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Sample records for casei ssp rhamnosus

  1. Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus enhances non specific protection against Plasmodium chabaudi AS in mice Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus aumenta la protección no específica contra Plasmodium chabaudi AS en ratones

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    Federico Martínez-Gómez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the capacity of Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus to enhance resistance against Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: NIH mice were IP injected with viable lactobacillus casei seven days (LC1 group or 7 and 14 days (LC2 group before the challenge (day 0 with Plasmodium chabaudi parasitized red blood cells (pRBC. Control mice were inoculated with pRBC only. When parasitaemia was resolved, naive mice were injected with spleen cells from each group. The parasitaemia was measured. Nitric oxide (NO. in serum was determined. RESULTS: Mice from the LC1 group presented a reduction in parasitaemia, with a prepatent period of five days, parasitaemia lasted 11 days, and the peak was (36.3 % pRBC on the 12th day post-infection. Mice from the LC2 group showed a prepatent period of five days, parasitaemia lasted eight days, and the peak (30 % pRBC was of on the 11th day. In the control, the prepatent period was three days, the parasitaemia lasted 15 days, and the peak (51% pRBC was on day nine. Mice inoculated with spleen cells from the LC2 group showed a prepatent period of 21 days, parasitaemia lasted seven days, and the peak (13.5% pRBC was on the 26th day. CONCLUSION: L. casei enhanced nonspecific resistance to P. chabaudi, as indicated by longer prepatent periods, reduced parasitaemia, and reduction in the viability of the parasites recovered from the spleen of infected mice, along with high concentrations of NO. in serum.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la capacidad de Lactobacillus casei de aumentar la resistencia a la infección con Plasmodium chabaudi en ratones. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Ratones NIH fueron inyectados intraperitonealmente con L. casei viable 7 días (grupo LC1 o 7 y 14 días (grupo LC2 antes del reto (día 0 con glóbulos rojos parasitados (GRP con P. chabaudi. Los testigos fueron inoculados con GRP solamente. Cuando la parasitemia se resolvió, se inocularon ratones limpios con células de bazo de cada grupo. Se

  2. Comparative Genomic and Functional Analysis of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains Marketed as Probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douillard, F.P.; Ribbera, A.; Järvinen, H.M.; Kant, R.; Pietilä, T.E.; Randazzo, C.L.; Paulin, L.; Laine, P.K.; Caggia, C.; Ossowski, von I.; Reunanen, J.; Satokari, R.; Salminen, S.; Palva, A.; Vos, de W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Four Lactobacillus strains were isolated from marketed probiotic products, including L. rhamnosus strains from Vifit (Friesland Campina) and Idoform (Ferrosan) and L. casei strains from Actimel (Danone) and Yakult (Yakult Honsa Co.). Their genomes and phenotypes were characterized and compared in de

  3. Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL 1224 as biological controls for Aspergillus flavus strains.

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    Bueno, Dante J; Silva, Julio O; Oliver, Guillermo; González, Silvia N

    2006-10-01

    The effect of two species of lactobacilli, Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL 1224, on growth of different Aspergillus flavus strains was determined. A. flavus strains (Ap, TR2, or CF80) were grown in LAPTg broth at 37 degrees C for 7 days as a single culture and in association with L. casei CRL 431 or L. rhamnosus CRL 1224 at initial inoculum ratios of 1:1, 1:10, and 1:100. In most cases, the mixed cultures had a lower fungal growth and a lower pH than the control cultures. Mycelial dry weight was reduced to 73 and 85% using L. casei CRL 431 and L. rhamnosus CRL 1224, respectively. The pH decrease in mixed cultures when the fungal mycelial dry weight is reduced may play an important role in inhibition. The number of viable bacteria was variably affected by fungal growth. These results indicate that L. casei CRL 431 and L. rhamnosus CRL 1224 may be useful as potential biocontrol agent against A. flavus.

  4. Characterization of nitrite degradation by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013.

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    Dong-mei Liu

    Full Text Available Nitrites are potential carcinogens. Therefore, limiting nitrites in food is critically important for food safety. The nitrite degradation capacity of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 was investigated in pickle fermentation. After LCR 6013 fermentation for 120 h at 37°C, the nitrite concentration in the fermentation system was significantly lower than that in the control sample without the LCR 6013 strain. The effects of NaCl and Vc on nitrite degradation by LCR 6013 in the De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS medium were also investigated. The highest nitrite degradations, 9.29 mg/L and 9.89 mg/L, were observed when NaCl and Vc concentrations were 0.75% and 0.02%, respectively in the MRS medium, which was significantly higher than the control group (p ≤ 0.01. Electron capture/gas chromatography and indophenol blue staining were used to study the nitrite degradation pathway of LCR 6013. The nitrite degradation products contained N2O, but no NH4(+. The LCR 6013 strain completely degraded all NaNO2 (50.00 mg/L after 16 h of fermentation. The enzyme activity of NiR in the periplasmic space was 2.5 times of that in the cytoplasm. Our results demonstrated that L. casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 can effectively degrade nitrites in both the pickle fermentation system and in MRS medium by NiR. Nitrites are degraded by the LCR 6013 strain, likely via the nitrate respiration pathway (NO2(->NO->N2O->N2, rather than the aammonium formation pathway (dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, DNRA, because the degradation products contain N2O, but not NH4(+.

  5. Cell-free supernatants from probiotic Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG decrease colon cancer cell invasion in vitro.

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    Escamilla, Juanita; Lane, Michelle A; Maitin, Vatsala

    2012-08-01

    Probiotics have been shown to have a preventative role in colorectal carcinogenesis but research concerning their prophylactic potential in the later stages of colorectal cancer, specifically metastasis is limited. This study explored the potential of cell-free supernatants (CFS) from 2 probiotic Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, to inhibit colon cancer cell invasion by influencing matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity and levels of the tight junction protein zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) in cultured metastatic human colorectal carcinoma cells. HCT-116 cells were treated with CFS from L. casei, L. rhamnosus, or Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (a gut commensal); or with uninoculated bacterial growth media. Treatment with CFS from both Lactobacillus sp. decreased colorectal cell invasion but treatment with CFS from B. thetaiotaomicron did not. CFS from both Lactobacillus sp. decreased MMP-9 and increased ZO-1 protein levels. L. rhamnosus CFS also lowered MMP-9 activity. To begin elucidating the secreted bacterial factor conveying these responses, Lactobacillus sp. CFS were fractionated into defined molecular weight ranges and cell invasion assessed. Fractionation revealed that the inhibitory activity was contained primarily in the >100 kDa and 50-100 kDa fractions, suggesting the inhibitory compound may be a macromolecule such as a protein, nucleic acid, or a polysaccharide.

  6. Impact of different cryoprotectants on the survival of freeze-dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei/paracasei during long-term storage.

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    Jofré, A; Aymerich, T; Garriga, M

    2015-01-01

    The production of long shelf-life highly concentrated dried probiotic/starter cultures is of paramount importance for the food industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of glucose, lactose, trehalose, and skim milk applied alone or combined upon the survival of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, Lactobacillus casei/paracasei CTC1677 and L. casei/paracasei CTC1678 during freeze-drying and after 39 weeks of storage at 4 and 22 °C. Immediately after freeze-drying, the percentage of survivors was very high (≥ 94%) and only slight differences were observed among strains and cryoprotectants. In contrast, during storage, survival in the dried state depended on the cryoprotectant, temperature and strain. For all the protectants assayed, the stability of the cultures was remarkably higher when stored under refrigeration (4 °C). Under these conditions, skim milk alone or supplemented with trehalose or lactose showed the best performance (reductions ≤ 0.9 log units after 39 weeks of storage). The lowest survival was observed during non-refrigerated storage and with glucose and glucose plus milk; no viable cells left at the end of the storage period. Thus, freeze-drying in the presence of appropriate cryoprotectants allows the production of long shelf-life highly concentrated dried cultures ready for incorporation in high numbers into food products as starter/potential probiotic cultures.

  7. Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+): Characterization, Manufacture, Mechanisms of Action, and Quality Control of a Specific Probiotic Combination for Primary Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection.

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    Auclair, Julie; Frappier, Martin; Millette, Mathieu

    2015-05-15

    A specific probiotic formulation composed of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+) has been marketed in North America since 1996. The strains and the commercial products have been evaluated for safety, identity, gastrointestinal survival, and stability throughout shelf life. The capacity of both the fermented beverages and the capsules to reduce incidences of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been demonstrated in human clinical trials. Individual strains and the finished products have shown antimicrobial activity against C. difficile and toxin A/B neutralization capacity in vitro. The use of this specific probiotic formulation as part of a bundle of preventive measures to control CDI in healthcare settings is discussed.

  8. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® on health-related quality of life in college students affected by upper respiratory infections.

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    Smith, Tracey J; Rigassio-Radler, Diane; Denmark, Robert; Haley, Timothy; Touger-Decker, Riva

    2013-06-01

    College students are susceptible to upper respiratory infections (URI) due to inadequate sleep, stress and close living quarters. Certain probiotic strains modulate immune function and may improve health-related quality of life (HRQL) during URI. The present study recruited apparently healthy college students and assessed the effect of probiotics on HRQL outcomes (i.e. self-reported duration, symptom severity and functional impairment of URI) in those who developed URI. Missed school and work days due to URI were also considered. Subjects (n 231) were apparently healthy college students living on campus in residence halls at the Framingham State University (Framingham, MA, USA), and were randomised to receive placebo (n 117) or probiotic-containing powder (daily dose of minimum 1 billion colony-forming units of each Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® (LGG®) and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® (BB-12®); n 114) for 12 weeks. Subjects completed The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 to assess HRQL during URI. The final analyses included 198 subjects (placebo, n 97 and probiotics, n 101). The median duration of URI was significantly shorter by 2 d and median severity score was significantly lower by 34% with probiotics v. placebo (P,0·001), indicating a higher HRQL during URI. Number of missed work days was not different between groups (P=0·429); however, the probiotics group missed significantly fewer school days (mean difference = 0·2 d) compared to the placebo group (P=0·002). LGG® and BB-12® may be beneficial among college students with URI for mitigating decrements in HRQL. More research is warranted regarding mechanisms of action associated with these findings and the cost-benefit of prophylactic supplementation.

  9. Genomic adaptation of the Lactobacillus casei group.

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    Hidehiro Toh

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus form a closely related taxonomic group (Lactobacillus casei group within the facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of L. paracasei JCM 8130 and L. casei ATCC 393, and the draft genome sequence of L. paracasei COM0101, all of which were isolated from daily products. Furthermore, we re-annotated the genome of L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (also known as L. rhamnosus GG, which we have previously reported. We confirmed that ATCC 393 is distinct from other strains previously described as L. paracasei. The core genome of 10 completely sequenced strains of the L. casei group comprised 1,682 protein-coding genes. Although extensive genome-wide synteny was found among the L. casei group, the genomes of ATCC 53103, JCM 8130, and ATCC 393 contained genomic islands compared with L. paracasei ATCC 334. Several genomic islands, including carbohydrate utilization gene clusters, were found at the same loci in the chromosomes of the L. casei group. The spaCBA pilus gene cluster, which was first identified in GG, was also found in other strains of the L. casei group, but several L. paracasei strains including COM0101 contained truncated spaC gene. ATCC 53103 encoded a higher number of proteins involved in carbohydrate utilization compared with intestinal lactobacilli, and extracellular adhesion proteins, several of which are absent in other strains of the L. casei group. In addition to previously fully sequenced L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei strains, the complete genome sequences of L. casei will provide valuable insights into the evolution of the L. casei group.

  10. A Decade of Experience in Primary Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection at a Community Hospital Using the Probiotic Combination Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+).

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    Maziade, Pierre-Jean; Pereira, Pascale; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2015-05-15

    In August 2003, the 284-bed community hospital Pierre-Le Gardeur (PLGH) in Quebec experienced a major outbreak associated with the Clostridium difficile NAP1/027/BI strain. Augmented standard preventive measures (SPMs) were not able to control this outbreak. It was decided in February 2004 to give to every adult inpatient on antibiotics, without any exclusion, a probiotic (Bio-K+: Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2) within 12 hours of the antibiotic prescription. Augmented SPMs were continued. The use of the probiotic in addition to SPMs was associated with a marked reduction of C. difficile infection (CDI). During the 10 years of observation, 44 835 inpatients received Bio-K+, and the CDI rate at PLGH declined from 18.0 cases per 10,000 patient-days and remained at low mean levels of 2.3 cases per 10,000 patient-days. Additionally, 10-year data collected by the Ministry of Health in Quebec comparing the CDI rate between Quebec hospitals showed that CDI rates at PLGH were consistently and continuously lower compared with those at similar hospitals. Blood cultures were monitored at PLGH for Lactobacillus bacteremia through the 10 years' experience, and no Lactobacillus bacteremias were detected. Despite the limitation of an observational study, we concluded that the probiotic Bio-K+ was safe and effective in decreasing our primary CDI rate.

  11. Efecto de la microencapsulación con agentes prebióticos sobre la viabilidad de microorganismos probióticos (Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 y Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 9469)

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    Montes Ramírez, Luz Mary

    2013-01-01

    Las tecnologías de microencapsulación de microorganismos probióticos han permitido el desarrollo de nuevos alimentos funcionales al mejorar su estabilidad durante el procesamiento, almacenamiento y en la superviviencia durante su paso a través del tracto gastrointestinal. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la microencapsulación mediante secado por aspersión y liofilización sobre la viabilidad de los microorganismos probióticos Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 y Lactobacillu...

  12. Synbiotic impact of tagatose on viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG mediated by the phosphotransferase system (PTS).

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    Koh, Ji Hoon; Choi, Seung Hye; Park, Seung Won; Choi, Nag-Jin; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun

    2013-10-01

    Synbiotics, the combination of prebiotics and probiotics, has been shown to produce synergistic effects that promote gastrointestinal well-being of host. Tagatose is a low calorie food ingredient with putative health-promoting benefits. Herein, we investigated its synbiotic impact on the viability of Lactobacillus casei 01 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and the potential mechanism involved. Tagatose, as a synbiotic substrate, enhanced the growth of L. casei 01 and L. rhamnosus strain GG compared to other prebiotics. Other gut-indigenous such as Clostridium spp. readily utilized fructooligosaccharide (FOS), the most widely used functional prebiotics, but not tagatose. Additionally, tagatose enhanced probiotic functions of L. casei 01 and L. rhamnosus strain GG by reinforcing their attachment on HT-29 intestine epithelial cells and enhancing their cholesterol-lowering activities. Whole transcriptome study and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) test showed that the presence of tagatose in L. rhamnosus strain GG caused induction of a large number of genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism including the phosphotransferase system (PTS). Collectively, these results indicate the tagatose enhanced the growth of L. casei 01 and L. rhamnosus strain GG and their probiotic activities by activating tagatose-associated PTS networks. Importantly, this study highlights the potential application of tagatose and L. casei 01 and/or L. rhamnosus strain GG as a synbiotic partner in functional dairy foods (i.e. yogurt and cheese) and therapeutic dietary supplements.

  13. Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS supplementation on intestinal and systemic markers of inflammation in ApoE*3Leiden mice consuming a high-fat diet.

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    Oksaharju, Anna; Kooistra, Teake; Kleemann, Robert; van Duyvenvoorde, Wim; Miettinen, Minja; Lappalainen, Jani; Lindstedt, Ken A; Kovanen, Petri T; Korpela, Riitta; Kekkonen, Riina A

    2013-07-14

    A high-fat diet disturbs the composition and function of the gut microbiota and generates local gut-associated and also systemic responses. Intestinal mast cells, for their part, secrete mediators which play a role in the orchestration of physiological and immunological functions of the intestine. Probiotic bacteria, again, help to maintain the homeostasis of the gut microbiota by protecting the gut epithelium and regulating the local immune system. In the present study, we explored the effects of two probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) and Propionibacterium freudenreichii spp. shermanii JS (PJS), on high fat-fed ApoE*3Leiden mice by estimating the mast cell numbers and the immunoreactivity of TNF-α and IL-10 in the intestine, as well as plasma levels of several markers of inflammation and parameters of lipid metabolism. We found that mice that received GG and PJS exhibited significantly lower numbers of intestinal mast cells compared with control mice. PJS lowered intestinal immunoreactivity of TNF-α, while GG increased intestinal IL-10. PJS was also observed to lower the plasma levels of markers of inflammation including vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and also the amount of gonadal adipose tissue. GG lowered alanine aminotransferase, a marker of hepatocellular activation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that probiotic GG and PJS tend to down-regulate both intestinal and systemic pro-inflammatory changes induced by a high-fat diet in this humanised mouse model.

  14. Assessment of aerobic and respiratory growth in the Lactobacillus casei group.

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    Teresa Zotta

    Full Text Available One hundred eighty four strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus were screened for their ability to grow under aerobic conditions, in media containing heme and menaquinone and/or compounds generating reactive oxygen species (ROS, in order to identify respiratory and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes. Most strains were able to cope with aerobic conditions and for many strains aerobic growth and heme or heme/menaquinone supplementation increased biomass production compared to anaerobic cultivation. Only four L. casei strains showed a catalase-like activity under anaerobic, aerobic and respiratory conditions and were able to survive in presence of H2O2 (1 mM. Almost all L. casei and L. paracasei strains tolerated menadione (0.2 mM and most tolerated pyrogallol (50 mM, while L. rhamnosus was usually resistant only to the latter compound. This is the first study in which an extensive screening of oxygen and oxidative stress tolerance of members of the L. casei group has been carried out. Results allowed the selection of strains showing the typical traits of aerobic and respiratory metabolism (increased pH and biomass under aerobic or respiratory conditions and unique oxidative stress response properties. Aerobic growth and respiration may confer technological and physiological advantages in the L. casei group and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes could be exploited in several food industry applications.

  15. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG as an Effective Probiotic for Murine Giardiasis

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    Nisha Goyal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The gut microflora is an important constituent in the intestinal mucosal barrier and has been introduced as the concept of probiotic therapy that beneficially affects the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Therefore, the main objective of the study was to explore the protective potential of various lactobacilli strains for murine giardiasis. By experimentation, it was found that the probiotic supplementation of either Lactobacillus casei, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, or L. rhamnosus GG, 7 days prior to inoculation with G. lamblia trophozoites, reduced the rate of cyst excretion compared with Giardia-infected mice. Interestingly, L. GG was found to be the most effective probiotic in reducing the duration of giardia cycle and acts as an effective prophylactic probiotic for murine giardiasis but needs to be clinically correlated due to entirely different human microflora.

  16. Functional Analysis of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 Sortases

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    Muñoz-Provencio, Diego; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Collado, María Carmen; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.

    2012-01-01

    Sortases are a class of enzymes that anchor surface proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Lactobacillus casei BL23 harbors four sortase genes, two belonging to class A (srtA1 and srtA2) and two belonging to class C (srtC1 and srtC2). Class C sortases were clustered with genes encoding their putative substrates that were homologous to the SpaEFG and SpaCBA proteins that encode mucus adhesive pili in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Twenty-three genes encoding putative sortase substrates were identified in the L. casei BL23 genome with unknown (35%), enzymatic (30%), or adhesion-related (35%) functions. Strains disrupted in srtA1, srtA2, srtC1, and srtC2 and an srtA1 srtA2 double mutant were constructed. The transcription of all four sortase encoding genes was detected, but only the mutation of srtA1 resulted in a decrease in bacterial surface hydrophobicity. The β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cell wall proteinase activities of whole cells diminished in the srtA1 mutant and, to a greater extent, in the srtA1 srtA2 double mutant. Cell wall anchoring of the staphylococcal NucA reporter protein fused to a cell wall sorting sequence was also affected in the srtA mutants, and the percentages of adhesion to Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells were reduced for the srtA1 srtA2 strain. Mutations in srtC1 or srtC2 result in an undetectable phenotype. Together, these results suggest that SrtA1 is the housekeeping sortase in L. casei BL23 and SrtA2 would carry out redundant or complementary functions that become evident when SrtA1 activity is absent. PMID:23042174

  17. Multilocus sequence typing of Lactobacillus casei reveals a clonal population structure with low levels of homologous recombination.

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    Diancourt, Laure; Passet, Virginie; Chervaux, Christian; Garault, Peggy; Smokvina, Tamara; Brisse, Sylvain

    2007-10-01

    Robust genotyping methods for Lactobacillus casei are needed for strain tracking and collection management, as well as for population biology research. A collection of 52 strains initially labeled L. casei or Lactobacillus paracasei was first subjected to rplB gene sequencing together with reference strains of Lactobacillus zeae, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and other species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all 52 strains belonged to a single compact L. casei-L. paracasei sequence cluster, together with strain CIP107868 (= ATCC 334) but clearly distinct from L. rhamnosus and from a cluster with L. zeae and CIP103137(T) (= ATCC 393(T)). The strains were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism, multilocus sequence typing based on internal portions of the seven housekeeping genes fusA, ileS, lepA, leuS, pyrG, recA, and recG, and tandem repeat variation (multilocus variable-number tandem repeats analysis [MLVA] using nine loci). Very high concordance was found between the three methods. Although amounts of nucleotide variation were low for the seven genes (pi ranging from 0.0038 to 0.0109), 3 to 12 alleles were distinguished, resulting in 31 sequence types. One sequence type (ST1) was frequent (17 strains), but most others were represented by a single strain. Attempts to subtype ST1 strains by MLVA, ribotyping, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat characterization, and single nucleotide repeat variation were unsuccessful. We found clear evidence for homologous recombination during the diversification of L. casei clones, including a putative intragenic import of DNA into one strain. Nucleotides were estimated to change four times more frequently by recombination than by mutation. However, statistical congruence between individual gene trees was retained, indicating that recombination is not frequent enough to disrupt the phylogenetic signal. The developed multilocus sequence typing scheme should be useful for future studies of L. casei

  18. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG suspected infection in a newborn with intrauterine growth restriction.

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    Sadowska-Krawczenko, I; Paprzycka, M; Korbal, P; Wiatrzyk, A; Krysztopa-Grzybowska, K; Polak, M; Czajka, U; Lutyńska, A

    2014-12-01

    A disseminated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 infection was suspected in a 6 day-old newborn with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) symptoms, treated empirically with antibiotics and given L. rhamnosus GG with the aim of preventing antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal complications. The level of C-reactive protein on day 5 compared with day 2 was increased in spite of negative urine and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. The blood sampled on day 6 was found to be positive for lactobacilli, and the isolate was pre-identified as L. rhamnosus or Lactobacillus casei on day 11. The strain identity was then verified as L. rhamnosus GG through PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing. Genotyping with the rep-PCR and AFLP methods confirmed the 100% genetic similarity for both the strain isolated from patient blood and the probiotic product. The newborn became touch-sensitive, cried a lot, had worsening laboratory test results, and increased inflammation parameters, but no fever was observed. After a further 9 days of antibiotic therapy, blood cultures became negative, and laboratory tests improved on day 25. The patient was discharged from the hospital after 27 days. IUGR with a possible link to L. rhamnosus GG bacteraemia might be a new potential risk group, beside patients with organ failure, immunocompromised status and dysfunctional gut barrier mechanisms, for which safe use of probiotics needs careful attention. Universally accepted or improved guidelines for the safer administration of probiotics in risk groups are urgently needed. This report should not discourage the use of probiotics, but should highlight the need for their careful use in IUGR patients.

  19. Exopolysaccharides production in Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei exploiting microfiltration.

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    Schiraldi, C; Valli, V; Molinaro, A; Cartenì, M; De Rosa, M

    2006-05-01

    The physiology of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei, extensively used in the dairy industry, was studied in order to evaluate key parameters in the synthesis of exopolysaccharides and to improve their production through novel fermentation processes. Selected strains were studied in shake flasks and in fermentor experiments using glucose and lactose as main carbon sources and bacto casitone as the only complex component, in a temperature range between 35 and 42 degrees C. The production of exopolysaccharides was monitored and correlated to the growth conditions using both a colorimetric assay and chromatographic methods. Fermentor experiments in batch mode yielded 100 mg l(-1) of EPS from L. bulgaricus and 350 mg l(-1) from L. casei. Moreover, the use of a microfiltration (MF) bioreactor resulted in exopolysaccharides (EPS) concentrations threefold and sixfold those of batch experiments, respectively. The monosaccharidic composition of the two analyzed polymers differed from those previously reported. The optimization of the production of EPSs using the MF fermentation strategy could permit the use of these molecules produced by generally recognised as safe (GRAS) microorganisms in the place of other polysaccharides in the food industry.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus 2166.

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    Karlyshev, Andrey V.; Melnikov, Vyacheslav G.; Kosarev, Igor V.; Abramov, Vyacheslav M.

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we present a draft sequence of the genome of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain 2166, a potential novel probiotic. Genome annotation and read mapping onto a reference genome of L. rhamnosus strain GG allowed for the identification of the differences and similarities in the genomic contents and gene arrangements of these strains.

  1. Genome instability in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Sybesma (Wilbert); D. Molenaar (Douwe); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); K. Venema (Koen); R. Kort (Remco)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe describe here a comparative genome analysis of three dairy product isolates of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the ATCC 53103 reference strain to the published genome sequence of L. rhamnosus GG. The analysis showed that in two of three isolates, major DNA segments were missing f

  2. Genome instability in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sybesma, W.; Molenaar, D.; IJcken, W. van; Venema, K.; Korta, R.

    2013-01-01

    We describe here a comparative genome analysis of three dairy product isolates of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the ATCC 53103 reference strain to the published genome sequence of L. rhamnosus GG. The analysis showed that in two of three isolates, major DNA segments were missing from the geno

  3. Characterization of the Lactobacillus casei group based on the profiling of ribosomal proteins coded in S10-spc-alpha operons as observed by MALDI-TOF MS.

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    Sato, Hiroaki; Torimura, Masaki; Kitahara, Maki; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hotta, Yudai; Tamura, Hiroto

    2012-10-01

    The taxonomy of the members of the Lactobacillus casei group is complicated because of their phylogenetic similarity and controversial nomenclatural status. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of ribosomal proteins coded in the S10-spc-alpha operon, termed S10-GERMS, was applied in order to classify 33 sample strains belonging to the L. casei group. A total of 14 types of ribosomal protein genes coded in the operon were first sequenced from four type strains of the L. casei group (L. casei JCM 1134(T), L. paracasei subsp. paracasei JCM 8130(T), L. paracasei subsp. tolerans JCM 1171(T), and L. rhamnosus JCM 1136(T)) together with L. casei JCM 11302, which is the former type strain of 'L. zeae'. The theoretical masses of the 14 types of ribosomal proteins used as biomarkers were classified into five types and compiled into a ribosomal protein database. The observed ribosomal proteins of each strain, identified by MALDI-TOF MS, were categorized into types based on their masses, summarized as ribosomal protein profiles, and they were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. The 33 sample strains, together with seven genome-sequenced strains, could be classified into four major clusters, which coincided precisely with the taxa of the (sub)species within the L. casei group. Three "ancient" strains, identified as L. acidophilus and L. casei, were correctly re-identified as L. paracasei subsp. paracasei by S10-GERMS. S10-GERMS would thus appear to be a powerful tool for phylogenetic characterization, with considerable potential for management of culture collections.

  4. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus downregulates FCER1 and HRH4 expression in human mast cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Oksaharju; Matti Kankainen; Riina A Kekkonen; Ken A Lindstedt; Petri T Kovanen; Riitta Korpela; Minja Miettinen

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of four probiotic bacteria and their combination on human mast cell gene expression using microarray analysis.METHODS: Human peripheral-blood-derived mast cells were stimulated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L.rhamnosus ) GG (LGG(R)), L. rhamnosus Lc705 (Lc705),Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS (PJS) and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb12 (Bb12) and their combination for 3 or 24 h, and were subjected to global microarray analysis using an Affymetrix GeneChip(R) Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array. The gene expression differences between unstimulated and bacteria-stimulated samples were further analyzed with GOrilla Gene Enrichment Analysis and Visualization Tool and MeV Multiexperiment Viewer-tool.RESULTS: LGG and Lc705 were observed to suppress genes that encoded allergy-related high-affinity IgE receptor subunits α and γ (FCER1A and FCER1G, respectively)and histamine H4 receptor. LGG, Lc705 and the combination of four probiotics had the strongest effect on the expression of genes involved in mast cell immune system regulation, and on several genes that encoded proteins with a pro-inflammatory impact, such as interleukin (IL)-8 and tumour necrosis factor alpha. Also genes that encoded proteins with anti-inflammatory functions, such as IL-10, were upregulated. CONCLUSION: Certain probiotic bacteria might diminish mast cell allergy-related activation by downregulation of the expression of high-affinity IgE and histamine receptor genes, and by inducing a pro-inflammatory response.

  5. Effects of fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on product quality and fatty acids of goat milk yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ru; Chen, Han; Chen, Hui; Ding, Wu

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on the product quality of goat milk yogurt using traditional yogurt starter was studied through single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiments. The optimum fermentation condition was evaluated by the titratable acidity of goat milk yogurt, water-retaining capability, sensory score, and texture properties; the fatty acids of the fermented goat milk were determined by a gas chromatograph. Results indicate that high product quality of goat milk yogurt can be obtained and the content of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids can be decreased significantly when amount of sugar added was 7%, inoculation amount was 3%, the ratio of 3 lactic acid bacteria--Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and L. rhamnosus GG--was 1:1:3, and fermentation temperature was 42°C.

  6. Immunomodulatory effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG from

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Mahnet

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Various immune responses have been influenced by probiotics and these immunomodulatory effects have been proposed for several potential applications such as the prevention of infectious diarrhoea, alleviation of hypersensitivity reactions and tumour suppression. The new probiotic product from LURA d. d., low fat fresh cheese "BioAktiv LGG", contains well-known probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG. The viable count of L. rhamnosus GG remained stable and has been 1.3x108 CFU/g of low fat fresh cheese "BioAktiv LGG" during storage of 16 days at 4 0C. The effect of L. rhamnosus GG from this product on the immune response, as an importantpoint in relation to immunomodulation, and its survival/residence time in the gastrointestinal tract in Swiss albino mice was also studied. During the feeding of mice with L. rhamnosus GG, with a daily dose of 2.2x1010 cells, the number of lactobacilli in faeces was increased and reduction of enterobacteria and sulphite-reducing clostridia was observed. The similar results were obtained in homogenates of large intestine of mice in the 1st and in the 14th day after feeding with L. rhamnosus GG, which pointed out the adherence ability of examined strain. Furthermore, the oral immunization of Swiss albino mice was performed with a dose of 2.2x1010 L. rhamnosus GG cells per day, for eight consecutive days. The blood samples were collected on the 4th, 8th, 10th, 14th and 21st day after the 1st immunization. The sera of mice were tested for total and specific anti-lactobacilli IgA, IgG and IgM antibodies by ELISA assay. L. rhamnosus GG slightly stimulated the total humoral immune response but didn't evoke reaction against itself, which confirms its probiotic properties and make new probiotic product, low fat fresh cheese "BioAktiv LGG", as good carrier for this probiotic strain.

  7. [Evaluation of the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus probiotic culture added to yogurt over Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Oscar; Padilla, Carolina; Chaves, Carolina; Villalobos, Laura; Arias, María Laura

    2007-03-01

    The effect of different types of probiotics present in yogurt over known populations of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis was evaluated. The three types of yogurt used were: without added probiotics, with added probiotics (Lactobacillus casei CRL_431 and L. acidophilus CRL_730 CHR HANSEN) and another one with the same probiotics mentioned above and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR-35) culture. About 10(9) CFU/ mL of each potentially pathogenic bacteria was added to each type of yogurt tested, and kept in refrigeration at 4 degrees C during its shelf life, about 30 days. Bacterial count was done the initial day and every four days. Results obtained show that there is a difference in the inhibition between yogurts without added probiotics and the commercial yogurt with added probiotics; there is a clear inhibitory effect of the last one over S. aureus, E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. The yogurt with added probiotics and L. rhamnosus did not show any additional inhibitory effect over the bacteria tested when compared with the yogurt with added probiotics. S. enteritidis could not be evaluated because it was not detectable in any yogurt samples evaluated four days after its inoculation. This study confirms the antagonic effect of probiotic cultures over potentially pathogenic bacteria for human beings and animals that may be present in food. Nevertheless, the use of L. rhamnosus did not produce any additional inhibitory effect.

  8. Genome instability in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybesma, Wilbert; Molenaar, Douwe; van IJcken, Wilfred; Venema, Koen; Kort, Remco

    2013-04-01

    We describe here a comparative genome analysis of three dairy product isolates of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the ATCC 53103 reference strain to the published genome sequence of L. rhamnosus GG. The analysis showed that in two of three isolates, major DNA segments were missing from the genomic islands LGGISL1,2. The deleted DNA segments consist of 34 genes in one isolate and 84 genes in the other and are flanked by identical insertion elements. Among the missing genes are the spaCBA genes, which encode pilin subunits involved in adhesion to mucus and persistence of the strains in the human intestinal tract. Subsequent quantitative PCR analyses of six commercial probiotic products confirmed that two more products contain a heterogeneous population of L. rhamnosus GG variants, including genotypes with or without spaC. These results underline the relevance for quality assurance and control measures targeting genome stability in probiotic strains and justify research assessing the effect of genetic rearrangements in probiotics on the outcome of in vitro and in vivo efficacy studies.

  9. Stress responses in probiotic Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Nezhad, Marzieh; Hussain, Malik Altaf; Britz, Margaret Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Survival in harsh environments is critical to both the industrial performance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their competitiveness in complex microbial ecologies. Among the LAB, members of the Lactobacillus casei group have industrial applications as acid-producing starter cultures for milk fermentations and as specialty cultures for the intensification and acceleration of flavor development in certain bacterial-ripened cheese varieties. They are amongst the most common organisms in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and other animals, and have the potential to function as probiotics. Whether used in industrial or probiotic applications, environmental stresses will affect the physiological status and properties of cells, including altering their functionality and biochemistry. Understanding the mechanisms of how LAB cope with different environments is of great biotechnological importance, from both a fundamental and applied perspective: hence, interaction between these strains and their environment has gained increased interest in recent years. This paper presents an overview of the important features of stress responses in Lb. casei, and related proteomic or gene expression patterns that may improve their use as starter cultures and probiotics.

  10. Survivability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus during the Preparation of Soy Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Mei Liu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a new probiotic soy cheese on the basis of chinese sufu. The soy cheese was made from soymilk fermented with soy cheese bacterial starter cultures (DH1 and GH4 and L. rhamnosus 6013. After ripening, probiotic soy cheese sensory scores (standard SB/T 10170-93 were compared to the control. The changes in pH, bacterial growth and the survivability of the potential probiotic L. rhamnosus 6013 during fermentation and storage at 10 °C were examined. After 6 h of fermentation, L. rhamnosus 6013 was capable of growing in soymilk as high as 108–109 CFU/mL. After being stored for 30 days at 10 °C, slight decrease in pH and the viable counts of the strain was noticed. The viable counts of L. rhamnosus 6013, DH1 and GH4 were 107, 106 and 106 CFU/g, respectively, after storage for 30 days. The levels of stachyose, raffinose and sucrose in soy cheese were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that L. rhamnosus 6013 could utilize the soybean oligosaccharides as carbon sources. In addition, 2–4 % of NaCl had little effect on the survivability of L. rhamnosus 6013. It indicated that L. rhamnosus 6013 could withstand the technological processing of soy cheese and had no negative effect on the fermentation and the sensory properties of the soy cheese.

  11. Transformation kinetics of fermented milk using Lactobacillus casei (Lc1) and Streptococcus thermophilus: comparison of results with other Inocula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Susana Vargas; Guerrero, Francisco Quintanilla; Torres, Maykel González; Castro, Ma Del Pilar Carreón; Talavera, Rogelio Rodríguez

    2017-02-01

    Probiotic-based starter cultures are generally used to produce fermented milks with improved characteristics in the final product. In this study, Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus thermophilus (Lc1-St) were used as the starter inoculum. The transformation kinetics and properties of the final product were compared with systems produced with other inocula. The Lc1-St inoculum delayed the production of lactic acid from 40 to 70 min (depending on temperature and concentration) when compared to Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (Lb-St) and Lactobacillus johnsonii and Streptococcus thermophilus (La1-St). The Lc1-St inoculum reached the aggregation system faster (30-80 min) than Lb-St (120-210 min) and La1-St (160-220 min), however, the production of exopolysaccharides and organic phosphates was delayed as a consequence of the lack of synergy between Lc1 and St.

  12. High efficiency electrotransformation of Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Dennis L; Hughes, Joanne E; Steele, James L; Broadbent, Jeff R

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether protocols allowing high efficiency electrotransformation of other lactic acid bacteria were applicable to five strains of Lactobacillus casei (12A, 32G, A2-362, ATCC 334 and BL23). Addition of 1% glycine or 0.9 M NaCl during cell growth, limitation of the growth of the cell cultures to OD600 0.6-0.8, pre-electroporation treatment of cells with water or with a lithium acetate (100 mM)/dithiothreitol (10 mM) solution and optimization of electroporation conditions all improved transformation efficiencies. However, the five strains varied in their responses to these treatments. Transformation efficiencies of 10(6) colony forming units μg(-1) pTRKH2 DNA and higher were obtained with three strains which is sufficient for construction of chromosomal gene knock-outs and gene replacements.

  13. The effect of calcium ions on adhesion and competitive exclusion of Lactobacillus ssp. and E. coli O138

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nadja; Nissen, Peter; Willats, William G.T.

    2007-01-01

    The adhesion abilities of 11 strains of Lactobacillus were determined in vitro using the IPEC-J2 cell line as a model system. Bacteria cultures included the probiotic strains L. rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri ATCC 55730, L. johnsonii NCC 533 and L. reuteri DSM 12246, and new isolates of Lactobacillus ssp....... Adhesion was quantified by scintillation counting of radiolabelled bound bacteria. The highest adhesion of 38%, was determined for L. reuteri DSM 12246 followed by L. plantarum Q47 with an adhesion level of 24%. Other strains showed moderate to low binding of less than 16%. Competitive adhesion experiments...... on IPEC-J2 cells demonstrated that strongly adhesive strains, as L. reuteri DSM 12246 and L. plantarum Q47, significantly reduced the attachment of the less adhesive strains, such as L. rhamnosus GG and L. johnsonii NCC 533, both under condition of co-incubation and in displacement assays, indicating...

  14. Stability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in prebiotic edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, Christos; Behboudi-Jobbehdar, Solmaz; Yonekura, Lina; Parmenter, Christopher; Fisk, Ian D

    2014-09-15

    The concept of prebiotic edible films as effective vehicles for encapsulating probiotic living cells is presented. Four soluble fibres (inulin, polydextrose, glucose-oligosaccharides and wheat dextrin) were selected as prebiotic co-components of gelatine based matrices plasticised with glycerol and used for the immobilisation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The addition of prebiotics was associated with a more compact and uniform film structure, with no detectable interspaces or micropores; probiotic inclusion did not significantly change the structure of the films. Glucose-oligosaccharides and polydextrose significantly enhanced L. rhamnosus GG viability during air drying (by 300% and 75%, respectively), whilst a 33% and 80% reduction in viable counts was observed for inulin and wheat dextrin. Contrarily, inulin was the most effective at controlling the sub-lethal effects on L. rhamnosus GG during storage. However, in all cases the supplementation of edible films with prebiotics ameliorated the storage stability of L. rhamnosus GG.

  15. Ingredient selection for plastic composite supports for L-(+)-lactic acid biofilm fermentation by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus.

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, K L; Pometto, A L; Hinz, P. N.; Dickson, J S; Demirci, A.

    1997-01-01

    Plastic composite supports containing 50% agricultural products (oat hulls, soybean hulls, yeast extract, soybean flour, dried bovine erythrocytes, bovine albumin, and/or mineral salts) and 50% (wt/wt) polypropylene were produced by high-temperature twin-screw extrusion. The research employed two half sets of a five-factorial fractional design (2(5 - 1)) to evaluate the effects of different agricultural components on the properties of the plastic composite supports and to select the best plas...

  16. The major secreted protein Msp1/p75 is O-glycosylated in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebeer Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the occurrence, biosynthesis and possible functions of glycoproteins are increasingly documented for pathogens, glycoproteins are not yet widely described in probiotic bacteria. Nevertheless, knowledge of protein glycosylation holds important potential for better understanding specific glycan-mediated interactions of probiotics and for glycoengineering in food-grade microbes. Results Here, we provide evidence that the major secreted protein Msp1/p75 of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is glycosylated. Msp1 was shown to stain positive with periodic-acid Schiff staining, to be susceptible to chemical deglycosylation, and to bind with the mannose-specific Concanavalin A (ConA lectin. Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli resulted in a significant reduction in molecular mass, loss of ConA reactivity and increased sensitivity towards pronase E and proteinase K. Mass spectrometry showed that Msp1 is O-glycosylated and identified a glycopeptide TVETPSSA (amino acids 101-108 bearing hexoses presumably linked to the serine residues. Interestingly, these serine residues are not present in the homologous protein of several Lactobacillus casei strains tested, which also did not bind to ConA. The role of the glycan substitutions in known functions of Msp1 was also investigated. Glycosylation did not seem to impact significantly on the peptidoglycan hydrolase activity of Msp1. In addition, the glycan chain appeared not to be required for the activation of Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells by Msp1. On the other hand, examination of different cell extracts showed that Msp1 is a glycosylated protein in the supernatant, but not in the cell wall and cytosol fraction, suggesting a link between glycosylation and secretion of this protein. Conclusions In this study we have provided the first evidence of protein O-glycosylation in the probiotic L rhamnosus GG. The major secreted protein Msp1 is glycosylated with Con

  17. An Exopolysaccharide-Deficient Mutant of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Efficiently Displays a Protective Llama Antibody Fragment against Rotavirus on Its Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Beatriz; Krogh-Andersen, Kasper; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Martínez, Noelia; Günaydın, Gökçe; Lin, Yin; Martín, M Cruz; Álvarez, Miguel A; Hammarström, Lennart; Marcotte, Harold

    2015-09-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of infantile diarrhea in developing countries, where it causes a high number of deaths among infants. Two vaccines are available, being highly effective in developed countries although markedly less efficient in developing countries. As a complementary treatment to the vaccines, a Lactobacillus strain producing an anti-rotavirus antibody fragment in the gastrointestinal tract could potentially be used. In order to develop such an alternative therapy, the effectiveness of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG to produce and display a VHH antibody fragment (referred to as anti-rotavirus protein 1 [ARP1]) on the surface was investigated. L. rhamnosus GG is one of the best-characterized probiotic bacteria and has intrinsic antirotavirus activity. Among four L. rhamnosus GG strains [GG (CMC), GG (ATCC 53103), GG (NCC 3003), and GG (UT)] originating from different sources, only GG (UT) was able to display ARP1 on the bacterial surface. The genomic analysis of strain GG (UT) showed that the genes welE and welF of the EPS cluster are inactivated, which causes a defect in exopolysaccharide (EPS) production, allowing efficient display of ARP1 on its surface. Finally, GG (UT) seemed to confer a level of protection against rotavirus-induced diarrhea similar to that of wild-type GG (NCC 3003) in a mouse pup model, indicating that the EPS may not be involved in the intrinsic antirotavirus activity. Most important, GG (EM233), a derivative of GG (UT) producing ARP1, was significantly more protective than the control strain L. casei BL23.

  18. Flow Cytometric Testing of Green Fluorescent Protein-Tagged Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG for Response to Defensins

    OpenAIRE

    De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.; Braeken, Kristien; Verhoeven, Tine L. A.; Perea Vélez, Mónica; Lebeer, Sarah; Vanderleyden, Jos; Hols, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is of general interest as a probiotic. Although L. rhamnosus GG is often used in clinical trials, there are few genetic tools to further determine its mode of action or to develop it as a vehicle for heterologous gene expression in therapy. Therefore, we developed a reproducible, efficient electroporation procedure for L. rhamnosus GG. The best transformation efficiency obtained was 104 transformants per μg of DNA. We validated this protocol by tagging L. rhamnosus ...

  19. Lactobacillus rhamnosus could inhibit Porphyromonas gingivalis derived CXCL8 attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Mendi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An increasing body of evidence suggests that the use of probiotic bacteria is a promising intervention approach for the treatment of inflammatory diseases with a polymicrobial etiology. P. gingivalis has been noted to have a different way of interacting with the innate immune response of the host compared to other pathogenic bacteria, which is a recognized feature that inhibits CXCL8 expression. Objective The aim of the study was to determine if P. gingivalis infection modulates the inflammatory response of gingival stromal stem cells (G-MSSCs, including the release of CXCL8, and the expression of TLRs and if immunomodulatory L. rhamnosus ATCC9595 could prevent CXCL8 inhibition in experimental inflammation. Material and Methods G-MSSCs were pretreated with L. rhamnosus ATCC9595 and then stimulated with P. gingivalis ATCC33277. CXCL8 and IL-10 levels were investigated with ELISA and the TLR-4 and 2 were determined through flow cytometer analysis. Results CXCL8 was suppressed by P. gingivalis and L. rhamnosus ATCC9595, whereas incubation with both strains did not abolish CXCL8. L. rhamnosus ATCC9595 scaled down the expression of TLR4 and induced TLR2 expression when exposed to P. gingivalis stimulation (p<0.01. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that L. rhamnosus ATCC9595 can modulate the inflammatory signals and could introduce P. gingivalis to immune systems by inducing CXCL8 secretion.

  20. Spontaneous release of bacteriophage particles by Lactobacillus rhamnosus pen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarocki, Piotr; Podleśny, Marcin; Pawelec, Jarosław; Malinowska, Agata; Kowalczyk, Sylwia; Targoński, Zdzisław

    2013-03-01

    The identification of bacteriophage proteins on the surface of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Pen was performed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Among the identified proteins, we found a phage-derived major tail protein, two major head proteins, a portal protein, and a host specificity protein. Electron microscopy of a cell surface extract revealed the presence of phage particles in the analyzed samples. The partial sequence of genes encoding the major tail protein for all tested L. rhamnosus strains was determined with specific primers designed in this study. Next, RT-PCR analysis allowed detection of the expression of the major tail protein gene in L. rhamnosus strain Pen at all stages of bacterial growth. The transcription of genes encoding the major tail protein was also proved for other L. rhamnosus strains used in this study. The present work demonstrates the spontanous release of prophage-encoded particles by a commercial probiotic L. rhamnosus strain, which did not significantly affect the bacterial growth of the analyzed strain.

  1. Lactobacillus casei reduces the inflammatory joint damage associated with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) by reducing the pro-inflammatory cytokines: Lactobacillus casei: COX-2 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdekar, Sarika; Singh, Vinod; Singh, Rambir; Sharma, Poonam; Keshav, Poonam; Kumar, Avnish

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of Lactobacillus casei in treating rheumatoid arthritis using collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) animal model. Healthy female Wistar rats (weight-180-200 g) were included in this study. Oral administration of L. casei was started on the same day. Indomethacin was used as standard reference drug. Serum level of IL-6, α-TNF, and IL-10 were observed. Four-point arthritis indexes were also assessed at the end of week for 28th day. L. casei-treated rats had shown normal histopathology without any synovial infiltration, pannus formation, cartilage, and bone destruction. Arthritis score was also lower for the group treated with L. casei. Oral administration of L. casei significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines. Present study suggests that L. casei has potent antiarthritic effect in CIA model. Inhibition of COX-2 via inhibiting the pro-inflammatory cytokines is an understanding of the complex interactions involved in these pathways.

  2. Analysis of the peptidoglycan hydrolase complement of Lactobacillus casei and characterization of the major γ-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-endopeptidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Regulski

    Full Text Available Peptidoglycan (PG is the major component of Gram positive bacteria cell wall and is essential for bacterial integrity and shape. Bacteria synthesize PG hydrolases (PGHs which are able to cleave bonds in their own PG and play major roles in PG remodelling required for bacterial growth and division. Our aim was to identify the main PGHs in Lactobacillus casei BL23, a lactic acid bacterium with probiotic properties.The PGH complement was first identified in silico by amino acid sequence similarity searches of the BL23 genome sequence. Thirteen PGHs were detected with different predicted hydrolytic specificities. Transcription of the genes was confirmed by RT-PCR. A proteomic analysis combining the use of SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS revealed the main seven PGHs synthesized during growth of L. casei BL23. Among these PGHs, LCABL_02770 (renamed Lc-p75 was identified as the major one. This protein is the homolog of p75 (Msp1 major secreted protein of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which was shown to promote survival and growth of intestinal epithelial cells. We identified its hydrolytic specificity on PG and showed that it is a γ-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-endopeptidase. It has a marked specificity towards PG tetrapeptide chains versus tripeptide chains and for oligomers rather than monomers. Immunofluorescence experiments demonstrated that Lc-p75 localizes at cell septa in agreement with its role in daughter cell separation. It is also secreted under an active form as detected in zymogram. Comparison of the muropeptide profiles of wild type and Lc-p75-negative mutant revealed a decrease of the amount of disaccharide-dipeptide in the mutant PG in agreement with Lc-p75 activity. As a conclusion, Lc-p75 is the major L. casei BL23 PGH with endopeptidase specificity and a key role in daughter cell separation. Further studies will aim at investigating the role of Lc-p75 in the anti-inflammatory potential of L. casei BL23.

  3. In vitro antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus casei against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enany, Shymaa; Abdalla, Salah

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic infections in humans. Curing H. pylori infection is difficult because of the habitat of the organism below the mucus adherent layer of gastric mucosa. Lactobacilli are known as acid-resistant bacteria and can remain in stomach for a long time than any other organism, we aimed in this study to examine the efficacy of Lactobacillus casei as a probiotic against H. pylori in humans. Particularly, L. casei was opted as it is considered to be one of the widely used probiotics in dairy products. One hundred and seven strains of H. pylori were isolated from dyspeptic patients and were tested for their antibiotic susceptibility to metronidazole (MTZ), clarithromycin (CLR), tetracycline (TET), and amoxicillin (AMX) by the disc diffusion method. The strains were examined for their susceptibility toward L. casei - present in fermented milk products - by well diffusion method. It was found that 74.7% strains were resistant to MTZ; 1.8% to MTZ, TET, and CLR; 3.7% to MTZ and CLR; 4.6% to MTZ and TET; and 0.9% were resistant to MTZ, TET, and AMX. The antibacterial activity of L. casei against H. pylori was determined on all the tested H. pylori isolates including antibiotic resistant strains with different patterns. Our study proposed the use of probiotics for the treatment of H. pylori infection as an effective approach.

  4. Anatomical studies of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis and J. communis L. ssp. nana Syme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    The wood descriptions of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis are compared with those of earlier authors. The average and maximum tracheid lengths and the ray height distribution frequencies offer a means of separating the wood of the erect J. communis L. ssp. communis from that of the subspecies nan

  5. Analysis of the Lactobacillus casei supragenome and its influence in species evolution and lifestyle adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broadbent Jeff R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The broad ecological distribution of L. casei makes it an insightful subject for research on genome evolution and lifestyle adaptation. To explore evolutionary mechanisms that determine genomic diversity of L. casei, we performed comparative analysis of 17 L. casei genomes representing strains collected from dairy, plant, and human sources. Results Differences in L. casei genome inventory revealed an open pan-genome comprised of 1,715 core and 4,220 accessory genes. Extrapolation of pan-genome data indicates L. casei has a supragenome approximately 3.2 times larger than the average genome of individual strains. Evidence suggests horizontal gene transfer from other bacterial species, particularly lactobacilli, has been important in adaptation of L. casei to new habitats and lifestyles, but evolution of dairy niche specialists also appears to involve gene decay. Conclusions Genome diversity in L. casei has evolved through gene acquisition and decay. Acquisition of foreign genomic islands likely confers a fitness benefit in specific habitats, notably plant-associated niches. Loss of unnecessary ancestral traits in strains collected from bacterial-ripened cheeses supports the hypothesis that gene decay contributes to enhanced fitness in that niche. This study gives the first evidence for a L. casei supragenome and provides valuable insights into mechanisms for genome evolution and lifestyle adaptation of this ecologically flexible and industrially important lactic acid bacterium. Additionally, our data confirm the Distributed Genome Hypothesis extends to non-pathogenic, ecologically flexible species like L. casei.

  6. Ehealth: Low FODMAP diet vs Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Natalia; Andersen, Nynne Nyboe; Végh, Zsuzsanna; Jensen, Lisbeth; Ankersen, Dorit Vedel; Felding, Maria; Simonsen, Mette Hestetun; Burisch, Johan; Munkholm, Pia

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of a low fermentable, oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols diet (LFD) and the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

  7. Stability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in prebiotic edible films

    OpenAIRE

    Soukoulis, Christos; Behboudi-Jobbehdar, Solmaz; YONEKURA,Lina; Parmenter, C.D.J.; Fisk, Ian D.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of prebiotic edible films as effective vehicles for encapsulating probiotic living cells is presented. Four soluble fibres (inulin, polydextrose, glucose-oligosaccharides and wheat dextrin) were selected as prebiotic co-components of gelatine based matrices plasticised with glycerol and used for the immobilisation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The addition of prebiotics was associated with a more compact and uniform film structure, with no detectable interspaces or micropores; pr...

  8. Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei L. casei W8 suppresses energy intake acutely

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Anne Toksvig; Kristensen, Mette Bredal; Ritz, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Probiotic bacteria have been shown to have various effects on the microbiota; this may also affect appetite and may help promote weight loss and maintenance. Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei L. casei W8 (L. casei W8...

  9. Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reveals pili containing a human- mucus binding protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kankainen, M.; Paulin, L.; Tynkkynen, S.; Ossowski, von I.; Reunanen, J.; Partanen, P.; Satokari, A.; Vesterlund, S.; Hendrickx, A.P.; Lebeer, S.; Keersmaecker, de S.C.; Vanderleyden, J.; Hämäläinen, T.; Laukkanen, S.; Salovuori, N.; Ritari, J.; Alatalo, E.; Korpela, R.; Mattila-Sandholm, T.; Lassig, A.; Hatakka, K.; Kinnunen, K.T.; Karjalainen, H.; Saxelin, M.; Laakso, K.; Surakka, A.; Palva, A.; Salusjärvi, T.; Auvinen, P.; Vos, de W.M.

    2009-01-01

    To unravel the biological function of the widely used probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, we compared its 3.0-Mbp genome sequence with the similarly sized genome of L. rhamnosus LC705, an adjunct starter culture exhibiting reduced binding to mucus. Both genomes demonstrated high sequence

  10. Characterization of the SpaCBA Pilus Fibers in the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reunanen, J.; Ossowski, von I.; Hendrickx, A.P.; Palva, A.; Vos, de W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a human intestinal isolate that has been studied intensively because of its probiotic properties. We have previously shown that L. rhamnosus GG produces proteinaceous pili that earlier had been observed only in Gram-positive pathogens (M. Kankainen et al., Proc. Natl. A

  11. [Lactobacillus Rhamnosus sepsis in a preterm infant associated with probiotic integrator use: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Manuela; Aiazzi, Massimo; La Torre, Antonio; Cini, Elisabetta; Banfi, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Preterm infants are at high risk of neonatal sepsis. We report a case of a preterm infant under prophylaxis with Lactobacillus Rhamnosus for necrotizing enterocolitis; the child develops neonatal sepsis by Lactobacillus Rhamnosus. The infection is improved after probiotic withdrawal and had complete remission after 20 days of specific antibiotic therapy.

  12. 干酪乳杆菌Lactobacillus casei 393 upp基因突变株的构建%Construction of an Lactobacillus Casei 393 upp mutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建军; 袁林; 曾静; 付锦楠; 龚小华; 何顺华

    2015-01-01

    upp基因可用来作为反向筛选标记基因.利用pORI温度敏感型双质粒系统敲除干酪乳杆菌Lactobacillus casei 393的upp基因,构建得到重组菌Lactobacillus casei 393-△upp.重组菌可作为反向筛选标记基因upp使用的宿主菌.

  13. Development of an alternative culture medium for the selective enumeration of Lactobacillus casei in fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Monique; de Oliveira, Aline Evelyn Zimmermann; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring the populations of probiotic strains of the species Lactobacillus casei in food is required by food industries in order to assure that a minimum concentration of these organisms will be ingested by consumers. In this context, Petrifilm™ AC plates can be used along with selective culture media to allow the enumeration of specific groups of lactic acid bacteria. The present study aimed to assess chemical substances as selective agents for Lb. casei in order to propose a selective culture medium to be used with Petrifilm™ AC plates as an alternative protocol for the enumeration of probiotic strains of this species in fermented milk. Twenty-six probiotic and starter cultures (including six strains of Lb. casei) were plated on de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar with distinct concentrations of nalidixic acid, bile, lithium chloride, metronidazole, sodium propionate, and vancomycin. Vancomycin at 10 mg/L demonstrated selective activity for Lb. casei. In addition, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chlorine was identified as a compound that did not inhibit Lb. casei, and Petrifilm™ AC plates used with MRS and vancomycin at 10 mg/L (MRS-V) demonstrated more colonies of this organism when incubated under anaerobic conditions than aerobic conditions. Acidophilus milk and yoghurt were prepared, added to Lb. casei strains, and stored at 4 °C. Lb. casei populations were monitored using MRS-V and MRTLV by conventional plating and associated with Petrifilm™ AC plates. All correlation indices between counts obtained by conventional plating and Petrifilm™ AC were significant (p enumeration of Lb. casei strains in fermented milk. However, the selective potential of this culture medium must be evaluated considering the specific strains of Lb. casei and the starter cultures inoculated in the fermented milk that requires monitoring.

  14. Comparative genomic and functional analysis of 100 Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains and their comparison with strain GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillard, François P; Ribbera, Angela; Kant, Ravi; Pietilä, Taija E; Järvinen, Hanna M; Messing, Marcel; Randazzo, Cinzia L; Paulin, Lars; Laine, Pia; Ritari, Jarmo; Caggia, Cinzia; Lähteinen, Tanja; Brouns, Stan J J; Satokari, Reetta; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a lactic acid bacterium that is found in a large variety of ecological habitats, including artisanal and industrial dairy products, the oral cavity, intestinal tract or vagina. To gain insights into the genetic complexity and ecological versatility of the species L. rhamnosus, we examined the genomes and phenotypes of 100 L. rhamnosus strains isolated from diverse sources. The genomes of 100 L. rhamnosus strains were mapped onto the L. rhamnosus GG reference genome. These strains were phenotypically characterized for a wide range of metabolic, antagonistic, signalling and functional properties. Phylogenomic analysis showed multiple groupings of the species that could partly be associated with their ecological niches. We identified 17 highly variable regions that encode functions related to lifestyle, i.e. carbohydrate transport and metabolism, production of mucus-binding pili, bile salt resistance, prophages and CRISPR adaptive immunity. Integration of the phenotypic and genomic data revealed that some L. rhamnosus strains possibly resided in multiple niches, illustrating the dynamics of bacterial habitats. The present study showed two distinctive geno-phenotypes in the L. rhamnosus species. The geno-phenotype A suggests an adaptation to stable nutrient-rich niches, i.e. milk-derivative products, reflected by the alteration or loss of biological functions associated with antimicrobial activity spectrum, stress resistance, adaptability and fitness to a distinctive range of habitats. In contrast, the geno-phenotype B displays adequate traits to a variable environment, such as the intestinal tract, in terms of nutrient resources, bacterial population density and host effects.

  15. Stability Comparison of Free and Encapsulated Lactobacilus casei ATCC 393 in Yoghurt for Long Time Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Lelia POP

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An innovative method of L. casei ATCC 393 encapsulation has been reported in the present study using pectin combined with alginate. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of encapsulation on the survival of L. casei ATCC 393 in yoghurt during long time storage, free or encapsulated in alginate and alginate pectin microspheres, and influence over yoghurt properties, particularly acidification. Over 35 days of storage in yoghurt, the encapsulated probiotic cells proved a higher viability compared with free probiotic cells. An even higher viability and stability was observed for the samples where pectin was used. Pectin acts as prebiotic during encapsulation of L. casei ATCC 393.

  16. Stability Comparison of Free and Encapsulated Lactobacilus casei ATCC 393 in Yoghurt for Long Time Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Lelia POP; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Ramona SUHAROSCHI; Socaciu, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    An innovative method of L. casei ATCC 393 encapsulation has been reported in the present study using pectin combined with alginate. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of encapsulation on the survival of L. casei ATCC 393 in yoghurt during long time storage, free or encapsulated in alginate and alginate pectin microspheres, and influence over yoghurt properties, particularly acidification. Over 35 days of storage in yoghurt, the encapsulated probiotic cells proved a higher via...

  17. The sim Operon Facilitates the Transport and Metabolism of Sucrose Isomers in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Inspection of the genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 revealed two operons that might dissimilate the five isomers of sucrose. To test this hypothesis, cells of L. casei ATCC 334 were grown in a defined medium supplemented with various sugars, including each of the five isomeric disaccharides. Extracts prepared from cells grown on the sucrose isomers contained high levels of two polypeptides with Mrs of ~50,000 and ~17,500. Neither protein was present in cells grown on glucose, ma...

  18. Adhesion properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus mucus-binding factor to mucin and extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Keita; Nakamata, Koichi; Ueno, Shintaro; Terao, Akari; Aryantini, Ni Putu Desy; Sujaya, I Nengah; Fukuda, Kenji; Urashima, Tadasu; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao

    2015-01-01

    We previously described potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains, isolated from fermented mare milk produced in Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, which showed high adhesion to porcine colonic mucin (PCM) and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Recently, mucus-binding factor (MBF) was found in the GG strain of L. rhamnosus as a mucin-binding protein. In this study, we assessed the ability of recombinant MBF protein from the FSMM22 strain, one of the isolates of L. rhamnosus from fermented Sumbawa mare milk, to adhere to PCM and ECM proteins by overlay dot blot and Biacore assays. MBF bound to PCM, laminin, collagen IV, and fibronectin with submicromolar dissociation constants. Adhesion of the FSMM22 mbf mutant strain to PCM and ECM proteins was significantly less than that of the wild-type strain. Collectively, these results suggested that MBF contribute to L. rhamnosus host colonization via mucin and ECM protein binding.

  19. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF Lactobacillus casei IMV B-7280 IN CASES OF EXPERIMENTAL UROGENITAL STAPHYLOCOCCAL INFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babenko L. P.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to determine antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus casei ІМV В-7280 probiotic strain on the experimental urogenital tract infection of mice. The influence of intravaginal and/or per os administration of this strain once per day during 7 days on the microflora of vagina, kidneys and intestinal contents of Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4 infected mice was studied. It was established, that in cases of experimental staphylococcal infection of urogenital tract L. Casei IMV B-7280 had effective antagonistic activity against S. aureus 8325-4 and opportunistic bacteria. After L. casei IMV B-7280 introduction into infected mice reduction or complete elimination of S. aureus 8325-4 in vagina, kidneys and intestinal contents in different periods of observation was established. Under the influence of L. casei ІМВ В-7280 the number of coliform bacteria, streptococci and staphylococci in the vagina was normalized, and fungal flora — decreased even in comparison with intact mice. Normalization of kidneys microflora was also observed. In the intestinal contents of infected mice trea ted with L. casei IMV B-7280 the number of streptococci did not change, staphylococci number decreased, but the number of fungal and coliform flora remained relatively low during the observation period. L. casei IMV B-7280 probiotic strain is promising to create immunobiotics with antibacterial action, which can be used for the prevention and treatment of urogenital infections caused by opportunistic microorganisms.

  20. Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG as influenced by storage conditions and product matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Williams, Jonathan H; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2012-12-01

    Mortality resulting from diarrhea especially that occurs in children younger than 5 y of age ranks 3rd among all deaths caused by infectious diseases worldwide. Probiotics such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG are clinically shown to effectively reduce the incidence of diarrhea in children. A food substrate is one of the major factors regulating the colonization of microorganisms in human gastrointestinal tracts. Peanut butter is a nutritious, low-moisture food that could be a carrier for probiotics. In this study, we observed the influence of storage conditions and product matrixes on the survival of L. rhamnosus GG. Cells of L. rhamnosus GG were inoculated into full fat or reduced fat peanut butter at 10(7) CFU/g. Inoculated peanut butter was stored at 4, 25, or 37 °C for 48 wk. Samples were drawn periodically to determine the populations of L. rhamnosus GG. Results showed that there was no significant decrease in the viable counts of L. rhamnosus GG in products stored 4 °C. The survivability of L. rhamnosus GG decreased with increasing storage temperature and time. Product matrixes did not significantly affect the survival of L. rhamnosus GG except at 37 °C. Populations of L. rhamnosus GG were preserved at >6 logs in products stored at 4 °C for 48 wk and at 25 °C for 23 to 27 wk. At 37 °C, the 6-log level could not be maintained for even 6 wk. The results suggest that peanut butter stored at 4 and 25 °C could serve as vehicles to deliver probiotics.

  1. Obsessive-compulsive-like behaviors in house mice are attenuated by a probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, Pranish A; Bobrow, Dylan N; Nyby, John G

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments examined probiotic pretreatment (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-like behavior induction by RU 24969 in BALB/cJ house mice. In the first experiment, two groups were defined by their daily pretreatment by oral gavage of either (a) L. rhamnosus (1×10⁹ CFU/day) or (b) the saline vehicle. Both a 2- and 4-week probiotic pretreatment attenuated OCD-like behavior induction (increased perseverative open-field locomotion, stereotypic turning, and marble burying) relative to saline pretreatment. Experiment 2 re-examined the 2-week probiotic pretreatment while also comparing it to a 4-week fluoxetine pretreatment. Again, groups were defined by daily pretreatment of either (a) L. rhamnosus for 2 weeks, (b) the saline vehicle for 2 weeks, or (c) fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. Pretreatment by either L. rhamnosus or fluoxetine blocked the induction of OCD-like behavior compared with saline pretreatment. Thus the 2-week probiotic pretreatment was again effective. Although side effects of fluoxetine or L. rhamnosus on androgen-dependent behaviors could not be demonstrated, L. rhamnosus treatment appeared comparable to fluoxetine treatment in attenuating mouse OCD-like behaviors.

  2. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Lysate Increases Re-Epithelialization of Keratinocyte Scratch Assays by Promoting Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammedsaeed, Walaa; Cruickshank, Sheena; McBain, Andrew J; O'Neill, Catherine A

    2015-11-05

    A limited number of studies have investigated the potential of probiotics to promote wound healing in the digestive tract. The aim of the current investigation was to determine whether probiotic bacteria or their extracts could be beneficial in cutaneous wound healing. A keratinocyte monolayer scratch assay was used to assess re-epithelialization; which comprises keratinocyte proliferation and migration. Primary human keratinocyte monolayers were scratched then exposed to lysates of Lactobacillus (L) rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri, L. plantarum or L. fermentum. Re-epithelialization of treated monolayers was compared to that of untreated controls. Lysates of L. rhamnosus GG and L. reuteri significantly increased the rate of re-epithelialization, with L. rhamnosus GG being the most efficacious. L. reuteri increased keratinocyte proliferation while L. rhamnosus GG lysate significantly increased proliferation and migration. Microarray analysis of L. rhamnosus GG treated scratches showed increased expression of multiple genes including the chemokine CXCL2 and its receptor CXCR2. These are involved in normal wound healing where they stimulate keratinocyte proliferation and/or migration. Increased protein expression of both CXCL2 and CXCR2 were confirmed by ELISA and immunoblotting. These data demonstrate that L. rhamnosus GG lysate accelerates re-epithelialization of keratinocyte scratch assays, potentially via chemokine receptor pairs that induce keratinocyte migration.

  3. Risk analysis of Safety Service Patrol (SSP) systems in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Brett D; Santos, Joost R

    2011-12-01

    The transportation infrastructure is a vital backbone of any regional economy as it supports workforce mobility, tourism, and a host of socioeconomic activities. In this article, we specifically examine the incident management function of the transportation infrastructure. In many metropolitan regions, incident management is handled primarily by safety service patrols (SSPs), which monitor and resolve roadway incidents. In Virginia, SSP allocation across highway networks is based typically on average vehicle speeds and incident volumes. This article implements a probabilistic network model that partitions "business as usual" traffic flow with extreme-event scenarios. Results of simulated network scenarios reveal that flexible SSP configurations can improve incident resolution times relative to predetermined SSP assignments.

