recent meta-analysis published in August 2011 showed a potential increase in cardiovascular events related to calcium supplementation. The possible mechanism of action of this correlation has not been well elucidated. This topic has generated intense interest due to the widespread use of calcium supplements, particularly among the middle aged and elderly who are at the most risk from cardiac events. Prior studies did not control for potential confounding factors such as the use of statins, aspirin or other medications. These controversial results warrant additional well-designed studies to investigate the relationship between calcium supplementation and cardiovascular outcomes. The purpose of this review is to highlight the current literature in regards to calcium supplementation and cardiovascular health; and to identify areas of future research.

  13. Efficacy of different strategies to treat root dentin eroded by liquid or gaseous hydrochloric acid associated with brushing abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraoni, Juliana Jendiroba; Torres Toro, Carmen Victoria; de Matos, Laís Lopes Machado; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate how casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) associated with Nd:YAG or Diode laser affects dentin exposed to hydrochloric acid (HCl) with or without tooth brushing. One hundred and sixty human root dentin blocks were selected after they were initially eroded with liquid HCl (pH 1.2) 3x for one day. The blocks were divided into the following groups: G1- liquid HCl (HCl-l), G2- HCl-l + brushing, G3- gaseous HCl (HCl-g), and G4- HCl-g + brushing. Each group was randomly assigned to the following treatments (n = 10): A) Control (no treatment), B) CPP-ACP, C) CPP-ACP associated with Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm) (40 mJ, 10 Hz, 0.4 W, 15 s), and D) CPP-ACP associated with Diode laser (λ = 980 nm) (0.5 W, 200 μs, 15 s). The treatment with CPP-ACP (G2, G3 and G4) was applied on the dentine surface for 5 min. Erosion (6x/day/20 s) and erosion (6x/day/20 s) with abrasion (2x/10 s) were performed for five days. Dentin volume loss was determined by 3D confocal laser microscopy. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests. G1 - CPP-ACP (10.77 ± 1.66) and CPP-ACP associated with Diode laser (9.98 ± 0.89) showed lower volume loss in relation Control group (12.86 ± 0.63) (p < 0.05). G2 - CPP-ACP associated with Diode laser (12.41 ± 1.08) elicited lower volume loss as compared to the Control (14.42 ± 1.24) (p < 0.05). As for G3 and G4, all treatments showed similar volume loss. CPP-ACP and CPP-ACP associated with Diode laser could control dental tissue loss in dentin eroded by liquid HCl. Moreover, CPP-ACP associated with Diode laser could effectively decrease dental tissue loss in dentin exposed to liquid HCl and brushing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of soluble calcium and lactose on limiting flux and serum protein removal during skim milk microfiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael C; Hurt, Emily E; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    The tendency of calcium to promote microfiltration (MF) membrane fouling is well documented, but the role of lactose has not been studied. Milk protein concentrate that is 85% protein on a dry basis (MPC85) contains less calcium and lactose than skim milk. Our objectives were to determine the effects of skim milk soluble calcium and lactose concentrations on the limiting fluxes (LF) and serum protein (SP) removal factors of 0.1-µm ceramic graded permeability membranes. The MF was fed with 3 different milks: skim milk, liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein content of skim milk with reverse osmosis water (MPC), and liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein and lactose contents of skim milk with reverse osmosis water and lactose monohydrate (MPC+L). Retentate and permeate were continuously recycled to the feed tank. The LF for each feed was determined by increasing flux once per hour from 55 kg·m(-2)·h(-1) until flux did not increase with increasing transmembrane pressure. Temperature, pressure drop across the membrane length, and protein concentration in the retentate recirculation loop were maintained at 50°C, 220 kPa, and 8.77 ± 0.2%, respectively. Experiments were replicated 3 times and the Proc GLM procedure of SAS was used for statistical analysis. An increase in LF between skim milk (91 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) and MPC+L (124 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) was associated with a reduction in soluble calcium. The LF of MPC+L was lower than the LF of MPC (137 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) due to the higher viscosity contributed by lactose. Permeates produced from the MPC and MPC+L contained more protein than the skim milk permeate due to the transfer of caseins from the micelles into the reduced-calcium sera of the MPC and MPC+L. A SP removal factor was calculated by dividing true protein in the permeate by SP in the permeate portion of the feed to describe the ease of SP passage through the membrane. No differences in SP removal factors were detected among the

  15. Factors influencing degree of glycosylation and phosphorylation of caseins in individual cow milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, N A; Jensen, H B; Larsen, L B

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine variations in posttranslational modifications (PTM) of caseins (CN) in milk from individual cows and determine how these differ between breeds, across lactation, and between variants. Furthermore, we examined the variation of casein PTM in relation to rennet coagulation properties of milk. In total, detailed protein composition of milk from 892 Danish Holstein and Jersey cows was determined by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The method measured relative contents of the main milk proteins as well as several variants and PTM. The results showed that the 2 breeds had distinct milk protein composition. Milk from Danish Holstein cows was mainly characterized by higher relative contents of β-CN, α-lactalbumin (α-LA), and β-lactoglobulin, and a higher fraction of glycosylated κ-CN (G κ-CN), whereas milk from Danish Jersey cows was characterized by higher relative contents of κ-CN, αS2-CN, and the less phosphorylated forms of αS1-CN and αS2-CN. Univariate linear models including days in milk and parity as class effects showed variation in the detailed protein profile across and between lactations; in particular, changes in the degree of glycosylation of κ-CN were pronounced, but changes in αS1-CN 8P to total αS1-CN and αS2-CN 11P to αS2-CN were also observed over lactation for both breeds. The phosphorylated forms of αS1-CN and αS2-CN were, to some extent, correlated. Further, the κ-CN BB genotype was associated with higher relative contents of both unglycosylated κ-CN (UG κ-CN) and G κ-CN compared with κ-CN AA; κ-CN AB showed intermediate results in both breeds. The influence of protein composition on rennet coagulation properties was explored based on 4 classes for curd firming rate: noncoagulation, and poor, average, and good coagulation. The results revealed breed differences: Holstein milk, higher relative content of κ-CN to total protein, and higher content of G κ-CN were

  16. Modeling Calcium Microdomains using Homogenisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Erin R.; Goel, Pranay; Puglisi, Jose L.; Bers, Donald M.; Cannell, Mark; Sneyd, James

    2007-01-01

    Microdomains of calcium (i.e., areas on the nanometer scale that have qualitatively different calcium concentrations from that in the bulk cytosol) are known to be important in many situations. In cardiac cells, for instance, a calcium microdomain between the L-type channels and the ryanodine receptors, the so-called diadic cleft, is where the majority of the control of calcium release occurs. In other cell types that exhibit calcium oscillations and waves, the importance of microdomains in the vicinity of clusters of inositol trisphosphate receptors, or between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and other internal organelles or the plasma membrane, is clear. Given the limits of computational power, it is not currently realistic to model an entire cellular cytoplasm by incorporating detailed structural information about the ER throughout the entire cytoplasm. Hence, most models use a homogenised approach, assuming that both cytoplasm and ER coexist at each point of the domain. Conversely, microdomain models can be constructed, in which detailed structural information can be incorporated, but, until now, methods have not been developed for linking such a microdomain model to a model at the level of the entire cell. Using the homogenisation approach we developed in an earlier paper (Goel P., A. Friedman and J. Sneyd. 2006. Homogenization of the cell cytoplasm: the calcium bidomain equations. SIAM J. on Multiscale Modeling and Simulation, in press) we show how a multiscale model of a calcium microdomain can be constructed. In this model a detailed model of the microdomain (in which the ER and the cytoplasm are separate compartments) is coupled to a homogenised model of the entire cell in a rigorous way. Our method is illustrated by a simple model of the diadic cleft of a cardiac half-sarcomere. PMID:17499276

  17. Calcium: the molecular basis of calcium action in biology and medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pochet, Roland; Donato, Rosario

    2000-01-01

    ... of Calcium Calcium Signalling in Excitable Cells Ca2+ Release in Muscle Cells by N. Macrez and J. Mironneau Calcium Signalling in Neurons Exemplified by Rat Sympathetic Ganglion Cells by S.J. M...

  18. Effects of Whey, Caseinate, or Milk Protein Ingestion on Muscle Protein Synthesis after Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kanda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Whey protein (WP is characterized as a “fast” protein and caseinate (CA as a “slow” protein according to their digestion and absorption rates. We hypothesized that co-ingestion of milk proteins (WP and CA may be effective for prolonging the muscle protein synthesis response compared to either protein alone. We therefore compared the effect of ingesting milk protein (MP to either WP or CA alone on muscle protein synthesis after exercise in rats. We also compared the effects of these milk-derived proteins to a control, soy protein (SP. Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for two hours. Immediately after exercise, one of the following four solutions was administered: WP, CA, MP, or SP. Individual rats were euthanized at designated postprandial time points and triceps muscle samples collected for measurement of the protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR. FSR tended to increase in all groups post-ingestion, although the initial peaks of FSR occurred at different times (WP, peak time = 60 min, FSR = 7.76%/day; MP, peak time = 90 min, FSR = 8.34%/day; CA, peak time = 120 min, FSR = 7.85%/day. Milk-derived proteins caused significantly greater increases (p < 0.05 in FSR compared with SP at different times (WP, 60 min; MP, 90 and 120 min; CA, 120 min. Although statistical analysis could not be performed, the calculated the area under the curve (AUC values for FSR following this trend were: MP, 534.61; CA, 498.22; WP, 473.46; and SP, 406.18. We conclude that ingestion of MP, CA or WP causes the initial peak time in muscle protein synthesis to occur at different times (WP, fast; MP, intermediate; CA, slow and the dairy proteins have a superior effect on muscle protein synthesis after exercise compared with SP.

  19. Ribosomal S6 Kinase Cooperates with Casein Kinase 2 to Modulate the Drosophila Circadian Molecular Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akten, Bikem; Tangredi, Michelle M.; Jauch, Eike; Roberts, Mary A.; Ng, Fanny; Raabe, Thomas; Jackson, F. Rob

    2009-01-01

    There is a universal requirement for post-translational regulatory mechanisms in circadian clock systems. Previous work in Drosophila has identified several kinases, phosphatases and an E3 ligase that are critical for determining the nuclear translocation and/or stability of clock proteins. The present study evaluated the function of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) in the Drosophila circadian system. In mammals, RSK1 is a light- and clock-regulated kinase known to be activated by the MAPK pathway, but there is no direct evidence that it functions as a component of the circadian system. Here, we show that Drosophila S6KII RNA displays rhythms in abundance, indicative of circadian control. Importantly, an S6KII null mutant exhibits a short-period circadian phenotype that can be rescued by expression of the wild-type gene in clock neurons, indicating a role for S6KII in the molecular oscillator. Peak PER clock protein expression is elevated in the mutant, indicative of enhanced stability, whereas per mRNA level is decreased, consistent with enhanced feedback repression. Gene reporter assays show that decreased S6KII is associated with increased PER repression. Surprisingly, we demonstrate a physical interaction between S6KII and the Casein Kinase 2 regulatory subunit (CK2β), suggesting a functional relationship between the two kinases. In support of such a relationship, there are genetic interactions between S6KII and CK2 mutations, in vivo, which indicate that CK2 activity is required for S6KII action. We propose that the two kinases cooperate within clock neurons to fine-tune circadian period, improving the precision of the clock mechanism. PMID:19144847

  20. The Effect of Casein Protein Prior to Sleep on Fat Metabolism in Obese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber W. Kinsey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that ingesting protein at night before sleep is either beneficial or non-detrimental to metabolism, health, and body composition in obese women. However, the overnight protein-induced lipolytic actions and mechanism for improved metabolism and body composition have not been fully established. Therefore, in a crossover design, twelve obese men (age, 27.0 ± 2.2 years were randomly assigned to ingest (within 30 min of sleep casein protein (CAS, 120 kcal or a non-nutritive placebo (PLA before going to sleep. Markers of fat metabolism (lipolysis, substrate utilization, growth hormone, insulin, glucose, resting energy expenditure (REE, and appetite (questionnaire and ghrelin were measured. During sleep and the next morning, interstitial glycerol from the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT was measured using microdialysis. There were no differences in SCAAT glycerol (overnight: CAS, 177.4 ± 26.7; PLA, 183.8 ± 20.2 μmol/L; morning: CAS, 171.6 ± 19.1; PLA, 161.5 ± 18.6 μmol/L, substrate utilization, REE, or any blood markers between CAS and PLA. Desire to eat was greater for CAS compared to baseline (p = 0.03, but not different from PLA (baseline: 39 ± 6, CAS: 62 ± 8, PLA: 55 ± 5 mm. CAS consumption before sleep did not affect fat or glucose metabolism, REE, or suppress appetite in hyperinsulemic obese men. CAS may be consumed before sleep without impeding overnight or morning fat metabolism in young, obese men.

  1. Interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor stimulate two novel protein kinases that phosphorylate the heat shock protein hsp27 and beta-casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesdon, F; Freshney, N; Waller, R J; Rawlinson, L; Saklatvala, J

    1993-02-25

    We have partially purified and characterized two protein kinases that were strongly activated by interleukin-1 (IL-1) or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in MRC-5 fibroblasts. The kinases were separated by anion exchange chromatography of cytosolic fractions. They phosphorylated in vitro the small heat shock protein (hsp27) or beta-casein and were stimulated 3- and 4.5-fold, respectively, in cells that had been exposed to IL-1 or TNF for 10 min. They were distinct from the mitogen-activated protein kinases, whose activation by IL-1 or TNF has been reported recently. The hsp27 kinase phosphorylated its substrate on serine residues. Its molecular mass was estimated to be 45-kDa by gel filtration. It is probably involved in the increase in hsp27 phosphorylation seen in intact cells. The beta-casein kinase behaved as a 65-kDa protein. It phosphorylated its substrate on serine and threonine residues and had little activity on alpha-casein. The hsp27 and beta-casein kinases were not activated after stimulation of the cells with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). In contrast, the MAP kinases were activated to a similar extent (2-3-fold) by the cytokines and by PMA. The hsp27- and beta-casein kinases probably correspond to novel enzymes whose mechanisms of activation may be independent of protein kinase C or MAP kinases.

  2. Phenylalanine flux and gastric emptying are not affected by replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet of adult cats consuming frequent small meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tycholis, Tanya J; Cant, John P; Osborne, Vern R; Shoveller, Anna K

    2014-08-12

    Decreasing the rate of protein emptying from the stomach may improve efficiency of utilization of dietary amino acids for protein deposition. Some studies in rats and humans have shown casein to be more slowly released from the stomach than whey protein. To test if casein induces a slower rate of gastric emptying in cats than whey protein, L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine (Phe) was dosed orally into 9 adult cats to estimate gastric emptying and whole-body Phe flux. Concentrations of indispensable amino acids in plasma were not significantly affected by dietary protein source. First-pass splanchnic extraction of Phe was not different between diets and averaged 50% (SEM = 3.8%). The half-time for gastric emptying averaged 9.9 min with casein and 10.3 min with whey protein, and was not significantly different between diets (SEM = 1.7 min). Phenylalanine fluxes were 45.3 and 46.5 μmol/(min · kg) for casein- and whey-based diets, respectively (SEM = 4.7 μmol/(min · kg)). In adult cats fed frequent small meals, the replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet does not affect supply or utilization of amino acids. These two milk proteins appear to be equally capable of meeting the dietary amino acid needs of cats.

  3. Effect Of Five Proteases Including Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Papain, Proteinase K And Trypsin On Antioxidative Activities Of Casein Hydrolysate From Goat Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Guowei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation was related to the pathogenesis of human diseases. Adequate intake of antioxidant activity of food can reduce the levels of free radicals, prevent lipid peroxidation, and help the body against diseases. In the paper, casein from goat milk was hydrolyzed by five commercial proteases, namely, Alcalase, flavourzyme, papain, proteinase K and trypsin. The antioxidant activities of casein hydrolysates were assessed by evaluating hydrolysis degree, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, metal-chelating activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The results showed as follows: the DH of proteinase K, Alcalase, and trypsin were higher significantly than those of papain and flavourzyme. The Fe2+-chelation activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity of casein hydrolysates from goat milk by Alcalase was higher than the others, the DPPH scavenging activities of casein hydrolysates by Alcalase and papain was higher than the others and the DPPH scavenging activities by Alcalase and papain had no significant diffierence (p<0.05, so the optimal proteinase for hydrolysis casein from goat milk to produce antioxidant peptide was Alcalase.

  4. Lupin protein isolate versus casein modifies cholesterol excretion and mRNA expression of intestinal sterol transporters in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Juliane; Geissler, Stefanie; Schutkowski, Alexandra; Brandsch, Corinna; Kluge, Holger; Duranti, Marcello M; Keller, Sylvia; Jahreis, Gerhard; Hirche, Frank; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2014-02-03

    Lupin proteins exert hypocholesterolemic effects in man and animals, although the underlying mechanism remains uncertain. Herein we investigated whether lupin proteins compared to casein modulate sterol excretion and mRNA expression of intestinal sterol transporters by use of pigs as an animal model with similar lipid metabolism as humans, and cellular cholesterol-uptake by Caco-2 cells. Two groups of pigs were fed cholesterol-containing diets with either 230 g/kg of lupin protein isolate from L. angustifolius or 230 g/kg casein, for 4 weeks. Faeces were collected quantitatively over a 5 d period for analysis of neutral sterols and bile acids by gas chromatographically methods. The mRNA abundances of intestinal lipid transporters were analysed by real-time RT-PCR. Cholesterol-uptake studies were performed with Caco-2 cells that were incubated with lupin conglutin γ, phytate, ezetimibe or albumin in the presence of labelled [4-14C]-cholesterol. Pigs fed the lupin protein isolate revealed lower cholesterol concentrations in total plasma, LDL and HDL than pigs fed casein (P isolate compared to pigs that received casein (+57.1%; P isolate than in those who received casein (P isolate is attributable to an increased faecal output of cholesterol and a reduced intestinal uptake of cholesterol. The findings indicate phytate as a possible biofunctional ingredient of lupin protein isolate.

  5. Isothermal calorimetry study of calcium caseinate and whey protein isolate edible films cross-linked by heating and gamma-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letendre, M; D'Aprano, G; Delmas-Patterson, G; Lacroix, M

    2002-10-09

    The contribution of thermal and radiative treatments as well as the presence of some excipients, namely glycerol, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), pectin, and agar, on the formation of protein-protein interactions as well as the formation and loss of protein-water interactions was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry in an isothermal mode. Protein-water interactions were assessed through measurement of the heat of the wetting parameter. Isothermal calorimetry measurements pointed out that gamma-irradiation does not favor protein-water interactions, as reflected by its endothermic contribution (P biofilm formulations, glycerol generated the most important losses of protein-water interactions, as inferred by its significant (P < or = 0.05) endothermic impact on the heat of wetting values.

  6. Lead in calcium supplements (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Khalid, N.

    2011-01-01

    Lead present in calcium supplements is of grave concern as some lead levels have been measured up to the extent of regulatory limit set by the United States. Calcium supplements inevitably get contaminated with lead as both are naturally occurring elements. Therefore, it is imperative to indicate its level in these supplements in order to create awareness among consumers. In this study, a sophisticated analytical technique, atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyze Pb contents in 27 commonly consumed Ca supplements manufactured by different national and multinational companies. The daily intake of lead through these supplements was calculated. Only 10% of the calcium supplements analyzed met the criteria of acceptable Pb levels (1.5 mu g/daily dose) in supplements/consumer products set by the United States. It was also found that Pb intake was highest in chelated calcium supplements 28.5 mu g/daily dose, whereas lowest 0.47 mu g/daily dose through calcium supplements with vitamin D formulation. In order to validate our results from the study conducted, IAEA-certified reference material (animal bone, H-5) was analyzed for its Pb levels. The levels of Pb determined were quite in good agreement with the certified values. (author)

  7. Casein-Coated Fe5C2 Nanoparticles with Superior r2 Relaxivity for Liver-Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowger, Taku A.; Tang, Wei; Zhen, Zipeng; Hu, Kai; Rink, David E.; Todd, Trever J.; Wang, Geoffrey D.; Zhang, Weizhong; Chen, Hongmin; Xie, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have been extensively used as T2 contrast agents for liver-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The applications, however, have been limited by their mediocre magnetism and r2 relaxivity. Recent studies show that Fe5C2 nanoparticles can be prepared by high temperature thermal decomposition. The resulting nanoparticles possess strong and air stable magnetism, suggesting their potential as a novel type of T2 contrast agent. To this end, we improve the synthetic and surface modification methods of Fe5C2 nanoparticles, and investigated the impact of size and coating on their performances for liver MRI. Specifically, we prepared 5, 14, and 22 nm Fe5C2 nanoparticles and engineered their surface by: 1) ligand addition with phospholipids, 2) ligand exchange with zwitterion-dopamine-sulfonate (ZDS), and 3) protein adsorption with casein. It was found that the size and surface coating have varied levels of impact on the particles' hydrodynamic size, viability, uptake by macrophages, and r2 relaxivity. Interestingly, while phospholipid- and ZDS-coated Fe5C2 nanoparticles showed comparable r2, the casein coating led to an r2 enhancement by more than 2 fold. In particular, casein coated 22 nm Fe5C2 nanoparticle show a striking r2 of 973 mM-1s-1, which is one of the highest among all of the T2 contrast agents reported to date. Small animal studies confirmed the advantage of Fe5C2 nanoparticles over iron oxide nanoparticles in inducing hypointensities on T2-weighted MR images, and the particles caused little toxicity to the host. The improvements are important for transforming Fe5C2 nanoparticles into a new class of MRI contrast agents. The observations also shed light on protein-based surface modification as a means to modulate contrast ability of magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:26379788