  4. Comparative genomic and functional analysis of 100 Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains and their comparison with strain GG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François P Douillard

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a lactic acid bacterium that is found in a large variety of ecological habitats, including artisanal and industrial dairy products, the oral cavity, intestinal tract or vagina. To gain insights into the genetic complexity and ecological versatility of the species L. rhamnosus, we examined the genomes and phenotypes of 100 L. rhamnosus strains isolated from diverse sources. The genomes of 100 L. rhamnosus strains were mapped onto the L. rhamnosus GG reference genome. These strains were phenotypically characterized for a wide range of metabolic, antagonistic, signalling and functional properties. Phylogenomic analysis showed multiple groupings of the species that could partly be associated with their ecological niches. We identified 17 highly variable regions that encode functions related to lifestyle, i.e. carbohydrate transport and metabolism, production of mucus-binding pili, bile salt resistance, prophages and CRISPR adaptive immunity. Integration of the phenotypic and genomic data revealed that some L. rhamnosus strains possibly resided in multiple niches, illustrating the dynamics of bacterial habitats. The present study showed two distinctive geno-phenotypes in the L. rhamnosus species. The geno-phenotype A suggests an adaptation to stable nutrient-rich niches, i.e. milk-derivative products, reflected by the alteration or loss of biological functions associated with antimicrobial activity spectrum, stress resistance, adaptability and fitness to a distinctive range of habitats. In contrast, the geno-phenotype B displays adequate traits to a variable environment, such as the intestinal tract, in terms of nutrient resources, bacterial population density and host effects.

  5. Preparation and characterization of a coacervate extended-release microparticulate delivery system for Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli SMA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sk Md Athar Alli Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, West Bengal, IndiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to develop a mucoadhesive coacervate microparticulate system to deliver viable Lactobacillus rhamnosus cells into the gut for an extended period of time while maintaining high numbers of viable cells within the formulation throughout its shelf-life and during gastrointestinal transit.Methods: Core coacervate mucoadhesive microparticles of L. rhamnosus were developed using several grades of hypromellose and were subsequently enteric-coated with hypromellose phthalate. Microparticles were evaluated for percent yield, entrapment efficiency, surface morphology, particle size, size distribution, zeta potential, flow properties, in vitro swelling, mucoadhesion properties, in vitro release profile and release kinetics, in vivo probiotic activity, and stability. The values for the kinetic constant and release exponent of model-dependent approaches, the difference factor, similarity factor, and Rescigno indices of model-independent approaches were determined for analyzing in vitro dissolution profiles.Results: Experimental microparticles of formulation batches were of spherical shape with percent yields of 41.24%–58.18%, entrapment efficiency 45.18%–64.16%, mean particle size 33.10–49.62 µm, and zeta potential around -11.5 mV, confirming adequate stability of L. rhamnosus at room temperature. The in vitro L. rhamnosus release profile follows zero-order kinetics and depends on the grade of hypromellose and the L. rhamnosus to hypromellose ratio.Conclusion: Microparticles delivered L. rhamnosus in simulated intestinal conditions for an extended period, following zero-order kinetics, and exhibited appreciable mucoadhesion in simulated intestinal conditions.Keywords: Lactobacillus rhamnosus, mucoadhesive, microparticles, extended-release, intestine

  6. Genome-scale reconstruction of metabolic networks of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 and 12A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vinay-Lara

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus casei strains are widely used in industry and the utility of this organism in these industrial applications is strain dependent. Hence, tools capable of predicting strain specific phenotypes would have utility in the selection of strains for specific industrial processes. Genome-scale metabolic models can be utilized to better understand genotype-phenotype relationships and to compare different organisms. To assist in the selection and development of strains with enhanced industrial utility, genome-scale models for L. casei ATCC 334, a well characterized strain, and strain 12A, a corn silage isolate, were constructed. Draft models were generated from RAST genome annotations using the Model SEED database and refined by evaluating ATP generating cycles, mass-and-charge-balances of reactions, and growth phenotypes. After the validation process was finished, we compared the metabolic networks of these two strains to identify metabolic, genetic and ortholog differences that may lead to different phenotypic behaviors. We conclude that the metabolic capabilities of the two networks are highly similar. The L. casei ATCC 334 model accounts for 1,040 reactions, 959 metabolites and 548 genes, while the L. casei 12A model accounts for 1,076 reactions, 979 metabolites and 640 genes. The developed L. casei ATCC 334 and 12A metabolic models will enable better understanding of the physiology of these organisms and be valuable tools in the development and selection of strains with enhanced utility in a variety of industrial applications.

  7. Genome –Scale Reconstruction of Metabolic Networks of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 and 12A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinay-Lara, Elena; Hamilton, Joshua J.; Stahl, Buffy; Broadbent, Jeff R.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Steele, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei strains are widely used in industry and the utility of this organism in these industrial applications is strain dependent. Hence, tools capable of predicting strain specific phenotypes would have utility in the selection of strains for specific industrial processes. Genome-scale metabolic models can be utilized to better understand genotype-phenotype relationships and to compare different organisms. To assist in the selection and development of strains with enhanced industrial utility, genome-scale models for L. casei ATCC 334, a well characterized strain, and strain 12A, a corn silage isolate, were constructed. Draft models were generated from RAST genome annotations using the Model SEED database and refined by evaluating ATP generating cycles, mass-and-charge-balances of reactions, and growth phenotypes. After the validation process was finished, we compared the metabolic networks of these two strains to identify metabolic, genetic and ortholog differences that may lead to different phenotypic behaviors. We conclude that the metabolic capabilities of the two networks are highly similar. The L. casei ATCC 334 model accounts for 1,040 reactions, 959 metabolites and 548 genes, while the L. casei 12A model accounts for 1,076 reactions, 979 metabolites and 640 genes. The developed L. casei ATCC 334 and 12A metabolic models will enable better understanding of the physiology of these organisms and be valuable tools in the development and selection of strains with enhanced utility in a variety of industrial applications. PMID:25365062

  8. School Teams up for SSP Functional Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignolet, G.; Lallemand, R.; Celeste, A.; von Muldau, H.

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power systems appear increasingly as one of the major solutions to the upcoming global energy crisis, by collecting solar energy in space where this is most easy, and sending it by microwave beam to the surface of the planet, where the need for controlled energy is located. While fully operational systems are still decades away, the need for major development efforts is with us now. Yet, for many decision-makers and for most of the public, SSP often still sounds like science fiction. Six functional demonstration systems, based on the Japanese SPS-2000 concept, have been built as a result of a cooperation between France and Japan, and they are currently used extensively, in Japan, in Europe and in North America, for executive presentations as well as for public exhibitions. There is demand for more models, both for science museums and for use by energy dedicated groups, and a senior high school in La Reunion, France, has picked up the challenge to make the production of such models an integrated practical school project for pre-college students. In December 2001, the administration and the teachers of the school have evaluated the feasibility of the project and eventually taken the go decision for the school year 2002- 2003, when for education purposes a temporary "school business company" will be incorporated with the goal to study and manufacture a limited series of professional quality SSP demonstration models, and to sell them world- wide to institutions and advocacy groups concerned with energy problems and with the environment. The different sections of the school will act as the different services of an integrated business : based on the current existing models, the electronic section will redesign the energy management system and the microwave projector module, while the mechanical section of the school will adapt and re-conceive the whole packaging of the demonstrator. The French and foreign language sections will write up a technical manual for

  9. Lactobacillus casei Zhang和Bifidobacterium lactis V9在益生菌酸乳中的应用%Application of Lactobacillus casei Zhang and Bifidobacterium lactis V9 in the probiotic yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彪; 张和平

    2012-01-01

    益生菌在酸乳中的应用已非常普遍,将Lactobacillus casei Zhang单独(样品A)以及与Bifidobacterium lactis V9复合(样品B),同酸乳发酵剂(G027)共同发酵益生菌酸乳,于4℃贮藏21 d.结果表明,整个贮藏期间2组样品间的黏度和持水性差异不显著;贮藏期间2组样品间L.casei Zhang的活菌数没有差异,且L.casei Zhang和B.lactis V9的活菌数不随贮藏时间而降低;L.casei Zhang和B.lactis V9复合益生菌酸奶感官评价优于单独添加L.casei Zhang酸乳.L.casei Zhang和B.lactis V9复合添加,更适合于益生菌酸乳的生产.%Now it is common for adding probiotics in fermented yoghurt. Yoghurt was fermented by Lactobadllus casei Zhang (A) or combined with Bifidobacterium lactis V9 (B) plus with starter culture (G027) and followed with a 21 d storage at 4 t. The results showed that there was no significance between A and B concerning viscosity and syneresis. It also observed no significant difference existed in counts of L. casei 7ian% between A and B during storage and counts of two probiotics had no change as the storage passed by. However, Fermented milk by combined L. casei Zhang with B. lactis V9 possess markedly higher favorable sensory scores than L. casei Zhang fermented milk, suggesting that it is more suitable for probiotic yoghurt manufacture.

  10. Genomic Characterization of Non-Mucus Adherent Derivatives of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Reveals Genes Affecting Pilus Biogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasinkangas, P.; Reunanen, J.; Douillard, F.P.; Ritari, J.; Uotinen, V.; Palva, A.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is one of the best-characterized lactic acid bacteria and can be considered a probiotic paradigm. Comparative and functional genome analysis showed that L. rhamnosus GG harbors a genomic island including the spaCBA-srtC1 gene cluster, encoding the cell surface-decorating h

  11. The Variable Regions of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Genomes Reveal the Dynamic Evolution of Metabolic and Host-Adaptation Repertoires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceapa, C.D.; Davids, M.; Ritari, Jarmo; Lambert, J.; Wels, M.; Douillard, François P.; Smokvina, Tamara; Vos, de Willem M.; Knol, J.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a diverse Gram-positive species with strains isolated from different ecological niches. Here, we report the genome sequence analysis of 40 diverse strains of L. rhamnosus and their genomic comparison, with a focus on the variable genome. Genomic comparison of 40 L. rhamnos

  12. Oral Immunization Against Candidiasis Using Lactobacillus casei Displaying Enolase 1 from Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Seiji; Karasaki, Miki; Tafuku, Senji; Aoki, Wataru; Sewaki, Tomomitsu; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Candidiasis is a common fungal infection that is prevalent in immunocompromised individuals. In this study, an oral vaccine against Candida albicans was developed by using the molecular display approach. Enolase 1 protein (Eno1p) of C. albicans was expressed on the Lactobacillus casei cell surface by using poly-gamma-glutamic acid synthetase complex A from Bacillus subtilis as an anchoring protein. The Eno1p-displaying L. casei cells were used to immunize mice, which were later challenged with a lethal dose of C. albicans. The data indicated that the vaccine elicited a strong IgG response and increased the survival rate of the vaccinated mice. Furthermore, L. casei acted as a potent adjuvant and induced high antibody titers that were comparable to those induced by strong adjuvants such as the cholera toxin. Overall, the molecular display method can be used to rapidly develop vaccines that can be conveniently administered and require minimal processing.

  13. Etude chimique et biologique des huiles essentielles de Juniperus phoenicea ssp. lycia et Juniperus phoenicea ssp. turbinata du Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri, N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological study of essential oils of Moroccan Juniperus phoenicea ssp. lycia and Juniperus phoenicea ssp. turbinata. The composition of the essential oils of the branches and berries of Juniperus phoenicea (Cupressaceae, J. phoenicea ssp. lycia (plain and J. phoenicea ssp. turbinata (mountain, obtained by hydrodistillation, collected from Morocco, was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The yields of essential oils were varying in function of the subspecies and of the part of the plant studied. The essential oils of these tree species are largely dominated by α-pinene and may be an important source of this component of a great interest on the international market. The effectiveness of essential oils from branches of the subspecies lycia against fungi decay wood has also been emphasized.

  14. Engineering sorbitol-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase encoding gene in the lactose operon of Lactobacillus casei.

    OpenAIRE

    Nissen, Lorenzo; Yebra, María Jesús; Sgobarti, Barbara; Pérez Martínez, Gaspar

    2005-01-01

    Sorbitol is a sugar polyol claimed to have health-promoting properties. D-sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogeanse (StolPDh) is required for sorbose and sorbitol metabolism in Lactobacillus casei. StolPDh catalyzes the oxidation of Sorbitol-6-phosphate and also the reverse reaction, or reather, the reduction of fructose-6-phosphate with NAD+ regeneration. In order to test this function in vivo, a new food grade recombinant strain of L. casei was constructed by the integration of a StolPDh-encodi...

  15. Proline iminopeptidase PepI overexpressing Lactobacillus casei as an adjunct starter in Edam cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidghasemizad, Sahar; Takala, Timo M; Alatossava, Tapani; Saris, Per EJ

    2013-01-01

    In this study the growth of genetically modified Lactobacillus casei LAB6, overexpressing proline iminopeptidase PepI and its capacity to increase free proline was investigated during ripening of Edam cheese. The strain successfully survived 12 weeks of ripening period in cheese. The food-grade plasmid pLEB604, carrying the pepI gene, was stable, and PepI enzyme was active in LAB6 cells isolated at different stages of the ripening process. However, HPLC analyses indicated that Lb. casei LAB6 could not increase the amount of free proline in ripened cheese. PMID:23851577

  16. The SSP4: A world of deepening inequality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Katherine; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Clarke, Leon; Edmonds, James; Eom, Jiyong; Hartin, Corinne; Kim, Sonny; Kyle, Page; Link, Robert; Moss, Richard; McJeon, Haewon; Patel, Pralit; Smith, Steve; Waldhoff, Stephanie; Wise, Marshall

    2017-01-01

    The Shared Socioeconomic Pathway 4 (SSP4), “Inequality” or “A Road Divided,” is one of the five SSPs developed to guide the creation of new scenarios for the “Parallel Process”. We describe, in quantitative terms, the SSP4 as implemented by the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), the marker model for this scenario. We use demographic and economic assumptions, in combination with technology and non-climate policy assumptions to develop a quantitative representation of energy, land-use and land-cover that are consistent with the SSP4 storyline. The resulting scenario is one with stark differences across regions. High-income regions prosper, continuing to increase their demand for energy and food. Electrification increases in these regions, with the increased generation being met by nuclear and renewables. Low-income regions, however, stagnate due to limited growth in income. These regions continue to depend on traditional biofuels, leading to high pollutant emissions. Due to a declining dependence on fossil fuels in all regions, total radiative forcing only reaches 6.4 Wm-2 in 2100, making this a world with relatively low challenges to mitigation. We explore the effects of mitigation effort on the SSP4 world, finding that the imposition of a carbon price has a varied effect across regions. In particular, the SSP4 mitigation scenarios are characterized by afforestation in the high-income regions and deforestation in the low-income regions. Finally, we compare the GCAM SSP4 results to other integrated assessment model (IAM) quantifications of the SSP4 and to other SSPs, both those generated by GCAM and those of the other IAMs.

  17. Efeito do Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393 na redução do sabor amargo da carne escura de atum (Euthynnus pelamis)

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência dos Alimentos. Durante o processamento do atum enlatado ocorre uma considerável sobra de carne escura, que é utilizada para a elaboração de ração animal, em função de seu sabor amargo. Fermentação com Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393 pode ser uma alternativa para redução do sabor amargo da carne escura de atum. As amostras da carne foram preparadas e ...

  18. Submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9 for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of y-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation conditions were investigated. When culture pH condition was adjusted to the optimal pH of glutamate decarboxylase activity, culture of Lb. rhamnosus YS9 in medium supplemented with 200 mM of monosodium glutamate and 200 µM of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, produced 187 mM of GABA.

  19. BEBIDA FERMENTADA DE SUERO DE QUESO FRESCO INOCULADA CON Lactobacillus casei FERMENTED FRESH CHEESE MILKWHEY BEVERAGE INOCULATED WITH Lactobacillus casei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita María Londoño Uribe

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo por objetivo desarrollar una bebida fermentada de suero de queso fresco inoculada con Lactobacillus casei, a la cual se le evaluó la viabilidad del microorganismo, utilizando medios de cultivo selectivos, bajo condiciones anaeróbicas y, luego, se procedió a verificar su resistencia a los ácidos gástricos y sales biliares, simulando así, las condiciones del tracto gastrointestinal de los humanos. Para verificar la supervivencia durante el período de almacenamiento (21 días, la cepa, se caracterizó morfológica y bioquímicamente. Adicionalmente, se llevó a cabo la prueba de aceptabilidad, evaluando la bebida con 80 jueces. Se realizaron análisis físico-químicos, microbiológicos y sensoriales, a la materia prima y al producto elaborado, acorde a las normas vigentes en Colombia. La bebida fue saborizada con pulpa de maracuyá (Passi flora edulis. Se obtuvieron recuentos de viabilidad a pH 2,0, en agar MRS de 5,38∙10(7ufc∙g-1 y 1,3∙10(6ufc∙g-1 y en agar M17 de 6,96∙10(7ufc∙g-1 y de 1,16∙10(6ufc∙g-1, en los días 1 y 21, respectivamente. A pH 7,0, en agar MRS, se registraron valores de 3,37 ∙10(7ufc∙g-1 y 1.56 ∙10(6ufc∙g-1 y en agar M17 de 8,85∙10(7ufc∙g-1 y de 1,82∙10(6ufc∙g-1, en los días 1 y 21, respectivamente. La bebida desarrollada, tuvo una aceptación de “me gusta”, y presentó una vida de anaquel de hasta 21 días.The objective of this research was to develop a fermented fresh cheese milkwhey beverage inoculated with Lactobacillus casei, to which the viability of microorganism was evaluated using selective cultivation means under anaerobic conditions and then it was verified its biliary resistance to gastric acids and salts, simulating this way, the conditions of gastrointestinal tract of humans. To verify the survival during the period of storage (21 days, the stump was characterized morphological and bio-chemically. Additionally the test of acceptability was carried out

  20. Incorporação de Lactobacillus casei microencapsulado em queijo tipo coalho = Incorporation of encapsulated Lactobacillus casei into type curd cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima, Janilton Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Conclusão: Desta forma, os queijos obtidos com a introdução de ambas as formas de Lactobacillus casei apresentaram concentrações de células viáveis consideradas adequadas para alimentos probióticos, podendo concluir que o queijo tipo coalho é um produto com características interessantes para a veiculação de micro-organismos probióticos

  1. The impact of heterologous catalase expression and superoxide dismutase overexpression on enhancing the oxidative resistance in Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinzhong; Zou, Yexia; Cao, Kunlin; Ma, Chengjie; Chen, Zhengjun

    2016-05-01

    Two heme-dependent catalase genes were amplified from genomic DNA of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 (KatE1) and Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 367 (KatE2), respectively, and a manganese-containing superoxide dismutase from Lactobacillus casei MCJΔ1 (MnSOD) were cloned into plasmid pELX1, yielding pELX1-KatE1, pELX1-KatE2 and pELX1-MnSOD, then the recombinant plasmids were transferred into L. casei MCJΔ1. The strains of L. casei MCJΔ1/pELX1-KatE1 and L. casei MCJΔ1/pELX1-KatE2 were tolerant at 2 mM H2O2. The survival rates of L. casei MCJΔ1/pELX1-KatE1 and L. casei MCJΔ1/pELX1-KatE2 were 270-fold and 300-fold higher than that of the control strain on a short-term H2O2 exposure, and in aerated condition, the survival cells counts were 146- and 190-fold higher than that of the control strain after 96 h of incubation. Furthermore, L. casei MCJΔ1/pELX1-MnSOD was the best in three recombinants which was superior in the living cell viability during storage when co-storage with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis LBCH-1.

  2. Cysteine biosynthesis in Lactobacillus casei: identification and characterization of a serine acetyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogicevic, Biljana; Berthoud, Hélène; Portmann, Reto; Bavan, Tharmatha; Meile, Leo; Irmler, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    In bacteria, cysteine can be synthesized from serine by two steps involving an L-serine O-acetyltransferase (SAT) and a cysteine synthase (CysK). While CysK is found in the publicly available annotated genome from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334, a gene encoding SAT (cysE) is missing. In this study, we found that various strains of L. casei grew in a chemically defined medium containing sulfide as the sole sulfur source, indicating the presence of a serine O-acetyltransferase. The gene lying upstream of cysK is predicted to encode a homoserine trans-succinylase (metA). To study the function of this gene, it was cloned from L. casei FAM18110. The purified, recombinant protein did not acylate L-homoserine in vitro. Instead, it catalyzed the formation of O-acetyl serine from L-serine and acetyl-CoA. Furthermore, the plasmid expressing the L. casei gene complemented an Escherichia coli cysE mutant strain but not an E. coli metA mutant. This clearly demonstrated that the gene annotated as metA in fact encodes the SAT function and should be annotated as cysE.

  3. Study of Diabetic cutaneous wound healing in rats treated with Lactobacillus Casei and its Exopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ahmadi Majid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms (in most cases, bacteria that are similar to beneficial microorganisms found in the human gut. They are also called "friendly bacteria" or "good bacteria". Lactobacillus derived from products, including culture supernatants have been used for their wound healing and antiviral properties as they are believed to boost energy and to be effective remedies for allergies, common cold, lactose intolerance, and have also been shown to reduce cholesterol levels and the risk of colon cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this experiment is to study the effect of Lactobacillus casei on Diabetic wound healing. This study was designed to investigate the amount of exopolysaccharide (EPS production by L. Casei, L. Brevis, L. Bulgaricus and L. Plant arum from the genus Lactobacillus applying the phenol-sulfuric acid method and the antagonistic effects of these bacteria on some pathogenic bacteria. L. casei was selected for its high exopolysaccharide and fucoid colonise production. The animals were injected by streptozotocin at the dose of 55 mg/kg of the body weight intraperitoneal streptozotocin induced diabetes within 3 days by destroying the beta cells. Wistar male rats divided into 4 groups; 2 experimental groups, a control and a negative control (n =6; and a full-thickness wound (1× 1cm was made on the back of each rat. The current study showed a significant reduction in inflammation and a significant acceleration in wound healing on the rats treated by Lactobacillus casei as compared to control and negative control groups.

  4. Lactobacillus casei reduces susceptibility to type 2 diabetes via microbiota-mediated body chloride ion influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Guo, Xiao; Guo, Jianlin; He, Qiuwen; Li, He; Song, Yuqin; Zhang, Heping

    2014-07-18

    Gut microbiota mediated low-grade inflammation is involved in the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In this study, we used a high fat sucrose (HFS) diet-induced pre-insulin resistance and a low dose-STZ HFS rat models to study the effect and mechanism of Lactobacillus casei Zhang in protecting against T2DM onset. Hyperglycemia was favorably suppressed by L. casei Zhang treatment. Moreover, the hyperglycemia was connected with type 1 immune response, high plasma bile acids and urine chloride ion loss. This chloride ion loss was significantly prevented by L. casei via upregulating of chloride ion-dependent genes (ClC1-7, GlyRα1, SLC26A3, SLC26A6, GABAAα1, Bestrophin-3 and CFTR). A shift in the caecal microflora, particularly the reduction of bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating bacteria, and fecal bile acid profiles also occurred. These change coincided with organ chloride influx. Thus, we postulate that the prevention of T2DM onset by L. casei Zhang may be via a microbiota-based bile acid-chloride exchange mechanism.

  5. Ca2+-Citrate Uptake and Metabolism in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortera, Pablo; Pudlik, Agata; Magni, Christian; Alarcon, Sergio; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2013-01-01

    The putative citrate metabolic pathway in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 consists of the transporter CitH, a proton symporter of the citrate-divalent metal ion family of transporters CitMHS, citrate lyase, and the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Resting cells of Lactobacill

  6. CASEI Project (Consultation and Administration Specialists in Early Intervention) Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    This final report describes the activities and accomplishments of the Consultation and Administration Specialists in Early Intervention Project (CASEI). This federally funded project was developed to provide cross-disciplinary preservice training for early intervention (EI) specialists in Illinois. Students were recruited from a broad range of…

  7. Lactobacillus rhamnosus JCM 2771: impact on metabolism of isoflavonoids in the fecal flora from a male equol producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Motoi; Hori, Sachiko; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki

    2011-05-01

    Many beneficial effects of probiotics have been reported; however, few have focussed on the effects of Lactobacillus, a probiotic, on the bioconversion of isoflavonoids. We hypothesized that Lactobacillus rhamnosus will modify the metabolism of isoflavone. In an in vitro incubation, L. rhamnosus JCM 2771 produced daidzein from daidzin along with genistein. However, daidzin and genistein were not detected in the incubation solution of daidzein with L. rhamnosus. In the fecal suspension from a male equol producer with daidzein, equol was detected in the presence of a low or high concentration of L. rhamnosus. In the fecal incubation with daidzin, the equol concentration increased with an increasing concentration of L. rhamnosus JCM 2771. L. rhamnosus affected the equol production in the in vitro incubation of daidzein with fecal flora from a male equol producer. We demonstrated for the first time that L. rhamnosus JCM 2771 could produce genistein from daidzin and affect the equol production of fecal flora from a male equol producer in vitro.

  8. [Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

    1982-10-01

    Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7].

  9. Evaluation of strain-specific primers for identification of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Akihito; Aakko, Juhani; Salminen, Seppo

    2012-12-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (ATCC 53103) is one of the most widely studied and commercialized probiotic strains, and thus strain-specific identification for the strain is highly valuable. In this study, two published PCR-based identification methods for strain GG, a transposase gene-targeting system and a phage-related gene-targeting system, were evaluated. The former produced amplicons from eight of the 41 strains tested and the phage-related system from five of the tested strains, including the strain GG. Fingerprinting analysis indicated that the strains LMG 18025, LMG 18030, and LMG 18038, which had an amplicon by the former system but none by the latter, were genetically distinguishable from L. rhamnosus GG at strain level. Strains LMG 23320, LMG 23325, LMG 23534, and LMG 25859 showed profiles very similar to that of the strain GG, suggesting that these strains might be identical to GG or derivative strains of it. The results here indicated that the phage-related gene-targeting system is a good tool for accurate identification of L. rhamnosus GG. This system would be able to detect both the original L. rhamnosus GG and its derivative strains.

  10. Polymorphisms, chromosomal rearrangements, and mutator phenotype development during experimental evolution of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douillard, François P.; Ribbera, Angela; Xiao, Kun; Ritari, Jarmo; Rasinkangas, Pia; Paulin, Lars; Palva, Airi; Hao, Yanling; Vos, de Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a lactic acid bacterium widely marketed by the food industry. Its genomic analysis led to the identification of a gene cluster encoding mucus-binding SpaCBA pili, which is located in a genomic island enriched in insertion sequence (IS) elements. In the present study,

  11. Effect of acid stress on protein expression and phosphorylation in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koponen, J.; Laakso, K.; Koskenniemi, K.; Kankainen, M.; Savijoki, K.; Nyman, T.A.; Vos, de W.M.; Tynkkynen, S.; Kalkkinen, N.; Varmanen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Acidic environments encountered in food products and during gastrointestinal tract passage affect the survival of bacteria that are marketed as probiotics. In this study, the global proteome responses of the probiotic lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG to two physiologically relevant p

  12. Whole-Cell Biocatalysis for Producing Ginsenoside Rd from Rb1 Using Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Seockmo; You, Hyun Ju; Park, Myeong Soo; Ji, Geun Eog

    2016-07-28

    Ginsenosides are the major active ingredients in ginseng used for human therapeutic plant medicines. One of the most well-known probiotic bacteria among the various strains on the functional food market is Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Biocatalytic methods using probiotic enzymes for producing deglycosylated ginsenosides such as Rd have a growing significance in the functional food industry. The addition of 2% cellobiose (w/v) to glucose-free de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broths notably induced β-glucosidase production from L. rhamnosus GG. Enzyme production and activity were optimized at a pH, temperature, and cellobiose concentration of 6.0, 40°C, and 2% (w/v), respectively. Under these controlled conditions, β-glucosidase production in L. rhamnosus GG was enhanced by 25-fold. Additionally, whole-cell homogenates showed the highest β-glucosidase activity when compared with disrupted cell suspensions; the cell disruption step significantly decreased the β-glucosidase activity. Based on the optimized enzyme conditions, whole-cell L. rhamnosus GG was successfully used to convert ginsenoside Rb1 into Rd.

  13. Functional characterization of a mucus-specific LPXTG surface adhesin from probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossowski, von I.; Vos, de W.M.; Palva, A.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the wealth of clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in humans, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its probiosis. Current knowledge suggests that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic strain might be

  14. Functional identification of conserved residues involved in Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG sortase specificity and pilus biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillard, François P; Rasinkangas, Pia; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-05-30

    In Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili mediate the adhesion of bacteria to host epithelial cells and play a pivotal role in colonization, host signaling, and biofilm formation. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG, a well known probiotic bacterium, also displays on its cell surface mucus-binding pilus structures, along with other LPXTG surface proteins, which are processed by sortases upon specific recognition of a highly conserved LPXTG motif. Bioinformatic analysis of all predicted LPXTG proteins encoded by the L. rhamnosus GG genome revealed a remarkable conservation of glycine residues juxtaposed to the canonical LPXTG motif. Here, we investigated and defined the role of this so-called triple glycine (TG) motif in determining sortase specificity during the pilus assembly and anchoring. Mutagenesis of the TG motif resulted in a lack or an alteration of the L. rhamnosus GG pilus structures, indicating that the TG motif is critical in pilus assembly and that they govern the pilin-specific and housekeeping sortase specificity. This allowed us to propose a regulatory model of the L. rhamnosus GG pilus biogenesis. Remarkably, the TG motif was identified in multiple pilus gene clusters of other Gram-positive bacteria, suggesting that similar signaling mechanisms occur in other, mainly pathogenic, species.

  15. Functional Identification of Conserved Residues Involved in Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG Sortase Specificity and Pilus Biogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douillard, F.P.; Rasinkangas, P.; Ossowski, von I.; Reunanen, J.; Palva, A.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    In Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili mediate the adhesion of bacteria to host epithelial cells and play a pivotal role in colonization, host signaling, and biofilm formation. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG, a well known probiotic bacterium, also displays on its cell surface mucus-bin

  16. Genetic expression profile analysis of the temporal inhibition of quercetin and naringenin on Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plant polyphenols, quercetin and naringenin, are considered healthy dietary compounds; however, little is known of their effects on the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). In this study, it was discovered that both quercetin and naringenin produced temporary inhibition of LGG growth, par...

  17. Colon-specific delivery of lactobacillus rhamnosus GG using pectin hydrogel beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    The probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), has shown beneficial effects on human health, and is accepted by increasing populations for the prevention and treatment of irritable bowel diseases. To increase the bioavailability and efficacy of LGG, the probiotic was encapsulated in hydro...

  18. Preserving viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in vitro and in vivo by a new encapsulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probiotics have shown beneficial effects on human health. To increase the efficacy of probiotic applications, we used Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) as a probiotic model to investigate approaches to enhance the bioavailability of probiotics. LGG was encapsulated in hydrogel beads containing pectin...

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactobacillus Rhamnosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samat Kozhakhmetov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lactobacilli are a bacteria commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract. Some species of this genus have probiotic properties. The most common of these is Lactobacillus rhamnosus, a microoganism, generally regarded as safe (GRAS. It is also a homofermentative L-(+-lactic acid producer. The genus Lactobacillus is characterized by an extraordinary degree of the phenotypic and genotypic diversity. However, the studies of the genus were conducted mostly with the unequally distributed, non-random choice of species for sequencing; thus, there is only one representative genome from the Lactobacillus rhamnosus clade available to date. The aim of this study was to characterize the genome sequencing of selected strains of Lactobacilli. Methods: 109 samples were isolated from national domestic dairy products in the laboratory of Center for life sciences. After screaning isolates for probiotic properties, a highly active Lactobacillus spp strain was chosen. Genomic DNA was extracted according to the manufacturing protocol (Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit. The Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain was identified as the highly active Lactobacillus strain accoridng to its morphological, cultural, physiological, and biochemical properties, and a genotypic analysis. Results: The genome of Lactobacillus rhamnosus was sequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX (454 GS FLX platforms. The initial draft assembly was prepared from 14 large contigs (20 all contigs by the Newbler gsAssembler 2.3 (454 Life Sciences, Branford, CT. Conclusion: A full genome-sequencing of selected strains of lactic acid bacteria was made during the study.

  20. Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, A.

    2015-01-01

    Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus Mutandabota or umlondo is an indigenous food that is consumed in Southern Africa on a daily basis. The product is made by mixing raw cow’s or goat’s milk wit

  1. A novel consortium of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Streptococcus thermophilus for increased access to functional fermented foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, R.; Westerik, N.; Mariela Serrano, L.; Douillard, F.P.; Gottstein, W.; Mukisa, I.M.; Tuijn, C.J.; Basten, L.; Hafkamp, B.; Meijer, W.C.; Teusink, B.; Vos, W.M.; Reid, G.; Sybesma, W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is the most studied probiotic bacterium with proven health benefits upon oral intake, including the alleviation of diarrhea. The mission of the Yoba for Life foundation is to provide impoverished communities in Africa increased access

  2. A novel consortium of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Streptococcus thermophilus for increased access to functional fermented foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, Remco; Westerik, Nieke; Mariela Serrano, L.; Douillard, François P.; Gottstein, Willi; Mukisa, Ivan M.; Tuijn, Coosje J.; Basten, Lisa; Hafkamp, Bert; Meijer, Wilco C.; Teusink, Bas; Vos, de Willem; Reid, Gregor; Sybesma, Wilbert

    2015-01-01

    Background: The lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is the most studied probiotic bacterium with proven health benefits upon oral intake, including the alleviation of diarrhea. The mission of the Yoba for Life foundation is to provide impoverished communities in Africa increased acce

  3. Estudio etnobotánico, arquitectura foliar y anatomía vegetativa de Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana y A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana Etnobotany, leaf architecture, and vegetative anatomy of Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana

    OpenAIRE

    Magali A. Santillán-Ramírez; Ma. Edith López-Villafranco; Silvia Aguilar-Rodríguez; Abigail Aguilar-Contreras

    2008-01-01

    El presente trabajo incluye información etnobotánica, así como la arquitectura foliar y anatomía vegetativa de Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana (toronjil morado) y A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana (toronjil blanco), con la finalidad de que sean incluidas en la Farmacopea Herbolaria de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (FHEUM) y que sus caracteres anatómicos se utilicen para validar la identidad del material vegetal en el control de calidad. El registro de la información etnobotánica se efectuó por me...

  4. Characterization of the SpaCBA pilus fibers in the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunanen, Justus; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M

    2012-04-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a human intestinal isolate that has been studied intensively because of its probiotic properties. We have previously shown that L. rhamnosus GG produces proteinaceous pili that earlier had been observed only in Gram-positive pathogens (M. Kankainen et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 106:17193-17198, 2009). These pili were found to be encoded by the spaCBA gene cluster, and the pilus-associated SpaC pilin was shown to confer on the cells a mucus-binding ability. In addition to the spaCBA cluster, another putative pilus cluster, spaFED, was predicted from the L. rhamnosus GG genome sequence. Herein, we show that only SpaCBA pili are produced by L. rhamnosus, and we describe a detailed analysis of cell wall-associated and affinity-purified SpaCBA pili by Western blotting and immunogold electron microscopy. Our results indicate that SpaCBA pili are heterotrimeric protrusions with a SpaA subunit as the shaft-forming major pilin. Only a few SpaB subunits could be observed in pilus fibers. Instead, SpaB pilins were found at pilus bases, as assessed by immunogold double labeling of thin sections of cells, suggesting that SpaB is involved in the termination of pilus assembly. The SpaC adhesin was present along the whole pilus length at numbers nearly equaling those of SpaA. The relative amount and uniform distribution of SpaC within pili not only makes it possible to exert both long-distance and intimate contact with host tissue but also provides mucus-binding strength, which explains the prolonged intestinal residency times observed for L. rhamnosus GG compared to that of nonpiliated lactobacilli.

  5. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG inhibits the toxic effects of Staphylococcus aureus on epidermal keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammedsaeed, Walaa; McBain, Andrew J; Cruickshank, Sheena M; O'Neill, Catherine A

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated the potential benefits of the topical application of probiotic bacteria or material derived from them. We have investigated whether a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, can inhibit Staphylococcus aureus infection of human primary keratinocytes in culture. When primary human keratinocytes were exposed to S. aureus, only 25% of the keratinocytes remained viable following 24 h of incubation. However, in the presence of 10(8) CFU/ml of live L. rhamnosus GG, the viability of the infected keratinocytes increased to 57% (P = 0.01). L. rhamnosus GG lysates and spent culture fluid also provided significant protection to keratinocytes, with 65% (P = 0.006) and 57% (P = 0.01) of cells, respectively, being viable following 24 h of incubation. Keratinocyte survival was significantly enhanced regardless of whether the probiotic was applied in the viable form or as cell lysates 2 h before or simultaneously with (P = 0.005) or 12 h after (P = 0.01) S. aureus infection. However, spent culture fluid was protective only if added before or simultaneously with S. aureus. With respect to mechanism, both L. rhamnosus GG lysate and spent culture fluid apparently inhibited adherence of S. aureus to keratinocytes by competitive exclusion, but only viable bacteria or the lysate could displace S. aureus (P = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively). Furthermore, growth of S. aureus was inhibited by either live bacteria or lysate but not spent culture fluid. Together, these data suggest at least two separate activities involved in the protective effects of L. rhamnosus GG against S. aureus, growth inhibition and reduction of bacterial adhesion.

  6. Functional characterization of a mucus-specific LPXTG surface adhesin from probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ossowski, Ingemar; Satokari, Reetta; Reunanen, Justus; Lebeer, Sarah; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J; Vanderleyden, Jos; de Vos, Willem M; Palva, Airi

    2011-07-01

    In spite of the wealth of clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in humans, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its probiosis. Current knowledge suggests that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic strain might be partly dependent on its persistence in the intestine and adhesion to mucosal surfaces. Moreover, L. rhamnosus GG contains mucus-binding pili that might also explain the occupation of its ecological niche as a comparatively less stringent allochthonous intestine-dwelling bacterium. To uncover additional surface proteins involved in mucosal adhesion, we investigated the adherence properties of the only predicted protein (LGG_02337) in L. rhamnosus GG that exhibits homology with a known mucus-binding domain. We cloned a recombinant form of the gene for this putative mucus adhesin and established that the purified protein readily adheres to human intestinal mucus. We also showed that this mucus adhesin is visibly distributed throughout the cell surface and participates in the adhesive interaction between L. rhamnosus GG and mucus, although less prominently than the mucus-binding pili in this strain. Based on primary structural comparisons, we concluded that the current annotation of the LGG_02337 protein likely does not accurately reflect its predicted properties, and we propose that this mucus-specific adhesin be called the mucus-binding factor (MBF). Finally, we interpret our results to mean that L. rhamnosus GG MBF, as an active mucus-specific surface adhesin with a presumed ancillary involvement in pilus-mediated mucosal adhesion, plays a part in the adherent mechanisms during intestinal colonization by this probiotic.

  7. Intragastric immunization with recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing flagellar antigen confers antibody-independent protective immunity against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kajikawa, A.; Satoh, E.; Leer, R.J.; Yamamoto, S.; Igimi, S.

    2007-01-01

    A recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing a flagellar antigen from Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis was constructed and evaluated as a mucosal vaccine. Intragastric immunization of the recombinant strain conferred protective immunity against Salmonella infection in mice. This immunization

  8. Galanthindole: a new indole alkaloid from Galanthus plicatus ssp. byzantinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unver, Nehir; Kaya, G Irem; Werner, Christa; Verpoorte, Robert; Gözler, Belkis

    2003-09-01

    A new indole alkaloid, galanthindole, was isolated from Galanthus plicatus ssp. byzantinus (Amaryllidaceae), a plant native to northwestern Turkey. Incorporating a non-fused indole ring, galanthindole may represent the prototype of a new subgroup of the Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. Two other bases, (+)-11-hydroxyvittatine and hordenine, are also reported from the same plant.

  9. Molecular typing for the MHC with PCR-SSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, K; Bunce, M

    1999-01-01

    Sequence-specific amplification (SSP) is simply a form of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which involves designing one or both primers so that they will or will not allow amplification (the 3'-mismatch principle). Its origins are probably legion, i.e. many people probably thought of it at the same time. For example, in 1988 a group from Guy's Hospital, London, described a form of SSP for HLA-DR4 detection and in the same year a group from Upjohn described its use at the American Society of Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics (ASHI). Both are published in abstract form (British Society of Rheumatology and ASHI). The 3'-mismatch principle can be used to identify virtually any single nucleotide point mutation (SNP) within one or two PCR-SSP reactions and the first peer-reviewed statements of this came in 1989 (1, 2). Thus, although the use of SSP probably began around 1990, it was 5 years before its popularity erupted, mainly due to the work of Olerup & Zetterquist (3, 4), who defined its potential for solid organ transplantation. It is now the method of choice for high resolution HLA typing in many laboratories. In addition, over a thousand applications for genes outside the MHC are in the literature.

  10. Expression of bifidobacterial phytases in Lactobacillus casei and their application in a food model of whole-grain sourdough bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mantrana, Izaskun; Yebra, María J; Haros, Monika; Monedero, Vicente

    2016-01-04

    Phytases are enzymes capable of sequentially dephosphorylating phytic acid to products of lower chelating capacity and higher solubility, abolishing its inhibitory effect on intestinal mineral absorption. Genetic constructions were made for expressing two phytases from bifidobacteria in Lactobacillus casei under the control of a nisin-inducible promoter. L. casei was able of producing, exporting and anchoring to the cell wall the phytase of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum. The phytase from Bifidobacterium longum spp. infantis was also produced, although at low levels. L. casei expressing any of these phytases completely degraded phytic acid (2mM) to lower myo-inositol phosphates when grown in MRS medium. Owing to the general absence of phytase activity in lactobacilli and to the high phytate content of whole grains, the constructed L. casei strains were applied as starter in a bread making process using whole-grain flour. L. casei developed in sourdoughs by fermenting the existing carbohydrates giving place to an acidification. In this food model system the contribution of L. casei strains expressing phytases to phytate hydrolysis was low, and the phytate degradation was mainly produced by activation of the cereal endogenous phytase as a consequence of the drop in pH. This work shows the capacity of lactobacilli to be modified in order to produce enzymes with relevance in food technology processes. The ability of these strains in reducing the phytate content in fermented food products must be evaluated in further models.

  11. Corrected: The influence of brewers' yeast addition on lactic acid fermentation of brewers' spent grain hydrolysate by Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    OpenAIRE

    Pejin, Jelena; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Djukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    Brewers' spent grain (BSG) hydrolysates were used for lactic acid (LA) fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The aim of this study was to evaluate possibilities of the BSG hydrolysate utilization as a substrate for LA fermentation as well as the effect of dry brewers' yeast addition in hydrolysate on lactic acid fermentation parameters (L-(+)-LA and reducing sugar concentration and number of viable cell-viability). Very high L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 cell viability was achieved in a...

  12. PEMANFAATAN MILK CLOTTING ENZYME DARI Lactobacillus casei D11 UNTUK PEMBUATAN KEJU MOZZARELLA [Utilization of Milk Clotting Enzyme from Lactobacillus casei D11 for Mozzarella Cheese Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmatussolihat -

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Milk Clotting Enzyme (MCE is an active agent for cheese making which may be produced by Lactic acid bacteria (LAB. MCE activity differs according to the LAB strains used. Lactobacillus casei D11 could produced MCE when it is grown in MRS broth medium. In this study, MCE of L. casei D11 with the addition of rennet is used and optimized for the production of mozzarella cheese using Response Surface Method (RSM with Central Composite Design (CCD. The organoleptic properties were determined by hedonics test involving 30 respondents and analyzed statistically which was followed by a Duncan's test. Furthermore, a proximate analysis of mozzarella cheese was conducted. Our results show that the MCE activity produced by L. casei D11 was 8.471 Soxhlet Unit with protease activity of 3.28 U/mL. The ANOVA results showed that the concentration of MCE significantly influence the production of curd. Theoptimum concentration of MCE and rennet for the production of curd suited for the production of mozzarella cheese were 20 and 0.002%, respectively, with a maximum predicted curd yield of 14.996% (g/100 mL milk which is increased by 13.9% as compared to the curd yield before optimization. The statistical analysis on taste, color, flavor, and cheese texture by respondents shows that mozzarella cheese made by a combination of 15% of MCE and 0.00079 and 0.0015% of rennet, were organoleptically superior to the commercial mozzarella used in this experiment. The proximate analysis shows that mozzarella produced has a moisture content of 33.34%(w/w, 3.48% ash, 30.44% fat, 25.12% protein, 7.53% carbohydrate and energy of 404 kkal/100g.

  13. Efecto de Lactobacillus casei sobre la incidencia de procesos infecciosos en niños/as Effect of lactobacillus casei on the incidence of infectious conditions in children

    OpenAIRE

    J. M.ª Cobo Sanz; Mateos, J.A.; A. Muñoz Conejo

    2006-01-01

    Objetivo: Analizar el efecto del consumo continuado de leche fermentada con Lactobacillus casei (DN-114001) (Actimel") sobre la incidencia de los trastornos infecciosos comunes en niños. Ámbito: Población escolar infantil. Sujetos: alumnos de 3 a 12 años de dos centros de educación infantil y primaria de Barcelona. En el estudio participaron un total de 251 niños de ambos sexos. Intervenciones: Se realizó un estudio de intervención nutricional durante 20 semanas con un diseño paralelo, prospe...

  14. Comparative genome analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus clinical isolates from initial stages of dental pulp infection: identification of a new exopolysaccharide cluster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangala A Nadkarni

    Full Text Available The human oral microbiome has a major role in oral diseases including dental caries. Our studies on progression of caries infection through dentin and more recently, the invasion of vital dental pulp, detected Lactobacillus rhamnosus in the initial stages of infection of vital pulp tissue. In this study employing current high-throughput next generation sequencing technology we sought to obtain insight into genomic traits of tissue invasive L. rhamnosus, to recognise biomarkers that could provide an understanding of pathogenic potential of lactobacilli, generally regarded as safe. Roche GS FLX+ technology was used to generate whole genome sequences of two clinical isolates of L. rhamnosus infecting vital pulp. Detailed genome-wide comparison of the genetic profiles of tissue invasive L. rhamnosus with probiotic L. rhamnosus was performed to test the hypothesis that specific strains of L. rhamnosus possessing a unique gene complement are selected for the capacity to invade vital pulp tissue. Analysis identified 264 and 258 genes respectively, from dental pulp-invasive L. rhamnosus strains LRHMDP2 and LRHMDP3 isolated from two different subjects that were not present in the reference probiotic L. rhamnosus strain ATCC 53103 (GG. Distinct genome signatures identified included the presence of a modified exopolysaccharide cluster, a characteristic confirmed in a further six clinical isolates. Additional features of LRHMDP2 and LRHMDP3 were altered transcriptional regulators from RpoN, NtrC, MutR, ArsR and zinc-binding Cro/CI families, as well as changes in the two-component sensor kinase response regulator and ABC transporters for ferric iron. Both clinical isolates of L. rhamnosus contained a single SpaFED cluster, as in L. rhamnosus Lc705, instead of the two Spa clusters (SpaCBA and SpaFED identified in L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (GG. Genomic distance analysis and SNP divergence confirmed a close relationship of the clinical isolates but segregation

  15. Biosorption of silver cations onto Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus casei isolated from dairy products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanowski, Maciej; Pomastowski, Paweł; Railean-Plugaru, Viorica; Rafińska, Katarzyna; Ligor, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2017-01-01

    The current work deals with the phenomenon of silver cations uptake by two kinds of bacteria isolated from dairy products. The mechanism of sorption of silver cations by Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus casei bacteria was investigated. Inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for determination of silver concentration sorbed by bacteria. Analysis of charge distribution was conducted by diffraction light scattering method. Changes in the ultrastructure of Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus casei cells after treatment with silver cations were investigated using transmission electron microscopy observation. Molecular spectroscopy methods, namely Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) were employed for description of the sorption mechanism. Moreover, an analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) extracted from bacterial cells was performed. PMID:28362838

  16. Pulp response to and cariogenicity of Lactobacillus casei in monoinfected gnotobiotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, R C; Pountney, S K

    1987-11-01

    The maxillary molar pulps of germ-free rats were mechanically exposed and suspensions of a strain of freshly grown Lactobacillus casei were applied to the pulp wounds. The pulps were left open to the oral environment, and the animals were maintained within the isolator until death. In the majority of teeth, pulp necrosis was evident and apical inflammation was present in 40% of the specimens. The remaining monoinfected animals were bred and the litters were placed on a 46% sucrose diet to determine the cariogenicity of the test strain of L. casei in the mandibular molars. The organism proved to be noncariogenic. The effects of mechanical exposure of the maxillary molars in these animals were similar to those observed in the direct-inoculation study, with the exception of a reduced incidence of apical inflammation.

  17. Fermentation of de-oiled algal biomass by Lactobacillus casei for production of lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeck, Tom; Steele, James L; Broadbent, Jeff R

    2016-12-01

    De-oiled algal biomass (algal cake) generated as waste byproduct during algal biodiesel production is a promising fermentable substrate for co-production of value-added chemicals in biorefinery systems. We explored the ability of Lactobacillus casei 12A to ferment algal cake for co-production of lactic acid. Carbohydrate and amino acid availability were determined to be limiting nutritional requirements for growth and lactic acid production by L. casei. These nutritional requirements were effectively addressed through enzymatic hydrolysis of the algal cake material using α-amylase, cellulase (endo-1,4-β-D-glucanase), and pepsin. Results confirm fermentation of algal cake for production of value-added chemicals is a promising avenue for increasing the overall cost competiveness of the algal biodiesel production process.

  18. Comparison of bioactive components in pressurized and pasteurized longan juices fortified with encapsulated Lactobacillus casei 01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikham, Pittaya; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2012-06-01

    In this study, longan juice was subjected to a high pressure of 500 MPa for 30 min and compared with a juice pasteurized at 90°C/2 min. Probiotic Lactobacillus casei 01 was fortified into both juices and the shelf life of these products was studied. Their bioactive components such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid and ellagic acid were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Total phenolic compounds and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrythydrazyl radical-scavenging activity were determined by colorimetric and spectrophotometric methods. It was found that the pressurized longan juice retained higher amounts of bioactive compounds than the pasteurized juice. In terms of storage stability, bioactive compounds in both processed juices decreased according to the increase in storage time. The survivability of probiotic L. casei 01 in both processed juices declined from 9 to 6 log CFU/mL after 4 weeks of storage.

  19. Effect of formulation variables on physicochemical characteristics of synbiotic microparticles with Lactobacillus casei

    OpenAIRE

    Petreska Ivanovska, Tanja; Petrusevska Tozi, Lidija; Smilkov, Katarina; Popovski, Emil; Grozdanov, Anita; Geskovski, Nikola; PETKOVSKA, RUMENKA; GLAVAS DODOV, MARIJA; Mladenovska, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Synbiotic microparticles were prepared by spray-drying of aqueous dispersion of alginate, fructooligosaccharide and L.casei, followed by subsequent cross-linking and coating in solution of CaCl2 and chitosan in 1% w/w acetic acid. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the formulation variables in particle size, zeta potential, calcium content and cell entrapment using polynomial regression model at 2nd level. Experimental responese demonstrated dominant influence of the int...

  20. Mutantes de Lactobacilus casei con regulación defectuosa del catabolismo del carbono

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Martínez, Gaspar; Monedero, Vicente; Deutscher, Josef; Viana, Rosa; Benbadis, Laurent; Pierson, Anne; Faurie, Jean Michel

    2007-01-01

    Utilización de un mutante de L. casei que presenta por lo menos una mutación en el gen ptsI, en la que dicha mutación perjudica la regulación de un mecanismo de represión catabólica por carbono (CCR) que implica la proteína PTS HPr, para la preparación de un producto alimenticio.

  1. Antimicrobial effects of GL13K peptide coatings on S. mutans and L. casei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitt, Rebecca Ann

    Background: Enamel breakdown around orthodontic brackets, so-called "white spot lesions", is the most common complication of orthodontic treatment. White spot lesions are caused by bacteria such as Streptococci and Lactobacilli, whose acidic byproducts cause demineralization of enamel crystals. Aims: The aim of this project was to develop an antimicrobial peptide coating for titanium alloy that is capable of killing acidogenic bacteria, specifically Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei. The long-term goal is to create an antimicrobial-coated orthodontic bracket with the ability to reduce or prevent the formation of white spot lesions in orthodontic patients thereby improving clinical outcomes. Methods: First, an alkaline etching method with NaOH was established to allow effective coating of titanium discs with GL13K, an antimicrobial peptide derived from human saliva. Coatings were verified by contact angle measures, and treated discs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Secondly, GL13K coatings were tested against hydrolytic, proteolytic and mechanical challenges to ensure robust coatings. Third, a series of qualitative and quantitative microbiology experiments were performed to determine the effects of GL13K--L and GL13K--D on S. mutans and L. casei, both in solution and coated on titanium. Results: GL13K-coated discs were stable after two weeks of challenges. GL13K--D was effective at killing S. mutans in vitro at low doses. GL13K--D also demonstrated a bactericidal effect on L. casei, however, in contrast to S. mutans, the effect on L. casei was not statistically significant. Conclusion: GL13K--D is a promising candidate for antimicrobial therapy with possible applications for prevention of white spot lesions in orthodontics.

  2. Effect of Total Inoculum Size Containing Lactobacillus acidophilus or Lactobacillus casei on Fermentation of Goat Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain the optimum inoculum size of goat milk fermented by probiotics, the total inoculum size containing L. acidophilus or L. casei on pH, acidity and viable counts and sensory during fermentation were studied on the basis of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus as starter cultures. The results showed as follows: the optimum inoculum size of L. acidophilus or L. casei were all 7% and goat milk was fermented at 39°C for 4.5 h. The pH, acidity, the viable counts of L. acidophilus and the total viable counts were respectively 4.48, 91°T, 1.60×107 cfu/mL and 1.69×109 cfu/mL. The pH, acidity, the viable counts of L. casei and the total viable counts were respectively 4.38, 96°T, 2.80×108 cfu/mL and 2.20×109 cfu/mL.

  3. Expression of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin β (hCGβ) in Lactobacillus Casei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-mei WANG; Hong JIANG; Zheng-hong YUAN; Da-jin LI

    2003-01-01

    Objective To construct a recombinant lactobacillus (Lb.) strain excreting the human chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit, hCGβMethods The hCGβ cDNA was ligated to the signal peptide sequence of S-layer protein from Lb. brevis and then cloned into down-stream of lactose-inducible promoter of an integrative plasmid, pIlac. After electroporation into Lb. casei CECT5276, PCR using the genomic DNA of the recombinant lactobacillus as template was performed to confirm whether the hCGβ gene had been integrated into the genome. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to determine the level of hCGβ in the supernatant and the cell lysate. Results The hCGβ was integrated into the genome of Lb. casei CECT5276. The highest concentration of hCGβ in the culture supernatant amounted to 440 mIU/mL 21 h after lactose induction. About 2/3 of the objective proteins were excreted into the supernatant.Conclusion We have obtained stable and efficient hCGβ excretion in Lb. casei, which was inducible by lactose.

  4. Performance in nondairy drinks of probiotic L. casei strains usually employed in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, Mario; Cárdenas, Pamela; Staffolani, Martín; Ciappini, María C; Vinderola, Gabriel

    2013-05-01

    The increase in vegetarianism as dietary habit and the increased allergy episodes against dairy proteins fuel the demand for probiotics in nondairy products. Lactose intolerance and the cholesterol content of dairy products can also be considered two additional reasons why some consumers are looking for probiotics in other foods. We aimed at determining cell viability in nondairy drinks and resistance to simulated gastric digestion of commercial probiotic lactobacilli commonly used in dairy products. Lactobacillus casei LC-01 and L. casei BGP 93 were added to different commercial nondairy drinks and viability and resistance to simulated gastric digestion (pH 2.5, 90 min, 37 °C) were monitored along storage (5 and 20 °C). For both strains, at least one nondairy drink was found to offer cell counts around 7 log orders until the end of the storage period. Changes in resistance to simulated gastric digestion were observed as well. Commercial probiotic cultures of L. casei can be added to commercial fruit juices after a carefull selection of the product that warrants cell viability. The resistance to simulated gastric digestion is an easy-to-apply in vitro tool that may contribute to product characterization and may help in the choice of the food matrix when no changes in cell viability are observed along storage. Sensorial evaluation is mandatory before marketing since the product type and storage conditions might influence the sensorial properties of the product due to the possibility of growth and lactic acid production by probiotic bacteria.

  5. The sim operon facilitates the transport and metabolism of sucrose isomers in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John; Jakubovics, Nicholas; Abraham, Bindu; Hess, Sonja; Pikis, Andreas

    2008-05-01

    Inspection of the genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 revealed two operons that might dissimilate the five isomers of sucrose. To test this hypothesis, cells of L. casei ATCC 334 were grown in a defined medium supplemented with various sugars, including each of the five isomeric disaccharides. Extracts prepared from cells grown on the sucrose isomers contained high levels of two polypeptides with M(r)s of approximately 50,000 and approximately 17,500. Neither protein was present in cells grown on glucose, maltose or sucrose. Proteomic, enzymatic, and Western blot analyses identified the approximately 50-kDa protein as an NAD(+)- and metal ion-dependent phospho-alpha-glucosidase. The oligomeric enzyme was purified, and a catalytic mechanism is proposed. The smaller polypeptide represented an EIIA component of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system. Phospho-alpha-glucosidase and EIIA are encoded by genes at the LSEI_0369 (simA) and LSEI_0374 (simF) loci, respectively, in a block of seven genes comprising the sucrose isomer metabolism (sim) operon. Northern blot analyses provided evidence that three mRNA transcripts were up-regulated during logarithmic growth of L. casei ATCC 334 on sucrose isomers. Internal simA and simF gene probes hybridized to approximately 1.5- and approximately 1.3-kb transcripts, respectively. A 6.8-kb mRNA transcript was detected by both probes, which was indicative of cotranscription of the entire sim operon.

  6. Lactobacillus strains belonging to Casei group display various adherence to enterocytes and mucus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Markowicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The ability of lactobacilli to adhere to the surface of the intestine is an important functional characteristic which can largely determine the effective colonization of the intestinal tract by probiotics. The following study compares the adhesion efficiency of the twenty strains of Lactobacillus genus belonging to Casei group to the Caco-2 cells and gastrointestinal mucus. Material and methods. Twenty isolates of lactobacilli belonging to Casei group were tested. The ability of bacterial cells to adhere to mucus was examined using adhesion assay to gastrointestinal mucus. Obtained results were compared with adhesion efficiency to Caco-2 cells. Phylogenetic relationship between isolates was analysed by rep-PCR. Results. The results showed large differences in adhesion efficiency between strains, as well as differences in the efficiency of adhesion to the intestinal epithelial cells and mucus. Group similarity highlighted by a rep-PCR technique does not correspond with groups of similarity in terms of the characteristics of the ability to adhere to mucus or the epithelial cells of intestinal tract. Conclusions. Strains having a high adhesion efficiency to enterocytes do not always show a high adhesion efficiency to the mucus. This may indicate the presence of different and multiple factors responsible for adhesion efficiency of Lactobacillus group Casei strains to epithelial cells and mucus.

  7. Comparative evaluation of yogurt and low-fat cheddar cheese as delivery media for probiotic Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, M D; McMahon, D J; Broadbent, J R

    2008-09-01

    This study used Lactobacillus casei 334e, an erythromycin-resistant derivative of ATCC 334, as a model to evaluate viability and acid resistance of probiotic L. casei in low-fat Cheddar cheese and yogurt. Cheese and yogurt were made by standard methods and the probiotic L. casei adjunct was added at approximately 10(7) CFU/g with the starter cultures. Low-fat cheese and yogurt samples were stored at 8 and 2 degrees C, respectively, and numbers of the L. casei adjunct were periodically determined by plating on MRS agar that contained 5 microg/mL of erythromycin. L. casei 334e counts in cheese and yogurt remained at 10(7) CFU/g over 3 mo and 3 wk, respectively, indicating good survival in both products. Acid challenge studies in 8.7 mM phosphoric acid (pH 2) at 37 degrees C showed numbers of L. casei 334e in yogurt dropped from 10(7) CFU/g to less than 10(1) CFU/g after 30 min, while counts in cheese samples dropped from 10(7) CFU/g to about 10(5) after 30 min, and remained near 10(4) CFU/g after 120 min. As a whole, these data showed that low-fat Cheddar cheese is a viable delivery food for probiotic L. casei because it allowed for good survival during storage and helped protect cells against the very low pH that will be encountered during stomach transit.

  8. Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reveals pili containing a human- mucus binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankainen, Matti; Paulin, Lars; Tynkkynen, Soile; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Partanen, Pasi; Satokari, Reetta; Vesterlund, Satu; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Lebeer, Sarah; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J; Vanderleyden, Jos; Hämäläinen, Tuula; Laukkanen, Suvi; Salovuori, Noora; Ritari, Jarmo; Alatalo, Edward; Korpela, Riitta; Mattila-Sandholm, Tiina; Lassig, Anna; Hatakka, Katja; Kinnunen, Katri T; Karjalainen, Heli; Saxelin, Maija; Laakso, Kati; Surakka, Anu; Palva, Airi; Salusjärvi, Tuomas; Auvinen, Petri; de Vos, Willem M

    2009-10-06

    To unravel the biological function of the widely used probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, we compared its 3.0-Mbp genome sequence with the similarly sized genome of L. rhamnosus LC705, an adjunct starter culture exhibiting reduced binding to mucus. Both genomes demonstrated high sequence identity and synteny. However, for both strains, genomic islands, 5 in GG and 4 in LC705, punctuated the colinearity. A significant number of strain-specific genes were predicted in these islands (80 in GG and 72 in LC705). The GG-specific islands included genes coding for bacteriophage components, sugar metabolism and transport, and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis. One island only found in L. rhamnosus GG contained genes for 3 secreted LPXTG-like pilins (spaCBA) and a pilin-dedicated sortase. Using anti-SpaC antibodies, the physical presence of cell wall-bound pili was confirmed by immunoblotting. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that the SpaC pilin is located at the pilus tip but also sporadically throughout the structure. Moreover, the adherence of strain GG to human intestinal mucus was blocked by SpaC antiserum and abolished in a mutant carrying an inactivated spaC gene. Similarly, binding to mucus was demonstrated for the purified SpaC protein. We conclude that the presence of SpaC is essential for the mucus interaction of L. rhamnosus GG and likely explains its ability to persist in the human intestinal tract longer than LC705 during an intervention trial. The presence of mucus-binding pili on the surface of a nonpathogenic Gram-positive bacterial strain reveals a previously undescribed mechanism for the interaction of selected probiotic lactobacilli with host tissues.

  9. Safety Study of an Antimicrobial Peptide Lactocin 160, Produced by the Vaginal Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    OpenAIRE

    Dover, Sara E.; Aroutcheva, Alla A.; Faro, S; Chikindas, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the safety of the antimicrobial peptide, lactocin 160. Methods. Lactocin 160, a product of vaginal probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus 160 was evaluated for toxicity and irritation. An in vitro human organotypic vaginal-ectocervical tissue model (EpiVaginal) was employed for the safety testing by determining the exposure time to reduce tissue viability to 50% (ET-50). Hemolytic activity of lactocin160 was tested using 8% of human erythrocyte suspens...

  10. Characterization of mutual relations between Geotrichum candidum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in milk: a quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sípková, Anna; Valík, Lubomír; Cizniar, Michal; Liptáková, Denisa

    2014-01-01

    The growth interactions between Geotrichum candidum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were studied in milk. The effect of temperature on the growth rate of the fungus was modelled using the cardinal temperature model with inflection. The secondary modelling was applied also on the other data set containing the growth rates of G. candidum in co-culture with a commercial starter culture. The low temperature in combination with L. rhamnosus GG in co-culture showed the most negative effect on the growth rate of G. candidum. On the other hand, neither L. rhamnosus GG nor the starter culture had significant effect on the optimum and maximum temperature parameters calculated for growth of G. candidum. Their values ranged from 28.9 °C to 31.3°C  and 35.3°C  to 37.3°C, respectively. The quantitative data presented in the study showed a non-specific effect of lactic acid bacteria on the growth rate of G. candidum observed mainly around the optimal temperature.

  11. Systematic Exploration of the Glycoproteome of the Beneficial Gut Isolate Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytgat, Hanne L P; Schoofs, Geert; Vanderleyden, Jos; Van Damme, Els J M; Wattiez, Ruddy; Lebeer, Sarah; Leroy, Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    Glycoproteins form an interesting class of macromolecules involved in bacterial-host interactions, but they are not yet widely explored in Gram-positive and beneficial species. Here, an integrated and widely applicable approach was followed to identify putative bacterial glycoproteins, combining proteome fractionation with 2D protein and glycostained gels and lectin blots. This approach was validated for the microbiota isolate Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The approach resulted in a list of putative glycosylated proteins receiving a 'glycosylation score'. Ultimately, we could identify 41 unique glycosylated proteins in L. rhamnosus GG (6 top-confidence, 10 high-confidence and 25 putative hits; classification based on glycosylation score). Most glycoproteins are associated with the cell wall and membrane. Identified glycoproteins include proteins involved in transport, translation, and sugar metabolism processes. A robust screening resulted in a comprehensive mapping of glycoproteins in L. rhamnosus GG. Our results reflect the glycosylation of sugar metabolism enzymes, transporters, and other proteins crucial for cell physiology. We hypothesize that protein glycosylation can confer an extra level of regulation, for example by affecting enzyme functions. This is the first systematic study of the glycoproteome of a probiotic and beneficial gut isolate.

  12. Suitability of cereal porridges as substrate for probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Valík

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to find new substrates suitable for growth and metabolism of probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which would be interesting for development of new functional food. The growth and metabolic activity of Lb. rhamnosus GG in cereal (rye, barley, oat and millet porridges were monitored during fermentation process. Cereal and porridges, were inoculated with this strain at two initial levels to obtain approximately 5 or 6 log colony form units per gram of suspension after sterilization and cooling,. Fermentation was led stationary at 37 °C for 48 hours and viable cell count, pH value, titratable acidity and organic acids were analysed. Metabolic activity of Lb. rhamnosus GG was influenced by inoculation level and by the type of cereal used. The cereals fermented by lactic acid bacteria, especially probiotic strains, might broaden the offer of probiotic products for those suffering from milk allergy.doi:10.5219/242 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  13. Genetic diversity, structure and differentiation within and between cultivated (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) and wild (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sylvestris) grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic characterization of 502 diverse grape accessions including 342 cultivated (V. vinifera ssp. sativa) and 160 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grapes showed considerable genetic diversity among accessions. A total of 117 alleles were detected with the average of 14 alleles per locus. The tot...

  14. Estudio etnobotánico, arquitectura foliar y anatomía vegetativa de Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana y A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana Etnobotany, leaf architecture, and vegetative anatomy of Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali A. Santillán-Ramírez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo incluye información etnobotánica, así como la arquitectura foliar y anatomía vegetativa de Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana (toronjil morado y A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana (toronjil blanco, con la finalidad de que sean incluidas en la Farmacopea Herbolaria de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (FHEUM y que sus caracteres anatómicos se utilicen para validar la identidad del material vegetal en el control de calidad. El registro de la información etnobotánica se efectuó por medio de entrevistas semiestructuradas a pobladores del municipio de Temoaya, Estado de México, México. Para el estudio anatómico y arquitectura foliar, se elaboraron preparaciones semipermanentes y permanentes de tallos y hojas. Ambos toronjiles son utilizados por los habitantes de la zona de estudio como recurso terapéutico y de ornato; los distinguen por la forma de las hojas, el color de la flor y el aroma, pero no existen preferencias de uso entre ambos. La arquitectura foliar sigue el patrón acródromo de posición basal con un desarrollo imperfecto; las areolas muestran un desarrollo imperfecto con disposición al azar, con vénulas simples o ramificadas una vez y el margen con dientes cunonioides en ambas especies. Diferencias anatómicas se observan en el tallo y son los tricomas no glandulares uniseriados en mayor abundancia y las bandas de esclerénquima más desarrolladas los caracteres que distinguen a A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana de A. mexicana ssp. mexicana.This work provides information on ethnobotany, leaf architecture and anatomy of Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana (toronjil morado and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana (toronjil blanco, with the purpose that they will be included in the Pharmacopeia Herbolaria of the Estados Unidos Mexicanos (FHEUM and that their anatomical characters could be used to validate the identity of the botanical material in quality control. We gathered ethnobotanical information using semi

  15. A comparative pan-genome perspective of niche-adaptable cell-surface protein phenotypes in Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

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    Ravi Kant

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a ubiquitously adaptable Gram-positive bacterium and as a typical commensal can be recovered from various microbe-accessible bodily orifices and cavities. Then again, other isolates are food-borne, with some of these having been long associated with naturally fermented cheeses and yogurts. Additionally, because of perceived health benefits to humans and animals, numerous L. rhamnosus strains have been selected for use as so-called probiotics and are often taken in the form of dietary supplements and functional foods. At the genome level, it is anticipated that certain genetic variances will have provided the niche-related phenotypes that augment the flexible adaptiveness of this species, thus enabling its strains to grow and survive in their respective host environments. For this present study, we considered it functionally informative to examine and catalogue the genotype-phenotype variation existing at the cell surface between different L. rhamnosus strains, with the presumption that this might be relatable to habitat preferences and ecological adaptability. Here, we conducted a pan-genomic study involving 13 genomes from L. rhamnosus isolates with various origins. In using a benchmark strain (gut-adapted L. rhamnosus GG for our pan-genome comparison, we had focused our efforts on a detailed examination and description of gene products for certain functionally relevant surface-exposed proteins, each of which in effect might also play a part in niche adaptability among the other strains. Perhaps most significantly of the surface protein loci we had analyzed, it would appear that the spaCBA operon (known to encode SpaCBA-called pili having a mucoadhesive phenotype is a genomic rarity and an uncommon occurrence in L. rhamnosus. However, for any of the so-piliated L. rhamnosus strains, they will likely possess an increased niche-specific fitness, which functionally might presumably be manifested by a protracted transient

  16. The effect of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L. casei W8® on blood levels of triacylglycerol is independent of colonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerg, A T; Sørensen, M B; Krych, L; Hansen, L H; Astrup, A; Kristensen, M; Nielsen, D S

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis has been linked to obesity and its metabolic complications such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). The risk of developing CVD increases with elevated concentration of serum triacylglycerol (TAG). In a blinded, randomised two-arm parallel human intervention study we have previously found that four weeks of supplementation with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L. casei W8® (L. casei W8) compared to placebo reduced the concentration of TAG in 64 young healthy adults, an effect, likely mediated by a decreased stearoyl- CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) activity. In the present study we analysed faecal samples obtained during the intervention study to investigate whether this effect was related to the ability of L. casei W8 to colonise the human gut after supplementation of L. casei W8 (1010 cfu daily) as determined by qPCR specific for L. paracasei and L. casei (L. casei group); whether L. casei W8 consumption affected GM composition as determined by 16S rRNA gene targeted 454/FLX amplicon sequencing; and whether these changes were associated with changes in TAG concentration and SCD1 activity. Faecal samples were collected at baseline, after four weeks supplementation and two weeks after the supplementation was ended, and fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 weeks. Four weeks supplementation with L. casei W8 did not affect the overall composition of the GM; however, an increase in the relative abundance of the L. casei group from 8.48×10-6% of the total GM compared to 2.83×10-3% at baseline (P<0.001) was observed. Two weeks after supplementation ended, the relative abundance of the L. casei group was still increased 14 times compared to before the intervention (P<0.01). However, neither the increase in the abundance of the L. casei group nor overall GM composition correlated with changes in blood lipids or SCD1 activity.

  17. 荧光定量PCR法检测益生菌饮料中Lactobacillus casei Zhang和Bifidobacterium lactis V9%Lactobacillus casei Zhang Bifidobacterium lactis V9 Method of fluorescent quantitative PCR for detection of Lactobacillus casei Zhang and Bifidobacterium lactis V9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    其木格苏都; 王记成; 张家超; 张和平

    2011-01-01

    益生菌活菌数是益生菌产品最重要的指标,而检测益生菌方法的准确性和科学性则至关重要.本文采用荧光定量PCR法同时定量检测益生菌饮料中Lactobacillus casei Zhang(L.casei Zhang)和Bifidobacterium lactis V9(B.lactis V9)的活菌数,并与平板菌落计数法进行比较.结果表明,荧光定量PCR法测得L.casei Zhang活菌数与平板菌落计数法测得活菌数差异不显著;而采用荧光定量PCR法测得B.lactis V9活菌数显著高于平板菌落计数法.荧光定量PCR法灵敏、特异、简便快速,可定量检测并真实反应L.casei Zhang和B.lactis V9的活菌数.%The viable count of probiotic is considered as the most important index and the accurate and scientific assay of probiotic viable number is essential to probiotic products. In the present study, the fluorescent quantitative PCR method and plate colony counting method were used and compared for detection of bacterial viable numbers of Lactobadllus casei Zhang and Bifidobacterium lactis V9 in probiotic fermented beverage. The result showed that there was no significant difference of L. Casei Zhang number between two methods, whereas the numbers of B. Lactis V9 detected by two methods were significant difference. It is suggested that fluorescent quantitative PCR method appear to be highly accurate, specific, fast and reliable for quantification of L. Casei Zhang and B. Lactis V9.

  18. Inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on pathogenic bacteria isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis

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    Gita Eslami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and its association with urinary tract infection in women and treatment of gynecologic problems occur when a high recurrence of bacterial vaginosis is often treated with antibiotics. The purpose of this study is to investigate the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on pathogenic bacteria isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis, respectively.Materials and Methods: 96 samples from women with bacterial vaginosis discharge referred to health centers dependent Shahid Beheshti University in 91-92 were taken by a gynecologist with a dacron swab and put in sterile tubes containing TSB broth and Thioglycollate broth and were immediately sent to the lab location in cold chain for the next stages of investigation. From Thioglycollate and TSB medium was cultured on blood agar and EMB and Palkam and Differential diagnosis environments, and then incubated for 24 h at 37°C. Strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus were cultured in MRSA environment and were transfered to the lab. After purification of pathogenic bacteria, MIC methods and antibiogram, Lactobacillus rhamnosus inhibitory effect on pathogenic bacteria is checked. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS software v.16.Results: The results of this study show the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on some pathogenic bacteria that cause bacterial vaginosis, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Entrococcus, Listeria monocytogenes and E.Coli. Microscopic examination of stained smears of the large number of Lactobacillus and pathogenic bacteria showed reduced. The prevalence of abnormal vaginal discharge, history of drug use means of preventing pregnancy and douching, respectively, 61%, 55%, 42% and 13% respectively. Significant difference was observed between the use and non-use of IUD in women with bacterial vaginosis infection

  19. Impact of lactose starvation on the physiology of Lactobacillus casei GCRL163 in the presence or absence of tween 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naseri, Ali; Bowman, John P; Wilson, Richard; Nilsson, Rolf E; Britz, Margaret L

    2013-11-01

    The global proteomic response of the nonstarter lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus casei strain GCRL163 under carbohydrate depletion was investigated to understand aspects of its survival following cessation of fermentation. The proteome of L. casei GCRL163 was analyzed quantitatively after growth in modified MRS (with and without Tween 80) with different levels of lactose (0% lactose, starvation; 0.2% lactose, growth limiting; 1% lactose, non-growth-limited control) using gel-free proteomics. Results revealed that carbohydrate starvation lead to suppression of lactose and galactose catabolic pathways as well as pathways for nucleotide and protein synthesis. Enzymes of the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway, amino acid synthesis, and pyruvate and citrate metabolism become more abundant as well as other carbohydrate catabolic pathways, suggesting increased optimization of intermediary metabolism and scavenging. Tween 80 did not affect growth yield; however, proteins related to fatty acid biosynthesis were repressed in the presence of Tween 80. The data suggest that L. casei adeptly switches to a scavenging mode, using both citrate and Tween 80, and efficiently adjusts energetic requirements when carbohydrate starved and thus can sustain survival for weeks to months. Explaining the adaptation of L. casei during lactose starvation will assist efforts to maintain viability of L. casei and extend its utility as a beneficial dietary adjunct and fermentation processing aid.

  20. Lactobacillus casei stimulates phase-II detoxification system and rescues malathion-induced physiological impairments in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaladevi, Arumugam; Ganguli, Abhijit; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Malathion, an organophosphorus insecticide, is renowned for its inhibitory action on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme that eventually leads to widespread disturbance in the normal physiological and behavioral activities of any organism. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are still an underexploited and inexhaustible source of significant pharmaceutical thrust. In the present study, Caenorhabditis elegans was employed to identify and characterize the indigenous LAB isolated from different traditional food against malathion-induced toxicity. The results demonstrated that malathion at its LD50 concentration decreased various C. elegans physiological parameters such as survival, feeding, and locomotion. Among the screened isolates, L. casei exhibited an excellent protective efficacy against malathion-induced toxicity by increasing the level of AChE and thereby rescued all physiological parameters of C. elegans. In addition, short-term exposure and food choice assay divulged that L. casei could serve as a better food to protect C. elegans from noxious environment. The expression analysis unveiled that L. casei gavage upregulated the phase-II detoxification enzymes coding genes metallothioneins (mtl-1 and mtl-2) and glutathione-S-transferase (gst-8) and thereby eliminated malathion from the host system. Furthermore, the upregulation of ace-3 along with down-regulation of cyp35a in the nematodes supplemented with L. casei could be attributed to attenuate the malathion-induced physiological defects in C. elegans. Thus, the present study reports that an indigenous LAB-L. casei could serve as a promising protective agent against the harmful effects of pesticide.

  1. Isolation, Identification and Partial Characterization of a Lactobacillus casei Strain with Bile Salt Hydrolase Activity from Pulque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vázquez, R; Azaola-Espinosa, A; Mayorga-Reyes, L; Reyes-Nava, L A; Shah, N P; Rivera-Espinoza, Y

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate, from pulque, Lactobacillus spp. capable of survival in simulated gastrointestinal stress conditions. Nine Gram-positive rods were isolated; however, only one strain (J57) shared identity with Lactobacillus and was registered as Lactobacillus casei J57 (GenBank accession: JN182264). The other strains were identified as Bacillus spp. The most significant observation during the test of tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal conditions (acidity, gastric juice and bile salts) was that L. casei J57 showed a rapid decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in the viable population at 0 h. Bile salts were the stress condition that most affected its survival, from which deoxycholic acid and the mix of bile salts (oxgall) were the most toxic. L. casei J57 showed bile salt hydrolase activity over primary and secondary bile salts as follows: 44.91, 671.72, 45.27 and 61.57 U/mg to glycocholate, taurocholate, glycodeoxycholate and taurodeoxycholate. In contrast, the control strain (L. casei Shirota) only showed activity over tauroconjugates. These results suggest that L. casei J57 shows potential for probiotic applications.

  2. The effect of consumption of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on the intestinal microflora and immune parameters in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanhaak, S.; Havenaar, R.; Schaafsma, G.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of consumption of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (L. casei Shirota) on the composition and metabolic activities of the intestinal microflora, and immune parameters in humans. Subjects: Twenty healthy male subjects aged 40-65 years were selecte

  3. Functional analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG pili in relation to adhesion and immunomodulatory interactions with intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeer, Sarah; Claes, Ingmar; Tytgat, Hanne L P; Verhoeven, Tine L A; Marien, Eyra; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Palva, Airi; Vos, Willem M de; Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J De; Vanderleyden, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, a probiotic with good survival capacity in the human gut, has well-documented adhesion properties and health effects. Recently, spaCBA-encoded pili that bind to human intestinal mucus were identified on its cell surface. Here, we report on the phenotypic analysis of a spaCBA pilus knockout mutant in comparison with the wild type and other adhesin mutants. The SpaCBA pilus of L. rhamnosus GG showed to be key for efficient adherence to the Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) line and biofilm formation. Moreover, the spaCBA mutant induces an elevated level of interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA in Caco-2 cells compared to the wild type, possibly involving an interaction of lipoteichoic acid with Toll-like receptor 2. In contrast, an L. rhamnosus GG mutant without exopolysaccharides but with an increased exposure of pili leads to the reduced expression of IL-8. Using Transwells to partition bacteria from Caco-2 cells, IL-8 induction is blocked completely regardless of whether wild-type or mutant L. rhamnosus GG cells are used. Taken together, our data suggest that L. rhamnosus GG SpaCBA pili, while promoting strong adhesive interactions with IECs, have a functional role in balancing IL-8 mRNA expression induced by surface molecules such as lipoteichoic acid.

  4. 益生菌Lactobacillus casei Zhang 对酸奶风味、质地及感官特性的影响%Influence of probiotic Lactobacillus casei Zhang on aroma generation, texture and sensory characteristics of yogurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭壮; 王记成; 闫丽雅; 张轩; 刘小鸣; 陈卫; 张和平

    2009-01-01

    将益生菌Lactobacillus casei Zhang(Lb. casei Zhang)以1.0×107g-1的添加量与商业酸奶发酵荆YC-X11共同接种进行发酵乳制备.发酵结束(pH=4.5)于4℃冷藏24 h后,分别测定发酵乳样品的酸度、黏度、脱水收缩性、挥发性风味物质、L.delbrueckii subsp.Bulgaricus、S.thermophilus和Lb.casei Zhang活菌数及对其进行感官鉴评.结果表明.Lb.casei Zhang对发酵乳样品的酸度、黏度、脱水收缩性、S.ther-mophilus活菌数无影响(P>0.05),可促进L.delbrueckii subsp.Bulgaricus生长(P<0.05),并使酸奶样品中挥发性风味物质总的质量分数提高17.1%.从而总体上提高发酵乳的感官品质.同时Lb.casei Zhang在发酵乳中具有良好的稳定性.因而益生菌Lb.casei Zhang与商业酸奶发酵剂YC-X11复配进行发酵乳生产具有极大的可行性.

  5. PENGEMBANGAN SSP TEMATIK INTEGRATIF UNTUK MEMBANGUN KARAKTER KEJUJURAN DAN KEPEDULIAN SISWA SD KELAS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hariyati Qodriyah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran berupa SSP Tematik yang dapat mengembangkan karakter siswa kelas 2 sekolah dasar, meliputi karakter kejujuran dan kepedulian. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian dan pengembangan yang terdiri dari tujuh tahap, yaitu studi pendahuluan, perencanaan, mengembangkan produk awal, uji coba awal, revisi produk utama, uji coba lapangan, dan revisi terhadap produk operasional. SSP yang dikembangkan dievaluasi oleh seorang ahli materi dan media untuk mengetahui validitasnya. Subjek uji coba berjumlah 90 siswa terdiri dari 23 siswa SD Sonosewu, Kasihan, Bantul, DIY sebagai subjek uji coba terbatas dan 33 siswa untuk kelas control dan 34 siswa untuk kelas eksperimen SD 1 Kadipiro, Kasihan, Bantul, DIY. Hasil penelitian ini berupa SSP yang meliputi: silabus, RPP, LKS, dan lembar penilaian. Hasil evaluasi dari ahli materi dan ahli media untuk menguji tingkat kevalidan SSP menyatakan bahwa SSP yang dikembangkan adalah valid dan berkategori “baik”. Hasil uji coba menunjukkan bahwa SSP yang dikembangkan dinyatakan layak serta memenuhi kriteria praktis dan efektif dalam mengembangkan karakter siswa. Pembelajaran dengan SSP yang dikembangkan mampu mengembangkan karakter kejujuran dan kepedulian. Kata Kunci: SSP, karakter jujur dan peduli   DEVELOPING THEMATIC INTEGRATIVE SSP FOR BUILDING THE CHARACTERS OF HONESTY AND CARE GRADE II STUDENT OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL Abstract This study aims to produce integrated learning sets in the form of thematic SSP that can develop the characters of honesty and care of grade II students of elementary school. This was a research and development study consisting of seven steps, i.e. preliminary study, planning, preliminary product development, preliminary tryout, main product revision, field tryout, revision of operational product, operational product revision, and revision of the final product. The developed SSP was evaluated by a science subject expert to assess

  6. Growth phase-associated changes in the proteome and transcriptome of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in industrial-type whey medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Kati; Koskenniemi, Kerttu; Koponen, Johanna; Kankainen, Matti; Surakka, Anu; Salusjärvi, Tuomas; Auvinen, Petri; Savijoki, Kirsi; Nyman, Tuula A; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Tynkkynen, Soile; Varmanen, Pekka

    2011-11-01

    The growth phase during which probiotic bacteria are harvested and consumed can strongly influence their performance as health-promoting agents. In this study, global transcriptomic and proteomic changes were studied in the widely used probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG during growth in industrial-type whey medium under strictly defined bioreactor conditions. The expression of 636 genes (P ≤ 0.01) and 116 proteins (P rhamnosus GG in the host and proteins that directly contribute to human health showed temporal changes in expression. Our results suggest that L. rhamnosus GG has a highly flexible and adaptable metabolism and that the growth stage during which bacterial cells are harvested and consumed should be taken into consideration to gain the maximal benefit from probiotic bacteria.

  7. Ingeniería metabólica y desarrollos fermentativos en Lactobacillus casei.

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Martínez, Gaspar

    2005-01-01

    Con el fin de diseñar procedimientos para el aprovechamiento biotecnológico de la lactosa, el principal contaminante del lactosuero, nuestro laboratorio ha desarrollado una herramienta para la inserción de genes metabólicos, por recombinación, en el operón de la lactosa de L. casei. Las cepas resultantes presentan una inserción “limpia”, es decir que no poseen genes de resistencia a antibióticos (grado alimentario) y, además, expresan los genes de interés de forma coordinada con los genes de ...

  8. Aloe vera COMO SUSTRATO PARA EL CRECIMIENTO DE Lactobacillus plantarum y L. casei

    OpenAIRE

    B. A González; R. Domínguez-Espinosa; B. R. Alcocer

    2008-01-01

    En este estudió se determinó el efecto del uso de jugo de Aloe vera (sábila) como sustrato principal de fermentación para obtener cultivos de alta concentración de células viables de dos bacterias con actividad probiótica: Lactobacillus plantarum (NCIMB 11718) y Lactobacillus casei (NRRL -1445). Se determinó la velocidad específica de crecimiento (u) de cada microorganismo en medios con diferentes concentraciones de Aloe vera comparándolos con aquellos obtenidos en cultivos crecidos en medio ...

  9. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Mengue Feniman Moritz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination, upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus.

  10. Two new sesquiterpene lactones from Montanoa tomentosa ssp. microcephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braca, A; Cioffi, G; Morelli, I; Venturella, F; Pizza, C; De Tommasi, N

    2001-11-01

    Two new sesquiterpene lactones: 8alpha-(4'-acetoxymethacryloyloxy)-3alpha,9beta-dihydroxy-1(10)E,4Z,11(13)-germacratrien-12,6alpha-olide (1) and 8alpha-(2'E)-(2'-acetoxymethyl-2'-butenoyloxy)-3alpha,9beta-dihydroxy-1(10)E,4Z,11(13)-germacratrien-12,6alphaolide (2), together with the known zoapatanolide A were isolated from the aerial parts of Montanoa tomentosa Cerv. in La Llave et Lex ssp. microcephala (Sch. Bip. In K. Koch) V.A. Funk (Asteraceae). The structures of all compounds were established on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR, and EIMS analysis.

  11. Structure of an extracellular polysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain C83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhaverbeke, C.; Bosso, C.; Colin-Morel, P.; Gey, C.; Heyraud, A. [Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolecules Vegetales, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, B.P.53, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Gamar-Nourani, L.; Blondeau, K.; Simonet, J.-M. [Institut de Genetique et Microbiologie, Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire des Bacteries d' Interet Industriel, CNRS URA 2225, Batiment 360, Universite de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France)

    1998-12-31

    The extracellular polysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain C83 was found to be composed of d-glucose and d-galactose in a molar ratio of 2:3. The primary structure of the polysaccharide was shown by sugar analysis, methylation analysis, FABMS, partial acid hydrolysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to consist of a pentasaccharide repeating unit having the following structure:-3)-{alpha}-d-Glcp-(1-2)-{beta}-d-Galf-(1-6)-{alpha}-d-Galp-(1-6) -{alpha}-d-Glcp-(1-3)-{beta}-d-Galf-(1-. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota protects against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis development in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Hirofumi; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Kushiyama, Akifumi; Fujishiro, Midori; Nakatsu, Yusuke; Fukushima, Toshiaki; Matsunaga, Yasuka; Kamata, Hideaki; Asahara, Takashi; Yoshida, Yasuto; Chonan, Osamu; Iwashita, Misaki; Nishimura, Fusanori; Asano, Tomoichiro

    2013-12-01

    Gut microbiota alterations are associated with various disorders. In this study, gut microbiota changes were investigated in a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) rodent model, and the effects of administering Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) on the development of NASH were also investigated. Mice were divided into three groups, given the normal chow diet (NCD), MCD diet, or the MCD diet plus daily oral administration of LcS for 6 wk. Gut microbiota analyses for the three groups revealed that lactic acid bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in feces were markedly reduced by the MCD diet. Interestingly, oral administration of LcS to MCD diet-fed mice increased not only the L. casei subgroup but also other lactic acid bacteria. Subsequently, NASH development was evaluated based on hepatic histochemical findings, serum parameters, and various mRNA and/or protein expression levels. LcS intervention markedly suppressed MCD-diet-induced NASH development, with reduced serum lipopolysaccharide concentrations, suppression of inflammation and fibrosis in the liver, and reduced colon inflammation. Therefore, reduced populations of lactic acid bacteria in the colon may be involved in the pathogenesis of MCD diet-induced NASH, suggesting normalization of gut microbiota to be effective for treating NASH.

  13. An Efficient DNA Extraction Method for Lactobacillus casei, a Difficult-to-Lyse Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimolaei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background There are several protocols to extract DNA from Lactobacillus spp. In the case of L. casei it is harder because of its especial and thick cell wall. Objectives In this study, nine DNA extraction protocols (by lysozyme treatment were evaluated and compared in two categories (traditional and kit-based protocols and an improved method was presented. Materials and Methods DNA quantity and quality was determined by spectrophotometry, agarose gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results The results revealed that the yield of extracted DNA differed by each protocol (5.8 - 17.1 μg/100 μL, but provided appropriate DNA for PCR amplification. The modified protocol offered the best total DNA extraction method when both quality (DNA purity; 1.54 μg and quantity (DNA yield; 17.1 μg were considered. Conclusions We suggest this protocol for effective and inexpensive DNA isolation from L. casei for downstream biological processes such as PCR.

  14. Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from cheese reduce biogenic amine accumulation in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Martínez, Noelia; Sánchez-Llana, Esther; Díaz, María; Fernández, María; Martin, Maria Cruz; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2012-07-02

    Tyramine and histamine are the biogenic amines (BAs) most commonly found in cheese, in which they appear as a result of the microbial enzymatic decarboxylation of tyrosine and histidine respectively. Given their toxic effects, their presence in high concentrations in foods should be avoided. In this work, samples of three cheeses (Zamorano, Cabrales and Emmental) with long ripening periods, and that often have high BA concentrations, were screened for the presence of BA-degrading lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Seventeen isolates were found that were able to degrade tyramine and histamine in broth culture. All 17 isolates were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as belonging to Lactobacillus casei. They were typed by plasmid S1-PFGE and genomic macrorestriction-PFGE analysis. Two strains (L. casei 4a and 5b) associated with high degradation rates for both BAs were selected to test how this ability might affect histamine and tyramine accumulation in a Cabrales-like mini-cheese manufacturing model. The quantification of BAs and the monitoring of the strains' growth over ripening were undertaken by RP-HPLC and qPCR respectively. Both strains were found to reduce histamine and tyramine accumulation. These two strains might be suitable for use as adjunct cultures for reducing the presence of BAs in cheese.

  15. Effect of immobilized Lactobacillus casei on volatile compounds of heat treated probiotic dry-fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidira, Marianthi; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kanellaki, Maria; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the amount of immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on wheat grains on the generation of volatile compounds during the production of heat treated probiotic dry-fermented sausages was investigated. For comparison reasons, sausages containing free L. casei cells or no starter culture as well as a similar commercial product were also included in the study. Samples ripened for 8 days and heat treated to 70-72°C for 8-10 min were subjected to Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The starter culture affected significantly the production of volatile compounds. The highest content of esters and alcohols was observed in the sample containing 30 g of immobilized cells/kg of stuffing mixture, while the highest concentration of organic acids was observed in the sausages with no starter culture. In contrast, the commercial product contained the lowest concentration of volatiles. Principal component analysis of the semi-quantitative data revealed that the volatile composition was affected primarily by the nature and concentration of the starter culture.

  16. Chemical characterization and immunomodulatory properties of polysaccharides isolated from probiotic Lactobacillus casei LOCK 0919

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska, Sabina; Hermanova, Petra; Ciekot, Jarosław; Schwarzer, Martin; Srutkova, Dagmar; Brzozowska, Ewa; Kozakova, Hana; Gamian, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The Lactobacillus casei strain, LOCK 0919, is intended for the dietary management of food allergies and atopic dermatitis (LATOPIC® BIOMED). The use of a probiotic to modulate immune responses is an interesting strategy for solving imbalance problems of gut microflora that may lead to various disorders. However, the exact bacterial signaling mechanisms underlying such modulations are still far from being understood. Here, we investigated variations in the chemical compositions and immunomodulatory properties of the polysaccharides (PS), L919/A and L919/B, which are produced by L. casei LOCK 0919. By virtue of their chemical features, such PS can modulate the immune responses to third-party antigens. Our results revealed that L919/A and L919/B could both modulate the immune response to Lactobacillus planatarum WCFS1, but only L919/B could alter the response of THP-1 cells (in terms of tumor necrosis factor alpha production) to L. planatarum WCFS1 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. The comprehensive immunochemical characterization is crucial for the understanding of the biological function as well as of the bacteria–host and bacteria–bacteria cross-talk. PMID:27102285

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SSP in NIR. II. Synthesis models (Meneses-Goytia+, 2015)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meneses-Goytia, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Trager, S. C.; Vazdekis, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present Single Stellar Populations (SSP) models are derived from my Ph.D.'s thesis and this paper. The following nomenclature is used throughout the paper and the website (http://smg.astro-research.net/ssp-models/the-models/) to describe the models, e.g. MarS models use the M08 isochrones (Mar)

  18. Kvalitet, faglighed og legitime videnformer i SSP-samarbejdet under transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamborg, Andreas Lindenskov

    2016-01-01

    Quality, professionalism and legitimate knowledge in a changing SSP-collaboration. This article explores the inter professional collaboration in a crime preventive initiative called SSP, which is a collaboration between school, social work and police. By drawing on interviews of actors from...

  19. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus regulate inflammatory pathway and improve antioxidant status in collagen-induced arthritic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdekar, Sarika; Singh, Vinod; Kumar, Avnish; Sharma, Poonam; Singh, Rambir

    2013-01-01

    In view of well-established immunomodulatory properties of Lactobacillus, present investigation was carried out to evaluate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus, against inflammatory pathway and oxidative stress developed in an experimental model of arthritis. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model was used. Oral administration of L. casei, L. acidophilus, standard antiarthritic drug indomethacin, and vehicle were started after induced arthritis and continued up to day 28. Interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1β, IL-17, IL-4, and IL-10 levels were estimated in serum. In parallel, oxidative stress parameters were also measured from synovial effsuate. All rats were graded for arthritis score at the end of each week. L. casei, L. acidophilus, and indomethacin treatment significantly downregulated proinflammatory and upregulated anti-inflammatory cytokines at Pacidophilus was more pronounced than that of indomethacin. These lines of evidence suggest that L. casei and L. acidophilus exert potent protective effect against CIA. It further establishes effective anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Lactobacillus. However, additional clinical investigations are needed to prove the efficacy of Lactobacillus in treatment/management of rheumatoid arthritis.

  20. Use of Pistacia terebinthus resin as immobilization support for Lactobacillus casei cells and application in selected dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoina, Vasiliki; Terpou, Antonia; Angelika-Ioanna, Gialleli; Koutinas, Athanasios; Kanellaki, Maria; Bosnea, Loulouda

    2015-09-01

    Resin from Pistacia terebinthus tree was used for the immobilization of L. casei ATCC 393 cells. The encapsulated L. casei cells biocatalysts were added as adjuncts during yogurt production at 45 °C and probiotic viability was assessed during storage at 4 °C. For comparison reasons yogurt with free L. casei cells were prepared. The effect of encapsulated bacteria as adjuncts in yogurt on pH, lactic acid, lactose and other physicochemical parameters were studied for 60 storage days at 4 °C. Samples were also tested for the microbiological and organoleptic characteristics during storage at 4 °C. Encapsulation matrix seems to sustain the viability of embedded L. casei cells at levels more than 7 logcfug(-1) after 60 days of storage at 4 °C. Furthermore, the absence of pathogens such as Salmonella, Staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms in the produced yogurts is noteworthy where spoilage microorganisms such as yeasts and molds seem to affect yogurt quality only in absence of Pistacia terebinthus resin. The effect of the resin on production of aroma-related compounds responsible for yogurt flavor was also studied using the solid phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. Alpha and beta- pinene were the major aroma compounds detected in produced yogurts (over 60 % of total aromatic compounds detected). Yogurts with immobilized cells on P.terebintus resin had a fine aroma and taste characteristic of the resin.

  1. Lactobacillus casei Shirota does not decrease the food allergic response to peanut extract in Brown Norway rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, J.D. de; Ezendam, J.; Knippels, L.M.J.; Penninks, A.H.; Pieters, R.; Loveren, H. van

    2008-01-01

    Probiotics are claimed to beneficially affect the immune system and their involvement in allergy prevention is being investigated extensively. However, the efficacy of probiotics in allergy prevention remains controversial. We investigated whether the probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) coul

  2. Studies on Mucosal Immunity Induced by Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Recombinant Lactobacillus casei in Mice and Sow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gui-hua; HOU Xi-lin; YU Li-yun; LIU Jian-kui; WEI Chun-hua

    2009-01-01

    Mucosal immunity plays an important role in protecting pigs against transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) infection. To elicit mucosal immune response against TGEV, we developed a surface antigen display system using the poly-γ-glutamate synthetase A (pgsA) protein of Bacillus subtilis as an anchoring matrix to express recombinant fusion proteins of pgsA and nucleocapsid protein of TGEV in Lactobacillus casei. Surface location of fusion protein was verified by ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence test. Oral and intranasal inoculations of pregnant sow and mice with recombinant L. casei resulted in high levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and secretory immunogiobulin A (sIgA) against recombinant N protein as demonstrated by ELISA. More importantly, the level of specific slgA in colostrum significantly increased compared with that of IgG. The serum lgG levels of the piglets increased after suckling coiostrum produced by sows was previously inoculated with recombinant L. casei. These results indicate that immunization with recombinant L. casei expressing TGEV N protein on its surface elicited high levels of specific slgA and circulating lgG against TGEV N protein.

  3. Experimental and Pathalogical study of Pistacia atlantica, butyrate, Lactobacillus casei and their combination on rat ulcerative colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Mahdi; Ghasemi-Niri, Seyedeh Farnaz; Maqbool, Faheem; Baeeri, Maryam; Memariani, Zahra; Pousti, Iraj; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Pistacia atlantica (P. atlantica), butyrate, Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and especially their combination therapy on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat colitis model. Rats were divided into seven groups. Four groups received oral P. atlantica, butyrate, L. casei and the combination of three agents for 10 consecutive days. The remaining groups were negative and positive controls and a sham group. Macroscopic and histopathological examinations were carried out along with determination of the specific biomarker of colonic oxidative stress, the myeloperoxidase (MPO). Compared with controls, the combination therapy exhibited a significant alleviation of colitis in terms of pathological scores and reduction of MPO activity (55%, p=0.0009). Meanwhile, the macroscopic appearance such as stool consistency, tissue and histopathological scores (edema, necrosis and neutrophil infiltration) were improved. Although single therapy by each P. atlantica, butyrate, and L. casei was partially beneficial in reduction of colon oxidative stress markers, the combination therapy was much more effective. In conclusion, the combination therapy was able to reduce the severity of colitis that is clear from biochemical markers. Future studies have to focus on clinical effects of this combination in management of human ulcerative colitis. Further molecular and signaling pathway studies will help to understand the mechanisms involved in the treatment of colitis and inflammatory diseases.

  4. Comparative sequence analysis of a recA gene fragment brings new evidence for a change in the taxonomy of the Lactobacillus casei group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felis, G E; Dellaglio, F; Mizzi, L; Torriani, S

    2001-11-01

    The taxonomic positions of species of the Lactobacillus casei group have been evaluated by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of a 277 bp recA gene fragment. High sequence similarity between strain ATCC 393T, currently designated as the type strain of L. casei, and the type strain of Lactobacillus zeae, LMG 17315T, has been established, while L. casei ATCC 334 and Lactobacillus paracasei NCDO 151T form a single phylogenetic group. The taxonomic status of species and strains at issue is discussed.

  5. Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus probiotic strains in peach jam during storage at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Lucia Randazzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of six probiotic wild strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus was compared with that of a type strain during 78 days of storage at 25 and 5 ºC in peach synthetic medium (PSM and commercial peach jam (PJ. Changes in viable cell counts, pH values, sugar content, and colour parameters were monitored. All strains exhibited better performances in PJ than in PSM, showing count values higher than 7 Log cfu g-1 up to 78 days of storage at 5 ºC. Almost all wild strains remained above the critical value of 6 Log cfu g-1 in samples stored at 25 ºC up to 45 days, while the Lb. rhamnosus GG type strain, used as control, was not able to survive later than 15 days. In the synthetic medium used, the strains showed better survival in the samples incubated at 25 ºC, remaining viable above the critical level up to 45 days of storage, except for the strain H12. The probiotic cultures added to jam did not significantly change the colour parameters of the product; however the metabolism of lactobacilli did cause changes in the pH and in the composition of sugars.

  6. Piliation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG promotes adhesion, phagocytosis, and cytokine modulation in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas García, Cynthia E; Petrova, Mariya; Claes, Ingmar J J; De Boeck, Ilke; Verhoeven, Tine L A; Dilissen, Ellen; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Palva, Airi; Bullens, Dominique M; Vanderleyden, Jos; Lebeer, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Recently, spaCBA-encoded pili on the cell surface of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were identified to be key molecules for binding to human intestinal mucus and Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. Here, we investigated the role of the SpaCBA pilus of L. rhamnosus GG in the interaction with macrophages in vitro by comparing the wild type with surface mutants. Our results show that SpaCBA pili play a significant role in the capacity for adhesion to macrophages and also promote bacterial uptake by these phagocytic cells. Interestingly, our data suggest that SpaCBA pili also mediate anti-inflammatory effects by induction of interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA and reduction of interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA in a murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. These pili appear to mediate these effects indirectly by promoting close contact with the macrophages, facilitating the exertion of anti-inflammatory effects by other surface molecules via yet unknown mechanisms. Blockage of complement receptor 3 (CR3), previously identified to be a receptor for streptococcal pili, significantly decreased the uptake of pilus-expressing strains in RAW 264.7 cells, while the expression of IL-10 and IL-6 mRNA by these macrophages was not affected by this blocking. On the other hand, blockage of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) significantly reduced the expression of IL-6 mRNA irrespective of the presence of pili.

  7. Application of response surface methodology to enhancement of biomass production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus E/N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Polak-Berecka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was employed to study the effects of various medium components on biomass production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus E/N. This strain is commonly used in the pharmaceutical and food industries due to its beneficial effect on the human gut and general health. The best medium composition derived from RSM regression was (in g/l glucose 15.44, sodium pyruvate 3.92, meat extract 8.0, potassium phosphate 1.88, sodium acetate 4.7, and ammonium citrate 1.88. With this medium composition biomass production was 23 g/l of dry cell weight after 18 h of cultivation in bioreactor conditions, whereas on MRS the yield of biomass was 21 g/l of dry cell weight. The cost of 1 g of biomass obtained on MRS broth was calculated at the level of 0.44 € whereas on the new optimal medium it was 25% lower. It may be concluded then, that the new medium, being cheaper than the control MRS allows large scale commercial cultivation of the L. rhamnosus strain. This study is of relevance to food industry because the possibility to obtain high yield of bacterial biomass is necessary step in manufacturing of probiotic food.

  8. Microencapsulation of alginate-immobilized bagasse with Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL 442: enhancement of survivability and thermotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharuddin, Shahrulzaman; Muhamad, Ida Idayu

    2015-03-30

    The aim of this research was to enhance the survivability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL 442 against heat exposure via a combination of immobilization and microencapsulation processes using sugarcane bagasse (SB) and sodium alginate (NaA), respectively. The microcapsules were synthesized using different alginate concentration of 1, 2 and 3% and NaA:SB ratio of 1:0, 1:1 and 1:1.5. This beneficial step of probiotic immobilization before microencapsulation significantly enhanced microencapsulation efficiency and cell survivability after heat exposure of 90°C for 30s. Interestingly, the microcapsule of SB-immobilized probiotic could obtain protection from heat using microencapsulation of NaA concentration as low as 1%. SEM images illustrated the incorporation of immobilized L. rhamnosus within alginate matrices and its changes after heat exposure. FTIR spectra confirmed the change in functional bonding in the presence of sugarcane bagasse, probiotic and alginate. The results demonstrated a great potential in the synthesis of heat resistant microcapsules for probiotic.

  9. Functional Analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Pili in Relation to Adhesion and Immunomodulatory Interactions with Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebeer, S.; Claes, I.J.; Tytgat, H.L.P.; Verhoeven, T.L.A.; Marien, E.; Ossowski, von I.; Reunanen, J.; Palva, A.; Vos, de W.M.; Keersmaecker, de S.C.; Vanderleyden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, a probiotic with good survival capacity in the human gut, has well-documented adhesion properties and health effects. Recently, spaCBA-encoded pili that bind to human intestinal mucus were identified on its cell surface. Here, we report on the phenotypic analysis of a spa

  10. Adhesive properties, extracellular protein production, and metabolism in the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain when grown in the presence of mucin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Borja; Saad, Naima; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Bressollier, Philippe; Urdaci, Maria C

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and how it reacts to the presence of mucin in its extracellular milieu. Parameters studied included cell clustering, adhesion to mucin, extracellular protein production, and formation of final metabolites. L. rhamnosus GG was found to grow efficiently in the presence of glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, or mucin (partially purified or purified) as sole carbon sources. However, it was unable to grow using other mucin constituents, such as fucose or glucuronic acid. Mucin induced noticeable changes in all the parameters studied when compared with growth using glucose, including in the formation of cell clusters, which were easily disorganized with trypsin. Mucin increased adhesion of the bacterium, and modulated the production of extracellular proteins. SDS-PAGE revealed that mucin was not degraded during L. rhamnosus GG growth, suggesting that this bacterium is able to partially use the glucidic moiety of glycoprotein. This study goes some way towards developing an understanding of the metabolic and physiological changes that L. rhamnosus GG undergoes within the human gastrointestinal tract.

  11. Evaluation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM encapsulated using a novel impinging aerosol method in fruit food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Asma; Turner, Mark S; Prabawati, Elisabeth Kartika; Coombes, Allan G A; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2012-07-02

    This study investigated the effect of microencapsulation on the survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and their acidification in orange juice at 25°C for nine days and at 4°C over thirty five days of storage. Alginate micro beads (10-40 μm) containing the probiotics were produced by a novel dual aerosol method of alginate and CaCl(2) cross linking solution. Unencapsulated L. rhamnosus GG was found to have excellent survivability in orange juice at both temperatures. However unencapsulated L. acidophilus NCFM showed significant reduction in viability. Encapsulation of these two bacteria did not significantly enhance survivability but did reduce acidification at 25°C and 4°C. In agreement with this, encapsulation of L. rhamnosus GG also reduced acidification in pear and peach fruit-based foods at 25°C, however at 4°C difference in pH was insignificant between free and encapsulated cells. In conclusion, L. rhamnosus GG showed excellent survival in orange juice and microencapsulation has potential in reducing acidification and possible negative sensory effects of probiotics in orange juice and other fruit-based products.

  12. Ability of a Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain cultured in milk whey based medium to bind aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bovo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare Lactobacillus rhamnosus growth in MRS (de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe broth and a culture medium containing milk whey (MMW and to evaluate aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 adsorption capacity by bacterial cells produced in both culture media. L. rhamnosus cells were cultivated in MRS broth and MMW (37 °C, 24 hours, and bacterial cell concentration was determined spectrophotometrically at 600 nm. AFB1 (1 µg/ml adsorption assays were conducted using 1 x 10(10 non-viable L. rhamnosus cells (121 °C, 15 minutes at pHs 3.0 and 6.0 and contact time of 60 minutes. AFB1 quantification was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Bacterial cell concentration in MMW was higher (9.84 log CFU/ml than that in MRS broth (9.63 log CFU/ml. There were no significant differences between AFB1 binding results at the same pH value (3.0 or 6.0 for the cells cultivated in MRS broth (46.0% and 35.8%, respectively and in MMW (43.7% and 25.8%, respectively, showing that MMW can adequately replace the MRS broth. Therefore, it can be concluded that the use of L. rhamnosus cells cultivated in MMW offers advantages such as reduction in large scale production costs, improvement of environmental sustainability, and being a practicable alternative for decontamination of food products susceptible to aflatoxin contamination.

  13. Biofilms of vaginal Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1324 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL 1332: kinetics of formation and matrix characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leccese Terraf, María Cecilia; Juárez Tomás, María Silvina; Rault, Lucie; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine; Nader-Macías, María Elena Fátima

    2016-09-01

    Adhesion and biofilm formation are strain properties that reportedly contribute to the permanence of lactobacilli in the human vagina. The kinetics of biofilm formation and the chemical nature of the biofilm matrix formed by Lactobacillus reuteri CRL (Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos Culture Collection) 1324 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL 1332, vaginal beneficial strains, were evaluated in this work. Crystal violet-stained microplate assay and techniques of epifluorescence, electron and confocal microscopy were applied. The highest density and complexity of biofilms of both vaginal lactobacilli were observed at 72 h of incubation. Protease, proteinase K, α-chymotrypsin and trypsin treatments efficiently detached L. reuteri CRL 1324 biofilm that was also partially affected by α-amylase. However, L. rhamnosus CRL 1332 biofilm was slightly affected by protease, proteinase K and α-amylase. Confocal microscopy revealed greater amount of polysaccharides in L. rhamnosus CRL 1332 biofilm matrix than in L. reuteri CRL 1324 biofilm matrix. The results indicate that proteins are one of the main components of the L. reuteri CRL 1324 biofilm, while the biofilm matrix of L. rhamnosus CRL 1332 is composed of carbohydrates and proteins. The results obtained support the knowledge, understanding and characterization of two biofilm-forming vaginal Lactobacillus strains.

  14. Neonatal supplementation of processed supernatant from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG improves allergic airway inflammation in mice later in life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harb, H.; Tol, E.A.F. van; Heine, H.; Braaksma, M.; Gross, G.; Overkamp, K.; Hennen, M.; Alrifai, M.; Conrad, M.L.; Renz, H.; Garn, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Oral supplementation with probiotic bacteria can protect against the development of allergic and inflammatory diseases. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate potential immunomodulatory and allergy-protective effects of processed Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-derived supe

  15. Mucosal adhesion properties of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG SpaCBA and SpaFED pilin subunits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossowski, von I.; Reunanen, J.; Satokari, R.M.; Vesterlund, S.; Kankainen, M.; Huhtinen, H.; Tynkkynen, S.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.; Palva, A.

    2010-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a well-established Gram-positive probiotic strain, whose health-benefiting properties are in part dependent upon a prolonged residency in the gastrointestinal tract and likely dictated by an adherence to the intestinal mucosa. Previously, we identified two pilus gene cl

  16. Clinical trial: multispecies probiotic supplementation alleviates the symptoms of IBS and stabilises intestinal microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kajander, K.; Myllyluoma, E.; Rajlic-Stojanovic, M.; Kyronpalo, S.S.; Rasmussen, M.; Jarvenpaa, S.S.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Vos, de W.M.; Vapaatalo, H.; Korpela, R.

    2008-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effects of multispecies probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus Lc705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb12) on abdominal symptoms, quality of life, intestinal microbiota and inflammatory m

  17. Efficient production and secretion of bovine β-lactoglobulin by Lactobacillus casei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wal Jean-Michel

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are attractive tools to deliver therapeutic molecules at the mucosal level. The model LAB Lactococcus lactis has been intensively used to produce and deliver such heterologous proteins. However, compared to recombinant lactococci, lactobacilli offer some advantages such as better survival in the digestive tract and immunomodulatory properties. Here, we compared different strategies to optimize the production of bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG, a major cow's milk allergen, in the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei BL23. Results Using a nisin-inducible plasmid system, we first showed that L. casei BL23 strain could efficiently secrete a reporter protein, the staphylococcal nuclease (Nuc, with the lactococcal signal peptide SPUsp45 fused to its N-terminus. The fusion of SPUsp45 failed to drive BLG secretion but led to a 10-fold increase of intracellular BLG production. Secretion was significantly improved when the synthetic propeptide LEISSTCDA (hereafter called LEISS was added to the N-terminus of the mature moiety of BLG. Secretion rate of LEISS-BLG was 6-fold higher than that of BLG alone while intracellular production reached then about 1 mg/L of culture. The highest yield of secretion was obtained by using Nuc as carrier protein. Insertion of Nuc between LEISS and BLG resulted in a 20-fold increase in BLG secretion, up to 27 μg/L of culture. Furthermore, the lactococcal nisRK regulatory genes were integrated into the BL23 chromosome. The nisRK insertion allowed a decrease of BLG synthesis in uninduced cultures while BLG production increased by 50% after nisin induction. Moreover, modification of the induction protocol led to increase the proportion of soluble BLG to around 74% of the total BLG production. Conclusion BLG production and secretion in L. casei were significantly improved by fusions to a propeptide enhancer and a carrier protein. The resulting recombinant strains will be further tested

  18. The Antifungal Properties of Lactobacillus casei AST18 and Its Application as Adjunct Culture in Yogurt%Lactobacillus casei AST18抗真菌特性及其在酸奶保鲜中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红娟; 刘鹭; 张书文; 孔凡丕; 孙卓; 吕加平

    2011-01-01

    [目的]考察来源于中国传统发酵制品中乳酸菌的抑真菌特性,研究其在酸奶贮藏中的抑制霉菌效果.[方法]高效液相色谱法( HPLC)检测7株具有抗真菌效果的乳杆菌发酵液中苯乳酸(PLA)含量,研究PLA与乳杆菌发酵液抗真菌活性的相关性.选取抑菌活性最强的菌株Lactobacillus casei AST18进行抑菌特性研究.Lactobacillus casei AST18分别以2%、4%、6%、8%接种量作为辅助发酵剂添加至酸奶发酵工艺中,成品酸奶贮藏期间,监测酸奶中霉菌生长状况,检测酸奶理化指标并进行感官评定.[结果]乳杆菌发酵液中苯乳酸含量与其抑真菌直径间相关关系不显著.Lactobacillus casei AST18发酵上清液经胃蛋白酶和胰蛋白酶处理后不影响其抑菌活性,而环境pH对其抑菌活性的影响显著,热处理可使其丧失抑菌活性.Lactobacillus casei AST18以2%添加量作为辅助发酵剂应用在酸奶中可抑制霉菌菌丝生长和孢子生成,且对酸奶产品风味、感官品质无显著影响.[结论]Lactobacillus casei AST18具有较好的抑制霉菌生长能力,应用在酸奶中具有显著的防霉保鲜效果.%[Objective] The antifungal activities of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Chinese traditional fermented products were detected. The selected strain was used as adjunct culture in yogurt to control the fungal pollution. [Method] The production of phenyl lactic acid (PLA) was detected with HPLC and the correlation between PL A and the antifungal activities was studied. Then the antifungal properties of Lactobacillus casei AST 18 culture supernatants were detected. Lactobacillus casei AST 18 was used as adjunct culture in the yogurt production process. Four different inoculums of AST 18, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and a control group which used the commercial starter only were added in yogurt. After fermentation, sensory evaluation, physical and chemical indicators, the fungal growth conditions were

  19. Bactericidal Influence of Silver Nanocomposites on Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perfileva А.I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The results of studying the effect of silver nanocomposites received by chemical synthesis on the bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Cms are presented. Cms is a Gram-positive bacterium, which causes one of the most dangerous potato diseases, ring rot. The effective alongside ecologically safe methods for combating Cms are lacking. As the agent, possible for application for this purpose, we investigated silver nanocomposites. For definition of nanocomposites influence on Cms we applied seedings to calculation the colony-forming units, after an incubation of bacteria with a nanocomposite in the distilled water (the grown poor environment and on a nutrient medium. Influence of silver nanocomposites on cellular respiration which was estimated on oxygen absorption speed is also investigated. Thus, the obtained results demonstrate the occurrence of bactericidal effects of the substances under study, and favor the supposition on advisability of further research into the silver nanocomposites as the agents for agricultural recovery from the bacterial pathogens.

  20. Instruments for oral disease-intervention strategies : recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing tetanus toxin fragment C for vaccination or myelin proteins for oral tolerance induction in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen, C.B.M.; Laman, J.D.; Heijne den Bak-Glashouwer, M.J.; Tielen, F.J.; Holten-Neelen, J.C.P.A. van; Hoogteijling, L.; Antonissen, C.; Leer, R.J.; Pouwels, P.H.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Shaw, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Lactobacillus strains possess properties that make them attractive candidates as vehicles for oral administration of therapeutics. In this report we describe the construction and analysis of recombinant Lactobacillus casei applicable in oral vaccination against an infectious disease (tetanus) and in

  1. Identification of lactobacillus casei-BDI and Streptococcus thermophilus by fluorescence spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wu; Tuo Zhu; Wei Chen; Hao Zhang; Jianlei Yang

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence analysis applied in the study of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) provides a new method and theory to study probiotics and realize the detection and identification of the strains.It is also possible to achieve automation and computerization.In this letter,the differences between the fluorescence spectra of lactobacillus casei-BDI (Lc-BDI) and Streptococcus thermophilus (St) are shown,and the second-order derivative spectra are used to further study the diversity of these two strains.According to the results,with thc excitation wavelengths of 285 and 340 nm,there are significant differences between them.The experiment is repeated for 6 times,showing good repetitiveness.

  2. Identification and molecular cloning of glutamate decarboxylase gene from Lactobacillus casei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Tavakoli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA possesses several physiological functions such as neurotransmission, induction of hypotension, diuretic and tranquilizer effects. Production of GABA-enriched products by lactic acid bacteria has been a focus of different researches in recent years because of their safety and health-promoting specifities. In this study, glutamate decarboxylase (gad gene of a local strains Lactobacillus casei was identified and cloned. In order to clone the gad gene from this strain, the PCR was carried out using primers designed based on conserved regions. The PCR product was purified and ligated into PGEM-T vector. Comparison of obtained sequences shows that this fragment codes the pyridoxal 5′-phosphate binding region. This strain could possibly be used for the industrial GABA production and also for development of functional fermented foods. Gad gene manipulation can also either decrease or increase the activity of enzyme in bacteria.

  3. Immune Response and Intestinal Permeability in Children With Acute Gastroenteritis Treated With Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sindhu, Kulandaipalayam N. C.; Sowmyanarayanan, Thuppal V.; Paul, Anu; Babji, Sudhir; Sitara S R Ajjampur; Priyadarshini, Sophia; Sarkar, Rajiv; Balasubramanian, K.A.; Wanke, Christine A.; Ward, Honorine D; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-01-01

    Supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is safe, decreases repeated episodes of diarrhea, improves intestinal permeability, and increases IgG antibody response in rotavirus diarrhea in Indian children.

  4. Pembuatan Minuman Probiotik dari Susu Kedelai dengan Inokulum Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, dan Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARI SUSILOWATI

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji kualitas hasil pembuatan minuman probiotiksusu kedelai berupa: jumlah sel bakteri viabel, kadar asam laktat, pH, kadar protein, kadar lemak, viskositas, serta uji organoleptik dengan menggunakan inokulum Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum dan Lactobacillus acidophilus. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan (i minuman probiotik yang berisi L. casei konsentrasi 2% menghasilkan jumlah sel bakteri viabel (4,423×109 cfu/mL, asam laktat (1,53%, protein (5,359%, lemak (1,4675%, dan viskositas (92,833 mPa.s tertinggi serta pH (3,9367 terendah pada konsentrasi 2%. Minuman probiotik yang berisi L. acidophilus menghasilkan jumlah sel bakteri viabel (7,467×109 cfu/mL, asam laktat (1,32%, protein (4,367%, lemak (1,2555% tertinggi dan pH (3,6567 terendah pada konsentrasi 2%, sedangkan untuk ketiga konsentrasi (1%, 2%, 3% mempunyai viskositas sama yaitu berturut-turut (29,224 mPa.s; 34,741 mPa.s; 32,113 mPa.s; (ii minuman probiotik yang berisi L. plantarum menghasilkan jumlah sel bakteri viabel (3,040×109 cfu/mL, asam laktat (1,50%, protein (4,775%, lemak (0,4285% lebih tinggi serta pH (3,4967 lebih rendah pada konsentrasi 3%, sedangkan nilai viskositas sama untuk ketiga konsentrasi yaitu (65,790 mPa.s; 67,155 mPa.s; 68,300 mPa.s, (iii uji organoleptik keasaman, rasa dan bau menunjukkan bahwa penerimaan panelis/ tingkat kesukaan terhadap minuman probiotik yang dihasilkan dalam skala biasa.

  5. Phytochemical analysis of the flower extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiruba S; Mahesh M; Nisha SR; Miller Paul Z; Jeeva S

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the preliminary phytochemical screening of the flower extracts of Rhododendron arboreum (R. arboreum) Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. Methods: The preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by the standard methods as described by Harborne. Results: The phytochemical analysis carried out on the flowers of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg showed the presence of phenols, saponins, steroids, tannin, xanthoprotein and coumarin. Conclusions:The present study suggested that the flower extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg possess significant phytochemical constituents and it can be used as antimicrobial agents against clinically isolated pathogens.

  6. Preliminary phytochemical studies of the leaf extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Solomon Kiruba; Mony Mahesh; Zachariah Miller Paul; Solomon Jeeva

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the secondary metabolites present in the leaf extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. Methods: Phytochemical screening of the leaf extract was done to determine the phytochemical constituents in the various solvents studied.Results:nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. confirm the existence of secondary metabolites such as phenols, saponins and tannins. Conclusions: The study suggests that the leaf extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. can be best utilized in developing bioactive compounds against pathogenic infection. The phytochemical study carried out on the leaf extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp.

  7. Four weeks supplementation with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L. casei W8® shows modest effect on triacylglycerol in young healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Anne Toksvig; Kristensen, Mette Bredal; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    were measured. Additionally fasting blood lipids and fatty acids concentrations were measured. Sixteen piglets were randomised into two groups: L. casei W8 (1010 cfu/day) as top dressing on morning fed or no treatment. After two weeks piglets were sacrificed and tissue from ileum, jejunum and skeletal......, supplementation with L. casei W8 did not affect appetite parameters, glucose or insulin responses; but appear to be able to lower triacylglycerol levels, possibly by reducing its production....

  8. Investigation the Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei on aflR Gene expression in Aspergillus parasiticus by Real Time-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    NATEGHI, Farzaneh; Noorbakhsh, Fatemeh; LOTFALI, Ensieh; Sassan RE­ZAIE

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effect of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei) as safe organisms was examined on fungal growth and aflatoxin gene regulation in Aspergillus parasiticus.Methods: The fungus was cultured in presence of two different concentrations of L. acidophilus and L. casei in MRS broth medium. Mycelia dry weight is indicated as criteria to evaluate fungal growth. Besides, investigation of aflR gene expression by Real Time PCR was performed for analysis of gene regulat...

  9. Effects of formulation variables on the particle size and viability of L.casei-loaded in whey protein-Ca-alginate microparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Smilkov, Katarina; Petreska Ivanovska, Tanja; Petrusevska Tozi, Lidija; GROZDANOV, Anita; Dodov Glavas, Marija; Geskovski, Nikola; PETKOVSKA, RUMENKA; Mladenovska, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The health benefits of the probiotics are becoming more recognized and utilized nowadays. Among lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus casei has been found to colonize human GIT and exert meany health benefits. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of the formulation variables of L. casei-loaded whey-protein-Ca-alginate microparticles on the particle size and the survival of the mentioned probiotic during the processing.Overall effects of the formulation variables pointed to the...

  10. Investigation the Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lacto-bacillus casei on aflR Gene expression in Aspergillus parasiticus by Real Time-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh NATEGHI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei as safe organisms was examined on fungal growth and aflatoxin gene regulation in Aspergillus parasiticus.Methods: The fungus was cultured in presence of two different concentrations of L. acidophilus and L. casei in MRS broth medium. Mycelia dry weight is indicated as criteria to evaluate fungal growth. Besides, investigation of aflR gene expression by Real Time PCR was performed for analysis of gene regulatory effects in aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway.Results: Both Lactobacillus strongly inhibited fungal growth in the concentrations of 1. 5 102, 1. 5 103 . Expression analysis of aflatoxin genes pathway by real time PCR showed inhibitory effect of L. acidophilus and L. casei on expression of aflR gene. The gene expression revealed to be reduced at the approximate rates of 99. 7% and 98% respectively by L. acidopholus and L. casei in concentrations of 1. 5 102  and more.Conclusion: L. acidophilus and L. casei may be used successfully as suitable candidates in controlling of A. parasiticus growth on food and feed as well as reducing of aflatoxin contamination.Keywords: Aflatoxin, Aspergillus parasiticus, Lactobacilus acidophilus, Lactobacilus casei,

  11. Assessment of fermented buffalo milk for Lactobacillus casei and supply with Bifidobacterium longum/ Análise de leite de búfala fermentado por Lactobacillus casei e suplementado com Bifidobacterium longum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Le Guerroue

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available It was elaborated fermented buffalo milk for L. casei utilizing skimmed milk added with 12,00% sugar and fermented by 24 hours. After fermentation, the product was supply with B. longum and storage during 30 days at 5 and 10° C, being evaluated the acidity, pH and viability of L. casei and B. longum parameters. Were does the nutritional composition, calculate the caloric value and sensorial analysis of the flavored product. The fermented milk presented initial acidity 0.69% and pH 4.86. The L. casei initial viability was 11,00 log CFU/mL and B. longum 10,46 log CFU/mL. After storage of 30 days, the acidity and pH were adequate and the L. casei and B. longum viability was above 9.00 log CFU/mL. The composition analysis resulted (% protein 3.63, carbohydrate 21.86, fat 0.10, ashes 0.56, wet 73.85 and dry substance 26.15, with caloric value 103 Kcal/100 g. There wasn’t significant difference to preference and acceptance between flavored samples, and have good acceptation by hedonic scale.Elaborou-se leite de búfala fermentado por Lactobacillus casei utilizando leite desnatado, adicionado de 12,00% de açúcar e fermentado por 24 horas. Após fermentação o produto foi suplementado com Bifidobacterium longum e estocado durante 30 dias a 5 e 10° C, sendo então avaliados os parâmetros de acidez, pH e viabilidade de L.casei e de B. longum. Realizou-se a análise de composição nutricional, cálculo do valor calórico e análise sensorial do produto saborizado. O leite fermentado suplementado com B. longum, apresentou acidez inicial de 0,69% e pH de 4,86. A viabilidade de L. casei inicial foi 11,00 log UFC/mL e de B. longum 10,46 log UFC/mL. Após 30 dias de estocagem refrigerada, a acidez e o pH estavam adequados e a viabilidade de L. casei e de B. longum ficou acima de 9,00 log UFC/mL. A análise da composição nutricional resultou nos valores (%: proteína 3,63, carboidrato 21,86, gordura 0,10, resíduo mineral fixo 0,56, umidade 73,85 e

  12. Characterization of Acid Tolerance of Genome-shuffled Strain of Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus%干酪乳杆菌基因组改组菌株耐酸性表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉华; 李岩; 裴晓林; 王秀娟; 冯雁

    2009-01-01

    本实验对干酪乳杆菌基因组改组菌株的耐酸性进行了研究,结果表明,冷冻(-80℃)和临界pH值(pH3.2)对干酪乳杆菌基因组改组菌株影响不显著,HCI和游离乳酸对该菌株生长有一定影响,游离乳酸影响更大.在pH5.0条件下发酵60h,干酪乳杆菌改组菌株获得的菌体干重为6.34g/L,乳酸产量为87.6g/L,比原始菌株耐酸性有显著提高.

  13. Optimization of Soybean Milk Fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei%干酪乳杆菌纯种发酵大豆乳培养基的优化调配

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳; 田洪涛; 苑社强; 蔡毅; 刘晓宇

    2009-01-01

    从益生菌乳制品中自行分离选育出的生长繁殖力强、发酵活力高的干酪乳杆菌(05-20)为试验菌株,研究了牛乳和蔗糖在大豆乳中的添加量对干酪乳杆菌在大豆乳中发酵的凝乳时间、凝乳时活菌数、pH值、滴定酸度及产品感官风味的影响,通过方差分析确定了发酵培养基中牛乳和蔗糖的最适添加量分别为20%和7%,完成了以大豆乳作为干酪乳杆菌最佳载体的初步探索,为进一步研制开发益生菌发酵大豆乳制品奠定了基础.

  14. BIOENKAPSULASI PROBIOTIK (Lactobacillus casei DENGAN POLLARD DAN TEPUNG TERIGU SERTA PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP VIABILITAS DAN LAJU PENGASAMAN [Bioencapsulation of Prebiotics (Lactobacillus casei with Pollard and Wheat Flour and its Roles for the Acidificati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Wahyuni2

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available BIOENKAPSULASI PROBIOTIK (Lactobacillus casei DENGAN POLLARD DAN TEPUNG TERIGU SERTA PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP VIABILITAS DAN LAJU PENGASAMAN [Bioencapsulation of Prebiotics (Lactobacillus casei with Pollard and Wheat Flour and its Roles for the Acidification Rate and Viability] An experimental was conducted in order to investigate the viability of bio-encapsulated probiotics Lactobacillus casei during yoghurt fermentation. Yoghurt fermentation was prepared on pasteurized 18% of skim milk medium and inoculated with 6% (v/v of starters consisting of Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus casei with the proportion of 1:1:1 (v/v/v. Fermentation was conducted until the pH reached 4.5. Bioencapsulation was carried out through the formation of calcium-alginate bead gels with the addition of pollard or wheat flour. The results showed that bio-encapsulated probiotics took longer time (10 hours to reach pH 4.5 as compared to non-bio-encapsulated one (9 hoours. It also showed that bio-encapsulated probiotics with pollard resulted in a higher cell viabilyty after fermentation namely at 2.4 x 108 celss/g as compared to that encapsulated with wheat flour at 9.3 x 107 cells/g. Bio- encapsulation with pollard was able to maintain viability of prebiotics at 9.37 x 107 cells/g as compared to that of wheat flour and non filler encapsulation at 1.07 x 107 and 1.48 x 106 cells/g respectively. It was shown that alginate bio- encapsulation with addition of 2% (v/v pollard or wheat flour can maintain probiotics viability up to 4 weeks.

  15. The Effect of Glucose on the Performance ofLactobacillus casei KDL22 during Fermentation and Storage Process%葡萄糖对Lactobacillus caseiKDL22发酵及贮藏性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴可非; 马雨璇; 桑跃; 葛绍阳; 刘松玲; 张清海; 刘治麟; 赵亮

    2016-01-01

    干酪乳杆菌(Lactobacilus casei)是目前研究深入、应用广泛的益生菌菌种,优良的发酵及贮藏性能是干酪乳杆菌成功应用的重要条件。为了提高Lactobacilus casei KDL22(KDL22)的应用性能,在发酵及贮藏过程中通过添加葡萄糖来提高菌株的发酵及贮藏性能。结果表明,与商业菌株L.casei shirota(LCS)相比,KDL22表现了较好的发酵性能,但贮藏性能较差;添加葡萄糖可以增加KDL22发酵过程产酸性能及活菌数。为KDL22的有效应用提供了理论基础,同时也为提高益生菌的应用性能提供了新的思路。%Lactobacilus casei is one of the most widely recognized probiotic bacteria,and its excelent performance during pro-duction and storage process is important for application. In order to improve the ability ofLactobacilus casei KDL22,glucose was added during fermentation and storage process,and the bacterial counts and acidity were detected. The results showed that the addition of glucose indeed elevated the bacterial counts and acidity during fermentation and storage process. This study provided the new idea for the improvement of the performance for the probiotic during its application.

  16. Influence of fermentation conditions on the surface properties and adhesion of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Gurjot

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The surface properties of probiotic bacteria influence to a large extent their interactions within the gut ecosystem. There is limited amount of information on the effect of the production process on the surface properties of probiotic lactobacilli in relation to the mechanisms of their adhesion to the gastrointestinal mucosa. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of the fermentation pH and temperature on the surface properties and adhesion ability to Caco-2 cells of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Results The cells were grown at pH 5, 5.5, 6 (temperature 37°C and at pH 6.5 (temperature 25°C, 30°C and 37°C, and their surfaces analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and gel-based proteomics. The results indicated that for all the fermentation conditions, with the exception of pH 5, a higher nitrogen to carbon ratio and a lower phosphate content was observed at the surface of the bacteria, which resulted in a lower surface hydrophobicity and reduced adhesion levels to Caco-2 cells as compared to the control fermentation (pH 6.5, 37°C. A number of adhesive proteins, which have been suggested in previous published works to take part in the adhesion of bacteria to the human gastrointestinal tract, were identified by proteomic analysis, with no significant differences between samples however. Conclusions The temperature and the pH of the fermentation influenced the surface composition, hydrophobicity and the levels of adhesion of L. rhamnosus GG to Caco-2 cells. It was deduced from the data that a protein rich surface reduced the adhesion ability of the cells.

  17. In vitro mutagen binding and antimutagenic activity of human Lactobacillus rhamnosus 231.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambalam, Padma; Dave, J M; Nair, Baboo M; Vyas, B R M

    2011-10-01

    In vitro mutagen binding ability of human Lactobacillus rhamnosus 231 (Lr 231) was evaluated against acridine orange (AO), N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), 2-amino-3, 8-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD). Binding of AO by Lr 231 is due to adsorption, thereby leading to removal of mutagen in solution and is instantaneous, pH- and concentration-dependent. Whereas, binding of MNNG and MeIQx by Lr 231 results into biotransformation leading to detoxification with subsequent loss of mutagenicity as determined by spectral analysis, thin layer chromatography and Ames test. Binding of mutagen by Lr 231 was dependent on culture age and optimum binding of AO, MNNG and MeIQx was observed to occur with 24 h old culture. Cells of Lr 231 were subjected to different chemical treatments prior to binding studies. Results indicated cell wall component such as cell wall polysaccharide, peptidoglycan, carbohydrates and proteins plays an important role in adsorption of AO, also involving hydrophilic and ionic interactions. Binding, biotransformation and detoxification of MNNG and MeIQx by Lr 231 was dependent on cell surface characteristics mainly involving carbohydrates, proteins, teichoic acid/lipoteichoic acid, hydrophobic interaction and presence of thiol group. L. rhamnosus 231 bound MNNG instantaneously. More than 96 (p mutagen binding and various pretreatments respectively. This study shows Lr 231 exhibits ability to bind and detoxify potent mutagens, and this property can be useful in formulating fermented foods for removal of potent mutagens.

  18. Influence of manufacturing processes on cell surface properties of probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivoliez, Adrien; Veisseire, Philippe; Alaterre, Elina; Dausset, Caroline; Baptiste, Fabrice; Camarès, Olivier; Paquet-Gachinat, Marylise; Bonnet, Muriel; Forestier, Christiane; Bornes, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the industrial process on the properties of probiotics, administered as complex manufactured products, has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we comparatively assessed the cell wall characteristics of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35® together with three of its commercial formulations with intestinal applications. Putative secreted and transmembrane-protein-encoding genes were initially searched in silico in the genome of L. rhamnosus Lcr35®. A total of 369 candidate genes were identified which expressions were followed using a custom Lactobacillus DNA chip. Among them, 60 or 67 genes had their expression either upregulated or downregulated in the Lcr Restituo® packet or capsule formulations, compared to the native Lcr35® strain. Moreover, our data showed that the probiotic formulations (Lcr Lenio®, Lcr restituo® capsule and packet) showed a better capacity to adhere to intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells than the native Lcr35® strain. Microbial (MATS) tests showed that the probiotic was an electron donor and that they were more hydrophilic than the native strain. The enhanced adhesion capacity of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to epithelial Caco-2 cells and their antipathogen effect could be due to this greater surface hydrophilic character. These findings suggest that the manufacturing process influences the protein composition and the chemical properties of the cell wall. It is therefore likely that the antipathogen effect of the formulation is modulated by the industrial process. Screening of the manufactured products' properties would therefore represent an essential step in evaluating the effects of probiotic strains.

  19. Final Critical Habitat for the Kincaid's lupine (Lupinus sulphureus (=oreganus) ssp. kincaidii (=var. kincaidii))

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Kincaid's lupine (Lupinus sulphureus (=oreganus) ssp. kincaidii (=var. kincaidii))...

  20. Effect of immobilized Lactobacillus casei on the evolution of flavor compounds in probiotic dry-fermented sausages during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidira, Marianthi; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kanellaki, Maria; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2015-02-01

    The effect of immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on wheat grains on the generation of volatile compounds in probiotic dry-fermented sausages during ripening was investigated. For comparison reasons, sausages containing free L. casei cells or no starter culture were also included in the study. Samples were collected after 1, 28 and 45days of ripening and subjected to SPME GC/MS analysis. Both the probiotic culture and the ripening process affected significantly the concentration of all volatile compounds. The significantly highest content of total volatiles, esters, alcohols and miscellaneous compounds was observed in sausages containing the highest amount of immobilized culture (300g/kg of stuffing mixture) ripened for 45days. Principal component analysis of the semi-quantitative data revealed that primarily the concentration of the immobilized probiotic culture affected the volatile composition.

  1. Utilization of Natural Fucosylated Oligosaccharides by Three Novel α-l-Fucosidases from a Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Strain ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Monedero, Vicente; Yebra, María J.