  8. Casein-Coated Fe5C2 Nanoparticles with Superior r2 Relaxivity for Liver-Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowger, Taku A; Tang, Wei; Zhen, Zipeng; Hu, Kai; Rink, David E; Todd, Trever J; Wang, Geoffrey D; Zhang, Weizhong; Chen, Hongmin; Xie, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have been extensively used as T2 contrast agents for liver-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The applications, however, have been limited by their mediocre magnetism and r2 relaxivity. Recent studies show that Fe5C2 nanoparticles can be prepared by high temperature thermal decomposition. The resulting nanoparticles possess strong and air stable magnetism, suggesting their potential as a novel type of T2 contrast agent. To this end, we improve the synthetic and surface modification methods of Fe5C2 nanoparticles, and investigated the impact of size and coating on their performances for liver MRI. Specifically, we prepared 5, 14, and 22 nm Fe5C2 nanoparticles and engineered their surface by: 1) ligand addition with phospholipids, 2) ligand exchange with zwitterion-dopamine-sulfonate (ZDS), and 3) protein adsorption with casein. It was found that the size and surface coating have varied levels of impact on the particles' hydrodynamic size, viability, uptake by macrophages, and r2 relaxivity. Interestingly, while phospholipid- and ZDS-coated Fe5C2 nanoparticles showed comparable r2, the casein coating led to an r2 enhancement by more than 2 fold. In particular, casein coated 22 nm Fe5C2 nanoparticle show a striking r2 of 973 mM(-1)s(-1), which is one of the highest among all of the T2 contrast agents reported to date. Small animal studies confirmed the advantage of Fe5C2 nanoparticles over iron oxide nanoparticles in inducing hypointensities on T2-weighted MR images, and the particles caused little toxicity to the host. The improvements are important for transforming Fe5C2 nanoparticles into a new class of MRI contrast agents. The observations also shed light on protein-based surface modification as a means to modulate contrast ability of magnetic nanoparticles.

  9. Whey Protein Delays Gastric Emptying and Suppresses Plasma Fatty Acids and Their Metabolites Compared to Casein, Gluten, and Fish Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan; Schou, Simon S; Holmer-Jensen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Whey protein has been demonstrated to improve fasting lipid and insulin response in overweight and obese individuals. To establish new hypotheses for this effect and to investigate the impact of stomach emptying, we compared plasma profiles after intake of whey isolate (WI), casein, gluten (GLU......), and cod (COD). Obese, nondiabetic subjects were included in the randomized, blinded, crossover meal study. Subjects ingested a high fat meal containing one of the four protein sources. Plasma samples were collected at five time points and metabolites analyzed using LC-Q-TOF-MS. In contrast to previous...

  10. Caseinomacropeptide self-association is dependent on whether the peptide is free or restricted in kappa-casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.L.; Frokiaer, H.; Topp, C.

    2005-01-01

    . This study was carried out to study the nature of CMP aggregates and to clarify which conditions affect aggregation of CMP. The apparent MW of CMP at different pH values was determined using size-exclusion chromatography. Caseinomacropeptide was further characterized by immunochemical analysis, sodium...... dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, N-terminal sequencing, and mass spectrometry. The hydrophobicity of CMP was studied by means of 1-anilino-naphthalene-8-sulfonic acid binding experiments. Four CMP products prepared by different methods were studied: CMP produced by enzymatic (chymosin or pepsin) hydrolysis of kappa-casein...

  11. Effects of casein, whey and soy proteins on volumetric bone density and bone strength in immunocompromised piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Bjørnvad, Charlotte; Mølgaard, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Summary:Background and aims: Bone-promoting effect of different proteins in early life, under immunocompromised conditions, is unknown. We investigated effects of milk- and plantderived proteins on bone development in immunocompromised piglets. Methods: Newborn, colostrum-deprived piglets were...... sick and were early euthanised. After 6 days, bone density (peripheral quantitative computed tomography), bone mechanical strength (three-point bending test) and serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) (immunoassay) were measured in the surviving piglets (casein n=5, whey n=9, soy n=5)....

  12. Comparison of milk oligosaccharides between goats with and without the genetic ability to synthesize αs1-casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyrand, M; Dallas, D C; Caillat, H; Bouvier, F; Martin, P; Barile, D

    2013-07-01

    Milk oligosaccharides (OS)-free complex carbohydrates-confer unique health benefits to the nursing neonate. Though human digestive enzymes cannot degrade these sugars, they provide nourishment to specific commensal microbes and act as decoys to prevent the adhesion of pathogenic micro-organisms to gastrointestinal cells. At present, the limited quantities of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) impede research on these molecules and their potential applications in functional food formulations. Considerable progress has been made in the study of OS structures; however, the synthetic pathways leading to their synthesis in the mammary gland are poorly understood. Recent studies show that complex OS with fucose and N -acetyl neuraminic acid (key structural elements of HMO bioactivity) exist in goat milk. Polymorphisms in the CSN1S1 locus, which is responsible for synthesis of α s1 -casein, affect lipid and casein micelle structure in goat milk. The present study sought to determine whether CSN1S1 polymorphisms also influence goat milk oligosaccharide (GMO) production and secretion. The GMO compositions of thirty-two goat milk samples, half of which were from genotype A/A (α s1 -casein producers) and half from genotype O/O (α s1 -casein non-producers), were determined with nanoflow liquid chromatography high-accuracy mass spectrometry. This study represents the most exhaustive characterization of GMO to date. A systematic and comprehensive GMO library was created, consolidating information available in the literature with the new findings. Nearly 30 GMO, 11 of which were novel, were confirmed via tandem mass spectrometric analyses. Six fucosylated OS were identified; 4 of these matched HMO compositions and three were identified for the first time in goat milk. Importantly, multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that the OS profiles of the A/A and O/O genotype milks could be discriminated by the fucosylated OS. Quantitative analysis revealed that the goat milk

  13. Characterization of the alpha and beta subunits of casein kinase 2 by far-UV CD spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G; Brockel, C; Boldyreff, B

    1992-01-01

    , comparison of the far-UV CD spectrum of reconstituted CK-2 with the spectra of the subunits indicates that conformational changes occur in the backbone region upon association. Such changes may explain the increased enzyme activity of the holoenzyme relative to that of the alpha subunit itself. In contrast......, no changes in the far-UV CD spectrum of the alpha subunit are observed in the presence of casein or the synthetic decapeptide substrate RRRDDDSDDD. Furthermore, the alpha-helical structure of the alpha subunit (but not the beta subunit) can be increased in the presence of stoichiometric amounts of heparin...

  14. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; hide

    2002-01-01

    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P parathyroid hormone levels (P animals (P = 0.057). However, mean arterial pressure was elevated (P animals fed low- compared with high-calcium diets (P parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  15. Calcium signaling and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mauro Cunha Xavier; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Goulart, Vânia A M; Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Gomes, Katia N; Ulrich, Henning; Resende, Rodrigo R

    2015-11-01

    Cell proliferation is orchestrated through diverse proteins related to calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling inside the cell. Cellular Ca(2+) influx that occurs first by various mechanisms at the plasma membrane, is then followed by absorption of Ca(2+) ions by mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and, finally, there is a connection of calcium stores to the nucleus. Experimental evidence indicates that the fluctuation of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum provides a pivotal and physiological role for cell proliferation. Ca(2+) depletion in the endoplasmatic reticulum triggers Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane in an phenomenon called store-operated calcium entries (SOCEs). SOCE is activated through a complex interplay between a Ca(2+) sensor, denominated STIM, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and a Ca(2+) channel at the cell membrane, denominated Orai. The interplay between STIM and Orai proteins with cell membrane receptors and their role in cell proliferation is discussed in this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro digestibility of beta-casein and beta-lactoglobulin under simulated human gastric and duodenal conditions: A multi-laboratory evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandalari, G.; Adel-Patient, K.; Barkholt, Vibeke

    2009-01-01

    Initially the resistance to digestion of two cow's milk allergens, beta-casein, and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg), was compared using a "high-protease assay" and a "low-protease assay" in a single laboratory. The low-protease assay represents an alternative standardised protocol mimicking conditions...... found in the gastrointestinal tract. For the high-protease assay, both proteins were incubated with either pepsin or pancreatin and digestion monitored by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography. The low-protease assay involved...... gastroduodenal digestion in the presence or absence of phosphatidylcholine (PC). Both beta-casein and beta-Lg were susceptible to hydrolysis by pepsin and pancreatin in the high-protease assay. In contrast, the kinetics of beta-casein digestion in the low-protease assay were slower, beta-Lg being pepsin...

  17. Homo-fermentative production of D-lactic acid by Lactobacillus sp. employing casein whey permeate as a raw feed-stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Saurav; Srikanth, Katla; Limaye, Anil M; Sivaprakasam, Senthilkumar

    2014-06-01

    Casein whey permeate (CWP), a lactose-enriched dairy waste effluent, is a viable feed stock for the production of value-added products. Two lactic acid bacteria were cultivated in a synthetic casein whey permeate medium with or without pH control. Lactobacillus lactis ATCC 4797 produced D-lactic acid (DLA) at 12.5 g l(-1) in a bioreactor. The values of Leudking-Piret model parameters suggested that lactate was a growth-associated product. Batch fermentation was also performed employing CWP (35 g lactose l(-1)) with casein hydrolysate as a nitrogen supplement in a bioreactor. After 40 h, L. lactis produced 24.3 g lactic acid l(-1) with an optical purity >98 %. Thus CWP may be regarded as a potential feed-stock for DLA production.

  18. The effect of variable calcium and very low calcium diets on human calcium metabolism. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of a very low calcium diet, with variable high and low protein intake, on the dynamics of calcium metabolism and the mechanism of calciuretics, are examined. The experiment, using male subjects, was designed to study the role of intestinal calcium absorption on urinary calcium excretion, and the rate of production of endogeneously secreted calcium in the gastrointestinal tract. The study showed an average of 70% fractional absorption rate during very low calcium intake, and that a decrease in renal tubular reabsorption of calcium is responsible for calciuretic effects of high protein intake. The study also indicates that there is a tendency to develop osteoporosis after long periods of low calcium intake, especially with a concurrent high protein intake.