    2011-01-01

    Three putative α-l-fucosidases encoded in the Lactobacillus casei BL23 genome were cloned and purified. The proteins displayed different abilities to hydrolyze natural fucosyloligosaccharides like 2′-fucosyllactose, H antigen disaccharide, H antigen type II trisaccharide, and 3′-, 4′-, and 6′-fucosyl-GlcNAc. This indicated a possible role in the utilization of oligosaccharides present in human milk and intestinal mucosa. PMID:21097595

  2. Analisa Keasaman dan Total Bakteri Asam Laktat Yogurt Akibat Bahan Baku dan Persentase Lactobacillus casei yang Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusdar Zakaria

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Analyze of acidity and amount of lactic acid bacteria of yogurt made from different milk types and lactobacillus casei percentage ABSTRACT. The objective of this experiment is to determine the effect of milk types and percentages of Lactobacillus casei as a starter to the amount of Lactic Acid Bacteria in yogurt and its pH value and Lactic Acid value.  Factorial Completely Randomized Design with two factors and three replications was applied.  The A factor was the milk types that were a1 = Powder Milk, a2 = Fresh Milk and a3 = UHT milk.  The B factor was the percentages of Lactobacillus casei  (b1 = 5% and b2 = 10%.  Parameters observed were the level of lactic acid, the pH value of yogurt and the amount of lactic acid bacteria.  The result showed  significantly difference (P<0.01 from the use of milk types and Lactobacillus casei percentages on the lactic acid level, and there are no interaction between factors.  There was also significant different (P<0.01 showed from pH value and an interaction between both factors was presented.  In addition there was significant difference (P<0.05 showed by the amount of lactic acid bacteria, and an interaction between both factors was also existed.  The research concluded that the higher the percentage of starter, the higher the level of lactic acid and the amount of lactic acid bacteria of yogurt that made from all milk types.  On the contrary, the higher the percentage of starter, the lower the pH value of yogurt.

  3. Consumption of Lactobacillus casei fermented milk prevents Salmonella Reactive Arthritis by modulating IL-23/IL-17 expression

    OpenAIRE

    Noto Llana, Mariangeles; Sarnacki, Sebastian Hernan; Aya Castañeda, Maria del Rosario; Bernal, Maria Isabel; Cerquetti, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Reactive arthritis is the development of sterile joint inflammation as a sequel to a remote infection, often in the gut. We have previously shown that a low dose of S. enteritidis inoculated to streptomycin-pretreated mice generates a self-limiting enterocolitis suitable for studying reactive arthritis. Here we show that consumption of Lactobacillus casei prior to infection abolishes intestinal and joint inflammation triggered by Salmonella. BALB/c mice were sacrificed after infection; in...

  4. FORMULASI MINUMAN SINBIOTIK DENGAN PENAMBAHAN PUREE PISANG AMBON (Musa paradisiaca var sapientum DAN INULIN MENGGUNAKAN INOKULUM Lactobacillus casei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Desnilasari

    2014-10-01

    sinbiotik terpilih adalah formulasi perbandingan puree pisang dan susu skim 1:1 dengan penambahan inulin 2%. Hasil analisis mutu minuman sinbiotik dengan kadar air 84,46%, abu 0,75%, protein 2,79%, lemak 0,2%, karbohidrat 11,8%, total BAL 3,6 x 10 9 cfu/ml, cemaran Coliform dibawah ambang batas yang ditetapkan dan Salmonella negatif. Kata kunci: Pisang ambon, minuman sinbiotik, L. casei

  5. Evaluación de la calidad funcional y sensorial en cultivares de Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare y ssp. spelta en cultivo ecológico

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Kostiuk, María Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    En esta Tesis Doctoral se ha estudiado la influencia del cultivar sobre el comportamiento reológico y panadero de cinco cultivares de trigo sembrados en el mismo año y en el mismo ambiente, en condiciones de cultivo ecológico. Tres de ellos eran de trigo panadero (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare), ‘Bonpain’, ‘Craklin’ y ‘Sensas’ y los otros dos de trigo espelta (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta), ‘Espelta Álava’ y ‘Espelta Navarra’. Actualmente, el alohexaploide trigo panadero (2n=6x=42 genomio A...

  6. Estudio etnobotánico, arquitectura foliar y anatomía vegetativa de Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana y A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana

    OpenAIRE

    Magali A. Santillán-Ramírez; Ma. Edith López-Villafranco; Silvia Aguilar-Rodríguez; Abigail Aguilar-Contreras

    2008-01-01

    El presente trabajo incluye información etnobotánica, así como la arquitectura foliar y anatomíavegetativa de Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana (toronjil morado) y A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana (toronjil blanco), con la finalidad de que sean incluidas en la Farmacopea Herbolaria de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (FHEUM) y que sus caracteres anatómicos se utilicen para validar la identidad del material vegetal en el control de calidad. El registro de la información etnobotánica se efectuó por me...

  7. Sonicated pineapple juice as substrate for L. casei cultivation for probiotic beverage development: process optimisation and product stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mayra Garcia Maia; Fonteles, Thatyane Vidal; de Jesus, Ana Laura Tibério; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2013-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of sonicated pineapple juice as substrate for producing a probiotic beverage by Lactobacillus casei NRRL B442. Maximal microbial viability was found by cultivating L. casei at 31°C and pH 5.8 (optimised conditions). After fermentation, samples of sweetened and non-sweetened juice were stored. After 42 days of storage under refrigeration (4°C), the microbial viability was 6.03 Log CFU/mL in the non-sweetened sample and 4.77 Log CFU/mL in the sweetened sample. The pH of both samples decreased during storage due to lactic acid production (post acidification). The characteristic colour of the juice was maintained throughout the shelf life and no browning was observed. Sonicated pineapple juice was shown to be a suitable substrate for L. casei cultivation and for the development of an alternative non-dairy probiotic beverage.

  8. Influence of oligofructose-enriched inulin on survival of microencapsulated Lactobacillus casei 01 and adhesive properties of synbiotic microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Petreska Ivanovska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus casei 01 was co-encapsulated with the prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin at different concentrations to investigate the efficiency of the prebiotic for improving the probiotic viability. Prebiotic effect on the probiotic survival under microencapsulation conditions by spray- and freeze-drying and storage stability of encapsulated living cells at 4 °C during period of 8 weeks was evaluated. Adhesiveness of L. casei 01 loaded microparticles to pig mucin was investigated in vitro to estimate the role of microencapsulation for improving the cell adhesion ability. The microparticles produced with 3% w/w oligofructose-enriched inulin showed higher initial count, while oligofructose-enriched inulin applied at 1.5% w/w resulted in better protection of L. casei 01 under storage conditions. Further, it has been observed significantly increased pig mucin binding to microparticles compared to free probiotic cells in buffer solutions simulating GI conditions, during 24 h incubation. Hence, cell microencapsulation beside enhanced viability may allow prolonged residence time of the probiotic cells in the lower intestine through excellent muco-adhesive properties of the encapsulating materials. The results suggest synbiotic chitosan-Ca-alginate microparticles as convenient delivery system capable to ensure effective cell concentration in the lower intestine where probiotic colonization is dominant.

  9. The Influence of Probiotic Lactobacillus casei in Combination with Prebiotic Inulin on the Antioxidant Capacity of Human Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleniewska, Paulina; Hoffmann, Arkadiusz; Pniewska, Ewa; Pawliczak, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus casei (4 × 10(8) CFU) influences the antioxidant properties of human plasma when combined with prebiotic Inulin (400 mg). Experiments were carried out on healthy volunteers (n = 32). Volunteers were divided according to sex (16 male and 16 female) and randomly assigned to synbiotic and control groups. Blood samples were collected before synbiotic supplementation and after 7 weeks, at the end of the study. Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) in human plasma were examined. The administration of synbiotics containing L. casei plus Inulin resulted in a significant increase in FRAP values (p = 0.00008) and CAT activity (p = 0.02) and an insignificant increase in SOD and GPx activity compared to controls. Synbiotics containing L. casei (4 × 10(8) CFU) with prebiotic Inulin (400 mg) may have a positive influence on human plasma antioxidant capacity and the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes.

  10. Chitosan incorporated in a total-etch adhesive system: antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Marcelo Figueiredo; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho do; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of an experimental adhesive system containing chitosan (0.2% and 0.5%) against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei. Twenty-four extracted human third molars were used, and 4 cavities were prepared in each tooth. The teeth were contaminated with either S mutans (n = 12 teeth, 48 cavities) or L casei (n = 12 teeth, 48 cavities) microorganisms. One cavity in each tooth received 1 of the following treatments: negative control (no treatment [NC]), positive control (Adper Single Bond 2 [SB]), an experimental adhesive containing chitosan 0.2% (CHI2), or an experimental adhesive containing chitosan 0.5% (CHI5). After sealing of the cavities and an incubation period, dentin scrapings were collected from each cavity for microbiological evaluation. Analysis of variance and Tukey tests revealed no statistically significant differences among the SB, CHI2, and CHI5 groups (P > 0.05), but all 3 differed significantly from the NC group (P ≤ 0.05). The concentrations of chitosan did not influence the antimicrobial effect against S mutans and L casei, presenting a similar effect to that of a conventional 2-step adhesive system.

  11. The sim Operon Facilitates the Transport and Metabolism of Sucrose Isomers in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John; Jakubovics, Nicholas; Abraham, Bindu; Hess, Sonja; Pikis, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Inspection of the genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 revealed two operons that might dissimilate the five isomers of sucrose. To test this hypothesis, cells of L. casei ATCC 334 were grown in a defined medium supplemented with various sugars, including each of the five isomeric disaccharides. Extracts prepared from cells grown on the sucrose isomers contained high levels of two polypeptides with Mrs of ∼50,000 and ∼17,500. Neither protein was present in cells grown on glucose, maltose or sucrose. Proteomic, enzymatic, and Western blot analyses identified the ∼50-kDa protein as an NAD+- and metal ion-dependent phospho-α-glucosidase. The oligomeric enzyme was purified, and a catalytic mechanism is proposed. The smaller polypeptide represented an EIIA component of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system. Phospho-α-glucosidase and EIIA are encoded by genes at the LSEI_0369 (simA) and LSEI_0374 (simF) loci, respectively, in a block of seven genes comprising the sucrose isomer metabolism (sim) operon. Northern blot analyses provided evidence that three mRNA transcripts were up-regulated during logarithmic growth of L. casei ATCC 334 on sucrose isomers. Internal simA and simF gene probes hybridized to ∼1.5- and ∼1.3-kb transcripts, respectively. A 6.8-kb mRNA transcript was detected by both probes, which was indicative of cotranscription of the entire sim operon. PMID:18310337

  12. Determination of Critical Point of pO2 Level in the Production of Lactic Acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel, Maizirwan; Karim, Mohamed Ismail Abdul; Salleh, Mohamad Ramlan Mohamed; Abdullah, Rohane

    The study was conducted to determine the critical point of pO2 level in the production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The fermentation process was successfully carried out in laboratory scale fermenter/bioreactor using different pO2 level (the main parameter that significantly affects the growth of L. rhamnosus and lactic acid production) together with two other parameters; the agitation rate and pH. From the result, it was observed that the best production of lactic acid with the concentration of 16.85 g L-1 or 1.68% production yield has been obtained at the operating parameters of 5% pO2 level, agitation speed of 100 rpm and sample pH 6. The critical point of pO2 was found to be between 5 and 10%.

  13. Genomic characterization of non-mucus-adherent derivatives of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reveals genes affecting pilus biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinkangas, Pia; Reunanen, Justus; Douillard, François P; Ritari, Jarmo; Uotinen, Virva; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-11-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is one of the best-characterized lactic acid bacteria and can be considered a probiotic paradigm. Comparative and functional genome analysis showed that L. rhamnosus GG harbors a genomic island including the spaCBA-srtC1 gene cluster, encoding the cell surface-decorating host-interacting pili. Here, induced mutagenesis was used to study pilus biogenesis in L. rhamnosus GG. A combination of two powerful approaches, mutation selection and next-generation sequencing, was applied to L. rhamnosus GG for the selection of pilus-deficient mutants from an enriched population. The isolated mutants were first screened by immuno-dot blot analysis using antiserum against pilin proteins. Relevant mutants were selected, and the lack of pili was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. The pilosotype of 10 mutant strains was further characterized by analyzing pilin expression using Western blot, dot blot, and immunofluorescence methods. A mucus binding assay showed that the mutants did not adhere to porcine intestinal mucus. Comparative genome sequence analysis using the Illumina MiSeq platform allowed us to determine the nature of the mutations in the obtained pilus-deficient derivatives. Three major classes of mutants with unique genotypes were observed: class I, with mutations in the srtC1 gene; class II, with a deletion containing the spaCBA-srtC1 gene cluster; and class III, with mutations in the spaA gene. Only a limited number of collateral mutations were observed, and one of the pilus-deficient derivatives with a deficient srtC1 gene contained 24 other mutations. This strain, PB12, can be considered a candidate for human trials addressing the impact of the absence of pili.

  14. The influence of brewers' yeast addition on lactic acid fermentation of brewers' spent grain hydrolysate by Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    OpenAIRE

    Pejin, Jelena; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Đukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    In this study brewers' spent grain (BSG) hydrolysate was produced using optimal conditions. Hydrolysates were used for lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The aim of this study was to evaluate possibilities of the BSG hydrolysate utilization as a substrate for lactic acid fermentation as well as the effect of dry brewers' yeast (1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 %) addition in hydrolysate on lactic acid fermentation parameters (L-(+)-lactic acid and reducing sugars concentration an...

  15. FORMULASI PRODUK SUSU FERMENTASI KERING DENGAN PENAMBAHAN BAKTERI PROBIOTIK Lactobacillus casei DAN Bifidobacterium longum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dida Hani Rahman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTFermented milk is a healthy product that has many benefits especially for human digestive tract. Manufacturing of probiotic fermented milk products as a functional food with a viable long shelf life needs to be developed. The purpose of this study was to formulate a dried fermented milk product using probiotic bacterias. The experimental design study was a complete random design with 4 treatments using different lactic acid bacteria (LAB: A1 (Streptococcus lactis: 0.5%; A2 (Streptococcus lactis: 0.25% and Lactobacillus casei: 0.25%; A3 (Streptococcus lactis: 0.25%, Lactobacillus bulgaricus: 0.125%, Streptococcus thermophiles: 0.125%; and A4 (Streptococcus lactis: 0.25% and Bifidobacterium longum: 0.25%. The highest level of hardness was A2 product and the highest level of tenderness is A1 product. Results of proximate analysis showed that dried fermented milk products had high levels of the protein, calcium, and phosphorus. Microbiological test results showed that the amount of lactic acid bacteria (BAL in dried fermented milk products were eligible based on CODEX: 243 (2003. Statictical analysis using ANOVA in the hedonic quality test showed that the treatments were significantly different (p 0.05 on the attributes of color, aroma, hardness, and flavor except texture.Key words: dried fermented milk, functional food, probiotic, lactic acid bacteria (LABABSTRAKSusu fermentasi merupakan produk kesehatan yang mempunyai banyak manfaat terutama untuk saluran pencernaan manusia. Pembuatan produk susu fermentasi probiotik sebagai makanan fungsional yang mempunyai kelangsungan hidup dan daya simpan yang lama perlu dikembangan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memformulasikan susu fermentasi kering menggunakan bakteri probiotik. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap dengan 4 perlakuan menggunakan 4 bakteri asam laktat (BAL, (Streptococcus lactis, 0.5%, A2 (Streptococcus lactis; 0.25% dan Lactobacillus casei; 0.25%, A3

  16. Survival of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus in seawater and its bioencapsulation in the brine shrimp Artemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ofelio

    2014-06-01

    The results obtained in the first test showed that the L. rhamnosus was able to survive in seawater during the whole experiment (30h, maintaining densities of 10e7 CFU/ml during the first 6h although decreasing progressively afterwards (10e3 CFU/ml at 30h. This allows adequate levels at sufficient time for Artemia to incorporate the probiotic. In fact, bioencapsulation test demonstrated that Artemia metanauplii were able to bioencapsulate the probiotic, reaching the highest concentration in Artemia after 30 min of bioencapsulation (10e4 CFU/Artemia. A slight further decrease (10e3 CFU/Artemia was observed after 24h. Interestingly, L. rhamnosus reduced in 1Log total Vibrionaceae bacteria in Artemia during the 3 first hours. Therefore, 3 hours was the time established for the bioencapsulation protocol and further studies are in progress to determine the ability of Artemia metanauplii to maintain bioencapsulated L. rhamnosus once transferred to rearing tanks. Also, the capability of the probiotic to inhibit potential pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria will be assessed.

  17. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Ameliorates Escherichia coli-Induced Inflammation and Cell Damage via Attenuation of ASC-Independent NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Liu, Ming-Chao; Yang, Jun; Wang, Jiu-Feng; Zhu, Yao-Hong

    2015-12-11

    Escherichia coli is a major environmental pathogen causing bovine mastitis, which leads to mammary tissue damage and cell death. We explored the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 on ameliorating E. coli-induced inflammation and cell damage in primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). Increased Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), NOD1, and NOD2 mRNA expression was observed following E. coli challenge, but this increase was attenuated by L. rhamnosus GR-1 pretreatment. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses revealed that L. rhamnosus GR-1 pretreatment decreased the E. coli-induced increases in the expression of the NOD-like receptor family member pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) and the serine protease caspase 1. However, expression of the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC, encoded by the Pycard gene) was decreased during E. coli infection, even with L. rhamnosus GR-1 pretreatment. Pretreatment with L. rhamnosus GR-1 counteracted the E. coli-induced increases in interleukin-1β (IL-1β), -6, -8, and -18 and tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA expression but upregulated IL-10 mRNA expression. Our data indicate that L. rhamnosus GR-1 reduces the adhesion of E. coli to BMECs, subsequently ameliorating E. coli-induced disruption of cellular morphology and ultrastructure and limiting detrimental inflammatory responses, partly via promoting TLR2 and NOD1 synergism and attenuating ASC-independent NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Although the residual pathogenic activity of L. rhamnosus, the dosage regimen, and the means of probiotic supplementation in cattle remain undefined, our data enhance our understanding of the mechanism of action of this candidate probiotic, allowing for development of specific probiotic-based therapies and strategies for preventing pathogenic infection of the bovine mammary gland.

  18. Efecto de Lactobacillus casei sobre la incidencia de procesos infecciosos en niños/as Effect of lactobacillus casei on the incidence of infectious conditions in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M.ª Cobo Sanz

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar el efecto del consumo continuado de leche fermentada con Lactobacillus casei (DN-114001 (Actimel" sobre la incidencia de los trastornos infecciosos comunes en niños. Ámbito: Población escolar infantil. Sujetos: alumnos de 3 a 12 años de dos centros de educación infantil y primaria de Barcelona. En el estudio participaron un total de 251 niños de ambos sexos. Intervenciones: Se realizó un estudio de intervención nutricional durante 20 semanas con un diseño paralelo, prospectivo, doble ciego y aleatorizado por clusters pragmáticos, en el que participaron los alumnos de dos centros de educación infantil y primaria. Uno de los centros fue asignado a recibir dos unidades diarias de Actimel", y el otro a dos unidades de Placebo. De los 251 niños de ambos sexos que participaron en el estudio, 109 recibieron placebo y 142 recibieron Actimel". Se recogieron las características demográficas y de antecedentes clínicos basales, y se realizaron controles de los síntomas relacionados con los trastornos infecciosos u otras enfermedades a las 12, 16 y 20 semanas. El análisis de los datos se realizó en la población por intención de tratar (ITT, siendo la variable principal la duración de los síntomas respiratorios y gastrointestinales. Resultados: Se encontró una diferencia, aunque no fue significativa, de un día en la mediana de duración total de días con enfermedad a lo largo del estudio (grupo Actimel®: 1 día vs grupo placebo: 2 días. También se observó esta misma diferencia no significativa en la duración de días con enfermedades respiratorias (vías respiratorias altas y bajas y enfermedades gastrointestinales (diarrea, vómitos, dolor de estómago y estreñimiento. Sí se encontró una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en favor del grupo Actimel® en la duración de las enfermedades de vías respiratorias bajas, bronquitis o neumonía y en la duración de la fatiga. Asimismo, se detectó una

  19. A sporulation-specific, sigF-dependent protein, SspA, affects septum positioning in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanis, Angelos; Dalton, Kate A; Hesketh, Andrew; den Hengst, Chris D; Buttner, Mark J; Thibessard, Annabelle; Kelemen, Gabriella H

    2014-01-01

    The RNA polymerase sigma factor SigF controls late development during sporulation in the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor. The only known SigF-dependent gene identified so far, SCO5321, is found in the biosynthetic cluster encoding spore pigment synthesis. Here we identify the first direct target for SigF, the gene sspA, encoding a sporulation-specific protein. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that SspA is a secreted lipoprotein with two PepSY signature domains. The sspA deletion mutant exhibits irregular sporulation septation and altered spore shape, suggesting that SspA plays a role in septum formation and spore maturation. The fluorescent translational fusion protein SspA-mCherry localized first to septum sites, then subsequently around the surface of the spores. Both SspA protein and sspA transcription are absent from the sigF null mutant. Moreover, in vitro transcription assay confirmed that RNA polymerase holoenzyme containing SigF is sufficient for initiation of transcription from a single sspA promoter. In addition, in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that sspA is a direct target of BldD, which functions to repress sporulation genes, including whiG, ftsZ and ssgB, during vegetative growth, co-ordinating their expression during sporulation septation.

  20. SSP: an interval integer linear programming for de novo transcriptome assembly and isoform discovery of RNA-seq reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safikhani, Zhaleh; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Pezeshk, Hamid; Eslahchi, Changiz

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the sequencing technologies have provided a handful of RNA-seq datasets for transcriptome analysis. However, reconstruction of full-length isoforms and estimation of the expression level of transcripts with a low cost are challenging tasks. We propose a novel de novo method named SSP that incorporates interval integer linear programming to resolve alternatively spliced isoforms and reconstruct the whole transcriptome from short reads. Experimental results show that SSP is fast and precise in determining different alternatively spliced isoforms along with the estimation of reconstructed transcript abundances. The SSP software package is available at http://www.bioinf.cs.ipm.ir/software/ssp.

  1. Strategies to decolorize high concentrations of methyl orange using growing cells of Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantiwa, Nidtaya; Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Kuntiya, Ampin

    2013-01-01

    Batch, fed-batch, and continuous fermentation was used in the processing of methyl orange decolorization using growing cells of Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500. This report presents the optimal conditions for methyl orange decolorization by the strain TISTR 1500 in modified MRS via a central composite design (CCD) experiment. In particular, the highest decolorization efficiencies were obtained with 13.41 g/L of meat extract, and with 10.89 g/L of yeast extract at pH 6.88 at 35 °C. Under the optimal conditions, the rate of decolorization increased to 322% of that obtained for un-optimized MRS medium. The high concentration of methyl orange (5 g/L) was completely degraded within 9 h in batch fermentation. The total methyl orange load with 8.075 g/L was also decolorized in fed-batch fermentation within 13 h, and the biomass of the strain dramatically decreased after an incubation time of 8 h due to a shortage of sucrose. In the continuous system with a dye-loading rate of 600 mg/L/h and a total of loaded azo dye of 7.2 g/L, high efficiency of methyl orange removal was significantly high, at 98%.

  2. Simultaneous Production of Biosurfactants and Bacteriocins by Probiotic Lactobacillus casei MRTL3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepansh Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are ubiquitous and well-known commensal bacteria in the human and animal microflora. LAB are extensively studied and used in a variety of industrial and food fermentations. They are widely used for humans and animals as adjuvants, probiotic formulation, and dietary supplements and in other food fermentation applications. In the present investigation, LAB were isolated from raw milk samples collected from local dairy farms of Haryana, India. Further, the isolates were screened for simultaneous production of biosurfactants and bacteriocins. Biosurfactant produced was found to be a mixture of lipid and sugar similar to glycolipids. The bacteriocin obtained was found to be heat stable (5 min at 100°C. Further, DNA of the strain was extracted and amplified by the 16S rRNA sequencing using universal primers. The isolate Lactobacillus casei MRTL3 was found to be a potent biosurfactant and bacteriocin producer. It seems to have huge potential for food industry as a biopreservative and/or food ingredient.

  3. Antialcoholic liver activity of whey fermented by Lactobacillus casei isolated from koumiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z W; Pan, D D; Wu, Z; Sun, Y Y; Guo, Y X; Zeng, X Q

    2014-07-01

    Whey fermented liquid (WFL) was studied for its hepatoprotective effects by using chronic alcohol-induced mice. Whey fermented liquid, prepared by inoculating whey with 4% (vol/vol) Lactobacillus casei and then incubating at 41°C for 8h, was used to orally treat alcohol-induced mice at 3 dosages for 5 wk. Ethanol consumption significantly reduced the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, while lowering glutathione content and increasing levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total triglyceride, malondialdehyde, and cytochrome P450 2E1. Treatment with WFL significantly attenuated the increased levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride, and cytochrome P450 2E1, while decreasing superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, and glutathione levels. Pathological changes in the livers of mice who had ingested alcohol were improved by the administration of WFL. These results suggest that WFL may exert a protective effect against alcoholic liver disease by increasing antioxidant activity, which supports the use of WFL as an antialcoholic liver disease treatment.

  4. Valorisation of food waste via fungal hydrolysis and lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus casei Shirota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tsz Him; Hu, Yunzi; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2016-10-01

    Food waste recycling via fungal hydrolysis and lactic acid (LA) fermentation has been investigated. Hydrolysates derived from mixed food waste and bakery waste were rich in glucose (80.0-100.2gL(-1)), fructose (7.6gL(-1)) and free amino nitrogen (947-1081mgL(-1)). In the fermentation with Lactobacillus casei Shirota, 94.0gL(-1) and 82.6gL(-1) of LA were produced with productivity of 2.61gL(-1)h(-1) and 2.50gL(-1)h(-1) for mixed food waste and bakery waste hydrolysate, respectively. The yield was 0.94gg(-1) for both hydrolysates. Similar results were obtained using food waste powder hydrolysate, in which 90.1gL(-1) of LA was produced with a yield and productivity of 0.92gg(-1) and 2.50gL(-1)h(-1). The results demonstrate the feasibility of an efficient bioconversion of food waste to LA and a decentralized approach of food waste recycling in urban area.

  5. In Vitro Investigation of the Immunomodulatory Potential of Probiotic Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Thirugnanam; Pravin, Mariappan; Muthusamy, Velusamy Shanmuganathan; Bharathi Raja, Rajaganapathy; Lakshmi, Baddireddi Subhadra

    2013-03-01

    The current study investigated the immunomodulatory potential of ethyl acetate soluble supernatant of Lactobacillus casei (LC-EAS) in vitro. The effect of LC-EAS on nitric oxide release was analyzed in RAW 264.7 cells, wherein, an inhibition in nitric oxide production through suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression was observed. Evaluation of LC-EAS on LPS-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed a down-regulation in TNF-α and IL-6 genes and an upregulation of IL-10. An inhibition in the protein expression of NF-κB, ERK1/2 and STAT3 phosphorylation confirms the immunomodulatory potential of LC-EAS. The effect of LC-EAS on in vitro intestinal epithelial cells was investigated using HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cancer cells. LC-EAS exhibited an inhibition of NF-κB and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas STAT3 phosphorylation was unregulated. To evaluate the downstream target of STAT3 upregulation, expression of the intestinal trefoil factor TFF3 which is a NF-κB regulator and STAT3 downstream target was studied. LC-EAS was observed to elevate TFF3 mRNA expression. Overall the study shows that the anti-inflammatory potential of LC-EAS is through inhibition of NF-κB in different cell types.

  6. Anti-inflammatory effects of Lactobacillus casei BL23 producing or not a manganese-dependant catalase on DSS-induced colitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corthier Gérard

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immune cells generate large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS throughout the respiratory burst that occurs during inflammation. In inflammatory bowel diseases, a sustained and abnormal activation of the immune system results in oxidative stress in the digestive tract and in a loss of intestinal homeostasis. We previously showed that the heterologous production of the Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14431 manganese-dependant catalase (MnKat in Lb. casei BL23 successfully enhances its survival when exposed to oxidative stress. In this study, we evaluated the preventive effects of this antioxidative Lb. casei strain in a murine model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced moderate colitis. Results Either Lb. casei BL23 MnKat- or MnKat+ was administered daily to mice treated with DSS for 10 days. In contrast to control mice treated with PBS for which DSS induced bleeding diarrhea and mucosal lesions, mice treated with both Lb. casei strains presented a significant (p Conclusion No contribution of MnKat to the protective effect from epithelial damage has been observed in the tested conditions. In contrast, these results confirm the high interest of Lb. casei as an anti-inflammatory probiotic strain.

  7. Effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus on the expression of genes involved in European eel spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vílchez, M Carmen; Santangeli, Stefania; Maradonna, Francesca; Gioacchini, Giorgia; Verdenelli, Cristina; Gallego, Victor; Peñaranda, David S; Tveiten, Helge; Pérez, Luz; Carnevali, Oliana; Asturiano, Juan F

    2015-11-01

    Positive effects of probiotics on fish reproduction have been reported in several species. In the present study, 40 male European eels were weekly treated with recombinant hCG for 9 weeks and with three different concentrations (10(3), 10(5), and 10(6) CFU/mL) of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501 (Sinbyotec, Italy). The probiotics were daily added to the water from the sixth week of the hCG treatment. Males from the treated and control groups were sacrificed after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of probiotic treatment (seventh-ninth weeks of hCG treatment); at this point, sperm and testis samples were also collected. Sperm volume was estimated, and motility was analyzed by computer-assisted sperm analysis software. Alternations in transcription of specific genes involved in reproductive process such as activin, androgen receptors α and β (arα and arβ), progesterone receptor 1 (pr1), bone morphogenetic protein 15 (bmp15), and FSH receptor (fshr) were analyzed in the testis. After 2 weeks of probiotic treatment, sperm production and sperm motility parameters (percentage of motile cells and percentage of straight-swimming spermatozoa) were increased in the European eel treated with 10(5) CFU/mL compared to controls or to the other probiotic doses. These changes were associated with increases in messenger RNA expression of activin, arα, arβ, pr1, and fshr. Conversely, after 3 weeks, activin and pr1 expression decreased. No significant changes were observed on bmp15 expression throughout the duration of the treatment with 10(5) CFU/mL dose. The lowest and highest probiotic dose (10(3) and 10(6) CFU/mL, respectively) inhibited the transcription of all genes along all the experiment, except for arα and arβ after 1 week of probiotic treatment when compared to controls. The changes observed by transcriptomic analysis and the sperm parameters suggest that a treatment with L rhamnosus at 10(5) CFU/mL for 2 weeks could improve spermatogenesis process in Anguilla

  8. Synbiotic Amazonian palm berry (açai, Euterpe oleracea Mart.) ice cream improved Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG survival to simulated gastrointestinal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mayra Garcia Maia; Ooki, Gabriela Namur; Vieira, Antônio Diogo Silva; Bedani, Raquel; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2017-02-22

    The effect of açai pulp ice cream and of its supplementation with inulin (I), whey protein concentrate (WC), and/or whey protein isolate (WI) on the viability and resistance to simulated gastrointestinal stress of the probiotic Lactobacillus (Lb.) rhamnosus GG strain throughout storage at -18 °C for up to 112 days was evaluated and morphological changes during stress were monitored. Lb. rhamnosus GG viability was stable in all formulations for up to 112 days of storage, preserving populations around 9 log CFU g(-1). Compared to the fresh culture, Lb. rhamnosus GG showed higher survival under simulated gastrointestinal conditions when incorporated into açai ice cream, indicating that the presence of the food matrix contributed to the microorganism survival. A reduction of at least 5 log cycles of Lb. rhamnosus GG was observed in all formulations after the gastrointestinal simulation in all storage periods assessed. The addition of I, WC, and/or WI did not show any significant effect on the probiotic survival under simulated gastrointestinal stress (p ice cream. Thus, the açai pulp ice cream was shown to be a suitable matrix for Lb. rhamnosus GG, improving its survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

  9. Molecular Cloning, Expression of minD Gene from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Analyses to Identify Lactobacillus rhamnosus PN04 from Vietnam Hottuynia cordata Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tu Hoang Khue; Doan, Vinh Thi Thanh; Ha, Ly Dieu; Nguyen, Huu Ngoc

    2013-12-01

    The minD gene encoding an inhibitor cell division MinD homolog from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 was cloned. We showed that there were 97 % homology between minD genes of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lc705. Based on the analysis of the DNA sequence data from the L. rhamnosus genome project and sequenced minD gene of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871, a pair of primers was designed to identified the different minD genes from L. acidophilus ATCC 4356, L. rhamnosus ATCC 11443. Besides, the polymerase chain reaction product of minD gene was also obtained in L. rhamnosus PN04, a strain was isolated from Vietnamese Hottuynia cordata Thunb. In addition, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of MinD homologs from L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 with the other strains and compared the predicted three-dimension structure of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 MinD with Escherichia coli MinD, there are similarity that showed evolution of these strains. The overexpression of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 MinD in E. coli led to cell filamentation in IPTG and morphology changes in different sugar stresses, interestingly. The present study is the first report characterizing the Lactobacilus MinD homolog that will be useful in probiotic field.

  10. COMPARISON OF HLA CLASS I ANIIGEN BY SEROLOGY AND PCR- SSP TYPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭建明; 唐孝达; 谢桐

    1999-01-01

    Objeetive A dcuble blind study was canied cut to evaluate the relative performance and reliability of PCR-SSP assay compared to standard serollgical typing in identifying HLA class I alleles in Chinses population, Methods A total of 525 consecutive samples were entered into the study-HLA-A and B antigens were typed by serology with two - stage microlympbocytotoxicity and by PCR arnplification with sequence - specific primers, Reliability, reproducibility and clinical practicability wine compared acocrding to typing results by both methods. Results All sarnples were successfully typed by both methods THe serological discrepancy far HLA - A was 8.95 %, consisting of 21 antigens being iocorrectly interpreced and 26 of serologic blankx tuming out to be second definable alleles by SSP typing, Misassignments of HLA-B by serology were 12.19%. In 4.8% (25/525)a serologic blank tumed out to be a definable allele by SSP, while in 7,4 % (39/525) an allele was incorrectly interpreted by serology. The results of this study study showed that PCR- SSP technique could proved ta be equivalent to or surpass deal serology, suitable for routine clinical typing of patients and donors for transplantation. Conclusion PCR-SSP typing for HLA-A and B araigens could offer the advantages 4 hettre reagent availability and greater precision than setology in Chinese population, It is necessary to adopt the DNA typing for HLA class I in whcm serology often fails with“blank”,“difficult", or cross-reactive antigens.

  11. The P-SSP7 cyanophage has a linear genome with direct terminal repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabehi, Gazalah; Lindell, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    P-SSP7 is a T7-like phage that infects the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MED4. MED4 is a member of the high-light-adapted Prochlorococcus ecotypes that are abundant in the surface oceans and contribute significantly to primary production. P-SSP7 has become a model system for the investigation of T7-like phages that infect Prochlorococcus. It was classified as T7-like based on genome content and organization. However, because its genome assembled as a circular molecule, it was thought to be circularly permuted and to lack the direct terminal repeats found in other T7-like phages. Here we sequenced the ends of the P-SSP7 genome and found that the genome map is linear and contains a 206 bp repeat at both genome ends. Furthermore, we found that a 728 bp region of the genome originally placed downstream of the last ORF is actually located upstream of the first ORF on the genome map. These findings suggest that P-SSP7 is likely to use the direct terminal repeats for genome replication and packaging in a similar manner to other T7-like phages. Moreover, these results highlight the importance of experimentally verifying the ends of phage genomes, and will facilitate the use of P-SSP7 as a model for the correct assembly and end determination of the many T7-like phages isolated from the marine environment that are currently being sequenced.

  12. The P-SSP7 cyanophage has a linear genome with direct terminal repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazalah Sabehi

    Full Text Available P-SSP7 is a T7-like phage that infects the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MED4. MED4 is a member of the high-light-adapted Prochlorococcus ecotypes that are abundant in the surface oceans and contribute significantly to primary production. P-SSP7 has become a model system for the investigation of T7-like phages that infect Prochlorococcus. It was classified as T7-like based on genome content and organization. However, because its genome assembled as a circular molecule, it was thought to be circularly permuted and to lack the direct terminal repeats found in other T7-like phages. Here we sequenced the ends of the P-SSP7 genome and found that the genome map is linear and contains a 206 bp repeat at both genome ends. Furthermore, we found that a 728 bp region of the genome originally placed downstream of the last ORF is actually located upstream of the first ORF on the genome map. These findings suggest that P-SSP7 is likely to use the direct terminal repeats for genome replication and packaging in a similar manner to other T7-like phages. Moreover, these results highlight the importance of experimentally verifying the ends of phage genomes, and will facilitate the use of P-SSP7 as a model for the correct assembly and end determination of the many T7-like phages isolated from the marine environment that are currently being sequenced.

  13. Versatile modes of peptide recognition by the AAA+ adaptor protein SspB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levchenko, Igor; Grant, Robert A.; Flynn, Julia M.; Sauer, Robert T.; Baker, Tania A. (MIT)

    2010-07-19

    Energy-dependent proteases often rely on adaptor proteins to modulate substrate recognition. The SspB adaptor binds peptide sequences in the stress-response regulator RseA and in ssrA-tagged proteins and delivers these molecules to the AAA+ ClpXP protease for degradation. The structure of SspB bound to an ssrA peptide is known. Here, we report the crystal structure of a complex between SspB and its recognition peptide in RseA. Notably, the RseA sequence is positioned in the peptide-binding groove of SspB in a direction opposite to the ssrA peptide, the two peptides share only one common interaction with the adaptor, and the RseA interaction site is substantially larger than the overlapping ssrA site. This marked diversity in SspB recognition of different target proteins indicates that it is capable of highly flexible and dynamic substrate delivery.

  14. A modified PCR-SSP method for the identification of ABO blood group antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, J; Darke, C

    2003-08-01

    The ABO blood group antigens are carbohydrate molecules synthesized by the glycosyltransferases encoded by the ABO gene on chromosome 9. Kidney transplantation across the ABO barrier generally leads to rapid humoral graft rejection due to the presence of naturally occurring antibodies to the A and B antigens. We have developed a method for ABO typing our cadaveric organ donors by the polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP). The method uses 12 primers in eight PCR mixtures and is performed under the same conditions as our routine HLA-A, B, C PCR-SSP typing. The PCR-SSP-based types of 166 regular blood donors and 148 cadaveric organ donors all showed total concordance with their serologically assigned ABO groups. Six individuals possessing the ABO A subgroups (A3, Ax and Aend) all typed as A1 by PCR-SSP, as expected. PCR-SSP is an appropriate method for ABO typing of cadaveric organ donors and, importantly, enables both ABO and HLA typing to be performed on the same DNA material.

  15. Staphylococcus saprophyticus surface-associated protein (Ssp) is associated with lifespan reduction in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabados, Florian; Mohner, Amelie; Kleine, Britta; Gatermann, Sören G

    2013-10-01

    Staphylococcal lipases have been proposed as pathogenicity factors. In Staphylococcus saprophyticus the surface-associated protein (Ssp) has been previously characterized as a cell wall-associated true lipase. A S. saprophyticus Δssp::ermB mutant has been described as less virulent in an in vivo model of urinary tract infection compared with its wild-type. This is the first report showing that S. saprophyticus induced a lifespan reduction in Caenorhabditis elegans similar to that of S. aureus RN4220. In two S. saprophyticus Δssp::ermB mutants lifespan reduction in C. elegans was partly abolished. In order to attribute virulence to the lipase activity itself and distinguish this phenomenon from the presence of the Ssp-protein, the conserved active site of the lipase was modified by site-directed ligase-independent mutagenesis and lipase activity-deficient mutants were constructed. These results indicate that the Ssp is associated with pathogenicity in C. elegans and one could speculate that the lipase activity itself is responsible for this virulence.

  16. Evaluation of the response of Lactobacillus rhamnosus VTT E-97800 to sucrose-induced osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny-Roberts, E O; Knorr, D

    2008-02-01

    Environmental osmotic changes are one of the stresses live probiotics may encounter either in their natural habitats or as a result of usage in food formulations and processing. Response to osmotic stress, induced by sucrose, of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus VTT E-97800 (E800) was investigated. The fluorescence-based approach used, by combined staining with caboxyfluorescein (cFDA) and propidium iodide (PI) could give insights on the osmotic-induced changes of microbial esterase activity and membrane integrity; also the extrusion of intracellular accumulated carboxyfluorescein (cF) upon energizing with glucose. Comparison of the flowcytometric viability assessment with the conventional culture techniques revealed that sucrose-stressed cells had a slight loss of culturability (logN/N(0) approximately -0.3) at 1.2 and 1.5M sucrose concentration though they could perform an enzymatic conversion of cFDA into cF. The presence of such metabolically active bacteria in food might be critical as they may excrete toxic or food spoilage metabolites. Moreover, the perturbation of cF extrusion activities became a limiting factor for reproductive capacities. There was no change in the cell morphology. These results proved the ability of the strain of study to tolerate sucrose, even at extreme concentrations and these must be taken into consideration for its usage in the formulation/processing of sugar-based foods, e.g. jams, candies, etc.

  17. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intervention on global serum lipidomic profiles in healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riina A Kekkonen; Marko Sysi-Aho; Tuulikki Sepp(a)nen-Laakso; Ilkka Julkunen; Heikki Vapaatalo; Matej Ore(s)i(c); Riitta Korpela

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of three weeks' intervention with a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) bacteria on global serum lipidomic profiles and evaluate whether the changes in inflammatory variables (CRP,TNF-α and IL-6) are reflected in the global lipidomic profiles of healthy adults.METHODS:We performed UPLC/MS-based global lipidomic platform analysis of serum samples (n = 26)in a substudy of a randomised,double-blind,placebocontrolled 3-wk clinical intervention trial investigating the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics in healthy adults.RESULTS:A total of 407 lipids were identified,corresponding to 13 different lipid classes.Serum samples showed decreases in the levels of lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoGPCho),sphingomyelins (SM) and several glycerophosphatidylcholines (GPCho),while triacylglycerols (TAG) were mainly increased in the probiotic LGG group during the intervention.Among the inflammatory variables,IL-6 was moderately associated by changes in global lipidomic profiles,with the top-ranked lipid associated with IL-6 being the proinflammatory LysoGPCho (20:4).There was a weak association between the lipidomic profiles and the two other inflammatory markers,TNF-α and CRP.CONCLUSION:This was the first study to investigate the effects of probiotic intervention on global lipidomic profiles in humans.There are indications that probiotic LGG intervention may lead to changes in serum global lipid profiles,as reflected in decreased GPCho,LysoGPCho and SM as well as mainly increased TAG.

  18. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG SpaC pilin subunit binds to the carbohydrate moieties of intestinal glycoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Keita; Ueno, Shintaro; Sugiyama, Makoto; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao

    2016-06-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is a well-established probiotic strain. The beneficial properties of this strain are partially dependent on its prolonged residence in the gastrointestinal tract, and are likely influenced by its adhesion to the intestinal mucosa. The pilin SpaC subunit, located within the Spa pili structure, is the most well studied LGG adhesion factor. However, the binding epitopes of SpaC remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the binding properties of SpaC to the carbohydrate moieties of intestinal glycoconjugates using a recombinant SpaC protein. In a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, SpaC binding was markedly reduced by addition of purified mucin and the mucin oligosaccharide fraction. Histochemical staining revealed that the binding of SpaC was drastically reduced by periodic acid treatment. Moreover, in the surface plasmon resonance-based Biacore assay, SpaC bound strongly to the carbohydrate moieties containing β-galactoside at the non-reducing terminus of glycolipids. We here provide the first demonstration that SpaC binds to the oligosaccharide chains of mucins, and that the carbohydrate moieties containing β-galactoside at the non-reducing termini of glycoconjugates play a crucial role in this binding. Our results demonstrate the importance of carbohydrates of SpaC for mucus interactions.

  19. Towards a better understanding of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG--host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Marijke E; Lebeer, Sarah

    2014-08-29

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is one of the most widely used probiotic strains. Various health effects are well documented including the prevention and treatment of gastro-intestinal infections and diarrhea, and stimulation of immune responses that promote vaccination or even prevent certain allergic symptoms. However, not all intervention studies could show a clinical benefit and even for the same conditions, the results are not univocal. Clearly, the host phenotype governed by age, genetics and environmental factors such as the endogenous microbiota, plays a role in whether individuals are responders or non-responders. However, we believe that a detailed knowledge of the bacterial physiology and the LGG molecules that play a key role in its host-interaction capacity is crucial for a better understanding of its potential health benefits. Molecules that were yet identified as important factors governing host interactions include its adhesive pili or fimbriae, its lipoteichoic acid molecules, its major secreted proteins and its galactose-rich exopolysaccharides, as well as specific DNA motifs. Nevertheless, future studies are needed to correlate specific health effects to these molecular effectors in LGG, and also in other probiotic strains.

  20. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Aitoro, Rosita; Calignano, Antonio; Khan, Aly A; Gilbert, Jack A; Nagler, Cathryn R

    2016-03-01

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceae (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. Our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut.

  1. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Effect on Behavior of Zebrafish During Chronic Ethanol Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ana Claudia Reis; Rico, Eduardo Pacheco; de Oliveira, Diogo Losch; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Guizzo, Ranieli; Meurer, Fábio; da Silveira, Themis Reverbel

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely consumed drug, which acts on the central nervous system to induce behavioral alterations ranging from disinhibition to sedation. Recent studies have produced accumulating evidence for the therapeutic role of probiotic bacteria in behavior. We aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on the behavior of adult zebrafish chronically exposed to ethanol. Adult wild-type zebrafish were randomly divided into four groups, each containing 15 fish. The following groups were formed: Control (C), received unsupplemented feed during the trial period; Probiotic (P), fed with feed supplemented with LGG; Ethanol (E), received unsupplemented feed and 0.5% of ethanol directly added to the tank water; and Probiotic+Ethanol (P+E), group under ethanol exposure (0.5%) and fed with LGG supplemented feed. After 2 weeks of exposure, the novel tank test was used to evaluate fish behavior, which was analyzed using computer-aided video tracking. LGG alone did not alter swimming behavior of the fish. Ethanol exposure led to robust behavioral effects in the form of reduced anxiety levels, as indicated by increased vertical exploration and more time spent in the upper region of the novel tank. The group exposed to ethanol and treated with LGG behaved similarly to animals exposed to ethanol alone. Taken together, these results show that zebrafish behavior was not altered by LGG per se, as seen in murine models. This was the first study to investigate the effects of a probiotic diet on behavior after a chronic ethanol exposure.

  2. Inactivation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG by fixation modifies its probiotic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowicz, C; Kubiak, P; Grajek, W; Schmidt, M T

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms that have beneficial effects on the host and are safe for oral intake in a suitable dose. However, there are situations in which the administration of living microorganisms poses a risk for immunocompromised host. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of several fixation methods on selected biological properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG that are relevant to its probiotic action. Fixation of the bacterial cells with ethanol, 2-propanol, glutaraldehyde, paraformaldehyde, and heat treatment resulted in a significant decrease of alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, and β-galactosidase activities. Most of the fixation procedures reduced bacterial cell hydrophobicity and increased adhesion capacity. The fixation procedures resulted in a different perception of the bacterial cells by enterocytes, which was shown as changes in gene expression in enterocytes. The results show that some procedures of inactivation allow a fraction of the enzymatic activity to be maintained. The adhesion properties of the bacterial cells were enhanced, but the response of enterocytes to fixed cells was different than to live bacteria. Inactivation allows maintenance and modification of some of the properties of the bacterial cells.

  3. Microencapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG powders: relationship of powder physical properties to probiotic survival during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Dan Yang; Phoon, Mei Chi; Sanguansri, Luz; Weerakkody, Rangika; Burgar, Iko; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Freeze-dried commercial Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) were encapsulated in an emulsion-based formulation stabilized by whey protein and resistant starch and either spray-dried or freeze-dried to produce probiotic microcapsules. There was no difference in loss of probiotics viability after spray drying or freeze drying. Particle size, morphology, moisture sorption, and water mobility of the powder microcapsules were examined. Particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy showed that spray-dried LGG microcapsules (SDMC) were small spherical particles, whereas freeze-dried LGG microcapsules (FDMC) were larger nonspherical particles. Moisture sorption isotherms obtained using dynamic vapor sorption showed a slightly higher water uptake in spray-dried microcapsules. The effect of water mobility, as measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, at various water activities (a(w) 0.32, 0.57, and 0.70) and probiotic viability during storage at 25 °C was also examined. Increasing the relative humidity of the environment at which the samples were stored caused an increase in water mobility and the rate of loss in viability. The viability data during storage indicated that SDMC had better storage stability compared to FDMC. Although more water was adsorbed for spray-dried than freeze-dried microcapsules, water mobility was similar for corresponding storage conditions because there was a stronger water-binding energy for spray-dried microcapsule. This possibly accounted for the improved survival of probiotics in spray-dried microcapsules.

  4. Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on hepatic and serum lipid profiles in zebrafish exposed to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ana Claudia Reis; Machado, Alice Beatriz Mombach Pinheiro; de Assis, Adriano Martimbianco; Hermes, Djuli Milene; Schaefer, Pedro Guilherme; Guizzo, Ranieli; Fracasso, Laísa Beduschi; de-Paris, Fernanda; Meurer, Fábio; Barth, Afonso Luis; da Silveira, Themis Reverbel

    2014-08-01

    Zebrafish is a powerful tool in pharmacological research and useful to identify new therapies. Probiotics can offer therapeutic options in alcoholic liver disease. This study was done in two independent experiments: first, we confirmed the intestinal colonization of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) after ethanol exposure. Second, four groups were performed: control (C), probiotic (P), ethanol (E), and probiotic+ethanol (P+E). Liver histology, hepatocytes morphometry, hepatic and serum lipid quantifications were conducted in second experiment. During 4 weeks, P and P+E groups were fed with LGG supplemented feed; E and C unsupplemented. E and P+E groups received 0.5% of ethanol added into tank water. Zebrafish exposed to ethanol (E group) presented intense liver steatosis after 28 days in contrast to the almost normalized liver histology of P+E group at the same period. Liver morphometry showed a significant enlargement of hepatocytes of E group after 4 weeks (pzebrafish intestines was demonstrated. LGG decreased serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol and improved hepatic steatosis.

  5. Cariogenic effects of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in a dental biofilm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, F; Dörfer, C; Kneist, S; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Paris, S

    2014-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria have been suggested to inhibit Streptococcus mutans (SM) and thus prevent dental caries. However, supporting evidence is weak and probiotic species might be cariogenic themselves. Thus, we compared and combined the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) with SM and analysed the resulting mineral loss (ΔZ) in dental tissues. We simulated three biofilm compositions (SM, LGG, SM × LGG), two lesion sites (smooth enamel, dentin cavity) and two nutrition supply frequencies (twice/day, 6 times/day) in a multi-station, continuous-culture biofilm model. A total of 240 bovine enamel and dentin samples were cut, polished and embedded. All experimental procedures were performed in independent duplicates, with 10 samples being allocated to each group for each experiment (final sample size n = 20/group). Biofilms were cultured on the specimens and supplied with 2% sucrose medium and artificial saliva in consecutive pulses. After 10 days, ΔZ and bacterial numbers were assessed. SM × LGG biofilms caused significantly increased ΔZ compared with SM or LGG biofilms (p biofilms of different species (p > 0.05, ANOVA). Frequent nutrition supply significantly increased bacterial numbers (p Biofilms in dentin cavities compared to smooth enamel harboured significantly more bacteria (p < 0.05). LGG induced mineral loss especially in dentin cavities and under highly cariogenic conditions. LGG did not have inhibitory effects on SM, but rather contributed to the caries process in vitro.

  6. Effective prophylaxis against rotavirus diarrhea using a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammarström Lennart

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus is a worldwide cause of infectious infantile diarrhea that claims over 600,000 lives annually. Recently, two new vaccine candidates have been developed but their efficacy in developing countries, still remains to be proven. Oral delivery of specific immunoglobulins provides passive immunity and is a fast acting treatment for rotavirus diarrhea. Probiotic bacteria have also gained considerable attention lately as treatment for rotavirus diarrhea. Here we report an evaluation of the therapeutic potential of different probiotics and their combination with anti – rotavirus antibodies in a mouse model of rotavirus diarrhea. Results Of the six probiotic bacteria tested, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG had the strongest influence in reducing prevalence, duration and severity of diarrhea and was therefore chosen for combination treatment with immunoglobulins. The combination treatment reduced the diarrhea outcome measures significantly, prevented histopathological changes and reduced the virus load in the intestines. Conclusion The advantages associated with immunoglobulins and probiotics based therapy is that the treatment provides a rapid therapeutic effect and is cost efficient. These components do not require special storage conditions and could potentially complement the rehydration therapy that is currently used.

  7. Characterization and site-directed mutagenesis of Wzb, an O-phosphatase from Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Christophe

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reversible phosphorylation events within a polymerisation complex have been proposed to modulate capsular polysaccharide synthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Similar phosphatase and kinase genes are present in the exopolysaccharide (EPS biosynthesis loci of numerous lactic acid bacteria genomes. Results The protein sequence deduced from the wzb gene in Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 9595 reveals four motifs of the polymerase and histidinol phosphatase (PHP superfamily of prokaryotic O-phosphatases. Native and modified His-tag fusion Wzb proteins were purified from Escherichia coli cultures. Extracts showed phosphatase activity towards tyrosine-containing peptides. The purified fusion protein Wzb was active on p-nitrophenyl-phosphate (pNPP, with an optimal activity in presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA 1% at pH 7.3 and a temperature of 75°C. At 50°C, residual activity decreased to 10 %. Copper ions were essential for phosphatase activity, which was significantly increased by addition of cobalt. Mutated fusion Wzb proteins exhibited reduced phosphatase activity on p-nitrophenyl-phosphate. However, one variant (C6S showed close to 20% increase in phosphatase activity. Conclusion These characteristics reveal significant differences with the manganese-dependent CpsB protein tyrosine phosphatase described for Streptococcus pneumoniae as well as with the polysaccharide-related phosphatases of Gram negative bacteria.

  8. Efficient production of L-lactic acid from cassava powder by Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limin; Zhao, Bo; Liu, Bo; Yang, Chunyu; Yu, Bo; Li, Qinggang; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping; Ma, Yanhe

    2010-10-01

    Cassava is one of the most efficient and rich crops in terms of carbohydrate production, which is a tropical perennial plant that grows on poor or depleted soils. Microbial conversion of such a renewable raw material to useful products is an important objective in industrial biotechnology. L-Lactic acid was efficiently produced from cassava powder by a Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain CASL. The fermentation properties of cassava powder were compared with those of glucose and corn powder. The efficiencies of various fermentation strategies for L-lactic acid production from cassava powder, including simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), two-step fermentation (TSF) and simultaneous liquefaction, saccharification and fermentation (SLSF), were investigated. The high L-lactic acid concentration (175.4 g/l) was obtained using 275 g/l of cassava powder concentration (total sugar of 222.5 g/l) in SSF batch fermentation. This is the highest L-lactic acid concentration reported, from cassava source, and it provides an efficient L-lactic acid production process with cheap raw bioresources, such as cassava powder.

  9. Psychoactive bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) elicits rapid frequency facilitation in vagal afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Burgos, Azucena; Wang, Bingxian; Mao, Yu-Kang; Mistry, Bhavik; McVey Neufeld, Karen-Anne; Bienenstock, John; Kunze, Wolfgang

    2013-01-15

    Mounting evidence supports the influence of the gut microbiome on the local enteric nervous system and its effects on brain chemistry and relevant behavior. Vagal afferents are involved in some of these effects. We previously showed that ingestion of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) caused extensive neurochemical changes in the brain and behavior that were abrogated by prior vagotomy. Because information can be transmitted to the brain via primary afferents encoded as neuronal spike trains, our goal was to record those induced by JB-1 in vagal afferents in the mesenteric nerve bundle and thus determine the nature of the signals sent to the brain. Male Swiss Webster mice jejunal segments were cannulated ex vivo, and serosal and luminal compartments were perfused separately. Bacteria were added intraluminally. We found no evidence for translocation of labeled bacteria across the epithelium during the experiment. We recorded extracellular multi- and single-unit neuronal activity with glass suction pipettes. Within minutes of application, JB-1 increased the constitutive single- and multiunit firing rate of the mesenteric nerve bundle, but Lactobacillus salivarius (a negative control) or media alone were ineffective. JB-1 significantly augmented multiunit discharge responses to an intraluminal distension pressure of 31 hPa. Prior subdiaphragmatic vagotomy abolished all of the JB-1-evoked effects. This detailed exploration of the neuronal spike firing that encodes behavioral signaling to the brain may be useful to identify effective psychoactive bacteria and thereby offer an alternative new perspective in the field of psychiatry and comorbid conditions.

  10. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Aitoro, Rosita; Calignano, Antonio; Khan, Aly A; Gilbert, Jack A; Nagler, Cathryn R

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceae (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. Our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut. PMID:26394008

  11. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG antagonizes Giardia intestinalis induced oxidative stress and intestinal disaccharidases: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Nisha; Rishi, Praveen; Shukla, Geeta

    2013-06-01

    The present study describes the in vivo modulatory potential of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), an effective probiotic, in Giardia intestinalis-infected BALB/c mice. Experimentally, it was observed that oral administration of lactobacilli prior or simultaneous with Giardia trophozoites to mice, efficiently (p Giardia-infected mice, showed a significant increase in the levels of antioxidants [reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)] and intestinal disaccharidases [sucrase and lactase] and decreased levels of oxidants in the small intestine, in comparison with Giardia-infected mice. Histopathological findings also revealed almost normal cellular morphology of the small intestine in probiotic-fed Giardia-infected mice compared with fused enterocytes, villous atrophy and increased infiltration of lymphocytes in Giardia-infected mice. The results of the present study has shed new light on the anti-oxidative properties of LGG in Giardia mediated tissue injury, thereby suggesting that the effects of probiotic LGG are biologically plausible and could be used as an alternative microbial interference therapy.

  12. Safety Study of an Antimicrobial Peptide Lactocin 160, Produced by the Vaginal Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E. Dover

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the safety of the antimicrobial peptide, lactocin 160. Methods. Lactocin 160, a product of vaginal probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus 160 was evaluated for toxicity and irritation. An in vitro human organotypic vaginal-ectocervical tissue model (EpiVaginal was employed for the safety testing by determining the exposure time to reduce tissue viability to 50% (ET-50. Hemolytic activity of lactocin160 was tested using 8% of human erythrocyte suspension. Susceptibility of lactobacilli to lactocin160 was also studied. Rabbit vaginal irritation (RVI model was used for an in vivo safety evaluation. Results. The ET-50 value was 17.5 hours for lactocin 160 (4.9 hours for nonoxynol 9, N9. Hemolytic activity of lactocin 160 was 8.2% (N9 caused total hemolysis. Lactobacilli resisted to high concentrations of peptide preparation. The RVI model revealed slight vaginal irritation. An average irritation index grade was evaluated as “none.” Conclusions. Lactocin 160 showed minimal irritation and has a good potential for intravaginal application.

  13. Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation on cow's milk allergy in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thang Cin L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow's milk allergy (CMA is one of the most prevalent human food-borne allergies, particularly in infants and young children from developed countries. Our study aims to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG administration on CMA development using whole cow's milk proteins (CMP sensitized Balb/C mice by two different sensitization methods. Methods LGG supplemented mice were either sensitized orally with CMP and cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB as adjuvant, or intraperitoneally (IP with CMP but without the adjuvant. Mice were then orally challenged with CMP and allergic responses were accessed by monitoring hypersensitivity scores, measuring the levels of CMP-specific immunoglobulins (IgG1, IgG2a and IgG and total IgE from sera, and cytokines (IL-4 and IFN-γ from spleen lysates. Results Sensitization to CMP was successful only in IP sensitized mice, but not in orally sensitized mice with CMP and CTB. Interestingly, LGG supplementation appeared to have reduced cow's milk allergy (CMA in the IP group of mice, as indicated by lowered allergic responses. Conclusions Adjuvant-free IP sensitization with CMP was successful in inducing CMA in the Balb/C mice model. LGG supplementation favourably modulated immune reactions by shifting Th2-dominated trends toward Th1-dominated responses in CMP sensitized mice. Our results also suggest that oral sensitization by the co-administration of CMP and CTB, as adjuvant, might not be appropriate to induce CMA in mice.

  14. Isolated exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG alleviated adipogenesis mediated by TLR2 in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Zhigang; Li, Yu; Zhou, Linkang; Ding, Qianwen; Xu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The fibroblast cell line of 3T3-L1 was used as a cell model for screening and evaluating the feasibility of probiotic components in improving animal lipid metabolisms. The extracts from 12 Lactobacillus strains caused significantly reduced triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation but with severe inflammation induction in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Interestingly, exopolysaccharides (EPS) from LGG (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) significantly decreased the TAG accumulation without any inflammation. The anti-obesity effect of EPS was confirmed in high-fat-diets feeding mice. Fat pads of mice injected with EPS (50 mg/kg) every two days for two weeks were significantly reduced with much smaller adipocytes, compared with the counterparts. The levels of TAG and cholesterol ester in liver, as well as serum TAG, were decreased in EPS injected mice. In addition, down-regulated inflammation was observed in adipose tissue and liver. Interestingly, the expression of TLR2 in adipose tissue and 3T3-L1 cells was significantly increased by EPS addition. Moreover, the reverse of TAG accumulation in TLR2 knockdown 3T3-L1 in the presence of EPS confirmed that the inhibition effect of EPS on adipogenesis was mediated by TLR2. EPS from LGG has the potential for therapeutic development to intervene lipid metabolic disorders in mammals. PMID:27786292

  15. Effect of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, L. casei 431 on immune response to influenza vaccination and upper respiratory tract infections in healthy adult volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lillian; Tarnow, Inge; Eskesen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Probiotics can modulate the immune system in healthy individuals and may help reduce symptoms related to respiratory infections. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, L. casei 431 (Chr....... Hansen A/S) (hereafter, L. casei 431) on immune response to influenza vaccination and respiratory symptoms in healthy adults. DESIGN: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 1104 healthy subjects aged 18-60 y at 2 centers in Germany and Denmark. Subjects were randomly...... inhibition) 21 d after vaccination. Other outcomes were seroconversion rate and mean titers, influenza A-specific antibodies and incidence, and duration and severity of upper respiratory symptoms. Antibiotic use and use of health care resources were recorded. RESULTS: There was no effect of L. casei 431...

  16. Effective survival of immobilized Lactobacillus casei during ripening and heat treatment of probiotic dry-fermented sausages and investigation of the microbial dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidira, Marianthi; Karapetsas, Athanasios; Galanis, Alex; Kanellaki, Maria; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2014-02-01

    The aim was the assessment of immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on wheat in the production of probiotic dry-fermented sausages and the investigation of the microbial dynamics. For comparison, sausages containing either free L. casei ATCC 393 or no starter culture were also prepared. During ripening, the numbers of lactobacilli exceeded 7 log cfu/g, while a drastic decrease was observed in enterobacteria, staphylococci and pseudomonas counts. Microbial diversity was further studied applying a PCR-DGGE protocol. Members of Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, Carnobacterium, Brochothrix, Bacillus and Debaryomyces were the main microbial populations detected. Microbiological and strain-specific multiplex PCR analysis confirmed that the levels of L. casei ATCC 393 in the samples after 66 days of ripening were above the minimum concentration for conferring a probiotic effect (≥ 6 log cfu/g). However, after heat treatment, this strain was detected at the above levels, only in sausages containing immobilized cells.

  17. Assessment of Applying the PMaC Prediction Framework to NERSC-5 SSP Benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, Noel

    2006-09-30

    NERSC procurement depends on application benchmarks, in particular the NERSC SSP. Machine vendors are asked to run SSP benchmarks at various scales to enable NERSC to assess system performance. However, it is often the case that the vendor cannot run the benchmarks at large concurrency as it is impractical to have that much hardware available. Additionally, there may be difficulties in porting the benchmarks to the hardware. The Performance Modeling and Characterization Lab (PMaC) at San Diego Supercomputing Center (SDSC) have developed a framework to predict the performance of codes on large parallel machines. The goal of this work was to apply the PMaC prediction framework to the NERSC-5 SSP benchmark applications and ultimately consider the accuracy of the predictions. Other tasks included identifying assumptions and simplifications in the process, determining the ease of use, and measuring the resources required to obtain predictions.

  18. The transfer RNA genes in Oryza sativa L.ssp.indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xiyin(王希胤); SHI; Xiaoli(史晓黎); HAO; Bailin(郝柏林)

    2002-01-01

    The availability of the draft genome sequence of Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica has made it possible to study the rice tRNA genes. A total of 596 tRNA genes, including 3 selenocysteine tRNA genes and one suppressor tRNA gene are identified in 127551 rice contigs. There are 45 species of tRNA genes and the revised wobble hypothesis proposed by Guthrie and Abelson is perfectly obeyed. The relationship between codon usage and the number of corresponding tRNA genes is discussed. Redundancy may exist in the present list of tRNA genes and novel ones may be found in the future. A set of 33 tRNA genes is discovered in the complete chloroplast genome of Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica. These tRNA genes are identical to those in ssp. japonica identified by us independently from the origional annotation.

  19. Optimal Control Strategy for Marine Ssp Podded Propulsion Motor Based on Strong Tracking-Epf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wenlong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the non-linearity of state equation and observation equation of SSP (Siemen Schottel Propulsor propulsion motor, an improved particle filter algorithm based on strong tracking extent Kalman filter (ST-EKF was presented, and it was imported into the marine SSP propulsion motor control system. The strong tracking filter was used to update particles in the new algorithm and produce importance densities. As a result, the problems of particle degeneracy and sample impoverishment were ameliorated, the propulsion motor states and the rotor resistance were estimated simultaneously using strong track filter (STF, and the tracking ability of marine SSP propulsion motor control system was improved. Simulation result shown that the improved EPF algorithm was not only improving the prediction accuracy of the motor states and the rotor resistance, but also it can satisfy the requirement of navigation in harbor. It had the better accuracy than EPF algorithm.

  20. The N-Terminal GYPSY Motif Is Required for Pilin-Specific Sortase SrtC1 Functionality in Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillard, François P; Rasinkangas, Pia; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M

    2016-01-01

    Predominantly identified in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili are also found in commensal species, such as the probiotic-marketed strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Pili are typically associated with host colonization, immune signalling and biofilm formation. Comparative analysis of the N-terminal domains of pilin-specific sortases from various piliated Gram-positive bacteria identified a conserved motif, called GYPSY, within the signal sequence. We investigated the function and role of the GYPSY residues by directed mutagenesis in homologous (rod-shaped) and heterologous (coccoid-shaped) expression systems for pilus formation. Substitutions of some of the GYPSY residues, and more specifically the proline residue, were found to have a direct impact on the degree of piliation of Lb. rhamnosus GG. The present findings uncover a new signalling element involved in the functionality of pilin-specific sortases controlling the pilus biogenesis of Lb. rhamnosus GG and related piliated Gram-positive species.

  1. Immobilization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in mesoporous silica-based material: An efficiency continuous cell-recycle fermentation system for lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zijian; Xie, Xiaona; Wang, Zhi; Tao, Yanchun; Niu, Xuedun; Huang, Xuri; Liu, Li; Li, Zhengqiang

    2016-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria immobilization methods have been widely used for lactic acid production. Until now, the most common immobilization matrix used is calcium alginate. However, Ca-alginate gel disintegrated during lactic acid fermentation. To overcome this deficiency, we developed an immobilization method in which Lactobacillus rhamnosus cells were successfully encapsulated into an ordered mesoporous silica-based material under mild conditions with a high immobilization efficiency of 78.77% by using elemental analysis. We also optimized the cultivation conditions of the immobilized L. rhamnosus and obtained a high glucose conversion yield of 92.4%. Furthermore, L. rhamnosus encapsulated in mesoporous silica-based material exhibited operational stability during repeated fermentation processes and no decrease in lactic acid production up to 8 repeated batches.