  19. Leveraging the coronary calcium scan beyond the coronary calcium score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bos (Daniel); M.J.G. Leening (Maarten)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Non-contrast cardiac computed tomography in order to obtain the coronary artery calcium score has become an established diagnostic procedure in the clinical setting, and is commonly employed in clinical and population-based research. This state-of-the-art review paper

  20. Calcium fortification of breakfast cereal enhances calcium absorption in children without affecting iron absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, S A; Griffin, I J; Davila, P; Liang, L

    2001-10-01

    Provision of calcium-fortified foods may represent an important component of improving the calcium intake of children. We sought to determine whether the addition of calcium to cereal would have a net positive effect on calcium absorption without decreasing iron absorption. Twenty-seven children, 6 to 9 years of age, were provided two servings per day (30 g of cereal per serving) of either a low (39 mg/serving) or fortified (156 mg/serving) calcium-containing cereal product for 14 days. Calcium absorption was measured by using stable isotopes added to milk (extrinsically labeled) and to the calcium-fortified cereal (intrinsically labeled). Fractional calcium absorption from the fortified cereal was virtually identical to that from milk. Fractional absorption of calcium from milk did not differ significantly when given with enriched or low-calcium-containing cereal. Total calcium absorption increased from 215 +/- 45 mg/d to 269 +/- 45 mg/d with the addition of the calcium-fortified cereal (P Iron absorption was similar when children received the calcium-fortified cereal or unfortified cereal. The addition of a moderate amount of calcium to a cereal product was beneficial to calcium absorption and did not interfere with iron absorption. Use of calcium-fortified food products may be considered a practical approach to increasing the calcium intake of children.

  1. Vitamin D and intestinal calcium absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, Sylvia; Dhawan, Puneet; Porta, Angela; Mady, Leila J; Seth, Tanya

    2011-12-05

    The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase calcium absorption from the intestine. Calcium is absorbed by both an active transcellular pathway, which is energy dependent, and by a passive paracellular pathway through tight junctions. 1,25Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) the hormonally active form of vitamin D, through its genomic actions, is the major stimulator of active intestinal calcium absorption which involves calcium influx, translocation of calcium through the interior of the enterocyte and basolateral extrusion of calcium by the intestinal plasma membrane pump. This article reviews recent studies that have challenged the traditional model of vitamin D mediated transcellular calcium absorption and the crucial role of specific calcium transport proteins in intestinal calcium absorption. There is also increasing evidence that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can enhance paracellular calcium diffusion. The influence of estrogen, prolactin, glucocorticoids and aging on intestinal calcium absorption and the role of the distal intestine in vitamin D mediated intestinal calcium absorption are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Calcium fertilization increases the concentration of calcium in sapwood and calcium oxalate in foliage of red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle; Jon H. Connolly; Rakesh Minocha; Jody Jellison

    2009-01-01

    Calcium cycling plays a key role in the health and productivity of red spruce forests in the northeastern US. A portion of the flowpath of calcium within forests includes translocation as Ca2+ in sapwood and accumulation as crystals of calcium oxalate in foliage. Concentrations of Ca in these tree tissues have been used as markers of...

  3. Extra-intestinal calcium handling contributes to normal serum calcium levels when intestinal calcium absorption is suboptimal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieben, Liesbet; Verlinden, Lieve; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Torrekens, Sophie; Moermans, Karen; Schoonjans, Luc; Carmeliet, Peter; Carmeliet, Geert

    2015-12-01

    The active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D, is a crucial regulator of calcium homeostasis, especially through stimulation of intestinal calcium transport. Lack of intestinal vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling does however not result in hypocalcemia, because the increased 1,25(OH)2D levels stimulate calcium handling in extra-intestinal tissues. Systemic VDR deficiency, on the other hand, results in hypocalcemia because calcium handling is impaired not only in the intestine, but also in kidney and bone. It remains however unclear whether low intestinal VDR activity, as observed during aging, is sufficient for intestinal calcium transport and for mineral and bone homeostasis. To this end, we generated mice that expressed the Vdr exclusively in the gut, but at reduced levels. We found that ~15% of intestinal VDR expression greatly prevented the Vdr null phenotype in young-adult mice, including the severe hypocalcemia. Serum calcium levels were, however, in the low-normal range, which may be due to the suboptimal intestinal calcium absorption, renal calcium loss, insufficient increase in bone resorption and normal calcium incorporation in the bone matrix. In conclusion, our results indicate that low intestinal VDR levels improve intestinal calcium absorption compared to Vdr null mice, but also show that 1,25(OH)2D-mediated fine-tuning of renal calcium reabsorption and bone mineralization and resorption is required to maintain fully normal serum calcium levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimation of presynaptic calcium currents and endogenous calcium buffers at the frog neuromuscular junction with two different calcium fluorescent dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry eSamigullin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At the frog neuromuscular junction, under physiological conditions, the direct measurement of calcium currents and of the concentration of intracellular calcium buffers—which determine the kinetics of calcium concentration and neurotransmitter release from the nerve terminal—has hitherto been technically impossible. With the aim of quantifying both Ca2+ currents and the intracellular calcium buffers, we measured fluorescence signals from nerve terminals loaded with the low-affinity calcium dye Magnesium Green or the high-affinity dye Oregon Green BAPTA-1, simultaneously with microelectrode recordings of nerve-action potentials and end-plate currents. The action-potential-induced fluorescence signals in the nerve terminals developed much more slowly than the postsynaptic response. To clarify the reasons for this observation and to define a spatiotemporal profile of intracellular calcium and of the concentration of mobile and fixed calcium buffers, mathematical modeling was employed. The best approximations of the experimental calcium transients for both calcium dyes were obtained when the calcium current had an amplitude of 1.6 ± 0.08 рА and a half-decay time of 1.2 ± 0.06 ms, and when the concentrations of mobile and fixed calcium buffers were 250 ± 13 µM and 8 ± 0.4 mM, respectively. High concentrations of endogenous buffers define the time course of calcium transients after an action potential in the axoplasm, and may modify synaptic plasticity.

  5. Estimation of presynaptic calcium currents and endogenous calcium buffers at the frog neuromuscular junction with two different calcium fluorescent dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samigullin, Dmitry; Fatikhov, Nijaz; Khaziev, Eduard; Skorinkin, Andrey; Nikolsky, Eugeny; Bukharaeva, Ellya

    2014-01-01

    At the frog neuromuscular junction, under physiological conditions, the direct measurement of calcium currents and of the concentration of intracellular calcium buffers-which determine the kinetics of calcium concentration and neurotransmitter release from the nerve terminal-has hitherto been technically impossible. With the aim of quantifying both Ca(2+) currents and the intracellular calcium buffers, we measured fluorescence signals from nerve terminals loaded with the low-affinity calcium dye Magnesium Green or the high-affinity dye Oregon Green BAPTA-1, simultaneously with microelectrode recordings of nerve-action potentials and end-plate currents. The action-potential-induced fluorescence signals in the nerve terminals developed much more slowly than the postsynaptic response. To clarify the reasons for this observation and to define a spatiotemporal profile of intracellular calcium and of the concentration of mobile and fixed calcium buffers, mathematical modeling was employed. The best approximations of the experimental calcium transients for both calcium dyes were obtained when the calcium current had an amplitude of 1.6 ± 0.08 pA and a half-decay time of 1.2 ± 0.06 ms, and when the concentrations of mobile and fixed calcium buffers were 250 ± 13 μM and 8 ± 0.4 mM, respectively. High concentrations of endogenous buffers define the time course of calcium transients after an action potential in the axoplasm, and may modify synaptic plasticity.

  6. Precalving and early lactation factors that predict milk casein and fertility in the transition dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Rachael M; Hall, Jenianne K; Westwood, Charlotte T; Celi, Pietro; Lean, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=82) of either high or low genetic merit (GM) (for milk fat + protein yield) were allocated to 1 of 2 diets in a 2×2 factorial design. Diets differed in the ratio of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) to rumen-degradable protein (37% RUP vs. 15% RUP) and were fed from 21 d precalving to 150 days in milk. This study evaluated the effects of these diets and GM on concentrations of milk casein (CN) variants and aimed to identify precalving and early lactation variables that predict milk CN and protein yield and composition and fertility of dairy cows. It explored the hypothesis that low milk protein content is associated with lower fertility and extended this hypothesis to also evaluate the association of CN contents with fertility. Yields (kg/d) for CN variants were 0.49 and 0.45 of α-CN, 0.38 and 0.34 of β-CN, 0.07 and 0.06 for κ-CN, and 0.10 and 0.09 of γ-CN for high- and low-RUP diets, respectively. Increased RUP increased milk, CN, and milk protein yields. Increased GM increased milk protein and γ-CN yields and tended to increase milk CN yield. The effects of indicator variables on CN variant yields and concentrations were largely consistent, with higher body weight and α-amino nitrogen resulting in higher yields, but lower concentrations. An increase in cholesterol was associated with decreased CN variant concentrations, and disease lowered CN variant yield. A diet high in RUP increased proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy from 41 to 58%. Increased precalving metabolizable protein (MP) balance decreased the proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy when evaluated in a model containing CN percentage, milk protein yield, diet, and GM. This finding suggests that the positive effects of increasing dietary RUP on fertility may be curvilinear because cows with a very positive MP balance before calving were less fertile than those with a lower, but positive, MP balance. Prepartum MP balance was important

  7. Antimicrobial activity of thyme oil co-nanoemulsified with sodium caseinate and lecithin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jia; Michael Davidson, P; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-10-01

    Emulsions of essential oils are investigated as potential intervention strategies to improve food safety and are preferably prepared from generally-recognized-as-safe emulsifiers. Stable thyme oil nanoemulsions can be prepared using combinations of sodium caseinate (NaCas) and soy lecithin. The objective of the present research was to study the antimicrobial activity of these nanoemulsions and understand the impacts of emulsifier concentrations. 10 g/L thyme oil was emulsified using combinations of (A) 4% w/v NaCas and 0.5% w/v lecithin or (B) 2% w/v NaCas and 0.25% w/v lecithin by high shear homogenization. Combination A resulted in a transparent emulsion with a mean droplet diameter of 82.5 nm, while it was turbid for the Combination B with an average diameter of 125.5 nm. Nanoemulsified thyme oil exhibited quicker initial reductions of bacteria than free thyme oil in tryptic soy broth (TSB) and 2% reduced fat milk at 21 °C, due to the improved dispersibility of thyme oil. In TSB with 0.3 g/L thyme oil, it took less than 4 and 8 h for two nanoemulsions and free oil, respectively, to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes to be below the detection limit. The emulsified thyme oil also demonstrated more significant reductions of bacteria initially (4 and 8 h) in 2% reduced fat milk than free thyme oil. Especially, with 4 g/L thyme oil, the nanoemulsion prepared with Combination A reduced L. monocytogenes to be below the detection limit after 72 h, while the free thyme oil treatment was only bacteriostatic and the turbid nanoemulsion treatment with Combination B resulted in about 1 log CFU/mL reduction. However, E. coli O157:H7 treated with 3 g/L emulsified thyme oil and Salmonella Enteritidis treated with 4 g/L emulsified thyme oil recovered to a higher extent in milk than free thyme oil treatments. The increased concentration of emulsifiers in Combination A apparently reduced the antimicrobials available to alter bacteria membrane permeability

  8. Calcium and Vitamin D Supplement Prescribing Practices among Providers Caring for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Are We Addressing Bone Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shylaja Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD have several risk factors for low bone mineral density. The gluten-free, casein-free (GFCF diet is a complementary therapy sometimes used in ASD that raises concerns for the adequacy of calcium and vitamin D intake. This study evaluated the prescribing practices of calcium and vitamin D supplements and the practice of checking 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD levels by providers in 100 children with ASD, 50 of whom were on the GFCF diet. Fifty-two percent and 46% of children on the GFCF diet were on some form of vitamin D and calcium supplements, respectively, compared to 18% and 14% of those not on this diet. Twenty-four percent of children in the GFCF group had a documented 25(OHD level compared to none in the non-GFCF group. The data highlight a gap in calcium and vitamin D supplement prescribing practices among providers caring for children with ASD as well as a gap in the practice of checking 25(OHD levels.