  2. Effects of Lactobacillus casei and Enterococcus faecalis on growth performance, immune function and gut microbiota of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoqi; Zhu, Qun; Chang, Juan; Yin, Qingqiang; Song, Andong; Li, Zhentian; Wang, Erzhu; Lu, Fushan

    2017-04-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of orally administrated Lactobacillus casei and Enterococcus faecalis on performance, immune function and gut microbiota of suckling piglets. Neonatal piglets (n = 120) were randomly assigned to 4 groups, with 30 suckling piglets in each group. The piglets were from 15 litters, one male and one female piglet were selected for each group in each litter. The Control group was administrated with normal saline, the other groups with L. casei or E. faecalis or a combination of L. casei and E. faecalis at a ratio of 3:1. Each piglet was orally administrated with 1, 2, 3 and 4 ml probiotics or normal saline at the age of 1, 7, 14 and 21 d, respectively. The piglets were weaned at the age of 21 d. The results showed that compared with the Control group, the average daily gain of piglets administrated with probiotics was significantly increased, and the diarrhoea rate and mortality were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). After supplementation of the combined probiotics, the protease activity in stomach, duodenum and colon was increased and in all supplemented groups, the immunoglobulin A concentration in plasma was significantly higher (p < 0.05). The combined probiotics significantly increased villus length and the expression level of transforming growth factor-β in the jejunum (p < 0.05) but decreased the expression level of the jejunal tumour necrosis factor-α (p < 0.05). In addition, probiotics could regulate gut microbiota and increase microbial similarity coefficients for keeping piglet gut microbiota stable.

  3. Human Origin Lactobacillus casei Isolated from Indonesian Infants Demonstrating Potential Characteristics as Probiotics in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo .

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The aim of this experiment was to isolate and identify Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB from infant faeces and subsequent evaluation of its potential probiotics. LAB was isolated from faeces of infants who consumed breast milk as the only source of diet on L-cysteine-supplemented MRS Agar, and incubated on 37oC for 48 hours. Colonies grew on this media were then identifi ed based on morphological, physiological and molecular approaches. Morphological and physiological identifi cations based on Gram staining, shape, motility, spore formation, catalase, CO2 and NH3 production, and the ability to grow on temperature at 10oC and 45oC. Molecular identifi cation based on the amplifi cation of 16S rRNA gene. The potential application of selected isolates for probiotics was evaluated based on the ability to grow on media with low pH and the addition of 0.5% bile salts, the ability to inhibit the growth of pathogenic Bacillus cereus and Eschericia coli, and in vitroadherence ability. On the basis of morphological, physiological and molecular analysis of 16S rRNA gene, it was concluded that the selected isolate 1AF was a strain of Lactobacillus casei. Evaluation of probiotic in vitro showed that 60.4% of cells were resistant

  4. Oral immunization of mice against Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin with a Lactobacillus casei vector vaccine expressing epsilon toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimolaei, Mojtaba; Golchin, Mehdi; Daneshvar, Hamid

    2016-06-01

    Clostridium perfringens type D infects ruminants and causes the enterotoxemia disease by ε-toxin. A mutated ε-toxin gene lacking toxicity was designed, synthesized, and cloned into the pT1NX vector and electroporated into Lactobacillus casei competent cells to yield LC-pT1NX-ε recombinant strain. BALB/c mice, immunized orally with this strain, highly induced mucosal, humoral, and cell-mediated immune responses and developed a protection against 200 MLD/ml of the activated ε-toxin. This study showed that the LC-pT1NX-ε could be a promising vaccine candidate against the enterotoxemia disease.

  5. Immunological evaluation of Lactobacillus casei Zhang: a newly isolated strain from koumiss in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Ruiting

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence to suggest an immunomodulation function both within the intestines and systemically upon consuming probiotic species. We recently isolated a novel LAB, Lactobacillus caseiZhang (LcZhang from koumiss. LcZhang exhibited favorable probiotic properties, such as acid resistance, bile resistance, gastrointestinal (GI colonization ability, etc. In order to examine the immunomodulatory qualities of LcZhang, we administered LcZhang to healthy mice with varying doses of either live or heat-killed LcZhang and measured various parameters of the host immune response. Results The study was performed in four separate experiments via oral administration of live and heat-killed LcZhang to BALB/c mice for several consecutive days. We investigated the immunomodulating capacity of LcZhang in vivo by analyzing the profile of cytokines, T cell subpopulations, and immunoglobulin concentrations induced in blood serum and intestinal fluid in BALB/c mice. Only live bacteria elicited a wide range of immune responses, which include the increased production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ, and depression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α levels. In addition, interleukin-2 (IL-2 and IL-2 receptor gene transcription increased significantly, but the proportion of T cell subsets appeared to be unaffected. We also observed that LcZhang was capable of inducing gut mucosal responses by enhancing the production of secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIgA as well influencing the systemic immunity via the cytokines released to the circulating blood. Conclusion The present work shows that the dose-dependent administration of LcZhang is capable of influencing immune responses, implying that it may be a valuable strain for probiotic use in humans.

  6. The effect of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L. casei W8® on blood levels of triacylglycerol is independent of colonisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, A.T.; Sørensen, M.B.; Krych, L.

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis has been linked to obesity and its metabolic complications such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). The risk of developing CVD increases with elevated concentration of serum triacylglycerol (TAG). In a blinded, randomised two-arm parallel human intervention study we have...... and two weeks after the supplementation was ended, and fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 weeks. Four weeks supplementation with L. casei W8 did not affect the overall composition of the GM; however, an increase in the relative abundance of the L. casei group from 8...

  7. Human dendritic cell DC-SIGN and TLR-2 mediate complementary immune regulatory activities in response to Lactobacillus rhamnosus JB-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Konieczna

    Full Text Available The microbiota is required for optimal host development and ongoing immune homeostasis. Lactobacilli are common inhabitants of the mammalian large intestine and immunoregulatory effects have been described for certain, but not all, strains. The mechanisms underpinning these protective effects are beginning to be elucidated. One such protective organism is Lactobacillus rhamnosus JB-1 (Lb. rhamnosus JB-1. Lb. murinus has no such anti-inflammatory protective effects and was used as a comparator organism. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs were co-incubated with bacteria and analysed over time for bacterial adhesion and intracellular processing, costimulatory molecule expression, cytokine secretion and induction of lymphocyte polarization. Neutralising antibodies were utilized to identify the responsible MDDC receptors. Lb. rhamnosus JB-1 adhered to MDDCs, but internalization and intracellular processing was significantly delayed, compared to Lb. murinus which was rapidly internalized and processed. Lb. murinus induced CD80 and CD86 expression, accompanied by high levels of cytokine secretion, while Lb. rhamnosus JB-1 was a poor inducer of costimulatory molecule expression and cytokine secretion. Lb. rhamnosus JB-1 primed MDDCs induced Foxp3 expression in autologous lymphocytes, while Lb. murinus primed MDDCs induced Foxp3, T-bet and Ror-γt expression. DC-SIGN was required for Lb. rhamnosus JB-1 adhesion and influenced IL-12 secretion, while TLR-2 influenced IL-10 and IL-12 secretion. Here we demonstrate that the delayed kinetics of bacterial processing by MDDCs correlates with MDDC activation and stimulation of lymphocytes. Thus, inhibition or delay of intracellular processing may be a novel strategy by which certain commensals may avoid the induction of proinflammatory responses.

  8. Human dendritic cell DC-SIGN and TLR-2 mediate complementary immune regulatory activities in response to Lactobacillus rhamnosus JB-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczna, Patrycja; Schiavi, Elisa; Ziegler, Mario; Groeger, David; Healy, Selena; Grant, Ray; O'Mahony, Liam

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota is required for optimal host development and ongoing immune homeostasis. Lactobacilli are common inhabitants of the mammalian large intestine and immunoregulatory effects have been described for certain, but not all, strains. The mechanisms underpinning these protective effects are beginning to be elucidated. One such protective organism is Lactobacillus rhamnosus JB-1 (Lb. rhamnosus JB-1). Lb. murinus has no such anti-inflammatory protective effects and was used as a comparator organism. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) were co-incubated with bacteria and analysed over time for bacterial adhesion and intracellular processing, costimulatory molecule expression, cytokine secretion and induction of lymphocyte polarization. Neutralising antibodies were utilized to identify the responsible MDDC receptors. Lb. rhamnosus JB-1 adhered to MDDCs, but internalization and intracellular processing was significantly delayed, compared to Lb. murinus which was rapidly internalized and processed. Lb. murinus induced CD80 and CD86 expression, accompanied by high levels of cytokine secretion, while Lb. rhamnosus JB-1 was a poor inducer of costimulatory molecule expression and cytokine secretion. Lb. rhamnosus JB-1 primed MDDCs induced Foxp3 expression in autologous lymphocytes, while Lb. murinus primed MDDCs induced Foxp3, T-bet and Ror-γt expression. DC-SIGN was required for Lb. rhamnosus JB-1 adhesion and influenced IL-12 secretion, while TLR-2 influenced IL-10 and IL-12 secretion. Here we demonstrate that the delayed kinetics of bacterial processing by MDDCs correlates with MDDC activation and stimulation of lymphocytes. Thus, inhibition or delay of intracellular processing may be a novel strategy by which certain commensals may avoid the induction of proinflammatory responses.

  9. A Novel Bluetooth Man-In-The-Middle Attack Based On SSP using OOB Association model

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanan, K; Negesh, R K

    2012-01-01

    As an interconnection technology, Bluetooth has to address all traditional security problems, well known from the distributed networks. Moreover, as Bluetooth networks are formed by the radio links, there are also additional security aspects whose impact is yet not well understood. In this paper, we propose a novel Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) attack against Bluetooth enabled mobile phone that support Simple Secure Pairing(SSP). From the literature it was proved that the SSP association models such as Numeric comparison, Just works and passkey Entry are not more secure. Here we propose the Out Of Band (OOB) channeling with enhanced security than the previous methods.

  10. Analysis of COPII Vesicles Indicates a Role for the Emp47-Ssp120 Complex in Transport of Cell Surface Glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, Neil G; Wilson, Joshua D; Bentivoglio, Christine M; Dhungel, Nripesh; Gitler, Aaron D; Barlowe, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicle formation at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transports nascent secretory proteins forward to the Golgi complex. To further define the machinery that packages secretory cargo and targets vesicles to Golgi membranes, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of purified COPII vesicles. In addition to previously known proteins, we identified new vesicle proteins including Coy1, Sly41 and Ssp120, which were efficiently packaged into COPII vesicles for trafficking between the ER and Golgi compartments. Further characterization of the putative calcium-binding Ssp120 protein revealed a tight association with Emp47 and in emp47Δ cells Ssp120 was mislocalized and secreted. Genetic analyses demonstrated that EMP47 and SSP120 display identical synthetic positive interactions with IRE1 and synthetic negative interactions with genes involved in cell wall assembly. Our findings support a model in which the Emp47-Ssp120 complex functions in transport of plasma membrane glycoproteins through the early secretory pathway.

  11. Using recombinant Lactococci as an approach to dissect the immunomodulating capacity of surface piliation in probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ossowski, Ingemar; Pietilä, Taija E; Rintahaka, Johanna; Nummenmaa, Elina; Mäkinen, Veli-Matti; Reunanen, Justus; Satokari, Reetta; de Vos, Willem M; Palva, Ilkka; Palva, Airi

    2013-01-01

    Primarily arising from their well understood beneficial health effects, many lactobacilli strains are considered good candidates for use as probiotics in humans and animals. Lactobacillar probiosis can itself be best typified by the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain, which, with its well-documented clinical benefits, has emerged as one of the most widely used probiotics in the food and health-supplement industries. Even so, many facets of its molecular mechanisms and limitations as a beneficial commensal bacterium still remain to be thoroughly explored and dissected. Because L. rhamnosus GG is one of only a few such strains exhibiting surface piliation (called SpaCBA), we sought to examine whether this particular type of cell-surface appendage has a discernible immunomodulating capacity and is able to trigger targeted responses in human immune-related cells. Thus, presented herein for this study, we recombinantly engineered Lactococcus lactis to produce native (and pilin-deleted) SpaCBA pili that were assembled in a structurally authentic form and anchored to the cell surface, and which had retained mucus-binding functionality. By using these recombinant lactococcal constructs, we were able to demonstrate that the SpaCBA pilus can be a contributory factor in the activation of Toll-like receptor 2-dependent signaling in HEK cells as well as in the modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12) production in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. From these data, we suggest that the recombinant-expressed and surface-anchored SpaCBA pilus, given its projected functioning in the gut environment, might be viewed as a new microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-like modulator of innate immunity. Accordingly, our study has brought some new insight to the molecular immunogenicity of the SpaCBA pilus, thus opening the way to a better understanding of its possible role in the multifaceted nature of L. rhamnosus GG probiosis within the

  12. nimpu no LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS GG yoguruto sesshu ni yoru nyujiki soki no cho nai BIFIDOBACTERIUM zokukin keisei sokushin

    OpenAIRE

    小峰, 由美子

    2014-01-01

    主査 : 舘田一博 / タイトル : Maternal consumption of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG yogurt during pregnancy promotes bifidobacteria growth in intestinal microflora of infants /著者 : Yumiko Komine, Misa Watanabe, Takehiko Soutome, Koichi Uchino, Takako Uchino, Tsutomu Saji /掲載誌 : 東邦医学会雑誌 /巻号・発行年等 : 61(1):3-12, 2014 /本文ファイル: 出版者版 /

  13. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium adhesion and cytotoxicity during epithelial cell stress is reduced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkholder Kristin M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiological stressors may alter susceptibility of the host intestinal epithelium to infection by enteric pathogens. In the current study, cytotoxic effect, adhesion and invasion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium to Caco-2 cells exposed to thermal stress (41°C, 1 h was investigated. Probiotic bacteria have been shown to reduce interaction of pathogens with the epithelium under non-stress conditions and may have a significant effect on epithelial viability during infection; however, probiotic effect on pathogen interaction with epithelial cells under physiological stress is not known. Therefore, we investigated the influence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus gasseri on Salmonella adhesion and Salmonella-induced cytotoxicity of Caco-2 cells subjected to thermal stress. Results Thermal stress increased the cytotoxic effect of both S. Typhimurium (P = 0.0001 and nonpathogenic E. coli K12 (P = 0.004 to Caco-2 cells, and resulted in greater susceptibility of cell monolayers to S. Typhimurium adhesion (P = 0.001. Thermal stress had no significant impact on inflammatory cytokines released by Caco-2 cells, although exposure to S. Typhimurium resulted in greater than 80% increase in production of IL-6 and IL-8. Blocking S. Typhimurium with anti-ShdA antibody prior to exposure of Salmonella decreased adhesion (P = 0.01 to non-stressed and thermal-stressed Caco-2 cells. Pre-exposure of Caco-2 cells to L. rhamnosus GG significantly reduced Salmonella-induced cytotoxicity (P = 0.001 and Salmonella adhesion (P = 0.001 to Caco-2 cells during thermal stress, while L. gasseri had no effect. Conclusion Results suggest that thermal stress increases susceptibility of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells to Salmonella adhesion, and increases the cytotoxic effect of Salmonella during infection. Use of L. rhamnosus GG as a probiotic may reduce the severity of infection during epithelial cell stress. Mechanisms

  14. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Reverses Insulin Resistance but Does Not Block Its Onset in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kun-Young; Kim, Bobae; Hyun, Chang-Kee

    2015-05-01

    Recently, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) was shown to exert insulin-sensitizing and adiposity-reducing effects in high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice. In the present study, we observed that the effects were correlated with the extent of dysbiosis induced by HF diet feeding before LGG administration. LGG-treated mice were protected from HF diet-induced adiposity and/ or insulin resistance when LGG was treated after, not along with, HF diet feeding. Results indicate that, under HF dietary condition, supplemented LGG reverses insulin resistance, but does not block its onset.

  15. Survivability of entrapped Lactobacillus rhamnosus in liquid- and gel-core alginate beads during storge and simulated gastrointestinal conditions

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Rodríguez-Huezo; C. Lobato-Calleros; J.G. Reyes-Ocampo; O. Sandoval-Castilla; C. Pérez-Alonso; D.J. Pimentel-González

    2011-01-01

    L. rhamnosus cells were encapsulated in liquid-core (LCBR) and gel-core (GCBR) calcium alginate beads, and cell survivability under storage conditions and simulated gastrointestinal conditions were evaluated, and compared with that of non-encapsulated cells. The average external diameters of both beads (1.37 - 0.25 mm) were non-significantly dierent, and the average thickness of alginate gelled layer in LCBR was of 0.27 - 0.01 mm. The bacteria entrapped into LCBR tended to gather together for...

  16. Nutritional requirements for methyl orange decolourisation by freely suspended cells and growing cells of Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phisit Seesuriyachan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500 possesses cytoplasmic azoreductase and can breakdown azo bonds under microaerophilic condition. It was found previously that a growing culture is more tolerant to a high initial dye concentration than freely suspended cells supplied only with sucrose. The present study is aimed at investigating the nutritive requirements for decolourisation by the growing cells and the freely suspended cells using Plackett-Burmann experimental design. In this study, the composition of the medium was found to play an important role in methyl orange decolourisation and biomass production. Sucrose, meat extract and peptone increased methyl orange decolourisation by freely suspended cells, whereas sodium acetate exerted a negative effect on decolourisation. In addition, it was observed that the yeast and meat extracts enhanced the degradation of the dye by the growing cells. Sucrose was an important factor in biomass production by freely suspended cells and growing cells. On the other hand, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and sodium acetate decreased the biomass production. These findings promote the understanding and knowledge about the requirements of azo dye decolourisation by Lactobacillus casei.

  17. Inactivation of Escherichia coli in broth and sausage by combined high pressure and Lactobacillus casei cell extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun-Jung; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combined high pressure and Lactobacillus casei cell extract (CE) on Escherichia coli O157 strains with variation in pressure resistance in broth and sausage. Pressure-resistant (O157:H7 and O157:H12) and -sensitive (O157-M1 and O157-M2) E. coli strains were used. Pressure treatment at 350 MPa for 20 min in broth caused 1.1-1.2 logs reduction in O157:H12 and O157:H7 and 4.1-5.5 logs reduction in the O157-M1 and O157-M2. When high pressure was treated in the presence of CE (32 CEAU/mL), the combination treatment caused a significant inactivation in the pressure-resistant O157:H7 strains resulting in the viability loss of 4.3-4.6 logs and the synergistic effect increased with increase in treatment time (p high pressure treatment. The synergy between high pressure processing and Lb. casei OSY-LB6A CE against pressure-resistant E. coli O157 strains suggests the feasibility of using this combination to minimize the risk of transmission of E. coli O157 by food.

  18. Lactobacillus rhamnosus Gorbach-Goldin (GG: A Top Well-Researched Probiotic Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Papizadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics, living microorganisms which when used in adequate amounts, have health benefits on the host, have attracted a considerable deal of interest in the biotechnology market. Various prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes have been studied for probiotic purposes in human and animals. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are the main probiotic genera; however, there are reports on the probiotic potential of strains belonging to Bacillus, Lactococcus, Pediococcus and also some yeast species. Lactobacillus species are regarded as the most investigated beneficial microbes for human and either animal probiotic development due to: a anti-inflammatory effects, b anti-allergic features, c secretion of antimicrobial compounds, d develops in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and e many Lactobacilli have been Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Among Lactobacilli, Lactobacillus rhamnosus Gorbach-Goldin (GG is known among the most in-detail studied strains and is regarded as a top well-researched and commercialized probiotic strain in the industrial biotechnology. Strain GG is a commercially significant probiotic which was originally isolated from the healthy human gastrointestinal tract in 1983. The documents studied this strain were reviewed here and it is shown that such successful strains in the probiotic market have been extensively studied from the probiotic traits and safety point of views and a minor part of the documents concerned the bioprocessing issues. Also, we showed that the beneficial and negative effects of this strain has been investigated in various clinical trial systems when it became commercialized. Various aspects of this strain are here reviewed, comparatively.

  19. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG protects against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Ritze

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Experimental evidence revealed that obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is linked to changes in intestinal permeability and translocation of bacterial products to the liver. Hitherto, no reliable therapy is available except for weight reduction. Within this study, we examined the possible effect of the probiotic bacterial strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG as protective agent against experimental NAFLD in a mouse model. METHODS: Experimental NAFLD was induced by a high-fructose diet over eight weeks in C57BL/J6 mice. Fructose was administered via the drinking water containing 30% fructose with or without LGG at a concentration resulting in approximately 5×10(7 colony forming units/g body weight. Mice were examined for changes in small intestinal microbiota, gut barrier function, lipopolysaccharide (LPS concentrations in the portal vein, liver inflammation and fat accumulation in the liver. RESULTS: LGG increased beneficial bacteria in the distal small intestine. Moreover, LGG reduced duodenal IκB protein levels and restored the duodenal tight junction protein concentration. Portal LPS (P≤0.05 was reduced and tended to attenuate TNF-α, IL-8R and IL-1β mRNA expression in the liver feeding a high-fructose diet supplemented with LGG. Furthermore liver fat accumulation and portal alanine-aminotransferase concentrations (P≤0.05 were attenuated in mice fed the high-fructose diet and LGG. CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time that LGG protects mice from NAFLD induced by a high-fructose diet. The underlying mechanisms of protection likely involve an increase of beneficial bacteria, restoration of gut barrier function and subsequent attenuation of liver inflammation and steatosis.

  20. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Administration on Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Colonization in Adults with Comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Shira; Hibberd, Patricia L; Goldin, Barry; Thorpe, Cheleste; McDermott, Laura; Snydman, David R

    2015-08-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are endemic in health care settings. These organisms colonize the gastrointestinal tract and can lead to infection which is associated with increased mortality. There is no treatment for VRE colonization. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to examine the safety and efficacy of administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) for the reduction or elimination of intestinal colonization by VRE. Colonized adults were randomized to receive LGG or placebo for 14 days. Quantitative stool cultures for LGG and VRE were collected at baseline and days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56. Day 14 stool samples from some subjects were analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) for LGG. Patients were closely monitored for adverse events. Eleven subjects, of whom 5 received LGG and 6 received placebo, were analyzed. No differences in VRE colony counts were seen at any time points between groups. No decline in colony counts was seen over time in subjects who received LGG. LGG was detected by PCR in all samples tested from subjects who received LGG but was only isolated in culture from 2 of 5 subjects in the LGG group. No treatment-related adverse events were seen. We demonstrated that LGG could be administered safely to patients with comorbidities and is recoverable in some patients' stool cultures. Concomitant administration of antibiotics may have resulted in an inability to recover viable organisms from stool samples, but LGG DNA could still be detected by qPCR. LGG administration did not affect VRE colonization in this study. (This study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov under registration no. NCT00756262.).

  1. In vivo gut transcriptome responses to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus in neonatal gnotobiotic piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Liu, Zhe; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak; Zhang, Xiaoli; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics facilitate mucosal repair and maintain gut homeostasis. They are often used in adjunct with rehydration or antibiotic therapy in enteric infections. Lactobacillus spp have been tested in infants for the prevention or treatment of various enteric conditions. However, to aid in rational strain selection for specific treatments, comprehensive studies are required to delineate and compare the specific molecules and pathways involved in a less complex but biologically relevant model (gnotobiotic pigs). Here we elucidated Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) and L. acidophilus (LA) specific effects on gut transcriptome responses in a neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model to simulate responses in newly colonized infants. Whole genome microarray, followed by biological pathway reconstruction, was used to investigate the host-microbe interactions in duodenum and ileum at early (day 1) and later stages (day 7) of colonization. Both LA and LGG modulated common responses related to host metabolism, gut integrity, and immunity, as well as responses unique to each strain in Gn pigs. Our data indicated that probiotic establishment and beneficial effects in the host are guided by: (1) down-regulation or upregulation of immune function-related genes in the early and later stages of colonization, respectively, and (2) alternations in metabolism of small molecules (vitamins and/or minerals) and macromolecules (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids). Pathways related to immune modulation and carbohydrate metabolism were more affected by LGG, whereas energy and lipid metabolism-related transcriptome responses were prominently modulated by LA. These findings imply that identification of probiotic strain-specific gut responses could facilitate the rational design of probiotic-based interventions to moderate specific enteric conditions.

  2. Preserving viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in vitro and in vivo by a new encapsulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Zhang, Yufeng; Polk, D Brent; Tomasula, Peggy M; Yan, Fang; Liu, LinShu

    2016-05-28

    Probiotics have shown beneficial effects on health and prevention of diseases in humans. However, a concern for application of probiotics is the loss of viability during storage and gastrointestinal transit. The aim of this study was to develop an encapsulation system to preserve viability of probiotics when they are administrated orally and apply Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) as a probiotic model to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach using in vitro and in vivo experiments. LGG was encapsulated in hydrogel beads prepared using pectin, a food grade polysaccharide, glucose, and calcium chloride, and lyophilized by freeze-drying. Encapsulated LGG was cultured in vitro under the condition that mimicked the physiological environment of the human gastrointestinal tract. Compared to non-encapsulated LGG, encapsulation increased tolerance of LGG in the acid condition, protected LGG from protease digestion, and improved shelf time when stored at the ambient condition, in regard of survivability and production of p40, a known LGG-derived protein involved in LGG's beneficial effects on intestinal homeostasis. To evaluate the effects of encapsulation on p40 production in vivo and prevention of intestinal inflammation by LGG, mice were gavaged with LGG containing beads and treated with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) to induce intestinal injury and colitis. Compared to non-encapsulated LGG, encapsulated LGG enhanced more p40 production in mice, and exerted higher levels of effects on prevention of DSS-induced colonic injury and colitis and suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. These data indicated that the encapsulation system developed in this study preserves viability of LGG in vitro and in vivo, leading to longer shelf time and enhancing the functions of LGG in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, this encapsulation approach may have the potential application for improving efficacy of probiotics.

  3. Immunomodulatory consequences of oral administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michael; Linde, Hans-Jörg; Lehn, Norbert; Zimmermann, Kurt; Grossmann, Johannes; Falk, Werner; Schölmerich, Jürgen

    2003-05-01

    Probiotic microorganisms, especially lactic acid bacteria, are effective in the treatment of infectious diarrhoeal diseases and experimental colitis. Although the mechanisms by which these organisms exert their anti-inflammatory effects are largely unknown, immunomodulating effects are suggested. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a 5-week oral administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus subspecies GG (Lb. GG) on the cellular immune response to intestinal microorganisms in ten healthy volunteers. Peripheral blood cells (PB) were stimulated with either 'self' or 'non-self' preparations of faecal samples and isolated Bacteroides fragilis group-organisms (Bfg) or Escherichia coli (Esch. coli), and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha) were measured in the culture supernatant. CD4+ T-lymphocyte activation was determined by measurement of intracellular ATP following lysis of the cells. The activational response of CD4+ T-lymphocytes towards isolated and heat-inactivated intestinal organisms was increased after the probiotic treatment. Additionally, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and in part IFN-gamma cytokine secretion by PB cells following stimulation with whole stool preparations and single members of the flora was significantly decreased, whereas the IL-10 and in part IL-4 cytokine secretion was increased at the end of the study. In contrast, the activational response of CD4+ T-lymphocytes following stimulation with whole 'non-self' intestinal flora was higher than by 'self' intestinal flora, but both responses showed a trend towards a reduction at the end of the study. This study documents a direct effect by Lb. GG on the cellular immune system of healthy volunteers and offers a promising tool to investigate systemic immunomodulation due to oral administration of probiotic microorganisms.

  4. Megastigmane Glucosides and Megastigmanes from the Leaves of Meliosma lepidota ssp. squamulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Yuka; Iwami, Mio; Kawakami, Susumu; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Shinzato, Takakazu; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    From the leaves of Meliosma lepidota ssp. squamulata, megastigmane glucosides with spiro-structures and megastigmanes were isolated. Their structures were determined by X-ray crystallographic analyses and spectroscopic investigation. The absolute structures of the megastigmanes were determined by the modified Mosher's method.

  5. Identification of functional candidates amongst hypothetical proteins of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Ahmad Abu Turab; Shahbaaz, Mohd; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis is a globally occurring venereal disease, and its infection is propagated through sexual contact. The causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum, a Gram-negative sphirochaete, is an obligate human parasite. Genome of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum SS14 strain (RefSeq NC_010741.1) encodes 1,027 proteins, of which 444 proteins are known as hypothetical proteins (HPs), i.e., proteins of unknown functions. Here, we performed functional annotation of HPs of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum using various database, domain architecture predictors, protein function annotators and clustering tools. We have analyzed the sequences of 444 HPs of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum and subsequently predicted the function of 207 HPs with a high level of confidence. However, functions of 237 HPs are predicted with less accuracy. We found various enzymes, transporters, binding proteins in the annotated group of HPs that may be possible molecular targets, facilitating for the survival of pathogen. Our comprehensive analysis helps to understand the mechanism of pathogenesis to provide many novel potential therapeutic interventions.

  6. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Teucrium flavum ssp. flavum from Zakynthos, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Formisano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil extracted from dried aerial parts of Teucrium flavum ssp. flavum harvested in Zakynthos, Greece, was analysed by gas phase chomatography (GC and gas chomatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The main constituents were caryophyllene (13.5%, caryophyllene oxide (8.5%, 4-vinyl guaiacol (6.0% and α-humulene (5.0%.

  7. Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles; Skerret, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David S.

    2012-07-06

    Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-ΔmglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-ΔmglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection.

  8. PENGEMBANGAN SSP FISIKA BERBASIS PENDEKATAN CTL UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILAN PROSES SAINS DAN MOTIVASI BELAJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiq Makhdum Noor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop a learning device as Subject-Specific Pedagogy (SSP of physics, and to improve science process skills and learning motivation of the students. This research used the 4D model. The subjects of this research were the XI grade students of Muhammadiyah High School 2 Yogyakarta. The data collecting instruments were expert validation sheets, science process skill observation sheets, questionnaire of students’ response to the student books and worksheets, question-naire of students’ response to teaching process, students’ motivation learning sheets, and science process skill paper test. The research data were collected through observation, questionnaire, and paper test, and analyzed quantitatively. The results show as follows. (1 The development of physics SSP is carried out in accordance with the procedures of 4D model product development. (2 The results of expert’s validation show the physics SSP is in the very good criteria. (3 The readability of the student books and worksheets is in the good criteria. (4 The increasing of the score of science process skills and students’ learning motivation in the experimental class is higher than that in the control class. This shows that the physics SSP is fit for use in physics teaching.

  9. Full Scale Test SSP 34m blade, Combined load. Data report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Hørlyk; Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find Mølholt;

    This report is part of the research project entitled “Eksperimentel vingeforskning: Strukturelle mekanismer i nutidens og fremtidens store vinger under kombineret last” where a 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S was tested in combined flap and edgewise load. The applied load is 55% of...

  10. Attempting to restore mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana) four years after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoration of shrubs is increasingly needed throughout the world because of altered fire regimes, anthropogenic disturbance, and over-utilization. The native shrub mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) is a restoration priority in western North America be...

  11. Production of a heterologous nonheme catalase by Lactobacillus casei: an efficient tool for removal of H2O2 and protection of Lactobacillus bulgaricus from oxidative stress in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Tatiana; Gratadoux, Jean-Jacques; Gruss, Alexandra; Corthier, Gérard; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Langella, Philippe; van de Guchte, Maarten

    2006-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are generally sensitive to H2O2, a compound that they can paradoxically produce themselves, as is the case for Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14431 is one of the very few LAB strains able to degrade H2O2 through the action of a nonheme, manganese-dependent catalase (hereafter called MnKat). The MnKat gene was expressed in three catalase-deficient LAB species: L. bulgaricus ATCC 11842, Lactobacillus casei BL23, and Lactococcus lactis MG1363. While the protein could be detected in all heterologous hosts, enzyme activity was observed only in L. casei. This is probably due to the differences in the Mn contents of the cells, which are reportedly similar in L. plantarum and L. casei but at least 10- and 100-fold lower in Lactococcus lactis and L. bulgaricus, respectively. The expression of the MnKat gene in L. casei conferred enhanced oxidative stress resistance, as measured by an increase in the survival rate after exposure to H2O2, and improved long-term survival in aerated cultures. In mixtures of L. casei producing MnKat and L. bulgaricus, L. casei can eliminate H2O2 from the culture medium, thereby protecting both L. casei and L. bulgaricus from its deleterious effects.

  12. Use of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei for a potential probiotic legume-based fermented product using pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, K; Ferrer, M; Piñero, M; Barboza, Y; Medina, L M

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) as an appropriate substrate in the production of a legume-based fermented product with Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314 or Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 and then to ascertain the effects of the addition of ingredients such as powdered milk and banana or strawberry sauce. The products were analyzed for viable cell counts, pH, and sensory attributes during product manufacture and throughout the refrigerated storage period at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Nine types of products were produced. At the end of the storage period, the viability of L. acidophilus was above 7 log CFU/g in the presence of milk and 20% sucrose fruit sauce. For products with L. casei, the lack of ingredients such as milk caused no significant loss in viability; however, a high concentration of sucrose in the fruit sauce was an important factor in maintaining a high L. casei population. L. casei had high viability and good sensory attributes. Both strains could be considered suitable for a pigeon pea-based fermented potential probiotic product and a low-cost protein source.

  13. Effect of salt on cell viability and membrane integrity of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum as observed by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of varying sodium chloride concentrations (0-5%) on viability and membrane integrity of three probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum, using conventional technique and flow cytometry. Double staining of cells by carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cFDA) and propidium iodide (PI) enabled to evaluate the effect of NaCl on cell esterase activity and membrane integrity. Observations from conventional culture technique were compared with findings from flow cytometric analysis on the metabolic activities of the cells and a correlation was observed between culturability and dye extrusion ability of L. casei and B. longum. However, a certain population of L. acidophilus was viable as per the plate count method but its efflux activity was compromised. Esterase activity of most bacteria reduced significantly (P < 0.05) during one week storage at NaCl concentrations greater than 3.5%. The study revealed that L. casei was least affected by higher NaCl concentrations among the three probiotic bacteria, as opposed to B. longum where the cF extrusion performance was greatly reduced during 1 wk storage. The metabolic activity and salt resistance of L. casei was found to be highest among the bacteria studied.

  14. Transport of Amino Acids in Lactobacillus casei by Proton-Motive-Force-Dependent and Non-Proton-Motive-Force-Dependent Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strobel, Herbert J.; Russell, James B.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Konings, Wilhelmus

    1989-01-01

    Lactobacilus casei 393 cells which were energized with glucose (pH 6.0) took up glutamine, asparagine, glutamate, aspartate, leucine, and phenylalanine. Little or no uptake of several essential amino acids (valine, isoleucine, arginine, cysteine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) was observed. Inhibition st

  15. Expression of cbsA encoding the collagen-binding S-protein of Lactobacillus crispatus JCM5810 in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez, B.; Sillanpää, J.; Smit, E.; Korhonen, T.K.; Pouwels, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    The cbsA gene encoding the collagen-binding S-layer protein of Lactobacillus crispatus JCM5810 was expressed in L. casei ATCC 393T. The S-protein was not retained on the surface of the recombinant bacteria but was secreted into the medium. By translational fusion of CbsA to the cell wall sorting sig

  16. Potential efficacy of Lactobacillus casei IBRC_M10711 on expression and activity of insulin degrading enzyme but not insulin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyazi, Nadia; Mohammadi Farsani, Taiebeh; Nouri, Zahra; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Khorramizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Tajerian, Roksana; Motevaseli, Elahe

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a condition with insufficient insulin production or in the setting of insulin resistance with many origins including intestinal microbiota-related molecular mechanism. Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is responsible for insulin breakdown in various tissues and is known as a potential drug target for T2D. Here, we assessed the effects of cell-free supernatant (CFS) and UV-killed Lactobacillus casei IBRC_M10711 on IDE expression, IDE activity, and insulin degradation in Caco-2 cell line. It was found that CFS and UV-killed L. casei IBRC_M10711 led to lower expression of IDE. UV-killed L. casei IBRC_M10711 significantly inhibited IDE activity but CFS did not. Insulin degradation was affected with none of them. In conclusion, L. casei IBRC_M10711 is effective on IDE expression and its activity, but not on insulin degradation. Future studies are recommended to explore the effect of this probiotic on other substrates of IDE.

  17. Production of dry Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG preparations by spray drying and lyophilization in aqueous two-phase systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Leja

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Drying is the oldest method of food preservation. It works by removing water from the food, which prevents the growth of microorganisms and decay. Moreover, spray or freeze drying is also used for the preservation of probiotic cultures. The aim of this study was to compare a survival rate of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus during spray and freeze drying in ATPS. These results were also compared with survival rate of cells dried under the same conditions but suspended only in skim milk, 6% solution of PVP or 6% solution of dextran. Material and methods. The bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus GGwere suspended and spray or freeze dried in various types of aqueous two-phase emulsions: PVP/dextran, PEG4000/dextran and PEG8000/dextran. These emulsions consisted of different types of polymers and had varying ratio of polymers in dispersed (dextran and dispersing (PEG and PVP phases. Results. The research demonstrated that survival rate of bacteria directly after drying depended mainly on protective reagent, rather than on drying method. After 30-day-storage of the dried bacteria cell specimens, the highest survival rate was noted in case of freeze dried cells in milk. In case of spray drying the highest cell survival rate was observed when emulsion PVP3.6%/dextran2.4% was used as a drying medium. Conclusions. Finally, it has been found that cell survival rate was not strongly influenced by the storage temperature of the powder but it depended on the drying medium.  

  18. The use of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and viral findings in the nasopharynx of children attending day care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpu, Minna; Lehtoranta, Liisa; Roivainen, Merja; Rönkkö, Esa; Ziegler, Thedi; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Kautiainen, Hannu; Järvenpää, Salme; Kekkonen, Riina; Hatakka, Katja; Korpela, Riitta; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2013-09-01

    Limited data are available on the effects of probiotics on the nasopharyngeal presence of respiratory viruses in children attending day care. In this substudy of a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled 28-week intervention study, nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected, on visits to a physician due to symptoms of infection, from children receiving control milk (N = 97) and children receiving the same milk supplemented with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (N = 97). The presence of 14 respiratory viruses was assessed by PCR methods, and viral findings were compared with symptom prevalences in the intervention groups. Rhinovirus was identified in 28.6% of 315 swab samples, followed by respiratory syncytial virus (12.4%), parainfluenza virus 1 (12.1%), enterovirus (8.9%), influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (7.9%), human bocavirus 1 (3.8%), parainfluenza virus 2 (3.2%), adenovirus (2.9%), and influenza A(H3N2) (0.6%). The children in the probiotic group had less days with respiratory symptoms per month than the children in the control group (6.48 [95% CI 6.28-6.68] vs. 7.19 [95% CI 6.98-7.41], P Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG had fewer days with respiratory symptoms than children in the control group, although probiotic intervention was not effective in reducing the amount of viral findings or the respiratory symptoms associated with viral findings.

  19. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Intake Modifies Preschool Children's Intestinal Microbiota, Alleviates Penicillin-Associated Changes, and Reduces Antibiotic Use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Korpela

    Full Text Available Antibiotic use is considered among the most severe causes of disturbance to children's developing intestinal microbiota, and frequently causes adverse gastrointestinal effects ranging from mild and transient diarrhoea to life-threatening infections. Probiotics are commonly advocated to help in preventing antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal symptoms. However, it is currently unknown whether probiotics alleviate the antibiotic-associated changes in children's microbiota. Furthermore, it is not known how long-term probiotic consumption influences the developing microbiota of children. We analysed the influence of long-term Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intake on preschool children's antibiotic use, and antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal complaints in a double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial with 231 children aged 2-7. In addition, we analysed the effect of L. rhanmosus GG on the intestinal microbiota in a subset of 88 children. The results show that long-term L. rhamnosus GG supplementation has an influence on the composition of the intestinal microbiota in children, causing an increase in the abundance of Prevotella, Lactococcus, and Ruminococcus, and a decrease in Escherichia. The treatment appeared to prevent some of the changes in the microbiota associated with penicillin use, but not those associated with macrolide use. The treatment, however, did reduce the frequency of gastrointestinal complaints after a macrolide course. Finally, the treatment appeared to prevent certain bacterial infections for up to 3 years after the trial, as indicated by reduced antibiotic use.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01014676.

  20. Food matrices and cell conditions influence survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG under heat stresses and during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Akihito; Teräsjärvi, Johanna; Salminen, Seppo

    2014-03-17

    The present study evaluated impact of moisture content and cell conditions on survival of probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, under lethal heat stresses and during long-term storage using freeze-dried cells and oils as matrices. Viable cell counts of freeze-dried L. rhamnosus GG cells suspended in oils had only 1-log-reduction after 5min at 80°C and approximately 3-log-reduction after 20min, while no or very few viable cells were recorded for freeze dried cells suspended in buffer and cultured cells in oils. Surprisingly, freeze-dried cells suspended in oils still contained 4.3 to 6.7logCFU/ml after 5min at 95°C. Long-term storage study indicated that freeze-dried cells suspended in oils kept viable conditions for 4months, and a loss of the viability was only 0.3 to 0.6logCFU/ml. Viable cell counts of cultured cells suspended in oils were not present after 3days to 3months. These results clearly indicate that moisture and cell conditions have a great impact on survival of probiotics under severe heat stress in processing and during long-term storage. Combination of freeze-dried cells and oils as carrier provides beneficial options to preserve viability of probiotics in food processes and storage.

  1. Cell enumeration and visualisation by transmission electron microscopy of Lactobacillus rhamnosus treated with cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum B.) essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feniman, C M; Rall, V L M; Doyama, J T; Júnior, A Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The use of essential oils (EOs) in functional foods containing probiotic microorganisms must consider the antimicrobial activity of these oils against beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus. This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of L. rhamnosus cultures treated with cinnamon EO through viable cell counts and visualisation by transmission electron microscopy. Cinnamon EO at a concentration of 0.04% had a bacteriostatic activity after 2 h of incubation. Although slight alterations were detected in the cell structure, this concentration was considered to be bactericidal, since it led to a significant reduction in cell numbers after 24 h. On the other hand, cinnamon EO at a 1.00% concentration decreased cell counts by 3 log units after 2 h incubation and no viable cell count was detected after 24 h. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that cells treated with 1.00% cinnamon EO were severely damaged and presented cell membrane disruption and cytoplasmic leakage.

  2. Proteome Analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Using 2-D DIGE and Mass Spectrometry Shows Differential Protein Production in Laboratory and Industrial-Type Growth Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koskenniemi, K.; Koponen, J.; Kankainen, M.; Savijoki, K.; Tynkkynen, S.; Vos, de W.M.; Kalkkinen, N.; Varmanen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is one of the most extensively studied and widely used probiotic bacteria. While the benefits of LGG treatment in gastrointestinal disorders and immunomodulation are well-documented, functional genomics research of this bacterium has only recently been initiated. In

  3. The N-Terminal GYPSY Motif Is Required for Pilin-Specific Sortase SrtC1 Functionality in Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douillard, François P.; Rasinkangas, Pia; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Palva, Airi; Vos, De Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Predominantly identified in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili are also found in commensal species, such as the probiotic-marketed strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Pili are typically associated with host colonization, immune signalling and biofilm formation. Compar

  4. The lectin-like protein 1 in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 mediates tissue-specific adherence to vaginal epithelium and inhibits urogenital pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Mariya I; Lievens, Elke; Verhoeven, Tine L A; Macklaim, Jean M; Gloor, Gregory; Schols, Dominique; Vanderleyden, Jos; Reid, Gregor; Lebeer, Sarah

    2016-11-21

    The probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 has been documented to survive implantation onto the vaginal epithelium and interfere with urogenital pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Here, we report for the first time the construction of dedicated knock-out mutants in L. rhamnosus GR-1 to enable the study of gene functions. In a search for genes responsible for the adherence capacity of L. rhamnosus GR-1, a genomic region encoding a protein with homology to lectin-like proteins was identified. Phenotypic analyses of the knock-out mutant of L. rhamnosus GR-1 revealed a two-fold decreased adhesion to the vaginal and ectocervical epithelial cell lines compared to wild-type. In contrast, the adhesion to gastro-intestinal epithelial (Caco2) and endocervical cell lines (Hela and End1/E6E7) was not drastically affected by the mutation, suggesting that the LGR-1_Llp1 lectins mediates tissue tropism. The purified LGR-1_Llp1 protein also inhibited biofilm formation and adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. For the first time, an important role for a novel lectin-like protein in the adhesion capacity and host cell-specific interaction of a vaginal probiotic Lactobacillus strain has been discovered, with an additional role in pathogen inhibition.

  5. No evidence of harms of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in healthy elderly-a Phase I Open Label Study to assess safety, tolerability and cytokine responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG) has been consumed since the mid 1990s by between 2 and 5 million people daily, the scientific literature lacks rigorous clinical trials that describe the potential harms of LGG, particularly in the elderly. The primary objective of this open label...

  6. A lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-derived soluble protein, p40, stimulates ligand release from intestinal epithelial cells to transactivate epidermal growth factor receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-derived soluble protein, ameliorates intestinal injury and colitis, reduces apoptosis and preserves barrier function by activation of EGF receptor (EGFR) in intestinal epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which p40...

  7. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and its SpaC pilus adhesin modulate inflammatory responsiveness and TLR-related gene expression in the fetal human gut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganguli, K.; Collado, M.C.; Rautava, J.; Lu, L.; Satokari, R.M.; Ossowski, von I.; Reunanen, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Palva, A.; Isolauri, E.; Salminen, S.; Walker, W.A.; Rautava, S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacterial contact in utero modulates fetal and neonatal immune responses. Maternal probiotic supplementation reduces the risk of immune-mediated disease in the infant. We investigated the immunomodulatory properties of live Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and its SpaC pilus adhesin in human f

  8. Extensively hydrolysed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG maintains hypoallergenic status : randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraro, Antonella; Hoekstra, Maarten O.; Meijer, Yolanda; Lifschitz, Carlos; Wampler, Jennifer L.; Harris, Cheryl; Scalabrin, Deolinda M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypoallergenicity of an extensively hydrolysed (EH) casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). Design: A prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Setting: Two study sites in Italy and The Netherlands. Study particip

  9. The potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679 survives the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and its use as starter culture results in safe nutritionally enhanced fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Raquel; Martín, Belén; Aymerich, Teresa; Garriga, Margarita

    2014-09-01

    The human-derived potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679 was used as a starter culture in reduced fat and sodium low-acid fermented sausages (fuets) to assess its ability to survive through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in a human intervention study consisting of 5 healthy volunteers who consumed 25 g fuet a day for 21 days. Faecal samples were analysed during and after consumption. L. rhamnosus CTC1679 produced a transient colonisation of the human GIT and persisted during the ingestion period of fuet containing L. rhamnosus CTC1679 at levels ca. 8log CFU/g. After 3 days of non-consumption, the strain was still recovered in the faeces of all the volunteers. To evaluate the safety of the nutritionally enhanced manufactured fuets, a challenge test was designed in a separately manufactured batch. L. rhamnosus CTC1679 was able to grow, survive and dominate (levels ca. 10(8) CFU/g) the endogenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB), prevented the growth of Listeria monocytogenes throughout the whole ripening process of the fuets and eliminated Salmonella. After 35 days of storage at 4 °C, L. monocytogenes was not detected, achieving absence in 25 g of the product. The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (600 MPa for 5 min) at the end of ripening (day 14) produced an immediate reduction of L. monocytogenes to levels fermented sausages.

  10. Summary of Recent Results from NASA's Space Solar Power (SSP) Programs and the Current Capabilities of Microwave WPT Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSpadden, James; Mankins, John C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The concept of placing enormous solar power satellite (SPS) systems in space represents one of a handful of new technological options that might provide large-scale, environmentally clean base load power into terrestrial markets. In the US, the SPS concept was examined extensively during the late 1970s by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). More recently, the subject of space solar power (SSP) was reexamined by NASA from 1995-1997 in the "fresh look" study, and during 1998 in an SSP "concept definition study". As a result of these efforts, in 1999-2000, NASA undertook the SSP Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program which pursued preliminary strategic technology research and development to enable large, multi-megawatt SSP systems and wireless power transmission (WPT) for government missions and commercial markets (in-space and terrestrial). During 2001-2002, NASA has been pursuing an SSP Concept and Technology Maturation (SCTM) program follow-on to the SERT, with special emphasis on identifying new, high-leverage technologies that might advanced the feasibility of future SSP systems. In addition, in 2001, the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) released a major report providing the results of a peer review of NASA's SSP strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps. One of the key technologies needed to enable the future feasibility of SSP/SPS is that of wireless power transmission. Advances in phased array antennas and rectennas have provided the building blocks for a realizable WPT system. These key components include the dc-RF converters in the transmitter, the retrodirective beam control system, and the receiving rectenna. Each subject is briefly covered, and results from the SERT program that studied a 5.8 GHz SPS system are presented. This paper presents a summary results from NASA's SSP efforts, along with a summary of the status of microwave WPT technology development.

  11. Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS supplementation on intestinal and systemic markers of inflammation in ApoE*3Leiden mice consuming a high-fat diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oksaharju, A.; Kooistra, T.; Kleemann, R.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Miettinen, M.; Lappalainen, J.; Lindstedt, K.A.; Kovanen, P.T.; Korpela, R.; Kekkonen, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    A high-fat diet disturbs the composition and function of the gut microbiota and generates local gut-associated and also systemic responses. Intestinal mast cells, for their part, secrete mediators which play a role in the orchestration of physiological and immunological functions of the intestine. P

  12. 益生菌Lactobacillus casei Zhang对凝固型发酵乳质构和挥发性风味物质的影响%Effects of Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Zhang on the Texture Profile and Volatile Compounds of Set Yogurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    其木格苏都; 郭壮; 王记成; 孟和毕力格; 张和平

    2013-01-01

    [目的]评价益生菌Lactobacillus casei Zhang(L.casei Zhang)货架期内活菌数的变化及其对发酵乳物理特性和挥发性风味物质的影响.[方法]将2株Streptococcus thermophilus(S.thermophilus)分别与益生菌L.casei Zhang复配发酵,发酵结束(pH 4.5)于4℃冷藏28 d,并对发酵乳各指标进行测定.[结果]4℃贮藏28 d时,发酵乳中益生菌L.casei Zhang活菌数没有显著性变化(P<0.05),且数量保持在108CFU/g以上;益生菌L.casei Zhang与S.thermophilus复配发酵有利于提高3-羟基-2-丁酮和己酸等挥发性风味物质的含量,同时短期贮藏过程中(1-7 d)可赋予产品较高的黏度、硬度、脆度、胶性和耐嚼性,随着贮藏时间的延长其对产品物理特性的影响随发酵用S.thermophilus菌株的不同而呈现不同的变化.[结论]4℃贮藏28 d过程中,益生菌L.casei Zhang具有非常好的稳定性,同时其与S.thermophillus复配发酵可赋予产品较好的质构和风味.%[Objective] The viability of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei Zhang during the product sbelf-life and its effects on the texture profile and the production of volatile compounds of fermented milk were studied.[Method] L.casei Zhang was inoculated together with either of the two Streptococcus thermophilus strains into pasteurized milk for fermentation,the fermentation was ended when the pH value of fermented milk reached 4.5,then,specific indexes of the products were determined after storage at 4℃C for 28 d.[Result] The viable count ofL.casei Zhang was highly stable (P<0.05),and was more than 108CFU/g aRer storage at 4℃ for 28 d.Furthermore,by simultaneous inoculating L.casei Zhang and the selected strains ofS.thermophilus into the milk at a certain proportion,it was beneficial to improve the content of 3-hydroxyl-2-butanone and hexylic acid in products; this method also enhanced the viscosity,hardness,fracturability,gumminess and chewiness of the products during short-term storage (1-7 d

  13. A sporulation-specific, sigF-dependent protein, SspA, affects septum positioning in Streptomyces coelicolor

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The RNA polymerase sigma factor SigF controls late development during sporulation in the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor. The only known SigF-dependent gene identified so far, SCO5321, is found in the biosynthetic cluster encoding spore pigment synthesis. Here we identify the first direct target for SigF, the gene sspA, encoding a sporulation-specific protein. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that SspA is a secreted lipoprotein with two PepSY signature domains. The sspA deletion ...

  14. Synergistic Inhibition of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus and Cisplatin on the Multiplication of Tumoral Cells in BALB/c Mice with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaderi Pakdel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The probiotic strains of Lactic Acid Bacillus (LAB not only affect gastrointestinal tract microflora and stimulate local immune system of this tract but also modify and stimulate systemic immunity by influence on lymph nodes and spleen. Several studies have shown the anti-tumor effect of these kinds of bacteria. This study was designed to assess the probiotic effects of lactobacillus rhamnosus on cisplatin efficacy among Balb/c mice with breast cancer. Methods: L. rhamnosus strain was inoculated in MRS agar and cultivated for 24 h at 37 °C. Female BalbC mice (n=20 with invasive ductal carcinoma transplantation were divided into four groups: Control, L. rhamnosus, cisplatin and cisplatin plus L. rhamnosus. Cisplatin (5 mg/kg, i.p. was injected twice a week. Lr was administered daily by gastric intubation (3×10 8 CFU/day. The tumor size was measured every 3 days and mice were sacrificed 24 h after the last injection and tumor tissue was removed for more tests. Results: The results showed that oral administration of L. rhamnosus decreased the growth rate of tumor (p<0.05. One reason for antineoplastic effect of lactobacilli is immune system enhancement. The results of delayed-type hypersensitivity show the stimulation of immune system and inhibition of tumor growth by this mechanism. In pathologic assessments probiotic administration increased the antineoplastic effect of cisplatin. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study it can be expected that human studies also show the satisfactory effect of lactobacillus administration besides common therapeutic methods for cancer treatment.

  15. 益生乳酸菌Lactobacillus casei Zhang从基础研究到产业化开发%Probitotic Lactobacillus casei Zhang from basic research to industrialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张和平

    2011-01-01

    2001年-2009年,内蒙古农业大学“乳品生物技术与工程”教育部重点实验室从采集自中国西部7个省市及蒙古国14个省市不同少数民族地区951份自然发酵乳制品等样品中分离鉴定出3 388林乳酸菌,建立了中国首个原创性乳酸菌菌种资源库;从菌种库中分离自传统发酵酸马奶(koumiss)的243株乳杆菌中筛选获得1株性能优良的乳酸菌-Lactobacillus casei Zhang(Lcasei Zhang).采用5种动物模型和人体试验进行了功能评价,并利用基因组学和蛋白质组学研究技术对L.casei Zhang益生分子机制进行了深入剖析.经过多年系统的基础研究,自主解决了其产业化的关键技术问题,包括其直投式发酵剂、发酵乳制品和发酵豆乳益生菌饮料的研发并实现了产业化.%During 2001-2009, we have isolated ,identified and collected 3, 388 strains of lactic add bacteria from 951 naturally fermented dairy products (including fermented cow milk, mare milk, goat milk, camel milk and yak milk) in Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Qinghai, Tibet, Yunnan ,Ganshu and Sichuan of China and 17 provinces of Mongolia, and established the first LAB Collection Center (LABCC) with self-owned intellectual property in China. From 243 strains of lactobaclli isolated from naturally fermented mare milk (koumiss) collected in LABCC , a novel probiotic-Lactobadllus casei Zhang was screened out,and conducted extensive researches on it .including acid tolerance and bile resistance to the gastointestinal digestion, adhesion to Coco-2 human epithelial cells line in vitro, immunomodulatory properties ,anti-tumor effects for H22 cancer cell line induced liver tumor , hypocholesterolemic effects, antagonistic to pathogenic Escherichia coli in intestine, anti-oxidative effect in vivo using mice or rat as models,and colonization of in human gut and regulation of gut microbiota for 24 volunteers. Using gemomics and proteomics ,we elucidated its probiotic mechanism partially

  16. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium longum attenuate lung injury and inflammatory response in experimental sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Khailova

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Probiotic use to prevent nosocomial gastrointestinal and potentially respiratory tract infections in critical care has shown great promise in recent clinical trials of adult and pediatric patients. Despite well-documented benefits of probiotic use in intestinal disorders, the potential for probiotic treatment to reduce lung injury following infection and shock has not been well explored. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate if Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG or Bifidobacterium longum (BL treatment in a weanling mouse model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP peritonitis will protect against lung injury. METHODS: 3 week-old FVB/N mice were orally gavaged with 200 µl of either LGG, BL or sterile water (vehicle immediately prior to CLP. Mice were euthanized at 24 h. Lung injury was evaluated via histology and lung neutrophil infiltration was evaluated by myeloperoxidase (MPO staining. mRNA levels of IL-6, TNF-α, MyD88, TLR-4, TLR-2, NFΚB (p50/p105 and Cox-2 in the lung analyzed via real-time PCR. TNF-α and IL-6 in lung was analyzed via ELISA. RESULTS: LGG and BL treatment significantly improved lung injury following experimental infection and sepsis and lung neutrophil infiltration was significantly lower than in untreated septic mice. Lung mRNA and protein levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and gene expression of Cox-2 were also significantly reduced in mice receiving LGG or BL treatment. Gene expression of TLR-2, MyD88 and NFΚB (p50/p105 was significantly increased in septic mice compared to shams and decreased in the lung of mice receiving LGG or BL while TLR-4 levels remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with LGG and BL can reduce lung injury following experimental infection and sepsis and is associated with reduced lung inflammatory cell infiltrate and decreased markers of lung inflammatory response. Probiotic therapy may be a promising intervention to improve clinical lung injury following systemic infection and sepsis.

  17. Lipoteichoic acid is an important microbe-associated molecular pattern of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

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    Claes Ingmar JJ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotic bacteria are increasingly used as immunomodulatory agents. Yet detailed molecular knowledge on the immunomodulatory molecules of these bacteria is lagging behind. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA is considered a major microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP of Gram-positive bacteria. However, many details and quantitative data on its immune signalling capacity are still unknown, especially in beneficial bacteria. Recently, we have demonstrated that a dltD mutant of the model probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG, having modified LTA molecules, has an enhanced probiotic efficacy in a DSS-induced colitis model as compared to wild-type. Results In this study, the importance of D-alanylated and acylated LTA for the pro-inflammatory activity of LGG was studied in vitro. Purified native LTA of LGG wild-type exhibited a concentration-dependent activation of NF-κB signalling in HEK293T cells after interaction with TLR2/6, but not with TLR2 alone. Chemical deacylation of LTA interfered with the TLR2/6 interaction, while a moderate effect was observed with chemical dealanylation. Similarly, the dltD mutant of LGG exhibited a significantly reduced capacity to activate TLR2/6-dependent NF-κB signalling in a HEK293T reporter cell line compared to wild-type. In addition, the dltD mutant of LGG showed a reduced induction of mRNA of the chemokine IL-8 in the Caco-2 epithelial cell line compared to wild-type. Experiments with highly purified LTA of LGG confirmed that LTA is a crucial factor for IL-8 mRNA induction in Caco-2 epithelial cells. Chemical dealanylation and deacylation reduced IL-8 mRNA expression. Conclusions Taken together, our results indicate that LTA of LGG is a crucial MAMP with pro-inflammatory activities such as IL-8 induction in intestinal epithelial cells and NF-κB induction in HEK293T cells via TLR2/6 interaction. The lipid chains of LGG LTA are needed for these activities, while also the D-alanine substituents

  18. Effects of the viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on rotavirus infection in neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanna Ventola; Liisa Lehtoranta; Mari Madetoja; Marja-Leena Simonen-Tikka; Leena Maunula; Merja Roivainen; Riitta Korpela; Reetta Holma

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To study the effects of live and dead Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) on rotavirus infection in a neonatal rat model.METHODS:At the age of 2 d,suckling Lewis rat pups were supplemented with either live or dead GG and the treatment was continued daily throughout the experiment.At the age of 5 and 6 d the pups received oral rotavirus (RV) SA-11 strain.The pups were sacrificed at the age of 7 or 8 d by decapitation.The gastrointestinal tract was removed and macroscopic observations were done.The consistency of feces in the colon was classified using a four-tier system.RV was detected from the plasma,small intestine,colon and feces by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR).RESULTS:In this neonatal rat model,RV induced a mild-to-moderate diarrhea in all except one pup of the RV-inoculated rats.RV moderately reduced body weight development from day 6 onwards.On day 7,after 2 d of RV infection,live and dead GG groups gained significantly more weight than the RV group without probiotics [36% (P =0.001) and 28% (P =0.031),respectively].In addition,when compared with the RV control group,both live and dead GG reduced the weight ratio of colon/animal body weight to the same level as in the healthy control group,with reductions of 22% (P=0.002) and 28% (P < 0.001),respectively.Diarrhea increased moderately in both GG groups.However,the diarrhea incidence and severity in the GG groups were not statistically significantly different as compared with the RV control group.Moreover,observed diarrhea did not provoke weight loss or death.The RV control group had the largest amount of RV PCR-positive samples among the RV-infected groups,and the live GG group had the smallest amount.Rats receiving live GG had significantly less RV in the colon (P =0.027) when compared with the RV control group.Live GG was also more effective over dead GG in reducing the quantity of RV from plasma (P =0.047).CONCLUSION:Both live and dead GG have beneficial effects in RV

  19. Fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota prevents the onset of physical symptoms in medical students under academic examination stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Kataoka, A; Nishida, K; Takada, M; Suda, K; Kawai, M; Shimizu, K; Kushiro, A; Hoshi, R; Watanabe, O; Igarashi, T; Miyazaki, K; Kuwano, Y; Rokutan, K

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) on psychological, physiological, and physical stress responses in medical students undertaking an authorised nationwide examination for promotion. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 24 and 23 healthy medical students consumed a fermented milk containing LcS and a placebo milk, respectively, once a day for 8 weeks until the day before the examination. Psychophysical state, salivary cortisol, faecal serotonin, and plasma L-tryptophan were analysed on 5 different sampling days (8 weeks before, 2 weeks before, 1 day before, immediately after, and 2 weeks after the examination). Physical symptoms were also recorded in a diary by subjects during the intervention period for 8 weeks. In association with a significant elevation of anxiety at 1 day before the examination, salivary cortisol and plasma L-tryptophan levels were significantly increased in only the placebo group (Pstressful situations.

  20. Using recombinant Lactococci as an approach to dissect the immunomodulating capacity of surface piliation in probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

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    Ingemar von Ossowski

    Full Text Available Primarily arising from their well understood beneficial health effects, many lactobacilli strains are considered good candidates for use as probiotics in humans and animals. Lactobacillar probiosis can itself be best typified by the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain, which, with its well-documented clinical benefits, has emerged as one of the most widely used probiotics in the food and health-supplement industries. Even so, many facets of its molecular mechanisms and limitations as a beneficial commensal bacterium still remain to be thoroughly explored and dissected. Because L. rhamnosus GG is one of only a few such strains exhibiting surface piliation (called SpaCBA, we sought to examine whether this particular type of cell-surface appendage has a discernible immunomodulating capacity and is able to trigger targeted responses in human immune-related cells. Thus, presented herein for this study, we recombinantly engineered Lactococcus lactis to produce native (and pilin-deleted SpaCBA pili that were assembled in a structurally authentic form and anchored to the cell surface, and which had retained mucus-binding functionality. By using these recombinant lactococcal constructs, we were able to demonstrate that the SpaCBA pilus can be a contributory factor in the activation of Toll-like receptor 2-dependent signaling in HEK cells as well as in the modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 production in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. From these data, we suggest that the recombinant-expressed and surface-anchored SpaCBA pilus, given its projected functioning in the gut environment, might be viewed as a new microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP-like modulator of innate immunity. Accordingly, our study has brought some new insight to the molecular immunogenicity of the SpaCBA pilus, thus opening the way to a better understanding of its possible role in the multifaceted nature of L. rhamnosus GG

  1. Purification and partial characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Archana; Akkoç, Nefise; Akçelik, Mustafa

    2012-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are possessing ability to synthesize antimicrobial compounds (like bacteriocin) during their growth. In this regard, novel bacteriocin compound secreting capability of LAB isolated from Tulum Cheese in Turkey was demonstrated. The synthesized bacteriocin was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis and gel filtration. The molecular weight (≈3.4 kDa) of obtained bacteriocin was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, which revealed single peptide band. Molecular identification of LAB strain isolated from Tulum Cheese was conducted using 16S rDNA gene sequencing as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171. The amino acid sequences (KKIDTRTGKTMEKTEKKIELSLKNMKTAT) of the bacteriocin from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171 was found unique and novel than reported bacteriocins. Further, the bacteriocin was possessed the thermostable property and active at wide range of pH values from 1 to 11. Thus, bacteriocin reported in this study has the potential applications property as food preservative agent.

  2. Susceptibility of wild carrot (Daucus carota ssp. carota) to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brita Dahl; Finckh, M.R.; Munk, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Sclerotinia soft rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a severe disease of cultivated carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus) in storage. It is not known whether Sclerotinia soft rot also affects wild carrots (D. carota ssp. carota), which hybridise and exchange genes, among them resistance...... genes, with the cultivated carrot. We investigated the susceptibility of wild carrots to S. sclerotiorum isolates from cultivated carrot under controlled and outdoor conditions. Inoculated roots from both wild and cultivated plants produced sclerotia and soft rot in a growth chamber test. Two isolates...... differed significantly in the ability to produce lesions and sclerotia on roots of both wild carrots and cv. Bolero. Flowering stems of wild carrots produced dry, pale lesions after inoculation with the pathogen, and above-ground plant weight was significantly reduced 4 weeks after inoculation...

  3. Enduring toxicity of transgenic Anabaena PCC 7120 expressing mosquito larvicidal genes from Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasherob, Robert; Otieno-Ayayo, Zachariah Ngalo; Ben-Dov, Eitan; Miaskovsky, Rina; Boussiba, Sammy; Zaritsky, Arieh

    2003-10-01

    Persistence of biological control agents against mosquito larvae was tested under simulated field conditions. Mosquito larvicidal activity of transgenic Anabaena PCC 7120 expressing cry4Aa, cry11Aa and p20 from Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis was greater than B. thuringiensis ssp. israelensis primary powder (fun 89C06D) or wettable powder (WP) (Bactimos products) when either mixed with silt or exposed to sunlight outdoors. Reduction of Bactimos primary powder toxicity was at least 10-fold higher than Anabaena's after mixing with silt. In outdoors experiments, Bactimos WP remained toxic (over 30% mortality of 3rd instar Aedes aegypti larvae) for 2-4 days only, while transgenic Anabaena's toxicity endured 8-21 days.

  4. Lactic acid production by mixed cultures of Kluyveromyces marxianus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus helveticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessas, S; Bosnea, L; Psarianos, C; Koutinas, A A; Marchant, R; Banat, I M

    2008-09-01

    Lactic acid production using Kluyveromyces marxianus (IFO 288), Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (ATCC 11842) and Lactobacillus helveticus (ATCC 15009) individually or as mixed culture on cheese whey in stirred or static fermentation conditions was evaluated. Lactic acid production, residual sugar and cell biomass were the main features examined. Increased lactic acid production was observed, when mixed cultures were used in comparison to individual ones. The highest lactic acid concentrations were achieved when K. marxianus yeast was combined with L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and when all the strains were used revealing possible synergistic effects between the yeast and the two lactic acid bacteria. The same synergistic effects were further observed and verified when the mixed cultures were applied in sourdough fermentations, proving that the above microbiological system could be applied in the food fermentations where high lactic acid production is sought.

  5. SSP Technology Investigation of a High-Voltage DC-DC Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, J. A.; Grady, W. M.; George, Patrick J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this project was to establish the feasibility of a high-voltage DC-DC converter based on a rod-array triggered vacuum switch (RATVS) for the Space Solar Power system. The RATVS has many advantages over silicon and silicon-carbide devices. The RATVS is attractive for this application because it is a high-voltage device that has already been demonstrated at currents in excess of the requirement for an SSP device and at much higher per-device voltages than existing or near-term solid state switching devices. The RATVS packs a much higher specific power rating than any solid-state device and it is likely to be more tolerant of its surroundings in space. In addition, pursuit of an RATVS-based system would provide NASA with a nearer-term and less expensive power converter option for the SSP.

  6. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Thymus praecox Opiz ssp. polytrichus Essential Oil from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada V. Petrović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of wild growing Thymus praecox Opiz ssp. polytrichus were studied. trans-Nerolidol (19.79%, germacrene D (18.48% and thymol (9.62% were the main components in essential oil. This study is the first report of the antimicrobial activity of essential oil obtained from the T. praecox Opiz ssp. polytrichus. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil was investigated on Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus flavus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Salmonella typhimurium, Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, A. niger, Trichoderma viride, Penicillium funiculosum, P. ochrochloron, and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium strains. In the antimicrobial assays, essential oil showed high antimicrobial potential (MIC 19–150 m g/mL, MBC 39–300 m g/mL for bacteria; and MIC 19.5–39 m g/mL, MFC 39–78 m g/mL for fungi.

  7. Chemical Composition of Different Botanical Origin Honeys Produced by Sicilian Black Honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions.