  9. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Health Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Download PDFs English Espanol ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin D ...

  10. Dairy Dilemma: Are You Getting Enough Calcium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to grow and stay strong. The body also needs vitamin D to absorb calcium. Nutrition surveys have shown ... found in dairy products. How much calcium and vitamin D you need depends on your age and other factors. If ...

  11. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. 21 CFR 182.8223 - Calcium pyrophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8223 Calcium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Calcium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  13. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and calcium sensing receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrgan, Monija; Nielsen, Sanne; Brixen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a lifelong, benign autosomal dominant disease characterized by hypercalcemia, normal to increased parathyroid hormone level, and a relatively low renal calcium excretion. Inactivation of the calcium-sensing receptor in heterozygous patients results in...

  14. Relationship between nano/micro structure and physical properties of TiO2-sodium caseinate composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-de-Oca-Ávalos, Juan Manuel; Altamura, Davide; Candal, Roberto Jorge; Scattarella, Francesco; Siliqi, Dritan; Giannini, Cinzia; Herrera, María Lidia

    2018-03-01

    Films obtained by casting, starting from conventional emulsions (CE), nanoemulsions (NE) or their gels, which led to different structures, with the aim of explore the relationship between structure and physical properties, were prepared. Sodium caseinate was used as the matrix, glycerol as plasticizer, glucono-delta-lactone as acidulant to form the gels, and TiO 2 nanoparticles as reinforcement to improve physical behavior. Structural characterization was performed by SAXS and WAXS (Small and Wide Angle X-ray Scattering, respectively), combined with confocal and scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that the incorporation of the lipid phase does not notably modify the mechanical properties of the films compared to solution films. Films from NE were more stable against oil release than those from CE. Incorporation of TiO 2 improved mechanical properties as measured by dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA) and uniaxial tensile tests. TiO 2 macroscopic spatial distribution homogeneity and the nanostructure character of NE films were confirmed by mapping the q-dependent scattering intensity in scanning SAXS experiments. SAXS microscopies indicated a higher intrinsic homogeneity of NE films compared to CE films, independently of the TiO 2 load. NE-films containing structures with smaller and more homogeneously distributed building blocks showed greater potential for food applications than the films prepared from sodium caseinate solutions, which are the best known films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Casein and soya-bean protein have different effects on whole body protein turnover at the same nitrogen balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Kondrup, J; Elsner, Petteri

    1994-01-01

    , or hydrolysed soya-bean protein at a level of 9.1 g/kg BW per d. The diets, which were isoenergetic with the same carbohydrate: fat ratio, were given as a continuous intragastric infusion for at least 4 d. During the last 19 h 15N-glycine (a primed continuous infusion) was given intragastrically and 15N...... synthesis. The protein diets produced a positive N balance which was independent of the protein source. Intact and hydrolysed casein increased protein synthesis 2.6- and 2.0-fold respectively, compared with the protein-free diet. Protein degradation increased 1.4- and 1.2-fold respectively. Hydrolysed soya......-bean protein did not increase protein synthesis but decreased protein degradation by 35% compared with the protein-free diet. Compared with the hydrolysed soya-bean protein, intact casein resulted in 2.2- and 2.8-fold higher rates of protein synthesis and degradation respectively. These results are not easily...

  16. Genetic polymorphism of beta-casein gene and its associations with milk traits in Holstein-Friesian cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Bugeac

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In animal breeding finding and using effective genetic markers for improving important traits it is a continuous challenge. In this respect, several genetic markers were associated in cattle with increased milk production or a better milk quality. This proved to be a useful tool for improving certain traits by selecting individuals carriers of allelic variants that have an effect on a desirable trait. In particular, positive associations between certain alleles found at the milk protein loci with some milk production traits convincingly demonstrated in several cattle breeds. Although, in some cases the results obtained in various studies were not in agreement and varied between breeds or populations. Therefore the objective of this study was to establish associations (if any between alleles found at the beta-casein (CSN2 locus and some milk production traits (milk yield and fat, protein, casein and lactose content in a Holstein-Friesian population reared in Romania. Genetic variants at CSN2 locus were identified by isoelectric focusing (IEF of milk samples. In order to determine milk composition the samples were analysed with MilkoScan FT 6000. For the statistical analysis of data SPSS v.19 for Windows was used. At the CSN2 locus four alleles and seven genotypes were identified in the analyzed cattle population. The cows carriers of CSN2 A2 allele produced the highest milk yield and the highest milk protein content, this result being in agreement with other previous studies.

  17. Hydrolysis with Cucurbita ficifolia serine protease reduces antigenic response to bovine whey protein concentrate and αs-casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babij, Konrad; Bajzert, Joanna; Dąbrowska, Anna; Szołtysik, Marek; Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Lubec, Gert; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Willak-Janc, Ewa; Chrzanowska, Józefa

    2015-11-01

    In the present study the effect of hydrolysis with non-commercial Cucurbita ficifolia serine protease on a reduction of the IgE and IgG binding capacity of whey protein concentrate and αs-casein was investigated. The intensity of the protein degradation was analyzed by the degree of hydrolysis, the free amino groups content and RP-HPLC. The ability to bind the antibodies by native proteins and their hydrolysates was determined using a competitive ELISA test. Deep hydrolysis contributed to a significant reduction of immunoreactive epitopes present in WPC. In the case of IgE and IgG present in the serum pool of children with CMA, the lowest binding capacity was detected in the 24 h WPC hydrolysate, where the inhibition of the reaction with native WPC was ≤23 and ≤60 %, respectively. The analysis of the IgG reactivity in the antiserum of the immunized goat showed that the lowest antibody binding capacity was exhibited also by 24 h WPC hydrolysate at a concentration of 1000 μg/ml where the inhibition of the reaction with nWPC was ≤47 %. One-hour hydrolysis of α-casein was sufficient to significant reduction of the protein antigenicity, while the longer time (5 h) of hydrolysis probably lead to the appearance of new epitopes reactive with polyclonal.

  18. Iron (II)-chelating activity of buffalo αS-casein hydrolysed by corolase PP, alcalase and flavourzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Arvind; Bajaj, Rajesh; Mann, Bimlesh; Lata, Kiran

    2015-06-01

    Iron is a vital substance for human health which participates in many biochemical reactions. It also act as initiator for many harmful oxidative process. Buffalo αS-casein enriched fraction (80 %) was hydrolysed independently by corolase PP (H1), alcalase (H2), flavourzyme (H3) and sequentially by alcalase-flavourzyme (H4). After ultrafiltration (10 and 3 kDa) hydrolysates were analysed for their iron chelation activity using ferrozine. For H1 group of hydrolysates highest iron (II)-chelation activity (265.58 μM Fe(2+/)mg protein) was found after 8 h of hydrolysis for H2 (267.56 μM Fe(2+/)mg protein) and H3 group of hydrolysates (380.68 μM Fe(2+/)mg protein) after 6 h of hydrolysis. Sequential hydrolysis was not effective for iron (II)-chelation activity. 3 kDa fractions show higher iron (II)-chelation activity than 10 kDa fraction. Flavourzyme was more effective for generation of iron (II)-chelating peptides from buffalo αS-casein.

  19. Encapsulation of ferulic acid ethyl ester in caseinate to suppress off-flavor formation in UHT milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yongguang; Zhong, Qixin

    2017-12-15

    Phenolic compounds can principally suppress the off-flavor development in ultrahigh temperature (UHT) treated milk, but little has been studied for lipophilic phenolic compounds that are to be encapsulated for even distribution in milk. The objective of this work was to study physicochemical properties of ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) encapsulated in sodium caseinate and the inhibition of volatile formation after UHT processing. The capsules had an average hydrodynamic diameter of 246.2±10.9nm, a polydispersity index of 0.26±0.01, and a zeta-potential of -31.72±0.74mV. The capsules and the encapsulated FAEE were stable after heating at 138°C for 16min and UV radiation at 365nm for 32h. The encapsulated FAEE at a level of 0.18-1.42mg/mL suppressed the formation of 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline in model UHT milk by 32.8-63.2% after 30-day storage at 30°C. Therefore, FAEE encapsulated in caseinate can be potentially used to improve the quality of UHT milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Calcium-tolerant anionic surfactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooreman, Alexander

    1995-01-01

    One of the problems of applying anionic surfactants in, for example, laundry detergents is the precipitation of calcium salts. Much effort has been directed towards avoiding precipitation. There are at least three ways for tackling the problem. The first involves the use of a large quantity of

  1. Calcium – how and why?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    muscle cells, he demonstrated that it was only calcium that could cause the muscle fibre to contract (Heilbrunn and Wiercinski 1947). Later in 1952, Sandow proposed the term excitation-contraction coupling for this phe- nomenon. Heilbrunn's views are best summarized by the following statement published in 1937 in his ...

  2. Discovery and Development of Calcium Channel Blockers

    OpenAIRE

    Godfraind, Théophile

    2017-01-01

    In the mid 1960s, experimental work on molecules under screening as coronary dilators allowed the discovery of the mechanism of calcium entry blockade by drugs later named calcium channel blockers. This paper summarizes scientific research on these small molecules interacting directly with L-type voltage-operated calcium channels. It also reports on experimental approaches translated into understanding of their therapeutic actions. The importance of calcium in muscle contraction was discovere...