  8. Evaluating the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP to assess the bond between dogs and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Rehn

    Full Text Available The Strange Situation Procedure (SSP is increasingly being used to study attachment between dogs and humans. It has been developed from the Ainsworth Strange Situation Procedure, which is used extensively to investigate attachment between children and their parents. In this experiment, 12 female beagle dogs were tested in two treatments to identify possible order effects in the test, a potential weakness in the SSP. In one treatment (FS, dogs participated together with a 'familiar person' and a 'stranger'. In a control treatment (SS, the same dogs participated together with two unfamiliar people, 'stranger A' and 'stranger B'. Comparisons were made between episodes within as well as between treatments. As predicted in FS, dogs explored more in the presence of the familiar person than the stranger. Importantly, they also explored more in the presence of stranger A (who appeared in the same order as the familiar person and followed the same procedure than stranger B in SS. Furthermore, comparisons between treatments, where a familiar person was present in FS and stranger A was present in SS, showed no differences in exploration. In combination, these results indicate that the effect of a familiar person on dogs' exploratory behaviour, a key feature when assessing secure attachment styles, could not be tested reliably due to the order in which the familiar person and the stranger appear. It is proposed that in the future only counterbalanced versions of the SSP are used. Alternatively, since dogs reliably initiated more contact with the familiar person compared to the strangers, it is suggested that future studies on attachment in dogs towards humans should focus either on the behaviour of the dog in those episodes of the SSP when the person returns, or on reunion behaviour in other studies, specially designed to address dog-human interactions at this time.

  9. Failure of PCR to Detect Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue DNA in Blood in Latent Yaws.

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    Michael Marks

    Full Text Available Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is a neglected tropical disease closely related to venereal syphilis and is targeted for eradication by 2020. Latent yaws represents a diagnostic challenge, and current tools cannot adequately distinguish between individuals with true latent infection and individuals who are serofast following successful treatment. PCR on blood has previously been shown to detect T. pallidum DNA in patients with syphilis, suggesting that this approach may be of value in yaws. We performed real-time PCR for Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue on blood samples from 140 children with positive T. pallidum Particle Agglutination (TPPA and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR tests and 7 controls (negative serology, all collected as part of a prospective study of yaws in the Solomon Islands. All samples were also tested by a nested PCR for T. pallidum. 12 patients had clinical evidence of active yaws whilst 128 were considered to have latent yaws. 43 children had high titre rapid plasma reagins (RPRs of ≥1:32. PCR testing with both assays gave negative results in all cases. It is possible that the failure to detect T. pallidum ssp. pertenue in blood reflects lower loads of organism in latent yaws compared to those in latent infection with T. pallidum ssp. pertenue, and/or a lower propensity for haematogenous dissemination in yaws than in syphilis. As the goal of the yaws control programme is eradication, a tool that can differentiate true latent infection from individuals who are serofast would be of value; however, PCR of blood is not that tool.

  10. Failure of PCR to Detect Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue DNA in Blood in Latent Yaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Michael; Katz, Samantha; Chi, Kai-Hua; Vahi, Ventis; Sun, Yongcheng; Mabey, David C; Solomon, Anthony W; Chen, Cheng Y; Pillay, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is a neglected tropical disease closely related to venereal syphilis and is targeted for eradication by 2020. Latent yaws represents a diagnostic challenge, and current tools cannot adequately distinguish between individuals with true latent infection and individuals who are serofast following successful treatment. PCR on blood has previously been shown to detect T. pallidum DNA in patients with syphilis, suggesting that this approach may be of value in yaws. We performed real-time PCR for Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue on blood samples from 140 children with positive T. pallidum Particle Agglutination (TPPA) and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) tests and 7 controls (negative serology), all collected as part of a prospective study of yaws in the Solomon Islands. All samples were also tested by a nested PCR for T. pallidum. 12 patients had clinical evidence of active yaws whilst 128 were considered to have latent yaws. 43 children had high titre rapid plasma reagins (RPRs) of ≥1:32. PCR testing with both assays gave negative results in all cases. It is possible that the failure to detect T. pallidum ssp. pertenue in blood reflects lower loads of organism in latent yaws compared to those in latent infection with T. pallidum ssp. pertenue, and/or a lower propensity for haematogenous dissemination in yaws than in syphilis. As the goal of the yaws control programme is eradication, a tool that can differentiate true latent infection from individuals who are serofast would be of value; however, PCR of blood is not that tool.

  11. Stem rust (Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola Urban its hosts and harmfulness in grasses grown for seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Prończuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem rust development on four species of grasses was studied in field experiments conducted at Radzików in 1997-2001. Population of Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola from different hosts was characterised and their harmfulness for grass grown for seed was estimated. The materials for study were ecotypes and strains of Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra, Poa pratensis and Deschampsia caespitosa collected in breeding nursery and cultivars and strains of L.perenne, F.rubra, P.pratensis cultivated for seed. It was found that the changes in environmental conditions during last years influenced earlier occurrence of stem rust on grasses in Poland. All examined species were the host of P.graminis ssp. graminicola, however the period of infection of particular hosts were different. L.perenne and D.caespitosa were infected in early summer but F.rubra and P.pratensis in late summer or in the autumn. Morphological analysis of spores of P.graminis ssp. graminicola have shoved significant differences between populations obtained from L.perenne and D.caespitosa. Some differences were found between populations from F.rubra and P.pratensis also, but they need more study. Every year occurrence of stem rust on L.perenne and D.caespitosa and its relation with spring temperature in Radzików indicated that populations of patogen could overwinter in local turf. Incidental appearance of stem rust on F.rubra and P.pratensis in centre of Poland allowed to suppose that spores of these forms might be transfer by wind from other regions. The investigation revealed that stem rust can be dangerous for L.perenne grown for seed when infection occurs at flowering time. It has been established that infection of F.rubra and P.pratensis in autumn should not be disregarded. Damages of leaves by P.graminis ssp. graminicola substantially limited plant heading in the next year.

  12. Simultaneous genotyping of HPA-17w to -21w by PCR-SSP in Chinese Cantonese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haojie; Ding, Haoqiang; Chen, Yangkai; Li, Xiaofan; Ye, Xin; Nie, Yongmei

    2015-01-01

    Studies have reported the polymorphism of human platelet antigen (HPA)-17w, -18w, -19w, -20w, and -21w. However, the distribution of these five antigens in Chinese Cantonese is still unknown. In this study, we designed new sequence-specific primers for HPA-19w to -21w and used published primers for HPA-17w and -18w to develop a polymerase chain reaction with the sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) method for simultaneously genotyping HPA-17w to -21w. A total of 820 unrelated Cantonese apheresis platelet donors in Guangzhou were involved in this study. Among the five HPAs, complete a/a homozygosity was observed for HPA-17w to -20w with an allele frequency of 1.0000. For HPA-21w, nine individuals (9/820, 1.10%) were found to be HPA-21a/bw heterozygous and the allele frequencies of HPA-21a and HPA-21bw were 0.9945 (1631/1640) and 0.0055 (9/1640), respectively. The reliability of the PCR-SSP method was determined by comparing with the genotyping results by DNA sequencing, and no inconsistencies were observed between the two methods. This study provides a reliable PCR-SSP method for simultaneously genotyping HPA-17w to -21w and could improve HPA-matched platelet transfusion in Chinese Cantonese.

  13. RNA-seq Analysis of Cold and Drought Responsive Transcriptomes of Zea mays ssp. mexicana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiang; Zhou, Xuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Meixue; McNeil, David; Liang, Shan; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-01-01

    The annual Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is a member of teosinte, a wild relative of the Zea mays spp. mays L. This subspecies has strong growth and regeneration ability, high tiller numbers, high protein and lysine content as well as resistance to many fungal diseases, and it can be effectively used in maize improvement. In this study, we reported a Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. transcriptome by merging data from untreated control (CK), cold (4°C) and drought (PEG2000, 20%) treated plant samples. A total of 251,145 transcripts (N50 = 1,269 bp) and 184,280 unigenes (N50 = 923 bp) were predicted, which code for homologs of near 47% of the published maize proteome. Under cold conditions, 2,232 and 817 genes were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, while fewer genes were up-regulated (532) and down-regulated (82) under drought stress, indicating that Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is more sensitive to the applied cold rather than to the applied drought stresses. Functional enrichment analyses identified many common or specific biological processes and gene sets in response to drought and cold stresses. The ABA dependent pathway, trehalose synthetic pathway and the ICE1-CBF pathway were up-regulated by both stresses. GA associated genes have been shown to differentially regulate the responses to cold in close subspecies in Zea mays. These findings and the identified functional genes can provide useful clues for improving abiotic stress tolerance of maize.

  14. Cytogenetic diversity of simple sequences repeats in morphotypes of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshuang Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A significant fraction of the nuclear DNA of all eukaryotes is occupied by simple sequence repeats (SSRs. Although thesis sequences have sparked great interest as a means of studying genetic variation, linkage mapping and evolution, little attention had been paid to the chromosomal distribution and cytogenetic diversity of these sequences. This paper report the long-range organization of all possible classes of mono-, di- and tri-nucleotide SSRs in Brassica rapa. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH was used to characterize the cytogenetic diversity of SSRs among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. The proportion of different SSR motifs varied among morphtypes of B. rapa, with trinucleotide SSRs more prevalent in the genome of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. The chromosomal characterizations of mono-, di- and tri-nucleotide repeats have been acquired. The data has revealed the non-random and motif-dependent chromosome distribution of SSRs in different morphtypes, and allowed the relative variability characterized by SSRs amount and similar chromosomal distribution in centromeric/peri-centromeric heterochromatin. The differences of SSRs in the abundance and distribution indicated the driving force of SSRs in relationship with the evolution of B. rapa species. The results provided a comprehensive view on the SSR sequence distribution and evolution for comparison among morphtypes B. rapa ssp. chinensis.

  15. CD4 T Cell Dependent Colitis Exacerbation Following Re-Exposure of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Bargen, Imke; Pils, Marina C.; Krey, Martina; Zur Lage, Susanne; Singh, Anurag K.; Basler, Tina; Falk, Christine S.; Seidler, Ursula; Hornef, Mathias W.; Goethe, Ralph; Weiss, Siegfried

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD), a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of cattle characterized by intermittent to chronic diarrhea. In addition, MAP has been isolated from Crohn's disease (CD) patients. The impact of MAP on severity of clinical symptoms in JD as well as its role in CD are yet unknown. We have previously shown that MAP is able to colonize inflamed enteric tissue and to exacerbate the inflammatory tissue response (Suwandi et al., 2014). In the present study, we analyzed how repeated MAP administration influences the course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. In comparison to mice exposed to DSS or MAP only, repeated exposure of DSS-treated mice to MAP (DSS/MAP) revealed a significantly enhanced clinical score, reduction of colon length as well as severe CD4+ T cell infiltration into the colonic lamina propria. Functional analysis identified a critical role of CD4+ T cells in the MAP-induced disease exacerbation. Additionally, altered immune responses were observed when closely related mycobacteria species such as M. avium ssp. avium and M. avium ssp. hominissuis were administered. These data reveal the specific ability of MAP to aggravate intestinal inflammation and clinical symptoms. Overall, this phenotype is compatible with similar disease promoting capabilites of MAP in JD and CD.

  16. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the SpaA backbone-pilin subunit from probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deepak; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Palva, Airi; Krishnan, Vengadesan

    2013-10-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, a widely used Gram-positive probiotic strain, is clinically well known for its perceived health-promoting effects. It has recently been shown to display proteinaceous pilus fibres (called SpaCBA) on its cell surface. Structurally, SpaCBA pili possess a characteristic three-pilin polymerized architecture, with repeating SpaA major pilins that form the backbone and two types of minor subunits (SpaB and SpaC). In this study, recombinant SpaA protein was purified, characterized and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.0 Å and belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a=227.9, b=63.2, c=104.3 Å, β=95.1°.

  17. Sublingual administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus affects respiratory immune responses and facilitates protection against influenza virus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Na; Youn, Ha-Na; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Park, Jae-Keun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Kim, Ki-Taek; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2013-05-01

    The extensive morbidity and mortality caused by influenza A viruses worldwide prompts the need for a deeper understanding of the host immune response and novel therapeutic and/or prophylactic interventions. In this study, we assessed the sublingual route as an effective means of delivering probiotics against influenza virus in mice. In addition, IgA levels, NK cell activity, T cell activation, and cytokine profiles in the lungs were examined to understand the mechanism underlying this protective effect. Sublingual administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus provided enhanced protection against influenza virus infection by enhancing mucosal secretory IgA production, and T and NK cell activity. Moreover, interleukin (IL)-12 levels in the lungs increased significantly. Conversely, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in the lungs decreased significantly. On the basis of these promising findings, we propose that the sublingual mucosal route is an attractive alternative to mucosal routes for administering probiotics against influenza virus.

  18. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 enhances NF-kappaB activation in Escherichia coli-stimulated urinary bladder cells through TLR4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Mattias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial cells of the urinary tract recognize pathogenic bacteria through pattern recognition receptors on their surface, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs, and mount an immune response through the activation of the NF-kappaB pathway. Some uropathogenic bacteria can subvert these cellular responses, creating problems with how the host eliminates pathogens. Lactobacillus is a genus of lactic acid bacteria that are part of the microbiota and consist of many probiotic strains, some specifically for urogenital infections. Immunomodulation has emerged as an important mode of action of probiotic and commensal lactobacilli and given the importance of epithelial cells, we evaluated the effect of the urogenital probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 on epithelial immune activation. Results Immune activation through the NF-kappaB pathway was initiated by stimulation of T24 urothelial cells with heat-killed Escherichia coli and this was further potentiated when cells were co-cultured with live L. rhamnosus GR-1. Heat-killed lactobacilli were poor activators of NF-kappaB. Concomitant stimulation of bladder cells with E. coli and L. rhamnosus GR-1 increased the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF, whereas IL-6 and CXCL8 levels were reduced. Another probiotic, L. rhamnosus GG, was also able to potentiate NF-kappaB in these cells although at a significantly reduced level compared to the GR-1 strain. The transcript numbers and protein levels of the lipopolysaccharide receptor TLR4 were significantly increased after co-stimulation with E. coli and lactobacilli compared to controls. Furthermore, inhibition of TLR4 activation by polymixin B completely blocked the lactobacilli potentiation of NF-kappaB. Conclusions The immunological outcome of E. coli challenge of bladder cells was influenced by probiotic L. rhamnosus GR-1, by enhancing the activation of NF-kappaB and TNF release. Thus the urogenital probiotic L. rhamnosus GR-1

  19. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and maintenance of normal defecation during antibiotic treatment pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and maintenance of normal defecation during antibiotic treatment. The food constituent, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “help to maintain...... human intervention studies, from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim, did not show an effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on the incidence of diarrhoea resulting from antibiotic treatment. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been...... established between the consumption of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and maintenance of normal defecation during antibiotic treatment. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...

  20. Selective and differential enumerations of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium spp. in yoghurt--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Rabia; Shah, Nagendra P

    2011-10-03

    Yoghurt is increasingly being used as a carrier of probiotic bacteria for their potential health benefits. To meet with a recommended level of ≥10(6) viable cells/g of a product, assessment of viability of probiotic bacteria in market preparations is crucial. This requires a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in yoghurt such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus, Lb. casei and Bifidobacterium. This chapter presents an overview of media that could be used for differential and selective enumerations of yoghurt bacteria. De Man Rogosa Sharpe agar containing fructose (MRSF), MRS agar pH 5.2 (MRS 5.2), reinforced clostridial prussian blue agar at pH 5.0 (RCPB 5.0) or reinforced clostridial agar at pH 5.3 (RCA 5.3) are suitable for enumeration of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus when the incubation is carried out at 45°C for 72h. S. thermophilus (ST) agar and M17 are recommended for selective enumeration of S. thermophilus. Selective enumeration of Lb. acidophilus in mixed culture could be made in Rogosa agar added with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (X-Glu) or MRS containing maltose (MRSM) and incubation in a 20% CO2 atmosphere. Lb. casei could be selectively enumerated on specially formulated Lb. casei (LC) agar from products containing yoghurt starter bacteria (S. thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), Lb. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lb. casei. Bifidobacterium could be enumerated on MRS agar supplemented with nalidixic acid, paromomycin, neomycin sulphate and lithium chloride (MRS-NPNL) under anaerobic incubation at 37°C for 72h.

  1. Milk digesta and milk protein fractions influence the adherence of Lactobacillus gasseri R and Lactobacillus casei FMP to human cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volstatova, Tereza; Havlik, Jaroslav; Potuckova, Miroslava; Geigerova, Martina

    2016-08-10

    Adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is considered an important feature of probiotic bacteria, which may increase their persistence in the intestine, allowing them to exert their beneficial health effect or promote the colonisation process. However, this feature might be largely dependent on the host specificity or diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of selected milks and milk protein fractions on the ability of selected lactobacilli to adhere to the cells of an intestinal model based on co-culture Caco-2/HT29-MTX cell lines. Most milk digesta did not significantly affect bacterial adhesion except for UHT-treated milk and sheep milk. The presence of UHT-treated milk digesta reduced the adhesion of Lactobacillus gasseri R by 61% but not that of Lactobacillus casei FMP. However, sheep milk significantly increased the adherence of L. casei FMP (P < 0.05) but not of L. gasseri R. Among the protein fractions, rennet casein (RCN) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) showed reproducible patterns and strain-specific effects on bacterial adherence. While RCN reduced the adherence of L. gasseri R to <50% compared to the control, it did not have a significant effect on L. casei FMP. In contrast, BSA reduced L. casei FMP adherence to a higher extent than that of L. gasseri R. Whey protein (WH) tended to increase the adherence of both strains by 130%-180%. Recently, interactions between the host diet and its microbiota have attracted considerable interest. Our results may explain one of the aspects of the role of milk in the development of microbiota or support of probiotic supplements. Based on our data, we conclude that the persistence of probiotic strains supplemented as part of dairy food or constitutional microbiota in the gut might be affected negatively or positively by the food matrix through complex strain or concentration dependent effects.

  2. Compromised Lactobacillus helveticus starter activity in the presence of facultative heterofermentative Lactobacillus casei DPC6987 results in atypical eye formation in Swiss-type cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Daniel J; McSweeney, Paul L H; Cotter, Paul D; Giblin, Linda; Sheehan, Jeremiah J

    2016-04-01

    Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria are commonly implicated in undesirable gas formation in several varieties, including Cheddar, Dutch-, and Swiss-type cheeses, primarily due to their ability to ferment a wide variety of substrates. This effect can be magnified due to factors that detrimentally affect the composition or activity of starter bacteria, resulting in the presence of greater than normal amounts of fermentable carbohydrates and citrate. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for a facultatively heterofermentative Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus casei DPC6987) isolated from a cheese plant environment to promote gas defects in the event of compromised starter activity. A Swiss-type cheese was manufactured, at pilot scale and in triplicate, containing a typical starter culture (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus) together with propionic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus helveticus populations were omitted in certain vats to mimic starter failure. Lactobacillus casei DPC6987 was added to each experimental vat at 4 log cfu/g. Cheese compositional analysis and X-ray computed tomography revealed that the failure of starter bacteria, in this case L. helveticus, coupled with the presence of a faculatively heterofermentative Lactobacillus (L. casei) led to excessive eye formation during ripening. The availability of excess amounts of lactose, galactose, and citrate during the initial ripening stages likely provided the heterofermentative L. casei with sufficient substrates for gas formation. The accrual of these fermentable substrates was notable in cheeses lacking the L. helveticus starter population. The results of this study are commercially relevant, as they demonstrate the importance of viability of starter populations and the control of specific nonstarter lactic acid bacteria to ensure appropriate eye formation in Swiss-type cheese.

  3. Characterization of the cysK2-ctl1-cysE2 gene cluster involved in sulfur metabolism in Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogicevic, Biljana; Irmler, Stefan; Portmann, Reto; Meile, Leo; Berthoud, Hélène

    2012-01-16

    The up- and downstream regions of ctl1 and ctl2 that encode a cystathionine lyase were analyzed in various Lactobacillus casei strains. ctl1 and ctl2 were found to be part of a gene cluster encoding two other open reading frames. One of the two open reading frames precedes ctl1 and encodes a putative cysteine synthase. The other open reading frame lies downstream of ctl1 and encodes a putative serine acetyltransferase. The gene cluster is not present in the publicly available genome sequences of L. casei ATCC 334, BL23 and Zhang. Apparently, the gene cluster was acquired by a horizontal gene transfer event and can also be found in other lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. RT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of the gene cluster. Additionally, an mass spectrometry-based selected reaction monitoring method was developed for quantifying Ctl1 in a cell-free extract of lactic acid bacteria. The gene cluster cysK2-ctl1-cysE2 was expressed as single transcript, and expression was down-regulated by cysteine. In addition, cystathionine lyase activity present in cell-free extracts disappeared when L. casei was grown in the presence of cysteine. Whereas the transcript and the gene product of ctl1 protein were found in all studied ctl1(+)L. casei strains, only the transcript but not the protein or cystathionine lyase activity was detected in L. helveticus FAM2888, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 and S. thermophilus FAM17014, which actually possess a homolog of the cysK2-ctl1-cysE2 gene cluster.

  4. The Effect of Lactobacillus casei 32G on the Mouse Cecum Microbiota and Innate Immune Response Is Dose and Time Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Busra; De Wolfe, Travis J; Tandee, Kanokwan; Safdar, Nasia; Darien, Benjamin J; Steele, James L

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli have been associated with a variety of immunomodulatory effects and some of these effects have been related to changes in gastrointestinal microbiota. However, the relationship between probiotic dose, time since probiotic consumption, changes in the microbiota, and immune system requires further investigation. The objective of this study was to determine if the effect of Lactobacillus casei 32G on the murine gastrointestinal microbiota and immune function are dose and time dependent. Mice were fed L. casei 32G at doses of 106, 107, or 108 CFU/day/mouse for seven days and were sacrificed 0.5h, 3.5h, 12h, or 24h after the last administration. The ileum tissue and the cecal content were collected for immune profiling by qPCR and microbiota analysis, respectively. The time required for L. casei 32G to reach the cecum was monitored by qPCR and the 32G bolus reaches the cecum 3.5h after the last administration. L. casei 32G altered the cecal microbiota with the predominance of Lachnospiraceae IS, and Oscillospira decreasing significantly (p microbiota composition, regardless of 32G doses, was observed at the 12h time point. A likely explanation for this observation is the level of feed derived-nutrients resulting from the 12h light/dark cycle. 32G results in consistent increases in Clec2h expression and reductions in TLR-2, alpha-defensins, and lysozyme. Changes in expression of these components of the innate immune system are one possible explanation for the observed changes in the cecal microbiota. Additionally, 32G administration was observed to alter the expression of cytokines (IL-10rb and TNF-α) in a manner consistent with an anti-inflammatory response.

  5. Eruca sativa Might Influence the Growth, Survival under Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions and Some Biological Features of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florinda Fratianni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth and viability of three Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, after their passage through simulated gastric and pancreatic juices were studied as a function of their presence in the growth medium of rocket salad (Eruca sativa. The presence of E. sativa affected some of the biological properties of the strains. For example, L. acidophilus and L. plantarum worked more efficiently in the presence of E. sativa, increasing not only the antioxidant activity of the medium, but also their own antioxidant power and antimicrobial activity; L. rhamnosus was not affected in the same manner. Overall, the presence of vegetables might help to boost, in specific cases, some of the characteristics of lactobacilli, including antioxidant and antimicrobial power.

  6. Eruca sativa might influence the growth, survival under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and some biological features of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratianni, Florinda; Pepe, Selenia; Cardinale, Federica; Granese, Tiziana; Cozzolino, Autilia; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2014-10-01

    The growth and viability of three Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, after their passage through simulated gastric and pancreatic juices were studied as a function of their presence in the growth medium of rocket salad (Eruca sativa). The presence of E. sativa affected some of the biological properties of the strains. For example, L. acidophilus and L. plantarum worked more efficiently in the presence of E. sativa, increasing not only the antioxidant activity of the medium, but also their own antioxidant power and antimicrobial activity; L. rhamnosus was not affected in the same manner. Overall, the presence of vegetables might help to boost, in specific cases, some of the characteristics of lactobacilli, including antioxidant and antimicrobial power.

  7. The effects of Probiotic on Human Intestinal Microbiota——Taking Lactobacillus casei Zhang as Example%益生菌对肠道菌群的影响——以Lactobacillus casei Zhang研究为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张家超; 郭壮; 孙志宏; 陈卫; 张和平

    2011-01-01

    人体肠道内栖居着数以万亿计的微生物,这些微生物在繁衍的过程中逐渐达到种类和数量的平衡,而这种平衡与机体正常代谢密切相关.一旦肠道菌群结构发生失调,各种代谢类疾病便随之而来.益生菌在肠道内的大量繁衍,可调节紊乱的肠道菌群结构并提高机体的免疫能力,进而帮助恢复健康水平.近年来,国际上科学研究的热点逐渐集中于益生菌对肠道菌群的影响以及肠道菌群和疾病的关系.本文概述国内外有关益生菌影响肠道菌群的研究现状.以1株具有完全自主知识产权并且已成功实施产业化应用的益生菌菌株——Lactobacillus casei Zhang为例,详实说明益生菌对人肠道菌群的影响.在此基础上提出本学科现存的若干研究瓶颈及今后的发展方向.%The human gastrointestinal (CI) tract contains an immense number of microorganisms, collectively known as the microbiota. The gut microbiota played important roles in keeping the body health. The colonization of probiotic in human gut stimulated intestinal epithelium renewal and directed the maturation of the immune system. Recent years, more and more researches were focused on the effect of probiotic on human intestinal microbiota and the relationship of gut microflora and disease. This paper makes a summary of the progress of the effect of probiotic on human intestinal microflora. To better understand this subject, we took our research results of the effects of probiotic Lactobacillus casei Zhang on human intestinal microbiota as example.

  8. Effect of live and inactivated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on experimentally induced rhinovirus colds: randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpu, M; Kekkonen, R A; Korpela, R; Tynkkynen, S; Järvenpää, S; Kautiainen, H; Allen, E K; Hendley, J O; Pitkäranta, A; Winther, B

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the usability of an experimental rhinovirus model in probiotic trials aiming to assess effectiveness in viral infections, and to provide preliminary data of live and inactivated probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG for larger-scale trials utilising the model. 59 subjects were randomised to receive 100 ml of fruit juice supplemented with 10(9) cfu of live or heat-inactivated (by spray-drying) L. rhamnosus GG or control juice daily for six weeks. After three weeks subjects were intranasally inoculated with experimental rhinovirus. Infection rate (at least one positive culture for challenge virus on five days following inoculation or at least four-fold rise in antibody response to challenge virus) was 14/19 in the group receiving live probiotic strain and 18/20 both in the group receiving heat-inactivated probiotic strain and in the control group (P=0.36). The occurrence and severity of cold symptoms on the five days following the inoculation was lowest in the group receiving live probiotic strain (P=0.45). This trial was the first one dedicated to the investigation of the effect of probiotics using the experimental rhinovirus model. The model showed potential for demonstration of efficacy of probiotics in controlled respiratory viral infections. Occurrence and severity of cold symptoms and number of subjects with rhinovirus infection was lowest in the group receiving live L. rhamnosus GG, but differences were not statistically significant. Further large-scale studies are needed to demonstrate the efficacy of L. rhamnosus GG in respiratory infections.

  9. Eruca sativa Might Influence the Growth, Survival under Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions and Some Biological Features of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Florinda Fratianni; Selenia Pepe; Federica Cardinale; Tiziana Granese; Autilia Cozzolino; Raffaele Coppola; Filomena Nazzaro

    2014-01-01

    The growth and viability of three Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, after their passage through simulated gastric and pancreatic juices were studied as a function of their presence in the growth medium of rocket salad (Eruca sativa). The presence of E. sativa affected some of the biological properties of the strains. For example, L. acidophilus and L. plantarum worked more efficiently in the presence of E. sativa, increasing...

  10. SLA typing using the PCR-SSP method and establishment of the SLA homozygote line in pedigreed SNU miniature pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Su-Cheong; Park, Chung-Gyu; Lee, Byeong-Chun; Lee, Wang-Jae

    2010-04-01

    Seoul National University (SNU) miniature pigs represent a closed colony with 24 founder pigs and a well preserved pedigree. Characterization using mRNA sequence analysis was conducted for 6 swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) loci in parental or founder pigs, and 17 defined alleles were detected. Based on these complete coding sequences, 17 sequence specific primers (SSPs) were designed for polymorphic sites. To validate the specificity of each allele SSP, the PCR-SSP was conducted with defined allele clones as templates. PCR-SSP was conducted with the hot start polymerase and touch-down PCR. The parental or found SNU miniature pigs showed overall SLA class I and II heterozygotes. Using the established PCR-SSP method, we conducted SLA typing for breeding stock including 2 pedigreed pigs and identified the novel SLA class II homozygote haplotye (DRA*0201, DRB1*0403, DQA*0102 and DQB1*0701) and 2 SLA homozygote pig lines: SLA class I Hp-3.0 and class II Hp-0.3, and SLA class I Hp-2.0 and class II Hp-0.2. We thought that our PCR-SSP SLA typing method could be applicable for new SLA homozygote line establishment by assignment and scheduled breeding.

  11. Antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. tolerans isolated from a sourdough bread culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Yousef I; Bullerman, Lloyd B

    2008-01-15

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from four different sourdough bread cultures previously investigated for antifungal activity. A total of 116 isolates were obtained and screened for antifungal activity against a battery of molds. The most inhibitory isolate obtained was identified by API 50 CHL and 16s ribosomal RNA genotyping and found to be Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. tolerans. This isolate completely inhibited the growth of Fusarium proliferatum M 5689, M 5991 and Fusarium graminearum R 4053 compared to controls in a dual agar plate assay.

  12. Accumulation of biologically active furanocoumarins in Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiert, H; Abou-Mandour, A A; Czygan, F Ch

    2005-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate dynamics of accumulation of five linear furanocoumarins and umbelliferone in stationary liquid cultures of Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams during 6-week growth cycles. The contents of individual metabolites in biomass increased 1.8-3.5 times while their total content rose 2.3 times. Maximum contents of xanthotoxin, bergapten and isopimpinellin (112.3, 76.2 and 84.0mg/100g d.w., respectively) and maximum total content of all metabolites (283.4 mg/100 g d.w.), obtained on 35th culture day, are interesting from practical point of view.

  13. Chemical composition and possible in vitro phytotoxic activity of Helichrsyum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. italicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Marandino, Aurelio; Scognamiglio, Maria Rosa; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2011-09-08

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. italicum, collected in the National Park of Cilento and Diano Valley, Southern Italy, was studied by means of GC and GC/MS. Forty four compounds of 45 constituents were identified in the oil, mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The essential oil was evaluated for its potential in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and early radicle elongation of radish and garden cress. The radicle elongation of radish was significantly inhibited at the highest doses tested, while germination of both seeds was not affected.

  14. [Alkaloids and flavonoid from aerial parts of Hammada articulata ssp. scoparia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkrief, R; Brum-Bousquet, M; Tillequin, F; Koch, M

    1990-01-01

    Two alkaloids (N-methylisosalsoline and carnegine) had been previously described from the aerial parts of Hammada articulata ssp. scoparia. A thorough study of this plant material has now led to the isolation of eight minor alkaloids and one flavonoid. The alkaloids include four isoquinolines (isosalsoline, salsolidine, dehydrosalsolidine and isosalsolidine), one isoquinolone (N-methylcorydaldine), tryptamine, N-omega-methyltryptamine and one beta-carboline (tetrahydroharman). The flavonoid has been identified as isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-robinobioside. The structures have been elucidated on the basis of spectral data, mainly mass spectrometry (D-IC) and 1H NMR.

  15. PENGEMBANGAN SUBJECT SPECIFIC PEDAGOGY (SSP IPA TERPADU UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Yuliawati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background of this research is the analysis of the results of interviews some junior secondary schools in Yogyakarta and the conclusion that teachers do not use an integrated science teaching and teachers still find difficulties in the application of learning science in an integrated manner. It can be influenced by several factors, such as the lack of reference used by teachers in presenting the material Integrated Science relevantly, most of science teachers are from educational background of chemistry, physics, and biology instead of science education, so that teachers find difficulties to create an integrated learning of science. In addition, teachers feel difficulty in determining the depth of the material, limits of integration in integrated science teaching, and did not know the concept of integrated science teaching. This research is a development research. Learning tools developed included : student books, lesson plans, student activity sheets and evaluation tools. The development of the learning which is done in this study use the models of 4D development which includes the step of Define (definition which at this stage conducted a needs analysis. Design : it is the stage of Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP software design. Development, it is the stage of development after the draft was made followed by a learning device validation by experts. This stage is also conducted to seek input from all the responses, reactions and comments from teachers, students, and observers so that it can be used for further improvement of science teaching later. The Disseminate, it is the stage of field tests are widely but not done. Data collection instruments used in this study include : test items and questionnaire. The conclusion of this development research are as follows : the results of the validation SSP integrated science by learning tools expert, material experts and media experts indicate the category of Very Good (SB so that SSP integrated

  16. Marked Acceleration of Atherosclerosis following Lactobacillus casei induced Coronary Arteritis in a Mouse Model of Kawasaki Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Lee, Young Ho; Crother, Timothy R.; Fishbein, Michael; Zhang, Wenxuan; Yilmaz, Atilla; Shimada, Kenichi; Schulte, Danica J; Lehman, Thomas J.A.; Shah, Prediman K.; Arditi, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate if Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract (LCWE)-induced Kawasaki Disease (KD) accelerates atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice. Method and Resuslts Apoe−/− or Ldlr−/− mice were injected with LCWE (KD mice) or PBS, fed high fat diet for 8 weeks, and atherosclerotic lesions in aortic sinuses (AS), arch (AC) and whole aorta were assessed. KD mice had larger, more complex aortic lesions with abundant collagen, and both extracellular and intracellular lipid and foam cells, compared to lesions in control mice despite similar cholesterol levels. Both Apoe−/− KD and Ldlr−/− KD mice showed dramatic acceleration in atherosclerosis vs. controls, with increases in en face aortic atherosclerosis and plaque size in both the AS and AC plaques. Accelerated atherosclerosis was associated with increased circulating IL-12p40, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and increased macrophage, DC, and T cell recruitment in lesions. Furthermore, daily injections of the IL-1Ra, which inhibits LCWE induced KD vasculitis, prevented the acceleration of atherosclerosis. Conclusions Our results suggest an important pathophysiologic link between coronary arteritis/vasculitis in the KD mouse model and subsequent atherosclerotic acceleration, supporting the concept that a similar relation may also be present in KD patients. These results also suggest that KD in childhood may predispose to accelerated and early atherosclerosis as adults. PMID:22628430

  17. Characterization of putative class II bacteriocins identified from a non-bacteriocin-producing strain Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yang-Cheng; Liu, Cheng-Feng; Lin, Jhao-Fen; Li, An-Chieh; Lo, Ta-Chun; Lin, Thy-Hou

    2013-01-01

    Several putative class II bacteriocin-like genes were identified in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334, all of which might encode peptides with a double-glycine leader. Six peptides encoded by these genes were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and then partially purified in order to test their bacteriocin activity. The results revealed that the mature LSEI_2163 peptide was a class IId bacteriocin that exhibited antimicrobial activity against some lactobacilli and several Listeria species. Similarly, mature LSEI_2386 was a putative pheromone peptide that also had significant bacteriocin activity against several Listeria species. The activities of both peptides tolerated 121°C for 30 min but not treatment with proteinase K or trypsin. The two Cys residues located at positions 4 and 24 in the mature LSEI_2163 peptide were shown by mass spectrometry to form a disulfide bridge, which was required for optimal antibacterial activity. However, replacement of one or both Cys with Ser would cause significant reduction of the antibacterial activity, the reduction being greater when only one of the Cys residues (C4S) was replaced than when both (C4S/C24S) were replaced.

  18. In vitro L.casei EPS promote small intestinal epithelial cells of Balb/c mice proliferation and secretion of IL-8, IL-10 and TGF-β%L.casei EPS体外促进Balb/c小鼠小肠上皮细胞增殖及其分泌IL-8、IL-10和TGF-β

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍思序; 唐彦君; 刘宁

    2013-01-01

    目的 以干酪乳杆菌(Lactobacillus casei,L.casei)胞外多糖(exopolysaccharides,EPS)为研究对象,研究其在体外对Balb/c小鼠小肠上皮细胞(small intestinal epithelial cell,IECs)增殖及其分泌IL-8、IL-10和TGF-β的影响.方法 利用嗜热菌蛋白酶消化联合差速贴壁以及免疫细胞化学鉴定的方法对Balb/c小鼠IECs进行分离和鉴定,获得实验用的IECs.用不同质量浓度的L.caseiEPS与IECs共培养,分别观察0.5、1、2h和4h后IECs的增殖情况.当用不同质量浓度的L.casei EPS处理IECs 2 h后,采用双抗体夹心ELISA法检测细胞培养上清液中细胞因子IL-8、IL-10和TGF-β的质量浓度.结果 嗜热菌蛋白酶消化联合差速贴壁的方法能够获得纯度高与活性好的IECs;L.casei EPS能够促进IECs的增殖,显著上调上清液中IL-8、IL-10和TGF-β的分泌水平(P<0.05),EPS质量浓度在0~150 μg/ml范围内呈剂量依赖关系,并且在150 μg/ml的质量浓度时达到最大值.结论 L.casei EPS能够促进IECs的增殖及IL-8、IL-10和TGF-β的分泌水平.

  19. EVALUACIÓN DE UNA COLECCIÓN DEL GÉNERO Triticum: TRIGO HARINERO (Triticum aestivum ssp aestivum), TRIGO DURO (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) Y TRITICALE (X Triticum secale Wittmack) EN LAS CONDICIONES DEL OCCIDENTE DE CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    En el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA) se evaluó una colección del género Triticum, con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de diferentes especies en las condiciones del occidente de Cuba. Las especies estudiadas fueron: Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum y X Triticum secale Wittmack. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los caracteres analizados fueron altura de la planta (cm), longitud de las espigas (cm...

  20. ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PROFILE OF LACTOBACILLUS PARACASEI SSP. PARACASEI-1 ISOLATED FROM REGIONAL YOGURTS OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummay Honi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei-1 was identified from traditional yogurts of Khulna region, Bangladesh and its enzyme and antibiotic resistance profiles were determined. A commercially available API Zym kit was employed to determine the activities of 19 different enzymes. We found that L. paracasei ssp. paracasei-1 showed strong activities for several enzymes, viz. leucine arylamidase, valine arylamidase, napthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, β-galactosidase, α –Glucosidase, N-Acetyl- β- glucosaminidase while activities for other enzymes were absent. Antibiotic resistance profile was assessed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC test for 61 major antibiotics and 4 antifungal agents obtained from commercial sources in MRS Agar media. The strain generally showed resistance to gram negative spectrum antibiotic while it showed susceptibility towards β-lactam antibiotic to gram positive spectrum antibiotic. The findings provide the therapeutic basis of using L. paracasei ssp. paracasei-1 in finished food products.

  1. Optimization of conditions in synthesis and extraction of exopolysaccharide of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG%鼠李糖乳酸杆菌Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG胞外多糖合成与提取优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟; 刘丽; 高侃; 何阳春; 王永侠; 汪海峰

    2014-01-01

    试验旨在对鼠李糖乳杆菌(Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG,LGG)胞外多糖的提取工艺和合成条件进行优化.采用单因素试验分别研究三氯乙酸浓度、乙醇添加量和乙醇沉淀时间对胞外多糖提取量的影响,利用单因素结合正交试验对碳源、葡萄糖浓度、培养基初始pH值、接种量、培养温度、培养时间等影响胞外多糖合成的条件进行优化.结果表明,胞外多糖合成的最佳条件为:培养基中添加20 g/1的葡萄糖,调节其pH值为6.5,在30℃培养20 h,在此条件下,胞外多糖的产量为230.2 mg/l.胞外多糖最佳提取条件为:用11%的三氯乙酸除蛋白,4倍体积95%的乙醇沉淀24h,胞外多糖提取效果较佳.

  2. The Non-universality of the Low-mass End of the IMF is Robust against the Choice of SSP Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiniello, C.; Trager, S. C.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    2015-01-01

    We perform a direct comparison of two state-of-the art single stellar population (SSP) models that have been used to demonstrate the non-universality of the low-mass end of the initial mass function (IMF) slope. The two public versions of the SSP models are restricted to either solar abundance patte

  3. Congenital vestibular disease in captive Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) in Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelhouse, Jaimee L; Hulst, Frances; Beatty, Julia A; Hogg, Carolyn J; Child, Georgina; Wade, Claire M; Barrs, Vanessa R

    2015-11-01

    The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) is a critically endangered species in the wild. To ensure that demographic and genetic integrity are maintained in the longer term, those Sumatran tigers held in captivity are managed as a global population under a World Association of Zoos and Aquariums Global Species Management Plan (GSMP). A retrospective study, including segregation and pedigree analysis, was conducted to investigate potential cases of congenital vestibular disease (CVD) in captive Sumatran tigers in Australasian zoos using medical and husbandry records, as well as video footage obtained from 50 tigers between 1975 and 2013. Data from the GSMP Sumatran tiger studbook were made available for pedigree and segregation analysis. Fourteen cases of CVD in 13 Sumatran tiger cubs and one hybrid cub (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae × Panthera tigris) were identified. Vestibular signs including head tilt, circling, ataxia, strabismus and nystagmus were observed between birth and 2 months of age. These clinical signs persisted for a median of 237 days and had resolved by 2 years of age in all cases. Pedigree analysis revealed that all affected tigers were closely related and shared a single common ancestor in the last four generations. A genetic cause for the disease is suspected and, based on pedigree and segregation analysis, an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is likely. Further investigations to determine the world-wide prevalence and underlying pathology of this disorder are warranted.

  4. The Essential Oil Composition of Tanacetum densum (Labill. Heywood ssp. eginense Heywood from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Polatoğlu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Water-distilled essential oils from aerial parts of Tanacetum densum (L. Heywood ssp. eginense Heywood, from Turkey was analysed by GC and GC-MS. T. densum ssp. eginense flower, stem and leaf oils were characterized with camphor (30.9% , 25.7%, 27.7%, 1,8-Cineole (12.4% flower oil, camphene (10.6%, %7.0, flower and leaf oils, bornyl acetate, (9.4%, 11.8%, stem and leaf oils, α-pinene (7.0%, %5.3, flower and leaf oils , borneol (5.1%, 5.2%, stem and leaf oils, neodihydrocarveol (5.1%, flower oil. An unidentified compound was also present in flower, stem and leaf oils (11.5%, 27.2%, 20.5%. A comparison is done with the previous investigations on the other subspecies of T. densum and the differences were investigated. Flower and stem oils did not show any significant activity to the tested microorganisms when compared to positive control chloramphenicol. Flower and stem oils both showed cytotoxicity to Vibrio fischeri.

  5. Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract inhibits DEN induced murine hepatic preneoplasia and carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojari, Radhika; Gupta, Sanjay; Maru, Girish; Khade, Bharat; Bhagwat, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa is a well established drug in the Ayurvedic system of medicine used for antirheumatism and antiasthmatism. Inhibitory effects of S. rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract on DEN induced hepatocellular preneoplastic foci and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in rats. Rats received DEN, 1ppm/g b.w. in drinking water for 6 weeks or CCl(4), 0.7 ml/kg i.p. once a week for 4 weeks and seed extract 50 mg, 100 mg/kg b.w. orally prior, during and after exposure to DEN/CCl4 for 20 or 5 weeks, respectively. Treatment with seed extract significantly inhibited the increase in DEN/CCl(4) induced activities of pre-cancerous marker enzymes; gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, glutathione-S-transferase, hepatotoxicity marker enzymes; glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase as well as lipid peroxidase. Depleted glutathione, protein and albumin levels were restored. Also, histopathological and transmission electron microscopic studies showed prevention of cellular degenerative changes. The chemopreventive and hepatoprotective potentials of seed extract are due to free radical scavenging activity and restoration of cellular structural integrity.

  6. DeSSpOt: an instrument for stellar spin orientation determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Anna-Lea; Schneide, Magnus; Wiedemann, Günter

    2012-09-01

    We designed and constructed a special instrument to enable the determination of the stellar's spin orientation. The Differential image rotator for Stellar Spin Orientation, DeSSpOt, allows the simultaneous observations of two anti-parallel orientations of the star on the spectrum. On a high resolution échelle spectrum, the stellar rotation causes a slight line tilt visible in the spatial direction which is comparable to a rotation curve. We developed a new method, which exploits the variations in these tilts, to estimate the absolute position angle of the rotation axis. The line tilt is retrieved by a spectroastrometric extraction of the spectrum. In order to validate the method, we observed spectroscopic binaries with known orbital parameters. The determination of the orbital position angle is equivalent to the determination of the stellar position angle, but is easier to to detect. DeSSpOt was successfully implemented on the high resolution Coudé spectrograph of the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg. The observations of Capella led to the determination of the orbital position angle. Our value of 37.2° is in agreement with the values previously found in the literature. As such we verified that both method and instrument are valid.

  7. DeSSpOt: an instrument for stellar spin orientation determination

    CERN Document Server

    Lesage, Anna-Lea; Wiedemann, Günter

    2012-01-01

    We designed and constructed a special instrument to enable the determination of the stellar's spin orientation. The Differential image rotator for Stellar Spin Orientation, DeSSpOt, allows the simultaneous observations of two anti-parallel orientations of the star on the spectrum. On a high resolution \\'echelle spectrum, the stellar rotation causes a slight line tilt visible in the spatial direction which is comparable to a rotation curve. We developed a new method, which exploits the variations in these tilts, to estimate the absolute position angle of the rotation axis. The line tilt is retrieved by a spectro-astrometric extraction of the spectrum. In order to validate the method, we observed spectroscopic binaries with known orbital parameters. The determination of the orbital position angle is equivalent to the determination of the stellar position angle, but is easier to to detect. DeSSpOt was successfully implemented on the high resolution Coud\\'e spectrograph of the Th\\"uringer Landessternwarte Tautenb...

  8. Genetic and biochemical characterization of the cell wall hydrolase activity of the major secreted protein of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar J J Claes

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG produces two major secreted proteins, designated here Msp1 (LGG_00324 or p75 and Msp2 (LGG_00031 or p40, which have been reported to promote the survival and growth of intestinal epithelial cells. Intriguingly, although each of these proteins shares homology with cell wall hydrolases, a physiological function that correlates with such an enzymatic activity remained to be substantiated in LGG. To investigate the bacterial function, we constructed knock-out mutants in the corresponding genes aiming to establish a genotype to phenotype relation. Microscopic examination of the msp1 mutant showed the presence of rather long and overly extended cell chains, which suggests that normal daughter cell separation is hampered. Subsequent observation of the LGG wild-type cells by immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the Msp1 protein accumulates at the septum of exponential-phase cells. The cell wall hydrolyzing activity of the Msp1 protein was confirmed by zymogram analysis. Subsequent analysis by RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry of the digestion products of LGG peptidoglycan (PG by Msp1 indicated that the Msp1 protein has D-glutamyl-L-lysyl endopeptidase activity. Immunofluorescence microscopy and the failure to construct a knock-out mutant suggest an indispensable role for Msp2 in priming septum formation in LGG.

  9. Protective effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG against dyslipidemia in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bobae; Park, Kun-Young; Ji, Yosep; Park, Soyoung; Holzapfel, Wilhelm; Hyun, Chang-Kee

    2016-04-29

    Recent reports suggest that gut microbiota can be a major determinant of dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its modulation by treating probiotics is a valid strategy to exert a protective effect. In this study, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice were orally administrated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) for 13 weeks. Significant reductions in the weights of the liver, mesenteric and subcutaneous adipose tissues were observed in LGG-treated HFD-fed mice compared to LGG-non-treated controls. The serum levels of triglyceride and cholesterol were also significantly reduced in LGG-treated mice. Gut microbial composition analysis showed that shifts in the diversity of dominant gut bacteria were caused by HFD and restored by LGG treatment. A remarkable decrease of hepatic fat content was also observed in LGG-treated mice, accompanied by downregulated expressions of lipogenic and pro-inflammatory genes in the liver. LGG-treated mice had lower expression levels of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis, but conversely, higher expression levels of cholesterol efflux-related genes compared to LGG-non-treated controls. The cholesterol-lowering effect of LGG was also found to be mediated by suppression of FXR and FGF15 signaling, resulting in the upregulation of hepatic CYP7A1. Our findings confirm a therapeutic potential of probiotics for ameliorating dyslipidemia and NAFLD.

  10. Epithelial adhesion mediated by pilin SpaC is required for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-induced cellular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardita, Courtney S; Mercante, Jeffrey W; Kwon, Young Man; Luo, Liping; Crawford, Madelyn E; Powell, Domonica N; Jones, Rheinallt M; Neish, Andrew S

    2014-08-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a widely used probiotic, and the strain's salutary effects on the intestine have been extensively documented. We previously reported that strain GG can modulate inflammatory signaling, as well as epithelial migration and proliferation, by activating NADPH oxidase 1-catalyzed generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, how strain GG induces these responses is unknown. Here, we report that strain GG's probiotic benefits are dependent on the bacterial-epithelial interaction mediated by the SpaC pilin subunit. By comparing strain GG to an isogenic mutant that lacks SpaC (strain GGΩspaC), we establish that SpaC is necessary for strain GG to adhere to gut mucosa, that SpaC contributes to strain GG-induced epithelial generation of ROS, and that SpaC plays a role in strain GG's capacity to stimulate extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) signaling in enterocytes. In addition, we show that SpaC is required for strain GG-mediated stimulation of cell proliferation and protection against radiologically inflicted intestinal injury. The identification of a critical surface protein required for strain GG to mediate its probiotic influence advances our understanding of the molecular basis for the symbiotic relationship between some commensal bacteria of the gut lumen and enterocytes. Further insights into this relationship are critical for the development of novel approaches to treat intestinal diseases.

  11. EFFECT OF CULTURE MEDIUM ON BACTERIOCIN PRODUCTION BY LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS HN001 AND LACTOBACILLUS REUTERI ATCC 53608

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Uscanga B. R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of media on bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 53608 using three different media: YPM, YPF and MRS supplemented with glucose and K2HPO4. The optimum temperature was 37°C and initial pH 6.5. Bacteriocin-like substances produced by tested bacteria in MRS medium supplemented with glucose and K2HPO4 exhibited a broad antimicrobial spectrum determined by well diffusion assay against indicator bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, Lactobacillus sakei, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, but no antimicrobial spectrum against E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus was detected. Bacteriocin was sensitive to protease IV, trypsin, pepsin and -amylases, but resistant to lipase. It was also resistant to detergents such as Tween 80, Triton-X and SDS. This bacteriocin was thermo-stable (resistant at 60°C, 90°C and 100°C for 30 min. Tested bacteria showed the best antimicrobial (bacteriocin-like activity after growth in MRS medium. Bacteriocin substances produced by tested bacteria showed promising thermo-stable technological properties.

  12. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant enhance neonatal resistance to systemic Escherichia coli K1 infection by accelerating development of intestinal defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaolong; Zeng, Qing; Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Zeng, Zhijie; Yang, Weijun; Qiu, Jiawen; Du, Lei; Boddu, Swapna; Wu, Tongwei; Cai, Danxian; Huang, Sheng-He; Cao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant (LCS) has a preventive effect against gut-derived systemic neonatal Escherichia coli (E. coli) K1 infection. The preventive effects were evaluated in human colonic carcinoma cell line Caco-2 and neonatal rat models. Our in vitro results showed that LCS could block adhesion, invasion and translocation of E. coli K1 to Caco-2 monolayer via up-regulating mucin production and maintaining intestinal integrity. In vivo experiments revealed that pre-treatment with LCS significantly decrease susceptibility of neonatal rats to oral E. coli K1 infection as reflected by reduced bacterial intestinal colonization, translocation, dissemination and systemic infections. Further, we found that LCS treated neonatal rats have higher intestinal expressions of Ki67, MUC2, ZO-1, IgA, mucin and lower barrier permeability than those in untreated rats. These results indicated that LCS could enhance neonatal resistance to systemic E. coli K1 infection via promoting maturation of neonatal intestinal defense. In conclusions, our findings suggested that LCS has a prophylactic effect against systemic E. coli K1 infection in neonates. Future studies aimed at identifying the specific active ingredients in LCS will be helpful in developing effective pharmacological strategies for preventing neonatal E. coli K1 infection. PMID:28262688

  13. The use of flow cytometry to accurately ascertain total and viable counts of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Yves; Champagne, Claude P

    2015-04-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the precision and accuracy of flow cytometry (FC) methodologies in the evaluation of populations of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011) in two commercial dried forms, and ascertain the challenges in enumerating them in a chocolate matrix. FC analyses of total (FC(T)) and viable (FC(V)) counts in liquid or dried cultures were almost two times more precise (reproducible) than traditional direct microscopic counts (DCM) or colony forming units (CFU). With FC, it was possible to ascertain low levels of dead cells (FC(D)) in fresh cultures, which is not possible with traditional CFU and DMC methodologies. There was no interference of chocolate solids on FC counts of probiotics when inoculation was above 10(7) bacteria per g. Addition of probiotics in chocolate at 40 °C resulted in a 37% loss in viable cells. Blending of the probiotic powder into chocolate was not uniform which raised a concern that the precision of viable counts could suffer. FCT data can serve to identify the correct inoculation level of a sample, and viable counts (FCV or CFU) can subsequently be better interpreted.

  14. Efficacy of whey protein gel networks as potential viability-enhancing scaffolds for cell immobilization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, S B; Gee, V L; Ross, R P; Stanton, C; Fitzgerald, G F; Brodkorb, A

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated cell immobilization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in three separate protein products: native, denatured and hydrolysed whey protein isolate (WPI). Treatments were assessed for their ability to enhance probiotic survival during storage, heat stress and ex vivo gastric incubation. Spatial distribution of probiotic cells within immobilized treatments was evaluated by atomic force and confocal scanning laser microscopy, while cell viability was enumerated by plate count and flow cytometry (FACS). Microscopic analysis of denatured treatments revealed an oasis of immobilized cells, phase-separated from the surrounding protein matrix; an environmental characteristic analogous to hydrolysed networks. Cell immobilization in hydrolysed and denatured WPI enhanced survival by 6.1+/-0.1 and 5.8+/-0.1 log10 cycles, respectively, following 14 day storage at 37 degrees C and both treatments generated thermal protection at 57 degrees C (7.3+/-0.1 and 6.5+/-0.1 log(10) cfu/ml). Furthermore, denatured WPI enhanced probiotic protection (8.9+/-0.2 log(10) cfu/ml) following 3h gastric incubation at 37 degrees C. In conclusion, hydrolysed or denatured WPI were the most suitable matrices for cell immobilization, while native protein provided the weakest safeguard against thermal and acid stress, thus making it possible to envision whey protein gel networks as protective substrates for cell immobilization applications.

  15. Effect of Drying Methods on Protein and DNA Conformation Changes in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Cells by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlaing, Mya M; Wood, Bayden R; McNaughton, Don; Ying, DanYang; Dumsday, Geoff; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2017-03-01

    Microencapsulation protects cells against environmental stress encountered during the production of probiotics, which are used as live microbial food ingredients. Freeze-drying and spray-drying are used in the preparation of powdered microencapsulated probiotics. This study examines the ability of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to detect differences in cells exposed to freeze-drying and spray-drying of encapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG cells. The FTIR analysis clearly demonstrated there were more significant molecular changes in lipid, fatty acid content, protein, and DNA conformation of nonencapsulated compared to encapsulated bacterial cells. The technique was also able to differentiate between spray-dried and freeze-dried cells. The results also revealed the extent of protection from a protein-carbohydrate-based encapsulant matrix on the cells depending on the type drying process. The extent of this protection to the dehydration stress was shown to be less in spray-dried cells than in freeze-dried cells. This suggests that FTIR could be used as a rapid, noninvasive, and real-time measurement technique to detect detrimental drying effects on cells.

  16. Influence of manufacturing processes on in vitro properties of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivoliez, Adrien; Camares, Olivier; Paquet-Gachinat, Marylise; Bornes, Stéphanie; Forestier, Christiane; Veisseire, Philippe

    2012-08-31

    Probiotics are administered as complex manufactured products and yet most studies on probiotic bacterial strains have been performed with native culture strains. Little is known about the influence of industrial processes on the properties of the microorganisms. In this study, we comparatively assessed the characteristics of the probiotic bacterial strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus (Lcr35(®)) together with four of its commercial formulations, including three intestinal formulas (BACILOR with Lcr Restituo(®) packet and capsule and FLOREA Lcr Lenio(®)) and one vaginal formula (GYNOPHILUS Lcr Regenerans(®)). Lcr35(®) grown from the intestinal formulas displayed increased resistance to acidic pH and bile stress, especially FLOREA (Lcr Lenio(®)), which showed a 4.5log higher number of viable bacteria compared to the results obtained with the control native Lcr35(®) strain. Adhesion to intestinal cells was significantly higher with Lcr Restituo(®) packet and Lcr Restituo(®) capsule vs Lcr35(®). Bacteria from the vaginal formulation GYNOPHILUS had increased ability to metabolize glycogen thereby increasing lactic acid production. In vitro growth inhibition of the pathogen Candida albicans was significantly higher with bacteria from the vaginal formulation (4.5 log difference) and in the presence of vaginal epithelial cells than with the native strain. Our results show that the manufacturing process influences strain properties and should therefore be adapted according to the strain and the therapeutic indication.

  17. Modulación de la fisiología gastrointestinal mediante cepas probióticas de Lactobacillus casei y Bifidobacterium bifidum Modulation of gastrointestinal physiology through probiotic strains of Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium bifidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Barrenetxe

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto de la alimentación y la promoción de la salud se sitúan los productos denominados alimentos funcionales que tienen diversos efectos beneficiosos en el organismo, además de los meramente nutricionales. Dentro de estos alimentos funcionales, entre otros, podemos distinguir entre compuestos probióticos y prebióticos. Los microorganismos más utilizados en alimentos probióticos pertenecen a los géneros Lactobacillus y Bifidobacterium. En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado el efecto de dietas suplementadas con Lactobacillus casei o Bifidobacterium bifidum en el desarrollo animal y en especial sobre la función intestinal, centrada en su actividad immunitaria, digestiva y absortiva de animales en crecimiento. Las cepas bacterianas utilizadas modifican la actividad del intestino delgado de los ratones sanos, afectando significativamente a su actividad enzimática (sacarasa, maltasa y aminopeptidasa y a la captación de nutrientes (galactosa y glicilsarcosina, así como a la actividad inmune intestinal (mayor número de placas de Peyer. Sin embargo, estos efectos no parecen perturbar el desarrollo de los animales en crecimiento ya que no se aprecian diferencias significativas en su peso corporal ni en sus parámetros sanguíneos. Estos resultados ponen de manifiesto los posibles efectos beneficiosos en la fisiología intestinal y contribuyen al conocimiento de los posibles mecanismos de acción de los probióticos, que se pudieran utilizar en el tratamiento preventivo de diferentes patologías relacionadas con el aparato digestivo.The products called functional foods, which besides being merely nutritional have different beneficial effects on the organism, are situated in the context of diet and health promotion. Amongst these functional foods we can distinguish, amongst others, between probiotic and prebiotic compounds. The micro-organisms most widely used in probiotic foods belong to the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteriumtypes

  18. The Salmonella type III effector SspH2 specifically exploits the NLR co-chaperone activity of SGT1 to subvert immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit P Bhavsar

    Full Text Available To further its pathogenesis, S. Typhimurium delivers effector proteins into host cells, including the novel E3 ubiquitin ligase (NEL effector SspH2. Using model systems in a cross-kingdom approach we gained further insight into the molecular function of this effector. Here, we show that SspH2 modulates innate immunity in both mammalian and plant cells. In mammalian cell culture, SspH2 significantly enhanced Nod1-mediated IL-8 secretion when transiently expressed or bacterially delivered. In addition, SspH2 also enhanced an Rx-dependent hypersensitive response in planta. In both of these nucleotide-binding leucine rich repeat receptor (NLR model systems, SspH2-mediated phenotypes required its catalytic E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and interaction with the conserved host protein SGT1. SGT1 has an essential cell cycle function and an additional function as an NLR co-chaperone in animal and plant cells. Interaction between SspH2 and SGT1 was restricted to SGT1 proteins that have NLR co-chaperone function and accordingly, SspH2 did not affect SGT1 cell cycle functions. Mechanistic studies revealed that SspH2 interacted with, and ubiquitinated Nod1 and could induce Nod1 activity in an agonist-independent manner if catalytically active. Interestingly, SspH2 in vitro ubiquitination activity and protein stability were enhanced by SGT1. Overall, this work adds to our understanding of the sophisticated mechanisms used by bacterial effectors to co-opt host pathways by demonstrating that SspH2 can subvert immune responses by selectively exploiting the functions of a conserved host co-chaperone.

  19. Action of lactoferrin on the multiplication of Lactobacillus casei in vitro and in Minas fresh cheeseAtividade antimicrobiana; Atividade biológica; Queijo; Probióticos; Produtos lácteos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Casale Aragon-Alegro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the activity of lactoferrin on the multiplication of probiotic Lactobacillus casei in vitro and in Minas fresh cheese. Growth curves of L. casei in BHI broth containing 1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL of lactoferrin were performed. Additionally, Minas fresh cheeses added of L. casei (control and added of L. casei and lactoferrin (2 mg/g and 4 mg/g were produced and stored at 5°C during 28 days. Cheeses were analyzed for pH, titratable acidity and enumeration of L. casei and psychotropic microorganisms in days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 and for the centesimal composition in day 1. The experiment was repeated three times, and data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test at 5% significance level. When tested in vitro, L. casei multiplication was stimulated by lactoferrin at a concentration of 2 mg/mL, but this activity has not been verified in the cheese, even in that added by lactoferrin at 4 mg/g. Psychotropic population in the cheeses added by lactoferrin did not differ from control cheese (P>0.05, demonstrating that no antimicrobial activity occurred in the products. More studies should be performed to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of lactoferrin in foods, since they have more variables that may affect the activity of this protein when comparing to in vitro tests.O presente estudo avaliou a atividade da lactoferrina sobre a multiplicação de Lactobacillus casei probiótico in vitro e no queijo Minas frescal. As curvas de crescimento de L. casei em caldo BHI contendo lactoferrina nas concentrações de 1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL foram construídas. Adicionalmente, os queijos Minas frescal contendo somente L. casei (controle e L. casei e a lactoferrina (2 mg/g e 4 mg/g foram produzidos e armazenados a 5°C durante 28 dias. Foram realizadas as análises de pH, acidez livre titulável e enumeração de L. casei e microrganismos psicrotróficos no dia 1 (dia da produção e após 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias de armazenamento. Além disso, no dia 1, foram

  20. Molecular Characterization of Two Silenced y-type Genes for Glu-B1 in Triticum aestivum ssp. yunnanese and ssp. tibetanum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Wei Yuan; Qi-Jiao Chen; Lian-Quan Zhang; Ze-Hong Yan; You-Liang Zheng; Deng-Cai Liu

    2009-01-01

    The high molecular weight glutenln subunits (HMW-GSs) are a major class of common wheat storage proteins. The bread-making quality of common wheat flour is influenced by the composition of HMW-GSs. In the present study, two unexpressed 1By genes from Triticum aesitvum L.ssp.yunnanese AS332 and T. aesitvum sep.tibetanum AS908 were respectively cloned and characterized. The results indicated that both of the silenced 1By genes in AS332 and AS908 were 1By9. in contrast to previously reported mechanisms for silenced genes 1Ax and 1Ay, which was due to the insertion of transposon elements or the presence of premature stop codon via base substitution of C→T transition in tdnucleotides CAA or CAG, the silence of 1By9 genes was caused by premature stop codons via the deletion of base A in tdnucleotide CAA, which lead to frameshift mutation and indirectly produced several premature stop codons (TAG) downstream of the coding sequence.

  1. Up-regulation of MDP and tuftsin gene expression in Th1 and Th17 cells as an adjuvant for an oral Lactobacillus casei vaccine against anti-transmissible gastroenteritis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinpeng; Yu, Meiling; Qiao, Xinyuan; Liu, Min; Tang, Lijie; Jiang, Yanping; Cui, Wen; Li, Yijing

    2014-10-01

    The role of muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and tuftsin in oral immune adjustment remains unclear, particularly in a Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) vaccine. To address this, we investigated the effects of different repetitive peptides expressed by L. casei, specifically the MDP and tuftsin fusion protein (MT) repeated 20 and 40 times (20MT and 40MT), in mice also expressing the D antigenic site of the spike (S) protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) on intestinal and systemic immune responses and confirmed the immunoregulation of these peptides. Treatment of mice with a different vaccine consisting of L. casei expressing MDP and tuftsin stimulated humoral and cellular immune responses. Both 20MT and 40MT induced an increase in IgG and IgA levels against TGEV, as determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Increased IgG and IgA resulted in the activation of TGEV-neutralising antibody activity in vitro. In addition, 20MT and 40MT stimulated the differentiation of innate immune cells, including T helper cell subclasses and regulatory T (Treg) cells, which induced robust T helper type 1 and T helper type 17 (Th17) responses and reduced Treg T cell immune responses in the 20MT and 40MT groups, respectively. Notably, treatment of mice with L. casei expressing 20MT and 40MT enhanced the anti-TGEV antibody immune responses of both the humoral and mucosal immune systems. These findings suggest that L. casei expressing MDP and tuftsin possesses substantial immunopotentiating properties, as it can induce humoral and T cell-mediated immune responses upon oral administration, and it may be useful in oral vaccines against TGEV challenge.

  2. PRODUCCIÓN DE PROTEÍNA Y BIOMASA PROBIÓTICA DE Lactobacillus casei LIOFILIZADAS A PARTIR DE SUERO DE LECHE DE CABRA

    OpenAIRE

    E. J. Aguirre-Ezkauriatza; Ramírez-Medrano, A.; Aguilar-Yáñez, J. M.; M. M. Álvarez

    2009-01-01

    En este trabajo se documenta la factibilidad técnica de obtención de dos productos de valor agregado a partir de suero de leche de cabra: (a) proteína liofilizada y (b) biomasa probiótica liofilizada de Lactobacillus casei. Se presentan resultados de experimentos de ultrafiltración de suero de leche de cabra (SLC), del cual se retiene proteína con una alta relación proteína/lactosa. En su forma liofilizada, esta proteína presentó características de solubilidad superiores a productos comercial...

  3. Sorbitol production from lactose by engineered Lactobacillus casei deficient in sorbitol transport system and mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boeck, Reinout; Sarmiento-Rubiano, Luz Adriana; Nadal, Inmaculada; Monedero, Vicente; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yebra, María J

    2010-02-01

    Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol largely used in the food industry as a low-calorie sweetener. We have previously described a sorbitol-producing Lactobacillus casei (strain BL232) in which the gutF gene, encoding a sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, was expressed from the lactose operon. Here, a complete deletion of the ldh1 gene, encoding the main L-lactate dehydrogenase, was performed in strain BL232. In a resting cell system with glucose, the new strain, named BL251, accumulated sorbitol in the medium that was rapidly metabolized after glucose exhaustion. Reutilization of produced sorbitol was prevented by deleting the gutB gene of the phosphoenolpyruvate: sorbitol phosphotransferase system (PTS(Gut)) in BL251. These results showed that the PTS(Gut) did not mediate sorbitol excretion from the cells, but it was responsible for uptake and reutilization of the synthesized sorbitol. A further improvement in sorbitol production was achieved by inactivation of the mtlD gene, encoding a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase. The new strain BL300 (lac::gutF Deltaldh1 DeltagutB mtlD) showed an increase in sorbitol production whereas no mannitol synthesis was detected, avoiding thus a polyol mixture. This strain was able to convert lactose, the main sugar from milk, into sorbitol, either using a resting cell system or in growing cells under pH control. A conversion rate of 9.4% of lactose into sorbitol was obtained using an optimized fed-batch system and whey permeate, a waste product of the dairy industry, as substrate.

  4. Inhibition of Growth and Metastasis of Breast Cancer in Mice by Milk Fermented With Lactobacillus casei CRL 431.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Félix; Carino, Silvia; Perdigón, Gabriela; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is the second cause of death in women, who are especially related to uncontrolled metastasis. It was previously demonstrated that the administration of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 [fermented milk (FM)] delayed the tumor growth in a murine breast cancer model. In this work we evaluated if the administration of FM to mice, starting when the tumor was measurable, can affect not only the tumor growth, but also the extravasation of tumor cells and the lung metastasis. The evaluation of immune cells-infiltrating tumors and lungs was also performed. Tumor volume was calculated. Whole blood, lungs, and liver were processed to count the number of colonies formed by tumor cells. Blood serum was obtained for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-6 determination, lung tissues for histologic observations, and tumor tissues for angiogenesis determination. Mice that received FM were compared with animals given milk or to the controls without any especial supplementation. The results showed that FM administration to mice decreased or suppressed tumor growth, with less tumor vascularity, extravasation of tumor cells, and lung metastasis. These benefits were associated to modulation of the immune response by decreasing the infiltration of macrophages in both the tumor and the lungs. FM administration maintained an increased antitumor response associated to CD8 lymphocytes, and also increased CD4 lymphocytes that can be involved in the modulation of the immune response. The future evaluation of cytokine profiles will allow knowing more about subpopulation of macrophages and lymphocytes associated to the beneficial effect of this probiotic in the breast cancer model.