  3. Glycosylation of κ-casein: genetic and nongenetic variation and effects on rennet coagulation properties of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfatti, V; Chiarot, G; Carnier, P

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate genetic and nongenetic variation in the degree of glycosylation of κ-casein (κ-CN) and to estimate the effects of glycosylated (G-κCN) and unglycosylated (U-κCN) κ-CN contents on milk coagulation properties of Simmental cows. Measures of contents of the main casein fractions, G-κCN, and U-κCN, and assessment of genotypes at CSN2, CSN3, and BLG were obtained by reversed-phase HPLC analysis of 2,015 individual milk samples. Content of total κ-CN (κ-CNtot, g/L) was the sum of G-κCN and U-κCN, and the glycosylation degree of κ-CN (GD) was measured as the ratio of G-κCN to κ-CNtot. Rennet coagulation time (RCT) and curd firmness were measured by using a computerized renneting meter. Measures of curd firmness were adjusted for RCT before statistical analysis. Variance components of κ-CNtot, G-κCN, U-κCN, and GD were estimated by Bayesian procedures and univariate linear models that included the class effects of the herd-test-day, parity, days in milk, genotypes at milk protein genes, and animal. These class effects, those of G-κCN, U-κCN, and content of other caseins, and the linear effect of milk pH were accounted for by models investigating the influence of κ-CN glycosylation on coagulation properties. The GD ranged from 22 to 76%, indicating that variation in G-κCN depends on the variation both in κ-CNtot and in the efficiency of κ-CN glycosylation. Genotype CSN3 BB exhibited high G-κCN and U-κCN relative to that of CSN3 AA. Heritability of G-κCN, U-κCN, and GD was high and ranged from 0.46 to 0.56. A large proportion of the additive genetic variation in G-κCN and U-κCN was attributable to influence of CSN and BLG, but these genes did not affect variation in GD, and across-genotypes differences in the trait were small or trivial. Average RCT of the milk class having the highest G-κCN was, on average, 2min (standard deviation 0.5) shorter than that of the lowest class. Conversely, U-κCN and

  4. Absorbability of calcium from calcium-bound phosphoryl oligosaccharides in comparison with that from various calcium compounds in the rat ligated jejunum loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To-o, Kenji; Kamasaka, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Takahisa; Kuriki, Takashi; Saeki, Shigeru; Nakabou, Yukihiro

    2003-08-01

    Calcium-bound phosphoryl oligosaccharides (POs-Ca) were prepared from potato starch. Their solubility and in situ absorbability as a calcium source were investigated by comparing with the soluble calcium compounds, calcium chloride and calcium lactate, or insoluble calcium compounds, calcium carbonate and dibasic calcium phosphate. The solubility of POs-Ca was as high as that of calcium chloride and about 3-fold higher than that of calcium lactate. An in situ experiment showed that the intestinal calcium absorption rate of POs-Ca was almost comparable with that of the soluble calcium compounds, and was significantly higher (pcalcium groups. Moreover, the total absorption rate of a 1:1 mixture of the calcium from POs-Ca and a whey mineral complex (WMC) was significantly higher (psoluble calcium source with relatively high absorption in the intestinal tract.

  5. Mechanism of store-operated calcium entry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C/IP3 signalling pathway results in a rapid release of calcium from its intracellular stores, eventually leading to depletion of these stores. Calcium store depletion triggers an influx of extracellular calcium across the plasma membrane, a mechanism known as the ...

  6. Physicochemical characterization of zinc-substituted calcium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to form synthetic calcium phosphates incorporated with. Zn, such as zinc acetate and calcium acetate, 65% nitric acid, sodium hydrogen phosphate, trietanoloamine, 0.025 M. EDTA, calcein indicator and 35–38% hydrochloric acid were purchased from POCh SA. Other reagents necessary for determining amount of calcium, ...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  9. Modularized study of human calcium signalling pathway

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    The idea is used here to break human calcium signalling pathway into simple entities known as ... [Nayak L and De R K 2007 Modularized study of human calcium signalling pathway; J. Biosci. 32 1009–1017] http://www.ias.ac.in/ ..... cellular physiology of intracellular calcium stores; Physiol. Rev. 74 595–636. Bertram R ...

  10. Calcium Orthophosphate-Based Bioceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Various types of grafts have been traditionally used to restore damaged bones. In the late 1960s, a strong interest was raised in studying ceramics as potential bone grafts due to their biomechanical properties. A bit later, such synthetic biomaterials were called bioceramics. In principle, bioceramics can be prepared from diverse materials but this review is limited to calcium orthophosphate-based formulations only, which possess the specific advantages due to the chemical similarity to mammalian bones and teeth. During the past 40 years, there have been a number of important achievements in this field. Namely, after the initial development of bioceramics that was just tolerated in the physiological environment, an emphasis was shifted towards the formulations able to form direct chemical bonds with the adjacent bones. Afterwards, by the structural and compositional controls, it became possible to choose whether the calcium orthophosphate-based implants remain biologically stable once incorporated into the skeletal structure or whether they were resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of regenerative bioceramics was developed and such formulations became an integrated part of the tissue engineering approach. Now calcium orthophosphate scaffolds are designed to induce bone formation and vascularization. These scaffolds are often porous and harbor different biomolecules and/or cells. Therefore, current biomedical applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics include bone augmentations, artificial bone grafts, maxillofacial reconstruction, spinal fusion, periodontal disease repairs and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Perspective future applications comprise drug delivery and tissue engineering purposes because calcium orthophosphates appear to be promising carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and various types of cells.

  11. Computational study of a calcium release-activated calcium channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Keka; Shantappa, Anil

    2016-05-01

    The naturally occurring proteins that form hole in membrane are commonly known as ion channels. They play multiple roles in many important biological processes. Deletion or alteration of these channels often leads to serious problems in the physiological processes as it controls the flow of ions through it. The proper maintenance of the flow of ions, in turn, is required for normal health. Here we have investigated the behavior of a calcium release-activated calcium ion channel with pdb entry 4HKR in Drosophila Melanogaster. The equilibrium energy as well as molecular dynamics simulation is performed first. The protein is subjected to molecular dynamics simulation to find their energy minimized value. Simulation of the protein in the environment of water and ions has given us important results too. The solvation energy is also found using Charmm potential.

  12. The Calcium Wave of Vegetable Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TD. Geydan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an essential nutrient for plants; it is involved in developmental processes and in responses to biotic and abiotic factors. Several signals that modify the calcium concentration in the cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus and/or plastids have been observed. These changes in the calcium concentration in the cell interior are rapidly returned to basal levels, in the meantime, innumerable and complex signaling cascades. This note exposes the mechanisms of calcium transport through the cell membranes of the entrance of calcium in the plant cells.

  13. An evaluation of casein hydrolyzate in combination with antibiotic for bacterial cure and subsequent increase in milk yield in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silanikove Nissim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A 3-yr study examined whether prepartum treatment with casein hydrolyzate in combination with antibiotic, as routinely used in Israel for dry cow therapy, improved bacterial cure and increased milk yield in subsequent lactations in comparison with treatment with antibiotic alone. The vast majority of bacterial isolates in samples collected prior to drying-off comprised coagulase-negative staphylococci, mostly as Staph. chromogenes. Results Bacterial cure associated with the combined treatment was 73.8% in cows, significantly higher than the 51.7% cure recorded when cows were treated only with antibiotic. During the study, the annual milk yield of non-casein hydrolyzate treated and treated control cows increased at ~2% per year, which is consistent with the national annual increase attributed to genetic selection. In cows treated with casein hydrolyzate the increase was 9% (above the 2% expected in the first lactation after the treatment, and 6.3% (above the 4% expected for 2 years in the second lactation after treatment. These increases were significantly higher than those in the controls and those expected through genetic improvement. Conclusions Treatment with casein hydrolyzate at dry-off was shown to be a viable mean to eliminate existing environmental bacterial infection, and to improve milk yield in the next lactation.

  14. Influence of human diets containing casein, soy protein isolate, and soy protein concentrate on serum cholesterol and lipoproteins in humans, rabbits and rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaij, van J.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that feeding animals such as rabbits with semipurified diets containing animal proteins, as for example casein, results in hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. On the other hand, diets containing vegetable proteins such as soybean protein maintain low levels of serum

  15. Influence of Casein-Phospholipid Combinations as Emulsifier on the Physical and Oxidative Stability of Fish Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of casein (0.3% w/w) and phospholipid (0.5% w/w) emulsifier combinations on the physical and oxidative stability of 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions at pH 7. For that purpose, three phospholipids were evaluated, namely, lecithin (LC), ph...

  16. A casein hydrolysate based formulation attenuates obesity and associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis in LDLr-/-.Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, Marieke H.; Kleemann, Robert; Morrison, Martine C.; Verheij, Joanne; Salic, Kanita; van Tol, Eric A. F.; Kooistra, Teake; Wielinga, Peter Y.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity frequently associates with the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and atherosclerosis. Chronic inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT) seems to be an important driver of these manifestations. This study investigated a combination of an extensively hydrolyzed casein

  17. In vitro digestibility of beta-casein and beta-lactoglobulin under simulated human gastric and duodenal conditions: a multi-laboratory evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandalari, G.; Adel-Patient, K.; Barkholt, V.; Baro, C.; Bennett, L.; Bublin, M.; Gaier, S.; Graser, G.; Ladics, G. S.; Mierzejewska, D.; Vassilopoulou, E.; Vissers, Y. M.; Zuidmeer, L.; Rigby, N. M.; Salt, L. J.; Defernez, M.; Mulholland, F.; Mackie, A. R.; Wickham, M. S. J.; Mills, E. N. C.

    2009-01-01

    Initially the resistance to digestion of two cow's milk allergens, beta-casein, and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg), was compared using a "high-protease assay" and a "low-protease assay" in a single laboratory. The low-protease assay represents an alternative standardised protocol mimicking conditions

  18. Efficient autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of the beta-subunit by casein kinase-2 require the integrity of an acidic cluster 50 residues downstream from the phosphoacceptor site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Meggio, F; Pinna, L A

    1994-01-01

    Various beta-mutants were investigated either as subunits or as substrates for casein kinase 2 (CK-2), in the absence of presence of polylysine. A total of 21 beta-mutants were characterized for their susceptibility to autophosphorylation, by combining them in equimolar amounts with the recombina...

  19. DEGRADATION AND DEBITTERING OF A TRYPTIC DIGEST FROM BETA-CASEIN BY AMINOPEPTIDASE-N FROM LACTOCOCCUS-LACTIS SUBSP CREMORIS WG2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TAN, PST; VANKESSEL, TAJM; VANDEVEERDONK, FLM; ZUURENDONK, PF; BRUINS, AP; KONINGS, WN

    The mode of action of purified aminopeptidase N from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2 on a complex peptide mixture of a tryptic digest from bovine beta-casein was analyzed. The oligopeptides produced in the tryptic digest before and after aminopeptidase N treatment were identified by analysis

  20. Setting up of a liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry method for the detection of caseins in food. A comparison with ELISA method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gastaldi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of caseins in food matrices is usually performed by using the competitiveenzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique. However such a technique suffers from a number of limitations. Among these, the applicability to a narrow concentration range, a non linear (logarithmic response, a non-negligible cross-reactivity and a high cost per kit. At the time of the completion of this study, in case of ELISA positive feedback, there was poor availability in the literature of finding reliable instrumental methods able to determine both qualitatively and quantitatively this class of substances. In the present study, a liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS/MS instrumental method was developed with a high resolution mass spectrometer (Orbitrap. Real samples of sausages in which caseins were detected by ELISA technique were analysed. A casein-free sample of ham was used as a blank. The analytical characteristics of the instrumental method were compared with those of a commercial ELISA test, declared specific for α- and β-casein.

  1. Calcium Intake in the Moroccan Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebbar El-houcine

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calcium intakes of elderly people are often below the recommendations which are 1200 mg/day. The advancing age may be accompanied by a loss of capacity to absorb additional calcium in case of deficiency. The aim of our work is to evaluate the calcium intake in the Moroccan elderly. Methods: The version translated into Arabic dialect Fardellone questionnaire is tested on a sample of 159 subjects aged over 60 years. Results: The study population includes 87 women (55%, 72 men (45%. The mean calcium intake was respectively 3078 mg by week (that means 440 mg/day. The assessment of calcium intake showed a deficiency and the average consumption of calcium per day is significantly lower than the recommended daily amount for this population. The comparison of both gender found a deficit higher among women than among men. Conclusion: Evaluation of the calcium intake is an essential tool for better management of metabolic bone diseases.

  2. Exopolysaccharides regulate calcium flow in cariogenic biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Astasov-Frauenhoffer

    Full Text Available Caries-associated biofilms induce loss of calcium from tooth surfaces in the presence of dietary carbohydrates. Exopolysaccharides (EPS provide a matrix scaffold and an abundance of primary binding sites within biofilms. The role of EPS in binding calcium in cariogenic biofilms is only partially understood. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between the calcium dissolution rates and calcium tolerance of caries-associated bacteria and yeast as well as to examine the properties of EPS to quantify its binding affinity for dissolved calcium. Calcium dissolution was measured by dissolution zones on Pikovskaya's agar. Calcium tolerance was assessed by isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC by adding CaCl2 to the bacterial cultures. Acid-base titration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy were used to identify possible functional groups responsible for calcium binding, which was assessed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC. Lactobacillus spp. and mutans streptococci demonstrated calcium dissolution in the presence of different carbohydrates. All strains that demonstrated high dissolution rates also revealed higher rates of calcium tolerance by IMC. In addition, acidic functional groups were predominantly identified as possible binding sites for calcium ions by acid-base titration and FTIR. Finally, ITC revealed EPS to have a higher binding affinity for calcium compared, for example, to lactic acid. In conclusion, this study illustrates the role of EPS in terms of the calcium tolerance of cariogenic microbiota by determining the ability of EPS to control free calcium concentrations within the biofilms as a self-regulating mode of action in the pathogenesis of dental caries.

  3. Trafficking of neuronal calcium channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiss, Norbert; Zamponi, G. W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2017), č. článku NS20160003. ISSN 2059-6553 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13556S; GA MŠk 7AMB15FR015 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : calcium channel * neuron * trafficing Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) http://www. neuron alsignaling.org/content/1/1/NS20160003

  4. Compton profile of calcium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Rajasekaran, L.; Ramamurthy, N.; Shivaramu

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The Compton profile of polycrystalline calcium fluoride is measured using 661.6 keV γ- radiation from a 137 Cs source. The experimental data are compared with HF-LCAO model calculation computed using CRYSTAL98 program, Hartree-Fock free atom theoretical values and with the other available experimental data. Experimental results are found to be in good agreement with the HF-LCAO model calculations and in qualitative agreement with Hartree-Fock free atom theoretical values

  5. Oral administration of D-003, a mixture of very long chain fatty acids prevents casein-induced endogenous hypercholesterolemia in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, R; Más, R; Pérez, J; González, R M; Jiménez, S

    2004-01-01

    D-003 is a mixture of very long chain saturated fatty acids (VLCSFA) purified from sugar cane wax with cholesterol-lowering effects proven in animal models and healthy volunteers. D-003 inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis through the regulation of HMG-CoA reductase activity. Rabbits fed diets enriched with casein develop endogenous hypercholesterolemia (EH), making them a very useful model for determining the mechanism of action of drugs affecting lipids. We examined whether D-003 prevented EH. Rabbits were fed a casein diet for 4 weeks, administered simultaneously with D-003 (5, 50, and 100 mg.kg-1.day-1). As expected, nontreated rabbits became hypercholesterolemic; however, as early as 15 days following administration, the treated group (50 and 100 mg.kg-1.day-1) had significantly decreased total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Triglycerides were not affected; however, at study completion, HDL-C levels significantly increased at all the doses assayed. D-003 inhibited de novo synthesis of cholesterol, since the incorporation of 3H2O into sterols in the liver and proximal small bowel was significantly depressed. Also, D-003 significantly raised the rate of removal of [125I]-LDL from serum and significantly elevated [125I]-LDL binding activity to liver homogenates. Taken together, these results show that the efficacy of D-003 in reducing casein-derived hypercholesterolemia could involve, at least partially, an inhibition of hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis, which may elicit a decreased cholesterol concentration in hepatocytes, preventing the loss of hepatic LDL receptors induced by casein administration. However, since casein-induced hypercholesterolemia is also a consequence of a stimulation of cholesterol absorption in the lumen and an increase of the output of cholesterol associated with LDL, the effect of D-003 on cholesterol absorption and LDL synthesis by the liver should be investigated.

  6. Determination of the quaternary structural states of bovine casein by small-angle X-ray scattering: submicellar and micellar forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumosinski, T.F.; Pessen, H.; Farrell, H.M. Jr.; Brumberger, H.

    1988-11-01

    Whole casein occurs in milk as a spherical colloidal complex of protein and salts called the casein micelle, with approximate average radii of 650 A as determined by electron microscopy. Removal of Ca2+ is thought to result in dissociation into smaller noncolloidal protein complexes called submicelles. Hydrodynamic and light scattering studies on whole casein submicelles suggest that they are predominantly spherical particles with a hydrophobic core. To investigate whether the integrity of a hydrophobically stabilized submicellar structure is preserved in the electrostatically stabilized colloidal micellar structure, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments were undertaken on whole casein from bovine milk under submicellar and micellar conditions. All SAXS results showed multiple Gaussian character and could be analyzed best by nonlinear regression in place of the customary Guinier plot. Analysis of the SAXS data for submicellar casein showed two Gaussian components which could be interpreted in terms of a particle with two concentric regions of different electron density, designated as a compact core and a loose shell, respectively. The submicelle was found to have an average molecular weight of 285,000 +/- 14,600 and a mass fraction of higher electron density core, k, of 0.212 +/- 0.028. The radius of gyration of the core, RC, was 37.98 +/- 0.01 A with an electron density difference, delta rho C, of 0.0148 +/- 0.0014 e-/A3, while the loose region had values of RL = 88.2 +/- 0.8 A with delta rho L = 0.0091 +/- 0.0003 e-/A3. Calculated distance distribution functions and normalized scattering curves also were consistent with an overall spherical particle with a concentric spherical inner core of higher electron density. (Abstract Truncated)

  7. Effects of breed and casein genetic variants on protein profile in milk from Swedish Red, Danish Holstein, and Danish Jersey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Frida; Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Johansson, M

    2014-01-01

    , and technological properties of milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between casein (CN) genetic variants and detailed protein composition in Swedish and Danish dairy milk. Milk and DNA samples were collected from approximately 400 individual cows each of 3 Scandinavian dairy breeds......In selecting cows for higher milk yields and milk quality, it is important to understand how these traits are affected by the bovine genome. The major milk proteins exhibit genetic polymorphism and these genetic variants can serve as markers for milk composition, milk production traits......: Swedish Red (SR), Danish Holstein (DH), and Danish Jersey (DJ). The protein profile with relative concentrations of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and αS1-, αS2-, κ-, and β-CN was determined for each milk sample using capillary zone electrophoresis. The genetic variants of the αS1- (CSN1S1), β- (CSN2...

  8. Role of casein kinase 1A1 in the biology and targeted therapy of del(5q) MDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Rebekka K.; Ademà, Vera; Heckl, Dirk; Järås, Marcus; Mallo, Mar; Lord, Allegra M.; Chu, Lisa P.; McConkey, Marie E.; Kramann, Rafael; Mullally, Ann; Bejar, Rafael; Solé, Francesc; Ebert, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The Casein kinase 1A1 gene (CSNK1A1) is a putative tumor suppressor gene located in the common deleted region for del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). We generated a murine model with conditional inactivation of Csnk1a1 and found that Csnk1a1 haploinsufficiency induces hematopoietic stem cell expansion and a competitive repopulation advantage whereas homozygous deletion induces hematopoietic stem cell failure. Based on this finding, we found that heterozygous inactivation of Csnk1a1 sensitizes cells to a CSNK1 inhibitor relative to cells with two intact alleles. In addition, we identified recurrent somatic mutations in CSNK1A1 on the non-deleted allele of patients with del(5q) MDS. These studies demonstrate that CSNK1A1 plays a central role in the biology of del(5q) MDS and is a promising therapeutic target. PMID:25242043

  9. Casein kinase 2 regulates the active uptake of the organic osmolyte taurine in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jack H; Clement, Christian A; Friis, Martin B

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition of the constitutively active casein kinase 2 (CK2) with 2-dimethyl-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidasole stimulates the Na(+)-dependent taurine influx via the taurine transporter TauT in NIH3T3 cells. CK2 inhibition reduces the TauT mRNA level and increases the localization of Tau......T to ER but has no detectable effect on TauT protein expression. On the other hand, CK2 inhibition increases the affinity of TauT towards Na(+ )and reduces the Na(+)/taurine stoichiometry for active taurine uptake. It is suggested that CK2 controls the cellular taurine uptake in unperturbated NIH3T3 cells......, i.e., inhibition of CK2 increases the affinity of TauT towards Na(+) and hence Na(+)-dependent taurine uptake....

  10. Conformational changes to deamidated wheat gliadins and b-casein upon adsorption to oil-water emulsion interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Benjamin T.; Zhai, Jiali; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning

    2012-01-01

    -helix content of the protein decreased from 35% (in the native form) to 16.3% while the percentage of b-sheet and unordered structure increased upon deamidation. The secondary structure of deamidated gliadins was largely unchanged upon adsorption to both tricaprin/water and hexadecane/water interfaces...... distinctive N-terminal hydrophilic and C-terminal hydrophobic domains. Unlike b-casein which contains no cysteine residue, gliadins have a large number of intramolecular disulphide bonds located in the Cterminal hydrophobic domain which constrains the conformational freedom of this protein upon adsorption...... to oil/water interfaces. The hydrophobicity of the oil phase also has an impact on the conformation of each protein upon adsorption to the oil/water interfaces e systematic trends were observed between oil phase polarity from: i) tryptophan fluorescence emission maxima, and ii) the ahelix content...