  5. The best time of cytotoxicity for extracted cell wall from Lactobacillus casei and paracasei in K562 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riki M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracted cell walls from Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei as probiotic bacteria (isolated from common carp intestine on K562 and the role of cell concentration on the results of MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl2,5- Diphenyl tetrazolium Bromide] test.Methods: For this purpose, bacteria were cultured in specific medium (MRS broth at anaerobic condition for 24-48 hour. After incubation period culture medium was centri-fuged, then the cells were washed twice with PBS buffer to remove additional medium. Finally, collected bacterial cell disrupted by Sonication and cell walls were separated from other components by centrifugation. After that, different concentrations of cell walls (500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 µg/ml were prepared in RPMI medium for each bacteria, separately. Then anticancer properties of the cell walls were determined in vitro at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h, also the effect of K562 concentration was assayed with MTT technique.Results: The results showed extracted cell wall from both probiotic statistically (P=0.098 have anti turmeric properties in K562 and their properties will arise in relation with concentration. As well as, we found that the number of cell had not any affect on the result of MTT assay.Conclusion: We conclude that the cytotoxicity property of extracted cell wall is related in the type of bacteria, but this anticancer property would warrant further study on the clinical application of extracted cell wall.

  6. Rhizospheric bacterial strain Brevibacterium casei MH8a colonizes plant tissues and enhances Cd, Zn, Cu phytoextraction by white mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz ePłociniczak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution by heavy metals has become a serious problem in the world. Phytoextraction, which is one of the plant-based technologies, has attracted the most attention for the bioremediation of soils polluted with these contaminants.The aim of this study was to determine whether the multiple-tolerant bacterium, Brevibacterium casei MH8a isolated from the heavy metal-contaminated rhizosphere soil of Sinapis alba L., is able to promote plant growth and enhance Cd, Zn and Cu uptake by white mustard under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the ability of the rifampicin-resistant spontaneous mutant of MH8a to colonize plant tissues and its mechanisms of plant growth promotion were also examined. In order to assess the ecological consequences of bioaugmentation on autochthonous bacteria, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA analysis was used. The MH8a strain exhibited the ability to produce ammonia, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid and HCN but was not able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce siderophores. Introduction of MH8a into soil significantly increased S. alba biomass and the accumulation of Cd (208%, Zn (86% and Cu (39% in plant shoots in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. Introduced into the soil, MH8a was able to enter the plant and was found in the roots and leaves of inoculated plants thus indicating its endophytic features. PLFA analysis revealed that the MH8a that was introduced into soil had a temporary influence on the structure of the autochthonous bacterial communities. The plant growth-promoting features of the MH8a strain and its ability to enhance the metal uptake by white mustard and its long-term survival in soil as well as its temporary impact on autochthonous microorganisms make the strain a suitable candidate for the promotion of plant growth and the efficiency of phytoextraction.

  7. Effect of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on constipation-related symptoms and haemorrhoids in women during puerperium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, T; Kubota, H; Gawad, A; Gheyle, L; Ramael, S; Oishi, K

    2015-01-01

    Constipation and haemorrhoids are common complaints after childbirth. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate impact of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) on stool consistency and frequency, constipation-related symptoms and quality of life, and incidence of haemorrhoids in women during puerperium. Forty women who had natural childbirth were randomised to group consuming either one bottle/day of fermented milk containing at least 6.5×109 cfu of LcS, or placebo, for 6 weeks after childbirth. Subjects filled in a diary on their bowel habits including number of bowel movement, stool consistency and incidence of haemorrhoids, and answered questionnaires on constipation-related symptoms (PAC-SYM) and quality of life (PAC-QOL) during the study period. The probiotic group showed the better scores on overall PAC-SYM (P=0.013), PAC-SYM subscales of abdominal symptoms (P=0.043) and rectal symptoms (P=0.031), and PAC-QOL satisfaction subscale (P=0.037) in comparison with the placebo group. In the probiotic group, two to four subjects experienced haemorrhoids during the first 3 weeks of treatment. The number decreased in week 4 and no one had haemorrhoids on most days in week 5-6. In the placebo group, on average four subjects had haemorrhoids from the beginning, and no obvious change was observed until week 6. No statistically significant effect was observed on stool consistency and frequency. The study products did not cause any adverse event in the subjects. Results of this study indicate that continuous consumption of fermented milk containing LcS might alleviate constipation-related symptoms, provide satisfactory bowel habit and result in earlier recovery from haemorrhoids in women during puerperium. Nonetheless, there are several limitations in interpretation of the results attributed to the study design, including lack of baseline data. Further study is required in order to confirm the efficacy.

  8. The response of Plantago major ssp pleiosperma to elevated CO2 is modulated by the formation of secondary shoots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca, F; DenHertog, J; Stulen, [No Value

    1996-01-01

    The effect of elevated CO2 on the relative growth rate (RGR) of Plantago major ssp. pleiosperma was studied during the vegetative stage, in relation to plant development, by growing plants at 350 mu l l(-1) or at 700 mu l l(-1) CO2 in non-limiting nutrient solution with nitrate. To minimize interfer

  9. The effects of progressing and nonprogressing Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection on milk production in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Rebecca L.; Gröhn, Y. T.; Pradhan, A. K.; Whitlock, R. H.; Van Kessel, J. S.; Smith, J. M.; Wolfgang, D. R.; Schukken, Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal data from 3 commercial dairy herds in the northeast United States, collected from 2004 to 2011, were analyzed to determine the effect of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection status and progression path on milk production. Disease status, as indicated by MAP test res

  10. Fate of Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus, the causal organism of bacterial ring rot in potato, in weeds and field crops.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.; Hukkanen, A.; Karjalainen, R.; Muller, P.

    2005-01-01

    Crops and weeds were tested for their ability to host Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Cms), the causal agent of bacterial ring rot in potato. Ten crops grown in rotation with potato in Europe, namely maize, wheat, barley, oat, bush bean, broad bean, rape, pea and onion and five cultivars

  11. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4 (AA) leaves submitted to temperature stresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, C.R.; Martins, N.F.; Horberg, H.M.; Almeida, E.R.P.; Coelho, M.C.F.; Togawa, R.; Silva, F.R.; Caetano, A.R.; Miller, R.N.G.; Souza, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    In order to discover genes expressed in leaves of Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 (AA), from plants submitted to temperature stress, we produced and characterized two full-length enriched cDNA libraries. Total RNA from plants subjected to temperatures ranging from 5°C to 25°C and

  12. Growth Responses of Plantago major L. ssp. pleiosperma (Pilger) to Changes in Mineral Supply : Evidence for Regulation by Cytokinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, D

    1988-07-01

    Plants of an inbred line of Plantago major ssp. pleiosperma were subjected to an alteration in mineral supply. Observed responses of growth rate and shoot to root ratio are thought to be induced by changes in endogenous cytokinin concentration and not by mineral concentration in plant tissue.

  13. Effect of a switch from elevated to ambient CO2 on growth and carbohydrate allocation of Plantago major ssp pleiosperma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca, F; Stulen, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    Transfer of plants of Plantago major ssp. pleiosperma (L.) Pilger to elevated CO2 (700 mul l(-1)) showed a transient stimulation of the relative growth rate (RGR). Thereafter the RGR of the plants grown at elevated CO2 was the same as for plants grown at ambient CO2 (350 mul l(-1)). At that time sta

  14. Poplar root exudates contain compounds that induce the expression of MiSSP7 in Laccaria bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plett, Jonathan M; Martin, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Communication between organisms is crucial for their survival, especially for sessile organisms such as plants that depend upon interactions with mutualistic organisms to maximize their nutrient acquisition. This communication can take the form of the exchange of volatile compounds, metabolites or effectors - small protein signals secreted from the colonizing cell that change the biology of the host cell.  We recently characterized the first mutualistic effector protein from an ectomycorrhizal fungus, a small secreted protein named MiSSP7 encoded by Laccaria bicolor.  Ectomycorrhizal fungi are soil-borne mutualistic organisms whose hyphae wrap around host roots and grow into the root apoplastic space where the fungus exchanges nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in return for plant derived sugars.  The MiSSP7 protein is induced by root exudates and is highly expressed throughout the root colonization process.  Its presence was responsible for alterations to the plant transcriptomic profile, a mechanism by which MiSSP7 may aid in the formation of the symbiotic interface. Here we further discuss the implications of these findings and, further, we demonstrate that the production of MiSSP7 is induced by two flavonoids, rutin and quercitrin, a class of compounds normally found within the exudates of plant roots.  We also consider the interesting similarities between the mechanisms of effector induction and action between pathogenic and mutualistic fungi.  

  15. CITOGENETICS EFFECTS INDUCED BY THE ASCORBIC ACID TREATMENT OF LARIX DECIDUA MILL. SSP. CARPATICA AND PICEA ABIES (L. KARST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ieremia

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the influence of ascorbic acid upon the mitotic division of Larix decidua Mill ssp. carpatica and Picea abies (L. Karst. The treatment is applied of two variants, germinated seed in ascorbic acid (variantAand germinated seeds in disttilate water, than treated with ascorbic acid in 3 concentrations (variant B.

  16. Chemical composition and antifungal activities of essential oils of Satureja thymbra L. and Salvia pomifera ssp. calycina (Sm.) Hayek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glamoclija, J.; Sokovic, M.; Vukojevic, J.; Milenkovic, I.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2006-01-01

    This work covers the chemical composition and antifungal activities of essential oils isolated from savory (Satureja thymbra) and sage (Salvia pomifera ssp. calycina) analyzed using GC/MS. The main components of S. thymbra oil were gamma-terpinene (23.2%) and carvacrol (48.5%). The main components i

  17. Associations between the human intestinal microbiota, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and serum lipids indicated by integrated analysis of high-throughput profiling data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Leo; Salonen, Anne; Kekkonen, Riina A; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Jalanka-Tuovinen, Jonna; Palva, Airi; Orešič, Matej; de Vos, Willem M

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the intestinal microbiota regulates our physiology and metabolism. Bacteria marketed as probiotics confer health benefits that may arise from their ability to affect the microbiota. Here high-throughput screening of the intestinal microbiota was carried out and integrated with serum lipidomic profiling data to study the impact of probiotic intervention on the intestinal ecosystem, and to explore the associations between the intestinal bacteria and serum lipids. We performed a comprehensive intestinal microbiota analysis using a phylogenetic microarray before and after Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intervention. While a specific increase in the L. rhamnosus-related bacteria was observed during the intervention, no other changes in the composition or stability of the microbiota were detected. After the intervention, lactobacilli returned to their initial levels. As previously reported, also the serum lipid profiles remained unaltered during the intervention. Based on a high-resolution microbiota analysis, intake of L. rhamnosus GG did not modify the composition of the intestinal ecosystem in healthy adults, indicating that probiotics confer their health effects by other mechanisms. The most prevailing association between the gut microbiota and lipid profiles was a strong positive correlation between uncultured phylotypes of Ruminococcus gnavus-group and polyunsaturated serum triglycerides of dietary origin. Moreover, a positive correlation was detected between serum cholesterol and Collinsella (Coriobacteriaceae). These associations identified with the spectrometric lipidome profiling were corroborated by enzymatically determined cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Actinomycetaceae correlated negatively with triglycerides of highly unsaturated fatty acids while a set of Proteobacteria showed negative correlation with ether phosphatidylcholines. Our results suggest that several members of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and

  18. Probiotic cheese containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM® modifies subpopulations of fecal lactobacilli and Clostridium difficile in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Sampo J; Forssten, Sofia; Aakko, Juhani; Granlund, Linda; Rautonen, Nina; Salminen, Seppo; Viitanen, Matti; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2012-02-01

    Aging is associated with alterations in the intestinal microbiota and with immunosenescence. Probiotics have the potential to modify a selected part of the intestinal microbiota as well as improve immune functions and may, therefore, be particularly beneficial to elderly consumers. In this randomized, controlled cross-over clinical trial, we assessed the effects of a probiotic cheese containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on the intestinal microbiota and fecal immune markers of 31 elderly volunteers and compared these effects with the administration of the same cheese without probiotics. The probiotic cheese was found to increase the number of L. rhamnosus and L. acidophilus NCFM in the feces, suggesting the survival of the strains during the gastrointestinal transit. Importantly, probiotic cheese administration was associated with a trend towards lower counts of Clostridium difficile in the elderly, as compared with the run-in period with the plain cheese. The effect was statistically significant in the subpopulation of the elderly who harbored C. difficile at the start of the study. The probiotic cheese was not found to significantly alter the levels of the major microbial groups, suggesting that the microbial changes conferred by the probiotic cheese were limited to specific bacterial groups. Despite that the administration of the probiotic cheese to the study population has earlier been shown to significantly improve the innate immunity of the elders, we did not observe measurable changes in the fecal immune IgA concentrations. No increase in fecal calprotectin and β-defensin concentrations suggests that the probiotic treatment did not affect intestinal inflammatory markers. In conclusion, the administration of probiotic cheese containing L. rhamnosus HN001 and L. acidophilus NCFM, was associated with specific changes in the intestinal microbiota, mainly affecting specific subpopulations of intestinal lactobacilli and C

  19. Effects of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 on hepatic steatosis in Zucker rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Plaza-Diaz

    Full Text Available We have previously described the safety and immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 in healthy volunteers. The scope of this work was to evaluate the effects of these probiotic strains on the hepatic steatosis of obese rats. We used the Zucker rat as a genetic model of obesity. Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa rats received one of three probiotic strains, a mixture of L. paracasei CNCM I-4034 and B. breve CNCM I-4035, or a placebo for 30 days. An additional group of Zucker-lean+/fa rats received a placebo for 30 days. No alterations in intestinal histology, in the epithelial, lamina propria, muscular layers of the ileal or colonic mucosa, or the submucosae, were observed in any of the experimental groups. Triacylglycerol content decreased in the liver of Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa rats that were fed L. rhamnosus, B. breve, or the mixture of B. breve and L. paracasei. Likewise, the area corresponding to neutral lipids was significantly smaller in the liver of all four groups of Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa rats that received probiotics than in rats fed the placebo. Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa rats exhibited significantly greater serum LPS levels than Zucker-lean+/fa rats upon administration of placebo for 30 days. In contrast, all four groups of obese Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa rats that received LAB strains exhibited serum LPS concentrations similar to those of Zucker-lean+/fa rats. Serum TNF-α levels decreased in the Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa rats that received B. breve, L. rhamnosus, or the mixture, whereas L. paracasei feeding decreased IL-6 levels in the serum of Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa rats. In conclusion, the probiotic strains reduced hepatic steatosis in part by lowering serum LPS, and had an anti-inflammatory effect in obese Zucker rats.

  20. Effects of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 on Hepatic Steatosis in Zucker Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Abadia-Molina, Francisco; Saez-Lara, Maria Jose; Campaña-Martin, Laura; Muñoz-Quezada, Sergio; Romero, Fernando; Gil, Angel; Fontana, Luis

    2014-01-01

    We have previously described the safety and immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 in healthy volunteers. The scope of this work was to evaluate the effects of these probiotic strains on the hepatic steatosis of obese rats. We used the Zucker rat as a genetic model of obesity. Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats received one of three probiotic strains, a mixture of L. paracasei CNCM I-4034 and B. breve CNCM I-4035, or a placebo for 30 days. An additional group of Zucker-lean+/fa rats received a placebo for 30 days. No alterations in intestinal histology, in the epithelial, lamina propria, muscular layers of the ileal or colonic mucosa, or the submucosae, were observed in any of the experimental groups. Triacylglycerol content decreased in the liver of Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats that were fed L. rhamnosus, B. breve, or the mixture of B. breve and L. paracasei. Likewise, the area corresponding to neutral lipids was significantly smaller in the liver of all four groups of Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats that received probiotics than in rats fed the placebo. Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats exhibited significantly greater serum LPS levels than Zucker-lean+/fa rats upon administration of placebo for 30 days. In contrast, all four groups of obese Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats that received LAB strains exhibited serum LPS concentrations similar to those of Zucker-lean+/fa rats. Serum TNF-α levels decreased in the Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats that received B. breve, L. rhamnosus, or the mixture, whereas L. paracasei feeding decreased IL-6 levels in the serum of Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats. In conclusion, the probiotic strains reduced hepatic steatosis in part by lowering serum LPS, and had an anti-inflammatory effect in obese Zucker rats. PMID:24852284

  1. Associations between the human intestinal microbiota, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and serum lipids indicated by integrated analysis of high-throughput profiling data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Lahti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that the intestinal microbiota regulates our physiology and metabolism. Bacteria marketed as probiotics confer health benefits that may arise from their ability to affect the microbiota. Here high-throughput screening of the intestinal microbiota was carried out and integrated with serum lipidomic profiling data to study the impact of probiotic intervention on the intestinal ecosystem, and to explore the associations between the intestinal bacteria and serum lipids. We performed a comprehensive intestinal microbiota analysis using a phylogenetic microarray before and after Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intervention. While a specific increase in the L. rhamnosus-related bacteria was observed during the intervention, no other changes in the composition or stability of the microbiota were detected. After the intervention, lactobacilli returned to their initial levels. As previously reported, also the serum lipid profiles remained unaltered during the intervention. Based on a high-resolution microbiota analysis, intake of L. rhamnosus GG did not modify the composition of the intestinal ecosystem in healthy adults, indicating that probiotics confer their health effects by other mechanisms. The most prevailing association between the gut microbiota and lipid profiles was a strong positive correlation between uncultured phylotypes of Ruminococcus gnavus-group and polyunsaturated serum triglycerides of dietary origin. Moreover, a positive correlation was detected between serum cholesterol and Collinsella (Coriobacteriaceae. These associations identified with the spectrometric lipidome profiling were corroborated by enzymatically determined cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Actinomycetaceae correlated negatively with triglycerides of highly unsaturated fatty acids while a set of Proteobacteria showed negative correlation with ether phosphatidylcholines. Our results suggest that several members of the Firmicutes

  2. Identification of a small molecule that modifies MglA/SspA interaction and impairs intramacrophage survival of Francisella tularensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algevis P Wrench

    Full Text Available The transcription factors MglA and SspA of Francisella tularensis form a heterodimer complex and interact with the RNA polymerase to regulate the expression of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI genes. These genes are essential for this pathogen's virulence and survival within host cells. In this study, we used a small molecule screening to identify quinacrine as a thermal stabilizing compound for F. tularensis SCHU S4 MglA and SspA. A bacterial two-hybrid system was used to analyze the in vivo effect of quinacrine on the heterodimer complex. The results show that quinacrine affects the interaction between MglA and SspA, indicated by decreased β-galactosidase activity. Further in vitro analyses, using size exclusion chromatography, indicated that quinacrine does not disrupt the heterodimer formation, however, changes in the alpha helix content were confirmed by circular dichroism. Structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicated that quinacrine makes contact with amino acid residues Y63 in MglA, and K97 in SspA, both located in the "cleft" of the interacting surfaces. In F. tularensis subsp. novicida, quinacrine decreased the transcription of the FPI genes, iglA, iglD, pdpD and pdpA. As a consequence, the intramacrophage survival capabilities of the bacteria were affected. These results support use of the MglA/SspA interacting surface, and quinacrine's chemical scaffold, for the design of high affinity molecules that will function as therapeutics for the treatment of Tularemia.

  3. 鼠李糖乳杆菌功能特性的研究进展%Functional Properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺璟; 聂乾忠; 邓洁红

    2012-01-01

    鼠李糖乳杆菌(Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG,ATTCC53103)是从健康人体的肠道中分离得到的,是全球最受关注、研究最广泛的益生菌之一.该菌能够耐受动物消化道环境,能够在人体和动物肠道内定植,起到调节肠道菌群、预防和治疗腹泻、排除毒素、预防龋齿和提高机体免疫力等作用.

  4. Risks Associated with High-Dose Lactobacillus rhamnosus in an Escherichia coli Model of Piglet Diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiao-Qiong; Zhu, Yao-Hong; Zhang, Hong-Fu

    2012-01-01

    detected by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Unexpectedly, high-dose administration increased the incidence of diarrhoea before F4+ETEC challenge, despite the fact that both doses ameliorated F4+ETEC-induced diarrhoea with increased Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts accompanied...... by reduced coliform shedding in faeces. Interestingly, L. rhamnosus administration reduced Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts in the colonic contents, and the high-dose piglets also had lower Lactobacillius and Bacteroides counts in the ileal contents. An increase in the concentration of serum TNF...

  5. Identification of Heat Tolerance Linked Molecular Markers of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica campestris L.ssp. pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xiao-ying; WANG Yong-jian; SONG Shun-hua; LI Li; YU Shuan-cang

    2002-01-01

    Genetically stable population of recombination inbred line (RIL) was derived from a cross between a heat tolerant line 177 and a heat sensitive line 276 of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp.pekinensis ) by single seed descent. The RILs were analyzed using isozyme, RAPD and AFLP techniques in order to find molecular markers that are linked to heat tolerance quantitative trait loci (QTL). The results of variance analysis of single factor indicated that there were 9 molecular markers closely linked with heat tolerance QTL, including 5 AFLP markers, 3 RAPD markers and 1 PGM isozyme marker. Total genetic contribution of these makers to heat tolerance was 46.7%. Five of the nine markers distributed in one linkage group,the remaining 4 markers were located in separate groups. Thus the 9 heat tolerance linked markers distributed in 5 independent locations in the genome of Chinese cabbage.

  6. Variations in the mosquito larvicidal activities of toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno-Ayayo, Zachariah Ngalo; Zaritsky, Arieh; Wirth, Margaret C; Manasherob, Robert; Khasdan, Vadim; Cahan, Rivka; Ben-Dov, Eitan

    2008-09-01

    Comparing activities of purified toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis against larvae of seven mosquito species (vectors of tropical diseases) that belong to three genera, gleaned from the literature, disclosed highly significant variations in the levels of LC(50) as well as in the hierarchy of susceptibilities. Similar toxicity comparisons were performed between nine transgenic Gram-negative species, four of which are cyanobacterial, expressing various combinations of cry genes, cyt1Aa and p20, against larvae of four mosquito species as potential agents for biological control. Reasons for inconsistencies are listed and discussed. Standard conditions for toxin isolation and presentation to larvae are sought. A set of lyophilized powders prepared identically from six Escherichia coli clones expressing combinations of four genes displayed toxicities against larvae of three mosquito species, with levels that differed between them but with identical hierarchy.

  7. New Benzophenones and Xanthones from Cratoxylum sumatranum ssp. neriifolium and Their Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantapakul, Cholpisut; Maneerat, Wisanu; Sripisut, Tawanun; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Andersen, Raymond J; Cheng, Ping; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Raksat, Achara; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2016-11-23

    Two new benzophenones (1 and 2) and four new xanthones (4-6 and 17) together with 24 known compounds (3, 7-16, and 18-30) were isolated from the roots and twigs of Cratoxylum sumatranum ssp. neriifolium. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 5 and 26 showed antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus epidermis with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 4 to 8 μg/mL, whereas compounds 7, 20, and 26 displayed selective antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus (8 μg/mL), Salmonella typhimurium (4 μg/mL), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4 μg/mL), respectively. The radical scavenging effects of some isolated compounds were investigated. Compounds 11 and 21 exhibited potent activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with IC50 values of 7.0 ± 1.0 and 6.0 ± 0.2 μM, respectively.

  8. Full scale test SSP 34m blade, combined load. Data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find M. (and others)

    2010-11-15

    This report is part of the research project where a 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S was tested in combined flap and edgewise load. The applied load is 55% of an imaginary extreme event based on the certification load of the blade. This report describes the reason for choosing the loads and the load direction and the method of applying the loads to the blade. A novel load introduction allows the blade to deform in a more realistic manner, allowing the observation of e.g. transverse shear distortion. The global and local deformation of the blade as well as the blades' respond to repeated tests has been studied and the result from these investigations are presented, including the measurements performed. (Author)

  9. The identification of MacSe in Streptococcus equi ssp. equi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiande YANG; Yanfei LIU; Jun XU; Jifei MA

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp, equi (S. equi ssp. equi) causes equine strangles, a highly contagious and widespread purulent lymphadenitis of the head and neck. We have identified MacSe, a novel protein of S. equi, by screening a phage library of 3-8 kb random DNA fragments of S. equi CF32. MacSe shares 62% and 67.5% amino acid homology with Mac5005 and Mac8345 of S. pyogenes respectively. Expression during infection was shown by strong reactivity of the protein with convalescent sera and mucosal wash IgA of ponies infected by commingling exposure. Release into the culture medium was detected during the log phase of growth. Dose dependent anti-phagocytic activity for equine neutrophils involved interaction of MacSe with C3 and neutrophils.

  10. meta-Tyrosine in Festuca rubra ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue) is synthesized by hydroxylation of phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tengfang; Rehak, Ludmila; Jander, Georg

    2012-03-01

    m-Tyrosine is a non-protein amino acid that is structurally similar to the common protein amino acids p-tyrosine and phenylalanine. Copious amounts of m-tyrosine can be found in root exudates of the fine fescue cultivar, Festuca rubra L. ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue). The phytotoxicity of m-tyrosine may contribute to the allelopathic potential of F. rubra. m-Tyrosine in Euphorbia myrsinites (donkey-tail spurge), was previously shown to be synthesized via transamination of m-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Here we show that m-tyrosine biosynthesis in F. rubra occurs through direct hydroxylation of phenylalanine in the root tips, perhaps through the activity of a cytochrome P450 enzyme. Hence, E. myrsinites and F. rubra, the only two plant species known to produce m-tyrosine, use distinct biosynthetic pathways that likely arose independently in evolutionary history.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SSP in NIR. II. Synthesis models (Meneses-Goytia+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses-Goytia, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Trager, S. C.; Vazdekis, A.

    2015-08-01

    The present Single Stellar Populations (SSP) models are derived from my Ph.D.'s thesis and this paper. The following nomenclature is used throughout the paper and the website (http://smg.astro-research.net/ssp-models/the-models/) to describe the models, e.g. MarS models use the M08 isochrones (Mar) and the Salpeter (S) IMF. General information about the models is given in table1. For further information, please refer to the paper. Each set of models and their corresponding predictions are available in the website and VIZIER. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) can be downloaded in a zip-file from those pages in ascii format . The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) can be downloaded in a zip-file from t hose pages in ascii format . The nomenclature of each SED is as follows: isochroneIMFsedXXXXHZX.XXXXXXXXXTgXX.XXXXXXXe+XX - where XXXX tells whether those models contain C-stars or no (COMBO or NOCS respectively) H is the spectral band in which normalization occurred Z_X.XXXXXXXXX is the metallicity in terms of Z Tg_XX.XXXXXXXe+XX is the age in years. Each set of models contains MarS - 96 SEDs GirS - 96 SEDs BaSS - 116 SEDs We have also included in the websites the Integrated colours and line-strength indices from all our models (MarS, GirS and BaSS). The SEDs were convolved to a velocity dispersion of 350km/s before calculating indices. (5 data files).

  12. Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor mediates mucin production stimulated by p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-derived protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihong; Cao, Hailong; Liu, Liping; Wang, Bangmao; Walker, W Allan; Acra, Sari A; Yan, Fang

    2014-07-18

    The mucus layer coating the gastrointestinal tract serves as the first line of intestinal defense against infection and injury. Probiotics promote mucin production by goblet cells in the intestine. p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-derived soluble protein, has been shown to transactivate the EGF receptor (EGFR) in intestinal epithelial cells, which is required for inhibition of apoptosis and preservation of barrier function in the colon, thereby ameliorating intestinal injury and colitis. Because activation of EGFR has been shown to up-regulate mucin production in goblet cells, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of p40 regulation of mucin production. p40 activated EGFR and its downstream target, Akt, in a concentration-dependent manner in LS174T cells. p40 stimulated Muc2 gene expression and mucin production in LS174T cells, which were abolished by inhibition of EGFR kinase activity, down-regulation of EGFR expression by EGFR siRNA transfection, or suppression of Akt activation. Treatment with p40 increased mucin production in the colonic epithelium, thus thickening the mucus layer in the colon of wild type, but not of Egfr(wa5) mice, which have a dominant negative mutation in the EGFR kinase domain. Furthermore, inhibition of mucin-type O-linked glycosylation suppressed the effect of p40 on increasing mucin production and protecting intestinal epithelial cells from TNF-induced apoptosis in colon organ culture. Thus, these results suggest that p40-stimulated activation of EGFR mediates up-regulation of mucin production, which may contribute to the mechanisms by which p40 protects the intestinal epithelium from injury.

  13. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG increases Toll-like receptor 3 gene expression in murine small intestine ex vivo and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki-Yoshida, A; Saito, S; Fukiya, S; Aoki, R; Takayama, Y; Suzuki, C; Sonoyama, K

    2016-06-01

    Administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) has been reported to be therapeutically effective against acute secretory diarrhoea resulting from the structural and functional intestinal mucosal lesions induced by rotavirus infection; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be completely elucidated. Because Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) plays a key role in the innate immune responses following the recognition of rotavirus, the present study examined whether LGG influences TLR3 gene expression in murine small intestine ex vivo and in vivo. We employed cultured intestinal organoids derived from small intestinal crypts as an ex vivo tissue model. LGG supplementation increased TLR3 mRNA levels in the intestinal organoids, as estimated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Likewise, single and 7-day consecutive daily administrations of LGG increased TLR3 mRNA levels in the small intestine of C57BL/6N mice. The mRNA levels of other TLRs were not substantially altered both ex vivo and in vivo. In addition, LGG supplementation increased the mRNA levels of an antiviral type 1 interferon, interferon-α (IFN-α), and a neutrophil chemokine, CXCL1, upon stimulation with a synthetic TLR3 ligand, poly(I:C) in the intestinal organoids. LGG administration did not alter IFN-α and CXCL1 mRNA levels in the small intestine in vivo. Supplementation of other bacterial strains, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus paracasei, failed to increase TLR3 and poly(I:C)-stimulated CXCL1 mRNA levels ex vivo. We propose that upregulation of TLR3 gene expression may play a pivotal role in the therapeutic efficacy of LGG against rotavirus-associated diarrhoea. In addition, we demonstrated that intestinal organoids may be a promising ex vivo tissue model for investigating host-pathogen interactions and the antiviral action of probiotics in the intestinal epithelium.

  14. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Activation of Dendritic Cells and Neutrophils Depends on the Dose and Time of Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirong Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG to activate DC and neutrophils and modulate T cell activation and the impact of bacterial dose on these responses. Murine bone marrow derived DC or neutrophils were stimulated with LGG at ratios of 5 : 1, 10 : 1, and 100 : 1 (LGG : cells and DC maturation (CD40, CD80, CD86, CD83, and MHC class II and cytokine production (IL-10, TNF-α, and IL-12p70 were examined after 2 h and 18 h coculture and compared to the ability of BCG (the present immunotherapeutic agent for bladder cancer to stimulate these cells. A 2 h exposure to 100 : 1 (high dose or an 18 h exposure to 5 : 1 or 10 : 1 (low dose, LGG : cells, induced the highest production of IL-12 and upregulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHC II on DC. In DCs stimulated with LGG activated neutrophils IL-12 production decreased with increasing dose. LGG induced 10-fold greater IL-12 production than BCG. T cell IFNγ and IL-2 production was significantly greater when stimulated with DC activated with low dose LGG. In conclusion, DC or DC activated with neutrophils exposed to low dose LGG induced greater Th1 polarization in T cells and this could potentially exert stronger antitumor effects. Thus the dose of LGG used for immunotherapy could determine treatment efficacy.

  15. Differential Effects of Escherichia coli Nissle and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG on Human Rotavirus Binding, Infection, and B Cell Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Sukumar; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Fischer, David; Kumar, Anand; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Rauf, Abdul; Shao, Lulu; Langel, Stephanie N; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2016-02-15

    Rotavirus (RV) causes significant morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in modulating host-pathogen interactions, but little is known about the impact of commonly used probiotics on human RV (HRV) infection. In this study, we compared the immunomodulatory effects of Gram-positive (Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG [LGG]) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli Nissle [EcN]) probiotic bacteria on virulent human rotavirus (VirHRV) infection and immunity using neonatal gnotobiotic piglets. Gnotobiotic piglets were colonized with EcN, LGG, or EcN+LGG or uncolonized and challenged with VirHRV. Mean peak virus shedding titers and mean cumulative fecal scores were significantly lower in EcN-colonized compared with LGG-colonized or uncolonized piglets. Reduced viral shedding titers were correlated with significantly reduced small intestinal HRV IgA Ab responses in EcN-colonized compared with uncolonized piglets post-VirHRV challenge. However the total IgA levels post-VirHRV challenge in the intestine and pre-VirHRV challenge in serum were significantly higher in EcN-colonized than in LGG-colonized piglets. In vitro treatment of mononuclear cells with these probiotics demonstrated that EcN, but not LGG, induced IL-6, IL-10, and IgA, with the latter partially dependent on IL-10. However, addition of exogenous recombinant porcine IL-10 + IL-6 to mononuclear cells cocultured with LGG significantly enhanced IgA responses. The greater effectiveness of EcN in moderating HRV infection may also be explained by the binding of EcN but not LGG to Wa HRV particles or HRV 2/4/6 virus-like particles but not 2/6 virus-like particles. Results suggest that EcN and LGG differentially modulate RV infection and B cell responses.

  16. Antiproliferative effects on colon adenocarcinoma cells induced by co-administration of vitamin K1 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Antonella; Linsalata, Michele; Russo, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin K (VK), an essential nutrient associated with the clotting cascade, has also been demonstrated to have anticancer properties in various cancer cells including colon cancer cells. Also probiotics have gained interest as potential anticancer agents. Among them, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (L.GG) has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation and polyamine biosynthesis as well as to induce apoptosis in different human gastrointestinal cancer cells. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms involved in these actions are not completely elucidated. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to evaluate in three differently graded human colon cancer cells (namely Caco-2, HT-29 and SW480) the effects of increasing VK1 concentrations, administered alone or in combination with viable L.GG, on the cell proliferation evaluated by MTT test, apoptosis investigated by Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the percentage of the apoptotic cells, and the cell cycle evaluated by MUSE cell analyzer. Both VK1 and L.GG administered alone up to 72 h, caused inhibition of proliferation, induction of apoptosis and the cell cycle arrest in all the tested colon cancer cells. When VK1 and L.GG were co-administered, the addition of increasing VK1 concentrations potentiated the probiotic antiproliferative effect in a dose-dependent manner, being also related to the individual features of each cell line. The effect was more evident in Caco-2 and HT-29 cells compared to the less differentiated SW480. The enhanced antiproliferative efficacy due to co-administration of L.GG and VK1 could represent a suitable option in a functional food strategy for cancer growth inhibition and chemoprevention.

  17. Modulation of respiratory TLR3-antiviral response by probiotic microorganisms: lessons learned from Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruki eKitazawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infants and young children. Host immune response is implicated in both protective and immunopathological mechanisms during RSV infection. Activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR-3 in innate immune cells by RSV can induce airway inflammation, protective immune response, and pulmonary immunopathology. Understanding the interaction between RSV and its host is crucial for the development of novel therapeutic strategies as well as safe and effective vaccines. Several studies have centered on whether probiotic microorganisms with the capacity to stimulate the immune system (immunobiotics might sufficiently stimulate the common mucosal immune system to provide protection in the respiratory tract. In this regard, it was demonstrated that some orally administered immunobiotics do have the ability to stimulate respiratory immunity and increase resistance to viral infections. Moreover, during the last decade scientists have significantly advanced in the knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the protective effect of immunobiotics in the respiratory tract. This review examines the current scientific literature dealing with the use of immunobiotic strains to prevent viral respiratory infections. More specifically, the article discuss the mechanisms involved in the capacity of the immunobiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 to beneficially modulate the immune response triggered by TLR3 activation in the respiratory tract and to increase the resistance to RSV infection in infant mice. In addition, we review the role of interferon (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-10 in the immunoregulatory effect of the CRL1505 strain that has been successfully used for reducing incidence and morbidity of viral airways infections in children.

  18. An L-Fucose Operon in the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Is Involved in Adaptation to Gastrointestinal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Jimmy E; Yebra, María J; Monedero, Vicente

    2015-06-01

    L-Fucose is a sugar present in human secretions as part of human milk oligosaccharides, mucins, and other glycoconjugates in the intestinal epithelium. The genome of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) carries a gene cluster encoding a putative L-fucose permease (fucP), L-fucose catabolic pathway (fucI, fucK, fucU, and fucA), and a transcriptional regulator (fucR). The metabolism of L-fucose in LGG results in 1,2-propanediol production, and their fucI and fucP mutants displayed a severe and mild growth defect on L-fucose, respectively. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the fuc genes are induced by L-fucose and subject to a strong carbon catabolite repression effect. This induction was triggered by FucR, which acted as a transcriptional activator necessary for growth on L-fucose. LGG utilized fucosyl-α1,3-N-acetylglucosamine and contrarily to other lactobacilli, the presence of fuc genes allowed this strain to use the L-fucose moiety. In fucI and fucR mutants, but not in fucP mutant, L-fucose was not metabolized and it was excreted to the medium during growth on fucosyl-α1,3-N-acetylglucosamine. The fuc genes were induced by this fucosyl-disaccharide in the wild type and the fucP mutant but not in a fucI mutant, showing that FucP does not participate in the regulation of fuc genes and that L-fucose metabolism is needed for FucR activation. The l-fucose operon characterized here constitutes a new example of the many factors found in LGG that allow this strain to adapt to the gastrointestinal conditions.

  19. Anti-inflammatory Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 strain protects against oxidative stress and increases lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Grompone

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that resistance to oxidative stress is crucial to stay healthy and to reduce the adverse effects of aging. Accordingly, nutritional interventions using antioxidant food-grade compounds or food products are currently an interesting option to help improve health and quality of life in the elderly. Live lactic acid bacteria (LAB administered in food, such as probiotics, may be good antioxidant candidates. Nevertheless, information about LAB-induced oxidative stress protection is scarce. To identify and characterize new potential antioxidant probiotic strains, we have developed a new functional screening method using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as host. C. elegans were fed on different LAB strains (78 in total and nematode viability was assessed after oxidative stress (3 mM and 5 mM H(2O(2. One strain, identified as Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690, protected worms by increasing their viability by 30% and, also, increased average worm lifespan by 20%. Moreover, transcriptomic analysis of C. elegans fed with this strain showed that increased lifespan is correlated with differential expression of the DAF-16/insulin-like pathway, which is highly conserved in humans. This strain also had a clear anti-inflammatory profile when co-cultured with HT-29 cells, stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, and co-culture systems with HT-29 cells and DC in the presence of LPS. Finally, this Lactobacillus strain reduced inflammation in a murine model of colitis. This work suggests that C. elegans is a fast, predictive and convenient screening tool to identify new potential antioxidant probiotic strains for subsequent use in humans.

  20. Metagenomic analyses of alcohol induced pathogenic alterations in the intestinal microbiome and the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Bull-Otterson

    Full Text Available Enteric dysbiosis plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD. Detailed characterization of the alterations in the gut microbiome is needed for understanding their pathogenic role in ALD and developing effective therapeutic approaches using probiotic supplementation. Mice were fed liquid Lieber-DeCarli diet without or with alcohol (5% v/v for 6 weeks. A subset of mice were administered the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG from 6 to 8 weeks. Indicators of intestinal permeability, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and injury were evaluated. Metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiome was performed by analyzing the fecal DNA by amplification of the V3-V5 regions of the 16S rRNA gene and large-scale parallel pyrosequencing on the 454 FLX Titanium platform. Chronic ethanol feeding caused a decline in the abundance of both Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes phyla, with a proportional increase in the gram negative Proteobacteria and gram positive Actinobacteria phyla; the bacterial genera that showed the biggest expansion were the gram negative alkaline tolerant Alcaligenes and gram positive Corynebacterium. Commensurate with the qualitative and quantitative alterations in the microbiome, ethanol caused an increase in plasma endotoxin, fecal pH, hepatic inflammation and injury. Notably, the ethanol-induced pathogenic changes in the microbiome and the liver were prevented by LGG supplementation. Overall, significant alterations in the gut microbiome over time occur in response to chronic alcohol exposure and correspond to increases in intestinal barrier dysfunction and development of ALD. Moreover, the altered bacterial communities of the gut may serve as significant therapeutic target for the prevention/treatment of chronic alcohol intake induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and liver disease.

  1. SURVIVING OF COMMERCIAL PROBIOTIC STRAIN Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG IN SLOVAK COW LUMP CHEESE EXPERIMENTALLY INOCULATED WITH Listeria innocua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lauková

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cow lump cheese represents a traditional Slovak cheese. It belongs to fresh types of cheeses. The aim of this study was to test surviving of commercial probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in cow lump cheese experimentally infected with L. innocua; (listeriae are contaminants and to check the suitability of GG strain as additive for this product. The counts of GG strain in cow lump cheeses were well balanced during whole experiment. It was found in the counts from 5.48 ± 0.15 to 7.77 ±1.50 log10 cfu/g. Its maximum in cheese was 7.77 ± 1.30 log10 cfu/g on day 7 with stability up to day 14. The identity of GG strain isolated from cheeses was confirmed by PCR. The counts of other lactic acid bacteria were also well balanced during the whole experiment in the experimental cheeses with stability up to day 14. Only in E1/GG cheese, the highest number of LAB was detected (10.60 ±1.26 log10 cfu/g. The count of L. innocua LMG 13568 was not influenced. The pH and lactic acid values were not negatively influenced. Visually, the GG cheese provided a good structure (consistency.It can be disputed that shelf-life of the product could be maintained by this way and/or the product itself with GG strain can be consumed as afunctional food or to serve as a probiotic strain carrier.

  2. PRODUCTION UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS OF “CASU MARZU” CHEESE: EFFECT OF THE Piophila Casei COLONIZATION ON MICROBIAL AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CHEESES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Coinu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the Piophila casei colonization under controlled conditions on “casu marzu”, a typical Sardinian sheep milk cheese. Three batches of two different kind of cheese (PO, holed paste and PC, firm paste were produced in duplicate (test and control. Test cheeses were exposed to the Piophila casei colonization in a conditioned store room, while control cheeses were suitably protected. All the samples were analyzed at 0, 10, 30, 60 and 90 days from the production. The pH and aw, the chemical composition and the microbiological parameters (food safety and process hygiene criteria were determined. The colonization was unhomogeneous between the batches: PO cheeses were more easily colonized and showed more intense proteolysis and lipolysis respect to PC cheeses. The microbiological parameters were strongly affected by the experimental process conditions. The authors discuss about the opportunity of a controlled production of “casu marzu” and the implications to the health of consumers.

  3. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG secreting an antigen and Interleukin-2 translocates across the gastrointestinal tract and induces an antigen specific immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Matheswaran; Selvakumari Jayasurya, Anita; Moochhala, Shabbir; Huat Bay, Boon; Kun Lee, Yuan; Mahendran, Ratha

    2011-10-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) is a probiotic organism. In this present study, LGG that express the green fluorescence protein (LGG-GFP) and IL-2 and GFP as a fusion protein (LGG-IL-2-GFP) were used to examine bacterial uptake and the immune response induced by oral immunization. Using TEM to examine the intestinal tissue, the Lactobacilli were localized in M cells and in venules. After oral immunization, most of the bacteria were excreted in feces only a small fraction (0.15%) was retained in the intestine at 48 hr. However, more LGG-IL-2-GFP was found in the MLN and spleen than LGG-GFP. The loop ligation method was used to evaluate LGG uptake and both LGG-GFP and LGG-IL-2-GFP were found to translocate at the same rate. Analysis of LGG internalization in J774 macrophage cells indicated that IL-2 increased survival of LGG and this may explain the increased presence of these bacteria in the MLN for a longer period. After oral immunization, specific mucosal antibody production as well as GFP specific CTL activity was demonstrated. IL-2 co-expression with GFP further enhanced antibody production and CTL activity. In conclusion, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG expressing an antigen could generate an effective immune response to the antigen and IL-2 improved the response generated probably by increasing LGG expressing antigen survival in immune cells.

  4. Effectiveness of Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus for the management of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in healthy adults: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Malkanthi; Salewski, Ryan P; Christman, Mary C; Girard, Stephanie-Anne; Tompkins, Thomas A

    2016-07-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotic use can disrupt the gastrointestinal microbiota resulting in diarrhoea. Probiotics may be beneficial in managing this type of diarrhoea. The aim of this 10-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 supplementation on antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in healthy adults. Subjects were randomised to receive 1 week of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (875 mg/125 mg) once per day, plus a daily dose of 8×109 colony-forming units of a multi-strain probiotic (n 80) or placebo (n 80). The probiotic or placebo intervention was maintained for 1 week after completion of the antibiotic. Primary study outcomes of consistency and frequency of bowel movements were not significantly different between the probiotic and placebo groups. The secondary outcomes of diarrhoea-like defecations, Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale scores, safety parameters and adverse events were not significantly different between the probiotic intervention and the placebo. A post hoc analysis on the duration of diarrhoea-like defecations showed that probiotic intervention reduced the length of these events by 1 full day (probiotic, 2·70 (sem 0·36) d; placebo, 3·71 (sem 0·36) d; P=0·037; effect size=0·52). In conclusion, this study provides novel evidence that L. helveticus R0052 and L. rhamnosus R0011 supplementation significantly reduced the duration of diarrhoea-like defecations in healthy adults receiving antibiotics.

  5. The optimization of l-lactic acid production from sweet sorghum juice by mixed fermentation of Bacillus coagulans and Lactobacillus rhamnosus under unsterile conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Cai, Di; Wang, Zheng; Qin, Peiyong; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-10-01

    The cost reduction of raw material and sterilization could increase the economic feasibility of l-lactic acid fermentation, and the development of an cost-effective and efficient process is highly desired. To improve the efficiency of open fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus based on sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) and to overcome sucrose utilization deficiency of Bacillus coagulans, a mixed fermentation was developed. Besides, the optimization of pH, sugar concentration and fermentation medium were also studied. Under the condition of mixed fermentation and controlled pH, a higher yield of 96.3% was achieved, compared to that (68.8%) in sole Lactobacillus rhamnosus fermentation. With an optimized sugar concentration and a stepwise-controlled pH, the l-lactic acid titer, yield and productivity reached 121gL(-1), 94.6% and 2.18gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. Furthermore, corn steep powder (CSP) as a cheap source of nitrogen and salts was proved to be an efficient supplement to SSJ in this process.

  6. Effects of dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus or/and Lactococcus lactis on the growth, gut microbiota and immune responses of red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; El Basuini, Mohammed F; Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Nhu, Truong H; Dossou, Serge; Moss, Amina S

    2016-02-01

    Pagrus major fingerlings (3·29 ± 0·02 g) were fed with basal diet (control) supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactococcus lactis (LL), and L. rhamnosus + L. lactis (LR + LL) at 10(6) cell g(-1) feed for 56 days. Feeding a mixture of LR and LL significantly increased feed utilization (FER and PER), intestine lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count, plasma total protein, alternative complement pathway (ACP), peroxidase, and mucus secretion compared with the other groups (P growth performance (Fn wt, WG, and SGR) and protein digestibility than the groups fed an individual LR or the control diet. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased in LR and LR + LL groups when compared with the other groups. Moreover, the fish fed LR or LL had better improvement (P growth, feed utilization, body protein and lipid contents, digestibility coefficients (dry matter, protein, and lipid), protease activity, total intestine and LAB counts, hematocrit, total plasma protein, biological antioxidant potential, ACP, serum and mucus LZY and bactericidal activities, peroxidase, SOD, and mucus secretion than the control group. Interestingly, fish fed diets with LR + LL showed significantly lower total cholesterol and triglycerides when compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). These data strongly suggest that a mixture of LR and LL probiotics may serve as a healthy immunostimulating feed additive in red sea bream aquaculture.

  7. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and maintenance of normal defecation during antibiotic treatment pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Fuko Pharma Ltd, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Finland, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and maintenance of normal defecation during antibiotic treatment. The food constituent, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “help to maintain normal defecation during antibiotic treatment” and the target population proposed by the applicant is “healthy outpatient adults and children on oral antibiotic treatment”. Maintenance of normal defecation during antibiotic treatment is a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel notes that the information submitted from five out of seven human intervention studies is insufficient to allow a full scientific evaluation, and that these studies have important methodological limitations. No conclusions could be drawn from these studies for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The remaining two human intervention studies, from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim, did not show an effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on the incidence of diarrhoea resulting from antibiotic treatment. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and maintenance of normal defecation during antibiotic treatment.

  8. Influence of milk fermented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus NCDC 17 alone and in combination with herbal ingredients on diet induced adiposity and related gene expression in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Chagalamarri, Jayasimha; Kavadi, Praveen Kumar; Jangra, Surender

    2015-11-01

    Obesity has become a major health problem in developed countries and is rapidly catching up in the developing world due to changes in their life style. Dietary incorporation of functional foods, including probiotic fermented milk and herbal ingredients, is being tried to ameliorate metabolic disorders. In the present study, the effect of dietary supplementation of a probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus NCDC 17) fermented milk alone or either of the herbal preparations (Aloe vera/Gymnema sylvestre powders, 1% w/w) on the progression of obesity has been studied in C57BL/6J mice fed with a high fat diet for 12 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, oral administration of L. rhamnosus and herbs resulted in a significant decrease in the body weight, epididymal fat mass, fasting blood glucose and serum insulin levels. Supplementation of the probiotic L. rhamnosus alone and in combination with herbs showed a significant decrease in the adipocyte cell size and an increase in the number. Finally, obesity related adipokines levels were maintained at normal by the treatment groups. Thus, dietary intervention of milk fermented with probiotic L. rhamnosus alone or in combination with any of the herbal preparations seems to show anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties.

  9. The Fermentation Properties of Probiotic Lb.casein Zhang in the Yogurt%益生菌Lb.casei Zhang在酸乳中发酵特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫丽雅; 郭壮; 王记成; 张和平

    2008-01-01

    将益生菌Lb.casei Zhang分别以0、2×106、4×106、1×107 cfu/g的添加量,与商业酸乳发酵剂YC-X11共同接种进行酸乳制备.分别在发酵及贮藏期间测定酸乳样品的pH值、粘度及S.thermophilus,L.delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus和Lb.casei Zhang的活菌数,并对上述指标之间的相关性进行了分析.结果表明,在发酵6 h后,添加Lb.casei Zhang的酸乳样品,其pH值变化及S.thermophilus和L.delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus的活菌数均与对照组差异不明显(p<0.05),且各组酸乳样品测定指标间无相关性(p<0.05).变温贮藏21 d期间,添加Lb.casei Zhang的酸乳样品,其pH值、粘度、脱水收缩敏感性及S.thermophilus的活菌数与对照组差异不显著(p<0.05);添加Lb.casei Zhang的酸乳样品中L. delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus的活菌数明显低于对照组(p<0.05). Lb.casei Zhang的添加量为2×106和1×107 cfu/g时,样品pH值均与粘度呈显著正相关(p<0.05),添加量4×106 cfu/g的Lb.casei Zhang时,样品粘度与脱水收缩敏感性及pH值与活菌数均呈显著负相关(p<0.05).

  10. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Lactobacillus casei XM2-1 between Exponential and Stationary Phases%干酪乳杆菌对数生长期与稳定期蛋白质组比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌日娜; 岳喜庆; 张和平

    2012-01-01

    研究建立干酪乳杆菌Lactobacillus casei XM2—1的蛋白质组双向电泳表达图谱,比较其在对数生长中期与稳定期初期的图谱差异。结果表明:有16个蛋白质点表达发生明显变化,经过基质辅助激光解吸,电离飞行时间质谱鉴定,其中有7个蛋白质点鉴定为应激蛋白质,分别为GroEL、DnaK、Hsp20—1、Hsp20—2和UspA蛋白质。可见,应激蛋白质可能在L-casei XM2-1稳定期对外界环境的抵御能力增强起到重要作用。%Proteomic analysis was carried out to identify and characterize protein expression in Lactobacillus casei XM2-1. The cytosolic proteins of L. casei XM2-1 at the mid-exponential phase and early stationary phase were resolved by two- dimensional gel electrophoresis. Sixteen proteins revealed significant differences between two growth phases, and seven proteins were identified as stress proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI- TOF/MS), which included GroEL, DnaK, Hsp 20-1, Hsp 20-2 and UspA. This will be helpful for improving our understanding of the lg-ATR response in L. casei.

  11. Die Coenologie der Narzisse (Narcissus poeticus L. ssp. stellaris (Haw.) Dost.) in den Karpaten im Vergleich zu ihrer Vergesellschaftung in anderen Teilen Europas

    OpenAIRE

    Dragulescu, Constantin

    1987-01-01

    Das Vorkommen von Narcissus poëticus ssp. stellaris in verschiedenen Pflanzengesellschaften der Karpaten wird beschrieben und mit anderen Teilen Europas verglichen. In den Karpaten hat die Art ihr Optimum in mesophilen bis meso-hydrophilen Gesellschaften der Molinio-Arrhenatheretea und hier im Molinion und Cynosurion, in Mittel- und Westeuropa dagegen im Triseto-Polygonion. The appearance of Narcissus poeticus ssp. stellaris in different plant communities is described and compared with oth...

  12. Engineered Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG expressing IgG-binding domains of protein G: Capture of hyperimmune bovine colostrum antibodies and protection against diarrhea in a mouse pup rotavirus infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günaydın, Gökçe; Zhang, Ran; Hammarström, Lennart; Marcotte, Harold

    2014-01-16

    Rotavirus-induced diarrhea causes more than 500,000 deaths annually in the world, and although vaccines are being made available, new effective treatment strategies should still be considered. Purified antibodies derived from hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC), from cows immunized with rotavirus, were previously used for treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in children. A combination of HBC antibodies and a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus (L. rhamnosus GG) was also found to be more effective than HBC alone in reducing diarrhea in a mouse model of rotavirus infection. In order to further improve this form of treatment, L. rhamnosus GG was engineered to display surface expressed IgG-binding domains of protein G (GB1, GB2, and GB3) which capture HBC-derived IgG antibodies (HBC-IgG) and thus target rotavirus. The expression of IgG-binding domains on the surface of the bacteria as well as their binding to HBC-IgG and to rotavirus (simian strain RRV) was demonstrated by Western blot, flow cytometry, and electron microscopy. The prophylactic effect of engineered L. rhamnosus GG and anti-rotaviral activity of HBC antibodies was evaluated in a mouse pup model of RRV infection. The combination therapy with engineered L. rhamnosus GG (PG3) and HBC was significantly more effective in reducing the prevalence, severity, and duration of diarrhea in comparison to HBC alone or a combination of wild-type L. rhamnosus GG and HBC. The new therapy reduces the effective dose of HBC between 10 to 100-fold and may thus decrease treatment costs. This antibody capturing platform, tested here for the first time in vivo, could potentially be used to target additional gastrointestinal pathogens.

  13. Analysis of essential oils from Scutellaria orientalis ssp. alpina and S. utriculata by GC and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Piozzi, Franco; Arnold, Nelly Apostolides

    2011-09-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Scutellaria orientalis L. ssp. alpina (Boiss.) O. Schwarz and S. utriculata Labill. growing wild in Lebanon, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In S. orientalis ssp. alpina, strongly characterized by sesquiterpenes (41.2%) and particularly sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (31.7%), hexahydrofarnesylacetone (11.7%) was recognized as the main constituent, together with hexadecanoic acid (7.6%), caryophyllene (7.4%), caryophyllene oxide (6.8%), 4-vinylguaiacol (5.4%) and germacrene D (5.4%). S. utriculata oil was instead constituted above all by monoterpenes (42.2%), particularly oxygen containing monoterpenes (39.9%), and in this oil the main compounds were linalool (20.1%), 4-vinyl guaiacol (15.5%), alpha-terpineol (8.9%), (E)-nerolidol (8.9%) and geraniol (8.2%).

  14. Generation and characterization of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien addition lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ai xia Gu; Shu Xing Shen; Yan Hua Wang; Jian Jun Zhao; Shu Xin Xuan; Xue Ping Chen; Xiao Feng Li; Shuang Xia Luo; Yu Jing Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage group-specific markers as B. oleracea linkage groups C2, C3, C6, C7 and C8. Based on the chromosomal karyotype of root tip cells, these five MAALs added individual chromosomes from B. oleracea var. capitata: chr 1 (the longest), chr 2 or 3, chr 5 (small locus of 25S rDNA), chr 7 (satellite-carrying) and chr 9 (the shortest). Five disomic alien addition lines were then generated by selfing their corresponding MAALs.

  15. Computer-assisted diagnostic system for neurodegenerative dementia using brain SPECT and 3D-SSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Kazunari; Kanda, Tomonori; Uemura, Takafumi; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Yoshikawa, Toshiki [Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Shimada, Kenichi; Ohkawa, Shingo [Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Minoshima, Satoshi [University of Washington, Radiology and Bioengineering, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2009-05-15

    To develop a computer-assisted automated diagnostic system to distinguish among Alzheimer disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and other degenerative disorders in patients with mild dementia. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images with injection of N-Isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) were obtained from patients with mild degenerative dementia. First, datasets from 20 patients mild AD, 15 patients with dementia with DLB, and 17 healthy controls were used to develop an automated diagnosing system based on three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP). AD- and DLB-specific regional templates were created using 3D-SSP, and critical Z scores in the templates were established. Datasets from 50 AD patients, 8 DLB patients, and 10 patients with non-AD/DLB type degenerative dementia (5 with frontotemporal dementia and 5 with progressive supranuclear palsy) were then used to test the diagnostic accuracy of the optimized automated system in comparison to the diagnostic interpretation of conventional IMP-SPECT images. These comparisons were performed to differentiate AD and DLB from non-AD/DLB and to distinguish AD from DLB. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. The area under the ROC curve (Az) and the accuracy of the automated diagnosis system were 0.89 and 82%, respectively, for AD/DLB vs. non-AD/DLB patients, and 0.70 and 65%, respectively, for AD vs. DLB patients. The mean Az and the accuracy of the visual inspection were 0.84 and 77%, respectively, for AD/DLB vs. non-AD/DLB patients, and 0.70 and 65%, respectively, for AD vs. DLB patients. The mean Az and the accuracy of the combination of visual inspection and this system were 0.96 and 91%, respectively, for AD/DLB vs. non-AD/DLB patients, and 0.70 and 66%, respectively, for AD vs. DLB patients. The system developed in the present study achieved as good discrimination of AD, DLB, and other degenerative disorders in patients with mild

  16. Characterizing the Syphilis-Causing Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum Proteome Using Complementary Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Simon; Lithgow, Karen V.; Meehan, Conor J.; Strouhal, Michal; Šmajs, David; Cameron, Caroline E.; Van Ostade, Xaveer; Kenyon, Chris R.; Van Raemdonck, Geert A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum is the etiological agent of syphilis, a chronic multistage disease. Little is known about the global T. pallidum proteome, therefore mass spectrometry studies are needed to bring insights into pathogenicity and protein expression profiles during infection. Methodology/Principal Findings To better understand the T. pallidum proteome profile during infection, we studied T. pallidum ssp. pallidum DAL-1 strain bacteria isolated from rabbits using complementary mass spectrometry techniques, including multidimensional peptide separation and protein identification via matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and electrospray ionization (ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap) tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 6033 peptides were detected, corresponding to 557 unique T. pallidum proteins at a high level of confidence, representing 54% of the predicted proteome. A previous gel-based T. pallidum MS proteome study detected 58 of these proteins. One hundred fourteen of the detected proteins were previously annotated as hypothetical or uncharacterized proteins; this is the first account of 106 of these proteins at the protein level. Detected proteins were characterized according to their predicted biological function and localization; half were allocated into a wide range of functional categories. Proteins annotated as potential membrane proteins and proteins with unclear functional annotations were subjected to an additional bioinformatics pipeline analysis to facilitate further characterization. A total of 116 potential membrane proteins were identified, of which 16 have evidence supporting outer membrane localization. We found 8/12 proteins related to the paralogous tpr gene family: TprB, TprC/D, TprE, TprG, TprH, TprI and TprJ. Protein abundance was semi-quantified using label-free spectral counting methods. A low correlation (r = 0.26) was found between previous microarray signal data and

  17. Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell division cycle under limited glucose requires Ssp1 kinase, the putative CaMKK, and Sds23, a PP2A-related phosphatase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanyu, Yuichiro; Imai, Kumiko K; Kawasaki, Yosuke; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakaseko, Yukinobu; Nagao, Koji; Kokubu, Aya; Ebe, Masahiro; Fujisawa, Asuka; Hayashi, Takeshi; Obuse, Chikashi; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2009-05-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) is required for diverse cellular functions, and similar kinases exist in fungi. Although mammalian CaMK kinase (CaMKK) activates CaMK and also evolutionarily-conserved AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), CaMKK is yet to be established in yeast. We here report that the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Ssp1 kinase, which controls G2/M transition and response to stress, is the putative CaMKK. Ssp1 has a CaM binding domain (CBD) and associates with 14-3-3 proteins as mammalian CaMKK does. Temperature-sensitive ssp1 mutants isolated are defective in the tolerance to limited glucose, and this tolerance requires the conserved stretch present between the kinase domain and CBD. Sds23, multi-copy suppressor for mutants defective in type 1 phosphatase and APC/cyclosome, also suppresses the ssp1 phenotype, and is required for the tolerance to limited glucose. We demonstrate that Sds23 binds to type 2A protein phosphatases (PP2A) and PP2A-related phosphatase Ppe1, and that Sds23 inhibits Ppe1 phosphatase activity. Ssp1 and Ppe1 thus seem to antagonize in utilizing limited glucose. We also show that Ppk9 and Ssp2 are the catalytic subunits of AMPK and AMPK-related kinases, respectively, which bind to common beta-(Amk2) and gamma-(Cbs2) subunits.

  18. Axenically culturing the bryophytes: A case study of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. ssp. ruderalis Bischl. & Boisselier (Marchantiophyta, Marchantiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vujičić, Milorad; Cvetić, Tijana; Sabovljević, Aneta; Sabovljević, Marko; id_orcid 0000-0001-5809-0406

    2010-01-01

    Axenic culture of Marchantia polymorpha ssp. ruderalis were establish from the gemmae. The most appropariate condition of culturing were searched concerning mineral nutrition, light and temperature with other invariable conditions. The best material to start aseptic in vitro culture were to use gemmae and to use commercial bleach for surface sterilization (7%). The fully developed plants developed in long day condition at mild temperature 18-20°C and high humidity. The best biomass yields wer...

  19. 8th International Conference on Solid State Physics (SSP 2004), Workshop “Mössbauer Spectroscopy of Locally Heterogeneous Systems”

    CERN Document Server

    Kadyrzhanov, K. K; SSP 2004

    2006-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the 8th International Conference on Solid State Physics (SSP 2004), Workshop "Mössbauer Spectroscopy of Locally Heterogeneous Systems", held in Almaty, Kazakhstan, 23–26 August 2004. It should be of interest to researchers and PhD students working or interested in recent results in the locally inhomogeneous system investigations by Mössbauer Spectroscopy and the new concepts of data evaluation of complex Mössbauer spectra.

  20. Dietary Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Supplementation Improves the Mucosal Barrier Function in the Intestine of Weaned Piglets Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangbing Mao

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG has been regarded as a safe probiotic strain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary LGG supplementation could alleviate diarrhea via improving jejunal mucosal barrier function in the weaned piglets challenged by RV, and further analyze the potential roles for apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and intestinal microbiota. A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets: the basal diet and LGG supplementing diet. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused RV or the sterile essential medium. RV infusion increased the diarrhea rate, increased the RV-Ab, NSP4 and IL-2 concentrations and the Bax mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, decreased the villus height, villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4 and mucin 1 concentrations and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, and affected the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05 in the weaned pigs. Dietary LGG supplementation increased the villus height and villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations, and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05 reduced the Bax mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05 in weaned pigs. Furthermore, dietary LGG supplementation alleviated the increase of diarrhea rate in the weaned pigs challenged by RV (P<0.05, and relieve the effect of RV infection on the villus height, crypt depth and the villus height: crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, the NSP4, sIgA, IL-2, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, the ZO-1, occludin, Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, and the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05 in the weaned pigs challenged by RV. These results suggest that supplementing LGG in diets alleviated the diarrhea of weaned piglets challenged by RV via inhibiting the virus multiplication and improving the jejunal mucosal barrier

  1. A Comparative Study Of Probioticated Kunun-Zaki By Probiotic Strains Of Pediococci spp. And Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

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    Bukola Christianah Adebayo-tayo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-dairy probiotic functional foods are receiving considerable interest recently owing to the inability to cause allergy in certain segments of the population. Studies on probiotication were carried out to determine the suitability of kunun-zaki as food matrix for production of probiotic beverage using single and mixed culture of Pediococcus acidilactici KU7, Pediococcus pentosaceus CREC5 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Probioticated and un-probioticated kunun-zaki samples were designated PKZ and UPKZ, respectively. There was a significant difference in the viable count during storage. Viable counts of the LAB strains decreased with increasing storage time with P. acidilactici KU7 having the highest viability at the beginning and end of storage (3.43 ± 0.06 and 0.93± 0.12 x108 cfu/ml. There was a decrease in pH of the PKZ samples within the 1st and 3rd week with corresponding increase in lactic acid production (71.16 ± 0.01 – 441.39 ± 0.01. Marked increase in pH and a decline in lactic acid were observed at the 4th week of storage in all samples. Total soluble solids content of the beverage was observed to decrease with increasing storage time ranging from 8.25 ± 0.01-4.97± 0.01. There was no significant difference in pH and total soluble solids of UPKZ and colour of the PKZ and UPKZ samples during storage. All the PKZ samples were able to inhibit the growth of selected pathogens with marked variability amongst the samples. The UPKZ sample also showed slight inhibitory activity. The samples showed a decline in proximate and mineral composition at the end of storage. Sensory evaluation showed the PKZ samples were preferred over the UPKZ samples. This study shows that probioticated kunun-zaki can serve as a suitable non-dairy alternative to dairy probiotic formulations and would be of health benefits to potential consumers.

  2. Dietary Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Supplementation Improves the Mucosal Barrier Function in the Intestine of Weaned Piglets Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiangbing; Gu, Changsong; Hu, Haiyan; Tang, Jun; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Luo, Junqiu; Tian, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) has been regarded as a safe probiotic strain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary LGG supplementation could alleviate diarrhea via improving jejunal mucosal barrier function in the weaned piglets challenged by RV, and further analyze the potential roles for apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and intestinal microbiota. A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets: the basal diet and LGG supplementing diet. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused RV or the sterile essential medium. RV infusion increased the diarrhea rate, increased the RV-Ab, NSP4 and IL-2 concentrations and the Bax mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), decreased the villus height, villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4 and mucin 1 concentrations and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and affected the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs. Dietary LGG supplementation increased the villus height and villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations, and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) reduced the Bax mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) in weaned pigs. Furthermore, dietary LGG supplementation alleviated the increase of diarrhea rate in the weaned pigs challenged by RV (P<0.05), and relieve the effect of RV infection on the villus height, crypt depth and the villus height: crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the NSP4, sIgA, IL-2, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the ZO-1, occludin, Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs challenged by RV. These results suggest that supplementing LGG in diets alleviated the diarrhea of weaned piglets challenged by RV via inhibiting the virus multiplication and improving the jejunal mucosal barrier function

  3. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation during critical windows of gestation influences immune phenotype in Swiss albino mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himaja, N; Hemalatha, R; Narendra Babu, K; Shujauddin, M

    2016-01-01

    Probiotic supplementation during critical windows of gestation might have a significant influence on the infant's immune phenotype. Swiss albino mice (F0 generation) aged 31 days were supplemented orally with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG); and the supplementation was continued throughout mating, gestation and lactation. The pups (F1 generation) born to them were separated post weaning and received either the same probiotic supplementation as their mothers or were denied supplementation postnatally. Neutrophil phagocytic ability, splenocyte proliferation, immunoglobulins and cytokines were determined in both F0 and F1 pups. In addition, antibody response against hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) was determined in F1 pups. Probiotic supplementation had no effect on the neutrophil phagocytic ability and splenocyte proliferation index. The serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and secretory IgA (s-IgA) among the probiotic supplemented group of F0 generation were significantly (P<0.05) higher compared to the controls. Similarly, the mean concentration of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) among F0 probiotic group were significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to the control. Prenatal and postnatal probiotic supplementation in F1 pups led to similar results as F0 dams. Prenatal probiotic supplementation in F1 pups led to significantly (P<0.05) higher serum IgG (55.15 ± 1.35 ng/ml) and intestinal s-IgA (77.9 ± 2.86 ng/mg protein) concentration when compared to the control. Similarly, IFN-γ concentration increased (P<0.05) with prenatal probiotic supplementation compared to the control. However, IL-10 and IL-17 concentrations of prenatal probiotic supplemented F1 pups were comparable to the control. As for the antibody response to HBsAg, prenatal probiotic supplementation led to enhanced HBsAg antibody response (471.4 ± 3.97 U/ml) compared to the control. LGG affected the immune regulation and immune responses favourably in mothers and

  4. Hypoallergenic formula with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GGfor babies with colic: A pilot study of recruitment, retention,and fecal biomarkers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate recruitment, retention, and estimatesfor effects of formula supplementation withLactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on inflammatorybiomarkers and fecal microbial community in infants withcolic.METHODS: A prospective, double-blind, placebocontrolledtrial was conducted in otherwise healthyinfants with colic. We screened 74 infants and randomizedand analyzed results in 20 infants [9 receivingLGG (LGG+) and 11 not receiving LGG (LGG-)]. LGG wasincorporated in the formula (Nutramigen?) (minimum of3 × 107 CFU/d) in the LGG+ group. Fecal microbiota andinflammatory biomarkers, including fecal calprotectin(FC), plasma cytokines, circulating regulatory T cells(Tregs), and crying + fussing time were analyzed todetermine optimal time points and effect sizes for alarger trial.RESULTS: Recruitment in this population was slow, withabout 66% of eligible infants willing to enroll; subjectretention was better (75%). These rates were influencedby parents' reluctance to volunteer their infant for aclinical trial and by their tendency to change formulas.The maximal difference of crying + fussing time wasobserved at day 14, comparing the 2 groups, with amean difference of -91 (95%CI: -76, 259) min (P = NS).FC showed no significant difference, but the optimaltime to determine a potential effect was at day 90 [witha mean difference of 121 (95%CI: -48, 291) μg/g stool],observing a lower level of FC in the LGG+ group. Thefecal microbial communities were chaotic, as determinedby Shannon's diversity index and not apparently influencedby the probiotic. No significant change wasobserved in plasma inflammatory cytokines or Tregs,comparing LGG+ to LGG- groups.CONCLUSION: Designing future colic trials involving aprobiotic-supplemented formula for infants in the UnitedStates will require consideration for difficult enrollment.Infants with colic have major variations in feal microbiotaand calprotectin, both of

  5. Accumulation of biologically active furanocoumarins in agitated cultures of Ruta graveolens L. and Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiert, H; Czygan, F-Ch

    2005-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the dynamics of accumulation of linear furanocoumarins (psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, imperatorin) and their biogenetic precursor, umbelliferone, in agitated cultures of Ruta graveolens L. and Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams during 6-week growth cycles. The metabolites under study were almost exclusively accumulated in the cultured biomass. The total content of all metabolites increased 4.8- and 2.0-fold, in R. graveolens and R. graveolens ssp. divaricata cultures, respectively. Xanthotoxin and bergapten, which are the most important therapeutic compounds, were the dominating metabolites in cultures of both plants. The maximum content of xanthotoxin (25.0 mg/100 g dry wt.) and bergapten (18.4 mg/100 g dry wt) and the maximum content of all metabolites (64.0 mg/100 g dry wt) in R. graveolens ssp. divaricata callus obtained on the 35th culture day were relatively low. However, maximum contents of xanthotoxin (136.8 mg/100 g dry wt), bergapten (210.4 mg/100 g dry wt.) and isopimpinellin (96.7 mg/100 g dry wt), and total content of all metabolites in R. graveolens shoots (520.8 mg/100 g dry wt) obtained on the 42nd culture day are interesting from a practical point of view.

  6. Two Novel Alliin Lyase (Alliinase Genes from Twisted-Leaf Garlic (Allium obliquum and Mountain Garlic (Allium senescens ssp. montanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae DRAGOŞ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alliinase (Alliin lyase EC 4.4.1.4, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent lyase, represents one of the major protein components of Allium species. The enzyme is a homodimeric glycoprotein and catalyzes the synthesis of allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate, a biologically active compound, pyruvate, and ammonia starting from the specific non-protein sulfur-containing amino acid alliin ((+S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide. Using newly developed specific primers two new alliinase genes from Allium obliquum and Allium senescens ssp. montanum were amplified and sequenced, as well as their homologs, from Allium fistulosum and Allium schoenoprasum. The G+C content of the alliinase region ranges between that of other dicot plants and that reported in monocot cereal plants, in all four species. Investigations of gene expression revealed a significantly higher enzyme expression level in bulbs than in leaves in all four taxa. The deduced alliinase sequences displayed a high variability among different species, since the lowest sequence similarity was found to be 55.5% between Allium senescens ssp. montanum and Allium cepa, while the highest similarity is 77.5%, between Allium senescens ssp. montanum and Allium fistulosum. Leucine is the most common amino acid in all four alliinases, while cysteine is also more frequent than in other enzymes, suggesting a high stability of the molecules due to the possible disulfide bonds.

  7. Influence of different strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes on induction of hairy roots and lignan production in Linum tauricum ssp. tauricum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Ionkova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hairy root cultures were induced from leaf explants of Linum tauricum ssp. Tauricum by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Different bacterial strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes - TR 105 and ATCC 15834 were evaluated for induction of transformed hairy roots in Linum tauricum ssp. Tauricum. These different strains varied in their virulence for induction of hairy roots in this species. Acetosyringon in cultivation medium was used to increase of frequency of hairy root induction. Growth kinetics of transgenic roots indicated a similar pattern of growth, with maximum growth occurring between 17 and 20 days. The transformed nature of tissue was confirmed by the production of opines. The lignin production of different clones was found to be growth-related. The cultures produced to 2.6% of the lignin 4′-demethyl-6-methoxypodophylotoxin (4′-DM-MPTOX and to 3.5% of the lignin 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin (6MPTOX on a dry weight basis, which was 10 to 12 times higher than in Linum tauricum ssp. Tauricum cell suspensions. Transformed cultures showed significant differences in lignin content. The highest amount of 4′-DM-MPTOX and MPTOX was found in transformed line induced by strain ATCC 15834. Rapidly growing root lines were selected to increase the efficiency of he production of lignans.

  8. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-1720 and Lactobacillus helveticus CNCM I-1722 and defence against pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 939, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-1720 and Lactobacillus helveticus CNCM I-1722, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, defence against pathogenic gastro...

  9. Allee effects within small populations of Aconitum napellus ssp. lusitanicum, a protected subspecies in northern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cadre, Solenn; Tully, Thomas; Mazer, Susan J; Ferdy, Jean-Baptiste; Moret, Jacques; Machon, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Plants growing at low density can suffer from Allee effects as a result of pollen limitation. Previous studies of Allee effects have focused on the effects of variation among populations in size or density on reproduction. Here, the effects of plant distribution within populations on fitness components are explored in a rare plant, Aconitum napellus ssp. lusitanicum, and ecological and genetic mechanisms underlying these effects are identified. To detect pollen limitation, seed production was compared under natural versus hand-supplemented pollinations on inflorescences of different sizes in natural patches differing both in flower density and in isolation from other patches. Germination rate and juvenile survival of seeds produced in low- and high-density patches were also compared. Pollen-supplemented flowers always produced more seeds than open-pollinated flowers, especially among small plants and plants growing at low density. Offspring produced in low-density patches exhibited lower fitness that those produced in high-density patches. This could have been caused by post-fertilization mechanisms, including inbreeding depression or differential maternal resource allocation. These results show that Allee effects on fitness components (ecological and genetic Allee effects) occur within A. napellus populations at different spatial scales. The spatial distribution of plants seems to be a crucial factor affecting reproductive output and fitness.

  10. Urease inhibitory profile of extracts and chemical constituents of Pistacia atlantica ssp. cabulica Stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Ghias; Ismail; Rauf, Abdur; Raza, Muslim; Khan, Haroon; Nasruddin; Khan, Majid; Farooq, Umar; Khan, Ajmal; Arifullah

    2016-06-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the urease inhibitory profile of extract and fractions of Pistacia atlantica ssp. cabulica Stocks followed by bioactivity-guided isolated compounds. The crude extract was found significantly active with urease inhibitor (95.40% at 0.2 mg/mL) with IC50 values of 32.0 ± 0.28 μg/mL. Upon fractionation, ethyl acetate fraction displayed 100% urease inhibition with IC50 values of 19.9 ± 0.51 μg/mL at 0.2 mg/mL. However, n-hexane and chloroform fractions exhibited insignificant urease inhibition. Similarly, the isolated compound, transilitin (1) and dihydro luteolin (2) demonstrated marked urease attenuation with 95 and 98% respectively, at 0.15 mg/mL. Both the isolated compounds showed marked potency with IC50 values of 8.54 ± 0.54 and 9.58 ± 2.22 μg/mL, respectively. In short, both the extract and fractions and isolated compounds showed marked urease inhibition and thus a useful natural source of urease inhibition.

  11. Influence of mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on winter habitat for wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kirk W; Bates, Jonathan D; Johnson, Dustin D; Nafus, Aleta M

    2009-07-01

    Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities for winter habitat and consume significant quantities of Artemisia during this time. Furthermore, information is generally limited describing the recovery of A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis to mowing and the impacts of mowing on stand structure. Stand characteristics and Artemisia leaf tissue crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations were measured in midwinter on 0-, 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old fall-applied mechanical (mowed at 20 cm height) treatments and compared to adjacent untreated (control) areas. Mowing compared to the control decreased Artemisia cover, density, canopy volume, canopy elliptical area, and height (P plant communities slightly increases the nutritional quality of Artemisia leaves (P winter habitat. Considering the decline in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis-dominated landscapes, we caution against mowing these communities.

  12. Complete genome sequence of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum strain SS14 determined with oligonucleotide arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodergren Erica

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum remains the enigmatic pathogen, since no virulence factors have been identified and the pathogenesis of the disease is poorly understood. Increasing rates of new syphilis cases per year have been observed recently. Results The genome of the SS14 strain was sequenced to high accuracy by an oligonucleotide array strategy requiring hybridization to only three arrays (Comparative Genome Sequencing, CGS. Gaps in the resulting sequence were filled with targeted dideoxy-terminators (DDT sequencing and the sequence was confirmed by whole genome fingerprinting (WGF. When compared to the Nichols strain, 327 single nucleotide substitutions (224 transitions, 103 transversions, 14 deletions, and 18 insertions were found. On the proteome level, the highest frequency of amino acid-altering substitution polymorphisms was in novel genes, while the lowest was in housekeeping genes, as expected by their evolutionary conservation. Evidence was also found for hypervariable regions and multiple regions showing intrastrain heterogeneity in the T. pallidum chromosome. Conclusion The observed genetic changes do not have influence on the ability of Treponema pallidum to cause syphilitic infection, since both SS14 and Nichols are virulent in rabbit. However, this is the first assessment of the degree of variation between the two syphilis pathogens and paves the way for phylogenetic studies of this fascinating organism.

  13. Leaf water relations of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus and E. nitens: seasonal, drought and species effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D A; Beadle, C L; Worledge, D

    1996-05-01

    In August 1990, a 2-ha plantation was established in an area where rainfall (about 515 mm year(-1)) was insufficient to meet evaporative demand. On nine occasions between September 1991 and April 1993, pressure-volume curves were constructed for irrigated and rainfed Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus Labill. and E. nitens (Deane and Maiden) Maiden trees. During the experiment, rainfed trees experienced six periods when predawn water potential was significantly lower than that of irrigated trees. In early spring of 1991 and 1992, osmotic potentials at full turgor and turgor loss point in the irrigated E. nitens were significantly lower than at other times of the year, probably because of winter hardening. Water stress reduced osmotic potential and increased bulk elastic modulus in E. nitens, whereas the reverse occurred in E. globulus. However, treatment differences with respect to changes in osmotic and elastic properties were commonly overshadowed by interspecific differences. These were most apparent at the end of the sixth period of water stress when osmotic potentials at full and zero turgor were significantly higher and bulk elastic modulus and relative water content at turgor loss point were significantly lower in E. globulus than in E. nitens. We conclude that the drought-tolerance responses of E. globulus make it a more suitable species than E. nitens for establishment on sites where moderate water stress is experienced.

  14. Improving green roofs and rail road greening systems using Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus ssp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüneberg, H; Oschmann, C; Dunya, S; Ulrichs, C

    2006-01-01

    Aim of the present study was the improvement of existing methods for green roof and rail road greening systems using soil borne bacteria. Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus ssp. alone and in combination with vinasse applied to different growing substrates were tested. The substrates were brick chips, textile mats, mineral wool mats, and a commercial available substrate for the Swedish company VegTech. All four substrates were tested along an artificial rail track on the experimental station at Humboldt University Berlin, and partly on an existing rail track in Munich, Germany. Plants selected for the experiments belong to the genus Sedum, which is relatively tolerant to dry conditions. Inoculation of plants with bacteria had no effect on plant growth parameters and on coverage of different mobile bedding systems with Sedum plants. There was no significant difference between the various treatments in Munich. In both experiments, the addition of vinasse alone improved plant growth. Plant growth was significantly different on all substrates, whereas brick chips and the commercial roof soil was the best substrate. Brick chips are a cheap substrate which can be used for rail track greening. The results indicate that the quality of the substrate is the most important factor for remediation and greening of rail tracks and roof tops. The rapid growth of plants can be influenced by the application of vinasse as additional nutrient solution (potash (K) source) or nutrient enriched substrate.

  15. Evaluating physiological stress in Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed in Australian zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Tempe; Narayan, Edward J; Magrath, Michael J L; Roe, Sheila; Clark, Giles; Nicolson, Vere; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoid quantification using non-invasive methods provides a powerful tool for assessing the health and welfare of wildlife in zoo-based programmes. In this study, we provide baseline data on faecal-based glucocorticoid (cortisol) monitoring of Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed at the Melbourne Zoo in Victoria, Australia. We sampled five tigers daily for 60 days. Faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) in tiger faecal extracts were quantified using enzyme immunoassays that were successfully validated using parallelism and accuracy recovery checks. Two female tigers had significantly higher mean FCM levels than the two males and another female, suggesting that females may have higher FCM levels. A significant elevation was noted in the FCM levels for one female 2 days after she was darted and anaesthetized; however, the FCM levels returned to baseline levels within 3 days after the event. Comparative analysis of FCM levels of tigers sampled at Melbourne Zoo with tigers sampled earlier at two other Australian Zoos (Dreamworld Themepark and Australia Zoo) showed that FCM levels varied between zoos. Differences in the enclosure characteristics, timing of sampling, size and composition of groupings and training procedures could all contribute to this variation. Overall, we recommend the use of non-invasive sampling for the assessment of adrenocortical activity of felids managed in zoos in Australia and internationally in order to improve the welfare of these charismatic big cats.

  16. Larvicidal Activity of Centaurea bruguierana ssp. belangerana Against Anopheles stephensi Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Rajabi, Afsaneh; Behzad, Masoud; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abaee, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the total 80% of MeOH extract and also petroleum ether, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and the remaining MeOH fractions obtained by solvent-solvent fractionation of the whole flowering samples of Centaurea bruguierana (DC.) Hand.-Mzt. ssp. belangerana (DC.) Bornm. (Asteraceae), namely "Baad-Avard", collected from Borazjan in Bushehr Province (Bushehr, Iran) were investigated for larvicidal activity against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, according to WHO methods. The mortality rate of total extract and petroleum ether fraction in concentration of 40 ppm were 28% and 86% respectively and the other fractions were inactive. The probit regression analysis for the dose-response to petroleum ether fraction treatment of larvae exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 15.7 ppm and 48.3 ppm, respectively. As results showed, the larvicidal activity of the petroleum ether fraction would be due to the nonpolar compounds in the plant which further isolation and purification would obtain the more active compounds in lower concentrations useful for preparation of biological insecticides.

  17. Effects of amendments on the uptake and distribution of DDT in Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Lunney, Alissa I. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Rutter, Allison [School of Environmental Studies, Biosciences Complex, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Zeeb, Barbara A., E-mail: zeeb-b@rmc.c [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    The effects of soil amendments on the phytoextraction of SIGMADDT (DDT + DDD + DDE) from soil ([SIGMADDT] approx 1500 ng/g) by a pumpkin variety of Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo were tested and the patterns of SIGMADDT storage throughout the plant shoot were examined. The soil amendments did not increase the total amount of SIGMADDT extracted into plant shoots, but new information about SIGMADDT distribution in the plants was obtained. As observed previously, the SIGMADDT concentration in plant leaves (mean 290 ng/g) was significantly lower than in plant stems (mean 2600 ng/g). Further analysis revealed that SIGMADDT composition was consistent throughout the plant shoot and that SIGMADDT concentration in leaves and stems decreased exponentially as distance from the root increased, which was previously unknown. This new information about the patterns of SIGMADDT uptake and translocation within pumpkin plants highlights the need for appropriate plant sampling strategies in future POPs phytoextraction research. - Patterns of SIGMADDT storage in a pumpkin plant are elucidated and specific surfactant and mycorrhizal soil amendments did not increase the total amount of SIGMADDT phytoextracted into plant shoots.

  18. RAPID HLA-DRB1 GENERIC TYPING BY PCR-SSP METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱长春; 赵岩; 陶贞寅; 朱席林; 徐作军; 董怡

    1995-01-01

    We report a simple and rapid HLA-DRB1 generic typing metbod,PCR-SSP,which is practical and inexpensive.We use 9 sequence-specific primers and 2 group specific primers to define the HLA-DRB1 specificities DR1,DR2,DR3,DR4,DR5,DR6,DR7,DR8,DR9 and DR10. The HLA DR3,DR5,DR6 and DR8 can be amplified by the two primers of DR3568 are positive.Any individuals can be typed with some exception: the three pairs of phenotype DR3/DR3 and DR3/DR6,DR5/DR5 and DR5/DR6, DR8/DR8 and DR8/DR6 cannot be discriminated from each other.We typed 106 unrelated healthy people from Beijing locations in two weeks.We think this typing method is suitable to replace the error-Prone serologic HLA-DR tests in routine clinical practice,including the prospective typing of cadaveric organ donors.

  19. Immunostimulatory oligonucleotide, CpG-like motif exists in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus NIAI B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Haruki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Shimosato, Takeshi; Kawai, Yasushi; Itoh, Takatoshi; Saito, Tadao

    2003-08-15

    The present study was conducted to find an immunostimulatory oligonucleotide derived from yogurt starter cultures. The chromosomal DNA was purified from nine strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and six strains of Streptococcus thermophilus. An immunostimulatory ability of the DNA was examined in a proliferation of peyer's patch and splenic B cells. Only the DNA from L. bulgaricus NIAI B6 induced a significant proliferation of both cells. When the DNA was cloned and amplified using PCR, the mitogenic activities to B cells were significantly increased by 13 of 135 DNA clones. Ten homologous nucleotide sequences were found as possible oligonucleotide sequences of mitogens, and were then chemically synthesized (sOL-LB1 to sOL-LB10). One CpG-like motif (sOL-LB7; 5'-CGGCACGCTCACGATTCTTG-3') was identified as an immunostimulatory oligonucleotide, but it did not contain palindromic CpG structure known as a B cell-specific mitogen. The sOL-LB7 substantially bound to B cells and increased the CD69 positive cells in peyer's patch cells. This study demonstrated that L. bulgaricus NIAI B6 was a good candidate of a starter culture for the production of new functional foods, "Bio-Defense Foods".

  20. Isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus from plants in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaylova, Michaela; Minkova, Svetlana; Kimura, Katsunori; Sasaki, Takashi; Isawa, Kakuhei

    2007-04-01

    One of the traditional ways of preparation of yogurt starter in Bulgaria is placing a branch of a particular plant species into boiled sheep's milk maintained at about 45 degrees C, which is further incubated until a dense coagulum is obtained. To investigate the possible origin of the yogurt starter bacteria, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) and Streptococcus thermophilus (S. thermophilus), the traditional way of yogurt-starter preparation was followed. Hundreds of plant samples were collected from four regions in Bulgaria and incubated in sterile skim milk. The two target bacteria at low frequencies from the plant samples collected were successfully isolated. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of these bacterial isolates revealed that they were identified as L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus. Twenty isolates of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, respectively, were selected from the isolated strains and further characterized with regard to their performance in yogurt production. Organoleptic and physical properties of yogurt prepared using the isolated strains from plants were not significantly different from those prepared using commercial yogurt-starter strains. It was therefore suggested that L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus strains widely used for commercial yogurt production could have originated from plants in Bulgaria. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation and characterization of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus strains from plants.

  1. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han; Cao, Hua; Cai, Yan-Fei; Wang, Ji-Hua; Qu, Su-Ping; Huang, Xing-Qi

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) chloroplast genome (cpDNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 149,637 bp in length, containing a pair of 24,439 bp inverted repeat regions (IR), which were separated by small and large single copy regions (SSC and LSC) of 17,701 and 83,057 bp, respectively. 53.4% of the sugar beet cpDNA consisted of gene coding regions (protein coding and RNA genes). The gene content and relative positions of 113 individual genes (79 protein encoding genes, 30 tRNA genes, 4 rRNA genes) were almost identical to those of tobacco cpDNA. The overall AT contents of the sugar beet cpDNA were 63.6% and in the LSC, SSC and IR regions were 65.9%, 70.8% and 57.8%, respectively. Fifteen genes contained one intron, while three genes had two introns.

  2. FurA contributes to the oxidative stress response regulation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelt, Elke; Meißner, Thorsten; Meens, Jochen; Laarmann, Kristin; Nerlich, Andreas; Jarek, Michael; Weiss, Siegfried; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Goethe, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator A (FurA) is known to be involved in iron homeostasis and stress response in many bacteria. In mycobacteria the precise role of FurA is still unclear. In the presented study, we addressed the functional role of FurA in the ruminant pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by construction of a furA deletion strain (MAPΔfurA). RNA deep sequencing revealed that the FurA regulon consists of repressed and activated genes associated to stress response or intracellular survival. Not a single gene related to metal homeostasis was affected by furA deletion. A decisive role of FurA during intracellular survival in macrophages was shown by significantly enhanced survival of MAPΔfurA compared to the wildtype, indicating that a principal task of mycobacterial FurA is oxidative stress response regulation in macrophages. This resistance was not associated with altered survival of mice after long term infection with MAP. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that mycobacterial FurA is not involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis. However, they provide strong evidence that FurA contributes to intracellular survival as an oxidative stress sensing regulator.

  3. Internalization-dependent recognition of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis by intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Johanna; Basler, Tina; Duerr, Claudia U; Rohde, Manfred; Goethe, Ralph; Hornef, Mathias W

    2009-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease, a highly prevalent chronic intestinal infection in domestic and wildlife ruminants. The microbial pathogenesis of MAP infection has attracted additional attention due to an association with the human enteric inflammatory Crohn's disease. MAP is acquired by the faecal-oral route prompting us to study the interaction with differentiated intestinal epithelial cells. MAP was rapidly internalized and accumulated in a late endosomal compartment. In contrast to other opportunistic mycobacteria or M. bovis, MAP induced significant epithelial activation as indicated by a NF-kappaB-independent but Erk-dependent chemokine secretion. Surprisingly, MAP-induced chemokine production was completely internalization-dependent as inhibition of Rac-dependent bacterial uptake abolished epithelial activation. In accordance, innate immune recognition of MAP by differentiated intestinal epithelial cells occurred through the intracellularly localized pattern recognition receptors toll-like receptor 9 and NOD1 with signal transduction via the adaptor molecules MyD88 and RIP2. The internalization-dependent innate immune activation of intestinal epithelial cells is in contrast to the stimulation of professional phagocytes by extracellular bacterial constituents and might significantly contribute to the histopathological changes observed during enteric MAP infection.

  4. Growth Behavior of Phytopathogen Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus Treated with Selenium Biocomposites of Mushroom Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Perfileva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of studying the effect of biologically obtained selenium nanocomposites on the bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Cms are presented. Cms is a Gram-positive bacterium, which causes one of the most dangerous potato diseases, ring rot. The effective alongside ecologically safe methods for combating Cms are lacking. As the agents feasible for use in this purpose, we examined the selenium nanocomposites obtained from the macrobasidiomycetes' submerged cultures. For exploring the bionanocomposites effect on Cms, the methods of agar well diffusion, the suspension turbidity measurement, and the colony-forming units count were applied. The results showed that all the nanocomposites under study lowered the bacterial suspension's absorption values compared to the reference specimen, that testified to the observation of bacteriostatic effect of the agents tested. The suppression action of nanocompostes was elucidated by means of both agar well diffusion assay and colony-forming units count. Thus, the results obtained demonstrate the occurrence of bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of the substances under study, and favor the supposition on advisability of further research into the selenium nanocomposites as the agents for agricultural recovery from the bacterial pathogens.

  5. Variation in Nectar Volume and Sugar Concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in Three Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Farkas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 μL per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24 h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration.

  6. Antiviral and antimicrobial activities of three sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozçelik, Berrin; Gürbüz, Ilhan; Karaoglu, Taner; Yeşilada, Erdem

    2009-01-01

    Three sesquiterpene lactones (centaurepensin = chlorohyssopifolin A, chlorojanerin and 13-acetyl solstitialin A) isolated from the aerial parts of Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis (Asteraceae) were investigated for antimicrobial and antiviral activities. For the antimicrobial activity assessment, both standard and isolated strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis were employed by the microdilution method. Herpes simplex type-1, a DNA virus, and Parainfluenza, an RNA virus, were employed for the determination of the antiviral activity of these three sesquiterpene lactones using Vero cell lines. Ampicilline, ofloxocine, ketoconazole, fluconazole, acyclovir and oseltamivir were used as the reference drugs. 13-Acetyl solstitialin A displayed remarkable antibacterial activity against isolated strains of E. faecalis at 1 microg/ml concentration, which was close to the effective concentrations of ampicillin. The same compound also showed significant activity against the DNA virus, being as potent as the reference compound acyclovir at maximum and minimum concentrations of 16-<0.00006 microg/ml. This is the first report showing that 13-acetyl solstitialin A possesses significant antiviral activity.

  7. Full Scale Test of SSP 34m blade, edgewise loading LTT. Data Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find M.; Nielsen, Per H. (and others)

    2010-01-15

    This report is a part of a research project where a 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S has been tested in edgewise direction (LTT). The applied load is 60% of an unrealistic extreme event, corresponding to 75% of a certificated extreme load. This report describes the background, the test set up, the tests and the results. For this project, a new solution has been used for the load application and the solution for the load application is described in this report as well. The blade has been submitted to thorough examination. More areas have been examined with DIC, both global and local deflections have been measured, and also 378 strain gauge measurements have been performed. Furthermore Acoustic Emission has been used in order to detect damage while testing new load areas. The global deflection is compared with results from a previous test and results from FEM analyses in order to validate the solution as to how the gravity load on the blade was handled. Furthermore, the DIC measurement and the displacement sensors measurements are compared in order to validate the results from the DIC measurements. The report includes the results from the test and a description of the measurement equipment and the data acquisition. (author)

  8. Identification of an HLA-A* 0201-restricted CD8+ T-cell epitope SSp-1 of SARS-CoV spike protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang B; Yu Y; Wang X; Yang R; Cao X; Chen H; Jiang X; Zhang M; Wan T; Li N; Zhou X; Wu Y; Yang F

    2004-01-01

    A novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV), has been identified as the causal agent of SARS. Spike (S) protein is a major structural glycoprotein of the SARS virus and a potential target for SARS-specific cell-mediated immune responses. A panel of S protein-derived peptides was tested for their binding affinity to HLA-A * 0201 molecules. Peptides with high affinity for HLA-A * 0201 were then assessed for their capacity to elicit specific immune responses mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) both in vivo, in HLA-A2. 1/Kb transgenic mice, and in vitro, from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) harvested from healthy HLA-A2.1 + donors. SARS-CoV protein-derived peptide-1 (SSp-1 RLNEVAKNL), induced peptide-specific CTLs both in vivo (transgenic mice) and in vitro (human PBLs), which specifically released interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) upon stimulation with SSp-1-pulsed autologous dendritic cells (DCs) or T2 cells. SSp-1-specific CTLs also lysed major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-matched tumor cell lines engineered to express S proteins. HLA-A * 0201-SSp-1 tetramer staining revealed the presence of significant populations of SSp-1-specific CTLs in SSp-1-induced CD8+ T cells. We propose that the newly identified epitope SSp-1 will help in the characterization of virus control mechanisms and immunopathology in SARS-CoV infection, and may be relevant to the development of immunotherapeutic approaches for SARS.

  9. No evidence of harms of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in healthy elderly-a phase I open label study to assess safety, tolerability and cytokine responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Hibberd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG has been consumed by 2 to 5 million people daily since the mid 1990s, there are few clinical trials describing potential harms of LGG, particularly in the elderly. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this open label clinical trial is to assess the safety and tolerability of 1×1010 colony forming units (CFU of LGG administered orally twice daily to elderly volunteers for 28 days. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the effects of LGG on the gastrointestinal microbiome, host immune response and plasma cytokines. METHODS: Fifteen elderly volunteers, aged 66-80 years received LGG capsules containing 1×1010 CFU, twice daily for 28 days and were followed through day 56. Volunteers completed a daily diary, a telephone call on study days 3, 7 and 14 and study visits in the Clinical Research Center at baseline, day 28 and day 56 to determine whether adverse events had occurred. Assessments included prompted and open-ended questions. RESULTS: There were no serious adverse events. The 15 volunteers had a total of 47 events (range 1-7 per volunteer, 39 (83% of which were rated as mild and 40% of which were considered related to consuming LGG. Thirty-one (70% of the events were expected, prompted symptoms while 16 were unexpected events. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal (bloating, gas, and nausea, 27 rated as mild and 3 rated as moderate. In the exploratory analysis, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 decreased during LGG consumption, returning towards baseline one month after discontinuing LGG (p = 0.038 while there was no difference in other pro- or anti-inflammatory plasma cytokines. CONCLUSIONS: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 is safe and well tolerated in healthy adults aged 65 years and older. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 01274598.

  10. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Profiles of Cytokine, Chemokine, and Growth Factors Produced by Human Decidual Cells Are Altered by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Yang, Siwen; Kim, Sung O; Reid, Gregor; Challis, John R G; Bocking, Alan D

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 supernatant (GR-1SN) on secretion profiles of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors from primary cultures of human decidual cells. Lipopolysaccharide significantly increased the output of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1B, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-17A, interferon gamma [IFN-γ], and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]); anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1RN, IL-4, IL-9, and IL-10); chemokines (IL-8, eotaxin, IFN-inducible protein 10 [IP-10], monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], macrophage inflammatory protein-1α [MIP-1α], macrophage inflammatory protein-1β [MIP-1β], and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted [RANTES]); and growth factors (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [CSF] 3, CSF-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor A [VEGFA]). Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1SN alone significantly increased CSF-3, MIP-1α MIP-1β, and RANTES but decreased IL-15 and IP-10 output. The GR-1SN also significantly or partially reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2 IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-17, and IP-10; partially reduced LPS-induced anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1RN, IL-4 and IL-10, and LPS-induced VEGFA output but did not affect CSF-3, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MCP-1, IL-8, and IL-9. Our results demonstrate that GR-1SN attenuates the inflammatory responses to LPS by human decidual cells, suggesting its potential role in ameliorating intrauterine infection.

  11. A draft sequence of the rice(Oryza sativa ssp. indica) genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The sequence of the rice genome holds fundamental information for its biology, including physiology, genetics, development, and evolution, as well as information on many beneficial phenotypes of economic significance. Using a "whole genome shotgun" approach, we have produced a draft rice genome sequence of Oryza sativa ssp. indica, the major crop rice subspecies in China and many other regions of Asia. The draft genome sequence is constructed from over 4.3 million successful sequencing traces with an accumulative total length of 2214.9 Mb. The initial assembly of the non-redundant sequences reached 409.76 Mb in length, based on 3.30 million successful sequencing traces with a total length of 1797.4 Mb from an indica variant cultivar 93-11, giving an estimated coverage of 95.29% of the rice genome with an average base accuracy of higher than 99%. The coverage of the draft sequence, the randomness of the sequence distribution, and the consistency of BIG-ASSEM- BLER, a custom-designed software package used for the initial assembly, were verified rigorously by comparisons against finished BAC clone sequences from both indica and japanica strains, available from the public databases. Over all, 96.3% of full-length cDNAs, 96.4% of STS, STR, RFLP markers, 94.0% of ESTs and 94.9% unigene clusters were identified from the draft sequence. Our preliminary analysis on the data set shows that our rice draft sequence is consistent with the comman standard accepted by the genome sequencing community. The unconditional release of the draft to the public also undoubtedly provides a fundamental resource to the international scientific communities to facilitate genomic and genetic studies on rice biology.

  12. The hydraulic architecture of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis: shrubs and trees compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beikircher, Barbara; Mayr, Stefan

    2008-11-01

    Juniperus communis ssp. communis can grow like a shrub or it can develop a tree-like habit. In this study, the hydraulic architecture of these contrasting growth forms was compared. We analysed the hydraulic efficiency (leaf-specific conductivity, k(l); specific conductivity, k(s); Huber value, HV) and the vulnerability to cavitation (the water potential corresponding to a 50% loss of conductivity, Psi(50)), as well as anatomical parameters [mean tracheid diameter, d; mean hydraulic diameter, d(h); cell wall reinforcement (t/b)(h)(2)] of shrub shoots, tree stems and tree branches. Shrub shoots were similar to tree branches (especially to lower branches) in growth form and conductivity (k(l) = 1.93 +/- 0.11 m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) 10(-7), k(s) = 5.71 +/- 0.19 m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) 10(-4)), but were similar to tree stems in their vulnerability to cavitation (Psi(50) = -5.81 +/- 0.08 MPa). Tree stems showed extraordinarily high k(l) and k(s) values, and HV increased from the base up. Stem xylem was more vulnerable to cavitation than branch xylem, where Psi(50) increased from lower (Psi(50) = -6.44 +/- 0.19 MPa) to upper branches (Psi(50) = -5.98 +/- 0.13 MPa). Conduit diameters were correlated with k(l) and k(s). Data indicate that differences in hydraulic architecture correspond to changes in growth form. In some aspects, the xylem hydraulics of tree-like Juniperus communis differs from that of other coniferous tree species.

  13. [Effects of ruta SSP on the activity of the smooth gastrointestinal muscle isolated of rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorjev, Carlota A; Brizuela, Nilda Y

    2010-01-01

    Ruta graveolens L. and Ruta chalepensis L. are plants used in folkloric medicine as antispasmodics, digestive and for intestinal gases. Animals used as experimental model were rats of the Wistar line, adult females, clinically healthy and with a weight average of 250 grams. We used strips of stomach and duodenum. Each one of the segments mounted on two stirrups in a bath of organ isolated with Ringer-lactate solution, at 37° C , pH: 7.3-7.4, and bubbled with 95% O2, 5% CO2. One of the stirrups was connected vertically to the bottom of the bath and the other to a transducer of tension connected to a Beckman polygraph. We applied 500 mgs of basal tension. After the stabilization, the ethanolic extract of Ruta ssp was added in increasing doses. At 50μl/ml the tone lower 23% in small intestine and lower 27% in stomach. However at 100 μl/ml the tone lower 32% and 35% respectively. In the other parameters the amplitude decrease 50% in the stomach at dose of 5 μl/ml while in the small intestine the amplitude lower 60%. With 10 μl/ml the amplitude change in both organs ( 96% in small intestine, and 75% in stomach). The frequency changes in both organs ( 32% in small intestine, and 50% in stomach) at 10 μl/ml Rue showed decreased effects on isolated small intestine and stomach were is dose dependent, maybe we were demonstrated the effects digestive of Ruta.

  14. Ontogenetic differences in mesophyll structure and chlorophyll distribution in Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S A; Smith, W K; Vogelmann, T C

    1999-02-01

    Mesophyll structure has been associated with the photosynthetic performance of leaves via the regulation of internal light and CO(2) profiles. Differences in mesophyll structure and chlorophyll distribution within three ontogenetically different leaf types of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus were investigated. Juvenile leaves are blue-grey in color, dorsiventral (adaxial palisade layer only), hypostomatous, and approximately horizontal in orientation. In contrast, adult leaves are dark green in color, isobilateral (adaxial and abaxial palisade), amphistomatous, and nearly vertical in orientation. The transitional leaf type has structural features that appear intermediate between the juvenile and adult leaves. The ratio of mesophyll cell surface area per unit leaf surface area (A(mes)/A) of juvenile leaves was maximum at the base of a single, adaxial palisade layer and declined through the spongy mesophyll. Chlorophyll a + b content showed a coincident pattern, while the chlorophyll a:b ratio declined linearly from the adaxial to abaxial epidermis. In comparison, the mesophyll of adult leaves had a bimodal distribution of A(mes)/A, with maxima occurring beneath both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces within the first layer of multiple palisade layers. The distribution of chlorophyll a + b content had a similar pattern, although the maximum ratio of chlorophyll a:b occurred immediately beneath the adaxial and abaxial epidermis. The matching distributions of A(mes)/A and chlorophyll provide further evidence that mesophyll structure may act to influence photosynthetic performance. These changes in internal leaf structure at different life stages of E. globulus may be an adaptation for increased xeromorphy under increasing light exposure experienced from the seedling to adult tree, similar to the characteristics reported for different species according to sunlight exposure and water availability within their native habitats.

  15. Systemic and mucosal immune reactivity upon Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Arzu; Bargen, Imke; Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Roderfeld, Martin; Tschuschner, Annette; Rath, Timo; Gerlach, Gerald F; Hornef, Mathias; Goethe, Ralph; Weiss, Siegfried; Roeb, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the cause of Johne's disease, an inflammatory bowel disorder of ruminants. Due to the similar pathology, MAP was also suggested to cause Crohn's disease (CD). Despite of intensive research, this question is still not settled, possibly due to the lack of versatile mouse models. The aim of this study was to identify basic immunologic mechanisms in response to MAP infection. Immune compromised C57BL/6 Rag2-/- mice were infected with MAP intraperitoneally. Such chronically infected mice were then reconstituted with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells 28 days after infection. A systemic inflammatory response, detected as enlargement of the spleen and granuloma formation in the liver, was observed in mice infected and reconstituted with CD4+ T cells. Whereby inflammation in infected and CD4+CD45RB(hi) T cell reconstituted animals was always higher than in the other groups. Reconstitution of infected animals with CD8+ T cells did not result in any inflammatory signs. Interestingly, various markers of inflammation were strongly up-regulated in the colon of infected mice reconstituted with CD4+CD45RB(lo/int) T cells. We propose, the usual non-colitogenic CD4+CD45RB(lo/int) T cells were converted into inflammatory T cells by the interaction with MAP. However, the power of such cells might be not sufficient for a fully established inflammatory response in the colon. Nevertheless, our model system appears to mirror aspects of an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) like CD and Johne's diseases. Thus, it will provide an experimental platform on which further knowledge on IBD and the involvement of MAP in the induction of CD could be acquired.

  16. Systemic and mucosal immune reactivity upon Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Koc

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP is the cause of Johne's disease, an inflammatory bowel disorder of ruminants. Due to the similar pathology, MAP was also suggested to cause Crohn's disease (CD. Despite of intensive research, this question is still not settled, possibly due to the lack of versatile mouse models. The aim of this study was to identify basic immunologic mechanisms in response to MAP infection. Immune compromised C57BL/6 Rag2-/- mice were infected with MAP intraperitoneally. Such chronically infected mice were then reconstituted with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells 28 days after infection. A systemic inflammatory response, detected as enlargement of the spleen and granuloma formation in the liver, was observed in mice infected and reconstituted with CD4+ T cells. Whereby inflammation in infected and CD4+CD45RB(hi T cell reconstituted animals was always higher than in the other groups. Reconstitution of infected animals with CD8+ T cells did not result in any inflammatory signs. Interestingly, various markers of inflammation were strongly up-regulated in the colon of infected mice reconstituted with CD4+CD45RB(lo/int T cells. We propose, the usual non-colitogenic CD4+CD45RB(lo/int T cells were converted into inflammatory T cells by the interaction with MAP. However, the power of such cells might be not sufficient for a fully established inflammatory response in the colon. Nevertheless, our model system appears to mirror aspects of an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD like CD and Johne's diseases. Thus, it will provide an experimental platform on which further knowledge on IBD and the involvement of MAP in the induction of CD could be acquired.

  17. Metal extraction by Alyssum serpyllifolium ssp. lusitanicum on mine-spoil soils from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, P S; Monterroso, C

    2005-01-05

    The efficiency of Alyssum serpyllifolium ssp. lusitanicum (Brassicaceae) for use in phytoextraction of polymetallic contaminated soils was evaluated. A. serpyllifolium was grown on two mine-spoil soils (MS1 and MS2): MS1 is contaminated with Cr (283 mg kg(-1)) and MS2 is moderately contaminated with Cr (263 mg kg(-1)), Cu (264 mg kg(-1)), Pb (1433 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (377 mg kg(-1)). Soils were limed to about pH 6.0 (MS1/Ca and MS2/Ca) or limed and amended with NPK fertilisers (MS1/NPK and MS2/NPK). Biomass was reduced on MS2/Ca due to Cu phytotoxicity. Fertilisation increased biomass by 10-fold on MS1/NPK, but root growth was reduced by 7-fold compared with MS1/Ca. Plants accumulated Mn, Ni and Zn in shoots, and both metal content and transportation were generally greater in MS2 than in MS1. Zinc bioaccumulation factors (BF, shoot([metal])/soil([metal])) were significantly greater in MS2 than in MS1. However, metal yields were greatest in plants grown on MS1/NPK. Concentrations of EDTA-, NH(4)Cl- and Mehlich 3 (M3)-extractable Mn and Zn were greater after plant growth. Concentrations of M3-extractable Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn were increased at the rhizosphere. Sequential extractions showed changes in the metal distribution among different soil fractions after growth. This could reflect the buffering capacity of these soils or the plants' ability to mobilise metals from less plant-available soil pools. Results suggest that A. serpyllifolium could be suitable for phytoextraction uses in polymetallic-contaminated soils, provided Cu concentrations were not phytotoxic. However, further optimisation of growth and metal extraction are required.

  18. Rapid turnover of the W chromosome in geographical populations of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshido, Atsuo; Síchová, Jindra; Kubíčková, Svatava; Marec, František; Sahara, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Our previous studies revealed a considerably high level of chromosomal polymorphism in wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Geographical populations of this species complex differ in chromosome numbers and show derived sex chromosome systems including Z0/ZZ in S. cynthia ricini (2n = 27/28; Vietnam), neo-Wneo-Z/neo-Zneo-Z in S. cynthia walkeri (2n = 26/26; Sapporo, Hokkaido) and neo-WZ1Z2/Z1Z1Z2Z2 in S. cynthia subsp. indet. (2n = 25/26; Nagano, Honshu). In this study, we collected specimens of S. cynthia pryeri in Japanese islands Kyushu, Shikoku and Honshu, with an ancestral-like karyotype of 2n = 28 in both sexes and a WZ/ZZ sex chromosome system, except for one population, in which females have lost the W chromosome. However, the S. cynthia pryeri W chromosome showed a very unusual morphology: It was composed of a highly heterochromatic body, which remained condensed throughout the whole cell cycle and of a euchromatin-like "tail." We examined molecular composition of the W and neo-W chromosomes in S. cynthia subspecies by comparative genomic hybridisation and fluorescence in situ hybridisation with W chromosome painting probes prepared from laser-microdissected W chromatin of S. cynthia pryeri. These methods revealed that the molecular composition of highly heterochromatic part of the S. cynthia pryeri W chromosome is very different and lacks homology in the genomes of other subspecies, whereas the euchromatin-like part of the W chromosome corresponds to a heterochromatic part of the neo-W chromosomes in S. cynthia walkeri and S. cynthia subsp. indet. Our findings suggest that the curious WZ system of S. cynthia pryeri may represent an ancestral state of the Samia species complex but do not exclude an alternative hypothesis of its derived origin.

  19. Starch-bound 2S proteins and kernel texture in einkorn, Triticum monococcum ssp monococcum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Federica; Gazza, Laura; Conti, Salvatore; Muccilli, Vera; Foti, Salvatore; Pogna, Norberto Edgar

    2009-11-01

    The starch granule proteins from 113 einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum ssp monococcum) accessions were analyzed by acidic, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE), and two-dimensional A-PAGE x SDS-PAGE. All accessions were confirmed to contain equal amounts of two polypeptide chains corresponding to puroindoline B (Pin-B), as well as a prominent component plus a faint band corresponding to puroindoline A (Pin-A). When compared with soft-textured common wheat, "monococcum" accessions showed an increase of 3.2- and 2.7-fold in Pin-A and Pin-B levels on the starch granules, respectively. In addition, all accessions contained a novel component of the 2S super-family of seed proteins named Einkorn Trypsin Inhibitor (ETI), which was found to be encoded as a pre-protein 148 residues long. Wild-type ETI encoded by allele Eti-A(m) 1a and "valine-type" ETI encoded by allele Eti-A(m) 1b, which occurred in 107 and six einkorn accessions, respectively, were found to accumulate on starch granules as a mature protein of 121 amino acids with a hydrophobic central domain. The einkorn accessions exhibited an average SKCS index as low as -2.05 +/- 11.4, which is typical of extra-soft kernels. The total surface area of starch granules in "monococcum" wheat, as determined by visual assessments in counting chambers, was estimated at 764 mm(2)/mg of starch, and was about 1.5 times higher than that for common wheat. The results are discussed in relation to the identification of factors that cause the extra-soft texture of einkorn kernels.

  20. Evaluation of the wood CCA preservative treatment process of Eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp) by X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Sergio Matias, E-mail: matias@ipt.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salvador, Vera Lucia Ribeiro; Sato, Ivone Mulako, E-mail: imsato@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Brazil produces around 1,2 mi m{sup 3} of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp)and pine (Pinus ssp). The most wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (Chromated Copper Arsenate) and CCB (Copper Chromium and Boron Salt). The analytical methods, such as Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) and Plasma Inductively Coupled Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) have been used for the evaluation of those treatment processes. In this work, the sapwood sample was obtained from eucalyptus trees (Eucaliptus ssp) obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Sawdust sapwood sample was grounded and submitted to different additions of CCA solutions (0.2, 0.7, 1.3, 2.3, 3.6, 6.3, 11.7and17.9 kg m{sup -3}). Power and pressed pellets sapwood samples, analyzed by EDXRFS, showed a good linear relation (r{sup 2}>0.99) between the characteristic intensity fluorescent lines (CuΚα, CrΚαand AsΚΒ) and their concentration, also, showed adequate sensitivity (LQ < 5mgkg{sup -1}) for Cu, Cr and As determination in treated woods. Cu, Cr and As were determined in powdered sawdust samples by FAA spectrometry, using the AWPA A11-93 standard method; the relation between the CCA retention and their concentration showed a lower linear relation than EDXRFS; the FAAS spreading result could be attributed to laboratorial CCA addition process. (author)

  1. Evaluación de la fermentación del lactosuero ácido (entero y desproteinizado utilizando Lactobacillus casei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cury Regino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Título corto: Evaluación de la fermentación del lactosuero ácidoTítulo en ingles: Evaluation of acid whey fermentation (whole and deproteinized using Lactobacillus caseiResumen:  El lactosuero acidificado espontáneamente pone en riesgo la salud del consumidor al utilizarlo como acidificante de la leche usada en la elaboración del queso tipo mozzarella, y además reduce la calidad del producto. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el proceso de fermentación del lactosuero ácido (entero y desproteinizado con Lactobacillus casei, utilizando diferentes porcentajes de su inóculo. Se caracterizaron fisicoquímicamente los lactosueros, sometiéndolos a fermentación anaeróbica a 37°C y 120 rpm por 96 h. Se evaluó la concentración de biomasa celular, el consumo de lactosa, la producción de ácido láctico (AL y se estimaron los parámetros cinéticos y estequiométricos. Se aplicó un diseño experimental completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2x3, empleando la metodología de medidas repetidas. Los datos, se procesaron a través de los paquetes estadísticos SAS® versión 9 y Statgraphics Centurión XVI®. El lactosuero, entero y desproteinizado, se encontró dentro de los intervalos fisicoquímicos aceptables para su acidificación. Los valores de acidez fueron superiores a 120 Grados Dornic (120°D con la inoculación  de L. casei, excepto en lactosuero desproteinizado, inoculado con 15% de cultivo. El lactosuero entero con 15% de inóculo, alcanzo 120°D en el menor tiempo (34h. Altas concentraciones de inóculo (15% favorecieron la acidificación en el lactosuero entero, mostrando la mayor producción (20.83gAL/l, Y´p/s=0.86, Qp=0.173gAL/l*h; mientras el lactosuero desproteinizado mostró un mayor crecimiento microbiano, menor conversión de lactosa (8.2% y menor producción media de ácido láctico (8.19g/l.Palabras clave: suero lácteo; ácido láctico; queso hilado;  parámetros cin

  2. Large scale profiles of galaxies at z=0-2 studied by stacking the HSC SSP survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Mariko; Ouchi, Masami; Shibuya, Takatoshi

    2017-03-01

    We are carrying out the study of the evolution of radial surface brightness profiles of galaxies from z = 0 to 2 by stacking analysis using data corrected by the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Subaru Strategic Program (SSP). This will allow us to constrain the large scale average profiles of various galaxy populations at high redshift. From the stacking analysis of galaxies selected based on their photometric redshifts, we successfully detected the outer components of galaxies at z > 1 extending to at least ~80 kpc, which imply an early formation for the galaxy outskirts.

  3. Influence of protein isolate from lupin seeds (Lupinus albus ssp. Graecus) on processing and quality characteristics of frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamanou, S; Bloukas, J G; Paneras, E D; Doxastakis, G

    1996-01-01

    Lupin protein isolate (92% protein) from seeds of Lupinus albus ssp. Graecus (LSPI) was used as powder ingredient for the manufacture of frankfurters at levels 0, 1, 2 and 3% of the formulation weight. Additional 1% water was added during batter formulation to each 1% protein used. LSPI increased (P LSPI level resulted in higher (P LSPI. Frankfurters with 3% LSPI were judged as unacceptable. Incorporation of LSPI at 1% level either in hydrated form or as stabilizer in pre-emulsified fat improved the processing characteristics and overall acceptability of frankfurters made with LSPI as powder ingredient and did not affect the color and texture.

  4. A study of System Interface Sets (SIS) for the host, target and integration environments of the Space Station Program (SSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Charles; Auty, David; Rogers, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    System interface sets (SIS) for large, complex, non-stop, distributed systems are examined. The SIS of the Space Station Program (SSP) was selected as the focus of this study because an appropriate virtual interface specification of the SIS is believed to have the most potential to free the project from four life cycle tyrannies which are rooted in a dependance on either a proprietary or particular instance of: operating systems, data management systems, communications systems, and instruction set architectures. The static perspective of the common Ada programming support environment interface set (CAIS) and the portable common execution environment (PCEE) activities are discussed. Also, the dynamic perspective of the PCEE is addressed.

  5. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains as potential protective starter cultures for the production of Bikalga, an alkaline fermented food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compaor, C.S.; Nielsen, D.S.; Sawadogo-Lingani, H.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To identify and screen dominant Bacillus spp. strains isolated from Bikalga, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa for their antimicrobial activities in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium and in a H. sabdariffa seed-based medium. Further, to characterize the antimicrobial substances produced....... They produced several lipopeptide antibiotics and showed good potential for biological control of Bikalga. Significance and Impact of the Study: Pathogenic bacteria often occur in spontaneous food fermentations. This is the first report to identify indigenous B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains...

  6. Refractory Toxic Shock-Like Syndrome from Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis and Intravenous Immunoglobulin as Salvage Therapy: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections from Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis (SDSE can cause a wide variety of infections, ranging from mild cellulitis to invasive disease, such as endocarditis and streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (TSLS. Despite prompt and appropriate antibiotics, mortality rates associated with shock have remained exceedingly high, prompting the need for adjunctive therapy. IVIG has been proposed as a possible adjunct, given its ability to neutralize a wide variety of superantigens and modulate a dysregulated inflammatory response. We present the first reported cases of successful IVIG therapy for reversing shock in the treatment of SDSE TSLS.

  7. Clavibacter michiganensis ssp sepedonicus: UNA ENFERMEDAD BACTERIANA EN EL CULTIVO DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum L.) EN SONORA, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Omar Rueda-Puente; Maricela Duarte Medina; Ana Gabriela Alvarado Martínez; Adrián Mauricio García Ortega; Mario Antonio Tarazón Herrera; Ramón Jaime Holguín Peña; Bernardo Murillo Amador; José Luís García Hernández; Arnoldo Flores-Hernández; Ignacio Orona-Castillo

    2009-01-01

    A nivel mundial la papa junto con el arroz, el maíz y el trigo, constituyen los cuatro cultivos más importantes para la alimentación humana. En años recientes se ha detectado en algunas regiones de Estados Unidos (EUA) y Canadá, la bacteria Clavibacter michiganensis ssp sepedonicus (Cms) la cual provoca la enfermedad denominada podredumbre anular (PA) en el cultivo de papa. Esta bacteria ocasiona una pudrición en el tubérculo, tallos y hojas de este cultivo y tiene la particularidad de disemi...

  8. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Limits Escherichia coli-Induced Inflammatory Responses via Attenuating MyD88-Dependent and MyD88-Independent Pathway Activation in Bovine Endometrial Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingchao; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Mengling; Fu, Yunhe; Wang, Jiufeng

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine Escherichia coli infection after calving reduces fertility and causes major economic losses in the dairy industry. We investigated the protective effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 on E. coli-induced cell damage and inflammation in primary bovine endometrial epithelial cells (BEECs). L. rhamnosus GR-1 reduced ultrastructure alterations and the percentage of BEECs apoptosis after E. coli challenge. Increased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of immune response indicators, including pattern recognition receptors (toll-like receptor [TLR]2, TLR4, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain [NOD]1, and NOD2), inflammasome proteins (NOD-like receptor family member pyrin domain-containing protein 3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, and caspase-1), TLR4 downstream adaptor molecules (myeloid differentiation antigen 88 [MyD88], toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 2 [TICAM2]), nuclear transcription factor kB (NF-kB), and the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, and interferon (IFN)-β, was observed following E. coli challenge. However, these increases were attenuated by L. rhamnosus GR-1 pretreatment. Our data indicate that L. rhamnosus GR-1 ameliorates the E. coli-induced disruption of cellular ultrastructure, subsequently reducing the percentage of BEECs apoptosis and limiting inflammatory responses, partly via attenuation of MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent pathway activation. Certain probiotics could potentially prevent postpartum uterine diseases in dairy cows, ultimately reducing the use of antibiotics.

  9. Subsurface irrigation of potato crop (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) in Suka Kollus with different drainage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Coronel, Genaro; Chipana-Rivera, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María; Roldán-Cañas, José

    2016-04-01

    Among the most important hydraulic structures of pre-Hispanic ancestral technology developed in the Andean region, we find the suka kollus, aymara word, called also waru waru, en quechua or raised fields, in English. They are raised platforms surrounded by water canals that irrigate subsurface, but also have the function of draining, to deal with floods because they are surrounding Lake Titicaca. They also have the property of generating a thermoregulatory effect to crops, depending on the configuration of the channels and platforms. Such agro-ecosystems are being abandoned, however, if properly addressed crop management and some drainage canals are replaced by underground drains for increased crop area could be very useful in enabling marginal soils affected by salts and / or excess water. For these reasons, the objective of this study was to evaluate the subsurface irrigation in the potato crop in suka kollus under a system of surface drainage, and mixed drainage (surface and subsurface). The study was conducted in marginal soils of Kallutaca area, located 30 km from the city of La Paz, Bolivia, at a height of 3892 m.a.s.l. The cultivation of the potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) was used. Four treatments were tested with different widths of the platforms: T1 (Control) with drainage through channels; T2 (replacing a channel by a drain); T3 (replacing two channels by two drains); T4 (replacing three channels by three drains). The flow of water into the soil from the water table was predominantly upward, except during periods of high rainfall. In terms of treatments, the flow in T1 was higher, mainly at weeks 8 to 11 after seedling emergence, coinciding with the phenological phases of flowering and at the beginning of the tuber ripening. It was followed by T3, T2 and T4 treatments, respectively. Tuber yield, if one considers that the channels detract arable land, was higher in the T3 treatment,16.4 Mg / ha, followed by T2 treatment, 15.2 Mg / ha, T1

  10. Fertilization in Brassica campestris ssp.pekinensis and its duration of each stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jie; SHEN Jiaheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the process of fertilization in Brassica campestris ssp.pekinensis and the duration of each stage.The results are as follows:(1)Pollen germinates on stigma 2-3 h after pollination.(2)4-8 h after pollination,pollen tube grows in the style.(3)8-14 h after pollination,pollen tube grows in the ovary and gets into the ovule via the micropyle.(4)16 h after pollination,one sperm nucleus moves to the egg and enters it.(5)The sperm nucleus adheres to the nuclear membrane of the egg 18 h after pollination.(6)20 h after pollination,it enters the egg nucleus and male chromatin gradually disperses and 24 h after pollination,a male nucleolus appears.A large female nucleolus and a small male nucleolus occur in the nucleus of the fertilized egg,and zygote formed.The dispersing of sperm chromatin in the egg nucleus takes about 4 h.(7)32--34 h after pollination,the division of zygote begins.The dormancy stage of the zygote lasts for about 8-10 h.(8)The pair polar nuclei lie in the chalazal end of the egg betbre fertilization,which may fuse into a secondary nucleus or not.(9)16-18 h after pollination,the sperm nucleus moves to the polar nuclei or the secondary nucleus.18 h after pollination,the sperm nucleus adheres to the nuclear membrane of the polar nuclei or that of the secondary nucleus.(10)20 h after pollination,the sperm nucleus enters one of the polar nuclei or the secondary nucleus and a triple fusion takes place.The process of fusion is similar to the karyogamy but faster.The dispersing of the sperm chromatin in the polar nucleus or secondary nucleus takes about 2 h.(11)22 h after pollination,the primary endosperm nucleus formed.The female and male nucleoli cannot fuse with each other betbre mitotic division of the primary endosperm nucleus.(12)24 h after pollination,the division of the primary endosperm nucleus actually takes place.

  11. Antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of biosurfactants isolated from Lactobacillus casei and their anti-biofilm effect in oral Staphylococcus aureus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merghni, Abderrahmen; Dallel, Ines; Noumi, Emira; Kadmi, Yassine; Hentati, Hajer; Tobji, Samir; Ben Amor, Adel; Mastouri, Maha

    2017-03-01

    Biosurfactants also called bioemulsifiers are amphipathic compounds produced by many microorganisms that allow them to exhibit a wide range of biological activities. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of biosurfactants isolated from Lactobacillus casei and to assess their anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm abilities against oral opportunistic Staphylococcus aureus strains. The antioxidant activity of biosurfactant was evaluated using the in vitro scavenging ability on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The antiproliferative activity was determined on epithelial cell line (HEp-2) by the Methylthiazole tetrazolium (MTT) reduction assay. The anti-adhesive and antibiofilm activity against S. aureus strains were achieved using crystal violet staining. Our results revealed that the DPPH scavenging activity of biosurfactants at 5.0 mg/mL concentration is between 74.6 and 77.3%. Furthermore, biosurfactants showed antiproliferative potency against studied epithelial cells as judged by IC50 and its value ranged from 109.1 ± 0.84 mg/mL to 129.7 ± 0.52 mg/mL. The results of the growth inhibition indicate that biosurfactant BS-LBl was more effective against oral S. aureus strains 9P and 29P with an IC50 of 1.92 ± 0.26 mg/mL and 2.16 ± 0.12 mg/mL respectively. Moreover, both biosurfactants displayed important antibiofilm activity with eradication percentages ranging from 80.22 ± 1.33% to 86.21 ± 2.94% for the BS-LBl, and from 53.38 ± 1.77% to 64.42 ± 2.09% for the BS-LZ9. Our findings demonstrate that biosurfactants from L. casei strains exhibited considerable antioxidant and antiproliferative potencies and were able to inhibit oral S. aureus strains with important antibiofilm efficacy. They could have a promising role in the prevention of oral diseases.

  12. A new synonym of Hylodesmum podocarpum ssp.podocarpum (Leguminosae)%圆菱叶长柄山蚂蝗一新异名

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高信芬

    2004-01-01

    Close examination of the type material of Podocarpium lancangense Y. Y. Qian has shown that this species is indistinguishable from Hylodesmum podocarpum (DC.) H. Ohashi & R. R. Mill ssp. Podocarpum, and thus is reduced to synonymy herein.%查阅了澜沧长柄山蚂蝗Hylodesmum lancangense (Y. Y. Qian) X. Y. Zhu & H. Ohashi的模式标本后,确认该种应归并入圆菱叶长柄山蚂蝗H. podocarpum (DC.) H. Ohashi & R. R. Mill ssp. podocarpum.

  13. 不同干酪乳杆菌菌株对α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制作用的比较%Comparison of Alpha -glucosidase Inhibitory Effect of Different Lactobacillus casei Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范文娅; 吴正钧; 季红; 郭本恒

    2012-01-01

    The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of whey from fermented skim milk by 11 strains with milk curding ability which were selected from 14 Lactobacillus casei strains, assayed in vitro enrolling maltase ( EC 3.2.1.20) as the targeting enzyme. It was showed that the c~-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Lb. casei was strain specific, with a significant increase in inhibitory intensity with the fermentation elongated for those strains demonstrated α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Among the tested Lb. casei strains, Lb. casei LC2W (CGMCC0828) demonstrated the strongest α- glucosidase inhibitory activity, with an inhibitory percentage of 37.36% for whey derived of 10% (w/w) skim milk fermented at 37C for 96 hours. These results suggested Lb. casei LC2W has the potentials of antihyperglycemia as well as anti-diabetes.%从14株干酪乳杆菌中筛选出11株具有凝乳作用的菌株,采用以麦芽糖酶为靶向酶的α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制剂体外筛选模型,分析了不同干酪乳杆菌发酵脱脂乳上清对α-葡萄糖苷酶的抑制作用。结果表明,不同菌株发酵脱脂乳上清对麦芽糖酶的抑制活性具有明显的菌株特异性,且随着发酵时间延长,α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制活性呈现上升趋势。其中,干酪乳杆菌LC2W在37℃发酵10%(w/w)脱脂乳96 h后所得的上清液对麦芽糖酶抑制活性最高,达37.36%,明显高于其它被测试的干酪乳杆菌菌株,表明该菌株具有潜在的抗高血糖作用。

  14. Characterization of a putative pollen-specific arabinogalactan protein gene, BcMF8, from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Cao, Jia-Shu; Zhang, Ai-Hong; Ye, Yi-Qun

    2008-12-01

    The BcMF8 (Brassica campestris male fertility 8) gene, possessing the features of 'classical' arabinogalactan protein (AGP) was isolated from Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis, Makino syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis. This gene was highly abundant in the fertile flower buds but silenced in the sterile ones of genic male sterile A/B line ('ZUBajh97-01A/B') in B. campestris. Expression patterns analysis suggested BcMF8 was a pollen-specific gene, whose transcript started to be expressed at the uninucleate stage and maintained throughout to the pollen at pollination stage. BcMF8 is highly homologous to the known pollen-specific AGP genes Sta 39-4 and Sta 39-3 from B. napus. Isolation and multiple alignment of the homologs of BcMF8 gene in the family Cruciferae indicated that BcMF8 was highly conserved in this family, which reflect the conservation in biological function and importance of this putative AGP gene in plant development. Similarity analysis also demonstrated Sta 39-4 and Sta 39-3 may originate from different genomes.

  15. A SNP and SSR based genetic map of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) and comparison with the broader species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Baogen; Liu, Yonghua; Ehlers, Jeffery D; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A; Diop, Ndeye-Ndack; Qin, Dehui; Hu, Tingting; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2011-01-06

    Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L.) Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as 'long beans' or 'asparagus beans'. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs), with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs) identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level.

  16. Content of capsaicin extracted from hot pepper (Capsicum annuum ssp. microcarpum L. and its use as an ecopesticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleva-Gudeva Liljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The newest world trends in the scientific research are directed to production of secondary metabolites, their use and application. Capsaicin, the pungent principle of hot peppers is one of the best known natural compound. Nowadays, the research work is directed to the influence of capsaicin on physiological and biochemical processes of humans, animals, and recently plants as a biopesticide. Phytochemical studies of Capsicum annuum L. increase the application of secondary metabolites in pharmacy, food technology and medicine. In this paper, the possibilities of utilization of Capsicum annuum ssp. microcarpum L. for extracting capsaicin and its use as a biopesticide against the green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulz. in pepper culture are sublimed. The content of capsaicin was evaluated spectrophotometrically, and the ability of capsaicin for acting as biopesticide was calculated according to Abbott. Results showed that oleoresin from Capsicum annuum ssp. microcarpum L. and its dilution 1:20 are the most efficient as biopesticide. From these results we can say that this kind of peppers can be used as a raw material for extraction of capsaicin, because of its high concentration and efficiency.

  17. Experimental and genomic evidence for theindica-type cytoplasmic effect inOryza sativa L. ssp.japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU You-hong; TANG Liang; XU Quan; MA Dian-rong; ZHAO Ming-hui; SUN Jian; CHEN Wen-fu

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic effects are important agronomical phenomena that have generated widespread interest in both theory and application. In the present study, ifve high yield rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L. ssp.japonica) in large-scale cultivation in northeast China were determined to possessOryza sativa L. ssp.indica-type cytoplasmusing cytoplasmic subspecies-spe-ciifc molecular markers. This was conifrmed by cytoplasmic genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and functional gene sequencing. Two of these ifvejaponicacultivars were core breeding parents with high yield and the other three were super-high-yield varieties registered by the Ministry of Agriculture of China. We constructed nuclear substitution lines to further demonstrate whether and how thisindica-type cytoplasm contributed to yield improvement by comparing yield components. The results showed that under the samejaponicanuclear background, the lines withindica-type cytoplasm had a signiifcant decrease in tilers in exchange for increased grain number per panicle compared with their recurrent parents. Our results implied that botanical basis of this cytoplasmic effect was to reduce the plant’s branching differentiation to pro-duce more lforal organs under the constant nutrition. Our ifndings open another door for the utilization of inter-subspeciifc hybridization for the improvement of rice cultivar.

  18. Macrolide Resistance in the Syphilis Spirochete, Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum: Can We Also Expect Macrolide-Resistant Yaws Strains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmajs, David; Paštěková, Lenka; Grillová, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA) causes over 10 million new cases of syphilis worldwide whereas T. pallidum ssp. pertenue (TPE), the causative agent of yaws, affects about 2.5 million people. Although penicillin remains the drug of choice in the treatment of syphilis, in penicillin-allergic patients, macrolides have been used in this indication since the 1950s. Failures of macrolides in syphilis treatment have been well documented in the literature and since 2000, there has been a dramatic increase in a number of clinical samples with macrolide-resistant TPA. Scarce data regarding the genetics of macrolide-resistant mutations in TPA suggest that although macrolide-resistance mutations have emerged independently several times, the increase in the proportion of TPA strains resistant to macrolides is mainly due to the spread of resistant strains, especially in developed countries. The emergence of macrolide resistance in TPA appears to require a two-step process including either A2058G or A2059G mutation in one copy of the 23S rRNA gene and a subsequent gene conversion unification of both rRNA genes. Given the enormous genetic similarity that was recently revealed between TPA and TPE strains, there is a low but reasonable risk of emergence and spread of macrolide-resistant yaws strains following azithromycin treatment.

  19. Application of a Simple In-House PCR-SSP Technique for HLA-B* 27 Typing in Spondyloarthritis Patients

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    Devraj J. Parasannanavar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Microlymphocytotoxicity (MLCT and flowcytometry (FC are the conventional serological methods to detect HLA-B* 27. Due to some disadvantages in these methods, most of the HLA laboratories have now switched over to molecular methods. Molecular techniques based on commercial kits are expensive; as such many laboratories with limited funds in developing countries cannot afford these techniques. Aims. Our main aim was to standardize a simple inexpensive in-house PCR-SSP technique for HLA-B* 27 typing. Materials and Methods. Sequence Specific primers were designed to amplify all the subtypes of B* 27 using IMGT-HLA sequence database. Accuracy was checked by retyping of 90 PCR-SSOP typed controls. Results. The presence of 149 bp specific band with control band on 2% agarose gel showed B* 27 positivity. No discrepancies were found when compared with PCR-SSOP results. The frequency of HLA-B* 27 was found to be significantly increased (68.75% versus 4.40%, O.R 46.909: P value 6.62E-32 among 700 SpA patients as compared to controls. Clinically, 54% of patients had polyarticular arthritis with SI joints involvement (68% and restricted spine flexion (60%. Conclusion. In-house PCR-SSP technique is very simple and inexpensive technique to detect B* 27 allele, which was strongly associated with SpA patients from Western India.

  20. A SNP and SSR based genetic map of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis and comparison with the broader species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Xu

    Full Text Available Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L. Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as 'long beans' or 'asparagus beans'. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs, with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level.