  11. Fabrication, characterization and antimicrobial activities of thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized by sodium caseinate-chitosan hydrochloride double layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqiong; Niu, Yuge; Luo, Yangchao; Ge, Mei; Yang, Tian; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Wang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized with sodium caseinate (SC) and chitosan hydrochloride (CHC) were prepared and characterized. The SC stabilized nanoparticles had well-defined size range and negatively charged surface. Due to the presence of SC, the stabilized zein nanoparticles showed a shift of isoelectric point from 6.18 to 5.05, and had a desirable redispersibility in water at neutral pH after lyophilization. Coating with CHC onto the SC stabilized zein nanoparticles resulted in increased particle size, reversal of zeta potential value from negative to positive, and improved encapsulation efficiency. Both thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles and SC stabilized zein nanoparticles had a spherical shape and smooth surface, while the surfaces of CHC-SC stabilized zein nanoparticles seemed rough and had some clumps. Encapsulated thymol was more effective in suppressing gram-positive bacterium than un-encapsulated thymol for a longer time period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Targeted microRNA expression in dairy cattle directs production of β-lactoglobulin-free, high-casein milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabed, Anower; Wagner, Stefan; McCracken, Judi; Wells, David N; Laible, Goetz

    2012-10-16

    Milk from dairy cows contains the protein β-lactoglobulin (BLG), which is not present in human milk. As it is a major milk allergen, we wished to decrease BLG levels in milk by RNAi. In vitro screening of 10 microRNAs (miRNAs), either individually or in tandem combinations, identified several that achieved as much as a 98% knockdown of BLG. One tandem construct was expressed in the mammary gland of an ovine BLG-expressing mouse model, resulting in 96% knockdown of ovine BLG in milk. Following this in vivo validation, we produced a transgenic calf, engineered to express these tandem miRNAs. Analysis of hormonally induced milk from this calf demonstrated absence of BLG and a concurrent increase of all casein milk proteins. The findings demonstrate miRNA-mediated depletion of an allergenic milk protein in cattle and validate targeted miRNA expression as an effective strategy to alter milk composition and other livestock traits.

  13. Ultra-small angle neutron scattering and X-ray tomography studies of caseinate-hydroxyapatite microporous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritzoulis, C., E-mail: critzou@food.teithe.gr [ATEI of Thessaloniki, PO Box 141, 57400 Thessaloniki (Greece); Strobl, M. [Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy (former Hahn-Meitner Institute), SF1, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Panayiotou, C. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus (Greece); Choinka, G. [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy (former Hahn-Meitner Institute), SF1, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Tsioptsias, C. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus (Greece); Vasiliadou, C. [KEPAMAH, 22nd April 1, 63100 Polygyros, Chalkidiki (Greece); Vasilakos, V. [University of Crete, Department of Biology, 71409 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Beckmann, F.; Herzen, J.; Donath, T. [Institute for Materials Research, GKSS-Research Center, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2010-09-01

    Microporous hydroxyapatite-protein composite materials of bimodal pore size distribution, intended for utilization as bone regeneration scaffolds, have been prepared by means of milk caseinate emulsion droplet templating. Ultra-small angle neutron scattering (USANS) has been utilized in order to obtain information on the size distribution of the smaller pores (less than tens of micrometers), as compared to the emulsions that have been initially used as templates. The samples were subsequently visualized in 3 dimensions using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomography, where information concerning the larger pores has been obtained. The examination of the samples confirmed a strong correlation between the size of the templating droplets and the produced pores. In addition, 1 {mu}m-sized pores appear to adhere to the surface of 20-70 {mu}m pores, providing an irregular surface on the large pore walls, a desirable feature in bone-mimicking materials.

  14. The Role of Calcium in Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, C. D.; Sanchez, S. D.

    1991-01-01

    Calcium requirements may vary throughout the lifespan. During the growth years and up to age 25 to 30, it is important to maximize dietary intake of calcium to maintain positive calcium balance and achieve peak bone mass, thereby possibly decreasing the risk of fracture when bone is subsequently lost. Calcium intake need not be greater than 800 mg/day during the relatively short period of time between the end of bone building and the onset of bone loss (30 to 40 years). Starting at age 40 to 50, both men and women lose bone slowly, but women lose bone more rapidly around the menopause and for about 10 years after. Intestinal calcium absorption and the ability to adapt to low calcium diets are impaired in many postmenopausal women and elderly persons owing to a suspected functional or absolute decrease in the ability of the kidney to produce 1,25(OH)2D2. The bones then become more and more a source of calcium to maintain critical extracellular fluid calcium levels. Excessive dietary intake of protein and fiber may induce significant negative calcium balance and thus increase dietary calcium requirements. Generally, the strongest risk factors for osteoporosis are uncontrollable (e.g., sex, age, and race) or less controllable (e.g., disease and medications). However, several factors such as diet, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use are lifestyle related and can be modified to help reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

  15. Calcium Impact on Milk Gels Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutina, Glykeria

    enriched dairy products. Calcium gels can be produced by addition of a calcium salt and heat treatment at temperatures higher than 70 oC for several minutes. The combination of heat treatment and calcium addition to milk with pH values between 6.6 and 5.6, will produce calcium milk gels with unique...... and dense gel structure and with little seperation of whey due to participation of calcium to the final gel structure. On the other hand, the combination of heat treatment and calcium addition to milk with pH values lower than 5.6 will still produce gel structures which are dominated by the decrease of p...... to be formed. In addition the low amount of micellar calcium caused a more compact gel structure with many protein aggregates. The results of this study highlighted the importance of calcium for the formation of acid, calcium and rennet gels. The content and the interactions of calcium with proteins during...

  16. Rapid screening assay for calcium bioavailability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhrsen, K.R.; Hudepohl, G.R.; Smith, K.T.

    1986-01-01

    Calcium bioavailability has been studied by numerous techniques. The authors report here the use of the gamma emitting isotope of calcium ( 47 Ca) in a whole body retention assay system. In this system, calcium sources are administered by oral gavage and subsequent counts are determined and corrected for isotopic decay. Unlike iron and zinc retention curves, which exhibit a 2-3 day equilibration period, calcium reaches equilibration after 24 hours. Autoradiographic analysis of the femurs indicate that the newly absorbed calcium is rapidly distributed to the skeletal system. Moreover, the isotope is distributed along the entire bone. Comparisons of calcium bioavailability were made using intrinsic/extrinsic labeled milk from two species i.e. rat and goat as well as CaCO 3 . In addition, extrinsic labeled cow milk was examined. In the rat, the extrinsic labeled calcium from milk was better absorbed than the intrinsic calcium. This was not the case in goat milk or the calcium carbonate which exhibited no significant differences. Chromatographic analysis of the labeled milk indicates a difference in distribution of the 47 Ca. From these data, the authors recommend the use of this assay system in calcium bioavailability studies. The labeling studies and comparisons indicate caution should be used, however, in labeling techniques and species milk comparison

  17. Potential sources of mouth drying in beverages fortified with dairy proteins: A comparison of casein- and whey-rich ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, C A; Lewis, M J; Gosney, M A; Methven, L

    2014-03-01

    Oral nutritional supplement drinks (ONS) are beverages high in dairy proteins that are prescribed to individuals at risk of malnutrition. Consumption of ONS is poor in elderly care facilities, with patients commenting that the sensory attributes of these drinks reduce their enjoyment and willingness to consume. Mouth drying is an attribute of ONS found to build with repeated consumption, which may further limit liking of these products. This study investigated the sources of drying sensations by sequential profiling, with a trained sensory panel rating a range of model milk systems and ONS over repeated sips and during after-effects. Sequential profiling found that fortification of milk with both caseinate and whey protein concentrate significantly increased the perception of mouth drying over repeated consumption, increasing by between 35 and 85% over consumption of 40mL. Enrichment of ONS with either whey protein concentrate or milk protein concentrate to a total protein content of 8.7% (wt/wt) resulted in whey and casein levels of 4.3:4.4% and 1.7:7.0% respectively. The product higher in whey protein was substantially more mouth drying, implying that whey proteins may be the most important contributor to mouth drying in ONS. However, efforts to mask mouth drying of protein-fortified milk by increasing sweetness or fat level were unsuccessful at the levels tested. Increasing the viscosity of protein-fortified milk led to a small but significant reduction in mouth drying. However, this approach was not successful when tested within complete ONS. Further analysis is required into the mechanism of protein-derived mouth drying to mask negative sensations and improve the enjoyment and consumption of protein-rich ONS. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Risks and Benefits of Calcium Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Soo Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between calcium supplementation and adverse cardiovascular events has recently become a topic of debate due to the publication of two epidemiological studies and one meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. The reports indicate that there is a significant increase in adverse cardiovascular events following supplementation with calcium; however, a number of experts have raised several issues with these reports such as inconsistencies in attempts to reproduce the findings in other populations and questions concerning the validity of the data due to low compliance, biases in case ascertainment, and/or a lack of adjustment. Additionally, the Auckland Calcium Study, the Women's Health Initiative, and many other studies included in the meta-analysis obtained data from calcium-replete subjects and it is not clear whether the same risk profile would be observed in populations with low calcium intakes. Dietary calcium intake varies widely throughout the world and it is especially low in East Asia, although the risk of cardiovascular events is less prominent in this region. Therefore, clarification is necessary regarding the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events following calcium supplementation and whether this relationship can be generalized to populations with low calcium intakes. Additionally, the skeletal benefits from calcium supplementation are greater in subjects with low calcium intakes and, therefore, the risk-benefit ratio of calcium supplementation is likely to differ based on the dietary calcium intake and risks of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases of various populations. Further studies investigating the risk-benefit profiles of calcium supplementation in various populations are required to develop population-specific guidelines for individuals of different genders, ages, ethnicities, and risk profiles around the world.

  19. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    OpenAIRE

    Eder, Anja; Bading, Hilmar

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nuc...

  20. Intracellular Calcium Mobilization in Response to Ion Channel Regulators via a Calcium-Induced Calcium Release Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Petrou, Terry; Olsen, Herv?r L.; Thrasivoulou, Christopher; Masters, John R.; Ashmore, Jonathan F.; Ahmed, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    Free intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i), in addition to being an important second messenger, is a key regulator of many cellular processes including the cell membrane potential, proliferation and apoptosis. In many cases, the mobilization of [Ca2+]i is controlled by intracellular store activation and calcium influx. We have investigated the effect of several ion channel modulators, which have been used to treat a range of human diseases, on [Ca2+]i release, by ratiometric calcium imaging. We sho...